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Sample records for cell line a549

  1. [Construction of BAD Lentivirus Vector and Its Effect on Proliferation in A549 Cell Lines].

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    Huang, Na; He, Yan-qi; Zhu, Jing; Li, Wei-min

    2015-05-01

    To construct the recombinant lentivirus expressing vector BAD (Bcl-2-associated death protein) gene and to study its effect on A549 cell proliferation. The BAD gene was amplified from plasmid pAV-MCMV-BAD-GFP by PCR. The purified BAD gene fragment was inserted into a lentivirus vector (pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen 1), and the insertion was identified by PCR, restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA sequencing. A549 cells were then transfected with the packaged recombinant lentivirus, and resistant cell clones were selected with flow cytometry. The expression of BAD in A549 cell lines stably transduction with a lentivirus was examined using Western blot. The effect of BAD overexpression on proliferation of A549 cells was evaluated by using CCK-8 kit. Restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing showed that the full-length BAD gene (507 bp) had been successfully subcloned into the lentiviral vector to result in the recombinant vector pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen 1. Monoclonal cell lines BAD-A549 was produced after transfection with the recombinant lentivirus and selected with flow cytometry. Stable expression of BAD protein was verified by Western blot. In vitro, the OD value in BAD group was significantly lower than that of control groups from 120-144 h (PBAD gene had been successfully generated. In vitro, BAD overexpression significantly inhibited A549 cells proliferation.

  2. Protocol for Lipid-Mediated Transient Transfection in A549 Epithelial Lung Cell Line.

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    Marcos-Vadillo, Elena; García-Sánchez, Asunción

    2016-01-01

    Trials of transfection in eukaryotic cells are essential tools for the study of gene and protein function. They have been used in a wide range of research fields. In this chapter, a method of transient transfection of the A549 cell line, human lung cells of alveolar epithelium, with an expression plasmid is described. In addition, the fundamental characteristics of this experimental procedure are addressed.

  3. Effects of TGF-β signaling blockade on human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.

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    Xu, Cheng-Cheng; Wu, Lei-Ming; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Ni; Chen, Wen-Shu; Fu, Xiang-Ning

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancer types including lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), and the TGF-β signaling pathway plays an important role in tumor development. To determine whether blockade of the TGF-β signaling pathway can inhibit the malignant biological behavior of LAC, RNA interference (RNAi) technology was used to silence the expression of TGF-β receptor, type II (TGFβRII) in the LAC cell line, A549, and its effects on cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis were examined. Three specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) designed for targeting human TGFβRII were transfected into A549 cells. The expression of TGFβRII was detected by Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT and clonogenic assays. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The invasion and metastasis of A549 cells were investigated using the wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays. The expression of PI3K, phosphorylated Smad2, Smad4, Akt, Erk1/2, P38 and MMPs was detected by Western blot analysis. The TGFβRII siRNA significantly reduced the expression of TGFβRII in A549 cells. The knockdown of TGFβRII in A549 cells resulted in the suppression of cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis and induced cell apoptosis. In addition to the Smad-dependent pathway, independent pathways including the Erk MAPK, PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways, as well as the expression of MMPs and VEGF, were inhibited. In conclusion, TGF-β signaling is required for LAC progression. Therefore, the blockade of this signaling pathway by the down-regulation of TGFβRII using SiRNA may provide a potential gene therapy for LAC.

  4. Expression of cyclin A in A549 cell line after treatment with arsenic trioxide

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    Agnieszka Żuryń

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arsenic trioxide (ATO is an effective drug used in acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML. Many reports suggest that ATO can also be applied as an anticancer agent for solid tumors in the future. The influence of arsenic trioxide on the expression of different cell cycle regulators is poorly recognized. The purpose of the current study is to investigate how arsenic trioxide affects cyclin A expression and localization in the A549 cell line.Materials and methods: Morphological and ultrastructural changes in A549 cells were observed using light and transmission electron microscopes. Cyclin A localization was determined by immunofluorescence. Image-based cytometry was applied to evaluate the effect of arsenic trioxide on apoptosis and the cell cycle. Expression of cyclin A mRNA was quantified by real-time PCR.Results: After treatment with arsenic trioxide, increased numbers of cells with cytoplasmic localization of cyclin A were observed. The doses of 10 and 15 μM ATO slightly reduced expression of cyclin A mRNA. The apoptotic phenotype of cells was poorly represented, and the Tali imagebased cytometry analysis showed low percentages of apoptotic cells. The A549 population displayed an enriched fraction of cells in G0/G1 phase in the presence of 5μM ATO, whereas starting from the higher concentrations of the drug, i.e. 10 and 15 μM ATO, the G2/M fraction was on the increase.Discussion: Low expression of cyclin A in the A549 cell line may constitute a potential factor determining arsenic trioxide resistance. It could be hypothesized that the observed alterations in cyclin A expression/distribution may correlate well with changes in cell cycle regulation in our model, which in turn determines the outcome of the treatment.

  5. Green tea extract induces protective autophagy in A549 non-small lung cancer cell line.

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    Izdebska, Magdalena; Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Hałas, Marta; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Alina

    2015-12-31

    For many decades, polyphenols, including green tea extract catechins, have been reported to exert multiple anti-tumor activities. However, to date the mechanisms of their action have not been completely elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of green tea extract on non-small lung cancer A549 cells. A549 cells following treatment with GTE were analyzed using the inverted light and fluorescence microscope. In order to evaluate cell sensitivity and cell death, the MTT assay and Tali image-based cytometer were used, respectively. Ultrastructural alterations were assessed using a transmission electron microscope. The obtained data suggested that GTE, even at the highest dose employed (150 μM), was not toxic to A549 cells. Likewise, the treatment with GTE resulted in only a very small dose-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic cells. However, enhanced accumulation of vacuole-like structures in response to GTE was seen at the light and electron microscopic level. Furthermore, an increase in the acidic vesicular organelles and LC3-II puncta formation was observed under the fluorescence microscope, following GTE treatment. The analysis of the functional status of autophagy revealed that GTE-induced autophagy may provide self-protection against its own cytotoxicity, since we observed that the blockage of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased the viability of A549 cells and potentiated necrotic cell death induction in response to GTE treatment. Collectively, our results revealed that A549 cells are insensitive to both low and high concentrations of the green tea extract, probably due to the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. These data suggest that a potential utility of GTE in lung cancer therapy may lie in its synergistic combinations with drugs or small molecules that target autophagy, rather than in monotherapy.

  6. Green tea extract induces protective autophagy in A549 non-small lung cancer cell line

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    Magdalena Izdebska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: For many decades, polyphenols, including green tea extract catechins, have been reported to exert multiple anti-tumor activities. However, to date the mechanisms of their action have not been completely elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of green tea extract on non-small lung cancer A549 cells. Material and methods: A549 cells following treatment with GTE were analyzed using the inverted light and fluorescence microscope. In order to evaluate cell sensitivity and cell death, the MTT assay and Tali image-based cytometer were used, respectively. Ultrastructural alterations were assessed using a transmission electron microscope.Results: The obtained data suggested that GTE, even at the highest dose employed (150 μM, was not toxic to A549 cells. Likewise, the treatment with GTE resulted in only a very small dose-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic cells. However, enhanced accumulation of vacuole-like structures in response to GTE was seen at the light and electron microscopic level. Furthermore, an increase in the acidic vesicular organelles and LC3-II puncta formation was observed under the fluorescence microscope, following GTE treatment. The analysis of the functional status of autophagy revealed that GTE-induced autophagy may provide self-protection against its own cytotoxicity, since we observed that the blockage of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased the viability of A549 cells and potentiated necrotic cell death induction in response to GTE treatment.Conclusion: Collectively, our results revealed that A549 cells are insensitive to both low and high concentrations of the green tea extract, probably due to the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. These data suggest that a potential utility of GTE in lung cancer therapy may lie in its synergistic combinations with drugs or small molecules that target autophagy, rather than in monotherapy.

  7. Construction of a CD147 Lentiviral Expression Vector and Establishment of Its Stably Transfected A549 Cell Line

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    Shaoxing YANG

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective CD147, a type of transmembrane glycoprotein embedded on the surface of tumor cells, can promote tumor invasion and metastasis. This aim of this study is to construct a CD147 lentiviral expression vector, establish its stably transfected A549 cell line, and observe the effect of CD147 on MMP-9 proliferation as well as on the invasive ability of human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Methods Full-length CD147 gene was amplified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, inserted into a pEGFP vector to construct pEGFP-CD147 and pEGFP vectors, and then transfected into 293FT cells to precede the lentivirus equipment package. Subsequently, we collected the lentivirus venom to infect the A549 cells and establish a stable, overexpressed cell line named A549-CD147. The mRNA expression of MMP-9 was examined by RT-PCR. The proliferation and invasive ability of the human lung cancer cells before and after transfection were examined by the CCK-8 and Transwell methods. Results A CD147 lentiviral expression vector (pEGFP-CD147 was successfully constructed by restrictive enzyme digestion and plasmid sequencing. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed increased mRNA and protein expression of CD147 gene in cells transfected with pEGFP-CD147 compared with the control groups. Therefore, the A549-CD147 cell line was successfully established through the experiment. The mRNA expression of MMP-9 also significantly increased after the upregulation of CD147 expression. Meanwhile, CCK-8 and Transwell assays indicated that the proliferation and invasive ability significantly increased in the A549-CD147 cells. Conclusion A lentiviral CD147 expression vector and its A549 cell line (A549-CD14 were successfully constructed. CD147 overexpression upregulated the protein expression of MMP-9, and strengthened the proliferation and invasive ability of human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  8. Down-regulated βIII-tubulin Expression Can Reverse Paclitaxel Resistance in A549/Taxol Cells Lines

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    Yinling ZHUO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Chemotherapy drug resistance is the primary causes of death in patients with pulmonary carcinoma which make tumor recurrence or metastasis. β-tubulin is the main cell targets of anti-microtubule drug. Increased expression of βIII-tubulin has been implicated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines. To explore the relationship among the expression level of βIII-tubulin and the sensitivity of A549/Taxolcell lines to Taxol and cell cycles and cell apoptosis by RNA interference-mediated inhibition of βIII-tubulin in A549/Taxol cells. Methods Three pairs of siRNA targetd βIII-tubulin were designed and prepared, which were transfected into A549/Taxol cells using LipofectamineTM 2000. We detected the expression of βIII-tubulin mRNA using Real-time fluorescence qRT-PCR. Tedhen we selected the most efficient siRNA by the expression of βIII-tubulin mRNA in transfected group. βIII-tubulin protein level were mesured by Western blot. The taxol sensitivity in transfected group were evaluated by MTT assay. And the cell apoptosis and cell cycles were determined by flow cytometry. Results βIII-tubulin mRNA levels in A549/Taxol cells were significantly decreased in transfected grop by Real-time qRT-PCR than control groups. And βIII-tubulin siRNA-1 sequence showed the highest transfection efficiency, which was (87.73±4.87% (P<0.01; Western blot results showed that the expressional level of BIII tublin protein was significantly down-reulated in the transfectant cells than thant in the control cells. By MTT assay, we showed that the inhibition ratio of Taxol to A549/Taxol cells transfeced was higher than that of control group (51.77±4.60% (P<0.01. The early apoptosis rate of A549/Taxol cells in transfected group were significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.01; G2-M content in taxol group obviously increased than untreated samples by the cell cycle (P<0.05. Conclusion βIII-tubulin down-regulated significantly

  9. Melatonin inhibits the migration of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell lines involving JNK/MAPK pathway.

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    Qiaoyun Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Melatonin, an indolamine produced and secreted predominately by the pineal gland, exhibits a variety of physiological functions, possesses antioxidant and antitumor properties. But, the mechanisms for the anti-cancer effects are unknown. The present study explored the effects of melatonin on the migration of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and its mechanism. METHODS: MTT assay was employed to measure the viability of A549 cells treated with different concentrations of melatonin. The effect of melatonin on the migration of A549 cells was analyzed by wound healing assay. Occludin location was observed by immunofluorescence. The expression of occludin, osteopontin (OPN, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK and phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC, JNK were detected by western blots. RESULTS: After A549 cells were treated with melatonin, the viability and migration of the cells were inhibited significantly. The relative migration rate of A549 cells treated with melatonin was only about 20% at 24 h. The expression level of OPN, MLCK and phosphorylation of MLC of A549 cells were reduced, while the expression of occludin was conversely elevated, and occludin located on the cell surface was obviously increased. The phosphorylation status of JNK in A549 cells was also reduced when cells were treated by melatonin. CONCLUSIONS: Melatonin significantly inhibits the migration of A549 cells, and this may be associated with the down-regulation of the expression of OPN, MLCK, phosphorylation of MLC, and up-regulation of the expression of occludin involving JNK/MAPK pathway.

  10. Direct electric current treatment modifies mitochondrial function and lipid body content in the A549 cancer cell line.

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    Holandino, Carla; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; de Oliveira, Felipe Alves Gomes; Barbosa, Gleyce Moreno; Siqueira, Camila Monteiro; Messeder, Douglas Jardim; de Aguiar, Fernanda Silva; da Veiga, Venicio Feo; Girard-Dias, Wendell; Miranda, Kildare; Galina, Antonio; Capella, Marcia Alves Marques; Morales, Marcelo Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemical therapy (EChT) entails treatment of solid tumors with direct electric current (DC). This work evaluated the specific effects of anodic flow generated by DC on biochemical and metabolic features of the A549 human lung cancer cell line. Apoptosis was evaluated on the basis of caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation. Cell morphology was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, and lipid droplets were studied through morphometric analysis and X-ray qualitative elemental microanalysis. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess mitochondrial respiratory parameters. Results indicated A549 viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a prominent drop between 18 and 24h after treatment (ppotential. Furthermore, treated cells demonstrated important ultrastructural mitochondria damage and a three-fold increase in the cytoplasmic lipid bodies' number, quantified by morphometrical analyses. Conversely, 24h after treatment, the cells presented a two-fold increase of residual oxygen consumption, accounting for 45.3% of basal oxygen consumption. These results show remarkable alterations promoted by anodic flow on human lung cancer cells which are possibly involved with the antitumoral effects of EChT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening of Stat3 inhibitory effects of Korean herbal medicines in the A549 human lung cancer cell line.

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    Park, Jong-Shik; Bang, Ok-Sun; Kim, Jinhee

    2014-06-01

    The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is constitutively activated in many human cancers. It promotes tumor cell proliferation, inhibits apoptosis, induces angiogenesis and metastasis, and suppresses antitumor host immune responses. Therefore, Stat3 has emerged as a promising molecular target for cancer therapies. In this study, we evaluated the Stat3-suppressive activity of 38 herbal medicines traditionally used in Korea. Medicinal herb extracts in 70% ethanol were screened for their ability to suppress Stat3 in the A549 human lung cancer cell line. A Stat3-responsive reporter assay system was used to detect intracellular Stat3 activity in extract-treated cells, and Western blot analyses were performed to measure the expression profiles of Stat3-regulated proteins. Fifty percent of the 38 extracts possessed at least mild Stat3-suppressive activities (i.e., activity less than 75% of the vehicle control). Ethanol extracts of Bupleurum falcatum L., Taraxacum officinale Weber, Solanum nigrum L., Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Euonymus alatus Sieb., Artemisia capillaris Thunb., and Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill inhibited up to 75% of the vehicle control Stat3 activity level. A549 cells treated with these extracts also had reduced Bcl-xL, Survivin, c-Myc, and Mcl-1 expression. Many medicinal herbs traditionally used in Korea contain Stat3 activity-suppressing substances. Because of the therapeutic impact of Stat3 inhibition, these results could be useful when developing novel cancer therapeutics from medicinal herbs.

  12. Release behavior and toxicity profiles towards A549 cell lines of ciprofloxacin from its layered zinc hydroxide intercalation compound.

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    Abdul Latip, Ahmad Faiz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Stanslas, Johnson; Wong, Charng Choon; Adnan, Rohana

    2013-01-01

    Layered hydroxides salts (LHS), a layered inorganic compound is gaining attention in a wide range of applications, particularly due to its unique anion exchange properties. In this work, layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (LZH), a family member of LHS was intercalated with anionic ciprofloxacin (CFX), a broad spectrum antibiotic via ion exchange in a mixture solution of water:ethanol. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the drug anions were successfully intercalated in the interlayer space of LZH. Specific surface area of the obtained compound was increased compared to that of the host due to the different pore textures between the two materials. CFX anions were slowly released over 80 hours in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution due to strong interactions that occurred between the intercalated anions and the host lattices. The intercalation compound demonstrated enhanced antiproliferative effects towards A549 cancer cells compared to the toxicity of CFX alone. Strong host-guest interactions between the LZH lattice and the CFX anion give rise to a new intercalation compound that demonstrates sustained release mode and enhanced toxicity effects towards A549 cell lines. These findings should serve as foundations towards further developments of the brucite-like host material in drug delivery systems.

  13. [The effect and mechanism of vinorelbine on cisplatin resistance of human lung cancer cell line A549/DDP].

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    Qi, Chunsheng; Gao, Sen; Li, Huiqiang; Gao, Weizhen

    2014-02-01

    Drug resistance is a major obstacle on lung cancer treatment and Vinorelbine is an effective drug to inhibition of tumor proliferation and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of Vinorelbine on reversing the cisplatin resistance of human lung cancer A549/DDP cell line. With 1 μmol/L and 5 μmol/L Vinorelbine treatment, MTS assay was employed to determine the effect of the cisplatin sensitivity of tumor cells, flow cytometry to determine the apoptosis rate and change of Rh-123 content; Western blot to determine the expression of MDR1, Bcl-2, surviving, PTEN, caspase-3/8 and phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt); Real-time PCR was to determine the mRNA expression of MDR1, Bcl-2, survivin and PTEN. Finally the transcriptional activities of NF-κB, Twist and Snail were determined by reporter gene system. With 1 μmol/L and 5 μmol/L Vinorelbine treatment, the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin was increased by 1.91- and 2.54- folds respectively, flow cytometry showed that the content of Rh-123 was elevated 1.93- and 2.95- folds and apoptosis rate was increased 2.25- and 3.82- folds, Western blot showed that the expression of multidrug resistance related proteins MDR, Bcl-2 and survivin were downregulated, caspase-3/8 and PTEN was upregulated, phosphorylation of Akt was downregulated as well, real-time assay showed that the mRNA expression of MDR1 was downregulated 43.5% and 25.8%, Bcl-2 was downregulated 57.3% and 34.1%, survivin was downregulated 37.6% and 12.4%, PTEN was upregulated 183.4% and 154.2%, the transcriptional activities of NF-κB was downregulated 53.2% and 34.5%, Twist was downregulated 61.4% and 33.5%, and Snail was downregulated 57.8% and 18.7%. Vinorelbine treatment led to increase of cisplatin sensitivity of A549/DDP cells and the mechanisms included the regulation of PTEN/AKT/NF-κB signal pathway to decreased drug resistance gene expression and increased pro-apoptosis gene expression.

  14. Cytotoxicity of medicinal plant extracts on the human lung carcinoma cell line A549

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    Diaz Garcia, Alexis; Rodriguez Sanchez, Hermis; Scull Lizama, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the plant extracts on tumor cells was determined by a colorimetric assay using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) at concentrations ranging from 3,9-250 μg/mL for 72 hours and the mean cytotoxic concentration was calculated for each of them

  15. Portulaca oleracea Seed Oil Exerts Cytotoxic Effects on Human Liver Cancer (HepG2) and Human Lung Cancer (A-549) Cell Lines.

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    Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea (Family: Portulacaceae), is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti- bacterial, and anti-tumor activities. However, cytotoxic effects of seed oil of Portulaca oleracea against human liver cancer (HepG2) and human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines have not been studied previously. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Portulaca oleracea seed oil on HepG2 and A-549 cell lines. Both cell lines were exposed to various concentrations of Portulaca oleracea seed oil for 24h. After the exposure, percentage cell viability was studied by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed a concentration-dependent significant reduction in the percentage cell viability and an alteration in the cellular morphology of HepG2 and A-549 cells. The percentage cell viability was recorded as 73%, 63%, and 54% by MTT assay and 76%, 61%, and 50% by NRU assay at 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml, respectively in HepG2 cells. Percentage cell viability was recorded as 82%, 72%, and 64% by MTT assay and 83%, 68%, and 56% by NRU assay at 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml, respectively in A-549 cells. The 100 μg/ml and lower concentrations were found to be non cytotoxic to A-549 cells, whereas decrease of 14% and 12% were recorded by MTT and NRU assay, respectively in HepG2 cells. Both HepG2 and A-549 cell lines exposed to 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ ml of Portulaca oleracea seed oil lost their normal morphology, cell adhesion capacity, become rounded, and appeared smaller in size. The data from this study showed that exposure to seed oil of Portulaca oleracea resulted in significant cytotoxicity and inhibition of growth of the human liver cancer (HepG2) and human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines.

  16. Sulfamic and succinic acid derivatives of 25-OH-PPD and their activities to MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines.

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    Zhou, Wu-Xi; Cao, Jia-Qing; Wang, Xu-De; Guo, Jun-Hui; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2017-02-15

    In the search for new anti-tumor agents with higher potency than our previously identified compound 1 (25-OH-PPD, 25-hydroxyprotopanaxadiol), 12 novel sulfamic and succinic acid derivatives that could improve water solubility and contribute to good drug potency and pharmacokinetic profiles were designed and synthesized. Their in vitro anti-tumor activities in MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines and one normal cell line were tested by standard MTT assay. Results showed that compared with compound 1, compounds 2, 3, and 7 exhibited higher cytotoxic activity on A-549 and BGC-823 cell lines, together with lower toxicity in the normal cell. In particular, compound 2 exhibited the best anti-tumor activity in the in vitro assays, which may provide valuable data for the research and development of new anti-tumor agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cu(II Complexes of Isoniazid Schiff Bases: DNA/BSA Binding and Cytotoxicity Studies on A549 Cell Line

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    Pulipaka Ramadevi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of isonicotinoyl hydrazones have been synthesized via template method and were complexed to Cu(II. The ligands are coordinated to Cu(II ion through the enolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen resulting in a square planar geometry. The CT-DNA and bovine serum albumin binding propensities of the compounds were determined spectrophotometrically, the results of which indicate good binding propensity of complexes to DNA and BSA with high binding constant values. Furthermore, the compounds have been investigated for their cytotoxicities on A549 human lung cancer cell. Also the mode of cell death was examined employing various staining techniques and was found to be apoptotic.

  18. [Study on thaspine in inducing apoptosis of A549 cell].

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    Zhang, Yan-min; He, Lang-chong

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the effect of thaspine on the cellular proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle in A549 cell line. A549 cell was cultured with different concentrations of thaspine. Cellular proliferation was detected with MTT, apoptosis and cell cycle were checked with Flow Cytometer, and change of microstructure was observed by transmission electron microscope. Thaspine could inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of A549 cell in a time-dose dependent manner. Cell cycle was significantly stopped at the S phase by thaspine with FCM technology. Under electronic microscope, the morphology of A549 cell showed nuclear karyopycnosis, chromatin agglutination and typical apoptotic body when the cell was treated with thaspine. Thaspine has the effects of anti-tumor and inducing apoptosis.

  19. Inflammatory effects induced by selected limonene oxidation products: 4-OPA, IPOH, 4-AMCH in human bronchial (16HBE14o-) and alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines.

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    Lipsa, Dorelia; Leva, Paolo; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Coelhan, Mehmet

    2016-11-16

    Limonene, a monoterpene abundantly present in most of the consumer products (due to its pleasant citrus smell), easily undergoes ozonolysis leading to several limonene oxidation products (LOPs) such as 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene (4-AMCH), 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA) and 3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanal (IPOH). Toxicological studies have indicated that human exposure to limonene and ozone can cause adverse airway effects. However, little attention has been paid to the potential health impact of specific LOPs, in particular of IPOH, 4-OPA and 4-AMCH. This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects of the selected LOPs on human bronchial epithelial (16HBE14o-) and alveolar epithelial (A549) cell lines by generating concentration-response curves using the neutral red uptake assay and analyzing the inflammatory response with a series of cytokines/chemokines. The cellular viability was mostly reduced by 4-OPA [IC 50 =1.6mM (A549) and 1.45mM (16HBE14o-)] when compared to IPOH [IC 50 =3.5mM (A549) and 3.4mM (16HBE14o-)] and 4-AMCH [IC 50 could not be calculated]. As a result from the inflammatory response, IPOH [50μM] induced an increase of both IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in A549 (1.5-fold change) and in 16HBE14o- (2.8- and 7-fold change respectively). 4-OPA [50μM] treatment of A549 increased IL-6 (1.4-times) and IL-8 (1.3-times) levels, while in 16HBE14o- had an opposite effect. A549 treated with 4-AMCH [50μM] elevate both IL-6 and IL-8 levels by 1.2-times, while in 16HBE14o- had an opposite effect. Based on our results, lung cellular injury characterized by inflammatory cytokine release was observed for both cell lines treated with the selected chemicals at concentrations that did not affect their cellular viability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Pneumococcal Replicative State in Relation to its Adherence Capacity to A549-cell Line: A Preliminary in vitro Analysis

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    Mohd Desa, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to compare the replication capacity of pneumococcal isolates (serotypes 1, 7F, 19F and 23F with their adherence pattern to monolayer cells (A549. For standardization purposes, all isolates showed a normal growth curve in both bacteriological (THB + 0.5% yeast extract with and without 2% FBS and cell culture media (RPMI + 2% FBS. In the former media, a shorter lag phase was observed for isolate serotypes 1 and 7F in presence of serum while in the later; growth yield was lower for all isolates with stationary phase approaching OD600 of 0.01 as compared to 1.0 in bacteriological media. In the replicative analysis at different growth phases of the isolates in cell culture media, growth capacity at 3 h post-incubation was frequently twice as that at 1 h, and that at early-log phase was frequently higher than that at mid-log phase at both post-incubation times. Adherence was frequently the least at early-log phase although the isolates were in the most active state of replication to increase the number of pneumococcal cells to adhere. At mid- and late-log phases, pneumococcal adherence was frequently higher although the replication was reduced. This study marks the potential correlation between pneumococcal growth fitness and adherence capacity whereby the later may not be superior during the early growth phase.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Cancer Stem Cells of the Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (A549) Cell Line.

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    Halim, Noor Hanis Abu; Zakaria, Norashikin; Satar, Nazilah Abdul; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem worldwide. The failure of current treatments to completely eradicate cancer cells often leads to cancer recurrence and dissemination. Studies have suggested that tumor growth and spread are driven by a minority of cancer cells that exhibit characteristics similar to those of normal stem cells, thus these cells are called cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are believed to play an important role in initiating and promoting cancer. CSCs are resistant to currently available cancer therapies, and understanding the mechanisms that control the growth of CSCs might have great implications for cancer therapy. Cancer cells are consist of heterogeneous population of cells, thus methods of identification, isolation, and characterisation of CSCs are fundamental to obtain a pure CSC populations. Therefore, this chapter describes in detail a method for isolating and characterizing a pure population of CSCs from heterogeneous population of cancer cells and CSCs based on specific cell surface markers.

  2. Revelation of Different Nanoparticle-Uptake Behavior in Two Standard Cell Lines NIH/3T3 and A549 by Flow Cytometry and Time-Lapse Imaging

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    André Jochums

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of nanomaterials into different cell types is a central pharmacological issue for the determination of nanotoxicity as well as for the development of drug delivery strategies. Most responses of the cells depend on their intracellular interactions with nanoparticles (NPs. Uptake behavior can be precisely investigated in vitro, with sensitive high throughput methods such as flow cytometry. In this study, we investigated two different standard cell lines, human lung carcinoma (A549 and mouse fibroblast (NIH/3T3 cells, regarding their uptake behavior of titanium dioxide NPs. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of TiO2 NPs and samples were taken at certain time points to compare the uptake kinetics of both cell lines. Samples were analyzed with the help of flow cytometry by studying changes in the side and forward scattering signal. To additionally enable a detection via fluorescence, NPs were labeled with the fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC and propidium iodide (PI. We found that NIH/3T3 cells take up the studied NPs more efficiently than A549 cells. These findings were supported by time-lapse microscopic imaging of the cells incubated with TiO2 NPs. Our results confirm that the uptake behavior of individual cell types has to be considered before interpreting any results of nanomaterial studies.

  3. Effects of radioactive 125I seeds on A549 cell line and human embryonic lung diploid cell line 2BS cultivated in vitro and assessment of its clinical safety dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Wenchao; Qi Liangchen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the cell count changes of A549 cell line and human embryonic lung diploid cell line 2BS after irradiated by 125 I seeds with different doses, and to study the growth inhibition of 125 I on this two kinds of cell lines, and to determine its clinical safety dose in treatment of non-small cell lung. Methods: 125 I seeds with different doses (low dose: 0.2 mCi, mediate dose: 0.4 mCi, high dose: 0.8 mCi) were chosen and put into A549 cells and human embryonic lung diploid cell line 2BS in vitro, the cells on the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th days after irradiation were collected, the alive cells were counted by cells dyeing experiments, then the growth curves were drawn, and the IC 50 of the radioactive 125 I seeds to both two cell lines were calculated. Results: Compared with blank and control groups, the cell proliferation trend of A549 cells in low dose group was not significantly influenced (P>0.05), but the growth of A549 cells in mediate and high dose groups were inhibited in a time-dependent manner, there were significant differences (P<0.05), the most obvious change was on the 6th day. The IC 50 of the radioactive 125 I seeds to A549 cells was about .04 mCi. While the growth inhibition of 125 I 2BS had no statistically significant differences between various dose groups (P>0.05), and the IC 50 of the radioactive 125 I seeds to 2BS cell line was about 1.65 mCi. Conclusion: 0.4 mCi of radioactive 125 I seeds has already had the obvious damage effect on A549 cell, 0.8 mCi of radioactive 125 I seeds has the stronger effect. The IC 50 of the radioactive 125 I seeds to 2BS cells is about 1.65 mCi, so the clinical safety dosage is 0.4-0.8 mCi. (authors)

  4. Citotoxicidad de extractos de plantas medicinales sobre la línea celular de carcinoma de pulmón humano A549 Cytotoxicity of medicinal plant extracts on the human lung carcinoma cell line A549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Díaz García

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto de 10 extractos de plantas medicinales sobre el crecimiento de la línea celular humana de carcinoma de pulmón A549. METODOS: el efecto de los extractos sobre la células tumorales se midió a través de un ensayo colorimétrico mediante el empleo del bromuro de 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-yl-2,5-difenil tetrazolio a concentraciones entre 3,9-250 µg/mL durante 72 h y se calculó la concentración citotóxica media para cada uno. RESULTADOS: del total de los extractos evaluados solo cuatro (Parthenium hysterophorus, Bixa orellana, Momordica charantia y Cucurbita maxima evidenciaron concentraciones citotóxicas medias inferiores a 100 µg/mL. Excepto Parthenium hysterophorus, las restantes se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer. Los extractos de Cecropia peltata, Melia azedarach, Annona glabra, Artemisia absintium, Lepidium virginicum y Bidens pilosa no mostraron efectos citotóxicos significativos. CONCLUSIONES: Los extractos de plantas que se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer, mostraron citotoxicidad sobre las células tumorales. El conocimiento etnobotánico representa una herramienta importante en la selección de plantas medicinales, en la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos para el tratamiento del cáncer.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the effect of 10 Cuban medicinal plant extracts on the human lung tumor cell line A549. METHODS: the effect of the plant extracts on tumor cells was determined by a colorimetric assay using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT at concentrations ranging from 3,9-250 µg/mL for 72 hours and the mean cytotoxic concentration was calculated for each of them. RESULTS: the ethanolic extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus, Bixa orellana, Momordica charantia and Cucurbita maxima showed mean cytotoxic concentrations under 100 µg/mL. Except for P. hysterophorus, the others are used in traditional medicine to fight

  5. Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, and Inflammation Induced by Ambient Air and Wood Smoke Particulate Matter in Human A549 and THP-1 Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Møller, Peter; Jensen, Keld Alstrup

    2011-01-01

    PM (WSPM) is poorly assessed. We assessed a wide spectrum of toxicity end points in human A549 lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cell lines comparingWSPM from high or low oxygen combustion and ambient PM collected in a village with many operating wood stoves and from a rural background area...... from the wood stove area. Expression of oxoguanine glycosylase 1, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, and interleukin-6 did not change. We conclude that WSPM has small particle size, high level of PAH, low level of water-soluble metals, and produces high levels of free radicals, DNA damage...

  6. Assessing the survival of MRC5 and a549 cell lines upon exposure to pyruvic Acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate - biomed 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ibrahim O; Lewis, Veshell L; Ayensu, Wellington K; Cameron, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is among the most prevalent and deadly cancers in United States. In general, cancer cells are known to exhibit higher rates of glycolysis in comparison to normal cells. In attempting to exploit this unique cancer-dependent ATP generation phenomenon, it was our hypothesis that upon exposure to organic inhibitors of glycolysis, cancer cells would not survive normally and that their growth and viability would be vastly decreased; essential glycolytic ATP production will be exhausted to the point of collapsing energy utilization. Furthermore, we hypothesize that no negative effect would be seen with exposures to organic inhibitors for normal lung cells. The human lung fibroblast MRC-5 and the human A549 alveolar epithelial cell lines were used as in vitro models of normal lung and lung cancers respectively. Using standard methods, both cell lines were maintained and exposed to pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate reagents at concentration levels ranging from 31.3-2,000 µg/ml in 96 well plates in quadruplets and experiments repeated at least three times using MTT, and cell counting (T4 Cellometer) assays as well as phase-contrast photo-imaging for parallel morphological displays of any changes in the course of their vitality and metabolic activities. Our results indicate that exposure of both cell lines to these organics resulted in concentration dependent cell destruction/cell survival depending on the cell line exposed. Pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate showed statistically significant (pcancer biotherapeutics.

  7. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Phenols and Oleanolic Acid from Mango Peel and Their Cytotoxic Effect on A549 Cell Line

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    Xuelian Bai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mango peel, the main by-product of juice processing, possesses appreciable quantities of bioactive phenolic compounds and is worthy of further utilization. The present work reports for the first time the HPLC analysis and in vitro antioxidant evaluation of mango peel phenols (MPPs and their cytotoxic effect on the A549 lung cancer cell line. These results indicated that mango peel has the total phenolic content of 723.2 ± 0.93 mg·kg−1 dry mango peel (DMP, which consisted mainly of vanillic aldehyde, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, procyanidin B2 and oleanolic acid. Antioxidant assays showed that MPPs had strong antioxidant activities, with 92 ± 4.2% of DPPH radical scavenging rate, 79 ± 2.5% of ABTS radical inhibition rate and 4.7 ± 0.5 μM Trolox equivalents per kg−1 DMP of ferric reducing power. Gallic acid possess a stronger antioxidant capacity than other phenols. In vitro cytotoxic tests suggested that mango peel extract (MPE had an IC50 value of 15 mg·mL−1 and MPPs had a stronger inhibitory effect on the A549 cell line. Oleanolic acid exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity, with an IC50 value of 4.7 μM, which was similar with that of the positive control 5-fluorouracil.

  8. Induction of Apoptotic Effects of Antiproliferative Protein from the Seeds of Borreria hispida on Lung Cancer (A549 and Cervical Cancer (HeLa Cell Lines

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    S. Rupachandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35 KDa protein referred to as F3 was purified from the seeds of Borreria hispida by precipitation with 80% ammonium sulphate and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 column. RP-HPLC analysis of protein fraction (F3 on an analytical C-18 column produced a single peak, detected at 220 nm. F3 showed an apparent molecular weight of 35 KDa by SDS PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis of F3 showed the closest homology with the sequence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase of Pyrococcus horikoshii. The protein (F3 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against lung (A549 and cervical (HeLa cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 10 µg to 1000 µg/mL, as revealed by the MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis revealed the increased growth of sub-G0 population in both cell lines exposed to a concentration of 1000 µg/mL of protein fraction F3 as examined from flow cytometry. This is the first report of a protein from the seeds of Borreria hispida with antiproliferative and apoptotic activity in lung (A549 and cervical (HeLa cancer cells.

  9. Evaluation of Synergetic Anticancer Activity of Berberine and Curcumin on Different Models of A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat, and K562 Cell Lines

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    Acharya Balakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurvedic system of medicine is using Berberis aristata and Curcuma longa herbs to treat different diseases including cancer. The study was performed to evaluate the synergetic anticancer activity of Berberine and Curcumin by estimating the inhibition of the cell proliferation by cytotoxicity assay using MTT method on specified human cell lines (A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat, and K562. All the cells were harvested from the culture and seeded in the 96-well assay plates at seeding density of 2.0 × 104 cells/well and were incubated for 24 hours. Test items Berberine with Curcumin (1 : 1, Curcumin 95% pure, and Berberine 95% pure were exposed at the concentrations of 1.25, 0.001, and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively, and incubated for a period of 48 hours followed by dispensing MTT solution (5 mg/mL. The cells were incubated at 37 ± 1°C for 4 hours followed by addition of DMSO for dissolving the formazan crystals and absorbance was read at 570 nm. Separate wells were prepared for positive control, controls (only medium with cells, and blank (only medium. The results had proven the synergetic anticancer activity of Berberine with Curcumin inducing cell death greater percentage of >77% when compared to pure curcumin with <54% and pure Berberine with <45% on average on all cell line models.

  10. Fisetin inhibits the growth and migration in the A549 human lung cancer cell line via the ERK1/2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjian; Huang, Shaoxiang

    2018-03-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor type in the developed world and the discovery of novel anti-tumor drugs is a research hotspot. Fisetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to have anti-cancer effects in multiple tumor types. The present study found that fisetin inhibited the growth and migration of non-small cell lung cancer in vitro . MTT, wound-healing, cell-matrix adhesion and Transwell assays were performed and demonstrated that fisetin suppressed proliferation, migration, adhesion and invasion, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that fisetin induced apoptosis in the A549 cell line by decreasing the expression of c-myc, cyclin-D1, cyclooxygenase-2, B cell lymphoma-2, CXC chemokine receptor type 4, cluster of differentiation 44 and metalloproteinase-2/9, increasing the expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN) 1A/B, CDKN2D and E-cadherin and increasing the activity of caspase-3/9 via targeting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. The results provided comprehensive evidence for the anti-tumor effects of fisetin in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro , which may provide a novel approach for clinical treatment.

  11. Radiation-induced p53 protein response in the A549 cell line is culture growth-phase dependent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N.F.; Gurule, D.M.; Carpenter, T.R.

    1995-12-01

    One role of the p53 tumor suppressor protein has been recently revealed. Kastan, M.B. reported that p53 protein accumulates in cells exposed to ionizing radiation. The accumulation of p53 protein is in response to DNA damage, most importantly double-strand breaks, that results from exposure to ionizing radiation. The rise in cellular p53 levels is necessary for an arrest in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle to provide additional time for DNA repair. The p53 response has also been demonstrated to enhance PCNA-dependent repair. p53 is thus an important regulator of the cellular response to DNA-damaging radiation. From this data, it can be concluded that the magnitude of the p53 response is not dependent on the phase of culture growth.

  12. Screening of Stat3 inhibitory effects of Korean herbal medicines in the A549 human lung cancer cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Shik Park; Ok-Sun Bang; Jinhee Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background: The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is constitutively activated in many human cancers. It promotes tumor cell proliferation, inhibits apoptosis, induces angiogenesis and metastasis, and suppresses antitumor host immune responses. Therefore, Stat3 has emerged as a promising molecular target for cancer therapies. In this study, we evaluated the Stat3-suppressive activity of 38 herbal medicines traditionally used in Korea. Methods: M...

  13. Induction and repair of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard in the A-549 cell line followed by a comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Petr; Svobodova, Hana; Stetina, Rudolf

    2015-07-25

    Sulfur mustard is a highly toxic chemical warfare agent with devastating impact on intoxicated tissues. DNA cross-links are probably the most toxic DNA lesions induced in the cell by sulfur mustard. The comet assay is a very sensitive method for measuring DNA damage. In the present study using the A-549 lung cell line, the comet assay protocol was optimized for indirect detection of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard. The method is based on the additional treatment of the assayed cells containing cross-links with the chemical mutagen, styrene oxide. Alkali-labile adducts of styrene oxide cause DNA breaks leading to the formation of comets. A significant dose-dependent reduction of DNA migration of the comet's tail was found after exposing cells to sulfur mustard, indicative of the amount of sulfur mustard induced cross-links. The remarkable decrease of % tail DNA could be observed as early as 5min following exposure to sulfur mustard and the maximal effect was found after 30min, when DNA migration was reduced to the minimum. Sulfur mustard preincubated in culture medium without cells lost its ability to induce cross-links and had a half-life of about 15min. Pre-incubation longer than 30min does not lead to a significant increase in cross-links when applied to cells. However, the amount of cross-links is decreased during further incubation due to repair. The current modification of the comet assay provides a useful tool for detecting DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard and could be used for detection of other DNA cross-linking agents such as chemotherapeutic drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Revealing the effect of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol and curcumin on mPGES-1, GSK-3β and β-catenin pathway in A549 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Demirpolat; Betul, Yerer Mukerrem

    2016-10-25

    In our study, anticancer effects of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol from ginger and curcumin from turmeric were investigated and the results were compared with each other. We aimed to reveal their effects on microsomal prostaglandine E2 synthase 1 (mPGES-1) which is related with cancer progression and inflammation as well as β-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) that are the main components of Wnt/GSK3 pathway. As it is known activation of GSK-3β and high levels of mPGES-1 pathway leads to cell proliferation and aggravates cancer progression. Therefore both of them are potential targets for cancer therapy. 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol' s effect on this pathway is not known very well up to now while curcumin that is known as an mPGES-1 inhibitor has anticancer properties via this pathway and many other pathways. Besides being in Zingiberaceae family, ginger's 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol have a molecular similarity with turmeric's curcumin. In our study we investigated their effects using a popular non small lung cancer cell line named A549 which expresses mPGES-1 and has active GSK3β pathway. IL-1β was used for inducing mPGES-1 and enabling the cancer characteristics such as cell proliferation. So compounds that inactivates or decreases the level of these components might be potential anticancer agents. A549 cells were incubated with interleukin 1β (IL-1β) for 24 h in order to maintain mPGES-1 enzyme induction. Experiments were performed both on IL-1β and non-IL-1β group. Real time cell analysis was performed to determine the cytotoxicity. Samples for western blotting and RT-PCR were collected after 24 h incubation with compounds to determine the amount of mPGES-1, GSK-3β, p-GSK-3β, β-catenin protein and mRNA. PGE2 which is the end product of mPGES-1 was measured by using ELISA kit. As a result of cell profile assay, cells exposed to IL-1β proliferate faster than non-IL-1β ones. This shows that induced mPGES-1 might play a role through GSK3β pathway

  15. The antitumor effect of tanshinone IIA on anti-proliferation and decreasing VEGF/VEGFR2 expression on the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and its possible mechanism on the VEGF/VEGFR signal pathway were investigated. The exploration of the interaction between tanshinone IIA and its target proteins provides a feasible platform for studying the anticancer mechanism of active components of herbs. The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the proliferative activity of A549 cells treated with tanshinone IIA (2.5−80 μmol/L for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Flow cytometry was used for the detection of cell apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation. VEGF and VEGFR2 expression were studied by Western blotting. The binding mode of tanshinone IIA within the crystal structure of the VEGFR2 protein was evaluated with molecular docking analysis by use of the CDOCKER algorithm in Discovery Studio 2.1. The CCK-8 results showed that tanshinone IIA can significantly inhibit A549 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that the apoptosis rate of tested group was higher than the vehicle control, and tanshinone IIA-treated cells accumulated at the S phase, which was higher than the vehicle control. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 was decreased in Western blot. Finally, molecular docking analysis revealed that tanshinone IIA could be stably docked into the kinase domain of VEGFR2 protein with its unique modes to form H-bonds with Cys917 and π–π stacking interactions with Val848. In conclusion, tanshinone IIA may suppress A549 proliferation, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This drug may suppress angiogenesis by targeting the protein kinase domains of VEGF/VEGFR2.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro studies of doxorubicin-loaded magnetic nanoparticles grafted to smart copolymers on A549 lung cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Samiei, Mohammad; Joo, Sang Woo; Anzaby, Maryam; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nasrabadi, Hamid Tayefi; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2012-12-18

    The aim of present study was to develop the novel methods for chemical and physical modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with polymers via covalent bonding entrapment. These modified SPIONs were used for encapsulation of anticancer drug doxorubicin. At first approach silane-grafted magnetic nanoparticles was prepared and used as a template for polymerization of the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and methacrylic acid (MAA) via radical polymerization. This temperature/pH-sensitive copolymer was used for preparation of DOX-loaded magnetic nanocomposites. At second approach Vinyltriethoxysilane-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were used as a template to polymerize PNIPAAm-MAA in 1, 4 dioxan and methylene-bis-acrylamide (BIS) was used as a cross-linking agent. Chemical composition and magnetic properties of Dox-loaded magnetic hydrogel nanocomposites were analyzed by FT-IR, XRD, and VSM. The results demonstrate the feasibility of drug encapsulation of the magnetic nanoparticles with NIPAAm-MAA copolymer via covalent bonding. The key factors for the successful prepardtion of magnetic nanocomposites were the structure of copolymer (linear or cross-linked), concentration of copolymer and concentration of drug. The influence of pH and temperature on the release profile of doxorubicin was examined. The in vitro cytotoxicity test (MTT assay) of both magnetic DOx-loaded nanoparticles was examined. The in vitro tests showed that these systems are no toxicity and are biocompatible. IC50 of DOx-loaded Fe3O4 nanoparticles on A549 lung cancer cell line showed that systems could be useful in treatment of lung cancer.

  17. Cytotoxicity evaluation of nanoclays in human epithelial cell line A549 using high content screening and real-time impedance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Navin K. [Trinity College Dublin, Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Molecular Medicine (Ireland); Moore, Edward; Blau, Werner [Trinity College Dublin, School of Physics (Ireland); Volkov, Yuri [Trinity College Dublin, Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Molecular Medicine (Ireland); Ramesh Babu, P., E-mail: babup@tcd.ie [Trinity College Dublin, Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (Ireland)

    2012-09-15

    Continuously expanding use of products containing nanoclays for wide range of applications have raised public concerns about health and safety. Although the products containing nanoclays may not be toxic, it is possible that nanomaterials may come in contact with humans during handling, manufacture, or disposal, and cause adverse health impact. This necessitates biocompatibility evaluation of the commonly used nanoclays. Here, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of platelet (Bentone MA, ME-100, Cloisite Na{sup +}, Nanomer PGV, and Delite LVF) and tubular (Halloysite, and Halloysite MP1) type nanoclays on cultured human lung epithelial cells A549. For the first time with this aim, we employed a cell-based automated high content screening in combination with real-time impedance sensing. We demonstrate varying degree of dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects of both nanoclay types. Overall, platelet structured nanoclays were more cytotoxic than tubular type. A low but significant level of cytotoxicity was observed at 25 {mu}g/mL of the platelet-type nanoclays. A549 cells exposed to high concentration (250 {mu}g/mL) of tubular structured nanoclays showed inhibited cell growth. Confocal microscopy indicated intracellular accumulation of nanoclays with perinuclear localization. Results indicate a potential hazard of nanoclay-containing products at significantly higher concentrations, which warrant their further biohazard assessment on the actual exposure in humans.

  18. Cytotoxicity evaluation of nanoclays in human epithelial cell line A549 using high content screening and real-time impedance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Navin K.; Moore, Edward; Blau, Werner; Volkov, Yuri; Ramesh Babu, P.

    2012-01-01

    Continuously expanding use of products containing nanoclays for wide range of applications have raised public concerns about health and safety. Although the products containing nanoclays may not be toxic, it is possible that nanomaterials may come in contact with humans during handling, manufacture, or disposal, and cause adverse health impact. This necessitates biocompatibility evaluation of the commonly used nanoclays. Here, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of platelet (Bentone MA, ME-100, Cloisite Na + , Nanomer PGV, and Delite LVF) and tubular (Halloysite, and Halloysite MP1) type nanoclays on cultured human lung epithelial cells A549. For the first time with this aim, we employed a cell-based automated high content screening in combination with real-time impedance sensing. We demonstrate varying degree of dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects of both nanoclay types. Overall, platelet structured nanoclays were more cytotoxic than tubular type. A low but significant level of cytotoxicity was observed at 25 μg/mL of the platelet-type nanoclays. A549 cells exposed to high concentration (250 μg/mL) of tubular structured nanoclays showed inhibited cell growth. Confocal microscopy indicated intracellular accumulation of nanoclays with perinuclear localization. Results indicate a potential hazard of nanoclay-containing products at significantly higher concentrations, which warrant their further biohazard assessment on the actual exposure in humans.

  19. Indomethacin-Enhanced Anticancer Effect of Arsenic Trioxide in A549 Cell Line: Involvement of Apoptosis and Phospho-ERK and p38 MAPK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mandegary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Focusing on novel drug combinations that target different pathways especially apoptosis and MAPK could be a rationale for combination therapy in successful treatment of lung cancer. Concurrent use of cyclooxygenase (COX inhibitors with arsenic trioxide (ATO might be a possible treatment option. Methods. Cytotoxicity of ATO, dexamethasone (Dex, celecoxib (Cel, and Indomethacin (Indo individually or in combination was determined at 24, 48, and 72 hrs in A549 lung cancer cells. The COX-2 gene and protein expression, MAPK pathway proteins, and caspase-3 activity were studied for the most cytotoxic combinations. Results. The IC50s of ATO and Indo were 68.7 μmol/L and 396.5 μmol/L, respectively. Treatment of cells with combinations of clinically relevant concentrations of ATO and Indo resulted in greater growth inhibition and apoptosis induction than did either agent alone. Caspase-3 activity was considerably high in the presence of ATO and Indo but showed no difference in single or combination use. Phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 was remarkable in the concurrent presence of both drugs. Conclusions. Combination therapy with ATO and Indo exerted a very potent in vitro cytotoxic effect against A549 lung cancer cells. Activation of ERK and p38 pathways might be the mechanism of higher cytotoxic effect of ATO-Indo combination.

  20. Lithium-Acetate-Mediated Biginelli One-Pot Multicomponent Synthesis under Solvent-Free Conditions and Cytotoxic Activity against the Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A549 and Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita Sachdeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various Biginelli compounds (dihydropyrimidinones have been synthesized efficiently and in high yields under mild, solvent-free, and eco-friendly conditions in a one-pot reaction of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, aldehydes, and urea/thiourea/acetyl thiourea using lithium-acetate as a novel catalyst without the addition of any proton source. Comparative catalytic efficiency of lithium-acetate and polyphosphoric acid to catalyze Biginelli condensation is also studied under neat conditions. The reaction is carried out in the absence of any solvent and represents an improvement of the classical Biginelli protocol and an advantage in comparison with FeCl3·6H2O, NiCl2·6H2O and CoCl2·6H2O that were used with HCl as a cocatalyst. Compared to classical Biginelli reaction conditions, the present method has advantages of good yields, short reaction times, and experimental simplicity. The obtained products have been identified by spectral (1H NMR and IR data and their melting points. The prepared compounds are evaluated for anticancer activity against two human cancer cell lines (lung cancer cell line A549 and breast cancer cell line MCF7.

  1. Overexpression of microRNA miR-30a or miR-191 in A549 lung cancer or BEAS-2B normal lung cell lines does not alter phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Patnaik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs (ribonucleic acids that regulate translation. Several miRNAs have been shown to be altered in whole cancer tissue compared to normal tissue when quantified by microarray. Based on previous such evidence of differential expression, we chose to study the functional significance of miRNAs miR-30a and -191 alterations in human lung cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The functional significance of miRNAs miR-30a and -191 was studied by creating stable transfectants of the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 and the immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B with modest overexpression of miR-30a or -191 using a lentiviral system. When compared to the corresponding controls, both cell lines overexpressing miR-30a or -191 do not demonstrate any significant changes in cell cycle distribution, cell proliferation, adherent colony formation, soft agar colony formation, xenograft formation in a subcutaneous SCID mouse model, and drug sensitivity to doxorubicin and cisplatin. There is a modest increase in cell migration in cell lines overexpressing miR-30a compared to their controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overexpression of miR-30a or -191 does not lead to an alteration in cell cycle, proliferation, xenograft formation, and chemosensitivity of A549 and BEAS-2B cell lines. Using microarray data from whole tumors to select specific miRNAs for functional study may be a suboptimal strategy.

  2. Mechanisms of Proliferative Inhibition by Maimendong & Qianjinweijing Decoction in A549 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu ZHANG

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Traditional Chinese medicine is an approach for malignant tumor treatment with Chinese characteristics. The aim of this study is to investigate the inhibitory effects of Maimendong & qianjinweijing decoction extract on A549 human lung cancer cell line proliferation and explored its probable molecular mechanisms. Methods A549 cells were treated with drugs in different does and time. The effects on the proliferation of A549 cells were detected by MTT assay and clonogenic assay in vitro. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Morphological changes of the apoptosis of cancer cells were observed by Hochest 33258 staining. Western blot was performed to detect apoptosis-related gene expression. Results Ethyl acetate extract inhibited the growth of A549 cells but not in HFL-1 cells. Compared with controls, administration of 10 μg/mL ethyl acetate extract resulted in 73.86% decrease in colony formation (P < 0.01, apoptotic rates of 33.86% (P < 0.01, and morphological changes of apoptosis in A549 cells. The expression of anti-apoptotic protein EGFR and ERK were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.01. Conclusion Ethyl acetate extract might inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in A549 cells via downregulation of EGFR/ERK signal transduction pathway. Therefore, ethyl acetate extract should be further separated in order to identify the material fundamentals on anti-cancer effect.

  3. Pleuropterus multiflorus (Hasuo) mediated straightforward eco-friendly synthesis of silver, gold nanoparticles and evaluation of their anti-cancer activity on A549 lung cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Aceituno, Verónica; Abbai, Ragavendran; Moon, Seong Soo; Ahn, Sungeun; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Kim, Yu-Jin; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Yang, Deok Chun

    2017-09-01

    Pleuropterus multiflorus (Hasuo) is a widely used medicinal plant in Korea and China for treating amnesia, isnomia, heart throbbing etc. With the constructive idea of promoting the wide-spread usage of P. multiflorus, we propose its indirect usage in the form of biologically active silver (Pm-AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (Pm-AuNPs). The synthesized nanoparticles were predominantly spherical, crystalline with the Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 274.8nm and 104.8nm respectively. Also, proteins and phenols were identified as the major players involved in their synthesis and stability. Further, Pm-AgNPs at 25μg/mL were significantly cytotoxic to lung cancer cells, whereas, Pm-AuNPs were not cytotoxic to both normal keratinocyte and lung cancer cells even at 100μg/mL. In addition, further evaluation of the anti-cancer activity of these new nanoparticles, such as migration and apoptosis, shown that Pm-AgNPs have a potential therapeutic effect on A549 lung cancer cell treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report dissecting out the ability of the endemic P. multiflorus for the synthesis of bioactive silver and gold nanoparticle which would open up doors for its extensive usage in medicinal field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effects of 17-AAG on the proliferation and apoptosis of human lung cancer A549 and H446 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ben; Lin, Jingshuang; Feng, Tao

    2015-04-01

    To observe the effect of 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) on the apoptosis of human lung cancer cell lines A549 and H446, and to investigate the potential mechanisms. Proliferation inhibition and apoptosis assays, and the cell cycles were detected by MTT and flow cytometry respectively. Western blot was used to determine the expression level of proteins such as Hsp90, Hsp70, AKt, Her-2, Bcl-2 and Bax. After treated with 17-AAG, the proliferation of both A549 and H446 cells was inhibited significantly in a dose-dependent manner; as the concentration of 17-AAG was from 50 to 500 nmol/L, the IC₅₀ values to A549 and H446 cell lines were (222 ± 13) nmol/L and (189 ± 7) nmol/L respectively at 48 h. Cell cycle assays showed that 17-AAG was able to arrest cell cycles of A549 and H446 cell lines at the G₂/M phase. Apoptosis assay showed that 17-AAG was capable of inducing apoptosis in A549 and H446 cell lines. After treated with 17-AAG for 48 h, there were significant differences between the 400 nmol/L groups(46.3% for A549 cell line and 56.9% for H446 cell line) and the control group (11.9% for A549 cell line and 6.9% for H446 cell line, P AAG treatment: Akt and Her-2 decreased significantly while the expression of Hsp70 increased. Meanwhile, the expression of Bcl-2 decreased but that of Bax increased, indicating that 17-AAG was able to promote apoptosis mode in A549 and H446 cells. 17-AAG can regulate the expression level of apoptosis-related proteins such as Bax and Bcl-2 by Hsp90 signaling pathway in A549 and H446 cells, and ultimately inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis.

  5. PPAR-γ Silencing Inhibits the Apoptosis of A549 Cells by Upregulating Bcl-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu YANG

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Drug resistance is the one of primary causes of death in patients with lung cancer, PPAR-γ could induce the apoptosis and reverse drug resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of PPAR-γ on cisplatin sensitivity and apoptosis response of human lung cancer cell line A549. Methods Reconstruction of PPAR-γ silencing A549 cells (A549/PPAR-γ(- by siRNA. MTT assay was employed to determine the effect of cisplatin on the proliferation of A549/PPAR-γ(-, flow cytometry to determine the effect of cisplatin on the cell apoptosis, Western blot to determine the change of phosphorylation of Akt, caspase-3 and expression of bcl-2/bax. Finally, RT-PCR was employed to determine the transcriptional level of bcl-2. Results Two PPAR-γ silencing A549 cell clones were established successfully, and the expression of PPAR-γ was downregulated significantly as confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot. After PPAR-γ silencing, the resistance of these two A549 clones to cisplatin was increased by 1.29-fold and 1.60-fold respectively. Flow cytometry showed that the apoptosis rate was decreased, and Western Blot showed that the phosphorylation of Akt and expression of bcl-2/bax were upregulated, caspase-3 was downregulated. Finally, RT-PCR showed that the transcriptional level of bcl-2 was upregulated as well. Conclusion Downregulation of PPAR-γ in A549 cells led to increase of cisplatin resistance. One of the mechanisms was upregulatin of phosphorylation of Akt and expression of bcl-2, which inhibited the apoptosis of cells. The downregulation of PPAR-γ is a possible mechanism that leads to the clinical drug resistance of cancer.

  6. Curcumin Inhibits LIN-28A through the Activation of miRNA-98 in the Lung Cancer Cell Line A549.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Lun; Chang, Jia-Ming; Chong, Inn-Wen; Hung, Yi-Li; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Hsieh, Chong-Chao; Liu, Po-Len

    2017-06-03

    Metastasis is common in lung cancer and is associated with poor clinical outcomes and increased mortality. Curcumin is a natural anti-cancer agent that inhibits the metastasis of various cancers by modulating the expression of micro (mi) RNAs such as miR-98, which acts as a tumor suppressor. This study investigated the effect of curcumin on miR-98 expression and in vitro cell line growth and invasiveness in lung cancer. Curcumin treatment enhanced the expression of miR-98 and reduced that of the miR-98 target gene LIN28A as well as matrix metalloproteinase ( MMP ) 2 and MMP9 in vitro and in vivo. MiR-98 overexpression suppressed lung cancer cell migration and invasion by inhibiting LIN28A-induced MMP2 and MMP9 expression. Meanwhile, LIN28A level was downregulated by overexpression of miR-98 mimic. Induction of miR-98 by curcumin treatment suppressed MMP2 and MMP9 by targeting LIN28A. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms by which curcumin suppresses lung cancer cell line growth in vitro and in vivo and invasiveness in vitro.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of embelin in A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Seung; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Yumi; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Kwanil; Jung, Hee-Jae; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is the most common type in asthma, which is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the lung. In this study, we investigated whether embelin (Emb), the major component of Ardisia japonica BL. (AJB), exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on allergic asthma via inhibition of NF-κB activity using A549 cells and asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. Inflammation was induced in A549 cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, by IL-1β (10 ng/ml) treatment for 4 h. The effects of Emb on NF-κB activity and COX-2 protein expression in inflamed airway epithelial cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues were analyzed via western blot. The secretion levels of NF-κB-mediated cytokines/chemokines, including IL-4, 6, 9, 13, TNF-α and eotaxin, were measured by a multiplex assay. Emb significantly blocked NF-κB activity in IL-1β-treated A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. COX-2 expression was also reduced in both IL-1β-treated A549 cells and asthmatic tissues Emb application. Emb significantly reduced the secretion of IL-4, IL-6 and eotaxin in human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues by inhibiting activity of NF-κB. The results of this study suggest that Emb may be used as an anti-inflammatory agent via inhibition of NF-κB and related cytokines.

  8. The impact of anticancer activity upon Beta vulgaris extract mediated biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (ag-NPs) against human breast (MCF-7), lung (A549) and pharynx (Hep-2) cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, K; Ahmad, H; Manikandan, E; Thanigai Arul, K; Kavitha, K; Moodley, M K; Rajagopal, K; Balabhaskar, R; Bhaskar, M

    2017-08-01

    The present study tried for a phyto-synthetic method of producing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) with size controlled as and eco-friendly route that can lead to their advanced production with decorative tranquil morphology. By inducing temperature fluctuation of the reaction mixture from 25 to 80°C the plasmon resonance band raised slowly which had an ultimate effect on size and shape of Ag-NPs as shown by UV-visible spectroscopy and TEM results. The biosynthesized nanoparticles showed good cytotoxic impact against MCF-7, A549 and Hep2 cells compared to normal cell lines. Compared to control plates, the percentage of cell growth inhibition was found to be high with as concentrations of Ag-NPs becomes more as determined by MTT assay. The AO/EtBr staining observations demonstrated that the mechanism of cell death induced by Ag-NPs was due to apoptosis in cancer cells. These present results propose that the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) may be utilized as anticancer agents for the treatment of various cancer types. However, there is a need for study of in vivo examination of these nanoparticles to find their role and mechanism inside human body. Further, studies we plan to do biomarker fabrication from the green synthesized plant extract nanoparticles like silver, gold and copper nanoparticles with optimized shape and sizes and their enhancement of these noble nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. 8-aminoadenosine enhances radiation-induced cell death in human lung carcinoma A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meike, Shunsuke; Yamamori, Tohru; Yasui, Hironobu; Eitaki, Masato; Inanami, Osamu; Matsuda, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The combination of a chemotherapeutic agent and radiation is widely applied to enhance cell death in solid tumor cells in cancer treatment. The purine analogue 8-aminoadenosine (8-NH 2 -Ado) is known to be a transcription inhibitor that has proved very effective in multiple myeloma cell lines and primary indolent leukemia cells. In this report, to examine whether 8-NH 2 -Ado had the ability to enhance the radiation-induced cell killing in solid tumor cells, human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were irradiated in the presence and absence of 8-NH 2 -Ado. 8-NH 2 -Ado significantly increased reproductive cell death and apoptosis in A549 cells exposed to X-rays. When peptide inhibitors against caspase-3, -8, and -9 were utilized to evaluate the involvement of caspases, all inhibitors suppressed the enhancement of radiation-induced apoptosis, suggesting that not only mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signal transduction pathways but also death receptor-mediated pathways were involved in this enhancement of apoptosis. In addition, in the cells exposed to the treatment combining X-irradiation and 8-NH 2 -Ado, reduction of the intracellular ATP concentration was essential for survival, and down-regulation of the expression of antiapoptotic proteins such as survivin and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) was observed. These results indicate that 8-NH 2 -Ado has potential not only as an anti-tumor drug for leukemia and lymphoma but also as a radiosensitizing agent for solid tumors. (author)

  10. In vitro toxicity of cationic micelles and liposomes in cultured human hepatocyte (HepG2) and lung epithelial (A549) cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roursgaard, Martin; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Northeved, Helle

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cationic micelle and liposome drug delivery systems on liver and lung cells in a toxicological in vitro screening model, with observations on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. A screening battery was established for assessment of a broad range of p...

  11. The Effect of 5-FU and Radiation on A549 Cells In Vitro

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    Lee, Myung Za [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Ha Chong [Medical College of Virgina, Richmond (United States); Lee, Won Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-06-15

    Effects of ionizing radiation alone and combined with chemotherapy on tumor growth and it clonal specificity Monitored by changes in distribution of chromosome number were studies in A549 cell line originated from human adenocarcinoma of the lung. Radiation (300 rad, 600 rad and 900 rad) were delivered with or without 5-FU. Forty eight hours later, 57.5% of growth inhibition of cell was Seen in cells treated with 5-FU concentration of 0.47g/ml for 24 hr exposure. Cell survival carves after radiation with and without 5-FU were made. Chromosomal analysis of cells in metaphase in control, and in cells treated with 300 rad of radiation, or 0.47g/ml of 5-FU treatment, and combined treatment of cloth were 77ne to examine the changes in ploidy and number of chromosome. Radiation combined with 5-FU enhanced growth inhibition of A549 cells. However, no evidence of synergetic effects in growth inhibition was observed in the cells treated with the combination therapy. Pattern of chromosomal distribution of survived cells were shifted from hyperploidy to hypoploidy by single dose of radiation(300 rad). As radiation dose increased a large number of hypoploidy cells were observed. Following treatment of cells with 5-FU, chomosomal distribution of survived cells were also shifted to hypodiploidy, which were seen in cells treated with radiation. The cell treated with 5-FU and followed by radiation within 24 hrs had cell with increased number of hypodiploidy cells. Almost same type of chromosomal changes were reproduced in cells treated with combined treatment with radiation and 5-FU. Minor differences were that cells with fewer number of chromosome were more frequent in cells treated with combined therapy. Further increase in cells of hypoploidy(93%) having 1-10 chromosome were induced by additional radiation. Therefore, the enhanced therapeutic effect of 5-FU combined with radiation of A549 cells appeared to be additive rather than synergistic.

  12. SOCS3 inhibiting migration of A549 cells correlates with PYK2 signaling in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qingfu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 is considered to inhibit cytokine responses and play a negative role in migration of various cells. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2 is a non-receptor kinase and has been found crucial to cell motility. However, little is known about whether SOCS3 could regulate PYK2 pro-migratory function in lung cancer. Methods The methylation status of SOCS3 was investigated in HBE and A549 cell lines by methylation-specific PCR. A549 cells were either treated with a demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or transfected with three SOCS3 mutants with various functional domains deleted. Besides, cells were pretreated with a proteasome inhibitor β-lactacystin where indicated. The effects of SOCS3 up-regulation on PYK2 expression, PYK2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylations were assessed by western blot using indicated antibodies. RT-PCR was used to estimate PYK2 mRNA levels. Transwell experiments were performed to evaluate cell migration. Results SOCS3 expression was found impaired in A549 cells and higher PYK2 activity was correlated with enhanced cell migration. We identified that SOCS3 was aberrantly methylated in the exon 2, and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored SOCS3 expression. Reactivation of SOCS3 attenuated PYK2 expression and phosphorylation, cell migration was inhibited as well. Transfection studies indicated that exogenous SOCS3 interacted with PYK2, and both the Src homology 2 (SH2 and the kinase inhibitory region (KIR domains of SOCS3 contributed to PYK2 binding. Furthermore, SOCS3 was found to inhibit PYK2-associated ERK1/2 activity in A549 cells. SOCS3 possibly promoted degradation of PYK2 in a SOCS-box-dependent manner and interfered with PYK2-related signaling events, such as cell migration. Conclusion These data indicate that SOCS3 negatively regulates cell motility and decreased SOCS3 induced by methylation may confer a migration advantage to A549 cells. These results also suggest a

  13. The Effect of dcEFs on migration behavior of A549 cells and Integrin beta1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie WANG

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The effect of direct-current electric fields (dcEFs on cells attracted extensive attention. Moreover the metastasis and its potential are considered to be related to dcEFs. The aim is to study the effect of dcEFs on migration behavior of A549 cells, Integrin ?1 and its signal pathways. Methods According to exposure to 5 V/cm dcEFs or not and the time of exposure, the A549 cells were divided into 4 groups. Images were taken per 5 min within 2 h to recode the migration of the cells. The data of results were analyzed statistically. Results Most of A549cells exposed to the dcEFs aligned and elongated perpendicularly to the electric field lines and migrated to the cathode continually during 2 h. On the contrary, cells unexposed to dcEFs showed slightly random movements. Immunofluorescence showed that Integrin ?1 on plasma membrane polarized to the cathode of the dcEFs. Western blot showed that Integrin beta1 downstream signal pathways p-FAK and p-ERK were overexpressed in the dcEFs. Conclusion A549 cells have a galvanotatic feature of cathodal directed migration while exposed to the dcEFs. The polarization of Integrin beta1 and the promotion of its downstream signal pathways may play an important roles in the galvanotaxis of A549 cells.

  14. Xylitol induces cell death in lung cancer A549 cells by autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunjoo; Park, Mi Hee; Na, Hee Sam; Chung, Jin

    2015-05-01

    Xylitol is a widely used anti-caries agent that has anti-inflammatory effects. We have evaluated the potential of xylitol in cancer treatment. It's effects on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assay and LDH assay. Cell morphology and autophagy were examined by immunostaining and immunoblotting. Xylitol inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in these cancer cells: A549, Caki, NCI-H23, HCT-15, HL-60, K562, and SK MEL-2. The IC50 of xylitol in human gingival fibroblast cells was higher than in cancer cells, indicating that it is more specific for cancer cells. Moreover, xylitol induced autophagy in A549 cells that was inhibited by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These results indicate that xylitol has potential in therapy against lung cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing autophagy of A549 cells.

  15. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cisplatin-resistant Cell Strain A549/CDDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sien SHI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Chemotherapy plays an important role in the comprehensive therapy of lung cancer. However, the drug-resistance often causes the failure of the chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to identify differently expressed protein before and after cisplatin resistance of human lung adenocarcinoma cell A549 by proteomic analysis. Methods Cisplatin-resistant cell strain A549/CDDP was established by combining gradually increasing concentration of cisplatin with large dosage impact. Comparative proteomic analysis of A549 and A549/CDDP were carried out by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The differentially expressed proteins were detected and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Results Eighty-two differentially expressed proteins were screened by analysis the electrophoretic maps of A549 and A549/CDDP. Six differential proteins were analyzed by peptide mass fingerprinting. Glucose regulating protein 75, ribosomal protein S4, mitochondrial ATP synthase F1 complex beta subunit and immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region were identified. All four differentially expressed proteins were over-expressed in A549/CDDP, whereas low-expressed or no-expressed in A549. Conclusion These differentially expressed proteins give some clues to elucidate the mechanism of lung cancer cell resistant of cisplatin, providing the basis of searching for potential target of chemotherapy of lung cancer.

  16. Dioscorin protects tight junction protein expression in A549 human airway epithelium cells from dust mite damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin Shien; Ko, Ying Hsien; Lin, Kuo Wei; Hsu, Jeng Yuan; Chu, Jao Jia; Chi, Chin Shiang

    2009-12-01

    In addition to being an allergen, the trypsin activity of dust mite extract also destroys the tight junctions of bronchial epithelium. Such damage can lead to airway leakage, which increases airway exposure to allergens, irritants, and other pathogens. Dioscorin, the storage protein of yam, demonstrates anti-trypsin activity, as well as other potential anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the protective role of dioscorin for tight junctions. The immunofluorescence stains of zonula occludens (ZO-1), E-cadherin (EC) and desmoplakin (DP) proteins were compared. A cultured A549 cell line was used as a control and A549 cells were incubated with mite extract 100 mg/mL for 16 h, with or without dioscorin 100 mg/mL pretreatment for 8 h and with dioscorin 100 mg/mL alone for 16 h. Western blot was performed to detect changes in ZO-1, EC, and DP in the treated A549 cell lines. Loss of tight junction protein expression (ZO-1, EC, DP) was demonstrated after 16-h mite extract incubation. The defect could be restored if cells were pretreated with dioscorin for 8 h. In addition, dioscorin did not cause damage to the A549 cell lines in terms of cell survival or morphology. Western blot showed no change in the amount of tight junction protein under various conditions. Dioscorin is a potential protector of airway damage caused by mite extract.

  17. DNA damage response signaling in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells following gamma and carbon beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Narang, Himanshi; Sarma, Asitikantha; Krishna, Malini

    2011-11-01

    Carbon beams (5.16MeV/u, LET=290keV/μm) are high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation characterized by higher relative biological effectiveness than low LET radiation. The aim of the current study was to determine the signaling differences between γ-rays and carbon ion-irradiation. A549 cells were irradiated with 1Gy carbon or γ-rays. Carbon beam was found to be three times more cytotoxic than γ-rays despite the fact that the numbers of γ-H2AX foci were same. Percentage of cells showing ATM/ATR foci were more with γ-rays however number of foci per cell were more in case of carbon irradiation. Large BRCA1 foci were found in all carbon irradiated cells unlike γ-rays irradiated cells and prosurvival ERK pathway was activated after γ-rays irradiation but not carbon. The noteworthy finding of this study is the early phase apoptosis induction by carbon ions. In the present study in A549 lung adenocarcinoma, authors conclude that despite activation of same repair molecules such as ATM and BRCA1, differences in low and high LET damage responses might be due to their distinct macromolecular complexes rather than their individual activation and the activation of cytoplasmic pathways such as ERK, whether it applies to all the cell lines need to be further explored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Curcumin inhibits interferon-α induced NF-κB and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeeyun; Im, Young-Hyuck; Jung, Hae Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyun; Park, Joon Oh; Kim, Kihyun; Kim, Won Seog; Ahn, Jin Seok; Jung, Chul Won; Park, Young Suk; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Keunchil

    2005-01-01

    The A549 cells, non-small cell lung cancer cell line from human, were resistant to interferon (IFN)-α treatment. The IFN-α-treated A549 cells showed increase in protein expression levels of NF-κB and COX-2. IFN-α induced NF-κB binding activity within 30 min and this increased binding activity was markedly suppressed with inclusion of curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited IFN-α-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. Within 10 min, IFN-α rapidly induced the binding activity of a γ- 32 P-labeled consensus GAS oligonucleotide probe, which was profoundly reversed by curcumin. Taken together, IFN-α-induced activations of NF-κB and COX-2 were inhibited by the addition of curcumin in A549 cells

  19. Apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells induced by prodigiosin analogue obtained from an entomopathogenic bacterium Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Jin, Zhi-Xiong; Wan, Yong-Ji

    2010-12-01

    An entomopathogenic bacterial strain SCQ1 was isolated from silkworm (Bombyx mori) and identified as Serratia marcescens via 16S rRNA gene analysis. This strain produces a red pigment that causes acute septicemia of silkworm. The red pigment of strain SCQ1 was identified as prodigiosin analogue (PGA) with various reported biological activities. In this study, we found that low concentration of PGA showed significant anticancer activity in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, but has little effect in human bone marrow stem cells, in vitro. By exposure to different concentrations of PGA for 24 h, morphological changes and the MTT assay showed that A549 cell line was very sensitive to PGA, with IC(50) value about 2.2 mg/L. Early stage of apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry while A549 cells were treated with PGA for 4 and 12 h, respectively. The proportion of dead cells was increased with treatment time or the concentrations of PGA, but it was inversely proportional to that of apoptotic cells. These results indicate that PGA obtained from strain SCQ1 induces apoptosis in A549 cells, but the molecular mechanisms of cell death are complicated, and the S. marcescens strain SCQ1 may serve as a source of the anticancer compound, PGA.

  20. Edaravone Decreases Paraquat Toxicity in A549 Cells and Lung Isolated Mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Shaki, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Rezagholizadeh, Neda; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone, an antioxidant and radical scavenger, showed protective effects against oxidative stress-like condition. Paraquat (PQ) is toxic herbicide considerable evidence suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to PQ toxicity. In this study, protective effect of edaravone against PQ induced toxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in A549 cells and lung isolated mitochondria were evaluated. A549 cells and lung isolated mitochondria were divided int...

  1. Silica nanoparticles and biological dispersants: genotoxic effects on A549 lung epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David M.; Varet, Julia; Johnston, Helinor; Chrystie, Alison; Stone, Vicki

    2015-10-01

    Silica nanoparticle exposure could be intentional (e.g. medical application or food) or accidental (e.g. occupational inhalation). On entering the body, particles become coated with specific proteins depending on the route of entry. The ability of silica particles of different size and charge (non-functionalized 50 and 200 nm and aminated 50 and 200 nm) to cause genotoxic effects in A549 lung epithelial cells was investigated. Using the modified comet assay and the micronucleus assay, we examined the effect of suspending the particles in different dispersion media [RPMI or Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS), supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lung lining fluid (LLF) or serum] to determine if this influenced the particle's activity. Particle characterisation suggested that the particles were reasonably well dispersed in the different media, with the exception of aminated 50 nm particles which showed evidence of agglomeration. Plain 50, 200 nm and aminated 50 nm particles caused significant genotoxic effects in the presence of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase when dispersed in HBSS or LLF. These effects were reduced when the particles were dispersed in BSA and serum. There was no significant micronucleus formation produced by any of the particles when suspended in any of the dispersants. The data suggest that silica particles can produce a significant genotoxic effect according to the comet assay in A549 cells, possibly driven by an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism which may be modified depending on the choice of dispersant employed.

  2. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  3. Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects in A549 Cells Exposed to 6 MV X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuning; Xu, Jing; Shao, Weixian; Geng, Chong; Li, Jia; Guo, Feng; Miao, Hui; Shen, Wenbin; Ye, Tao; Liu, Yazhou; Xu, Haiting; Zhang, Xuguang

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the bystander effects in A549 cells that have been exposed to 6MV X-ray. Control group, irradiated group, irradiated conditioned medium (ICM)-received group, and fresh medium group were designed in this study. A549 cells in the logarithmic growth phase were irradiated with 6MV X-ray at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2. In ICM-received group, post-irradiation A549 cells were cultured for 3 h and were transferred into non-irradiated A549 cells for further cultivation. Clone forming test was applied to detect the survival fraction of cells. Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining assay was used to detect the apoptosis of A549 cells 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after 2-Gy 6MV X-ray irradiation, and the curves of apoptosis were drawn. The changes in the cell cycles 4, 48, 72, and 96 h after 2-Gy 6MV X-ray irradiation were detected using PI staining flow cytometry. With the increase of irradiation dose, the survival fraction of A549 cells after the application of 0.5 Gy irradiation was decreasing continuously. In comparison to the control group, the apoptosis rate of the ICM-received group was increased in a time-dependent pattern, with the highest apoptosis rate observed at 72 h (p X-ray irradiation can induce bystander effect on A549 cells, which reaches a peak at 72 h.

  4. Aptamer based electrochemical sensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rachna; Varun Agrawal, Ved; Sharma, Pradeep; Varshney, R.; Sinha, R. K.; Malhotra, B. D.

    2012-04-01

    We report results of the studies relating to development of an aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The aminated 85-mer DNA aptamer probe specific for the A549 cells has been covalently immobilized onto silane self assembled monolayer (SAM) onto ITO surface using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. The results of cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry studies reveal that the aptamer functionalized bioelectrode can specifically detect lung cancer cells in the concentration range of 103 to 107 cells/ml with detection limit of 103 cells/ml within 60 s. The specificity studies of the bioelectrode have been carried out with control KB cells. No significant change in response is observed for control KB cells as compared to that of the A549 target cells.

  5. Role of Rad52 in fractionated irradiation induced signaling in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Krishna, Malini

    2012-01-01

    The effect of fractionated doses of γ-irradiation (2 Gy per fraction over 5 days), as delivered in cancer radiotherapy, was compared with acute doses of 10 and 2 Gy, in A549 cells. A549 cells were found to be relatively more radioresistant if the 10 Gy dose was delivered as a fractionated regimen. Microarray analysis showed upregulation of DNA repair and cell cycle arrest genes in the cells exposed to fractionated irradiation. There was intense activation of DNA repair pathway-associated genes (DNA-PK, ATM, Rad52, MLH1 and BRCA1), efficient DNA repair and phospho-p53 was found to be translocated to the nucleus of A549 cells exposed to fractionated irradiation. MCF-7 cells responded differently in fractionated regimen. Silencing of the Rad52 gene in fractionated group of A549 cells made the cells radiosensitive. The above result indicated increased radioresistance in A549 cells due to the activation of Rad52 gene.

  6. Chemosensitivity of irradiated resistant cells of multicellular spheroids in A549 lung adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Degang; Shi Genming; Huang Gang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the chemosensitivity of irradiated resistant cells of multicellular spheroids in A549 lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: The A549 irradiated resistant cells were the 10th regrowth generations after irradiated with 2.5 Gy of 6 MV X-ray, the control groups were A549 parent cells and MCFY/VCR resistant cells. The 6 kinds of chemotherapeutic drugs were DDP, VDS, 5-FU, HCP, MMC and ADM respectively, with verapamil (VPL) as reverse agent. The treatment effect was compared with MTT assay, and the multidrug resistant gene expressions of mdrl and MRP were measured with RT-PCR method. Results: A549 cells and irradiated resistant cells were resistant to DDP, but sensitivity to VDS,5-FU, HCP, MMC and ADM. The inhibitory rates of VPL to the above two cells were 98% and 25% respectively(P 2 -MG and MRP/β 2 -MG of all A549 cells were about 0 and 0.7 respectively, and those of MCFT/VCR cells were 35 and 4.36. Conclusion: The chemosensitivity of A549 irradiated resistant cells had not changed markedly, the decreased sensitivity to VPL could not be explained by the gene expression of mdrl and MRP. It is conferred that some kinds of changes in the cell membrane and decreased regrowth ability to result in resistance. Unlike multidrug resistance induced by chemotherapy, VPL may be not an ideal reverser to irradiated resistant cells. The new kinds of biological preparation should be sought to combine chemotherapy to treat recurring tumor with irradiated resistance. (authors)

  7. Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates cancer stem cells in lung cancer A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Ying; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Yawei; Ma, Daoxin

    2010-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an important role not only in cancer, but also in cancer stem cells. In this study, we found that β-catenin and OCT-4 was highly expressed in cisplatin (DDP) selected A549 cells. Stimulating A549 cells with lithium chloride (LiCl) resulted in accumulation of β-catenin and up-regulation of a typical Wnt target gene cyclin D1. This stimulation also significantly enhanced proliferation, clone formation, migration and drug resistance abilities in A549 cells. Moreover, the up-regulation of OCT-4, a stem cell marker, was observed through real-time PCR and Western blotting. In a reverse approach, we inhibited Wnt signaling by knocking down the expression of β-catenin using RNA interference technology. This inhibition resulted in down-regulation of the Wnt target gene cyclin D1 as well as the proliferation, clone formation, migration and drug resistance abilities. Meanwhile, the expression of OCT-4 was reduced after the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Taken together, our study provides strong evidence that canonical Wnt signaling plays an important role in lung cancer stem cell properties, and it also regulates OCT-4, a lung cancer stem cell marker.

  8. Silica nanoparticles and biological dispersants: genotoxic effects on A549 lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David M., E-mail: d.brown@hw.ac.uk [Heriot-Watt University, Nanosafety Research Group, School of Life Sciences (United Kingdom); Varet, Julia, E-mail: julia.varet@IOM-world.org [Institute of Occupational Medicine (United Kingdom); Johnston, Helinor, E-mail: h.johnston@hw.ac.uk; Chrystie, Alison; Stone, Vicki, E-mail: v.stone@hw.ac.uk [Heriot-Watt University, Nanosafety Research Group, School of Life Sciences (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Silica nanoparticle exposure could be intentional (e.g. medical application or food) or accidental (e.g. occupational inhalation). On entering the body, particles become coated with specific proteins depending on the route of entry. The ability of silica particles of different size and charge (non-functionalized 50 and 200 nm and aminated 50 and 200 nm) to cause genotoxic effects in A549 lung epithelial cells was investigated. Using the modified comet assay and the micronucleus assay, we examined the effect of suspending the particles in different dispersion media [RPMI or Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS), supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lung lining fluid (LLF) or serum] to determine if this influenced the particle’s activity. Particle characterisation suggested that the particles were reasonably well dispersed in the different media, with the exception of aminated 50 nm particles which showed evidence of agglomeration. Plain 50, 200 nm and aminated 50 nm particles caused significant genotoxic effects in the presence of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase when dispersed in HBSS or LLF. These effects were reduced when the particles were dispersed in BSA and serum. There was no significant micronucleus formation produced by any of the particles when suspended in any of the dispersants. The data suggest that silica particles can produce a significant genotoxic effect according to the comet assay in A549 cells, possibly driven by an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism which may be modified depending on the choice of dispersant employed.

  9. Silica nanoparticles and biological dispersants: genotoxic effects on A549 lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David M.; Varet, Julia; Johnston, Helinor; Chrystie, Alison; Stone, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Silica nanoparticle exposure could be intentional (e.g. medical application or food) or accidental (e.g. occupational inhalation). On entering the body, particles become coated with specific proteins depending on the route of entry. The ability of silica particles of different size and charge (non-functionalized 50 and 200 nm and aminated 50 and 200 nm) to cause genotoxic effects in A549 lung epithelial cells was investigated. Using the modified comet assay and the micronucleus assay, we examined the effect of suspending the particles in different dispersion media [RPMI or Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS), supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lung lining fluid (LLF) or serum] to determine if this influenced the particle’s activity. Particle characterisation suggested that the particles were reasonably well dispersed in the different media, with the exception of aminated 50 nm particles which showed evidence of agglomeration. Plain 50, 200 nm and aminated 50 nm particles caused significant genotoxic effects in the presence of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase when dispersed in HBSS or LLF. These effects were reduced when the particles were dispersed in BSA and serum. There was no significant micronucleus formation produced by any of the particles when suspended in any of the dispersants. The data suggest that silica particles can produce a significant genotoxic effect according to the comet assay in A549 cells, possibly driven by an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism which may be modified depending on the choice of dispersant employed

  10. PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) INHIBITS NEUROTROPHIN RELEASE FROM A549 CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several investigations have linked PM exposure to the exacerbation of allergic lung diseases. Many PM effects are mediated by cells within the lung including the airway epithelium, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. These cells also produce neurotophins such as NGF and/or express neur...

  11. Salvianolic acid A reverses cisplatin resistance in lung cancer A549 cells by targeting c-met and attenuating Akt/mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xia-Li; Yan, Li; Zhu, Ling; Jiao, De-Min; Chen, Jun; Chen, Qing-Yong

    2017-09-01

    Drug resistance is one of the leading causes of chemotherapy failure in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of c-met in human lung cancer cisplatin resistance cell line (A549/DDP) and the reversal mechanism of salvianolic acid A (SAA), a phenolic active compound extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza. In this study, we found that A549/DDP cells exert up-regulation of c-met by activating the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. We also show that SAA could increase the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin, suggesting a synergistic effect of SAA and cisplatin. Moreover, we revealed that SAA enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin in A549/DDP cells mainly through suppression of the c-met/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Knockdown of c-met revealed similar effects as that of SAA in A549/DDP cells. In addition, SAA effectively prevented multidrug resistance associated protein1 (MDR1) up-regulation in A549/DDP cells. Taken together, our results indicated that SAA suppressed c-met expression and enhanced the sensitivity of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to cisplatin through AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Salvianolic acid A reverses cisplatin resistance in lung cancer A549 cells by targeting c-met and attenuating Akt/mTOR pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-li Tang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance is one of the leading causes of chemotherapy failure in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of c-met in human lung cancer cisplatin resistance cell line (A549/DDP and the reversal mechanism of salvianolic acid A (SAA, a phenolic active compound extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza. In this study, we found that A549/DDP cells exert up-regulation of c-met by activating the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. We also show that SAA could increase the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin, suggesting a synergistic effect of SAA and cisplatin. Moreover, we revealed that SAA enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin in A549/DDP cells mainly through suppression of the c-met/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Knockdown of c-met revealed similar effects as that of SAA in A549/DDP cells. In addition, SAA effectively prevented multidrug resistance associated protein1 (MDR1 up-regulation in A549/DDP cells. Taken together, our results indicated that SAA suppressed c-met expression and enhanced the sensitivity of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to cisplatin through AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

  13. Nimesulide has a role of radio-sensitizer against lung carcinoma A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Joo Yoon; Park, Jong Kuk; Hong, Sung Hee

    2006-01-01

    Cyclooxygenases (COX) are key enzymes in the prostaglandin synthesis. There are two isoforms of the COX enzyme, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 expression is associated with carcinogenesis in variety of cancers and to render cells resistant to apoptotic stimuli. Increased expression of COX-2 is shown in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), specifically in adenocarcinomas. Radiotherapy has been the important treatment for NSCLC. In recent studies, newer molecules that target specific pathophysiology or molecular pathways have been tested for the radiation sensitizers. COX-2 inhibitors are shown to enhanced radioresponse of cultured human cancer cell lines and immunodeficient mice. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms how NSAIDs enhance radioresponse of tumor cells. Nimesulide (methanesulfonamide, N-(4-nitro-2- phenoxyphenyl)), selective COX-2 inhibitors, is a drug with anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic properties. Nimesulide has the specific affinity to inhibit the inducible form of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) rather than the constitutive form (COX-1), and is well tolerated by adult, elderly and pediatric patients. Nimesulide was found also to have a chemopreventive activity against colon, urinary bladder, breast, tongue, and liver carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined whether nimesulide can increase radiation induced cell death and its mechanism in NSCLC cells A549

  14. Effects of X-rays on CC-chemokine receptor 7 expression in human lung cancer A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cuilan; Jiang Qisheng; Zou Yue; Li Fengsheng; Li Wei; Song Xiujun; He Rui; Wang Lu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of X-ray radiation on CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) expression in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Methods: Human adenocarcinoma cells of the line A549 were cultured and irradiated by X-ray at the absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, and 8 Gy respectively by linear accelerator (with the source skin distance of 100 cm and dose rate of 442.89 cGy/min). The relative levels of CCR7 mRNA and protein expression in the A549 cells were respectively detected by real time-PCR and Western blotting 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after radiation.Untreated A549 cells were used as control group. Results: The expression levels of CCR7 mRNA and protein in the A549 cells began to increase since 4 h after radiation and then decreased gradually after they reached the peak. The CCR7 mRNA expression levels 72 h after radiation of the 6 and 8 Gy groups were still significantly higher than those of the control group (t=6.75-7.26, both P<0.01), and the CCR7 protein expression levels of the 2 and 6 Gy group were still significantly higher than those of the control group (t=11.13-14.17, both P<0.01). Then the CCR7 protein expression levels of the 4 and 8 Gy groups decreased to the control group level 48 and 72 h after radiation respectively. Conclusions: The CCR7 mRNA and protein expression levels in the NSCLC cells increase after X-ray irradiation,which may be correlated with the promotion of proliferation and metastasis of NSCLC cells by X-ray irradiation at a certain dose. (authors)

  15. Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chunrong; Zheng, Haichong; He, Wanmei; Lu, Guifang; Li, Xia; Deng, Yubin; Zeng, Mian

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an inhibitory role in cell apoptosis. Herein we investigate the protective effects of ghrelin in LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, along with the possible molecular mechanisms. LPS exposure impaired cell viability and increased apoptosis of A549 cells significantly in concentration- and time-dependent manners embodied in increased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 production, coupled with decreased Bcl-2 levels. Simultaneously, LPS remarkably decreased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinas (ERK) in A549 cells. However, ghrelin'pretreatment ameliorated LPS-caused alterations in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, whereas activated the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling. These results demonstrate that ghrelin lightens LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial cells partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway and thereby might benefit alleviating septic ALI. -- Graphical abstract: Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cells apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •It has been observed that LPS insult significantly increased apoptosis in A549 cells. •Both Akt and ERK signaling are critical adapter molecules to mediate the ghrelin-mediated proliferative effect. •Ghrelin may have a therapeutic effect in the prevention of LPS-induced apoptosis.

  16. Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chunrong; Zheng, Haichong; He, Wanmei; Lu, Guifang; Li, Xia [Department of Medical Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Deng, Yubin, E-mail: dengyub@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Research Center of Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Zeng, Mian, E-mail: zengmian2004@163.com [Department of Medical Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2016-05-20

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an inhibitory role in cell apoptosis. Herein we investigate the protective effects of ghrelin in LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, along with the possible molecular mechanisms. LPS exposure impaired cell viability and increased apoptosis of A549 cells significantly in concentration- and time-dependent manners embodied in increased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 production, coupled with decreased Bcl-2 levels. Simultaneously, LPS remarkably decreased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinas (ERK) in A549 cells. However, ghrelin'pretreatment ameliorated LPS-caused alterations in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, whereas activated the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling. These results demonstrate that ghrelin lightens LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial cells partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway and thereby might benefit alleviating septic ALI. -- Graphical abstract: Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cells apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •It has been observed that LPS insult significantly increased apoptosis in A549 cells. •Both Akt and ERK signaling are critical adapter molecules to mediate the ghrelin-mediated proliferative effect. •Ghrelin may have a therapeutic effect in the prevention of LPS-induced apoptosis.

  17. Phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 in A549 pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to vanadate: Involvement of ATM pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsura; Inageda, Kiyoshi; Nishitai, Gen; Matsuoka, Masato

    2007-01-01

    When A549 cells were exposed to sodium metavanadate (NaVO 3 ), the pentavalent species of vanadium (vanadate), phosphorylation of p53 protein at Ser15 was found in a time (8-48 h)- and dose (10-200 μM)-dependent manner. After the incubation with 50 or 100 μM NaVO 3 for 48 h, accumulation of p53 protein was accompanied with Ser15 phosphorylation. Among serines in p53 protein immunoprecipitated from A549 cells treated with 100 μM NaVO 3 for 48 h, only Ser15 was markedly phosphorylated. Treatment with other vanadate compounds, sodium orthovanadate (Na 3 VO 4 ) and ammonium metavanadate (NH 4 VO 3 ), also induced Ser15 phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 protein. While phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) was found in cells treated with NaVO 3 , treatment with U0126 did not suppress Ser15 phosphorylation. On the other hand, treatment with wortmannin or caffeine, the inhibitors to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related kinases (PIKKs), suppressed both NaVO 3 -induced Ser15 phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 protein. The silencing of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) expression using short-interference RNA resulted in the marked suppression of Ser15 phosphorylation in A549 cells exposed to NaVO 3 . However, treatment with antioxidants such as catalase and N-acetylcysteine did not suppress NaVO 3 -induced Ser15 phosphorylation. Transcriptional activation of p53 and DNA fragmentation in A549 cells treated with NaVO 3 were suppressed only slightly by S15A mutation, suggesting that Ser15 phosphorylation is not essential for these responses. The present results showed that vanadate induces the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 depending on ATM, one of the members of PIKK family, in this human pulmonary epithelial cell line

  18. Cold stress increases reactive oxygen species formation via TRPA1 activation in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenwu; Wang, Zhonghua; Cao, Jianping; Cui, Haiyang; Ma, Zhuang

    2016-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are responsible for lung damage during inhalation of cold air. However, the mechanism of the ROS production induced by cold stress in the lung is still unclear. In this work, we measured the changes of ROS and the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in A549 cell. We observed that cold stress (from 20 to 5 °C) exposure of A549 cell resulted in an increase of ROS and [Ca(2+)]c, which was completely attenuated by removing Ca(2+) from medium. Further experiments showed that cold-sensing transient receptor potential subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) agonist (allyl isothiocyanate, AITC) increased the production of ROS and the level of [Ca(2+)]c in A549 cell. Moreover, HC-030031, a TRPA1 selective antagonist, significantly inhibited the enhanced ROS and [Ca(2+)]c induced by AITC or cold stimulation, respectively. Taken together, these data demonstrated that TRPA1 activation played an important role in the enhanced production of ROS induced by cold stress in A549 cell.

  19. Differential Regulation of Gene Expression of Alveolar Epithelial Cell Markers in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma-Derived A549 Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kondo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy appears to be promising for restoring damaged or irreparable lung tissue. However, establishing a simple and reproducible protocol for preparing lung progenitor populations is difficult because the molecular basis for alveolar epithelial cell differentiation is not fully understood. We investigated an in vitro system to analyze the regulatory mechanisms of alveolus-specific gene expression using a human alveolar epithelial type II (ATII cell line, A549. After cloning A549 subpopulations, each clone was classified into five groups according to cell morphology and marker gene expression. Two clones (B7 and H12 were further analyzed. Under serum-free culture conditions, surfactant protein C (SPC, an ATII marker, was upregulated in both H12 and B7. Aquaporin 5 (AQP5, an ATI marker, was upregulated in H12 and significantly induced in B7. When the RAS/MAPK pathway was inhibited, SPC and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1 expression levels were enhanced. After treatment with dexamethasone (DEX, 8-bromoadenosine 3′5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, surfactant protein B and TTF-1 expression levels were enhanced. We found that A549-derived clones have plasticity in gene expression of alveolar epithelial differentiation markers and could be useful in studying ATII maintenance and differentiation.

  20. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang HB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Bin Chang,1 Bing-Huei Chen1,21Department of Food Science, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 µg/mL, demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 µg/mL, and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 µg/mL. A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 µg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.Keywords: curcuminoid extract, curcuminoid nanoemulsion, Curcuma longa Linnaeus, lung cancer cell, cell cycle, apoptosis mechanism

  1. Middle infrared radiation induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in A549 lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Shih, Meng-Her; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Tsai, Shang-Ru; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Lee, Si-Chen

    2013-01-01

    There were studies investigating the effects of broadband infrared radiation (IR) on cancer cell, while the influences of middle-infrared radiation (MIR) are still unknown. In this study, a MIR emitter with emission wavelength band in the 3-5 µm region was developed to irradiate A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. It was found that MIR exposure inhibited cell proliferation and induced morphological changes by altering the cellular distribution of cytoskeletal components. Using quantitative PCR, we found that MIR promoted the expression levels of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related and Rad3-related), TP53 (tumor protein p53), p21 (CDKN1A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) and GADD45 (growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible), but decreased the expression levels of cyclin B coding genes, CCNB1 and CCNB2, as well as CDK1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 1). The reduction of protein expression levels of CDC25C, cyclin B1 and the phosphorylation of CDK1 at Thr-161 altogether suggest G(2)/M arrest occurred in A549 cells by MIR. DNA repair foci formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) marker γ-H2AX and sensor 53BP1 was induced by MIR treatment, it implies the MIR induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest resulted from DSB. This study illustrates a potential role for the use of MIR in lung cancer therapy by initiating DSB and blocking cell cycle progression.

  2. Suitable parameter choice on quantitative morphology of A549 cell in epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhou-Xin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Li, Jian-Sheng; Shen, Jun-Ling; Du, Wen-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of morphological changes in cells is an integral part of study on epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), however, only a few papers reported the changes in quantitative parameters and no article compared different parameters for demanding better parameters. In the study, the purpose was to investigate suitable parameters for quantitative evaluation of EMT morphological changes. A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line was selected for the study. Some cells were stimulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) for EMT, and other cells were as control without TGF-β1 stimulation. Subsequently, cells were placed in phase contrast microscope and three arbitrary fields were captured and saved with a personal computer. Using the tools of Photoshop software, some cells in an image were selected, segmented out and exchanged into unique hue, and other part in the image was shifted into another unique hue. The cells were calculated with 29 morphological parameters by Image Pro Plus software. A parameter between cells with or without TGF-β1 stimulation was compared statistically and nine parameters were significantly different between them. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) of a parameter was described with SPSS software and F-test was used to compare two areas under the curves (AUCs) in Excel. Among them, roundness and radius ratio were the most AUCs and were significant higher than the other parameters. The results provided a new method with quantitative assessment of cell morphology during EMT, and found out two parameters, roundness and radius ratio, as suitable for quantification. PMID:26182364

  3. [Nickel exposure to A549 cell damage and L-ascorbic acid interference effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Wang, Yue; Dan, Han; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Wenhan; Pan, Yulin; Wu, Yonghui

    2015-05-01

    Studying different concentrations of nickel smelting smoke subjects of human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) carcinogenic effects, discusses the influence of L-ascorbic acid protection. The A549 cells were divided into experimental and L-ascorbic acid in the intervention group. Plus exposure group concentration of nickel refining dusts were formulated 0.00, 6.25, 12.50, 25.00, 50.00, 100.00 µg/ml suspension, the intervention group on the basis of the added exposure group containing L-ascorbic acid (100 mmol/L), contact 24 h. Detection of cell viability by MTT assay. When the test substance concentration select 0.00, 25.00, 50.00, 100.00 µg/ml experiment for internal Flou-3 fluorescent probe to detect cell Ca²⁺ concentration, within DCFH-DA detect intracellular reactive oxygen (ROS) content, real-time quantitative PCR (real time, in the RT-PCR) was used to detect cell HIF-1α gene expression. With the increase of concentration, subjects increased cell growth inhibition rate, intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration increases, ROS content increased, HIF-1α gene expression increased, differences were statistically significant (P nickel exposure damage to cells. With subjects following exposure to nickel concentration increased, its effect on A549 cell damage increases, L-ascorbic acid cell damage caused by nickel has certain protective effect.

  4. Factors involved in depletion of glutathione from A549 human lung carcinoma cells: implications for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaglow, J.E.; Varnes, M.E.; Epp, E.R.; Clark, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    The rate of GSH resynthesis has been measured in plateau phase cultures of A549 human lung carcinoma cells subjected to a fresh medium change. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) blocks this resynthesis. Diethyl maleate (DEM) causes a decrease in accumulation of GSH. If DEM is added concurrently with BSO there is a rapid decline in GSH that is maximal in the presence of 0.5 mM DEM. GSH depletion rapidly occurs when BSO is added to log phase cultures which initially are higher in GSH content. Twenty-four hr treatment of A549 cells with BSO results in cells that are more radiosensitive in air and show a slight hypoxic radiation response. A 2 hr treatment with DEM results in some hypoxic sensitization and little increase in the aerobic radiation response. Cells treated simultaneously with BSO + DEM show little increase in the hypoxic radiation response, compared to DEM alone, but are more sensitive under aerobic conditions. Decreased cell survival for aerobically irradiated log phase A549 cells occurs within minutes after addition of a mixture of BSO + DEM. The authors suggest that the enhanced aerobic radiation response is related to an inability of GSH depleted cells to inactivate either peroxy radicals or hydroperoxides that may be produced during irradiation of BSO treated cells. Furthermore, enhancement of the aerobic radiation response may be useful in vivo if normal tissue responses are not also increased

  5. Garcinol from Garcinia indica Downregulates Cancer Stem-like Cell Biomarker ALDH1A1 in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells through DDIT3 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhan; Wang, Liwen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhang, Kunsheng; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Hui

    2017-05-10

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the predominant type of lung cancer. Patients with NSCLC show high mortality rates because of failure to clean up cancer stem cells (CSCs). The anticancer activity of phytochemical garcinol has been identified in various cancer cell models. However, the effect of garcinol on NSCLC cell lines is still lacking. Of the NSCLC cell lines we tested, A549 cells were the most sensitive to garcinol. Interestingly, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member A1 (ALDH1A1) was preferentially expressed in A549 cells and downregulated by the addition of garcinol. We also found that garcinol enriched DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) and then altered DDIT3-CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins beta (C/EBPβ) interaction resulting in a decreased binding of C/EBPβ to the endogenous ALDH1A1 promoter. Furthermore, garcinol's inhibition of ALDH1A1 was identified in a xenograft mice model. Garcinol repressed ALDH1A1 transcription in A549 cells through alterations in the interaction between DDIT3 and C/EBPβ. Garcinol could be a potential dietary phytochemical candidate for NSCLCs patients whose tumors harbored high ALDH1A1 expression.

  6. Oxidative stress and inflammatory response to printer toner particles in human epithelial A549 lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könczöl, Mathias; Weiß, Adilka; Gminski, Richard; Merfort, Irmgard; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2013-02-04

    Reports on adverse health effects related to occupational exposure to toner powder are still inconclusive. Therefore, we have previously conducted an in vitro-study to characterize the genotoxic potential of three commercially available black printer toner powders in A549 lung cells. In these cell-based assays it was clearly demonstrated that the tested toner powders damage DNA and induce micronucleus (MN) formation. Here, we have studied the cytotoxic and proinflammatory potential of these three types of printer toner particles and the influence of ROS and NF-κB induction in order to unravel the underlying mechanisms. A549 cells were exposed to various concentrations of printer toner particle suspensions for 24 h. The toner particles were observed to exert significant cytotoxic effects in the WST-1 and neutral red (NR)-assays, although to a varying extent. Caspase 3/7 activity increased, while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was not affected. Particles of all three printer toner powders induced concentration-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as measured in the DCFH-DA assay. Furthermore, toner particle exposure enhanced interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 production, which is in agreement with activation of the transcription factor NF-κB in A549 cells shown by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Therefore, it can be concluded that exposure of A549 lung cells to three selected printer toner powders caused oxidative stress through induction of ROS. Increased ROS formation may trigger genotoxic effects and activate proinflammatory pathways. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preprocessing with Photoshop Software on Microscopic Images of A549 Cells in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhou-Xin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Shen, Jun-Ling; Li, Ya; Li, Jian-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    To establish a preprocessing method for cell morphometry in microscopic images of A549 cells in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Adobe Photoshop CS2 (Adobe Systems, Inc.) was used for preprocessing the images. First, all images were processed for size uniformity and high distinguishability between the cell and background area. Then, a blank image with the same size and grids was established and cross points of the grids were added into a distinct color. The blank image was merged into a processed image. In the merged images, the cells with 1 or more cross points were chosen, and then the cell areas were enclosed and were replaced in a distinct color. Except for chosen cellular areas, all areas were changed into a unique hue. Three observers quantified roundness of cells in images with the image preprocess (IPP) or without the method (Controls), respectively. Furthermore, 1 observer measured the roundness 3 times with the 2 methods, respectively. The results between IPPs and Controls were compared for repeatability and reproducibility. As compared with the Control method, among 3 observers, use of the IPP method resulted in a higher number and a higher percentage of same-chosen cells in an image. The relative average deviation values of roundness, either for 3 observers or 1 observer, were significantly higher in Controls than in IPPs (p Photoshop, a chosen cell from an image was more objective, regular, and accurate, creating an increase of reproducibility and repeatability on morphometry of A549 cells in epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

  8. Enhancement of cell death by TNF α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in human lung carcinoma A549 cells exposed to X rays under hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Momoko; Inanami, Osamu; Yasui, Hironobu; Ogura, Aki; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Kubota, Nobuo; Tsujitani, Michihiko

    2007-01-01

    Our previous study showed that ionizing radiation induced the expression of death receptor DR5 on the cell surface in tumor cell lines and that the death receptor of the TNF α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL enhanced the apoptotic pathway (Hamasu et al., (2005) Journal of Radiation Research, 46:103-110). The present experiments were performed to examine whether treatment with TRAIL enhanced the cell killing in tumor cells exposed to ionizing radiation under hypoxia, since the presence of radioresistant cells in hypoxic regions of solid tumors is a serious problem in radiation therapy for tumors. When human lung carcinoma A549 cells were irradiated under normoxia and hypoxia, respectively, radiation-induced enhancement of expression of DR5 was observed under both conditions. Incubation in the presence of TRAIL enhanced the caspase-dependent and chymotrypsin-like-protease-dependent apoptotic cell death in A549 cells exposed to X rays. Furthermore, it was shown that treatment with TRAIL enhanced apoptotic cell death and loss of clonogenic ability in A549 cells exposed to X rays not only under normoxia but also under hypoxia, suggesting that combination treatment with TRAIL and X irradiation is effective for hypoxic tumor cells. (author)

  9. Curcumin Promoted the Apoptosis of Cisplain-resistant Human Lung Carcinoma Cells A549/DDP through Down-regulating miR-186*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian ZHANG

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Curcumin, a natural compound, is derived from the rthizom of Curcuma longa. In vitro and in vivo preclinical studies have shown its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer activities and so on. miR-186*, which was found by microarray technology, was highly expressed in lung carcinoma cells A549/DDP. The aim of this study is to illustrate whether Curcumin could promote the apoptosis of A549/DDP cells through regulating the expression of miR-186*. Methods An oligonucleotide microarray chip was used to profile microRNA (miRNA expressions in A549/DDP cells treated with and without Curcumin. The significantly differentially expressed miRNA, which was selected from microarray chip, validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Ultimately, the remarkably expressed miRNA modulated the apoptosis assaying by flow cytometry expriments and the survival rate was measured by MTT method. Results The microarray chip results demonstrated: Curcumin altered the expression level of miRNAs compared with untreated control in A549/DDP cell line, miR-186* was significantly down-regulated after Curcumin treatment, which confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Downregulation of miR-186* expression by curcumin elevated the apoptosis, and the survival rate of A549/DDP cells decreased; but up-regulation of miR-186* expression by transfection its mimics restrained the apoptosis, the survival rate of A549/DDP cells increased, which were assayed by flow cytometry expriments and MTT method. Conclusion Modulation of miRNAs expression may be an important mechanism underlying the biological roles of Curcumin.

  10. Cytotoxicity and gene expression profiling of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride in human alveolar A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ha-Na; Zerin, Tamanna; Podder, Biswajit; Song, Ho-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Sik

    2014-06-01

    In Korea, lung disease of children and pregnant women associated with humidifier disinfectant use has become a major concern. A common sterilizer is polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), a member of the guanidine family of antiseptics. This study was done to elucidate the putative cytotoxic effect of PHMG and the PHMG-mediated altered gene expression in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells in vitro. Cell viability analyses revealed the potent cytotoxicity of PHMG, with cell death evident at as low as 5 μg/mL. Death was dose- and time-dependent, and was associated with formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, and apoptosis significantly, at even 2 μg/mL concentration. The gene expression profile in A549 cells following 24 h exposure to 5 μg/mL of PHMG was investigated using DNA microarray analysis. Changes in gene expression relevant to the progression of cell death included induction of genes related to apoptosis, autophagy, fibrosis, and cell cycle. However, the expressions of genes encoding antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes were down-regulated or not affected. The altered expression of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. The collective data suggest that PHMG confers cellular toxicity through the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and alteration of gene expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanisms underlying regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis by hnRNP B1 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Juan; Tang, Feng-ming; Pu, Dan; Xu, Dan; Wang, Tao; Li, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1 (hnRNP B1), a nuclear RNA binding protein, has been reported to occur in early-stage lung cancer and in premalignant lesions. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is known to be involved in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks. Reduced capacity to repair DNA has been associated with the risk of lung cancer. We investigated a link between hnRNP B1 and DNA-PK and their effects on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. We found that hnRNP B1 and DNA-PK interact with each other in a complex fashion. Reducing hnRNP B1 expression in A549 cells with the use of RNAi led to upregulation of p53 activity through upregulation of DNA-PK activity but without inducing p53 expression. Further, suppression of hnRNP B1 in A549 cells slowed cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 stage. The presence of NU7026 reduced the arrest of cells at the G1 stage and reduced the apoptosis rate while promoting cell growth. Taken together, our results demonstrate that by regulating DNA-PK activity, hnRNP B1 can affect p53-mediated cell cycle progression and apoptosis, resulting in greater cell survival and subsequent proliferation.

  12. High-Throughput Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Dengue Virus Type 2 Infected A549 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Han-Chen; Hannemann, Holger; Heesom, Kate J.; Matthews, David A.; Davidson, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Disease caused by dengue virus is a global health concern with up to 390 million individuals infected annually worldwide. There are no vaccines or antiviral compounds available to either prevent or treat dengue disease which may be fatal. To increase our understanding of the interaction of dengue virus with the host cell, we analyzed changes in the proteome of human A549 cells in response to dengue virus type 2 infection using stable isotope labelling in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometry (MS). Mock and infected A549 cells were fractionated into nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts before analysis to identify proteins that redistribute between cellular compartments during infection and reduce the complexity of the analysis. We identified and quantified 3098 and 2115 proteins in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions respectively. Proteins that showed a significant alteration in amount during infection were examined using gene enrichment, pathway and network analysis tools. The analyses revealed that dengue virus infection modulated the amounts of proteins involved in the interferon and unfolded protein responses, lipid metabolism and the cell cycle. The SILAC-MS results were validated for a select number of proteins over a time course of infection by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Our study demonstrates for the first time the power of SILAC-MS for identifying and quantifying novel changes in cellular protein amounts in response to dengue virus infection. PMID:24671231

  13. High-throughput quantitative proteomic analysis of dengue virus type 2 infected A549 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Chen Chiu

    Full Text Available Disease caused by dengue virus is a global health concern with up to 390 million individuals infected annually worldwide. There are no vaccines or antiviral compounds available to either prevent or treat dengue disease which may be fatal. To increase our understanding of the interaction of dengue virus with the host cell, we analyzed changes in the proteome of human A549 cells in response to dengue virus type 2 infection using stable isotope labelling in cell culture (SILAC in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometry (MS. Mock and infected A549 cells were fractionated into nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts before analysis to identify proteins that redistribute between cellular compartments during infection and reduce the complexity of the analysis. We identified and quantified 3098 and 2115 proteins in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions respectively. Proteins that showed a significant alteration in amount during infection were examined using gene enrichment, pathway and network analysis tools. The analyses revealed that dengue virus infection modulated the amounts of proteins involved in the interferon and unfolded protein responses, lipid metabolism and the cell cycle. The SILAC-MS results were validated for a select number of proteins over a time course of infection by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Our study demonstrates for the first time the power of SILAC-MS for identifying and quantifying novel changes in cellular protein amounts in response to dengue virus infection.

  14. A flavonoid isolated from Streptomyces sp. (ERINLG-4) induces apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 cells through p53 and cytochrome c release caspase dependant pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, C; Sangeetha, B; Duraipandiyan, V; Raj, M Karunai; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A; Balakrishna, K; Parthasarathy, K; Arulmozhi, N M; Arasu, M Valan

    2014-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity of a flavonoid type of compound isolated from soil derived filamentous bacterium Streptomyces sp. (ERINLG-4) and to explore the molecular mechanisms of action. Cytotoxic properties of ethyl acetate extract was carried out against A549 lung cancer cell line using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cytotoxic properties of isolated compound were investigated in A549 lung cancer cell line, COLO320DM cancer cell line and Vero cells. The compound showed potent cytotoxic properties against A549 lung cancer cell line and moderate cytotoxic properties against COLO320DM cancer cell line. Isolated compound showed no toxicity up to 2000 μg/mL in Vero cells. So we have chosen the A549 lung cancer cell line for further anticancer studies. Intracellular visualization was done by using a laser scanning confocal microscope. Apoptosis was measured using DNA fragmentation technique. Treatment of the A549 cancer cells with isolated compound significantly reduced cell proliferation, increased formation of fragmented DNA and apoptotic body. Activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 indicated that compound may be inducing intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. Bcl-2, p53, pro-caspases, caspase-3, caspase-9 and cytochrome c release were detected by western blotting analysis after compound treatment (123 and 164 μM). The activities of pro-caspases-3, caspase-9 cleaved to caspase-3 and caspase-9 gradually increased after the addition of isolated compound. But Bcl-2 protein was down regulated after treatment with isolated compound. Molecular docking studies showed that the compound bound stably to the active sites of caspase-3 and caspase-9. These results strongly suggest that the isolated compound induces apoptosis in A549 cancer cells via caspase activation through cytochrome c release from mitochondria. The present results might provide helpful suggestions for the design of

  15. Picfeltarraenin IA inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production by the nuclear factor-κB pathway in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong; Wang, Qing; Ouyang, Yang; Wang, Qian; Xiong, Xudong

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of picfeltarraenin IA (IA) on respiratory inflammation by analyzing its effect on interleukin (IL)-8 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells in culture was also examined. Human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells and the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line were used in the current study. Cell viability was measured using a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. The production of IL-8 and PGE2 was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of COX2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-p65 was examined using western blot analysis. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg/ml) resulted in the increased production of IL-8 and PGE2, and the increased expression of COX2 in the A549 cells. Furthermore, IA (0.1-10 µmol/l) significantly inhibited PGE2 production and COX2 expression in cells with LPS-induced IL-8, in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggested that IA downregulates LPS-induced COX2 expression, and inhibits IL-8 and PGE2 production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Additionally, IA was observed to suppress the expression of COX2 in THP-1 cells, and also to regulate the expression of COX2 via the NF-κB pathway in the A549 cells, but not in the THP-1 cells. These results indicate that IA regulates LPS-induced cytokine release in A549 cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  16. Toxic response of nickel nanoparticles in human lung epithelial A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Maqusood

    2011-06-01

    Nickel nanoparticle (Ni NP) is increasingly used in modern industries such as catalysts, sensors and electronic applications. Due to wide-spread industrial applications the inhalation is the primary source of exposure to Ni NPs. However, data demonstrating the effect of Ni NPs on the pulmonary system remain scarce. The present study was designed to examine the toxic effect of human lung epithelial A549 cells treated with well characterized Ni NPs at the concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 25 μg/ml for 24 and 48 h. Mitochondrial function (MTT assay), membrane leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay), reduced glutathione (GSH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO) and caspase-3 activity were assessed as toxicity end points. Results showed that Ni NPs reduced mitochondrial function and induced the leakage of LDH in dose and time-dependent manner. Ni NPs were also found to induce oxidative stress in dose and time-dependent manner indicated by depletion of GSH and induction of ROS and LPO. Further, activity of caspase-3 enzyme, marker of apoptosis was significantly higher in treated cells with time and Ni NPs dosage. The results exhibited significant toxicity of Ni NPs in human lung epithelial A549 cells which is likely to be mediated through oxidative stress. This study warrants more careful assessment of Ni NPs before their industrial applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytotoxicity of semiconductor nanoparticles in A549 cells is attributable to their intrinsic oxidant activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escamilla-Rivera, Vicente; Uribe-Ramirez, Marisela [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV-IPN), Departamento de Toxicología (Mexico); Gonzalez-Pozos, Sirenia [CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad de Microscopia Electrónica (LaNSE) (Mexico); Velumani, Subramaniam [CINVESTAV-IPN, Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica (Mexico); Arreola-Mendoza, Laura [Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones y Estudios sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CIIEMAD-IPN), Departamento de Biociencias e Ingeniería (Mexico); Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea De, E-mail: avizcaya@cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV-IPN), Departamento de Toxicología (Mexico)

    2016-04-15

    Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NP) are next generation semiconductors used in photovoltaic cells (PV). They possess high quantum efficiency, absorption coefficient, and cheaper manufacturing costs compared to silicon. Due to their potential for an industrial development and the lack of information about the risk associated in their use, we investigated the influence of the physicochemical characteristics of CIGS (9 nm) and CdS (20 nm) in relation to the induction of cytotoxicity in human alveolar A549 cells through ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction. CIGS induced cytotoxicity in a dose dependent manner in lower concentrations than CdS; both NP were able to induce ROS in A549. Moreover, CIGS interact directly with mitochondria inducing depolarization that leads to the induction of apoptosis compared to CdS. Antioxidant pretreatment significantly prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytotoxicity, suggesting ROS generation as the main cytotoxic mechanism. These results demonstrate that semiconductor characteristics of NP are crucial for the type and intensity of the cytotoxic effects. Our work provides relevant information that may help guide the production of a safer NP-based PV technologies, and would be a valuable resource on future risk assessment for a safer use of nanotechnology in the development of clean sources of renewable energy.

  18. Effects of X-ray irradiation on expression of Pokemon gene in A549 cells of human lung adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Zou Yue; Jiang Qisheng; Li Wei; Song Xiujun; Zhou Xiangyan; Wang Cuilan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the dose-and time-effects of X-ray irradiation on the expression of Pokemon gene in A549 cells of human lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: A549 cells were cultured in vitro and exposed to X-rays with the doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy, respectively. Untreated A549 cells were used as control group. The relative levels of Pokemon mRNA expression in the cells were detected by using quantitative real-time PCR at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation. Results: The Pokemon mRNA expression levels decreased in the early period after irradiation (except 2 and 4 h after irradiation in 2 Gy group) and then increased in the later stage (48 h after irradiation) with significant statistical differences at the most time points in comparison with the control group (t=3.40-154.76, P<0.05). Conclusions: Higher doses of X-rays may degrade the expression of Pokemon mRNA in the human A549 cells and induce apoptosis in the early period, hut also may upgrade its expression in the later period, which might be correlated with the cell cycle regulation and DNA damage repair in the A549 cells. (authors)

  19. TXNIP mediates the differential responses of A549 cells to sodium butyrate and sodium 4-phenylbutyrate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuefang; Wu, Nana; Dai, Juji; Li, Qiuxia; Xiao, XiaoQiang

    2017-02-01

    Sodium butyrate (NaBu) and sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) have promising futures in cancer treatment; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. Here, we show A549 cell death induced by NaBu and 4PBA are not the same. NaBu treatment induces a significantly higher level of A549 cell death than 4PBA. A gene expression microarray identified more than 5000 transcripts that were altered (>1.5-fold) in NaBu-treated A549 cells, but fewer than 2000 transcripts that were altered in 4PBA. Moreover, more than 100 cell cycle-associated genes were greatly repressed by NaBu, but slightly repressed by 4PBA; few genes were significantly upregulated only in 4PBA-treated cells. Gene expression was further validated by other experiments. Additionally, A549 cells that were treated with these showed changes in glucose consumption, caspase 3/7 activation and histone modifications, as well as enhanced mitochondrial superoxide production. TXNIP was strongly induced by NaBu (30- to 40-fold mRNA) but was only slightly induced by 4PBA (two to fivefold) in A549 cells. TXNIP knockdown by shRNA in A549 cells significantly attenuated caspase 3/7 activation and restored cell viability, while TXNIP overexpression significantly increased caspase 3/7 activation and cell death only in NaBu-treated cells. Moreover, TXNIP also regulated NaBu- but not 4PBA-induced H4K5 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation, possibly by increasing WDR5 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that 4PBA induced a mitochondrial superoxide-associated cell death, while NaBu did so mainly through a TXNIP-mediated pathway. The above data might benefit the future clinic application. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii leaf extract inhibit human lung cancer cells A549

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaefudin; Juniarti, A.; Rosiyana, L.; Setyani, A.; Khodijah, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate cytotoxicity effect of nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii (S. doederleinii) leaves extract. S. doederleinii was extracted by maceration method using 70%(v/v) ethanol as solvent. Phytochemical content was analyzed qualitatively by using Harborne and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) methods. Nanoparticle extract was prepared by ionic gelation using chitosan as encapsulant agent. Anticancer activity was performed by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that S. doederleinii contains of flavonoids. Nanoparticle of S. doederleinii leaves extract greatly inhibited A549 cells growth (cancer cells), with IC50 of 3% or 1020 μg/ml. These nanoparticles extract also inhibited the growth of Chang cells (normal cells), with IC50 of 4% or 1442 μg/ml. The effective concentration of nanoparticles extract which inhibits cancer cells without harming the normal cells is 0.5% or 167 μg/ml. Further studies are needed to obtain the concentration of nanoparticles extract which can selectively suppress cancer cells.

  1. Green synthesis of zero valent colloidal nanosilver targeting A549 lung cancer cell: In vitro cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minakshi Jha

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available An eco-friendly green approach was proposed to synthesise stable, cytotoxic colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Momordica charantia (M. charantia fruit extract. Bioinspired green method adopted for fabrication of AgNPs because of easy, fast, low-cost and benign bioprocess. Phytocomponents played the crucial role in capping, stabilisation and inherent cytotoxic potential of colloidal nanosilver. The physiochemical, crystalline, optical and morphological properties of AgNPs were characterized using UV-vis, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and AFM. FT-IR reveals the presence of carbonyl, methyl, polyphenol (flavonoid, primary and secondary amine (protein, carboxyl group, ester as major functional groups over the surface of nanomaterials. Mechanistic pathway for formation and stabilisation of colloidal nanosilver has been discussed. Average crystalline size of AgNPs was found to be 12.55 nm from XRD. TEM shows AgNPs nanosphere with size range 1–13.85 nm. Consistency in spherical morphology was also confirmed through Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. AFM measurement provided image Rq value 3.62, image Ra 2.47, roughness Rmax 36.4 nm, skewness 1.99 and kurtosis 9.87. The SRB assay revealed substantial in vitro noticeable anti-cancer activity of colloidal nanosilver on A549 and HOP-62 human lung cancer cells in a dose dependent manner with IC50 value of 51.93 µg/ml and 76.92 µg/ml. In addition, M. charantia capped AgNPs were found to be more biocompatible in comparison to M. charantia FE. Our study demonstrated the integration of green chemistry principle in nanomaterials fabrication and focused on the potential use of M. charantia fruit extract as an efficient precursor for biocompatible AgNPs anodrug formulation with improved cytotoxic applications. Keywords: M. charantia, Silver nanoparticles, TEM, Anticancer activity, A549, HOP-62

  2. Antimony trichloride induces a loss of cell viability via reactive oxygen species-dependent autophagy in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyuan; Xing, Fengjun; Cong, Yewen; Zhuang, Yin; Han, Muxi; Wu, Zhiqiang; Yu, Shali; Wei, Haiyan; Wang, Xiaoke; Chen, Gang

    2017-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is one of the most prevalent heavy metals and frequently leads to biological toxicity. Although autophagy is believed to be involved in metal-associated cytotoxicity, there is no evidence of its involvement following exposure. Moreover, the underlying mechanism of autophagy remains unclear. In this study, treatment with antimony trichloride caused autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner in A549 cells but did not affect the level of Atg5 or Atg7 mRNA expression. Furthermore, Sb enhanced autophagic flux while upregulating p62 gene and protein levels. The classic mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is not involved in Sb-induced autophagy. However, Sb-induced autophagy and the upregulation of p62 were inhibited by treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Subsequent analyses demonstrated that the inhibition of autophagy protected A549 cells from a loss of cell viability, while the activation of autophagy by rapamycin had the opposite effect. These data suggest that reactive oxygen species-dependent autophagy mediates Sb-stimulated cell viability loss in A549 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of glutathione depletion on the aerobic radiation response of A549 human lung carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaglow, J.E.; Clark, E.P.; Varnes, M.E.; Tuttle, S.W.; Epp, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    The authors demonstrated that depletion of glutathione (GSH) from cultured A549 cells to non-detectable levels, using L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO), results in an increased aerobic radiation response. This response can be further increased if dimethylfumarate (DMF) is added concurrently with L-BSO. L-BSO is a relatively slow depletor of GSH compared to DMF, which acts by both spontaneous and enzyme catalysed reactions. The authors have studied: 1. the effect of continuous long-term exposure to 0.1 mM L-BSO on GSH levels and the subsequent radiation response and 2. the effect of GSH depletion on enzymes essential for radical detoxification. The results show an enhanced aerobic radiation response that increases with the time of exposure to L-BSO. For example surviving fraction (S.F.) after 5 Gy for cells exposed to L-BSO for 24 hrs is 0.004 and 0.08 for control cultures. Cells washed free of medium and irradiated in Hanks' show 0.0007 S.F. after 120 hr exposure to L-BSO and S.F. of 0.075 for the control cultures. The relationship between the chronic GSH depleted state, GSH peroxidase, and radiation induced lipid peroxidation is being investigated

  4. Enhanced production of nitric oxide in A549 cells through activation of TRPA1 ion channel by cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenwu; Wang, Zhonghua; Cao, Jianping; Wang, Xu; Han, Yaling; Ma, Zhuang

    2014-08-31

    The respiratory epithelium is exposed to the external environment, and inhalation of cold air is common during the season of winter. In addition, the lung is a major source of nitric oxide (NO). However, the effect of cold stress on the production of NO is still unclear. In the present work, We measured the change of NO in single cell with DACF-DA and the change in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in A549 cell. We observed that cold stress (from 20 °C to 5 °C) induced an increase of NO in A549 cell, which was completely abolished by applying an extracellular Ca(2+) free medium. Further experiments showed that cold-sensing transient receptor potential subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) channel agonist (allyl isothiocyanate, AITC) increased the production of NO and the level of [Ca(2+)]c in A549 cell. Additionally, TRPA1 inhibitor, Ruthenium red (RR) and camphor, significantly blocked the enhanced production of NO and the rise of [Ca(2+)]c induced by AITC or cold stimulation, respectively. Taken together, these data indicated that cold-induced TRPA1 activation was responsible for the enhanced production of NO in A549 cell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Depleted aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) reverses cisplatin resistance of human lung adenocarcinoma cell A549/DDP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunyan; Wu, Shuangshuang; Xu, Wei; Liang, Yan; Li, Yue; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is the standard first-line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, resistance to chemotherapy has been a major obstacle in the management of NSCLC. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) overexpression has been observed in a variety of cancers, including lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ALDH1A1 expression on cisplatin resistance and explore the mechanism responsible. Reverse transcriptase-PCR was applied to measure the messenger RNA expression of ALDH1A1, while Western blot assay was employed to evaluate the protein expression of ALDH1A1, B-cell lymphoma 2, Bcl-2-like protein 4, phospho-protein kinase B (p-AKT) and AKT. A short hairpin RNA was used to knockdown ALDH1A1 expression. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to determine the effect of ALDH1A1 decrease on cell viability. The cell apoptotic rate was tested using flow cytometry assay. ALDH1A1 is overexpressed in cisplatin resistant cell line A549/DDP, compared with A549. ALDH1A1 depletion significantly decreased A549/DDP proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced cisplatin resistance. In addition, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) / AKT pathway is activated in A549/DDP, and ALDH1A1 knockdown reduced the phosphorylation level of AKT. Moreover, the combination of ALDH1A1-short hairpin RNA and PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 markedly inhibited cell viability, enhanced apoptotic cell death, and increased cisplatin sensitivity. These results suggest that ALDH1A1 depletion could reverse cisplatin resistance in human lung cancer cell line A549/DDP, and may act as a potential target for the treatment of lung cancers resistant to cisplatin. © 2016 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Pirfenidone inhibits TGF-β1-induced over-expression of collagen type I and heat shock protein 47 in A549 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisatomi Keiko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pirfenidone is a novel anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits the progression of fibrosis in animal models and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. We previously showed that pirfenidone inhibits the over-expression of collagen type I and of heat shock protein (HSP 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, in human lung fibroblasts stimulated with transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 in vitro. The increased numbers of HSP47-positive type II pneumocytes as well as fibroblasts were also diminished by pirfenidone in an animal model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. The present study evaluates the effects of pirfenidone on collagen type I and HSP47 expression in the human alveolar epithelial cell line, A549 cells in vitro. Methods The expression of collagen type I, HSP47 and E-cadherin mRNAs in A549 cells stimulated with TGF-β1 was evaluated by Northern blotting or real-time PCR. The expression of collagen type I, HSP47 and fibronectin proteins was assessed by immunocytochemical staining. Results TGF-β1 stimulated collagen type I and HSP47 mRNA and protein expression in A549 cells, and pirfenidone significantly inhibited this process. Pirfenidone also inhibited over-expression of the fibroblast phenotypic marker fibronectin in A549 cells induced by TGF-β1. Conclusion We concluded that the anti-fibrotic effects of pirfenidone might be mediated not only through the direct inhibition of collagen type I expression but also through the inhibition of HSP47 expression in alveolar epithelial cells, which results in reduced collagen synthesis in lung fibrosis. Furthermore, pirfenidone might partially inhibit the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  7. Differential replication of avian influenza H9N2 viruses in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells

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    Peiris Malik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Avian influenza virus H9N2 isolates cause a mild influenza-like illness in humans. However, the pathogenesis of the H9N2 subtypes in human remains to be investigated. Using a human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 as host, we found that A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (H9N2/G1, which shares 6 viral "internal genes" with the lethal A/Hong Kong/156/97 (H5N1/97 virus, replicates efficiently whereas other H9N2 viruses, A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97 (H9N2/Y280 and A/Chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97 (H9N2/G9, replicate poorly. Interestingly, we found that there is a difference in the translation of viral protein but not in the infectivity or transcription of viral genes of these H9N2 viruses in the infected cells. This difference may possibly be explained by H9N2/G1 being more efficient on viral protein production in specific cell types. These findings suggest that the H9N2/G1 virus like its counterpart H5N1/97 may be better adapted to the human host and replicates efficiently in human alveolar epithelial cells.

  8. Induction of apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells by PGD₂ metabolite, 15d-PGJ₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; Mak, Oi-Tong

    2011-11-01

    PGD2 (prostaglandin D2) is a mediator in various pathophysiological processes, including inflammation and tumorigenesis. PGD2 can be converted into active metabolites and is known to activate two distinct receptors, DP (PGD2 receptor) and CRTH2/DP2 (chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells). In the past, PGD2 was thought to be involved principally in the process of inflammation. However, in recent years, several studies have shown that PGD2 has anti-proliferative ability against tumorigenesis and can induce cellular apoptosis via activation of the caspase-dependent pathway in human colorectal cancer cells, leukaemia cells and eosinophils. In the lung, where PGD2 is highly released when sensitized mast cells are challenged with allergen, the mechanism of PGD2-induced apoptosis is unclear. In the present study, A549 cells, a type of NSCLC (non-small cell lung carcinoma), were treated with PGD2 under various conditions, including while blocking DP and CRTH2/DP2 with the selective antagonists BWA868C and ramatroban respectively. We report here that PGD2 induces A549 cell death through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, although the process does not appear to involve either DP or CRTH2/DP2. Similar results were also found with H2199 cells, another type of NSCLC. We found that PGD2 metabolites induce apoptosis effectively and that 15d-PGJ2 (15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2) is a likely candidate for the principal apoptotic inducer in PGD2-induced apoptosis in NSCLC A549 cells.

  9. MG132 as a proteasome inhibitor induces cell growth inhibition and cell death in A549 lung cancer cells via influencing reactive oxygen species and GSH level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong Hwan; Park, Woo Hyun

    2010-07-01

    Carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-leucinal (MG132) as a proteasome inhibitor has been shown to induce apoptotic cell death through formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we evaluated the effects of MG132 on the growth of A549 lung cancer cells in relation to cell growth, ROS and glutathione (GSH) levels. Treatment with MG132 inhibited the growth of A549 cells with an IC(50) of approximately 20 microM at 24 hours. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that 0.5 approximately 30 microM MG132 induced a G1 phase arrest of the cell cycle in A549 cells. Treatment with 10 or 30 microM MG132 also induced apoptosis, as evidenced by sub-G1 cells and annexin V staining cells. This was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; Delta psi m). The intracellular ROS levels including O(2) (*-) were strongly increased in 10 or 30 microM MG132-treated A549 cells but were down-regulated in 0.1, 0.5 or 1 microM MG132-treated cells. Furthermore, 10 or 30 microM MG132 increased mitochondrial O(2) (*- ) level but 0.1, 0.5 or 1 microM MG132 decreased that. In addition, 10 or 30 microM MG132 induced GSH depletion in A549 cells. In conclusion, MG132 inhibited the growth of human A549 cells via inducing the cell cycle arrest as well as triggering apoptosis, which was in part correlated with the changes of ROS and GSH levels. Our present data provide important information on the anti-growth mechanisms of MG132 in A549 lung cancer cells in relation to ROS and GSH.

  10. The effects of dietary phenolic compounds on cytokine and antioxidant production by A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauliard, Benoit; Grieve, Douglas; Wilson, Rhoda; Crozier, Alan; Jenkins, Carol; Mullen, William D; Lean, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Levels of inflammatory cytokines are raised in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A diet rich in antioxidant vitamins may protect against the development of COPD. This study examined the effects of phenolic compounds and food sources on cytokine and antioxidant production by A549 cells. The effects of the following phenolic compounds on basal and interleukin (IL)-1-stimulated release of IL-8, IL-6, and reduced glutathione (GSH) were examined: resveratrol; Bouvrage, a commercially available raspberry juice (Ella Drinks Ltd., Alloa, Clacksmannanshire, UK); and quercetin 3'-sulfate. Purification of the raspberry juice by high-performance liquid chromatography gave three fractions: Fraction 1 contained phenolic acid and vitamin C, Fraction 2 contained flavonoids and ellagic acid, and Fraction 3 contained anthocyanins and ellagitannins. IL-8 production was increased in the presence of IL-1 (165 vs. 6,011 pg/mL, P or =50 micromol/mL significantly inhibited IL-8 and IL-6 production. Similar findings were made with raspberry juice at concentrations > or =25 microL/mL, and Fractions 1 and 3 were best able to inhibit IL-8 production. Quercetin 3'-sulfate, at 25 micromol/mL, inhibited IL-8 and IL-6 production. The changes observed in IL-8 were paralleled by changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Thus, phenolic compounds can significantly alter cytokine and antioxidant production.

  11. Paclitaxel and the dietary flavonoid fisetin: a synergistic combination that induces mitotic catastrophe and autophagic cell death in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszewska-Wisniewska, Anna; Halas-Wisniewska, Marta; Tadrowski, Tadeusz; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Dariusz; Grzanka, Alina

    2016-01-01

    The use of the dietary polyphenols as chemosensitizing agents to enhance the efficacy of conventional cytostatic drugs has recently gained the attention of scientists and clinicians as a plausible approach for overcoming the limitations of chemotherapy (e.g. drug resistance and cytotoxicity). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a naturally occurring diet-based flavonoid, fisetin, at physiologically attainable concentrations, could act synergistically with clinically achievable doses of paclitaxel to produce growth inhibitory and/or pro-death effects on A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells, and if it does, what mechanisms might be involved. The drug-drug interactions were analyzed based on the combination index method of Chou and Talalay and the data from MTT assays. To provide some insights into the mechanism underlying the synergistic action of fisetin and paclitaxel, selected morphological, biochemical and molecular parameters were examined, including the morphology of cell nuclei and mitotic spindles, the pattern of LC3-II immunostaining, the formation of autophagic vacuoles at the electron and fluorescence microscopic level, the disruption of cell membrane asymmetry/integrity, cell cycle progression and the expression level of LC3-II, Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 mRNA. Here, we reported the first experimental evidence for the existence of synergism between fisetin and paclitaxel in the in vitro model of non-small cell lung cancer. This synergism was, at least partially, ascribed to the induction of mitotic catastrophe. The switch from the cytoprotective autophagy to the autophagic cell death was also implicated in the mechanism of the synergistic action of fisetin and paclitaxel in the A549 cells. In addition, we revealed that the synergism between fisetin and paclitaxel was cell line-specific as well as that fisetin synergizes with arsenic trioxide, but not with mitoxantrone and methotrexate in the A549 cells. Our results provide rationale for

  12. Blocking the NOTCH pathway can inhibit the growth of CD133-positive A549 cells and sensitize to chemotherapy

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    Liu, Juntao; Mao, Zhangfan; Huang, Jie; Xie, Songping; Liu, Tianshu; Mao, Zhifu, E-mail: 48151660@qq.com

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Notch signaling pathway members are expressed lower levels in CD133+ cells. • CD133+ cells are not as sensitive as CD133− cells to chemotherapy. • GSI could inhibit the growth of both CD133+ and CD133− cells. • Blockade of Notch signaling pathway enhanced the effect of chemotherapy with CDDP. • DAPT/CDDP co-therapy caused G2/M arrest and elimination in CD133+ cells. - Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to play an important role in tumor growth and recurrence. These cells exhibit self-renewal and proliferation properties. CSCs also exhibit significant drug resistance compared with normal tumor cells. Finding new treatments that target CSCs could significantly enhance the effect of chemotherapy and improve patient survival. Notch signaling is known to regulate the development of the lungs by controlling the cell-fate determination of normal stem cells. In this study, we isolated CSCs from the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. CD133 was used as a stem cell marker for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). We compared the expression of Notch signaling in both CD133+ and CD133− cells and blocked Notch signaling using the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT (GSI-IX). The effect of combining GSI and cisplatin (CDDP) was also examined in these two types of cells. We observed that both CD133+ and CD133− cells proliferated at similar rates, but the cells exhibited distinctive differences in cell cycle progression. Few CD133+ cells were observed in the G{sub 2}/M phase, and there were half as many cells in S phase compared with the CD133− cells. Furthermore, CD133+ cells exhibited significant resistance to chemotherapy when treated with CDDP. The expression of Notch signaling pathway members, such as Notch1, Notch2 and Hes1, was lower in CD133+ cells. GSI slightly inhibited the proliferation of both cell types and exhibited little effect on the cell cycle. The inhibitory effects of DPP on these two types of cells were

  13. The effect of agglomeration state of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cellular response of HepG2, A549 and THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankoff, Anna; Sandberg, Wiggo J; Wegierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Lisowska, Halina; Refsnes, Magne; Sartowska, Bożena; Schwarze, Per E; Meczynska-Wielgosz, Sylwia; Wojewodzka, Maria; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2012-02-05

    Nanoparticles (NPs) occurring in the environment rapidly agglomerate and form particles of larger diameters. The extent to which this abates the effects of NPs has not been clarified. The motivation of this study was to examine how the agglomeration/aggregation state of silver (20nm and 200nm) and titanium dioxide (21nm) nanoparticles may affect the kinetics of cellular binding/uptake and ability to induce cytotoxic responses in THP1, HepG2 and A549 cells. Cellular binding/uptake, metabolic activation and cell death were assessed by the SSC flow cytometry measurements, the MTT-test and the propidium iodide assay. The three types of particles were efficiently taken up by the cells, decreasing metabolic activation and increasing cell death in all the cell lines. The magnitude of the studied endpoints depended on the agglomeration/aggregation state of particles, their size, time-point and cell type. Among the three cell lines tested, A549 cells were the most sensitive to these particles in relation to cellular binding/uptake. HepG2 cells showed a tendency to be more sensitive in relation to metabolic activation. THP-1 cells were the most resistant to all three types of particles in relation to all endpoints tested. Our findings suggest that particle features such as size and agglomeration status as well as the type of cells may contribute to nanoparticles biological impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of miR-424 on Proliferation and Migration Abilities in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells and Its Molecular Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmin LI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The inhibitory ability of miR-424 on the proliferation of renal carcinoma cell and the migration and invasion of cancer cells has been widely explored and demonstrated. However, the effects of miR-424 on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC have not been systematically examined. In this study, detected the growth and invasion effect of miR-424 in NSCLC A549 cell. The migration and molecular mechanism of this cell are also detected. Methods NSCLC A549 cell was transfected with miR-424 and its inhibitor. After transfection, the proliferation ability of A549 cell was detectedby CCK8 assay. Then, the migration ability in A549 cell was detected by migration assays. Furthermore, the expression level of MMP2 and MMP9 in A549 was detected by Western blot and immune fluorescence. The 3'UTR of E2F6 was cloned into luciferase reporter vector and its enzymatic activitywas detected to verify whether miR-424 can target E2F6. The expression level of E2F6 in a549 cell after transfecing with miR-424 was detected by Western blot. Results After transfection of miR-424, the proliferation and migration abilities were remarkably decreased and the expression level of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were down-regulated in A549. Moreover, MiR-424 inhibited the enzymatic activity of luviferase reporter vector of E2F6. Specifically, the expression level of E2F6 was down-regulated in A549. Conclusion miR-424 can inhibit the proliferation and migration abilities of A549 by negatively regulating the expression of E2F6.

  15. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan [School of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chia-Wen [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chou, Fen-Pi [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chau-Jong [Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsuan, Shu-Wen [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine and Life Science, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, No.89, Wen Hwa 1st St., Rende Shiang, Tainan County 717, Taiwan (China); Wang, Cheng-Kun [E-Chyun Dermatology Clinic, No.70, Sec. 3, Jhonghua E. Rd., East District, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jing-Hsien [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine and Life Science, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, No.89, Wen Hwa 1st St., Rende Shiang, Tainan County 717, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in A549 cells. HIF-1{alpha} plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1{alpha} was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1{alpha}, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1{alpha} and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1{alpha} inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGF{beta}1/PHD2/HIF-1{alpha} pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGF{beta}1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1{alpha} transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  16. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chou, Fen-Pi; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Wang, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in A549 cells. HIF-1α plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1α was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1α, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1α and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1α inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGFβ1/PHD2/HIF-1α pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGFβ1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1α transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  17. Effect of silencing of ATM expression by siRNA on radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoqun; Qiao Tiankui

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of silencing of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) expression by plasmid-mediated RNA interference on the radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma A 549 cells. Methods: Eukaryotic expression plasmid containing ATM small interfering RNA (siRNA) (pSilencer2.1-ATM), as well as pSilencer2.1-nonspecific, was constructed.Lung adenocarcinoma A 549 cells were divided into positive group, negative group,and control group to be transfected with pSilencer2.1-ATM, pSilencer2.1-nonspecific, and no plasmid, respectively. The mRNA and protein expression of ATM was measured by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The change in cell radiosensitivity was observed by colony-forming assay. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The eukaryotic expression plasmid containing ATM siRNA was successfully constructed. The RT-PCR and Western blot demonstrated that the expression of ATM was down-regulated in the positive group. The sensitization enhancement ratios (D 0 ratios) for the positive group and negative group were 1.50 and 1.01, respectively. The flow cytometry revealed that the proportions of A 549 cells in G 1 and G 2 /M phases were significantly lower in the positive group than in the control group (51.27% vs 61.85%, P = 0.012; 6.34% vs 10.91%, P = 0.008) and that the apoptosis rate was significantly higher in the positive group than in the control group and negative group (49.31% vs 13.58%, P = 0.000; 49.31% vs 13.17%, P = 0.000). Conclusions: Silencing of ATM expression may increase the radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma A 549 cells, probably by affecting the cell cycle and promoting cell apoptosis. (authors)

  18. Seleno-short-chain chitosan induces apoptosis in human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yana; Zhang, Shaojing; Wang, Pengfei; Fu, Shengnan; Wu, Di; Liu, Anjun

    2017-12-01

    Seleno-short-chain chitosan (SSCC) is a synthesized chitosan derivative. In this study, antitumor activity and underlying mechanism of SSCC on human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells were investigated in vitro. The MTT assay showed that SSCC could inhibit cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and 200 μg/ml SSCC exhibited significantly toxic effects on A549 cells. The cell cycle assay showed that SSCC triggered S phase cell cycle arrest in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was related to a downregulation of S phase associated cyclin A. The DAPI staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining identified that the SSCC could induce A549 cells apoptosis. Further studies found that SSCC led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by DCFH-DA and Rhodamin 123 staining, respectively. Meanwhile, free radical scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment confirmed that SSCC-induced A549 cells apoptosis was associated with ROS generation. Furthermore, real-time PCR and western blot assay showed that SSCC up-regulated Bax and down-regulated Bcl-2, subsequently incited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm, activated the increase of cleaved-caspase 3 and finally induced A549 cells apoptosis in vitro. In general, the present study demonstrated that SSCC induced A549 cells apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells promote cell invasion and migration and autophagy-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dan; Hu, Shiyuan; Tang, Chunlan; Liu, Guoxiang

    2018-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recruited into the tumour microenvironment and promote tumour growth and metastasis. Tumour microenvironment-induced autophagy is considered to suppress primary tumour formation by impairing migration and invasion. Whether these recruited MSCs regulate tumour autophagy and whether autophagy affects tumour growth are controversial. Our data showed that MSCs promote autophagy activation, reactive oxygen species production, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as increased migration and invasion in A549 cells. Decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of vimentin and Snail were observed in A549 cells cocultured with MSCs. Conversely, MSC coculture-mediated autophagy positively promoted tumour EMT. Autophagy inhibition suppressed MSC coculture-mediated EMT and reduced A549 cell migration and invasion slightly. Furthermore, the migratory and invasive abilities of A549 cells were additional increased when autophagy was further enhanced by rapamycin treatment. Taken together, this work suggests that microenvironments containing MSCs can promote autophagy activation for enhancing EMT; MSCs also increase the migratory and invasive abilities of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Mesenchymal stem cell-containing microenvironments and MSC-induced autophagy signalling may be potential targets for blocking lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Effects of Davallic Acid from Davallia divaricata Blume on Apoptosis Induction in A549 Lung Cancer Cells

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    Tsu-Liang Chang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional or folk medicinal herbs continue to be prescribed in the treatment of various diseases and conditions in many cultures. Recent scientific efforts have focused on the potential roles of extracts of traditional herbs as alternative and complementary medications for cancer treatment. In Taiwan, Davallia divaricata Blume has been traditionally employed in folk medicine for therapy of lung cancer, davallic acid being the major active compound of D. divaricata Blume. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activity of davallic acid on the proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells. Davallic acid was extracted from D. divaricata Blume, and its effects on cell viability, cell cycle distribution, ROS level, and apoptotic protein expression in A549 cells were determined. Davallic acid significantly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation as well as caspase-3, -8, and -9 activation, thereby repressing A549 cell growth and elevating apoptotic activity. Since lung cancer has a high incidence of recurrence, these results indicate that davallic acid may have the potential to be a natural anti-lung cancer compound, and may provide a basis for further study of its use in combating cancer.

  1. Oleiferoside W from the roots of Camellia oleifera C. Abel, inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; Kang, Nai-Xin; Zhang, Mi-Ya; Gao, Hong-Wei; Li, Xiao-Ran; Liu, Yan-Li; Xu, Qiong-Ming; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2017-07-06

    Camellia oleifera C. Abel has been widely cultivated in China, and a group of bioactive constituents such as triterpeniod saponin have been isolated from C. oleifera C. Abel. In the current study, a new triterpeniod saponin was isolated from the EtOH extract of the roots of C. oleifera C. Abel, named as oleiferoside W, and the cytotoxic properties of oleiferoside W were evaluated in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. At the same time the inducing apoptosis, the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ), the up-regulation of related pro-apoptotic proteins, such as cleaved-PARP, cleaved-caspase-3, and the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2/Bax were measured on oleiferoside W. Furthermore, the function, inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis, of oleiferoside W could be reversed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). In conclusion, our findings showed that oleiferoside W induced apoptosis involving mitochondrial pathway and increasing intracellular ROS production in the A549 cells, suggesting that oleiferoside W may have the possibility to be a useful anticancer agent for therapy in lung cancer.

  2. Analysis of gene expression changes in A549 cells induced by organic compounds from respirable air particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Líbalová, Helena; Krčková, S.; Uhlířová, Kateřina; Kléma, J.; Ciganek, M.; Rössner ml., Pavel; Šrám, Radim; Vondráček, J.; Machala, M.; Topinka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 770, DEC 2014 (2014), s. 94-105 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/11/0142; GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Ah receptor * gene expression profile * A549 cells Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.680, year: 2014

  3. Nickel decreases cellular iron level and converts cytosolic aconitase to iron-regulatory protein 1 in A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haobin; Davidson, Todd; Singleton, Steven; Garrick, Michael D.; Costa, Max

    2005-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) compounds are well-established carcinogens and are known to initiate a hypoxic response in cells via the stabilization and transactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). This change may be the consequence of nickel's interference with the function of several Fe(II)-dependent enzymes. In this study, the effects of soluble nickel exposure on cellular iron homeostasis were investigated. Nickel treatment decreased both mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitase (c-aconitase) activity in A549 cells. Cytosolic aconitase was converted to iron-regulatory protein 1, a form critical for the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. The increased activity of iron-regulatory protein 1 after nickel exposure stabilized and increased transferrin receptor (Tfr) mRNA and antagonized the iron-induced ferritin light chain protein synthesis. The decrease of aconitase activity after nickel treatment reflected neither direct interference with aconitase function nor obstruction of [4Fe-4S] cluster reconstitution by nickel. Exposure of A549 cells to soluble nickel decreased total cellular iron by about 40%, a decrease that likely caused the observed decrease in aconitase activity and the increase of iron-regulatory protein 1 activity. Iron treatment reversed the effect of nickel on cytosolic aconitase and iron-regulatory protein 1. To assess the mechanism for the observed effects, human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells over expressing divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) were compared to A549 cells expressing only endogenous transporters for inhibition of iron uptake by nickel. The inhibition data suggest that nickel can enter via DMT1 and compete with iron for entry into the cell. This disturbance of cellular iron homeostasis by nickel may have a great impact on the ability of the cell to regulate a variety of cell functions, as well as create a state of hypoxia in cells under normal oxygen tension. These effects may be very important in how nickel exerts phenotypic

  4. Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells through an miRNA signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian, E-mail: zhangjian197011@yahoo.com [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhang, Tao [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Ti, Xinyu; Shi, Jieran; Wu, Changgui; Ren, Xinling [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Yin, Hong, E-mail: yinnhong@yahoo.com [The Medical Image Center, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells {yields} Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP cells through a miRNA signaling pathway {yields} Curcumin induces A549/DDP cell apoptosis by downregulating miR-186* {yields} miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin -- Abstract: Curcumin extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. has been shown to have inhibitory effects on cancers through its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Emerging evidence demonstrates that curcumin can overcome drug resistance to classical chemotherapies. Thus, the mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activities of curcumin require further study. In our study, we first demonstrated that curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Further studies showed that curcumin altered miRNA expression; in particular, significantly downregulated the expression of miR-186* in A549/DDP. In addition, transfection of cells with a miR-186* inhibitor promoted A549/DDP apoptosis, and overexpression of miR-186* significantly inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis in A549/DDP cells. These observations suggest that miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin.

  5. Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells through an miRNA signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Tao; Ti, Xinyu; Shi, Jieran; Wu, Changgui; Ren, Xinling; Yin, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells → Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP cells through a miRNA signaling pathway → Curcumin induces A549/DDP cell apoptosis by downregulating miR-186* → miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin -- Abstract: Curcumin extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. has been shown to have inhibitory effects on cancers through its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Emerging evidence demonstrates that curcumin can overcome drug resistance to classical chemotherapies. Thus, the mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activities of curcumin require further study. In our study, we first demonstrated that curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Further studies showed that curcumin altered miRNA expression; in particular, significantly downregulated the expression of miR-186* in A549/DDP. In addition, transfection of cells with a miR-186* inhibitor promoted A549/DDP apoptosis, and overexpression of miR-186* significantly inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis in A549/DDP cells. These observations suggest that miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin.

  6. Formoxanthone C, isolated from Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorum, reverses anticancer drug resistance by inducing both apoptosis and autophagy in human A549 lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Boonnak, Nawong; Kaowinn, Sirichat; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2018-02-15

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) cancer toward cancer chemotherapy is one of the obstacles in cancer therapy. Therefore, it is of interested to use formoxanthone C (1,3,5,6-tetraoxygenated xanthone; XanX), a natural compound, which showed cytotoxicity against MDR human A549 lung cancer (A549RT-eto). The treatment with XanX induced not only apoptosis- in A549RT-eto cells, but also autophagy-cell death. Inhibition of apoptosis did not block XanX-induced autophagy in A549RT-eto cells. Furthermore, suppression of autophagy by beclin-1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) did not interrupt XanX-induced apoptosis, indicating that XanX can separately induce apoptosis and autophagy. Of interest, XanX treatment reduced levels of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) protein overexpressed in A549RT-etocells. The co-treatment with XanX and HDAC4 siRNA accelerated both autophagy and apoptosis more than that by XanX treatment alone, suggesting survival of HDAC4 in A549RT-eto cells. XanX reverses etoposide resistance in A549RT-eto cells by induction of both autophagy and apoptosis, and confers cytotoxicity through down-regulation of HDAC4. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Studies on cytotoxic constituents from the leaves of Elaeagnus oldhamii Maxim. in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chi-Ren; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Wang, Ching-Ying; Yang, Chang-Syun; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2014-07-04

    Elaeagnus oldhamii Maxim. is a commonly used traditional herbal medicine. In Taiwan the leaves of E. oldhamii Maxim. are mainly used for treating lung disorders. Twenty five compounds were isolated from the leaves of E. oldhamii Maxim. in the present study. These included oleanolic acid (1), 3-O-(Z)-coumaroyl oleanolic acid (2), 3-O-(E)-coumaroyl oleanolic acid (3), 3-O-caffeoyl oleanolic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), 3-O-(Z)-coumaroyl ursolic acid (6), 3-O-(E)-coumaroyl ursolic acid (7), 3-O-caffeoyl ursolic acid (8), 3β, 13β-dihydroxyolean-11-en-28-oic acid (9), 3β, 13β-dihydroxyurs-11-en-28-oic acid (10), uvaol (11), betulin (12), lupeol (13), kaempferol (14), aromadendrin (15), epigallocatechin (16), cis-tiliroside (17), trans-tiliroside (18), isoamericanol B (19), trans-p-coumaric acid (20), protocatechuic acid (21), salicylic acid (22), trans-ferulic acid (23), syringic acid (24) and 3-O-methylgallic acid (25). Of the 25 isolated compounds, 21 compounds were identified for the first time in E. oldhamii Maxim. These included compounds 1, 4, 5 and 8-25. These 25 compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against the growth of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells by the MTT assay, and the corresponding structure-activity relationships were discussed. Among these 25 compounds, compound 6 displayed the best activity against the A549 cell line in vitro (CC50=8.56±0.57 μg/mL, at 48 h of MTT asssay). Furthermore, compound 2, 4, 8 and 18 exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against the A549 cell line with the CC50 values of less than 20 μg/mL at 48 h of MTT asssay. These five compounds 2, 4, 6, 8 and 18 exhibited better cytotoxic activity compared with cisplatin (positive control, CC50 value of 14.87±1.94 μg/mL, at 48 h of MTT asssay). The result suggested that the five compounds might be responsible for its clinical anti-lung cancer effect.

  8. Intracellular dynamics and fate of polystyrene nanoparticles in A549 Lung epithelial cells monitored by image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy and single particle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Sarah; Penjweini, Rozhin; Smisdom, Nick; Notelaers, Kristof; Nelissen, Inge; Hooyberghs, Jef; Ameloot, Marcel

    2015-10-01

    Novel insights in nanoparticle (NP) uptake routes of cells, their intracellular trafficking and subcellular targeting can be obtained through the investigation of their temporal and spatial behavior. In this work, we present the application of image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy (IC(C)S) and single particle tracking (SPT) to monitor the intracellular dynamics of polystyrene (PS) NPs in the human lung carcinoma A549 cell line. The ensemble kinetic behavior of NPs inside the cell was characterized by temporal and spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (TICS and STICS). Moreover, a more direct interpretation of the diffusion and flow detected in the NP motion was obtained by SPT by monitoring individual NPs. Both techniques demonstrate that the PS NP transport in A549 cells is mainly dependent on microtubule-assisted transport. By applying spatiotemporal image cross-correlation spectroscopy (STICCS), the correlated motions of NPs with the early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes are identified. PS NPs were equally distributed among the endolysosomal compartment during the time interval of the experiments. The cotransport of the NPs with the lysosomes is significantly larger compared to the other cell organelles. In the present study we show that the complementarity of ICS-based techniques and SPT enables a consistent elaborate model of the complex behavior of NPs inside biological systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictive role of computer simulation in assessing signaling pathways of crizotinib-treated A549 lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Pu; Mou, Fei-Fei; Wang, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Crizotinib has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC. However, understanding of mechanisms of action is still limited. In our studies, we confirmed crizotinib-induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells. In order to assess mechanisms, small molecular docking technology was used as a preliminary simulation of signaling pathways. Interesting, our results of experiments were consistent with the results of computer simulation. This indicates that small molecular docking technology should find wide use for its reliability and convenience.

  10. Copper doping enhanced the oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, J; Siddiqui, M A; Akhtar, M J; Alhadlaq, H A; Alshamsan, A; Khan, S T; Wahab, R; Al-Khedhairy, A A; Al-Salim, A; Musarrat, J; Saquib, Q; Fareed, M; Ahamed, M

    2018-05-01

    Physicochemical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) can be tuned by doping with metals or nonmetals. Copper (Cu) doping improved the photocatalytic behavior of TiO 2 NPs that can be applied in various fields such as environmental remediation and nanomedicine. However, interaction of Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs with human cells is scarce. This study was designed to explore the role of Cu doping in cytotoxic response of TiO 2 NPs in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. Characterization data demonstrated the presence of both TiO 2 and Cu in Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs with high-quality lattice fringes without any distortion. The size of Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs (24 nm) was lower than pure TiO 2 NPs (30 nm). Biological results showed that both pure and Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Low mitochondrial membrane potential and higher caspase-3 enzyme (apoptotic markers) activity were also observed in A549 cells exposed to pure and Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs. We further observed that cytotoxicity caused by Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs was higher than pure TiO 2 NPs. Moreover, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine effectively prevented the reactive oxygen species generation, glutathione depletion, and cell viability reduction caused by Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs. This is the first report showing that Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in A549 cells. This study warranted further research to explore the role of Cu doping in toxicity mechanisms of TiO 2 NPs.

  11. Gleditsia Saponin C Induces A549 Cell Apoptosis via Caspase-Dependent Cascade and Suppresses Tumor Growth on Xenografts Tumor Animal Model

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    Ye Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are natural compounds and possess the most promising anti-cancer function. Here, a saponin gleditsia saponin C (GSC, extracted from gleditsiae fructus abnormalis, could induce apoptosis of lung tumor cell line A549 via caspase dependent cascade and this effect could be prevented by the caspase inhibitors. In addition, GSC induced cell death companied with an increase ratio of Bax:Bcl-2 and inhibition of ERK and Akt signaling pathways. Meanwhile, GSC suppressed TNFα inducing NF-κB activation and increased the susceptibility of lung cancer cell to TNFα induced apoptosis. Furthermore, on mouse xenograft model, GSC significantly suppressed tumor growth and induced cancer cell apoptosis, which validated the anti-tumor effect of GSC. Based on these results, GSC might be a promising drug candidate of anti-lung cancer for its potential clinical applications.

  12. TrkB is highly expressed in NSCLC and mediates BDNF-induced the activation of Pyk2 signaling and the invasion of A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Siyang; Guo, Dawei; Luo, Wenting; Zhang, Qingfu; Zhang, Ying; Li, Chunyan; Lu, Yao; Cui, Zeshi; Qiu, Xueshan

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant regulation in the invasion of cancer cells is closely associated with their metastatic potentials. TrkB functions as a receptor tyrosine kinase and is considered to facilitate tumor metastasis. Pyk2 is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase and integrates signals in cell invasion. However, little is known about the expression of TrkB in NSCLC and whether Pyk2 is involved in TrkB-mediated invasion of A549 cells. The expression of TrkB was investigated in NSCLC by immunohistochemical staining. Both HBE and A549 cells were treated with BDNF. The expression of TrkB, Pyk2 and ERK phosphorylations were assessed by western blot. Besides, A549 cells were transfected with TrkB-siRNA or Pyk2-siRNA, or treated with ERK inhibitor where indicated. Transwell assay was performed to evaluate cell invasion. 40 cases (66.7%) of NSCLC were found higher expression of TrkB and patients with more TrkB expression had significant metastatic lymph nodes (p = 0.028). BDNF facilitated the invasion of A549 cells and the activations of Pyk2 in Tyr402 and ERK. However, the effects of BDNF were not observed in HBE cells with lower expression of TrkB. In addition, the increased Pyk2 and ERK activities induced by BDNF were significantly inhibited by blocking TrkB expression, so was the invasion of A549 cells. Knockdown studies revealed the essential role of Pyk2 for BDNF-induced cell invasion, since the invasion of A549 cells was abolished by Pyk2-siRNA. The application of ERK inhibitor also showed the suppressed ERK phosphorylation and cell invasion. These data indicated that higher expression of TrkB in NSCLC was closely correlated with lymph node metastasis, and BDNF probably via TrkB/Pyk2/ERK promoted the invasion of A549 cells

  13. Acrolein activates cell survival and apoptotic death responses involving the endoplasmic reticulum in A549 lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanel, André; Pallepati, Pragathi; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Morin, Patrick; Averill-Bates, Diana A

    2014-05-01

    Acrolein, a highly reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, is a product of endogenous lipid peroxidation. It is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that is generated mainly by smoke, overheated cooking oil and vehicle exhaust. Acrolein damages cellular proteins, which could lead to accumulation of aberrantly-folded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This study determines the mechanisms involved in acrolein-induced apoptosis mediated by the ER and possible links with the ER stress response in human A549 lung cells. The exposure of cells to acrolein (15-50μM) for shorter times of 15 to 30min activated several ER stress markers. These included the ER chaperone protein BiP and the three ER sensors: (i) the survival/rescue molecules protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) were phosphorylated; (ii) cleavage of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) occurred, and (iii) inositol-requiring protein-1 alpha (IRE1α) was phosphorylated. Acrolein (25-50μM) caused apoptotic cell death mediated by the ER after 2h, which was characterised by the induction of CHOP and activation of ER proteases calpain and caspase-4. Calpain and caspase-7 were the initiating factors for caspase-4 activation in acrolein-induced apoptosis. These results increase our knowledge about cellular responses to acrolein in lung cells, which have implications for human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidative Stress Facilitates IFN-γ-Induced Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in A549 Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chien, Shun-Yi; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Tsung-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression. STAT1-mediated IFN regulatory factor-1 activation was essential for upregulating ROS production. By genetically silencing p47phox, IFN-γ-induced ROS and mimic ETosis were significantly attenuated. This mechanistic study indicated that ROS may mediate DNA damage followed by histone H3 citrullination. Furthermore, ROS promoted IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in cooperation with autophagy. These findings further demonstrate that ROS regulates IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy.

  15. Development of drug-loaded chitosan hollow nanoparticles for delivery of paclitaxel to human lung cancer A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie; Liu, Ying; Wu, Chao; Qiu, Yang; Xu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Huiling; Bai, Andi; Liu, Xuan

    2017-08-01

    In this study, biodegradable chitosan hollow nanospheres (CHN) were fabricated using polystyrene nanospheres (PS) as templates. CHN were applied to increase the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. The lung cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX), which is used as a model drug, was loaded into CHN by the adsorption equilibrium method. The drug-loaded sample (PTX-CHN) offered sustained PTX release and good bioavailability. The state characterization of PTX by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the PTX absorbed into CHN existed in an amorphous state. An in vitro toxicity experiment indicated that CHN were nontoxic as carriers of poorly water-soluble drugs. The PTX-CHN produced a marked inhibition of lung cancer A549 cells proliferation and encouraged apoptosis. A cell uptake experiment indicated that PTX-CHN was successfully taken up by lung cancer A549 cells. Furthermore, a degradation experiment revealed that CHN were readily biodegradable. These findings state clearly that CHN can be regarded as promising biomaterials for lung cancer treatment.

  16. Chrysophanol-induced cell death (necrosis) in human lung cancer A549 cells is mediated through increasing reactive oxygen species and decreasing the level of mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Chien-Hang; Yu, Chun-Shu; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Huang, Hui-Ying; Chen, Po-Yuan; Wu, Shin-Hwar; Ip, Siu-Wan; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2014-05-01

    Chrysophanol (1,8-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone) is one of the anthraquinone compounds, and it has been shown to induce cell death in different types of cancer cells. The effects of chrysophanol on human lung cancer cell death have not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine chrysophanol-induced cytotoxic effects and also to investigate such influences that involved apoptosis or necrosis in A549 human lung cancer cells in vitro. Our results indicated that chrysophanol decreased the viable A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Chrysophanol also promoted the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) and decreased the levels of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm ) and adenosine triphosphate in A549 cells. Furthermore, chrysophanol triggered DNA damage by using Comet assay and DAPI staining. Importantly, chrysophanol only stimulated the cytocheome c release, but it did not activate other apoptosis-associated protein levels including caspase-3, caspase-8, Apaf-1, and AIF. In conclusion, human lung cancer A549 cells treated with chrysophanol exhibited a cellular pattern associated with necrotic cell death and not apoptosis in vitro. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 740-749, 2014. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  17. Toxicity of engineered nanomaterials and their transformation products following wastewater treatment on A549 human lung epithelial cells

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    Yanjun Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we characterize the toxicity of environmentally-relevant forms of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs, which can transform during wastewater treatment and persist in aqueous effluents and biosolids. In an aerosol exposure scenario, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of effluents and biosolids from lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs to A549 human lung epithelial cells were examined. The SBRs were dosed with nanoAg, nano zero-valent iron (NZVI, nanoTiO2 and nanoCeO2 at sequentially increasing concentrations from 0.1 to 20 mg/L. Toxicities were compared to outputs from SBRs dosed with ionic/bulk analogs, undosed SBRs, and pristine ENMs. Pristine nanoAg and NZVI showed significant cytotoxicity to A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner from 1 to 67 μg/mL, while nanoTiO2 and nanoCeO2 only exerted cytotoxicity at 67 μg/mL. Only nanoAg induced a genotoxic response, at 9, 33 and 53 μg/mL. However, no significant cytotoxic or genotoxic effects of the SBR effluents or biosolids containing nanomaterials were observed.

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Salinomycin on Cell Survival, Colony Growth, Migration, and Invasion of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 and LNM35: Involvement of NAG-1.

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    Kholoud Arafat

    Full Text Available A major challenge for oncologists and pharmacologists is to develop more potent and less toxic drugs that will decrease the tumor growth and improve the survival of lung cancer patients. Salinomycin is a polyether antibiotic used to kill gram-positive bacteria including mycobacteria, protozoans such as plasmodium falciparum, and the parasites responsible for the poultry disease coccidiosis. This old agent is now a serious anti-cancer drug candidate that selectively inhibits the growth of cancer stem cells. We investigated the impact of salinomycin on survival, colony growth, migration and invasion of the differentiated human non-small cell lung cancer lines LNM35 and A549. Salinomycin caused concentration- and time-dependent reduction in viability of LNM35 and A549 cells through a caspase 3/7-associated cell death pathway. Similarly, salinomycin (2.5-5 µM for 7 days significantly decreased the growth of LNM35 and A549 colonies in soft agar. Metastasis is the main cause of death related to lung cancer. In this context, salinomycin induced a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration and invasion. We also demonstrated for the first time that salinomycin induced a marked increase in the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein NAG-1 leading to the inhibition of lung cancer cell invasion but not cell survival. These findings identify salinomycin as a promising novel therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

  19. LW6, a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 inhibitor, selectively induces apoptosis in hypoxic cells through depolarization of mitochondria in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mariko; Hirose, Katsumi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Aoki, Masahiko; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hatayama, Yoshiomi; Akimoto, Hiroyoshi; Narita, Yuichiro; Takai, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-01

    Hypoxia‑inducible factor 1 (HIF‑1) activates the transcription of genes that act upon the adaptation of cancer cells to hypoxia. LW6, an HIF‑1 inhibitor, was hypothesized to improve resistance to cancer therapy in hypoxic tumors by inhibiting the accumulation of HIF‑1α. A clear anti‑tumor effect under low oxygen conditions would indicate that LW6 may be an improved treatment strategy for cancer in hypoxia. In the present study, the HIF‑1 inhibition potential of LW6 on the growth and apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells in association with oxygen availability was evaluated. LW6 was observed to inhibit the expression of HIF‑1α induced by hypoxia in A549 cells at 20 mM, independently of the von Hippel‑Lindau protein. In addition, at this concentration, LW6 induced hypoxia‑selective apoptosis together with a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential. The intracellular reactive oxygen species levels increased in LW6‑treated hypoxic A549 cells and LW6 induced a hypoxia‑selective increase of mitochondrial O2•‑. In conclusion, LW6 inhibited the growth of hypoxic A549 cells by affecting the mitochondria. The inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is suggested as a potentially effective strategy to target apoptosis in cancer cells.

  20. ROS and NF-κB are involved in upregulation of IL-8 in A549 cells exposed to multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Shefang; Wu Yihui; Hou Zhenqing; Zhang Qiqing

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have potential applications in biosensors, tissue engineering, and biomedical devices because of their unique physico-chemical, electronic and mechanical properties. However, there is limited literature data available concerning the biological properties and toxicity of CNTs. This study aimed to assess the toxicity exhibited by multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) and to elucidate possible molecular mechanisms underlying the biological effects of MWCNTs in A549 cells. Exposing A549 cells to MWCNTs led to cell death, changes in cell size and complexity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. Treatment of A549 cells with antioxidants prior to adding MWCNTs decreased ROS production and abrogated expression of IL-8 mRNA. Pretreatment of A549 cells with NF-κB inhibitors suppressed MWCNTs-induced IL-8 mRNA expression. These results indicate that MWCNTs are able to induce expression of IL-8 in A549 cells, at least in part, mediated by oxidative stress and NF-κB activation.

  1. Responses of genes involved in cell cycle control to diverse DNA damaging chemicals in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

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    Gooderham Nigel J

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many anticancer agents and carcinogens are DNA damaging chemicals and exposure to such chemicals results in the deregulation of cell cycle progression. The molecular mechanisms of DNA damage-induced cell cycle alteration are not well understood. We have studied the effects of etoposide (an anticancer agent, cryptolepine (CLP, a cytotoxic alkaloid, benzo [a]pyrene (BaP, a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP, a cooked-meat derived carcinogen on the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes to understand the molecular mechanisms of the cell cycle disturbance. Results A549 cells were treated with DMSO or chemicals for up to 72 h and periodically sampled for cell cycle analysis, mRNA and protein expression. DMSO treated cells showed a dominant G1 peak in cell cycle at all times examined. Etoposide and CLP both induced G2/M phase arrest yet the former altered the expression of genes functioning at multiple phases, whilst the latter was more effective in inhibiting the expression of genes in G2-M transition. Both etoposide and CLP induced an accumulation of p53 protein and upregulation of p53 transcriptional target genes. Neither BaP nor PhIP had substantial phase-specific cell cycle effect, however, they induced distinctive changes in gene expression. BaP upregulated the expression of CYP1B1 at 6–24 h and downregulated many cell cycle regulatory genes at 48–72 h. By contrast, PhIP increased the expression of many cell cycle regulatory genes. Changes in the expression of key mRNAs were confirmed at protein level. Conclusion Our experiments show that DNA damaging agents with different mechanisms of action induced distinctive changes in the expression pattern of a panel of cell cycle regulatory genes. We suggest that examining the genomic response to chemical exposure provides an exceptional opportunity to understand the molecular mechanism involved in cellular

  2. 4-methoxychalcone enhances cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity by inhibiting the Nrf2/ARE-mediated defense mechanism in A549 lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Juhee; Lee, Sung Ho; Cho, Sera; Lee, Ik-Soo; Kang, Bok Yun; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator for the protection of cells against oxidative and xenobiotic stresses. Recent studies have demonstrated that high constitutive expression of Nrf2 is observed in many types of cancer cells showing resistance to anti-cancer drugs, suggesting that the suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 could be an attractive therapeutic strategy to overcome cancer drug resistance. In the present study, we aimed to find small molecule compounds that enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin induced cytotoxicity by suppressing Nrf2-mediated defense mechanism. A549 lung cancer cells were shown to be more resistant to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin than HEK293 cells, with higher Nrf2 signaling activity; constitutively high amounts of Nrf2-downstream target proteins were observed in A549 cells. Among the three chalcone derivatives 4-methoxy-chalcone (4-MC), hesperidin methylchalcone, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, 4-MC was found to suppress transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in A549 cells but to activate it in HEK293 cells. 4-MC was also shown to down-regulate expression of Nrf2 and the downstream phase II detoxifying enzyme NQO1 in A549 cells. The PI3K/Akt pathway was found to be involved in the 4-MC-induced inhibition of Nrf2/ARE activity in A549 cells. This inhibition of Nrf2 signaling results in the accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species and exacerbation of cytotoxicity in cisplatin-treated A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the small molecule compound 4-MC could be used to enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to the therapeutic effect of cisplatin through the regulation of Nrf2/ARE signaling.

  3. The total flavonoids of Clerodendrum bungei suppress A549 cells proliferation, migration, and invasion by impacting Wnt/β-Catenin signaling

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    Na Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the total flavonoids of Clerodendrum bungei (TFCB on the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of A549 lung cancer cells through the Wnt signaling pathway. Materials and Methods: A549 cells were transfected with a β-catenin overexpression plasmid and the empty vector pcDNA3.1. The A549 cells were divided into six groups: normal A549 cell group, normal A549 cells with TFCB group, vector control group, vector with TFCB group, β-catenin overexpression group, and β-catenin with TFCB group. We used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay to detect cell proliferation, a scratch test was used to observe cell migration, and a transwell experiment was employed to evaluate cell invasion. Proteins related to the Wnt pathway were detected with Western blot analysis, including β-catenin, GSK-3 β, P-GSK-3 β, c-Myc, and CyclinD1. Results: The proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of A549 cells were significantly enhanced after being transfected with the β-catenin overexpression plasmid (P < 0.05 or 0.01, accompanied by increased expression of β-catenin, C-Myc, CyclinD1 and reduced expression of Gsk-3 β and P-GSK-3 β. Treatment of cells with TFCB resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion; downregulated expression of β-catenin, C-Myc, and CyclinD1; and upregulated expression of GSK-3 β and P-GSK-3 β, especially in the β-catenin overexpression group. Conclusion: TFCB has the potential to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by prohibiting the overexpression of β-catenin and regulating its downstream factors.

  4. IFN-gamma Impairs Release of IL-8 by IL-1beta-stimulated A549 Lung Carcinoma Cells

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    Pfeilschifter Josef

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production of interferon (IFN-γ is key to efficient anti-tumor immunity. The present study was set out to investigate effects of IFNγ on the release of the potent pro-angiogenic mediator IL-8 by human A549 lung carcinoma cells. Methods A549 cells were cultured and stimulated with interleukin (IL-1β alone or in combination with IFNγ. IL-8 production by these cells was analyzed with enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA. mRNA-expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and RNase protection assay (RPA, respectively. Expression of inhibitor-κ Bα, cellular IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Results Here we demonstrate that IFNγ efficiently reduced IL-8 secretion under the influence of IL-1β. Surprisingly, real-time PCR analysis and RPA revealed that the inhibitory effect of IFNγ on IL-8 was not associated with significant changes in mRNA levels. These observations concurred with lack of a modulatory activity of IFNγ on IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation as assessed by cellular IκB levels. Moreover, analysis of intracellular IL-8 suggests that IFNγ modulated IL-8 secretion by action on the posttranslational level. In contrast to IL-8, IL-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and release of IL-6 were not affected by IFNγ indicating that modulation of IL-1β action by this cytokine displays specificity. Conclusion Data presented herein agree with an angiostatic role of IFNγ as seen in rodent models of solid tumors and suggest that increasing T helper type 1 (Th1-like functions in lung cancer patients e.g. by local delivery of IFNγ may mediate therapeutic benefit via mechanisms that potentially include modulation of pro-angiogenic IL-8.

  5. Heat-modified citrus pectin induces apoptosis-like cell death and autophagy in HepG2 and A549 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclere, Lionel; Fransolet, Maude; Cote, Francois; Cambier, Pierre; Arnould, Thierry; Van Cutsem, Pierre; Michiels, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and finding new treatments remains a major challenge. Previous studies showed that modified forms of pectin, a complex polysaccharide present in the primary plant cell wall, possess anticancer properties. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of modified pectin and the pathways involved are unclear. Here, we show that citrus pectin modified by heat treatment induced cell death in HepG2 and A549 cells. The induced cell death differs from classical apoptosis because no DNA cleavage was observed. In addition, Z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, did not influence the observed cell death in HepG2 cells but appeared to be partly protective in A549 cells, indicating that heat-modified citrus pectin might induce caspase-independent cell death. An increase in the abundance of the phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated Light Chain 3 (LC3) protein and a decrease in p62 protein abundance were observed in both cell types when incubated in the presence of heat-modified citrus pectin. These results indicate the activation of autophagy. To our knowledge, this is the first time that autophagy has been revealed in cells incubated in the presence of a modified form of pectin. This autophagy activation appears to be protective, at least for A549 cells, because its inhibition with 3-methyladenine increased the observed modified pectin-induced cytotoxicity. This study confirms the potential of modified pectin to improve chemotherapeutic cancer treatments.

  6. Heat-modified citrus pectin induces apoptosis-like cell death and autophagy in HepG2 and A549 cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Leclere

    Full Text Available Cancer is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and finding new treatments remains a major challenge. Previous studies showed that modified forms of pectin, a complex polysaccharide present in the primary plant cell wall, possess anticancer properties. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of modified pectin and the pathways involved are unclear. Here, we show that citrus pectin modified by heat treatment induced cell death in HepG2 and A549 cells. The induced cell death differs from classical apoptosis because no DNA cleavage was observed. In addition, Z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, did not influence the observed cell death in HepG2 cells but appeared to be partly protective in A549 cells, indicating that heat-modified citrus pectin might induce caspase-independent cell death. An increase in the abundance of the phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated Light Chain 3 (LC3 protein and a decrease in p62 protein abundance were observed in both cell types when incubated in the presence of heat-modified citrus pectin. These results indicate the activation of autophagy. To our knowledge, this is the first time that autophagy has been revealed in cells incubated in the presence of a modified form of pectin. This autophagy activation appears to be protective, at least for A549 cells, because its inhibition with 3-methyladenine increased the observed modified pectin-induced cytotoxicity. This study confirms the potential of modified pectin to improve chemotherapeutic cancer treatments.

  7. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production on diallyl disulfide (DADS) induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human A549 lung carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xinjiang; Kassie, Fekadu; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), an oil soluble constituent of garlic (Allium sativum), has been reported to cause antimutagentic and anticarcinogenic effects in vitro and in vivo by modulating phases I and II enzyme activities. In recent years, several studies suggested that the chemopreventive effects of DADS can also be attributed to induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. In the present study, we reported that DADS-induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M and apoptosis in human A549 lung cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Additionally, a significant increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced in A549 cells less than 0.5 h after DADS treatment, indicating that ROS may be an early event in DADS-modulated apoptosis. Treatment of A549 cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) completely abrogated DADS-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The result indicated that oxidative stress modulates cell proliferation and cell death induced by DADS

  8. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production on diallyl disulfide (DADS) induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human A549 lung carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xinjiang [Institute of Indoor and Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Aulweg 123, D-35385 Giessen (Germany); Kassie, Fekadu [Institute of Indoor and Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Aulweg 123, D-35385 Giessen (Germany); Mersch-Sundermann, Volker [Institute of Indoor and Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Aulweg 123, D-35385 Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: Volker.mersch-sundermann@uniklinikum-giessen.de

    2005-11-11

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), an oil soluble constituent of garlic (Allium sativum), has been reported to cause antimutagentic and anticarcinogenic effects in vitro and in vivo by modulating phases I and II enzyme activities. In recent years, several studies suggested that the chemopreventive effects of DADS can also be attributed to induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. In the present study, we reported that DADS-induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M and apoptosis in human A549 lung cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Additionally, a significant increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced in A549 cells less than 0.5 h after DADS treatment, indicating that ROS may be an early event in DADS-modulated apoptosis. Treatment of A549 cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) completely abrogated DADS-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The result indicated that oxidative stress modulates cell proliferation and cell death induced by DADS.

  9. SU-F-T-677: Synergistic Effect(s) of Clotrimazole On Radiation Cell Survival of A549 Lung Cancer Cells in Glucose Vs. Galactose Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, G; Tambasco, M; Garakani, M [San Diego State University, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In order to determine the synergistic effect of clotrimazole on radiosensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells, and the effect of oxidative pathways on modulating radiosensitivity, we studied how these cells survived under varying amounts of radiation and clotrimazole as well ass when glucose was switched for galactose media. Methods: The glucose media was used to determine the presence of any synergistic effect of clotrimazole on radiation using values of radiation and clotrimazole concentrations, varying from 0 – 8 Gy and 0 – 20 µM, respectively. As a galactose diet is known to activate oxidative pathways, which do not rely on hexokinase II (HK2), all trials were repeated using galactose media to determine the extent that HK2 unbinding from the mitochondrial membrane plays a role in modulating the observed radiosensitivity. An apoptosis vs. necrosis assay was implemented to find out the modality by which cell death occurred. An intracellular lactate assay was performed to exhibit the extent of anaerobic glycolysis. Results: After running the primary experiments, it was found that in glucose media, the cancer cells showed higher cell kill when clotrimazole was added to the media, followed by the cells being irradiated. Conclusion: Given the preliminary results it is validated that under higher concentrations of clotrimazole, in glucose media, A549 lung cancer cells exhibit a lower amount of survival. While all results have not yet been gathered. We anticipate that in galactose media the A549 cells will exhibit this effect to a much smaller degree, if at all.

  10. Nitric oxide generated by ionizing radiation and EGF is implicated in EGF receptor phosphorylation in A549 lung carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In Chul; Lee, Hyung Chahn; Rhee, Chang Hun; Hong, Seok Il

    2004-01-01

    Although it has been demonstrated that ionizing radiation (IR) control various cell functions in a different cell types, the mechanisms of its action via NO are not well understood. NO may potentially affect every type of mammalian cells, owing to its ubiquitous production and participate in the control of cell proliferation in a great variety of cell types. The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is a transmembrane glycoprotein of Mr 170,000. When EGF binds to its receptor, the receptor is dimerized and autophosphorylated at the carboxyl-terminal tyrosine 992, 1608, 1086, 1148 and 1173. This phosphorylated receptor initiates a series of signal tranduction events through interacting proteins of SH2 family including Shc, Grb2 and Sos, which in turn trigger ativation of MAPK cascades. Although the number of signaling events mediated by IR-induced NO is growing, it is still unclear how NO activate cellular signaling events. Thus, we examined the effect of NO on cellular phosphorylation and found that NO was produced by ionizing radiation in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells and enhances the unique tyrosine phosphorylation on EGF receptor

  11. Nanostructured delivery system for zinc phthalocyanine: preparation, characterization, and phototoxicity study against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana da Volta Soares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mariana da Volta Soares1, Mainara Rangel Oliveira1, Elisabete Pereira dos Santos1, Lycia de Brito Gitirana2, Gleyce Moreno Barbosa3, Carla Holandino Quaresma3, Eduardo Ricci-Júnior11Department of Medicines, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento Galênico (LADEG, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Laboratory of Animal and Comparative Histology, Glycobiology Research Program, Institute of Biomedical Science, 3Department of Medicines, Laboratório Multidisciplinar de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilAbstract: In this study, zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc was loaded onto poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL nanoparticles (NPs using a solvent emulsification–evaporation method. The process yield and encapsulation efficiency were 74.2% ± 1.2% and 67.1% ± 0.9%, respectively. The NPs had a mean diameter of 187.4 ± 2.1 nm, narrow distribution size with a polydispersity index of 0.096 ± 0.004, zeta potential of -4.85 ± 0.21 mV, and spherical shape. ZnPc has sustained release, following Higuchi’s kinetics. The photobiological activity of the ZnPc-loaded NPs was evaluated on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Cells were incubated with free ZnPc or ZnPc-loaded NPs for 4 h and then washed with phosphate-buffered saline. Culture medium was added to the wells containing the cells. Finally, the cells were exposed to red light (660 nm with a light dose of 100 J/cm2. The cellular viability was determined after 24 h of incubation. ZnPc-loaded NPs and free photosensitizer eliminated about 95.9% ± 1.8% and 28.7% ± 2.2% of A549 cells, respectively. The phototoxicity was time dependent up to 4 h and concentration dependent at 0–5 µg ZnPc. The cells viability decreased with the increase of the light dose in the range of 10–100 J/cm2. Intense lysis was observed in the cells incubated with the ZnPc-loaded NPs and irradiated with red light. ZnPc-loaded PCL NPs are the release systems that promise photodynamic

  12. Effects of exogenous IL-37 on the biological characteristics of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and the chemotaxis of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Zhou, Bi-Yun; Wu, Guo-Cai; Liao, De-Quan; Li, Jing; Liang, Si-Si; Wu, Xian-Jin; Xu, Jun-Fa; Chen, Yong-Hua; Di, Xiao-Qing; Lin, Qiong-Yan

    2018-02-14

    This study aims to investigate the effects of exogenous interleukin (IL)-37 on the biological characteristics of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and the chemotaxis of regulatory T (Treg) cells. After isolating the CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells from the peripheral blood, flow cytometry was used to detect the purity of the Treg cells. A549 cells were divided into blank (no transfection), empty plasmid (transfection with pIRES2-EGFP empty plasmid) or IL-37 group (transfection with pIRES2-EGFP-IL-37 plasmid). RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression of IL-37 and ELISA to determine IL-37 and MMP-9 expressions. Western blotting was applied to detect the protein expressions of PCNA, Ki-67, Cyclin D1, CDK4, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. MTT assay, flow cytometry, scratch test and transwell assay were performed to detect cell proliferation, cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Effect of exogenous IL-37 on the chemotaxis of Treg cells was measured through transwell assay. Xenograft models in nude mice were eastablished to detect the impact of IL-37 on A549 cells. The IL-37 group had a higher IL-37 expression, cell apoptosis in the early stage and percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase than the blank and empty plasmid groups. The IL-37 group had a lower MMP-9 expression, optical density (OD), percentage of cells in the S and G2/M phases, migration, invasion and chemotaxis of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg cells. The xenograft volume and weight of nude mice in the IL-37 group were lower than those in the blank and empty plasmid groups. Compared with the blank and empty plasmid groups, the IL-37 group had significantly reduced expression of PCNA, Ki-67, Cyclin D1 and CDK4 but elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. Therefore, exogenous IL-37 inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells as well as the chemotaxis of Treg cells while promoting the apoptosis of A549 cells.

  13. An imaging flow cytometry method to assess ricin trafficking in A549 human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Dominic; Chong, Damien; Walker, Nicola; Green, A Christopher

    2018-02-01

    The endocytosis and trafficking of ricin in mammalian cells is an important area of research for those producing ricin anti-toxins and other ricin therapeutics. Ricin trafficking is usually observed by fluorescence microscopy techniques. This gives good resolution and leads to a detailed understanding of the internal movement of ricin within cells. However, microscopy techniques are often hampered by complex analysis and quantification techniques, and the inability to look at ricin trafficking in large populations of cells. In these studies we have directly labelled ricin and assessed if its trafficking can be observed using Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC) both to the cytoplasmic region of cells and specifically to the Golgi apparatus. Using IDEAS® data analysis software the specific fluorescence location of the ricin within the cells was analysed. Then, using cytoplasmic masking techniques to quantify the number of cells with endocytosed cytoplasmic ricin or cells with Golgi-associated ricin, kinetic endocytosis curves were generated. Here we present, to the authors' knowledge, the first example of using imaging flow cytometry for evaluating the subcellular transport of protein cargo, using the trafficking of ricin toxin in lung cells as a model. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel small molecule, Rosline, inhibits growth and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human lung cancer cells A549 through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yang; Jin, Wenling; Pan, Hui; Li, Haizhou; Zhao, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Chemical screening using synthetic small molecule libraries has provided a huge amount of novel active molecules. It generates lead compound for drug development and brings focus on molecules for mechanistic investigations on many otherwise intangible biological processes. In this study, using non-small cell lung cancer cell A549 to screen against a structurally novel and diverse synthetic small molecule library of 2,400 compounds, we identified a molecule named rosline that has strong anti-proliferation activity on A549 cells with a 50% cell growth inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of 2.87 ± 0.39 µM. We showed that rosline treatment increased the number of Annexin V-positive staining cell, as well as G2/M arrest in their cell cycle progression. Further, we have demonstrated that rosline induces a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δφm ) and an increase of caspases 3/7 and 9 activities in A549 cells, although having no effect on the activity of caspase 8. Moreover, we found that rosline could induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibit the phosphorylation of signaling molecule Akt in A549 cells. Alternatively, an antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated rosline's effects on the mitochondrial membrane potential, caspases 3/7 and 9 activities, cell viabilities and the phosphorylation of Akt. Our results demonstrated that ROS played an important role in the apoptosis of A549 cells induced by rosline. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  15. Dioscorin pre-treatment protects A549 human airway epithelial cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Chu, Jao-Jia; Chou, Ming-Chih; Chen, Ya-Wen

    2013-10-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is a highly reactive oxygen species involved in lung and bronchial epithelium injury. Increased H(2)O(2) levels have been reported in expired breath condensates of patients with inflammatory airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Protecting airway epithelial cells from oxidative stress is an important task in the prevention and management of airway diseases. Previous studies demonstrate that yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne) has antioxidant and anti-trypsin activities. This study evaluated the validity of dioscorin in vitro. The results showed that dioscorin attenuated the alteration of H(2)O(2) on G2/M cell cycle arrest. This might be associated with the activation of IκB and subsequent inactivation of NF-κB. Furthermore, dioscorin suppressed IL-8 secretion and reduced changes of adhesion molecule expressions in H(2)O(2)-injured A549 cells. These results help in understanding the potential of traditional Chinese herbal medicine as treatment for airway inflammatory diseases.

  16. Cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of Gold nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucchianico, Sebastiano Di; Migliore, Lucia; Marsili, Paolo; Vergari, Chiara; Giammanco, Francesco; Giorgetti, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have attracted enormous interest in biomedical applications, based on their unique optical properties. However, their toxicity on human tissues is still an open issue. Beyond the potential intrinsic toxicity of nanostructured gold, a non-negligible contribution of stabilizers or reaction by-products related to current wet chemical synthesis procedures can be expected. Aimed at isolating gold contribution from that of any other contaminant, we produced colloidal suspensions of Gold nanoparticles having average size <10 nm in deionized water or acetone by pulsed laser ablation, that permits preparation of uncoated and highly stable Gold nanoparticles in pure solvents. Subsequently, we investigated the role of surface chemistry, size, and dispersivity of synthesized Gold nanoparticles in exerting toxicity in a cell model system of deep respiratory tract, representing the main route of exposure to NPs, namely adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells. Gold nanoparticles prepared in water showed no particular signs of cytotoxicity, cytostasis, and/or genotoxicity as assessed by MTT colorimetric viability test and Cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay up to concentrations of the order of 5 μg/mL. In contrast, Gold nanoparticles produced in pure acetone and then transferred into deionized water showed impaired cell viability, apoptosis responses, micronuclei, and dicentric chromosomes induction as well as nuclear budding, as a function of the amount of surface contaminants like amorphous carbon and enolate ions

  17. Cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of Gold nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucchianico, Sebastiano Di [Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine (Sweden); Migliore, Lucia [University of Pisa, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Division of Medical Genetics (Italy); Marsili, Paolo [Institute of Complex Systems (ISC-CNR) (Italy); Vergari, Chiara [Plasma Diagnostics and Technologies s.r.l. (Italy); Giammanco, Francesco [University of Pisa, Department of Physics “E. Fermi” (Italy); Giorgetti, Emilia, E-mail: emilia.giorgetti@fi.isc.cnr.it [Institute of Complex Systems (ISC-CNR) (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Gold nanoparticles have attracted enormous interest in biomedical applications, based on their unique optical properties. However, their toxicity on human tissues is still an open issue. Beyond the potential intrinsic toxicity of nanostructured gold, a non-negligible contribution of stabilizers or reaction by-products related to current wet chemical synthesis procedures can be expected. Aimed at isolating gold contribution from that of any other contaminant, we produced colloidal suspensions of Gold nanoparticles having average size <10 nm in deionized water or acetone by pulsed laser ablation, that permits preparation of uncoated and highly stable Gold nanoparticles in pure solvents. Subsequently, we investigated the role of surface chemistry, size, and dispersivity of synthesized Gold nanoparticles in exerting toxicity in a cell model system of deep respiratory tract, representing the main route of exposure to NPs, namely adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells. Gold nanoparticles prepared in water showed no particular signs of cytotoxicity, cytostasis, and/or genotoxicity as assessed by MTT colorimetric viability test and Cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay up to concentrations of the order of 5 μg/mL. In contrast, Gold nanoparticles produced in pure acetone and then transferred into deionized water showed impaired cell viability, apoptosis responses, micronuclei, and dicentric chromosomes induction as well as nuclear budding, as a function of the amount of surface contaminants like amorphous carbon and enolate ions.

  18. Irradiation and various cytotoxic drugs enhance tyrosine phosphorylation and β1-integrin clustering in human A549 lung cancer cells in a substratum-dependent manner in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, N.; Beinke, C.; Beuningen, D. van; Plasswilm, L.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: interactions of cells with a substratum, especially extracellular matrix proteins, initiate clustering of integrin receptors in the cell membrane. This process represents the initial step for the activation of signaling pathways regulating survival, proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration, and could, furthermore, be important for cellular resistance-mediating mechanisms against radiation or cytotoxic drugs. The lack of data elucidating the impact of irradiation or cytotoxic drugs on this important phenomenon led to this study on human A549 lung cancer cells in vitro. Material and methods: the human lung carcinoma cell line A549 grown on polystyrene or fibronectin (FN) was irradiated with 0-8 Gy or treated with cisplatin (0.1-50 μM), paclitaxel (0.1-50 nM), or mitomycin (0.1-50 μM). Colony formation assays, immunofluorescence staining in combination with activation of integrin clustering using anti-β 1 -integrin antibodies (K20), and Western blotting for tyrosine phosphorylation under treatment of cells with the IC 50 for irradiation (2 Gy; IC 50 = 2.2 Gy), cisplatin (2 μM), paclitaxel (5 nM), or mitomycin (7 μM) were performed. Results: attachment of cells to FN resulted in a significantly reduced radio- and chemosensitivity compared to polystyrene. The clustering of β 1 -integrins examined by immunofluorescence staining was only stimulated by irradiation, cisplatin, paclitaxel, or mitomycin in case of cell attachment to FN. By contrast, tyrosine phosphorylation, as one of the major events following β 1 -integrin clustering, showed a 3.7-fold, FN-related enhancement, and treatment of cells with the IC 50 of radiation, cisplatin, paclitaxel, or mitomycin showed a substratum-dependent induction. Conclusion: for the first time, a strong influence of irradiation and a variety of cytotoxic drugs on the clustering of β 1 -integrins could be shown. This event is a prerequisite for tyrosine phosphorylation and, thus, the

  19. Cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of Gold nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano; Migliore, Lucia; Marsili, Paolo; Vergari, Chiara; Giammanco, Francesco; Giorgetti, Emilia

    2015-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles have attracted enormous interest in biomedical applications, based on their unique optical properties. However, their toxicity on human tissues is still an open issue. Beyond the potential intrinsic toxicity of nanostructured gold, a non-negligible contribution of stabilizers or reaction by-products related to current wet chemical synthesis procedures can be expected. Aimed at isolating gold contribution from that of any other contaminant, we produced colloidal suspensions of Gold nanoparticles having average size exposure to NPs, namely adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells. Gold nanoparticles prepared in water showed no particular signs of cytotoxicity, cytostasis, and/or genotoxicity as assessed by MTT colorimetric viability test and Cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay up to concentrations of the order of 5 μg/mL. In contrast, Gold nanoparticles produced in pure acetone and then transferred into deionized water showed impaired cell viability, apoptosis responses, micronuclei, and dicentric chromosomes induction as well as nuclear budding, as a function of the amount of surface contaminants like amorphous carbon and enolate ions.

  20. In vitro gene imaging by luciferase to detect the expression and effect of human tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand in lung cancer A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Na; Cui Jianling; Guo Zhiyuan; Guo Zhiping; Sun Yingcai; Liu Jicun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To detect the expression and effect of human tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand(hTRAIL) in vitro by using a novel double expressing adenoviral vector encoding hTRAIL and firefly luciferase (luc) gene (Ad-hTRAIL-luc), in which luc was used as reporter gene. Methods: A549 cells were transduced with the adenoviral vector encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene (Ad-EGFP) at variable multiplicity of infection (MOI). Adenoviral transduction efficiency was determined 48 h later. A549 cells were transduced with Ad-hTRAIL-luc at variable MOI, and the following tests were performed 48h later, respectively: the expressive ratio of hTRAIL and the apoptotic ratio of A549 cells were measured by flow cytometer; counts per minute (cpm) of luminescence were measured by scintillation counters. A549 cells were transduced with Ad-luc at variable MOI, and cpm of luminescence was measured by scintillation counters 48 h later. After A549 cells were transduced with Ad-hTRAIL-luc, the expressive ratio of hTRAIL, the apoptotic ratio of A549 cells and cpm of luminescence were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. The positive ratio of EGFP and cpm of luminescence (Ad-luc) were analyzed by nonparametric ANOVA. Results: After A549 cells were transfected with Ad-hTRAIL-luc, the expressive ratio of hTRAIL on the cell membrane of the groups were (2.37±0.04)%, (3.16±0.03)%, (3.64± 0.03)%, (3.96±0.02)%, (4.24±0.02)%, (4.34±0.02)% respectively, which showed significant difference between each other (P<0.01); and the apoptotic ratio of A549 cells were (1.52±0.04)%, (2.93±0.02)%, (3.39±0.02)%, (3.64±0.02)%, (3.86±0.02)%, (4.08±0.02)%, (4.20± 0.02)%, respectively, and it showed significant difference between each other (P<0.01); cpm of luminescence were 465 561 ± 26 801, 1 038 576 ± 29 417, 937 655 ± 23 197, 786 432 ± 20 028, 524 288 ± 16 338, 401 566 ± 15 961, respectively, and it also showed significant difference between each other (P<0

  1. Inactivation of Src-to-Ezrin Pathway: A Possible Mechanism in the Ouabain-Mediated Inhibition of A549 Cell Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Kyoung Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ouabain, a cardiac glycoside found in plants, is primarily used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and arrhythmia because of its ability to inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase pump. Recently ouabain has been shown to exert anticancer effects but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Here, we explored the molecular mechanism by which ouabain exerts anticancer effects in human lung adenocarcinoma. Employing proteomic techniques, we found 7 proteins downregulated by ouabain in A549 including p-ezrin, a protein associated with pulmonary cancer metastasis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, when the relative phosphorylation levels of 39 intracellular proteins were compared between control and ouabain-treated A549 cells, p-Src (Y416 was also found to be downregulated by ouabain. Furthermore, western blot revealed the ouabain-mediated downregulation of p-FAK (Y925, p-paxillin (Y118, p130CAS, and Na+/K+-ATPase subunits that have been shown to be involved in the migration of cancer cells. The inhibitory effect of ouabain and Src inhibitor PP2 on the migration of A549 cells was confirmed by Boyden chamber assay. Anticancer effects of ouabain in A549 cells appear to be related to its ability to regulate and inactivate Src-to-ezrin signaling, and proteins involved in focal adhesion such as Src, FAK, and p130CAS axis are proposed here.

  2. Andrographolide antagonizes cigarette smoke extract-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells through induction of microRNA-218.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-jie; Yu, Chang-hai; Li, Jing-bo; Wu, Xi-ya

    2013-12-01

    Andrographolide is a major bioactive labdane diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata and has protective effects against cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung injury. This study was done to determine whether such protective effects were mediated through modulation of microRNA (miR)-218 expression. Therefore, we exposed human alveolar epithelial A549 cells to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) with or without andrographolide pretreatment and measured the level of glutathione, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation, proinflammatory cytokine production, and miR-218 expression. We found that andrographolide pretreatment significantly restored the glutathione level in CSE-exposed A549 cells, coupled with reduced inhibitor κB (IκB)-α phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation and interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6 secretion. The miR-218 expression was significantly upregulated by andrographolide pretreatment. To determine the biological role of miR-218, we overexpressed and downregulated its expression using miR-218 mimic and anti-miR-218 inhibitor, respectively. We observed that miR-218 overexpression led to a marked reduction in IκB-α phosphorylation, p65 nuclear accumulation, and NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity in CSE-treated A549 cells. In contrast, miR-218 silencing enhanced IκB-α phosphorylation and p65 nuclear accumulation in cells with andrographolide pretreatment and reversed andrographolide-mediated reduction of IL-6 and IL-8 production. In addition, depletion of miR-218 significantly reversed the upregulation of glutathione levels in A549 cells by andrographolide. Taken together, our results demonstrate that andrographolide mitigates CSE-induced inflammatory response in A549 cells, largely through inhibition of NF-κB activation via upregulation of miR-218, and thus has preventive benefits in CS-induced inflammatory lung diseases.

  3. Inhibition of acrolein-stimulated MUC5AC expression by Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponin in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Ho; Hwang, Yong Pil; Han, Eun Hee; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Park, Bong Hwan; Lee, Hyun Sun; Park, Byung Keun; Lee, Young Chun; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2011-09-01

    Mucin overproduction is a hallmark of chronic airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study, we investigated the inhibition of acrolein-induced expression of mucin 5, subtypes A and C (MUC5AC) by Changkil saponin (CKS) in A549 cells. Acrolein, a known toxin in tobacco smoke and an endogenous mediator of oxidative stress, increases the expression of airway MUC5AC, a major component of airway mucus. CKS, a Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponin, inhibited acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression and activity, through the suppression of NF-κB activation. CKS also repressed acrolein-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38MAPK, which are upstream signaling molecules that control MUC5AC expression. In addition, the MAPK inhibitors PD98059 (ERK1/2), SP600125 (JNK1/2), and SB203580 (p38 MAPK), and a PKC delta inhibitor (rottlerin; PKCδ) inhibited acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression and activity. CKS repressed acrolein-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ. Moreover, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor, N-acetylcysteine, inhibited acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression and activity through the suppression of PKCδ and MAPK activation, and CKS repressed acrolein-induced ROS production. These results suggest that CKS suppresses acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB via ROS-PKCδ-MAPK signaling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A polysaccharide fraction of adlay seed (Coixlachryma-jobi L.) induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiangyi; Liu, Wei; Wu, Junhua; Li, Mengxian [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Wang, Juncheng; Wu, Jihui [School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230022 (China); Luo, Cheng, E-mail: Luo58@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A polysaccharide from adlay seed, its molecular mass, optical rotation and sugars was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that a polysaccharide from adlay can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide inhibited the metabolism and proliferation of NSCLC A549 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide may trigger apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Different seed extracts from Coix lachryma-jobi (adlay seed) have been used for the treatment of various cancers in China, and clinical data support the use of these extracts for cancer therapy; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well defined. A polysaccharide fraction, designated as CP-1, was extracted from the C.lachryma-jobi L. var. using the ethanol subsiding method. CP-1 induced apoptosis in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells by scanning electronic microscopy. Apoptosis and DNA accumulation during S-phase of the cell cycle were determined by annexin V-FITC and PI staining, respectively, and measured by flow cytometry. CP-1 also extended the comet tail length on single cell gel electrophoresis, and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further analysis by western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins was increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CP-1 is capable of inhibiting A549 cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data suggest that in addition to its nutritional properties, CP-1 is a very promising candidate polysaccharide for the development of anti-cancer medicines.

  5. A polysaccharide fraction of adlay seed (Coixlachryma-jobi L.) induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiangyi; Liu, Wei; Wu, Junhua; Li, Mengxian; Wang, Juncheng; Wu, Jihui; Luo, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A polysaccharide from adlay seed, its molecular mass, optical rotation and sugars was determined. ► We demonstrated that a polysaccharide from adlay can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. ► The polysaccharide inhibited the metabolism and proliferation of NSCLC A549 cells. ► The polysaccharide may trigger apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Different seed extracts from Coix lachryma-jobi (adlay seed) have been used for the treatment of various cancers in China, and clinical data support the use of these extracts for cancer therapy; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well defined. A polysaccharide fraction, designated as CP-1, was extracted from the C.lachryma-jobi L. var. using the ethanol subsiding method. CP-1 induced apoptosis in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells by scanning electronic microscopy. Apoptosis and DNA accumulation during S-phase of the cell cycle were determined by annexin V-FITC and PI staining, respectively, and measured by flow cytometry. CP-1 also extended the comet tail length on single cell gel electrophoresis, and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further analysis by western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins was increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CP-1 is capable of inhibiting A549 cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data suggest that in addition to its nutritional properties, CP-1 is a very promising candidate polysaccharide for the development of anti-cancer medicines.

  6. β-Sitosterol targets Trx/Trx1 reductase to induce apoptosis in A549 cells via ROS mediated mitochondrial dysregulation and p53 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavel, Tamilselvam; Packiyaraj, Pandian; Suryanarayanan, Venkatesan; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Ruckmani, Kandasamy; Pandima Devi, Kasi

    2018-02-01

    β-Sitosterol (BS), a major bioactive constituent present in plants and vegetables has shown potent anticancer effect against many human cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism remain elusive on NSCLC cancers. We found that BS significantly inhibited the growth of A549 cells without harming normal human lung and PBMC cells. Further, BS treatment triggered apoptosis via ROS mediated mitochondrial dysregulation as evidenced by caspase-3 & 9 activation, Annexin-V/PI positive cells, PARP inactivation, loss of MMP, Bcl-2-Bax ratio alteration and cytochrome c release. Moreover, generation of ROS species and subsequent DNA stand break were found upon BS treatment which was reversed by addition of ROS scavenger (NAC). Indeed BS treatment increased p53 expression and its phosphorylation at Ser15, while silencing the p53 expression by pifithrin-α, BS induced apoptosis was reduced in A549 cells. Furthermore, BS induced apoptosis was also observed in NCI-H460 cells (p53 wild) but not in the NCI-H23 cells (p53 mutant). Down-regulation of Trx/Trx1 reductase contributed to the BS induced ROS accumulation and mitochondrial mediated apoptotic cell death in A549 and NCI-H460 cells. Taken together, our findings provide evidence for the novel anti-cancer mechanism of BS which could be developed as a promising chemotherapeutic drug against NSCLC cancers.

  7. Comparison of the uptakes of Tc-99m MIBI and Tc-99m tetrofosmin in A549, an MRP-expressing cancer cell, in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jeong Ah; Jeong, Shin Young; Seo, Myung Rang; Bae, Jin Ho; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Kyu Bo; Lee, Jae Tae; Choi, Sang Woon; Lee, Byung Ho

    2003-01-01

    Uptakes of Tc-99m MIBI (MIBI) and Tc-99m tetrofosmin (tetrofosmin) in human non-small cell lung cancer A549, multidrug-resistance associated protein (MRP) expressing cell, were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used for detetion of MRP in A549 cells with anti-MRPr1 antibody. Cellular uptakes of two tracers were evaluated at 100 μM of verapamil (Vrp), 50 μM of cyclosporin A (CsA) and 25 μM of butoxysulfoximide (BSO) after incubation with MIBI and tetrofosmin for 30 and 60 min at 37.deg.C, using single cell suspensions at 1x10 6 cells/ml. Radioactivities in supernatants and pellets were measured with gamma well counter. A549 cells were inoculated in each flanks of 24 nude mice. Group 1 (Gr1) and Gr3 mice were treated with only MIBI or tetrofosmin, and Gr2 and Gr4 mice were treated with 70mg/kg of CsA i.p. for 1 hour before injection of 370KBq of MIBI or tetrofosmin. Mice were sacrificed at 10, 60 and 240 min. Radioactivities of organs and tumors were expressed as percentage injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/gm). Western blot analysis of the A549 cells detected expression of MRPr1 (190 kDa) and immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue for MRPr1 revealed brownish staining in cell membrane but not P-gp. Upon incubating A549 cells for 60 min with MIBI and tetrofosmin, cellular uptake of MIBI was higher than that of tetrofosmin. Coincubation with modulators resulted in an increase in cellular uptakes of MIBI and tetrofosmin. Coincubation with modulators resulted in an increase in cellular uptakes of MIBI and tetorfosmin. Percentage increase of MIBI was higher than that of tetrofosmin with Vrp by 623% and 427%, CsA by 753% and 629% and BSO by 219% and 140%, respectively. There was no significant difference in tumoral uptakes of MIBI and tetrofosmin between Gr1 and Gr3. Percentage increases in MIBI (114% at 10 min, 257% at 60 min, 396% at 240 min) and tetrofosmin uptake (110% at 10 min, 205% at 60 min, 410% at

  8. Toxic Effects of the Major Components of Diesel Exhaust in Human Alveolar Basal Epithelial Cells (A549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Rossner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, 1-nitropyrene (1-NP and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA in A549 cells. Cells were treated for 4 h and 24 h with: B[a]P (0.1 and 1 μM, 1-NP (1 and 10 μM and 3-NBA (0.5 and 5 μM. Bulky DNA adducts, lipid peroxidation, DNA and protein oxidation and mRNA expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, NQO1, POR, AKR1C2 and COX2 were analyzed. Bulky DNA adducts were induced after both treatment periods; the effect of 1-NP was weak. 3-NBA induced high levels of bulky DNA adducts even after 4-h treatment, suggesting rapid metabolic activation. Oxidative DNA damage was not affected. 1-NP caused protein oxidation and weak induction of lipid peroxidation after 4-h incubation. 3-NBA induced lipid peroxidation after 24-h treatment. Unlike B[a]P, induction of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, measured as mRNA expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, was low after treatment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH nitro-derivatives. All test compounds induced mRNA expression of NQO1, POR, and AKR1C2 after 24-h treatment. AKR1C2 expression indicates involvement of processes associated with reactive oxygen species generation. This was supported further by COX2 expression induced by 24-h treatment with 1-NP. In summary, 3-NBA was the most potent genotoxicant, whereas 1-NP exhibited the strongest oxidative properties.

  9. MicroRNA regulatory networks reflective of polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate-induced fibrosis in A549 human alveolar adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Da Young; Jeong, Mi Ho; Bang, In Jae; Kim, Ha Ryong; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2018-05-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-phosphate), an active component of humidifier disinfectant, is suspected to be a major cause of pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrosis, induced by recurrent epithelial damage, is significantly affected by epigenetic regulation, including microRNAs (miRNAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the fibrogenic mechanisms of PHMG-phosphate through the profiling of miRNAs and their target genes. A549 cells were treated with 0.75 μg/mL PHMG-phosphate for 24 and 48 h and miRNA microarray expression analysis was conducted. The putative mRNA targets of the miRNAs were identified and subjected to Gene Ontology analysis. After exposure to PHMG-phosphate for 24 and 48 h, 46 and 33 miRNAs, respectively, showed a significant change in expression over 1.5-fold compared with the control. The integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA microarray results revealed the putative targets that were prominently enriched were associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell cycle changes, and apoptosis. The dose-dependent induction of EMT by PHMG-phosphate exposure was confirmed by western blot. We identified 13 putative EMT-related targets that may play a role in PHMG-phosphate-induced fibrosis according to the Comparative Toxicogenomic Database. Our findings contribute to the comprehension of the fibrogenic mechanism of PHMG-phosphate and will aid further study on PHMG-phosphate-induced toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary Study on the Effect of Adipocytes on the Biological Behaviors of
Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells in Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang ZHANG

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Adipocytes in the tumor microenvironment may provide the metabolic fuel or signal transduction through media and other means to promote a variety of malignant proliferation and invasion, of tumor cells, but their role in lung cancer progression is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of adipocytes on lung cancer cell biology. Methods 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were induced into mature adipocytes. The cell morphology was observed by microscopy and Oil Red O staining. MTT assay, colony formation assay, wound-healing and Transwell methods were used to detect lung cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion ability. The content of triglyceride in cells was determined by colorimetry. Results The morphology of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells became more slender after co-culture with mature adipocytes, and the proliferation and cloning ability were significantly enhanced (P<0.05. In addition, mature adipocytes can also promote the migration ability (P<0.05, invasion ability (P<0.01 and accumulation of intracellular lipid (P<0.05 of A549 cells. Conclusion These findings suggested that adipocytes in tumor microenvironment can promote the proliferation, migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, which may be related to lipid metabolism.

  11. Digoxin Downregulates NDRG1 and VEGF through the Inhibition of HIF-1α under Hypoxic Conditions in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Digoxin, an inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase, has been used in the treatment of heart-related diseases (such as congestive heart failure and atrial arrhythmia for decades. Recently, it was reported that digoxin is also an effective HIF-1α inhibitor. We investigated whether digoxin could suppress tumor cell growth through HIF-1α in non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549 cells under hypoxic conditions. An MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. RT-PCR and western blotting were performed to analyze the mRNA and protein expression of VEGF, NDRG1, and HIF-1α. HIF-1α nuclear translocation was then determined by EMSA. Digoxin was found to inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells under hypoxic conditions. Our results showed that hypoxia led to the upregulation of VEGF, NDRG1, and HIF-1α both at the mRNA and protein levels. We also found that the hypoxia-induced overexpression of VEGF, NDRG1, and HIF-1α was suppressed by digoxin in a concentration-dependent manner. As expected, our EMSA results demonstrated that under hypoxic conditions HIF-1α nuclear translocation was also markedly reduced by digoxin in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results suggest that digoxin downregulated hypoxia-induced overexpression of VEGF and NDRG1 at the transcriptional level probably through the inhibition of HIF-1α synthesis in A549 cells.

  12. Study of the Effects of Betaine and/or C-Phycocyanin on the Growth of Lung Cancer A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rea Bingula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of betaine, C-phycocyanin (C-PC, and their combined use on the growth of A549 lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. When cells were coincubated with betaine and C-PC, an up to 60% decrease in viability was observed which is significant compared to betaine (50% or C-PC treatment alone (no decrease. Combined treatment reduced the stimulation of NF-κB expression by TNF-α and increased the amount of the proapoptotic p38 MAPK. Interestingly, combined treatment induced a cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase for ~60% of cells. In vivo studies were performed in pathogen-free male nude rats injected with A549 cells in their right flank. Their daily food was supplemented with either betaine, C-PC, both, or neither. Compared to the control group, tumour weights and volumes were significantly reduced in either betaine- or C-PC-treated groups and no additional decrease was obtained with the combined treatment. This data indicates that C-PC and betaine alone may efficiently inhibit tumour growth in rats. The synergistic activity of betaine and C-PC on A549 cells growth observed in vitro remains to be further confirmed in vivo. The reason behind the nature of their interaction is yet to be sought.

  13. Effect of X-irradiation on the protein expression of P57kip2 and TGF-β1 in lung cancer cell stain A549

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Huawei; Tan Yonggang; Zhang Heying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effect of X-irradiation on the proteins expression of p57 kip2 and TGF-β1 in lung cancer cell stain A549 and its clinical significance. Methods: Lung cancer cell stain A549 was cultivated and cell, protein was extracted at 6,12,24,36 and 48 hours after X-irradiation by different doses(2,4, 8 and 12 Gy). The expression of p57 kip2 and TGF-β1 proteins were examined by Western blot. Results: The expression of p57 kip2 in lung cancer cell stain A549 was very low before X-irradiation, and increased significantly after irradiation with different doses and reached the peak level at 12 hours after irradiation (P kip2 and TGF-β1 proteins which increased with certain doses, p57 kip2 and TGF-β1 could be used to predict the damage degree of cancer cells by X-ray. (authors)

  14. Interleukin-1β-induced iNOS expression in human lung carcinoma A549 cells: involvement of STAT and MAPK pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravichandran, Kameswaran; Tyagi, Alpna; Deep, Gagan; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    For understanding of signaling molecules important in lung cancer growth and progression, IL-1β effect was analyzed on iNOS expression and key signaling molecules in human lung carcinoma A549 cells and established the role of specific signaling molecules by using specific chemical inhibitors. IL-1β exposure (10 ng/ml) induced strong iNOS expression in serum starved A549 cells. Detailed molecular analyses showed that IL-1β increased expression of phosphorylated STAT1 (Tyr701 and Ser727) and STAT3 (Tyr705 and Ser727) both in total cell lysates and nuclear lysates. Further, IL-1β exposure strongly activated MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38) and Akt as well as increased nuclear levels of NF-κB and HIF-1α in A549 cells. Use of specific chemical inhibitors for JAK1 kinase (piceatannol), JAK2 kinase (AG-490), MEK1/2 (PD98059) and JNK1/2 (SP600125) revealed that IL-1β-induced iNOS expression involved signaling pathways in addition to JAKSTAT and ERK1/2-JNK1/2 activation. Overall, these results suggested that instead of specific pharmacological inhibitors, use of chemopreventive agents with broad spectrum efficacy to inhibit IL-1β-induced signaling cascades and iNOS expression would be a better strategy towards lung cancer prevention and/or treatment. (author)

  15. Neferine augments therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin through ROS- mediated non-canonical autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai Selvi, Sivalingam; Vinoth, Amirthalingam; Varadharajan, Thiyagarajan; Weng, Ching Feng; Vijaya Padma, Viswanadha

    2017-05-01

    Combination of dietary components with chemotherapy drugs is an emerging new strategy for cancer therapy to increase antitumor responses. Neferine, major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera (Lotus). In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of the combinatorial regimen of neferine and cisplatin compared to cisplatin high dose in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Co-treatment with neferine enhanced cisplatin-induced autophagy in A549 cells was accompanied by Acidic vesicular accumulation (AVO), enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH), down regulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II. This enhanced autophagy developed via a non-canonical mechanism that did not require Beclin-1, PI3KCIII. In conclusion, these results suggest that neferine enhances cisplatin -induced autophagic cancer cell death through downregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pro-survival pathway and ROS- mediated Beclin-1 and PI3K CIII independent autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Human Parvovirus B19 and Bocavirus VP1 Unique Region on Tight Junction of Human Airway Epithelial A549 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Ching; Shi, Ya-Fang; Yang, Jiann-Jou; Hsiao, Yuan-Chao; Tzang, Bor-Show; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2014-01-01

    As is widely recognized, human parvovirus B19 (B19) and human bocavirus (HBoV) are important human pathogens. Obviously, both VP1 unique region (VP1u) of B19 and HBoV exhibit the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity and are recognized to participate in the pathogenesis of lower respiratory tract illnesses. However, exactly how, both VP1u from B19 and HBoV affect tight junction has seldom been addressed. Therefore, this study investigates how B19-VP1u and HBoV-VP1u may affect the tight junction of the airway epithelial A549 cells by examining phospholipase A2 activity and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as performing immunoblotting analyses. Experimental results indicate that TEER is more significantly decreased in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α (10 ng), two dosages of B19-VP1u and BoV-VP1u (400 ng and 4000 ng) or bee venom PLA2 (10 ng) than that of the control. Accordingly, more significantly increased claudin-1 and decreased occludin are detected in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α or both dosages of HBoV-VP1u than that of the control. Additionally, more significantly decreased Na+/K+ ATPase is observed in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α, high dosage of B19-VP1u or both dosages of BoV-VP1u than that of the control. Above findings suggest that HBoV-VP1u rather than B19 VP1u likely plays more important roles in the disruption of tight junction in the airway tract. Meanwhile, this discrepancy appears not to be associated with the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity. PMID:25268969

  17. Paraquat induces extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in A549 cells by induction of DR5 and repression of anti-apoptotic proteins, DDX3 and GSK3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaichoti, Sasiphen; Visitnonthachai, Daranee; Ngamsiri, Pronrumpa; Niyomchan, Apichaya; Tsogtbayar, Oyu; Wisessaowapak, Churaibhon; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2017-08-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a bipyridyl derivative herbicide known to cause lung toxicity partly through induction of apoptosis. Here we demonstrated that PQ caused apoptosis in A549 cells. PQ increased cleavage of caspase-8 and Bid, indicating caspase-8 activation and truncated Bid, the two key mediators of extrinsic apoptosis. Additionally, PQ treatment caused an increase in DR5 (death receptor-5) and caspase-8 interaction, indicating formation of DISC (death-inducing signaling complex). These results indicate that PQ induces apoptosis through extrinsic pathway in A549 cells. Moreover, PQ drastically increased DR5 expression and membrane localization. Furthermore, PQ caused prominent concentration dependent reductions of DDX3 (the DEAD box protein-3) and GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase-3) which can associate with DR5 and prevent DISC formation. Additionally, PQ decreased DR5-DDX3 interaction, suggesting a reduction of DDX3/GSK3 anti-apoptotic complex. Inhibition of GSK3, which is known to promote extrinsic apoptosis by its pharmacological inhibitor, BIO accentuated PQ-induced apoptosis. Moreover, GSK3 inhibition caused a further decrease in PQ-reduced DR5-DDX3 interaction. Taken together, these results suggest that PQ may induce extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in A549 cells through upregulation of DR5 and repression of anti-apoptotic proteins, DDX3/GSK3 leading to reduction of anti-apoptotic complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tumor-targeting magnetic lipoplex delivery of short hairpin RNA suppresses IGF-1R overexpression of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunmao; Ding, Chao; Kong, Minjian [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China); Dong, Aiqiang, E-mail: dr_dongaiqiang@sina.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China); Qian, Jianfang; Jiang, Daming; Shen, Zhonghua [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We compared lipofection with magnetofection about difference of transfection efficiency on delivery a therapeutic gene in vitro and in vivo. {yields} We investigated the difference of shRNA induced by magnetofection and lipofection into A549 cell and subcutaneous tumor to knockdown IGF-1R overexpressed in A549 cell and A549 tumor. {yields} We investigated in vivo shRNA silenced IGF-1R overexpression 24, 48, and 72 h after shRNA intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice by way of magnetofection and lipofection. {yields} Our results showed that magnetofection could achieve therapeutic gene targeted delivery into special site, which contributed to targeted gene therapy of lung cancers. -- Abstract: Liposomal magnetofection potentiates gene transfection by applying a magnetic field to concentrate magnetic lipoplexes onto target cells. Magnetic lipoplexes are self-assembling ternary complexes of cationic lipids with plasmid DNA associated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Type1insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), an important oncogene, is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer and mediates cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency (percentage of transfected cells) and therapeutic potential (potency of IGF-1R knockdown) of liposomal magnetofection of plasmids expressing GFP and shRNAs targeting IGF-1R (pGFPshIGF-1Rs) in A549 cells and in tumor-bearing mice as compared to lipofection using Lipofectamine 2000. Liposomal magnetofection provided a threefold improvement in transgene expression over lipofection and transfected up to 64.1% of A549 cells in vitro. In vitro, IGF-1R specific-shRNA transfected by lipofection inhibited IGF-1R protein by 56.1 {+-} 6% and by liposomal magnetofection by 85.1 {+-} 3%. In vivo delivery efficiency of the pGFPshIGF-1R plasmid into the tumor was significantly higher in the liposomal magnetofection group than in the

  19. Genistein enhances the effect of trichostatin A on inhibition of A549 cell growth by increasing expression of TNF receptor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tzu-Chin; Yang, Ying-Chihi; Huang, Pei-Ru; Wen, Yu-Der; Yeh, Shu-Lan

    2012-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that genistein enhances apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells induced by trichostatin A (TSA). The precise molecular mechanism underlying the effect of genistein, however, remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether genistein enhances the anti-cancer effect of TSA through up-regulation of TNF receptor-1 (TNFR-1) death receptor signaling. We incubated A549 cells with TSA (50 ng/mL) alone or in combination with genistein and then determined the mRNA and protein expression of TNFR-1 as well as the activation of downstream caspases. Genistein at 5 and 10 μM significantly enhanced the TSA-induced decrease in cell number and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The combined treatment significantly increased mRNA and protein expression of TNFR-1 at 6 and 12 h, respectively, compared with that of the control group; while TSA alone had no effect. TSA in combination with 10 μM of genistein increased TNFR-1 mRNA and protein expression by about 70% and 40%, respectively. The underlying mechanism for this effect of genistein may be partly associated with the estrogen receptor pathway. The combined treatment also increased the activation of caspase-3 and ‐10 as well as p53 protein expression in A549 cells. The enhancing effects of genistein on the TSA-induced decrease in cell number and on the expression of caspase-3 in A549 cells were suppressed by silencing TNFR-1 expression. These data demonstrated that the upregulation of TNFR-1 death receptor signaling plays an important role, at least in part, in the enhancing effect of genistein on TSA-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. -- Highlights: ► TSA combined with genistein rather than TSA alone increases the expression of TNFR-1. ► Genistein may exert such an effect partly through estrogen receptor pathway. ► The combined treatment increases the activation of caspase-10 and caspase-3. ► The combined treatment also increases the expression of p53 protein. ► TNFR-1 si

  20. Tumor-targeting magnetic lipoplex delivery of short hairpin RNA suppresses IGF-1R overexpression of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chunmao; Ding, Chao; Kong, Minjian; Dong, Aiqiang; Qian, Jianfang; Jiang, Daming; Shen, Zhonghua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We compared lipofection with magnetofection about difference of transfection efficiency on delivery a therapeutic gene in vitro and in vivo. → We investigated the difference of shRNA induced by magnetofection and lipofection into A549 cell and subcutaneous tumor to knockdown IGF-1R overexpressed in A549 cell and A549 tumor. → We investigated in vivo shRNA silenced IGF-1R overexpression 24, 48, and 72 h after shRNA intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice by way of magnetofection and lipofection. → Our results showed that magnetofection could achieve therapeutic gene targeted delivery into special site, which contributed to targeted gene therapy of lung cancers. -- Abstract: Liposomal magnetofection potentiates gene transfection by applying a magnetic field to concentrate magnetic lipoplexes onto target cells. Magnetic lipoplexes are self-assembling ternary complexes of cationic lipids with plasmid DNA associated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Type1insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), an important oncogene, is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer and mediates cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency (percentage of transfected cells) and therapeutic potential (potency of IGF-1R knockdown) of liposomal magnetofection of plasmids expressing GFP and shRNAs targeting IGF-1R (pGFPshIGF-1Rs) in A549 cells and in tumor-bearing mice as compared to lipofection using Lipofectamine 2000. Liposomal magnetofection provided a threefold improvement in transgene expression over lipofection and transfected up to 64.1% of A549 cells in vitro. In vitro, IGF-1R specific-shRNA transfected by lipofection inhibited IGF-1R protein by 56.1 ± 6% and by liposomal magnetofection by 85.1 ± 3%. In vivo delivery efficiency of the pGFPshIGF-1R plasmid into the tumor was significantly higher in the liposomal magnetofection group than in the lipofection group. In vivo IGF-1R

  1. MiR-509-3-5p causes aberrant mitosis and anti-proliferative effect by suppression of PLK1 in human lung cancer A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xian-Hui; Lu, Yao; Liang, Jing-Jing; Cao, Ji-Xiang; Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Jia, Hong-Ti; Li, Shu-Yan

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and play roles in DNA damage response (DDR). PLK1 is identified as a modulator of DNA damage checkpoint. Although down-regulation of PLK1 by certain microRNAs has been reported, little is known about the interplay between PLK1 and miR-509-3-5p in DDR. Here we have demonstrated that miR-509-3-5p repressed PLK1 expression by targeting PLK1 3′-UTR, thereby causing mitotic aberration and growth arrest of human lung cancer A549 cells. Repression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p was further evidenced by over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549, HepG2 and HCT116p53 −/− cancer cells, in which PLK1 protein was suppressed. Consistently, miR-509-3-5p was stimulated, while PLK1 protein was down-regulated in A549 cells exposed to CIS and ADR, suggesting that suppression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p is a component of CIS/ADR-induced DDR pathway. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence labeling showed that over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549 induced G2/M arrest and aberrant mitosis characterized by abnormal bipolar mitotic spindles, condensed chromosomes, lagging DNA and chromosome bridges. In addition, over-expression of miR-509-3-5p markedly blocked A549 cell proliferation and sensitized the cells to CIS and ADR treatment. Taken together, miR-509-3-5p is a feasible suppressor for cancer by targeting PLK1. Our data may provide aid in potential design of combined chemotherapy and in our better understanding of the roles of microRNAs in response to DNA damage. - Highlights: • MiR-509-3-5p represses PLK1 expression by targeting PLK1 3ГЉВ№-UTR. • Expression of miR-509-3-5p is induced and PLK1 repressed upon DNA damage. • Overexpression of miR-509-3-5p induces G2/M arrest and aberrant mitosis. • MiR-509-3-5p inhibits cell proliferation and sensitizes cells to DNA damage agents.

  2. MiR-200a enhances the migrations of A549 and SK-MES-1 cells by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By a series of gain-of-function and loss-offunction studies, over-expression of miR-200a was indicated to enhance cells migration, and its knock-down inhibited migration of cells in NSCLC cell lines. Furthermore, miR-200a was identified to induce TSPAN1 expression which was related to migration. TSPAN1 was proved to ...

  3. Asiatic Acid (AA) Sensitizes Multidrug-Resistant Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549/DDP Cells to Cisplatin (DDP) via Downregulation of P-Glycoprotein (MDR1) and Its Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qilai; Liao, Meixiang; Hu, Haibo; Li, Hongliang; Wu, Longhuo

    2018-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp, i.e., MDR1) is associated with the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR) and causes chemotherapy failure in the management of cancers. Searching for effective MDR modulators and combining them with anticancer drugs is a promising strategy against MDR. Asiatic acid (AA), a natural triterpene isolated from the plant Centella asiatica, may have an antitumor activity. The present study assessed the reversing effect of AA on MDR and possible molecular mechanisms of AA action in MDR1-overexpressing cisplatin (DDP)-resistant lung cancer cells, A549/DDP. Human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cells were either exposed to different concentrations of AA or treated with DDP, and their viability was measured by the MTT assay. A Rhodamine 123 efflux assay, immunofluorescent staining, ATPase assay, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and western blot analysis were conducted to elucidate the mechanisms of action of AA on MDR. Our results showed that AA significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of DDP toward A549/DDP cells but not its parental A549 cells. Furthermore, AA strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription and increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate Rhodamine 123 in A549/DDP cells. Nuclear factor (NF)-kB (p65) activity, IkB degradation, and NF-kB/p65 nuclear translocation were markedly inhibited by pretreatment with AA. Additionally, AA inhibited the MAPK-ERK pathway, as indicated by decreased phosphorylation of ERK1 and -2, AKT, p38, and JNK, thus resulting in reduced activity of the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB1) via blockage of its nuclear translocation. AA reversed P-gp-mediated MDR by inhibition of P-gp expression. This effect was likely related to downregulation of YB1, and this effect was mediated by the NF-kB and MAPK-ERK pathways. AA may be useful as an MDR reversal agent for combination therapy in clinical trials. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. In vitro cytotoxicity effect and antibacterial performance of human lung epithelial cells A549 activity of Zinc oxide doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals: Investigation of bio-medical application by chemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaviyarasu, K., E-mail: kaviyarasuloyolacollege@gmail.com [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology Laboratories, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa (UNISA), Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), Materials Research Group (MRG), i Themba LABS-National Research Foundation - NRF, 1 Old Faure Road, 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Geetha, N. [Research and Development Center, Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Kanimozhi, K. [PG Research & Department of Chemistry, Auxilium College (Autonomous), Vellore (India); Maria Magdalane, C. [Department of Chemistry, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Tirunelveli 627002 (India); LIFE, Department of Chemistry, Loyola College (Autonomous), Chennai 600034 (India); Sivaranjani, S. [Research and Development Center, Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Department of Physics, SBM College of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul -624 005 (India); Ayeshamariam, A. [Research and Development Center, Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Department of Physics, Khadir Mohideen College, Adirampattinam 614601 (India); Kennedy, J. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology Laboratories, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa (UNISA), Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, PO Box 31312, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology Laboratories, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa (UNISA), Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), Materials Research Group (MRG), i Themba LABS-National Research Foundation - NRF, 1 Old Faure Road, 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa)

    2017-05-01

    We report the synthesis of high quality ZnO doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals by chemical method at room temperature (RT), it can cause serious oxidative stress and DNA damage to human lung epithelial cells (A549) lines. Our aim in this study, to reduce the cytotoxicity effect of ZnO doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals are widely in biological fields. Several studies have been performed to understand the influence of ZnO doped titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}-NPs) on cell function; however the effects of nanoparticle against to exposure on the cell membrane have been duly addressed fascinatingly so far. However, In this interaction, which may alter cell metabolism and integrity, it is one of the importance to understand the modifications of the cell membrane, mechanisms of pulmonary A549 cell lines nanoparticles were uptake and the molecular pathway during the initial cell responses are still unclear and much more investigative efforts are need to properly characterize the ZnO doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were reported successfully. In particular of the epithelial cells, upon particles are exposed human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) to various concentrations of composition, structure and morphology of the nanocrystals were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD assessed the crystal structure of the nanocrystals which identified peaks associated with (002), (100) and (101) planes of hexagonal wurtzite-type ZnO with lattice constants of a = b = 3.249 Å and c = 5.219 Å. The IR results showed high purity of products and indicated that the nanocrystals are made up of Ti−O and Zn−O bonds. The Photoluminescence (PL) spectra are dominated by a strong narrow band edge emission tunable in the blue region of the visible spectra indicating a narrow size distribution of ZnO/TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals which exhibits antibacterial activity over a broad range of bacterial species and in particular against Stre. Mut

  5. In vitro cytotoxicity effect and antibacterial performance of human lung epithelial cells A549 activity of Zinc oxide doped TiO2 nanocrystals: Investigation of bio-medical application by chemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaviyarasu, K.; Geetha, N.; Kanimozhi, K.; Maria Magdalane, C.; Sivaranjani, S.; Ayeshamariam, A.; Kennedy, J.; Maaza, M.

    2017-01-01

    We report the synthesis of high quality ZnO doped TiO 2 nanocrystals by chemical method at room temperature (RT), it can cause serious oxidative stress and DNA damage to human lung epithelial cells (A549) lines. Our aim in this study, to reduce the cytotoxicity effect of ZnO doped TiO 2 nanocrystals are widely in biological fields. Several studies have been performed to understand the influence of ZnO doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 -NPs) on cell function; however the effects of nanoparticle against to exposure on the cell membrane have been duly addressed fascinatingly so far. However, In this interaction, which may alter cell metabolism and integrity, it is one of the importance to understand the modifications of the cell membrane, mechanisms of pulmonary A549 cell lines nanoparticles were uptake and the molecular pathway during the initial cell responses are still unclear and much more investigative efforts are need to properly characterize the ZnO doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were reported successfully. In particular of the epithelial cells, upon particles are exposed human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) to various concentrations of composition, structure and morphology of the nanocrystals were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD assessed the crystal structure of the nanocrystals which identified peaks associated with (002), (100) and (101) planes of hexagonal wurtzite-type ZnO with lattice constants of a = b = 3.249 Å and c = 5.219 Å. The IR results showed high purity of products and indicated that the nanocrystals are made up of Ti−O and Zn−O bonds. The Photoluminescence (PL) spectra are dominated by a strong narrow band edge emission tunable in the blue region of the visible spectra indicating a narrow size distribution of ZnO/TiO 2 nanocrystals which exhibits antibacterial activity over a broad range of bacterial species and in particular against Stre. Mut where it out competes

  6. Effect of Circular RNA UBAP2 Silencing on Proliferation and Invasion of Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells and Its Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing YIN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that circular RNAs (circRNAs play an important role on the process of many types cancer and circUBAP2 was a cancer-promoting circRNA, however, the role and mechanism in lung cancer was not clear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of circUBAP2 on cell proliferation and invasion of human lung cancer A549 cells. Methods CCK-8 assay was employed to detect the effect of circUBAP2 sliencing on cell proliferation of A549 cells. Fow cytometry was applied to detect the impact of circUBAP2 sliencing on cell cycle and cell anoikis, and Transwell invasion assay was applied to determine cell invasion of A549 cells. We also employed Western blot and Real-time PCR to determine the expressions of CDK6, cyclin D1, p27 and c-IAP1, Bcl-2, Survivin, Bax, FAK, Rac1 and MMP2, and the activities of JNK and ERK1/2, luciferase report gene assay was used to detect the targets. Results CCK-8 assay showed that the inhibition of cell proliferation in the circUBAP2-siRNA group compared to untreated group and siRNA control group. Results of cell cycle detected by flow cytometry showed that cell cycle arrestd at G0/G1 after circUBAP2 silencing, cell apoptosis rate increased also. We also found that after circUBAP2 silencing, cell invasion of A549 cells was significantly inhibited. Western blot and Real-time PCR results showed that expression of CDK6, cyclin D1, c-IAP1, Bcl-2, Survivin, FAK, Rac1 and MMP2 were down-regulated, and the expression of p27 and Bax were up-regulated. Moreover, the activities of JNK and ERK1/2 were inhibited because of circUBAP2 silencing, the target genes were miR-339-5p, miR-96-3p and miR-135b-3p. Conclusion CircUBAP2 plays an important role in the proliferation and invasion of human lung cancer. Silencing of circUBAP2 might be a novel target for molecular targeted therapy of patients with lung cancer.

  7. Evaluation of Anti-Metastatic Potential of the Combination of Fisetin with Paclitaxel on A549 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Hałas-Wiśniewska, Marta; Grzanka, Alina; Grzanka, Dariusz

    2018-02-27

    The identification and development of new agents with a therapeutic potential as well as novel drug combinations are gaining the attention of scientists and clinicians as a plausible approach to improve therapeutic regimens for chemoresistant tumors. We have recently reported that the flavonoid fisetin (FIS), at physiologically attainable concentrations, acts synergistically with clinically achievable doses of paclitaxel (PTX) to produce growth inhibitory and pro-death effects on A549 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. To further investigate a potential therapeutic efficacy of the combination of fisetin with paclitaxel, we decided to assess its impact on metastatic capability of A549 cells as well as its toxicity toward normal human lung fibroblast. Cell viability, cell migration, and invasion were measured by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, wound healing assay, and Transwell chamber assay, respectively. The expression of metastasis-related genes was assessed with quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Actin and vimentin filaments were examined under the fluorescence microscope. The combination of FIS and PTX significantly reduced cancer cell migration and invasion, at least partially, through a marked rearrangement of actin and vimentin cytoskeleton and the modulation of metastasis-related genes. Most of these effects of the combination treatment were significantly greater than those of individual agents. Paclitaxel alone was even more toxic to normal cells than the combination of this drug with the flavonoid, suggesting that FIS may provide some protection against PTX-mediated cytotoxicity. The combination of FIS and PTX is expected to have a synergistic anticancer efficacy and a significant potential for the treatment of NSCLC, however, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to confirm this preliminary evidence.

  8. Evaluation of Anti-Metastatic Potential of the Combination of Fisetin with Paclitaxel on A549 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The identification and development of new agents with a therapeutic potential as well as novel drug combinations are gaining the attention of scientists and clinicians as a plausible approach to improve therapeutic regimens for chemoresistant tumors. We have recently reported that the flavonoid fisetin (FIS, at physiologically attainable concentrations, acts synergistically with clinically achievable doses of paclitaxel (PTX to produce growth inhibitory and pro-death effects on A549 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells. To further investigate a potential therapeutic efficacy of the combination of fisetin with paclitaxel, we decided to assess its impact on metastatic capability of A549 cells as well as its toxicity toward normal human lung fibroblast. Cell viability, cell migration, and invasion were measured by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, wound healing assay, and Transwell chamber assay, respectively. The expression of metastasis-related genes was assessed with quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Actin and vimentin filaments were examined under the fluorescence microscope. The combination of FIS and PTX significantly reduced cancer cell migration and invasion, at least partially, through a marked rearrangement of actin and vimentin cytoskeleton and the modulation of metastasis-related genes. Most of these effects of the combination treatment were significantly greater than those of individual agents. Paclitaxel alone was even more toxic to normal cells than the combination of this drug with the flavonoid, suggesting that FIS may provide some protection against PTX-mediated cytotoxicity. The combination of FIS and PTX is expected to have a synergistic anticancer efficacy and a significant potential for the treatment of NSCLC, however, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to confirm this preliminary evidence.

  9. Effect of etoposide-induced alteration of the Mdm2-Rb signaling pathway on cellular senescence in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenjing; Jiang, Yi; Chen, Kairong; Qiu, Jing; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xiafei; Huang, Na; Li, Yunhui; Li, Wancheng

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of various concentrations of etoposide (VP-16) on the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 (Mdm2)-retinoblastoma (Rb) signaling pathway in the cellular senescence of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. A549 cells were randomly divided into the following four groups: Control group (no treatment), group 1 (1 µmol/l VP-16), group 2 (5 µmol/l VP-16) and group 3 (25 µmol/l VP-16). Each group was cultured for 48 h after treatment prior to observation of the alterations to cellular morphology. The cell cycle distribution of each group was also detected by flow cytometry. In addition, the activity of cellular senescence-associated β-galactosidase, and the expression of Mdm2 and phosphorylated (p-) Rb protein, was measured. The percentage of senescent cells was significantly higher following VP-16 treatment compared with the control group. The percentage of G 1 phase cells, and p-Rb protein and Mdm2 protein expression were also significantly different following VP-16 treatment compared with the control group. VP-16 increased the activity of β-galactosidase in the A459 cells. VP-16 also decreased the expression level of Mdm2 and p-Rb protein and inhibited cell cycle progression in G 1 . These results indicate that VP-16 induces the cellular senescence of A549 cells via the Mdm2-Rb signaling pathway. However, further investigations are required to validate the mechanisms underlying these effects of VP-16.

  10. Ameliorative Effects of Dimetylthiourea and N-Acetylcysteine on Nanoparticles Induced Cyto-Genotoxicity in Human Lung Cancer Cells-A549

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ritesh Kumar; Rahman, Qamar; Kashyap, Mahendra Pratap; Lohani, Mohtashim; Pant, Aditya Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    We study the ameliorative potential of dimetylthiourea (DMTU), an OH• radical trapper and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor/H2O2 scavenger against titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) induced cyto-genotoxicity in cultured human lung cancer cells-A549. Cytogenotoxicity was induced by exposing the cells to selected concentrations (10 and 50 µg/ml) of either of TiO2-NPs or MWCNTs for 24 h. Anti-cytogenotoxicity effects of DMTU and NAC were studied in two groups, i.e., treatment of 30 minutes prior to toxic insult (short term exposure), while the other group received DMTU and NAC treatment during nanoparticles exposure, i.e., 24 h (long term exposure). Investigations were carried out for cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), micronuclei (MN), and expression of markers of oxidative stress (HSP27, CYP2E1), genotoxicity (P53) and CYP2E1 dependent n- nitrosodimethylamine-demethylase (NDMA-d) activity. In general, the treatment of both DMTU and NAC was found to be effective significantly against TiO2-NPs and MWCNTs induced cytogenotoxicity in A549 cells. Long-term treatment of DMTU and NAC during toxic insults has shown better prevention than short-term pretreatment. Although, cells responded significantly to both DMTU and NAC, but responses were chemical specific. In part, TiO2-NPs induced toxic responses were mediated through OH• radicals generation and reduction in the antioxidant defense system. While in the case of MWCNTs, adverse effects were primarily due to altering/hampering the enzymatic antioxidant system. Data indicate the applicability of human lung cancer cells-A549 as a pre-screening tool to identify the target specific prophylactic and therapeutic potential of drugs candidate molecules against nanoparticles induced cellular damages. PMID:21980536

  11. Ameliorative effects of dimetylthiourea and N-acetylcysteine on nanoparticles induced cyto-genotoxicity in human lung cancer cells-A549.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kumar Srivastava

    Full Text Available We study the ameliorative potential of dimetylthiourea (DMTU, an OH• radical trapper and N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a glutathione precursor/H₂O₂ scavenger against titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO₂-NPs and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs induced cyto-genotoxicity in cultured human lung cancer cells-A549. Cytogenotoxicity was induced by exposing the cells to selected concentrations (10 and 50 µg/ml of either of TiO₂-NPs or MWCNTs for 24 h. Anti-cytogenotoxicity effects of DMTU and NAC were studied in two groups, i.e., treatment of 30 minutes prior to toxic insult (short term exposure, while the other group received DMTU and NAC treatment during nanoparticles exposure, i.e., 24 h (long term exposure. Investigations were carried out for cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, micronuclei (MN, and expression of markers of oxidative stress (HSP27, CYP2E1, genotoxicity (P⁵³ and CYP2E1 dependent n- nitrosodimethylamine-demethylase (NDMA-d activity. In general, the treatment of both DMTU and NAC was found to be effective significantly against TiO₂-NPs and MWCNTs induced cytogenotoxicity in A549 cells. Long-term treatment of DMTU and NAC during toxic insults has shown better prevention than short-term pretreatment. Although, cells responded significantly to both DMTU and NAC, but responses were chemical specific. In part, TiO₂-NPs induced toxic responses were mediated through OH• radicals generation and reduction in the antioxidant defense system. While in the case of MWCNTs, adverse effects were primarily due to altering/hampering the enzymatic antioxidant system. Data indicate the applicability of human lung cancer cells-A549 as a pre-screening tool to identify the target specific prophylactic and therapeutic potential of drugs candidate molecules against nanoparticles induced cellular damages.

  12. TGF-β and Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Promote Radioresistance of A549 Lung Cancer Cells through Activation of Nrf2 and EGFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-lo-oom Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies have examined the roles of hypoxia and transforming growth factor- (TGF- β separately in the tumor microenvironment, the effects of simultaneous treatment with hypoxia/reoxygenation and TGF-β on tumor malignancy are unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of redox signaling and oncogenes on cell proliferation and radioresistance in A549 human lung cancer cells in the presence of TGF-β under hypoxia/reoxygenation conditions. Combined treatment with TGF-β and hypoxia activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2, a redox-sensitive transcription factor. Interestingly, Nrf2 knockdown suppressed the effects of combined treatment on EGFR phosphorylation. In addition, blockade of EGFR signaling also suppressed induction of Nrf2 following combined treatment with hypoxia and TGF-β, indicating that the combined treatment induced positive crosstalk between Nrf2 and EGFR. TGF-β and hypoxia/reoxygenation increased the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, while treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine abolished the activation of Nrf2 and EGFR. Treatment with TGF-β under hypoxic conditions increased the proliferation of A549 cells compared with that after vehicle treatment. Moreover, cells treated with the combined treatment exhibited resistance to ionizing radiation (IR, and knockdown of Nrf2 increased IR-induced cell death under these conditions. Thus, taken together, our findings suggested that TGF-β and hypoxia/reoxygenation promoted tumor progression and radioresistance of A549 cells through ROS-mediated activation of Nrf2 and EGFR.

  13. Microarray-based apoptosis gene screening technique in trichostatin A-induced drug-resisted lung cancer A549/CDDP cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-jun WANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To detect the expression profile changes of apoptosis-related genes in trichostatin A (TSA-induced drug-resisted lung cancer cells A549/CDDP by microarray, in order to screen the target genes in TSA treating cisplatin-resisted lung cancer. Methods  A549/CDDP cells were treated by TSA for 24 hours. Total RNA was extracted and reversely transcribed into cDNA. Gene expression levels were detected by the NimbleGen whole genome microarray. Differences of expression profiles between TSA-treated and control group were measured by NimbleScan 2.5 software and GO analysis. Apoptosis and proliferation related genes were screened from the expression changed genes. Results  Compared with the control group, 85 apoptosis-related genes were up-regulated and 43 growth or proliferation related genes were down-regulated in the TSA-treated group. GO analysis showed that the functions of these genes are mainly regulating apoptosis, cell resistance to chem ical stimuli protein, as well as regulating cell growth, proliferation and the biological process of maintaining the cell biological quality. TSA-activated not only the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, but also the death receptor related apoptosis pathway, and down-regulated the drug resistance related genes BAG3 and ABCC2. Conclusion  TSA may cause the expression changes of apoptotic and proliferation genes in A549/CDDP cells, these genes may play a role in TSA treating cisplatin-resisted lung cancer. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.08.07

  14. Telmisartan Exerts Anti-Tumor Effects by Activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells

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    Juan Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Telmisartan, a member of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, is usually used for cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have showed that telmisartan has the property of PPARγ activation. Meanwhile, PPARγ is essential for tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis. In this work we explore whether telmisartan could exert anti-tumor effects through PPARγ activation in A549 cells. MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays were included to determine the survival rates and cell viabilities. RT-PCR and western blotting were used to analyze the expression of ICAM-1, MMP-9 and PPARγ. DNA binding activity of PPARγ was evaluated by EMSA. Our data showed that the survival rates and cell viabilities of A549 cells were all reduced by telmisartan in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Meanwhile, our results also demonstrated that telmisartan dose-dependently inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 and MMP-9. Moreover, the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects, ICAM-1 and MMP-9 inhibitive properties of telmisartan were totally blunted by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Our findings also showed that the expression of PPARγ was up-regulated by telmisartan in a dose dependent manner. And, the EMSA results also figured out that DNA binding activity of PPARγ was dose-dependently increased by telmisartan. Additionally, our data also revealed that telmisartan-induced PPARγ activation was abrogated by GW9662. Taken together, our results indicated that telmisartan inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 and MMP-9 in A549 cells, very likely through the up-regulation of PPARγ synthesis.

  15. Ghrelin promotes human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell proliferation through PI3K/Akt/mTOR/P70S6K and ERK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Yao, Jianfeng; Huang, Rongfu; Wang, Yueqin; Jia, Min; Huang, Yan

    2018-04-06

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an important role in cell proliferation. In the present study, we explored the role of ghrelin in A549cell proliferation and the possible molecular mechanisms. We found that ghrelin promotes A549cell proliferation, knockdown of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) attenuated A549cell proliferation caused by ghrelin. Ghrelin induced the rapid phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, ERK, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and P70S6K. PI3K inhibitor (LY 294002), ERK inhibitor (PD98059) and mTOR inhibitor (Rapamycin) inhibited ghrelin-induced A549cell proliferation. Moreover, GHSR siRNA inhibited phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, ERK, mTOR and P70S6K induced by ghrelin. Akt and mTOR/P70S6K phosphorylation was inhibited by LY 294002 but not by PD98059. These results indicate that ghrelin promotes A549cell proliferation via GHSR-dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR/P70S6K and ERK signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced sensitivity of A549 cells to the cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs via suppression of Nrf2 by procyanidins from Cinnamomi Cortex extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoi, Ayano; Kawana, Ayako; Nishiyama, Takahito; Ogura, Kenichiro [Department of Drug Metabolism and Molecular Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Hiratsuka, Akira, E-mail: hiratuka@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Drug Metabolism and Molecular Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} We found a novel inhibitor of Nrf2 known as a chemoresistance factor. {yields} Overexpressed Nrf2 in lung cancer cells was suppressed by Cinnamomi Cortex extract. {yields} Cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs in cells treated with the extract was enhanced. {yields} Procyanidin tetramers and pentamers were active components in suppressing Nrf2. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important cytoprotective transcription factor because Nrf2-regulated enzymes play a key role in antioxidant and detoxification processes. Recent studies have reported that lung cancer cells overexpressing Nrf2 exhibit increased resistance to chemotherapy. Suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 is needed for a new therapeutic approach against lung cancers. In the present study, we found that Cinnamomi Cortex extract (CCE) has an ability to suppress Nrf2-regulated enzyme activity and Nrf2 expression in human lung cancer A549 cells with high Nrf2 activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that CCE significantly enhances sensitivity of A549 cells to the cytotoxic action of doxorubicin and etoposide as well as increasing the intracellular accumulation of both drugs. These results suggest that CCE might be an effective concomitant agent to reduce anticancer drug resistance derived from Nrf2 overexpression. Bioactivity-guided fractionation revealed that procyanidin tetramers and pentamers contained in CCE were active components in suppressing Nrf2.

  17. The production of reactive oxygen species and the mitochondrial membrane potential are modulated during onion oil-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin-jiang; Stahl, Thorsten; Hu, Ying; Kassie, Fekadu; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2006-03-01

    Protective effects of Allium vegetables against cancers have been shown extensively in experimental animals and epidemiologic studies. We investigated cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis by onion oil extracted from Allium cepa, a widely consumed Allium vegetable, in human lung cancer A549 cells. GC/MS analysis suggested that propyl sulfides but not allyl sulfides are major sulfur-containing constituents of onion oil. Onion oil at 12.5 mg/L significantly induced apoptosis (13% increase of apoptotic cells) as indicated by sub-G1 DNA content. It also caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase; 25 mg/L onion oil increased the percentage of G2/M cells almost 6-fold compared with the dimethyl sulfoxide control. The action of onion oil may occur via a reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway because cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were blocked by the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and exogenous glutathione. Marked collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that dysfunction of the mitochondria may be involved in the oxidative burst and apoptosis induced by onion oil. Expression of phospho-cdc2 and phospho-cyclin B1 were downregulated by onion oil, perhaps accounting for the G2/M arrest. Overall, these results suggest that onion oil may exert chemopreventive action by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells.

  18. ATP mediates NADPH oxidase/ROS generation and COX-2/PGE2 expression in A549 cells: role of P2 receptor-dependent STAT3 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ei Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and its metabolite prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2 are frequently implicated in lung inflammation. Extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP have been shown to act via activation of P2 purinoceptors, leading to COX-2 expression in various inflammatory diseases, such as lung inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying ATP-induced COX-2 expression and PGE(2 release remain unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we showed that ATPγS induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells revealed by western blot and real-time PCR. Pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor (PPADS and suramin, PKC (Gö6983, Gö6976, Ro318220, and Rottlerin, ROS (Edaravone, NADPH oxidase [diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI and apocynin], Jak2 (AG490, and STAT3 [cucurbitacin E (CBE] and transfection with siRNAs of PKCα, PKCι, PKCμ, p47(phox, Jak2, STAT3, and cPLA(2 markedly reduced ATPγS-induced COX-2 expression and PGE(2 production. In addition, pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor attenuated PKCs translocation from the cytosol to the membrane in response to ATPγS. Moreover, ATPγS-induced ROS generation and p47(phox translocation was also reduced by pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor, PKC, and NADPH oxidase. On the other hand, ATPγS stimulated Jak2 and STAT3 activation which were inhibited by pretreatment with PPADS, suramin, Gö6983, Gö6976, Ro318220, GF109203X, Rottlerin, Edaravone, DPI, and apocynin in A549 cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these results showed that ATPγS induced COX-2 expression and PGE(2 production via a P2 receptor/PKC/NADPH oxidase/ROS/Jak2/STAT3/cPLA(2 signaling pathway in A549 cells. Increased understanding of signal transduction mechanisms underlying COX-2 gene regulation will create opportunities for the development of anti-inflammation therapeutic strategies.

  19. Analysis of A549 cell proteome alteration in response to recombinant influenza A virus nucleoprotein and its interaction with cellular proteins, a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D; Tiwari, K; Rajala, M S

    Influenza A virus undergoes frequent changes of antigenicity and contributes to seasonal epidemics or unpredictable pandemics. Nucleoprotein, encoded by gene segment 5, is an internal protein of the virus and is conserved among strains of different host origins. In the current study, we analyzed the differentially expressed proteins in A549 cells transiently transfected with the recombinant nucleoprotein of influenza A virus by 2D gel electrophoresis. The resolved protein spots on gel were identified by MALDI-TOF/Mass spectrometry analysis. The majority of the host proteins detected to be differentially abundant in recombinant nucleoprotein-expressing cells as compared to vector-transfected cells are the proteins of metabolic pathways, glycolytic enzymes, molecular chaperones and cytoskeletal proteins. We further demonstrated the interaction of virus nucleoprotein with some of the identified host cellular proteins. In vitro binding assay carried out using the purified recombinant nucleoprotein (pET29a+NP-His) and A549 cell lysate confirmed the interaction between nucleoprotein and host proteins, such as alpha enolase 1, pyruvate kinase and β-actin. The preliminary data of our study provides the information on virus nucleoprotein interaction with proteins involved in glycolysis. However, studies are ongoing to understand the significance of these interactions in modulating the host factors during virus replication.

  20. TRAIL overexpression co-regulated by Egr1 and HRE enhances radiosensitivity of hypoxic A549 cells depending on its apoptosis inducing role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Ming; Fang, Fang; Li, Xin; Yu, Lei; Wang, Zhi-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can upregulate the expression levels of TRAIL and enhance tumor cell apoptosis. While Early growth response 1 (Egr1) gene promoter has radiation inducible characteristics, the expression for exogenous gene controlled by Egr1 promoter could be enhanced by ionizing radiation, but its efficiency is limited by tissue hypoxia. Hypoxia response elements (HREs) are important hypoxic response regulatory sequences and sensitivity enhancers. Therefore, we chose TRAIL as the gene radiotherapy to observe whether it is regulated by Egr1 and HER and its effects on A549 cells and its mechanism. The pcDNA3.1-Egr1-TRAIL (pc-E-hsT) and pcDNA3.1-HRE/Egr1-TRAIL (pc-H/E-hsT) plasmids containing Egr1-hsTRAIL and HRE/Egr1-hsTRAIL were transfected into A549 cells, the cells were treated by hypoxia and radiation. The TRAIL mRNA in the cells and protein concentration in the culture supernatants were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Mean lethal dose D0 value was evaluated with colony forming assay. The cell apoptotic rates were analyzed by FCM and TUNEL assay. Expression of DR4, DR5 and cleaved caspase-3 proteins were analyzed by western blotting. It showed that TRAIL mRNA expression and TRAIL concentration all significantly increased under hypoxia and/or radiation. D0 value of pc-H/E‑hsT transfected cells under hypoxia was lowest, indicating more high radiosensitivity. Hypoxia could not cause the pc-E-hsT transfected cell apoptotic rate increase, but there were promoting effects in pc-H/E-hsT transfected cells. DR4 had not obvious change in pc-E-hsT and pc-H/E-hsT transfected cells under normoxic and hypoxic condition, otherwise, DR5 and cleaved caspase-3 increased mostly in pc-H/E-hsT transfected cells under hypoxic condition. TRAIL overexpression was co-regulated by Egr1 and HRE. TRAIL might promote hypoxic A549 cell radiosensitivity and induce apoptosis depending on DR5 to caspase-3 pathways.

  1. New geranylated flavanones from the fruits of Paulownia catalpifolia Gong Tong with their anti-proliferative activity on lung cancer cells A549.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tian-yang; Jin, Xing; Tang, Wen-zhao; Wang, Xiao-jing; Zhao, Yun-xue

    2015-09-01

    Three new geranylated flavanones, named as paucatalinone A (1), B (2), and isopaucatalinone B (3), were isolated from the fruits of Paulownia catalpifolia Gong Tong (Scrophulariaceae). Their structures were well determined by means of IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR, and CD techniques. Paucatalinone A (1) is the first sample as a dimeric geranylated flavanone derivative isolated from natural products. Paucatalinone A (1) displayed good antiproliferative effects on human lung cancer cells A549 and resulted in a clear increase of the percentage of cells in G1 phase and a decrease in the percentage of cells in S and G2/M phases in comparison with control cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Identification of a Short Cell-Penetrating Peptide from Bovine Lactoferricin for Intracellular Delivery of DNA in Human A549 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty R Liu

    Full Text Available Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs have been shown to deliver cargos, including protein, DNA, RNA, and nanomaterials, in fully active forms into live cells. Most of the CPP sequences in use today are based on non-native proteins that may be immunogenic. Here we demonstrate that the L5a CPP (RRWQW from bovine lactoferricin (LFcin, stably and noncovalently complexed with plasmid DNA and prepared at an optimal nitrogen/phosphate ratio of 12, is able to efficiently enter into human lung cancer A549 cells. The L5a CPP delivered a plasmid containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP coding sequence that was subsequently expressed in cells, as revealed by real-time PCR and fluorescent microscopy at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Treatment with calcium chloride increased the level of gene expression, without affecting CPP-mediated transfection efficiency. Zeta-potential analysis revealed that positively electrostatic interactions of CPP/DNA complexes correlated with CPP-mediated transport. The L5a and L5a/DNA complexes were not cytotoxic. This biomimetic LFcin L5a represents one of the shortest effective CPPs and could be a promising lead peptide with less immunogenic for DNA delivery in gene therapy.

  3. Identification of a Short Cell-Penetrating Peptide from Bovine Lactoferricin for Intracellular Delivery of DNA in Human A549 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Betty R; Huang, Yue-Wern; Aronstam, Robert S; Lee, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been shown to deliver cargos, including protein, DNA, RNA, and nanomaterials, in fully active forms into live cells. Most of the CPP sequences in use today are based on non-native proteins that may be immunogenic. Here we demonstrate that the L5a CPP (RRWQW) from bovine lactoferricin (LFcin), stably and noncovalently complexed with plasmid DNA and prepared at an optimal nitrogen/phosphate ratio of 12, is able to efficiently enter into human lung cancer A549 cells. The L5a CPP delivered a plasmid containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) coding sequence that was subsequently expressed in cells, as revealed by real-time PCR and fluorescent microscopy at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Treatment with calcium chloride increased the level of gene expression, without affecting CPP-mediated transfection efficiency. Zeta-potential analysis revealed that positively electrostatic interactions of CPP/DNA complexes correlated with CPP-mediated transport. The L5a and L5a/DNA complexes were not cytotoxic. This biomimetic LFcin L5a represents one of the shortest effective CPPs and could be a promising lead peptide with less immunogenic for DNA delivery in gene therapy.

  4. Reactive oxygen species mediated DNA damage in human lung alveolar epithelial (A549) cells from exposure to non-cytotoxic MFI-type zeolite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Naha, Pratap C; Naydenova, Izabela; Mintova, Svetlana; Byrne, Hugh J

    2012-12-17

    Increasing utilization of engineered nanoparticles in the field of electronics and biomedical applications demands an assessment of risk associated with deliberate or accidental exposure. Metal based nanoparticles are potentially most important of all the nanoparticles in terms of health risks. Microporous alumino-silicates and pure silicates named as zeolites and zeo-type materials with variety of structures, chemical compositions, particle sizes and morphologies have a significant number of industrial uses such as in catalysis, sorption and ion-exchange processes. In particular, the nanosized particles due to their unique properties are used in hybrid organic-inorganic materials for photography, photonics, electronics, labeling, imaging, and sensing. The aim of the current study is to investigate pure silica MFI-type zeolites nanoparticles with sizes of 50nm and 100nm (samples MFI-50 and MFI-100) under suspended conditions and their toxicological effects on human lung alveolar (A549) cells under in vitro conditions. Live cell imaging showed that the nanoparticles precipitated from the colloidal suspension of cell culture media as large agglomerates, coming in contact with the cell surface through sedimentation. A cellular proliferative capacity test showed the zeolite nanoparticles to exhibit no significant cytotoxicity below a concentration of 100μg/ml. However, both the MFI-50 and MFI-100 nanoparticles induced high intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and elevated mitochondrial membrane potential in the A549 cells over the measured time period of 12h and at concentrations up to ≤50μg/ml. DNA fragmentation analysis using the comet assay showed that the MFI-50 and MFI-100 nanoparticles cause genotoxicity in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, the rate at which maximum genomic damage was caused by MFI-100 nanoparticles in the A549 cells was found to be high as compared to the MFI-50 nanoparticles. However, the damage caused by the

  5. PKM2 Thr454 phosphorylation increases its nuclear translocation and promotes xenograft tumor growth in A549 human lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhenhai, E-mail: tomsyu@163.com [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong, 261031 (China); Huang, Liangqian [Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) & Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine -SJTUSM, Shanghai, 200025 (China); Qiao, Pengyun; Jiang, Aifang; Wang, Li; Yang, Tingting [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong, 261031 (China); Tang, Shengjian; Zhang, Wei [Plastic Surgery Institute of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong, 261041 (China); Ren, Chune, E-mail: ren@wfmc.edu.cn [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong, 261031 (China)

    2016-05-13

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key enzyme of glycolysis which is highly expressed in many tumor cells, and plays an important role in the Warburg effect. In previous study, we found PIM2 phosphorylates PKM2 at Thr454 residue (Yu, etl 2013). However, the functions of PKM2 Thr454 modification in cancer cells still remain unclear. Here we find PKM2 translocates into the nucleus after Thr454 phosphorylation. Replacement of wild type PKM2 with a mutant (T454A) enhances mitochondrial respiration, decreases pentose phosphate pathway, and enhances chemosensitivity in A549 cells. In addition, the mutant (T454A) PKM2 reduces xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. These findings demonstrate that PKM2 T454 phosphorylation is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer.

  6. Protein C inhibits endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes in A549 lung cancer cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, I.; Majerus, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the effect of protein C on the endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes. We previously showed that exposure of umbilical vein endothelial cells to thrombin stimulated the internalization and degradation of thrombin. A similar internalization was stimulated by a monoclonal antithrombomodulin antibody. We have repeated these studies in the presence of protein C and found that endocytosis of 125 I-thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes, but not 125 I-antithrombomodulin-thrombomodulin complexes, is inhibited. Activated protein C did not inhibit endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes. Protein C inhibited both internalization and degradation of 125 I-thrombin and diisopropylphosphoryl (DIP) 125 I-thrombin in human lung cancer cells (A549). These effects were observed at protein C concentrations found in human plasma. Protein S had no effect on the inhibition of endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes by protein C. We propose that protein C may regulate the rate of endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes in vivo and thereby control the capacity for endothelium to activate protein C

  7. Tumor-targeting magnetic lipoplex delivery of short hairpin RNA suppresses IGF-1R overexpression of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunmao; Ding, Chao; Kong, Minjian; Dong, Aiqiang; Qian, Jianfang; Jiang, Daming; Shen, Zhonghua

    2011-07-08

    Liposomal magnetofection potentiates gene transfection by applying a magnetic field to concentrate magnetic lipoplexes onto target cells. Magnetic lipoplexes are self-assembling ternary complexes of cationic lipids with plasmid DNA associated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Type1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), an important oncogene, is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer and mediates cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency (percentage of transfected cells) and therapeutic potential (potency of IGF-1R knockdown) of liposomal magnetofection of plasmids expressing GFP and shRNAs targeting IGF-1R (pGFPshIGF-1Rs) in A549 cells and in tumor-bearing mice as compared to lipofection using Lipofectamine 2000. Liposomal magnetofection provided a threefold improvement in transgene expression over lipofection and transfected up to 64.1% of A549 cells in vitro. In vitro, IGF-1R specific-shRNA transfected by lipofection inhibited IGF-1R protein by 56.1±6% and by liposomal magnetofection by 85.1±3%. In vivo delivery efficiency of the pGFPshIGF-1R plasmid into the tumor was significantly higher in the liposomal magnetofection group than in the lipofection group. In vivo IGF-1R specific-shRNA by lipofection inhibited IGF-1R protein by an average of 43.8±5.3%; that by liposomal magnetofection inhibited IGF-1R protein by 43.4±5.7%, 56.3±9.6%, and 72.2±6.8%, at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively, after pGFPshIGF-1R injection. Our findings indicate that liposomal magnetofection may be a promising method that allows the targeting of gene therapy to lung cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tumor necrosis factor-α induces MMP-9 expression via p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, and nuclear factor-κB in A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-C.; Tseng, Hsiao-Wei; Hsieh, Hsi-Lung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Wu, C.-Y.; Cheng, C.-Y.; Yang, C.-M.

    2008-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-9, have been shown to be induced by cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and contributes to airway inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying MMP-9 expression induced by TNF-α in human A549 cells remain unclear. Here, we showed that TNF-α induced production of MMP-9 protein and mRNA is determined by zymographic, Western blotting, RT-PCR and ELISA assay, which were attenuated by inhibitors of MEK1/2 (U0126), JNK (SP600125), and NF-κB (helenalin), and transfection with dominant negative mutants of ERK2 (ΔERK) and JNK (ΔJNK), and siRNAs for MEK1, p42 and JNK2. TNF-α-stimulated phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK and JNK were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitors U0126 and SP600125 or transfection with dominant negative mutants of ΔERK and ΔJNK. Furthermore, the involvement of NF-κB in TNF-α-induced MMP-9 production was consistent with that TNF-α-stimulated degradation of IκB-α and translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus which were blocked by helenalin, but not by U0126 and SP600125, revealed by immunofluorescence staining. The regulation of MMP-9 gene transcription by MAPKs and NF-κB was further confirmed by gene luciferase activity assay. MMP-9 promoter activity was enhanced by TNF-α in A549 cells transfected with wild-type MMP-9-Luc, which was inhibited by helenalin, U0126, or SP600125. In contrast, TNF-α-stimulated MMP-9 luciferase activity was totally lost in cells transfected with mutant-NF-κB MMP-9-luc. Moreover, pretreatment with actinomycin D and cycloheximide attenuated TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression. These results suggest that in A549 cells, phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, and transactivation of NF-κB are essential for TNF-α-induced MMP-9 gene expression

  9. Cell cycle synchronization and BrdU incorporation as a tool to study the possible selective elimination of ErbB1 gene in the micronuclei in A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauand, C.; Niero, E.L.; Dias, V.M.; Machado-Santelli, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer often exhibits molecular changes, such as the overexpression of the ErbB1 gene that encodes epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). ErbB1 amplification and mutation are associated with tumor aggressiveness and low response to therapy. The aim of the present study was to design a schedule to synchronize the cell cycle of A549 cell line (a non-small cell lung cancer) and to analyze the possible association between the micronuclei (MNs) and the extrusion of ErbB1 gene extra-copies. After double blocking, by the process of fetal bovine serum deprivation and vincristine treatment, MNs formation was monitored with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, which is an S-phase marker. Statistical analyses allowed us to infer that MNs may arise both in mitosis as well as in interphase. The MNs were able to replicate their DNA and this process seemed to be non-synchronous with the main cell nuclei. The presence of ErbB1 gene in the MNs was evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). ErbB1 sequences were detected in the MNs, but a relation between the MNs formation and extrusion of amplified ErbB1could not be established. The present study sought to elucidate the meaning of MNs formation and its association with the elimination of oncogenes or other amplified sequences from the tumor cells

  10. Cell cycle synchronization and BrdU incorporation as a tool to study the possible selective elimination of ErbB1 gene in the micronuclei in A549 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauand, C.; Niero, E.L.; Dias, V.M.; Machado-Santelli, G.M. [Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-06

    Lung cancer often exhibits molecular changes, such as the overexpression of the ErbB1 gene that encodes epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). ErbB1 amplification and mutation are associated with tumor aggressiveness and low response to therapy. The aim of the present study was to design a schedule to synchronize the cell cycle of A549 cell line (a non-small cell lung cancer) and to analyze the possible association between the micronuclei (MNs) and the extrusion of ErbB1 gene extra-copies. After double blocking, by the process of fetal bovine serum deprivation and vincristine treatment, MNs formation was monitored with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, which is an S-phase marker. Statistical analyses allowed us to infer that MNs may arise both in mitosis as well as in interphase. The MNs were able to replicate their DNA and this process seemed to be non-synchronous with the main cell nuclei. The presence of ErbB1 gene in the MNs was evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). ErbB1 sequences were detected in the MNs, but a relation between the MNs formation and extrusion of amplified ErbB1could not be established. The present study sought to elucidate the meaning of MNs formation and its association with the elimination of oncogenes or other amplified sequences from the tumor cells.

  11. A Novel Bromophenol Derivative BOS-102 Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human A549 Lung Cancer Cells via ROS-Mediated PI3K/Akt and the MAPK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Long Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromophenol is a type of natural marine product. It has excellent biological activities, especially anticancer activities. In our study of searching for potent anticancer drugs, a novel bromophenol derivative containing indolin-2-one moiety, 3-(4-(3-([1,4′-bipiperidin]-1′-ylpropoxy-3-bromo-5-methoxybenzylidene-N-(4-bromophenyl-2-oxoindoline-5-sulfonamide (BOS-102 was synthesized, which showed excellent anticancer activities on human lung cancer cell lines. A study of the mechanisms indicated that BOS-102 could significantly block cell proliferation in human A549 lung cancer cells and effectively induce G0/G1 cell cycle arrest via targeting cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4. BOS-102 could also induce apoptosis, including activating caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm, and leading cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Further research revealed that BOS-102 deactivated the PI3K/Akt pathway and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway resulting in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, which indicated that BOS-102 has the potential to develop into an anticancer drug.

  12. In vitro cytotoxic effects of PM2.5 from the city of Abidjan (Ivory Coast) on human A549 lung cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouassi, Kouakou-Serge; Billet, Sylvain; Garcon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony; Courcot, Dominique; Shirali, Pirouz; Diouf, Amadou; Cazier, Fabrice; Djaman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies associate air pollution, especially particulate, increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular origin . Africa, which has an urbanization rate among the highest in the world, is particularly exposed. The 'Initiative on the air quality in Sub-Saharan Africa' showed the importance of atmospheric concentrations of certain pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter (PM 10 ). Like the great capitals of Africa, Abidjan, economic capital and most industrialized city of Ivory Coast is facing an air pollution from industrial-urban and health consequences for its population of nearly 6 million inhabitants. To better understand the mechanisms of action resulting from pulmonary exposure to particulate atmospheric aerosols, we proposed: (i) to collect atmospheric particles (PM 2.5 ) using high volume cascade impaction in the District of Abidjan in three influences (rural, urban or industrial), (ii) to determine their main physicochemical, (iii) assess their cytotoxicity and their role in the induction of oxidative damage in a model of human lung cells (A549) in culture. The chemical composition of the atmospheric particles revealed their heterogeneity, and many inorganic (e.g. Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mg) and organic compounds (e.g. paraffins) were quantified at the three sites. Their effect concentrations (EC) to 10 and 50% on the A549 were as follows: influence rural: EC 10 = 5.91 μg/cm 2 and EC 50 29.55 μg/cm 2 , urban influence: EC 10 = 5 .45 μg/cm 2 and EC 50 = 27.23 μg/cm 2 , and industrial influence: EC 10 = 6.86 μg/cm 2 and EC 50 = 34.29 μg/cm 2 . Exposure of A549 cells to Abidjan city's PM samples for 24, 48 or 72 hours to their EC 10 or EC 50 induced oxidative damage, as demonstrated by the formation of malon-dialdehyde, changes in enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase and alteration of glutathione status. (authors)

  13. ANTITUMOR AND APOPTOTIC EFFECTS OF CUCURBITACIN A IN A-549 LUNG CARCINOMA CELLS IS MEDIATED VIA G2/M CELL CYCLE ARREST AND M-TOR/PI3K/AKT SIGNALLING PATHWAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Dong; Liu, Yan; Su, Yuan; Xiong, Xian-Zhi; Shang, Dan; Xu, Juan-Juan; Liu, Hong-Ju

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to demonstrate the antitumor potential of cucurbitacin A on A-549 NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer cells). The effects of Cucurbitacin A on apoptotic induction, cell physic, cell cycle failure and m-TOR/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway were also investigated in the present study. MTT assay and clonogenic assay were carried out to study effects of this compound on cell cytotoxicity and colony forming tendency in A-549 cells. Moreover, phase and fluorescence microscopic techniques were used to examine the effects on cell morphology and induction of apoptosis. The effects on cell cycle phase distribution were investigated by flow cytometry and effects on m-TOR/PI3K/Akt signalling proteins were assessed by western blot analysis. Results showed that cucurbitacin A induced dose-dependent cytotoxic effects along with suppressing the colony forming tendency in these cells. Cucurbitacin A also induced morphological changes in these cells featuring chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic body formation. G2/M phase cell cycle collapse was also induced by Cucurbitacin A along with inhibition of expression levels of m-TOR/PI3K/Akt proteins. In conclusion, cucurbitacin A inhibits cancer growth in A-549 NSCLC cells by inducing apoptosis, targeting m-TOR/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and G2/M cell cycle.

  14. Spectral phasor analysis of LAURDAN fluorescence in live A549 lung cells to study the hydration and time evolution of intracellular lamellar body-like structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malacrida, Leonel; Astrada, Soledad; Briva, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Using LAURDAN spectral imaging and spectral phasor analysis we concurrently studied the growth and hydration state of subcellular organelles (lamellar body-like, LB-like) from live A549 lung cancer cells at different post-confluence days. Our results reveal a time dependent two-step process...... governing the size and hydration of these intracellular LB-like structures. Specifically, a first step (days 1 to 7) is characterized by an increase in their size, followed by a second one (days 7 to 14) where the organelles display a decrease in their global hydration properties. Interestingly, our results...... also show that their hydration properties significantly differ from those observed in well-characterized artificial lamellar model membranes, challenging the notion that a pure lamellar membrane organization is present in these organelles at intracellular conditions. Finally, these LB-like structures...

  15. DNA damage and cytotoxicity in type II lung epithelial (A549) cell cultures after exposure to diesel exhaust and urban street particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution particles has been acknowledged to be associated with excess generation of oxidative damage to DNA in experimental model systems and humans. The use of standard reference material (SRM), such as SRM1650 and SRM2975, is advantageous because experiments...... collected at a traffic intensive road in Copenhagen, Denmark. RESULTS: All of the particles generated strand breaks and oxidized purines in A549 lung epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and there were no overt differences in their potency. The exposures also yielded dose-dependent increase...... of cytotoxicity (as lactate dehydrogenase release) and reduced colony forming ability with slightly stronger cytotoxicity of SRM1650 than of the other particles. In contrast, only the authentic street particles were able to generate 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in calf thymus DNA, which might...

  16. Small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 modification of pyruvate kinase M2 promotes aerobic glycolysis and cell proliferation in A549 human lung cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An S

    2018-04-01

    overall survival rate (P=0.017 and disease-free survival rate (P=0.027 compared with those with low PKM2 expression. SUMO1 promoted PKM2-dependent glycolysis. Western blotting analysis showed that SUMO1 knockdown in A549 cells led to a significant decrease in PKM2 protein expression. PKM2 could be covalently modified by SUMO1 at K336 (Lys336 site. SUMO1 modification of PKM2 at Lys-336 site increased glycolysis and promoted its cofactor functions. Moreover, PKM2 SUMO1 modification promoted the proliferation of A549 cells in vitro.Conclusion: This information is important in elucidating a new mechanism of regulation of PKM2, and suggested that SUMO1 modification of PKM2 could be a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer. Keywords: Pyruvate Kinase M2, SUMO1 modification, glycolysis, cell proliferation, cancer

  17. Particulate emissions from the combustion of birch, beech, and spruce logs cause different cytotoxic responses in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasurinen, Stefanie; Jalava, Pasi I; Happo, Mikko S; Sippula, Olli; Uski, Oskari; Koponen, Hanna; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2017-05-01

    According to the World Health Organization particulate emissions from the combustion of solid fuels caused more than 110,000 premature deaths worldwide in 2010. Log wood combustion is the most prevalent form of residential biomass heating in developed countries, but it is unknown how the type of wood logs used in furnaces influences the chemical composition of the particulate emissions and their toxicological potential. We burned logs of birch, beech and spruce, which are used commonly as firewood in Central and Northern Europe in a modern masonry heater, and compared them to the particulate emissions from an automated pellet boiler fired with softwood pellets. We determined the chemical composition (elements, ions, and carbonaceous compounds) of the particulate emissions with a diameter of less than 1 µm and tested their cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, inflammatory potential, and ability to induce oxidative stress in a human lung epithelial cell line. The chemical composition of the samples differed significantly, especially with regard to the carbonaceous and metal contents. Also the toxic effects in our tested endpoints varied considerably between each of the three log wood combustion samples, as well as between the log wood combustion samples and the pellet combustion sample. The difference in the toxicological potential of the samples in the various endpoints indicates the involvement of different pathways of toxicity depending on the chemical composition. All three emission samples from the log wood combustions were considerably more toxic in all endpoints than the emissions from the pellet combustion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1487-1499, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Therapeutic effects of gold nanoparticles synthesized using Musa paradisiaca peel extract against multiple antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis biofilms and human lung cancer cells (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, S; Vaseeharan, B; Malaikozhundan, B; Gopi, N; Ekambaram, P; Pachaiappan, R; Velusamy, P; Murugan, K; Benelli, G; Suresh Kumar, R; Suriyanarayanamoorthy, M

    2017-01-01

    Botanical-mediated synthesis of nanomaterials is currently emerging as a cheap and eco-friendly nanotechnology, since it does not involve the use of toxic chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous peel extract of Musa paradisiaca (MPPE-AuNPs) following a facile and cheap fabrication process. The green synthesized MPPE-AuNPs were bio-physically characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, Zeta potential analysis and EDX. MPPE-AuNPs were crystalline in nature, spherical to triangular in shape, with particle size ranging within 50 nm. The biofilm inhibition activity of MPPE-AuNPs was higher against multiple antibiotic resistant (MARS) Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. Light and confocal laser scanning microscopic observations evidenced that the MPPE-AuNPs effectively inhibited the biofilm of E. faecalis when tested at 100 μg mL -1 . Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that MPPE-AuNPs were effective in inhibiting the viability of human A549 lung cancer cells at higher concentrations of 100 μg mL -1 . The morphological changes in the MPPE-AuNPs treated A549 lung cancer cells were visualized under phase-contrast microscopy. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of MPPE-AuNPs on the freshwater micro crustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta were evaluated. Notably, no mortality was recorded in MPPE-AuNPs treated C. cornuta at 250 μg mL -1 . This study concludes that MPPE-AuNPs are non-toxic, eco-friendly and act as a multipurpose potential biomaterial for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The phosphorylated form of FTY720 activates PP2A, represses inflammation and is devoid of S1P agonism in A549 lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Prünte, Laura; Lebender, Leonard F; Patel, Brijeshkumar S; Gelissen, Ingrid; Hansbro, Philip M; Morris, Jonathan C; Clark, Andrew R; Verrills, Nicole M; Ammit, Alaina J

    2016-11-16

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity can be enhanced pharmacologically by PP2A-activating drugs (PADs). The sphingosine analog FTY720 is the best known PAD and we have shown that FTY720 represses production of pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for respiratory disease pathogenesis. Whether its phosphorylated form, FTY720-P, also enhances PP2A activity independently of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) pathway was unknown. Herein, we show that FTY720-P enhances TNF-induced PP2A phosphatase activity and significantly represses TNF-induced interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion from A549 lung epithelial cells. Comparing FTY720 and FTY720-P with S1P, we show that unlike S1P, the sphingosine analogs do not induce cytokine production on their own. In fact, FTY720 and FTY720-P significantly repress S1P-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production. We then examined their impact on expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and resultant prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2) production. S1P did not increase production of this pro-inflammatory enzyme because COX-2 mRNA gene expression is NF-κB-dependent, and unlike TNF, S1P did not activate NF-κB. However, TNF-induced COX-2 mRNA expression and PGE 2 secretion is repressed by FTY720 and FTY720-P. Hence, FTY720-P enhances PP2A activity and that PADs can repress production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes in A549 lung epithelial cells in a manner devoid of S1P agonism.

  20. Protein alkylation, transcriptional responses and cytochrome c release during acrolein toxicity in A549 cells: influence of nucleophilic culture media constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Colin A; Burcham, Philip C

    2008-06-01

    Acrolein is a toxic combustion product that elicits apoptotic and/or necrotic cell death depending on the conditions under which exposure occurs. As a strong electrophile, side-reactions with nucleophilic media constituents seem likely to accompany study of its toxicity in vitro, but these reactions are poorly characterized. We have thus examined the effect of media composition on the toxicity of acrolein in A549 cells. Cells were exposed to acrolein in either Dulbecco's buffered saline (DBS) or F12 supplemented with various concentrations of fetal bovine serum. Cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay, while heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and cytoplasmic cytochrome c were measured as respective markers of transcriptional response and apoptosis. Protein damage was evaluated using the protein carbonyl assay. Compared to F12 media (with or without serum), maximal cell death as evaluated using the MTT assay, as well as adduction of intracellular proteins, occurred when cells were exposed to acrolein in DBS. In contrast, cytochrome c release was maximal in cells exposed to acrolein in serum-containing F12, conditions which inhibited protein modification and overt cell death. These findings highlight the need for careful attention to experimental conditions when conducting in vitro toxicological studies of reactive substances.

  1. Dual‑sensitive HRE/Egr1 promoter regulates Smac overexpression and enhances radiation‑induced A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell death under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Feng; Chen, Li-Bo; Li, Dan-Dan; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Bao-Gang; Jin, Jing-Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Bin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to construct an expression vector carrying the hypoxia/radiation dual‑sensitive chimeric hypoxia response element (HRE)/early growth response 1 (Egr‑1) promoter in order to overexpress the therapeutic second mitochondria‑derived activator of caspases (Smac). Using this expression vector, the present study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying radiotherapy‑induced A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell death and apoptosis under hypoxia. The plasmids, pcDNA3.1‑Egr1‑Smac (pE‑Smac) and pcDNA3.1‑HRE/Egr-1‑Smac (pH/E‑Smac), were constructed and transfected into A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells using the liposome method. CoCl2 was used to chemically simulate hypoxia, followed by the administration of 2 Gy X‑ray irradiation. An MTT assay was performed to detect cell proliferation and an Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate apoptosis detection kit was used to detect apoptosis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were used for the detection of mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Infection with the pE‑Smac and pH/E‑Smac plasmids in combination with radiation and/or hypoxia was observed to enhance the expression of Smac. Furthermore, Smac overexpression was found to enhance the radiation‑induced inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of cycle arrest and apoptosis. The cytochrome c/caspase‑9/caspase‑3 pathway was identified to be involved in this regulation of apoptosis. Plasmid infection in combination with X‑ray irradiation was found to markedly induce cell death under hypoxia. In conclusion, the hypoxia/radiation dual‑sensitive chimeric HRE/Egr‑1 promoter was observed to enhance the expression of the therapeutic Smac, as well as enhance the radiation‑induced inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of cycle arrest and apoptosis under hypoxia. This apoptosis was found to involve the mitochondrial pathway.

  2. Proteasome Inhibitor YSY01A Abrogates Constitutive STAT3 Signaling via Down-regulation of Gp130 and JAK2 in Human A549 Lung Cancer Cells

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    Wei Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Proteasome inhibition interfering with many cell signaling pathways has been extensively explored as a therapeutic strategy for cancers. Proteasome inhibitor YSY01A is a novel agent that has shown remarkable anti-tumor effects; however, its mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Here we report that YSY01A is capable of suppressing cancer cell survival by induction of apoptosis. Paradoxically, we find that YSY01A abrogates constitutive activation of STAT3 via proteasome-independent degradation of gp130 and JAK2, but not transcriptional regulation, in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. The reduction in gp130 and JAK2 can be restored by co-treatment with 3-methyladenine, an early-stage autophagy lysosome and type I/III PI3K inhibitor. YSY01A also effectively inhibits cancer cell migration and lung xenograft tumor growth with little adverse effect on animals. Thus, our findings suggest that YSY01A represents a promising candidate for further development of novel anticancer therapeutics targeting the proteasome.

  3. Airborne particulate matter in vitro exposure induces cytoskeleton remodeling through activation of the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in A549 epithelial lung cells.

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    Chirino, Yolanda I; García-Cuellar, Claudia María; García-García, Carlos; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Herrera, Luis A; López-Saavedra, Alejandro; Miranda, Javier; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Pérez, Irma Rosas; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia

    2017-04-15

    Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM 10 ) is considered a risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which PM 10 is associated with cancer, but there is evidence that its exposure can lead to an acquired invasive phenotype, apoptosis evasion, inflammasome activation, and cytoskeleton remodeling in lung epithelial cells. Cytoskeleton remodeling occurs through actin stress fiber formation, which is partially regulated through ROCK kinase activation, we aimed to investigate if this protein was activated in response to PM 10 exposure in A549 lung epithelial cells. Results showed that 10μg/cm 2 of PM 10 had no influence on cell viability but increased actin stress fibers, cytoplasmic ROCK expression, and phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase-targeting 1 (MYPT1) and myosin light chain (MLC) proteins, which are targeted by ROCK. The inhibition of ROCK prevented actin stress fiber formation and the phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC, suggesting that PM 10 activated the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in lung epithelial cells. The activation of ROCK1 has been involved in the acquisition of malignant phenotypes, and its induction by PM 10 exposure could contribute to the understanding of PM 10 as a risk factor for cancer development through the mechanisms associated with invasive phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A methoxyflavanone derivative from the Asian medicinal herb (Perilla frutescens) induces p53-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hafeez, Amer Ali; Fujimura, Takashi; Kamei, Rikiya; Hirakawa, Noriko; Baba, Kenji; Ono, Kazuhisa; Kawamoto, Seiji

    2017-07-14

    Perilla frutescens is an Asian dietary herb consumed as an essential seasoning in Japanese cuisine as well as used for a Chinese medicine. Here, we report that a newly found methoxyflavanone derivative from P. frutescens (Perilla-derived methoxyflavanone, PDMF; 8-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) shows carcinostatic activity on human lung adenocarcinoma, A549. We found that treatment with PDMF significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased viability through induction of G 2 /M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The PDMF stimulation induces phosphorylation of tumor suppressor p53 on Ser15, and increases its protein amount in conjunction with up-regulation of downstream cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 Cip1/Waf1 and proapoptotic caspases, caspase-9 and caspase-3. We also found that small interfering RNA knockdown of p53 completely abolished the PDMF-induced G 2 /M cell cycle arrest, and substantially abrogated its proapoptotic potency. These results suggest that PDMF represents a useful tumor-preventive phytochemical that triggers p53-driven G 2 /M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  5. Proteomic response to 5,6-dimethylxanthenone 4-acetic acid (DMXAA, vadimezan in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells determined by the stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan ST

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Shu-Ting Pan,1,* Zhi-Wei Zhou,2,3,* Zhi-Xu He,3 Xueji Zhang,4 Tianxin Yang,5 Yin-Xue Yang,6 Dong Wang,7 Jia-Xuan Qiu,1 Shu-Feng Zhou2 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino-US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, 4Research Center for Bioengineering and Sensing Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah and Salt Lake Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 6Department of Colorectal Surgery, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, 7Cancer Center, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China *These two authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone 4-acetic acid (DMXAA, also known as ASA404 and vadimezan, is a potent tumor blood vessel-disrupting agent and cytokine inducer used alone or in combination with other cytotoxic agents for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and other cancers. However, the latest Phase III clinical trial has shown frustrating outcomes in the treatment of NSCLC, since the therapeutic targets and underlying mechanism for the anticancer effect of DMXAA are not yet fully understood. This study aimed to examine the proteomic response to DMXAA and unveil the global molecular targets and possible mechanisms for the anticancer effect of DMXAA in NSCLC A549 cells using a stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC approach. The proteomic data showed that treatment with DMXAA

  6. Biodegradable Alginate-Chitosan Hollow Nanospheres for Codelivery of Doxorubicin and Paclitaxel for the Effect of Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A biodegradable alginate coated chitosan hollow nanosphere (ACHN was prepared by a hard template method and used for codelivery of doxorubicin (DOX and paclitaxel (PTX to investigate the effect on human lung cancer A549 cells. PTX was loaded into the nanometer hollow structure of ACHN through adsorption method. DOX was coated on surface of ACHN through electrostatic interaction. Drug release studies exhibited a sustained-release effect. According to X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analysis, DOX structure in the loading samples (DOX-PTX-ACHN was of amorphous state while PTX was microcrystalline. Cytotoxicity experiments showed ACHN was nontoxic as carrier material and the combination of DOX and PTX in DOX-PTX-ACHN exhibited a good inhibiting effect on cell proliferation. Cell uptake experiments demonstrated that DOX-PTX-ACHN accumulated in the cytoplasm. Degradation experiments illustrated that ACHN was a biodegradable material. In summary, these results clearly indicate that ACHN can be utilized as a potential biomaterial to transport multiple drugs to be used in combination therapy.

  7. The environmental carcinogen 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its main metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone enhance formation of reactive oxygen intermediates in human A549 lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Tanja; Seidel, Albrecht; Borlak, Juergen

    2007-01-01

    The environmental contaminant 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is highly mutagenic and a suspected human carcinogen. We aimed to evaluate whether 3-NBA is able to deregulate critical steps in cell cycle control and apoptosis in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Increased intracellular Ca 2+ and caspase activities were detected upon 3-NBA exposure. As shown by cell cycle analysis, an increased number of S-phase cells was observed after 24 h of treatment with 3-NBA. Furthermore, 3-NBA was shown to inhibit cell proliferation when added to subconfluent cell cultures. The main metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-ABA, induced statistically significant increases in tail moment as judged by alkaline comet assay. The potential of 3-NBA and 3-ABA to enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was demonstrated by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). The enzyme inhibitors allopurinol, dicumarol, resveratrol and SKF525A were used to assess the impact of metabolic conversion on 3-NBA-mediated ROS production. Resveratrol decreased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence by 50%, suggesting a role for CYP1A1 in 3-NBA-mediated ROS production. Mitochondrial ROS production was significantly attenuated (20% reduction) by addition of rotenone (complex I inhibition) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA, complex II inhibition). Taken together, the results of the present study provide evidence for a genotoxic potential of 3-ABA in human epithelial lung cells. Moreover, both compounds lead to increased intracellular ROS and create an environment favorable to DNA damage and the promotion of cancer

  8. Effect of functionalized and non-functionalized nanodiamond on the morphology and activities of antioxidant enzymes of lung epithelial cells (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarska-Ściuk, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Agnieszka; Glińska, Sława; Michlewska, Sylwia; Balcerzak, Łucja; Jamrozik, Agnieszka; Skolimowski, Janusz; Burda, Květoslava; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-10-05

    The development of nanotechnology opens up new ways for biomedical applications of unmodified and modified diamond nanoparticles which are one of the most popular nanomaterials used in biology, biotechnology, medicine, cosmetics and engineering. They have been applied as diagnostic and therapeutic agents because they can be targeted to and localized in cells causing apoptosis and necrosis. The problem of biocompatibility of nanodiamonds at higher concentrations is thus of primary importance. The first step in the modification of DNPs is usually the introduction of hydrogen groups, which can bind other functional groups. The basic method to introduce -OH groups onto nanoparticles is the Fenton reaction. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of unmodified nanodiamond particles and nanoparticles modified by introduction of -OH groups and etoposide onto their surface reaction on human non-small lung cancer cells. A549 cells were incubated with 2-100μg/ml nanopowders and at 0.6-24μg/ml etoposide in the DMEM medium. We observed a decrease of cells viability and generation of reactive oxygen/ nitrogen species in the cells after incubation, estimated by oxidation of H2DCF-DA and DAF-FM-DA. Modified detonation nanoparticles affected also the cellular content of glutathione and activities of main antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase). The results of TEM microscopy show changes in cell morphology. These data demonstrate that modified nanoparticles induce oxidative stress in the target cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Terbutaline causes immobilization of single β2-adrenergic receptor-ligand complexes in the plasma membrane of living A549 cells as revealed by single-molecule microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieben, Anne; Kaminski, Tim; Kubitscheck, Ulrich; Häberlein, Hanns

    2011-02-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors are important targets for various drugs. After signal transduction, regulatory processes, such as receptor desensitization and internalization, change the lateral receptor mobility. In order to study the lateral diffusion of β2-adrenergic receptors (β2AR) complexed with fluorescently labeled noradrenaline (Alexa-NA) in plasma membranes of A549 cells, trajectories of single receptor-ligand complexes were monitored using single-particle tracking. We found that a fraction of 18% of all β2ARs are constitutively immobile. About 2/3 of the β2ARs moved with a diffusion constant of D2 = 0.03+/-0.001 μm2/s and about 17% were diffusing five-fold faster (D3 = 0.15+/-0.02 μm2/s). The mobile receptors moved within restricted domains and also showed a discontinuous diffusion behavior. Analysis of the trajectory lengths revealed two different binding durations with τ1 = 77+/-1 ms and τ2 = 388+/-11 ms. Agonistic stimulation of the β2AR-Alexa-NA complexes with 1 μM terbutaline caused immobilization of almost 50% of the receptors within 35 min. Simultaneously, the mean area covered by the mobile receptors decreased significantly. Thus, we demonstrated that agonistic stimulation followed by cell regulatory processes results in a change in β2AR mobility suggesting that different receptor dynamics characterize different receptor states.

  10. Nanoparticle abraxane possesses impaired proliferation in A549 cells due to the underexpression of glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNPNAT1/GNA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao MZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Minzhi Zhao,* Haiyun Li,* Yan Ma, He Gong, Shu Yang, Qiaojun Fang, Zhiyuan Hu Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Abraxane (Abr, a US Food and Drug Administration-approved albumin-bound nanoparticle applied for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer, has been reported to be more effective than paclitaxel (PTX. To further understand the molecular mechanisms that produce this superior drug efficacy of Abr, a quantitative proteomic approach has been applied to investigate the global protein expression profiles of lung cancer cell A549 treated with Abr and PTX. Only one protein, namely, glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNA1, showed significant differential expression (P<0.05 in the cutoff of 2.0 fold, suggesting that Abr can be used safely as a substitute for PTX. GNA1 is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine, which is an important donor substrate for N-linked glycosylation and has several important functions such as embryonic development and growth. Albumin plays a major role in the regulation of this protein. In summary, this study first shows that the superior drug effect of Abr is mainly due to the downregulation of GNA1, which causes proliferative delay and cell adhesion defect. It is also noteworthy that the deficiency of GNA1 might reduce insulin secretion which correlates with type 2 diabetes. Keywords: quantitative proteomics, nano-drug, drug efficacy, lung cancer, molecular mechanisms, abraxane

  11. An Experimental Study on Effects of Distilled Red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on A549 human ephithelial lung cancer cell in vitro and implanted Sarcoma-180

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    Seung Hwan Won

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : In order to investigate effects and immune improvement of distilled red-ginseng herbal Acupuncture, expression of Cox-1, Cox-2, and mRNA of Bcl-2 and Bax were analyzed in A549 cell in vivo. Survival time and expression of cytokine mRNA were measured for the mice with Sarcoma-180 induced abdominal cancer. Methods : Balb/c mouse was treated with distilled red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture at Wisu(BL21 and Chung- wan(CV12 to investigate anti-cancer effects and immune response. Results : 1. For expression of mRNA of Cox-1 using RT-PCR, the control group and the experiment groups didn't show significant differences. For Cox-2, both experiment groups and the normal group showed significant decrease. 2.For expression of mRNA of Bcl-2 using RT-PCR, experiment groups showed slight decrease compared to the control group. For Bax, no significant changes were shown between the control group and experiment groups. 3.For survival time, all of experiment groups showed 11.1 % increase compared to the control group. 4. For IL-2 and IL-4 productivity using Flow cytometry, all of experiment groups didn't show any significance. 5.For IL-2 productivity using ELISA, all of experiment groups didn't show any significance. 6.For expression of cytokine mRNA using RT-PCR, significant increase of IL-2 and IL-4 were witnessed in the experiment group II compared to the control group. Significant increase of IL-10 was shown in all of experiment groups compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can expect that distilled red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture may be further effects in anti-cancer and immune improvement if increasing concentration.

  12. Determination of in vitro free radical scavenging and antiproliferative effect of Pennisetum alopecuroides on cultured A549 human lung cancer cells

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    Githa Elizabeth Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This is the 1 st time a pharmacological exploration of P. alopecuroides grasses has been conducted. We have shown that P. alopecuroides exhibits good free radical scavenging and strong in vitro cytotoxic activities against human lung cancer cell lines.

  13. Effects of Monoclonal Antibody Cetuximab on Proliferation of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cell lines

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    Zhen CHEN

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab has been used widely in non-small cell lung cancer patients. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of lung cancer cells (A549, H460, H1299, SPC-A-1 which were treated by cetuximab in vitro. Methods We studied the effects of increasing concentrations of cetuximab (1 nmol/L-625 nmol/L in four human lung cancer cell lines (A549, SPC-A-1, H460, H1229. CCK8 measured the inhibition of cell proliferation in each group. A549, SPC-A-1 were marked by PI and the statuses of apoptosis were observed. Western blot were used to detect the proliferation-related signaling protein and apoptosis-related protein in A549. Results The treatment with cetuximab resulted in the effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis in a time- and dosedependent manner. The expression of activated key enzymes (p-AKT, p-EGFR, p-MAPK in EGFR signaling transduction pathway were down-regulated more obviously. Conclusion Cetuximab is an effective targeted drug in the treatment of lung cancer cell lines, tissues, most likely to contribute to the inhibition of key enzymes in EGFR signaling transduction pathway.

  14. Polymeric Nano-Encapsulation of Curcumin Enhances its Anti-Cancer Activity in Breast (MDA-MB231) and Lung (A549) Cancer Cells Through Reduction in Expression of HIF-1α and Nuclear p65 (Rel A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammed N; Haggag, Yusuf A; Lane, Majella E; McCarron, Paul A; Tambuwala, Murtaza M

    2018-02-14

    The anti-cancer potential of curcumin, a natural NFκβ inhibitor, has been reported extensively in breast, lung and other cancers. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin is enhanced when formulated in a nanoparticulate carrier. However, the mechanism of action of curcumin at the molecular level in the hypoxic tumour micro-environment is not fully understood. Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate the mechanism of action of curcumin formulated as nanoparticles in in vitro models of breast and lung cancer under an hypoxic microenvironment. Biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA nanoparticles (NP), loaded with curcumin (cur-PLGA-NP), were fabricated using a solvent evaporation technique to overcome solubility issues and to facilitate intracellular curcumin delivery. Cytotoxicity of free curcumin and cur-PLGA-NP was evaluated in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cell lines using migration, invasion and colony formation assays. All treatments were performed under an hypoxic micro-environment and whole cell lysates from controls and test groups were used to determine the expression of HIF-1α and p65 levels using ELISA assays. A ten-fold increase in solubility, three-fold increase in anti-cancer activity and a significant reduction in the levels of cellular HIF-1α and nuclear p65 (Rel A) were observed for cur-PLGA-NP, when compared to free curcumin. Our findings indicate that curcumin can effectively lower the elevated levels of HIF-1α and nuclear p65 (Rel A) in breast and lung cancer cells under an hypoxic tumour micro-environment when delivered in nanoparticulate form. This applied means of colloidal delivery could explain the improved anti-cancer efficacy of curcumin and has further potential applications in enhancing the activity of anti-cancer agents of low solubility. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. A platycoside-rich fraction from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum enhances cell death in A549 human lung carcinoma cells via mainly AMPK/mTOR/AKT signal-mediated autophagy induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Nam-Hui; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Liang, Chun; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-12-24

    The root of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), commonly known as Kilkyong in Korea, Jiegeng in China, and Kikyo in Japan, has been extensively used as a traditional anti-inflammatory medicine in Asia for the treatment of respiratory conditions, such as bronchitis, asthma, and tonsillitis. Platycosides isolated from PG are especially well-known for their anti-cancer effects. We investigated the involvement of autophagic cell death and other potential molecular mechanisms induced by the platycoside-containing butanol fraction of PG (PGB) in human lung carcinoma cells. PGB-induced growth inhibition and cell death were measured using a 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of PGB on autophagy were determined by observing microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) redistribution with confocal microscopy. The PGB-mediated regulation of autophagy-associated proteins was investigated using Western blotting analysis. Furthermore, the anti-cancer mechanism of PGB was confirmed using chemical inhibitors. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-DAD system was used to analyze the platycosides in PGB. In A549 cells, PGB induced significant autophagic cell death. Specifically, PGB upregulated LC3-II in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and it redistributed LC3 via autophagosome formation in the cytoplasm. PGB treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and subsequently suppressed the AKT/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Furthermore, PGB inhibited cell proliferation by regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In this study, six types of platycosides were identified in the PGB using HPLC. PGB efficiently induced cancer cell death via autophagy and the modulation of the AMPK/mTOR/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways in A549 cells. Therefore, PGB may be an efficacious herbal anti-cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Synergistic Effect of Subtoxic-dose Cisplatin and TRAIL to Mediate Apoptosis by Down-regulating Decoy Receptor 2 and Up-regulating Caspase-8, Caspase-9 and Bax Expression on NCI-H460 and A549 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL can selectively induce apoptosis in tumor cells, more than half of tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC exhibit TRAIL-resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether subtoxic-dose cisplatin and TRAIL could synergistically enhance apoptosis on NSCLC cells and investigate its underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods:NCI-H460 and A549 cells were treated with TRAIL alone, cisplatin alone or combination treatment in this study. The cytotoxicity was evaluated according to Sulforhodamine B assay, and apoptosis was examined using Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein levels of TRAIL receptors and apoptotic proteins including caspase-8, caspase-9, Bcl-2 and Bax were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results:Our results showed that NCI-H460 cells were sensitive to TRAIL, whereas A549 cells were resistant. However, subtoxic-dose cisplatin could enhance the both cells to TRAIL-mediated cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. The underlying mechanisms might be associated with the down-regulation of DcR2 and up-regulation of Caspase-8, Caspase-9 and Bax. Conclusion:Subtoxic-dose cisplatin could enhance both TRAIL- sensitive and TRAIL- resistant NSCLC cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. These findings motivated further studies to evaluate such a combinatory therapeutic strategy against NSCLC in the animal models.

  17. Discovery of 2-(4-Substituted-piperidin/piperazine-1-yl-N-(5-cyclopropyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl-quinazoline-2,4-diamines as PAK4 Inhibitors with Potent A549 Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion Inhibition Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxiao Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 2,4-diaminoquinazoline derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4 inhibitors. All compounds showed significant inhibitory activity against PAK4 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 < 1 μM. Among them, compounds 8d and 9c demonstrated the most potent inhibitory activity against PAK4 (IC50 = 0.060 μM and 0.068 μM, respectively. Furthermore, we observed that compounds 8d and 9c displayed potent antiproliferative activity against the A549 cell line and inhibited cell cycle distribution, migration, and invasion of this cell line. In addition, molecular docking analysis was performed to predict the possible binding mode of compound 8d. This series of compounds has the potential for further development as PAK4 inhibitors for anticancer activity.

  18. The toxicity of silver and silica nanoparticles in comparable human and mouse cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldbjerg, Rasmus; Beer, Christiane; Sutherland, Duncan S

    The toxicity of silica (SiO2) and PVP-coated silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated in two pairs of human or mouse cell lines originating from lung epithelium (A549 and ASB-XIV) and macrophages (THP-1 and J744A.1). Both NPs were characterized in H2O and cell media and demonstrated to be...

  19. Application of a lipid-coated hollow calcium phosphate nanoparticle in synergistic co-delivery of doxorubicin and paclitaxel for the treatment of human lung cancer A549 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu C

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chao Wu, Jie Xu, Yanna Hao, Ying Zhao, Yang Qiu, Jie Jiang, Tong Yu, Peng Ji, Ying Liu Pharmacy School, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, China Abstract: In this study, we developed a lipid-coated hollow calcium phosphate (LCP nanoparticle for the combined application of two chemotherapeutic drugs to human lung cancer A549 cells. Hydrophilic doxorubicin (DOX was incorporated into the hollow structure of hollow calcium phosphate (HCP, and a lipid bilayer containing hydrophobic paclitaxel (PTX was subsequently coated on the surface of HCP. The study on combinational effects demonstrated that the combination of DOX and PTX at a mass ratio of 12:1 showed a synergistic effect against A549 cells. The particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency were measured to obtain optimal values: particle size was 335.0 3.2 nm, zeta potential -41.1 mV, and encapsulation efficiency 80.40%±2.24%. An in vitro release study indicated that LCP produced a sustained drug release. A549 cells had a better uptake of LCP with good biocompatibility. Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxicity experiment, apoptosis analysis, in vivo anti-tumor efficacy and protein expression analysis of Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 demonstrated that the co-delivery system based on LCP had significant synergistic anti-tumor activity. All conclusions suggested that LCP is a promising platform for co-delivery of multiple anti-tumor drugs. Keywords: doxorubicin, paclitaxel, co-delivery, lipid, hollow calcium phosphate, lung cancer cell

  20. TGF-β1 downregulates COX-2 expression leading to decrease of PGE2 production in human lung cancer A549 cells, which is involved in fibrotic response to TGF-β1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erina Takai

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-β1 is a multifunctional cytokine that is involved in various pathophysiological processes, including cancer progression and fibrotic disorders. Here, we show that treatment with TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL induced downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, leading to reduced synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, in human lung cancer A549 cells. Treatment of cells with specific inhibitors of COX-2 or PGE2 receptor resulted in growth inhibition, indicating that the COX-2/PGE2 pathway contributes to proliferation in an autocrine manner. TGF-β1 treatment induced growth inhibition, which was attenuated by exogenous PGE2. TGF-β1 is also a potent inducer of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT, a phenotype change in which epithelial cells differentiate into fibroblastoid cells. Supplementation with PGE2 or PGE2 receptor EP4 agonist PGE1-alcohol, as compared with EP1/3 agonist sulprostone, inhibited TGF-β1-induced expression of fibronectin and collagen I (extracellular matrix components. Exogenous PGE2 or PGE2 receptor agonists also suppressed actin remodeling induced by TGF-β1. These results suggest that PGE2 has an anti-fibrotic effect. We conclude that TGF-β1-induced downregulation of COX-2/PGE2 signaling is involved in facilitation of fibrotic EMT response in A549 cells.

  1. The antiproliferative effect of coumarins on several cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Ogawa, K; Sugiura, M; Yano, M; Yoshizawa, Y

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-one coumarins were examined for their antiproliferative activity towards several cancer cell lines, namely lung carcinoma (A549), melanin pigment producing mouse melanoma (B16 melanoma 4A5), human T-cell leukemia (CCRF-HSB-2), and human gastric cancer, lymph node metastasized (TGBC11TKB). The structure-activity relationship established from the results revealed that the 6,7-dihydroxy moiety had an important role for their antiproliferative activity. Analysis of cell cycle distribution indicated that esculetin-treated cells accumulated in the G1 (at 400 microM) or in S phase (at 100 microM).

  2. Nimesulide acts synergistically with ionizing radiation against A549 human lung cancer cells through the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung Hee; Kim, Byeong Mo; Maeng, Kyung Ah

    2009-01-01

    Radiotherapy is important in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, but very few malignancies have been cured using single modalities of radiotherapy. Therefore, molecules that can target specific pathophysiological or molecular pathways have been investigated for use as radiation sensitizers. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors have been shown to enhance the radioresponse of cultured human cancer cell lines and immunodeficient mice. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms by which COX-2-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) enhance the radioresponse of tumor cells. In some types of cancer, radiation is thought to work by inducing apoptosis, and effective anticancer radiotherapy is frequently associated with increased levels of apoptosis markers in vitro and in vivo

  3. Role of Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and its target genes in human lung adenocarcinoma cells after photon- versus carbon ion irradiation; Expression HIF-1-abhaengiger Gene in humanen Lungenadenokarzinom (A549)-Zellen und deren Regulation nach Photonen- und Schwerionenbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, Verena Maria

    2013-11-26

    Exposed to hypoxia tumor cells are notably resistant to photon irradiation. The hypoxiainducible transcription factor 1α (HIF-1α) seems to play a fundamental role in this resistance, while its role after heavy-ion beam remains unknown. The intention of this study was to determine how A549-cells (non-small-cell lung carcinoma) react in different oxygenation states after irradiation with photons or heavy ions, particularly in regards to their expression of HIF-1 target genes. Resistance of hypoxic A549 cells after photon irradiation was documented by cellular and clonogenic survival. In contrast, cellular survival after heavy-ion irradiation in hypoxic cells was not elevated to normoxic cells. Among the oxygen dependent regulation of HIF-1 target genes, gene expression analyses showed an increased expression of GLUT-1, LDH-A, PDK-1 and VEGF after photon irradiation but not after heavy-ion irradiation after 48 hours in normoxic cells. As expected, CDKN1A as inhibitor of cell cycle progression showed higher expression after both radiation forms; interestingly CDKN1A was also in an oxygen dependent manner lightly upregulated. In western blot analyses we demonstrated a significant increase of HIF-1 and GLUT-1 caused by hypoxia, but only a tendency of increased protein level in hypoxia after photon irradiation and no changes after heavy-ion irradiation. Significantly higher protein level of secreted VEGF-A could be measured 72 hours after photon irradiation in normoxic cells by ELISA analyses. Controversially discussed, I could not detect an association between HIF-1 and SCF or Trx-1 in A549-cells in this study. Whereas Trx-1-expression was neither influenced by changed oxygen partial pressure nor irradiation, I could show increased SCF mRNA by quantitative Real Time-PCR and secreted protein level by ELISA after photon irradiation independent of oxygen state. In summary, this study showed that HIF-1 and its target genes (GLUT-1, LDHA; PDK, VEGF) and also SCF was

  4. [Effects of icotinib hydrochloride on the proliferation and apoptosis of human lung cancer cell lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Han, Xiao-hong; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Jian-fei; Shi, Yuan-kai

    2012-09-25

    To explore the effects of icotinib on the proliferation and apoptosis of various lung cancer cell lines. Human lung cancer cell lines HCC827, H1650, H1975, A549 and human epidermal cancer cell line A431 were treated in vitro with icotinib or gefitinib at a concentration gradient of 0 - 40 µmol/L. Their proliferation effects were analyzed by the thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay and the apoptotic effects detected by flow cytometer. The downstream signaling proteins were detected by Western blot. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of icotinib for A431 and HCC827 cell lines were (0.04 ± 0.02) and (0.15 ± 0.06) µmol/L respectively. No significant differences existed between the inhibitions of gefitinib and icotinib on A431, HCC827, H1650, H1975 and A549 cell lines (all P > 0.05). Compared with H1650, H1975 and A549 cell lines, icotinib significantly inhibited A431 (P = 0.009, 0.005 and 0.000) and HCC827 (P = 0.001, 0.001 and 0.000) cell lines. And it lowered the expressions of p-AKT, p-ERK and survivin protein expression through the inhibited activity of p-EGFR protein. Icotinib can arrest the proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells with EGFR mutation or over-expression by inhibiting the signal pathways of AKT-ERK and survivin.

  5. Correlation between live attenuated measles viral load and growth inhibition percentage in non-small cell lung cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Fadhel Obaid

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion Live attenuated measles virus strain induced cytotoxic effect against human lung cancer cell line (A549 by induction of apoptosis as an important mechanism of anti-tumor activity, in addition, it indicates a correlation between the quantity of MV genomesand percentage of growth inhibition. This relation  has proved that measles virus had anticancer effect.

  6. Metabolic Response to NAD Depletion across Cell Lines Is Highly Variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Kwong, Mandy; Daemen, Anneleen; Belvin, Marcia; Liang, Xiaorong; Hatzivassiliou, Georgia; O'Brien, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a cofactor involved in a wide range of cellular metabolic processes and is a key metabolite required for tumor growth. NAMPT, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, which converts nicotinamide (NAM) to nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the immediate precursor of NAD, is an attractive therapeutic target as inhibition of NAMPT reduces cellular NAD levels and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. However, there is limited understanding of the metabolic response to NAD depletion across cancer cell lines and whether all cell lines respond in a uniform manner. To explore this we selected two non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines that are sensitive to the NAMPT inhibitor GNE-617 (A549, NCI-H1334), one that shows intermediate sensitivity (NCI-H441), and one that is insensitive (LC-KJ). Even though NAD was reduced in all cell lines there was surprising heterogeneity in their metabolic response. Both sensitive cell lines reduced glycolysis and levels of di- and tri-nucleotides and modestly increased oxidative phosphorylation, but they differed in their ability to combat oxidative stress. H1334 cells activated the stress kinase AMPK, whereas A549 cells were unable to activate AMPK as they contain a mutation in LKB1, which prevents activation of AMPK. However, A549 cells increased utilization of the Pentose Phosphate pathway (PPP) and had lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels than H1334 cells, indicating that A549 cells are better able to modulate an increase in oxidative stress. Inherent resistance of LC-KJ cells is associated with higher baseline levels of NADPH and a delayed reduction of NAD upon NAMPT inhibition. Our data reveals that cell lines show heterogeneous response to NAD depletion and that the underlying molecular and genetic framework in cells can influence the metabolic response to NAMPT inhibition.

  7. Metabolic Response to NAD Depletion across Cell Lines Is Highly Variable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD is a cofactor involved in a wide range of cellular metabolic processes and is a key metabolite required for tumor growth. NAMPT, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, which converts nicotinamide (NAM to nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN, the immediate precursor of NAD, is an attractive therapeutic target as inhibition of NAMPT reduces cellular NAD levels and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. However, there is limited understanding of the metabolic response to NAD depletion across cancer cell lines and whether all cell lines respond in a uniform manner. To explore this we selected two non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines that are sensitive to the NAMPT inhibitor GNE-617 (A549, NCI-H1334, one that shows intermediate sensitivity (NCI-H441, and one that is insensitive (LC-KJ. Even though NAD was reduced in all cell lines there was surprising heterogeneity in their metabolic response. Both sensitive cell lines reduced glycolysis and levels of di- and tri-nucleotides and modestly increased oxidative phosphorylation, but they differed in their ability to combat oxidative stress. H1334 cells activated the stress kinase AMPK, whereas A549 cells were unable to activate AMPK as they contain a mutation in LKB1, which prevents activation of AMPK. However, A549 cells increased utilization of the Pentose Phosphate pathway (PPP and had lower reactive oxygen species (ROS levels than H1334 cells, indicating that A549 cells are better able to modulate an increase in oxidative stress. Inherent resistance of LC-KJ cells is associated with higher baseline levels of NADPH and a delayed reduction of NAD upon NAMPT inhibition. Our data reveals that cell lines show heterogeneous response to NAD depletion and that the underlying molecular and genetic framework in cells can influence the metabolic response to NAMPT inhibition.

  8. Screening of Stat3 inhibitory effects of Korean herbal medicines in the A549 human lung cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Shik Park

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Many medicinal herbs traditionally used in Korea contain Stat3 activity-suppressing substances. Because of the therapeutic impact of Stat3 inhibition, these results could be useful when developing novel cancer therapeutics from medicinal herbs.

  9. Release behavior and toxicity profiles towards A549 cell lines of ciprofloxacin from its layered zinc hydroxide intercalation compound

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Latip, Ahmad Faiz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Stanslas, Johnson; Wong, Charng Choon; Adnan, Rohana

    2013-01-01

    Background Layered hydroxides salts (LHS), a layered inorganic compound is gaining attention in a wide range of applications, particularly due to its unique anion exchange properties. In this work, layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (LZH), a family member of LHS was intercalated with anionic ciprofloxacin (CFX), a broad spectrum antibiotic via ion exchange in a mixture solution of water:ethanol. Results Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analys...

  10. Cu(II) Complexes of Isoniazid Schiff Bases: DNA/BSA Binding and Cytotoxicity Studies on A549 Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadevi, Pulipaka; Singh, Rinky; Prajapati, Akhilesh; Gupta, Sarita; Chakraborty, Debjani

    2014-01-01

    A series of isonicotinoyl hydrazones have been synthesized via template method and were complexed to Cu(II). The ligands are coordinated to Cu(II) ion through the enolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen resulting in a square planar geometry. The CT-DNA and bovine serum albumin binding propensities of the compounds were determined spectrophotometrically, the results of which indicate good binding propensity of complexes to DNA and BSA with high binding constant values. Furthermore, the compounds...

  11. Mir-513a-3p contributes to the controlling of cellular migration processes in the A549 lung tumor cells by modulating integrin β-8 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Marina Bonfogo; Lima, Kelvin Furtado; da Silva, Andrea Renata; Dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Moraes, Karen C M

    2017-12-04

    Lung tumors are a frequent type of cancer in humans and a leading cause of death, and the late diagnostic contributes to high mortality rates. New therapeutic strategies are needed, and the heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7) [ang-(1-7)] demonstrated the ability to control cancer growth rates and migration in vitro and in vivo. However, the possible use of the heptapeptide in clinical trials demands deeper analyses to elucidate molecular mechanisms of its effect in the target cells. In this study, we investigated relevant elements that control pro-inflammatory environment and cellular migration, focusing in the post-transcription mechanism using lung tumor cell line. In our cellular model, the microRNA-513a-3p was identified as a novel element targeting ITG-β8, thereby controlling the protein level and its molecular function in the controlling of migration and pro-inflammatory environment. These findings provide useful information for future studies, using miR-513a-3p as an innovative molecular tool to control lung tumor cell migration, which will support more effective clinical treatment of the patients with the widely used chemotherapeutic agents, increasing survival rates.

  12. The influence of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the inflammatory cytokine response and protein expression in A549 cells exposed to PM2.5 collected in the Baton Rouge-Port Allen industrial corridor of Southeastern Louisiana in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Brian; Owens, John Wesley

    2014-03-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita hit the coast of Louisiana in 2005 and killed more than 2000 people. The two storms resulted in a significant spike in particulate matter (PM2.5) levels across the state of Louisiana. This report focuses on PM2.5 samples collected in 2005 from two monitoring sites in the neighboring cities of Baton Rouge and Port Allen, Louisiana. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) revealed the presence of PM2.5-adsorbed representative and Fenton-active transition metals. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed the presence of 23 PAH compounds. Endotoxins were also detected. Metals and endotoxins were extracted with water. PAH were extracted with dichloromethane. In order to assess cytotoxicity, aqueous PM2.5 extracts were introduced to A549 Human Epithelial Lung Carcinoma Cells. Results indicated decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, with an LC50 of 235 µg/ml and 250 µg/ml, respectively, for the two sites featured here. Endotoxins alone were not cytotoxic. The concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and released LDH activity increased following exposure of A549 cells to aqueous PM2.5 extracts. Fluorescence microscopy revealed apoptotic and necrotic cell death mechanisms. ELISA revealed increased secretion of primary pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Global PCR gene expression revealed up-regulation of proteins associated with the cytokine storm; e.g. interleukins, chemokines, and TNF-α. Global antibody microarray was consistent with an inflammatory response, with up-regulation of cytokines involved in the down-field activation of the caspase cascade and kinase pathways. The up-regulation of metal-redox sensitive transcription factors, NF-κβ and AP-1, is consistent with a cell death mechanism initiated by Fenton-active transition metal redox catalysis.

  13. Effects of X-ray irradiation on the expression of Pokemon gene in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xiaofang; Zou Yue; Wang Lu; Jiang Qisheng; Li Fengsheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the dose and time effects of X-ray radiation on the expression of Pokemon gene and protein in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A 549 . Methods: A 549 cells was exposed to different doses of X-ray (2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy), and the expression of Pokemon mRNA and protein of the cells was detected by using Quantitative real-time PCR and western-blotting at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after irradiation. 3-( 4, 5-Dimethylthiazole-2-yl )-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was used to detect the proliferation of A 549 cells at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 d after 2 Gy X-ray irradiation. The mock treated A 549 cells were used as the control. Results: The expression of Pokemon mRNA trended to decrease after irradiated with 4, 6 and 8 Gy in the earlier period and increased in the later period with statistical difference at the most time points (t =3.40 -154.76, P =0.000 -0.041). The expression of Pokemon protein trended to increase and reached the peak at 8 h after irradiated of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy with statistical difference at the most time points (t =4.18 - 89.64, P =0.000 - 0.039). Compared with the control, the proliferation of A 549 cells was significantly inhibited during 3 to 5 d after irradiation of 2 Gy (t =2.34 - 18.19, P =0.000 -0.040). Conclusions: X-ray irradiation may increase the expression of Pokemon mRNA and protein in A 549 cells, which might be correlated with radiation-resistance of A 549 cells. (authors)

  14. Diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes activate cell death in human cancer cell lines but not normal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina Sansone

    Full Text Available Diatoms are an important class of unicellular algae that produce bioactive polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs that induce abortions or malformations in the offspring of invertebrates exposed to them during gestation. Here we compare the effects of the PUAs 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal (DD, 2-trans,4-trans-octadienal (OD and 2-trans,4-trans-heptadienal (HD on the adenocarcinoma cell lines lung A549 and colon COLO 205, and the normal lung/brunch epithelial BEAS-2B cell line. Using the viability MTT/Trypan blue assays, we show that PUAs have a toxic effect on both A549 and COLO 205 tumor cells but not BEAS-2B normal cells. DD was the strongest of the three PUAs tested, at all time-intervals considered, but HD was as strong as DD after 48 h. OD was the least active of the three PUAs. The effect of the three PUAs was somewhat stronger for A549 cells. We therefore studied the death signaling pathway activated in A549 showing that cells treated with DD activated Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 (TNFR1 and Fas Associated Death Domain (FADD leading to necroptosis via caspase-3 without activating the survival pathway Receptor-Interacting Protein (RIP. The TNFR1/FADD/caspase pathway was also observed with OD, but only after 48 h. This was the only PUA that activated RIP, consistent with the finding that OD causes less damage to the cell compared to DD and HD. In contrast, cells treated with HD activated the Fas/FADD/caspase pathway. This is the first report that PUAs activate an extrinsic apoptotic machinery in contrast to other anticancer drugs that promote an intrinsic death pathway, without affecting the viability of normal cells from the same tissue type. These findings have interesting implications also from the ecological viewpoint considering that HD is one of the most common PUAs produced by diatoms.

  15. beta-1,3-Glucan-Induced Host Phospholipase D Activation Is Involved in Aspergillus fumigatus Internalization into Type II Human Pneumocyte A549 Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Xuelin; Yu, Rentao; Zhen, Dongyu; Tao, Sha; Schmidt, Martina; Han, Li

    2011-01-01

    The internalization of Aspergillus fumigatus into lung epithelial cells is a process that depends on host cell actin dynamics. The host membrane phosphatidylcholine cleavage driven by phospholipase D (PLD) is closely related to cellular actin dynamics. However, little is known about the impact of

  16. Methylation Status of miR-182 Promoter in Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwen LI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that the abnormal expression of miR-182 was related to the occurrence and development of tumors. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the methylation of miR-182 promoter and its expression in lung cancer cell lines. Methods Real-time quantitative PCR and methylation-specific PCR were used to detect the expression level of miR-182 and its promoter methylation status in five lung cancer cell lines (A549, L9981, NL9980, 95C and 95D. DNA sequencing was used to confirm the methylation results. Results The level of miR-182 expression significantly differs among these lung cancer cell lines. The highly metastatic human lung cancer cell lines, namely, A549 and L9981, demonstrate a relatively lower expression level of miR-182 compared with the lowly metastatic human lung cancer cell line 95C. Methylation-specific PCR and DNA sequencing assay results indicate that these lung cancer cell lines present different levels of miR-182 promoter methylation, and the highest methylation level is observed in A549 cells. Furthermore, the expression of miR-182 in these cell lines significantly increases when treated with 10 μM 5’-Aza-dC. Conclusion DNA methylation occurs in the miR-182 promoter region in lung cancer cell lines. This methylation can regulate the expression level of miR-182. Further study must be conducted to explore the function of miR-182 promoter methylation in lung cancer occurrence and development.

  17. Kaempferol Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Smad3 at Threonine-179.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Eunji; Park, Seong Ji; Choi, Yu Sun; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol, a natural dietary flavonoid, is well known to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic anticancer efficacy; however, its antimetastatic effects have not been mechanistically studied so far in any cancer model. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and accompanying mechanisms of kaempferol on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In human A549 non-small lung cancer cells, kaempferol strongly blocked the enhancement of cell migration by TGF-β1-induced EMT through recovering the loss of E-cadherin and suppressing the induction of mesenchymal markers as well as the upregulation of TGF-β1-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Interestingly, kaempferol reversed TGF-β1-mediated Snail induction and E-cadherin repression by weakening Smad3 binding to the Snail promoter without affecting its C-terminus phosphorylation, complex formation with Smad4, and nuclear translocation under TGF-β1 stimulation. Mechanism study revealed that the phosphorylation of Smad3 linker region induced by TGF-β1 was required for the induction of EMT and cell migration, and selective downregulation of the phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue (not Ser204, Ser208, and Ser213) in the linker region was responsible for the inhibition by kaempferol of TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. Furthermore, Akt1 was required for TGF-β1-mediated induction of EMT and cell migration and directly phosphorylated Smad3 at Thr179, and kaempferol completely abolished TGF-β1-induced Akt1 phosphorylation. In summary, kaempferol blocks TGF-β1-induced EMT and migration of lung cancer cells by inhibiting Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue, providing the first evidence of a molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of kaempferol. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Kaempferol Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-β1–Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Smad3 at Threonine-1791

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Eunji; Park, Seong Ji; Choi, Yu Sun; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Kaempferol, a natural dietary flavonoid, is well known to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic anticancer efficacy; however, its antimetastatic effects have not been mechanistically studied so far in any cancer model. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and accompanying mechanisms of kaempferol on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In human A549 non–small lung cancer cells, kaempferol strongly blocked the enhancement of cell migration by TGF-β1–induced EMT through recovering the loss of E-cadherin and suppressing the induction of mesenchymal markers as well as the upregulation of TGF-β1–mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Interestingly, kaempferol reversed TGF-β1–mediated Snail induction and E-cadherin repression by weakening Smad3 binding to the Snail promoter without affecting its C-terminus phosphorylation, complex formation with Smad4, and nuclear translocation under TGF-β1 stimulation. Mechanism study revealed that the phosphorylation of Smad3 linker region induced by TGF-β1 was required for the induction of EMT and cell migration, and selective downregulation of the phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue (not Ser204, Ser208, and Ser213) in the linker region was responsible for the inhibition by kaempferol of TGF-β1–induced EMT and cell migration. Furthermore, Akt1 was required for TGF-β1–mediated induction of EMT and cell migration and directly phosphorylated Smad3 at Thr179, and kaempferol completely abolished TGF-β1–induced Akt1 phosphorylation. In summary, kaempferol blocks TGF-β1–induced EMT and migration of lung cancer cells by inhibiting Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue, providing the first evidence of a molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of kaempferol. PMID:26297431

  19. Induction of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 by activated oncogene RhoA GTPase in A549 human epithelial cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hye Jin [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Hyung [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Juil; Do, Kee Hun [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); An, Tae Jin; Ahn, Young Sup; Park, Chung Berm [Department of Herbal Crop Research, NIHHS, RDA, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Yuseok, E-mail: moon@pnu.edu [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Institute and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-30

    Highlights: {yields} As a target of oncogene RhoA-linked signal, a prostaglandin metabolism is assessed. {yields} RhoA activation increases PGE{sub 2} levels and its metabolic enzyme mPGES-1. {yields} RhoA-activated NF-{kappa}B and EGR-1 are positively involved in mPGES-1 induction. -- Abstract: Oncogenic RhoA GTPase has been investigated as a mediator of pro-inflammatory responses and aggressive carcinogenesis. Among the various targets of RhoA-linked signals, pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), a major prostaglandin metabolite, was assessed in epithelial cancer cells. RhoA activation increased PGE{sub 2} levels and gene expression of the rate-limiting PGE{sub 2} producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). In particular, human mPGES-1 was induced by RhoA via transcriptional activation in control and interleukin (IL)-1{beta}-activated cancer cells. To address the involvement of potent signaling pathways in RhoA-activated mPGES-1 induction, various signaling inhibitors were screened for their effects on mPGES-1 promoter activity. RhoA activation enhanced basal and IL-1{beta}-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-{kappa}B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 proteins, all of which were positively involved in RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1. As one potent down-stream transcription factor of ERK1/2 signals, early growth response gene 1 product also mediated RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1 by enhancing transcriptional activity. Since oncogene-triggered PGE{sub 2} production is a critical modulator of epithelial tumor cells, RhoA-associated mPGES-1 represents a promising chemo-preventive or therapeutic target for epithelial inflammation and its associated cancers.

  20. Apoptosis inducing ability of silver decorated highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites in A549 lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Merajuddin Khan,1 Mujeeb Khan,1 Abdulhadi H Al-Marri,1 Abdulrahman Al-Warthan,1 Hamad Z Alkhathlan,1 Mohammed Rafiq H Siddiqui,1 Vadithe Lakshma Nayak,2 Ahmed Kamal,2 Syed F Adil1 1Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology, CSIR – Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, India Abstract: Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano­composites (PGE-HRG-Ag were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug. A correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG and the anticancer activity of nanocomposite was observed, wherein an increase in the concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of HRG led to the enhanced anticancer activity of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than standard drug in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. A detailed investigation was undertaken and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS analysis demonstrated that the nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 showed G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Studies such as, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and Annexin V-FITC staining assay suggested that this compound induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. Keywords: plant extract, graphene/silver nanocomposites, anticancer, apoptosis

  1. Preparation of oligonucleotide microarray for radiation-associated gene expression detection and its application in lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanfeng; Lin Ruxian; Huang Jian; Guo Guozhen; Wang Shengqi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The response of tumor cell to radiation is accompanied by complex change in patterns of gene expression. It is highly probable that a better understanding of molecular and genetic changes can help to sensitize the radioresistant tumor cells. Methods: Oligonucleotide microarray provides a powerful tool for high-throughput identifying a wider range of genes involved in the radioresistance. Therefore, the authors designed one oligonucleotide microarray according to the biological effect of IR. By using different radiosensitive lung cancer cell lines, the authors identified genes showing altered expression in lung cancer cell lines. To provide independent confirmation of microarray data, semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed on a selection of genes. Results: In radioresistant A549 cell lines, a total of 18 genes were selected as having significant fold-changes compared to NCI-H446, 8 genes were up-regulated and 10 genes were down-regulated. Subsequently, A549 and NCI-H446 cells were delivered by ionizing radiation. In A549 cell line, we found 22 (19 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated) and 26 (8 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) differentially expressed genes at 6h and 24h after ionizing radiation. In NCI-H446 cell line, we identified 17 (9 up-regulated and 8 down-regulated) and 18 (6 up-regulated and 12 down-regulated) differentially expressed genes at 6 h and 24 h after ionizing radiation. The authors tested seven genes (MDM2, p53, XRCC5, Bcl-2, PIM2, NFKBIA and Cyclin B1) for RT-PCR, and found that the results were in good agreement with those from the microarray data except for NFKBIA gene, even though the value for each mRNA level might be different between the two measurements. In present study, the authors identified some genes with cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis, such as MdM2, BCL-2, PKCz and PIM2 expression levels increased in A549 cells and decreased in NCI-H446 cells after radiation, and other genes with DNA repair, such as XRCC5, ERCC5

  2. Radiosensitivity of mesothelioma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haekkinen, A.M.; Laasonen, A.; Linnainmaa, K.; Mattson, K.; Pyrhoenen, S.

    1996-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to examine the radiosensitivity of malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines. Cell kinetics, radiation-induced delay of the cell cycle and DNA ploidy of the cell lines were also determined. For comparison an HeLa and a human foetal fibroblast cell line were simultaneously explored. Six previously cytogenetically and histologically characterized mesothelioma tumor cell lines were applied. A rapid tiazolyl blue microtiter (MTT) assay was used to analyze radiosensitivity and cell kinetics and DNA ploidy of the cultured cells were determined by flow cytometry. The survival fraction after a dose of 2 Gy (SF2), parameters α and β of the linear quadratic model (LQ-model) and mean inactivation dose (D MID ) were also estimated. The DNA index of four cell lines equaled 1.0 and two cell lines equaled 1.5 and 1.6. Different mesothelioma cell lines showed a great variation in radiosensitivity. Mean survival fraction after a radiation dose of 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.60 and ranged from 0.36 to 0.81 and mean α value was 0.26 (range 0.48-0.083). The SF2 of the most sensitive diploid mesothelioma cell line was 0.36: Less than that of the foetal fibroblast cell line (0.49). The survival fractions (0.81 and 0.74) of the two most resistant cell lines, which also were aneuploid, were equal to that of the HeLa cell line (0.78). The α/β ratios of the most sensitive cell lines were almost an order of magnitude greater than those of the two most resistant cell lines. Radiation-induced delay of the most resistant aneuploid cell line was similar to that of HeLa cells but in the most sensitive (diploid cells) there was practically no entry into the G1 phase following the 2 Gy radiation dose during 36 h. (orig.)

  3. CLO : The cell line ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Lin, Yu; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Meehan, Terrence F.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Vempati, Uma D.; Schuerer, Stephan C.; Pang, Chao; Malone, James; Parkinson, Helen; Liu, Yue; Takatsuki, Terue; Saijo, Kaoru; Masuya, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yukio; Brush, Matthew H.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Zheng, Jie; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Peters, Bjoern; Mungall, Christopher J.; Carey, Thomas E.; States, David J.; Athey, Brian D.; He, Yongqun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO

  4. The Expression and Biological Significance of PD-L1 on Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng CHEN

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Tumor-associated PD-L1 expression was recently shown to promote T-cell apoptosis and proposed as a potential mechanism of immune evasion by tumors. On the basis of the ability of tumor-associated PD-L1 to mediate activated T-cell death, it is likely that manipulation of the PD-L1 pathway at defined time points during the development of the T-cell antitumor immune response can enhance the efficacy of T-cell-based immunotherapy. Here, the levels of expression of PD-L1 on lung cancer cell lines and its role in interaction of CTL and target cells was investigated. Methods Human PBMC derived DCs were loaded with apoptotic tumor cells and stimulated by CD40 mAb (5C11. Tumor specific CTL was generated in vitro by autologous T cells co-cultured with mature DCs. Expression of PD-L1 on lung cancer cell lines H1299 and A549 were analyzed by FCM. JAM assay was used to detect the cytolytic activity of CTL with or without blocking PD-L1 by PD-L1 mAb respectively. The concentrations of IFN-γ in supernatants from distinct groups were analyzed by ELISA. Results Tumor cells-loaded mature DCs could induce the generation of the tumor specific CTL. Expression of PD-L1 was low on A549 cell, but high on H1299 cell. Blockade of PD-L1 on A549 could not improve cytolytic effect of CTL on target cells and IFN-γ production, but fragmentation of H1299 cells and IFN-γ production were significantly enhanced by the combination of PD-L1 mAb and CTL. Conclusion Expression of PD-L1 on lung cancer cell line can decrease the cytolytic effect of CTL on target cells.

  5. Higher Levels of c-Met Expression and Phosphorylation Identify Cell Lines With Increased Sensitivity to AMG-458, a Novel Selective c-Met Inhibitor With Radiosensitizing Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bo; Torossian, Artour; Sun, Yunguang; Du, Ruihong; Dicker, Adam P.; Lu Bo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: c-Met is overexpressed in some non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and tissues. Cell lines with higher levels of c-Met expression and phosphorylation depend on this receptor for survival. We studied the effects of AMG-458 on 2 NSCLC cell lines. Methods and Materials: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium assays assessed the sensitivities of the cells to AMG-458. Clonogenic survival assays illustrated the radiosensitizing effects of AMG-458. Western blot for cleaved caspase 3 measured apoptosis. Immunoblotting for c-Met, phospho-Met (p-Met), Akt/p-Akt, and Erk/p-Erk was performed to observe downstream signaling. Results: AMG-458 enhanced radiosensitivity in H441 but not in A549. H441 showed constitutive phosphorylation of c-Met. A549 expressed low levels of c-Met, which were phosphorylated only in the presence of exogenous hepatocyte growth factor. The combination of radiation therapy and AMG-458 treatment was found to synergistically increase apoptosis in the H441 cell line but not in A549. Radiation therapy, AMG-458, and combination treatment were found to reduce p-Akt and p-Erk levels in H441 but not in A549. H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458 after small interfering RNA knockdown of c-Met; there was no change in A549. After overexpression of c-Met, A549 became more sensitive, while H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458. Conclusions: AMG-458 was more effective in cells that expressed higher levels of c-Met/p-Met, suggesting that higher levels of c-Met and p-Met in NSCLC tissue may classify a subset of tumors that are more sensitive to molecular therapies against this receptor.

  6. Investigation of therapeutic efficiency of phenytoin (PHT) labeled with radioactive 131I in the cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansu Uzaras; Ugur Avcibasi; Hasan Demiroglu; Emin Ilker Medine; Ayfer Yurt KiIcar; Fazilet Zuemruet Biber Mueftueler; Perihan Uenak

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the incorporations of PHT radiolabeled with 131 I ( 131 I-PHT) on U-87 MG, Daoy and A549 cancerous cell lines. For this, cold and radio-labeling studies were carried out. The radiolabeling yield of 131 I-PHT was obtained about 95 %. Subsequently, cell culture studies were carried out and radio-labeling yields of 131 I, 131 I-PHT on U-87 MG, Daoy and A549 cancerous cells were investigated. Cell culture studies demonstrated that the incorporation values of 131 IPHT on the three cell lines decreased with increasing radioactivity. Consequently, 131 I-PHT may be a good radiopharmaceutical for targeting radionuclide therapy of Central Nervous System Tumors. (author)

  7. Effects of extracellular and intracellular pH on repair of potentially lethal damage, chromosome aberrations and DNA double-strand breaks in irradiated plateau-phase A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanth, V.R.; Bayne, M.T.; Varnes, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    Plateau-phage A549 cells exhibit a high capacity for repair of potentially lethal radiation damage (PLD). Previously it was found that PLD repair could be partially inhibited by increasing the extracellular pH (pH e ) of the spent medium from its normal value of 6.7-6.8 to 7.6 during postirradiation holding. This study shows that PLD repair is also inhibited by reducing the pH e of the spent medium to 6.0. The effects of altering pH e on rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) as measured by neutral filter elution and on mitotic delay and chromosome aberrations seen after releasing cells from the plateau phase were investigated. Neither increasing nor decreasing the pH e of the spent medium had an effect on radiation-induced mitotic delay. Rejoining of DSBs was significantly inhibited by holding at pH e 6.0 but not affected by holding at pH e 7.6. At 2 h after irradiation about 51% of unrejoined breaks remained at pH e 6.0, compared to about 15% at pH e 6.7 or 7.6. However, holding at pH e 7.6 appeared to cause a marginal change in the kinetics of rejoining of DSBs. Repair of lesions leading to dicentric and acentric chromosome aberrations did not occur when cells were held at pH e 6.0, since less than 10% of these aberrations disappeared from cells held for 24 h before subculture. In contrast, holding plateau-phase cells at pH e 7.6 vs 6.7 caused a small but significant reduction in the disappearance of dicentrics but had no effect on the rate or extent of the disappearance of acentrics. These data have led us to hypothesize that inhibition of PLD repair by holding at pH e 6.0 is related both to inhibition of pH-dependent DNA repair enzymes and to induction of changes in DNA which lead to misrepair when the cells are released from plateau phase. Inhibition of PLD repair by holding at pH e 7.6 is related primarily to changes in DNA structure which promote misrepair. 43 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Antitumor and apoptotic effects of cucurbitacin a in A-549 lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The main aim of this study was to demonstrate the antitumor potential of cucurbitacin A on A-549 NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer cells). The effects of Cucurbitacin A on apoptotic induction, cell physic, cell cycle failure and m-TOR/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway were also investigated in the present study.

  9. Lung Adenocarcinomas and Lung Cancer Cell Lines Show Association of MMP-1 Expression With STAT3 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Schütz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is constitutively activated in the majority of lung cancer. This study aims at defining connections between STAT3 function and the malignant properties of non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC cells. To address possible mechanisms by which STAT3 influences invasiveness, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 was analyzed and correlated with the STAT3 activity status. Studies on both surgical biopsies and on lung cancer cell lines revealed a coincidence of STAT3 activation and strong expression of MMP-1. MMP-1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated activated STAT3 were found co-localized in cancer tissues, most pronounced in tumor fronts, and in particular in adenocarcinomas. STAT3 activity was constitutive, although to different degrees, in the lung cancer cell lines investigated. Three cell lines (BEN, KNS62, and A549 were identified in which STAT3 activitation was inducible by Interleukin-6 (IL-6. In A549 cells, STAT3 activity enhanced the level of MMP-1 mRNA and stimulated transcription from the MMP-1 promoter in IL-6–stimulated A549 cells. STAT3 specificity of this effect was confirmed by STAT3 knockdown through RNA interference. Our results link aberrant activity of STAT3 in lung cancer cells to malignant tumor progression through up-regulation of expression of invasiveness-associated MMPs.

  10. Basal HIF-1a expression levels are not predictive for radiosensitivity of human cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, D.; Multhoff, G.; Helmholtz Center Munich, CCG - Innate Immunity in Tumor Biology, Munich; Bayer, C.; Emmerich, K.; Molls, M.; Vaupel, P.; Huber, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    High levels of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1a in tumors are reported to be associated with tumor progression and resistance to therapy. To examine the impact of HIF-1a on radioresistance under normoxia, the sensitivity towards irradiation was measured in human tumor cell lines that differ significantly in their basal HIF-1a levels. HIF-1a levels were quantified in lysates of H1339, EPLC-272H, A549, SAS, XF354, FaDu, BHY, and CX- tumor cell lines by ELISA. Protein levels of HIF-1a, HIF-2a, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), and GAPDH were assessed by Western blot analysis. Knock-down experiments were performed using HIF-1a siRNA. Clonogenic survival after irradiation was determined by the colony forming assay. According to their basal HIF-1a status, the tumor cell lines were divided into low (SAS, XF354, FaDu, A549, CX-), intermediate (EPLC-272H, BHY), and high (H1339) HIF-1a expressors. The functionality of the high basal HIF-1a expression in H1339 cells was proven by reduced CA IX expression after knocking-down HIF-1a. Linear regression analysis revealed no correlation between basal HIF-1a levels and the survival fraction at either 2 or 4 Gy in all tumor cell lines investigated. Our data suggest that basal HIF-1a levels in human tumor cell lines do not predict their radiosensitivity under normoxia. (orig.)

  11. Radiosensitivity of mesothelioma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haekkinen, A.M. [Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Laasonen, A. [Dept. of Pathology, Central Hospital of Etelae-Pohjanmaa, Seinaejoki (Finland); Linnainmaa, K. [Dept. of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland); Mattson, K. [Dept. Pulmonary Medicine, Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Pyrhoenen, S. [Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-10-01

    The present study was carried out in order to examine the radiosensitivity of malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines. Cell kinetics, radiation-induced delay of the cell cycle and DNA ploidy of the cell lines were also determined. For comparison an HeLa and a human foetal fibroblast cell line were simultaneously explored. Six previously cytogenetically and histologically characterized mesothelioma tumor cell lines were applied. A rapid tiazolyl blue microtiter (MTT) assay was used to analyze radiosensitivity and cell kinetics and DNA ploidy of the cultured cells were determined by flow cytometry. The survival fraction after a dose of 2 Gy (SF2), parameters {alpha} and {beta} of the linear quadratic model (LQ-model) and mean inactivation dose (D{sub MID}) were also estimated. The DNA index of four cell lines equaled 1.0 and two cell lines equaled 1.5 and 1.6. Different mesothelioma cell lines showed a great variation in radiosensitivity. Mean survival fraction after a radiation dose of 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.60 and ranged from 0.36 to 0.81 and mean {alpha} value was 0.26 (range 0.48-0.083). The SF2 of the most sensitive diploid mesothelioma cell line was 0.36: Less than that of the foetal fibroblast cell line (0.49). The survival fractions (0.81 and 0.74) of the two most resistant cell lines, which also were aneuploid, were equal to that of the HeLa cell line (0.78). The {alpha}/{beta} ratios of the most sensitive cell lines were almost an order of magnitude greater than those of the two most resistant cell lines. Radiation-induced delay of the most resistant aneuploid cell line was similar to that of HeLa cells but in the most sensitive (diploid cells) there was practically no entry into the G1 phase following the 2 Gy radiation dose during 36 h. (orig.).

  12. Exogenous wild type p53 gene affects radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line under hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianhua; Wang Feng; Liu Yongping; Zhang Yaping; Ni Yan; Li Shirong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of exogenous wild type p53 (wtp53) gene on radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line under hypoxia. Methods: Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was transfected with adenovirus carrying recombinant exogenous wtp53. Four irradiation groups were studied: normal cell (Group A), wtp53 transfected cell (Group B), normal cell under hypoxia (Group C) and wtp53 transfected cell under hypoxia(Group D). Cells were irradiated with 9 MeV electron beams. Cellular survival fraction was analyzed. Multi-target single-hit model was used to plot the survival curve. D 0 , D q , oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), sensitizing enhancement ratio (SER) and other parameters were used to evaluate the effects of wtp53 gene on radiosensitivity of A549. The cell apoptotic rate of each group was examined by flow cytometry. Results: OER was 1.75 and 0.81 before and after wtp53 transfection. SER was 1.77 in oxic circumstance and 3.84 under hypoxia. The cell apoptotic rate of Group A and B was lower than Group C and D (F=7.92, P=0.048), with Group A lower than B and Group C lower than D (F=82.50, P=0.001). But Group B and D were similar(t=2.04, P=0.111). Conclusions: Hypoxia can increase the radiation resistance of lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. The wtp53 can promote apoptosis and improve tumor radiosensitivity, especially under hypoxia. (authors)

  13. Differential biological effects of iodoacetate in mammalian cell lines; radio sensitization and radio protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Usha; Anjaria, K.B.; Desai, Utkarsha N.; Chaurasia, Rajesh K.; Shirsath, K.B.; Bhat, Nagesh N.; Balakrishnan, Sreedevi; Sapra, B.K.; Nairy, Rajesha

    2014-01-01

    There are several studies where it has been shown that Iodoacetate (IA) possesses in vivo anti-tumor activity. The fact that it is a model glycolytic inhibitor makes it more interesting. As seen in recent trends, glycolytic inhibitors are emerging as new strategy for cancer therapeutic research taking advantage of glycolytic phenotype of cancerous tissues. IA has been reported to have radioprotective effects in yeast cells and human lymphocytes. Biological effects of IA in response to radiation in mammalian cell lines are not well documented. We screened IA for cytotoxicity using clonogenic assay at different concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2.5 μg/ml using three different mammalian cell lines; A-549 (human lung carcinoma cell line), MCF-7 (human mammary cancer cell line) and a noncancerous CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cell line). For studying radioprotective/radio sensitizing efficacy, cells were exposed to 4 Gy of 60 Co-γ radiation using a teletherapy source at a dose rate of 1 Gy/min, following which IA post-treatment was carried out. Clonogenic and micronucleus assay were performed to assess radioprotection/sensitization. The results indicated that IA was highly cytotoxic in cancerous cell lines A-549 (IC 50 =1.25 μg/ml) and MCF-7 (IC 50 = 1.9 μg/ml). In contrast, it was totally non-toxic in non-cancerous cell line, viz. CHO, in the same concentration range. In addition, IA exhibited radio protective effect in CHO cell line, whereas in other two cancer cell lines, viz. A-549 and MCF-7, radio sensitizing effect was seen as judged by induction of cell killing and micronuclei. In conclusion, lA, a model glycolytic inhibitor, was found to be selectively cytotoxic in cancer cells as compared to normal cells. Further, it reduced radiation induced damage (micronuclei and cell killing) in normal cells but increased it in cancer cells indicating its potential use in cancer therapy. (author)

  14. In vitro synergistic antitumor efficacy of sequentially combined chemotherapy/icotinib in non‑small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Cong; Liang, Xuan; Liu, Zhi-Yan; Cui, Jie; Liu, Ying; Jing, Li; Jiang, Li-Li; Ma, Jie-Qun; Han, Li-Li; Guo, Qian-Qian; Yang, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Nan, Ke-Jun; Yao, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The concurrent administration of chemotherapy and epidermal growth factor receptor‑tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR‑TKIs) has previously produced a negative interaction and failed to confer a survival benefit to non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients compared with first‑line cytotoxic chemotherapy. The present study aimed to investigate the optimal schedule of the combined treatment of cisplatin/paclitaxel and icotinib in NSCLC cell lines and clarify the underlying mechanisms. HCC827, H1975, H1299 and A549 human NSCLC cell lines with wild‑type and mutant EGFR genes were used as in vitro models to define the differential effects of various schedules of cisplatin/paclitaxel with icotinib treatments on cell growth, proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and EGFR signaling pathway. Sequence‑dependent antiproliferative effects differed among the four NSCLC cell lines, and were not associated with EGFR mutation, constitutive expression levels of EGFR or downstream signaling molecules. The antiproliferative effect of cisplatin plus paclitaxel followed by icotinib was superior to that of cisplatin or paclitaxel followed by icotinib in the HCC827, H1975, H1299 and A549 cell lines, and induced more cell apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest. Cisplatin and paclitaxel significantly increased the expression of EGFR phosphorylation in the HCC827 cell line. However, only paclitaxel increased the expression of EGFR phosphorylation in the H1975 cell line. Cisplatin/paclitaxel followed by icotinib influenced the expression of p‑EGFR and p‑AKT, although the expression of p‑ERK1/2 remained unchanged. The results suggest that the optimal schedule of the combined treatment of cisplatin/paclitaxel and icotinib differed among the NSCLC cell lines. The results also provide molecular evidence to support clinical treatment strategies for NSCLC patients.

  15. O-naphthoquinone isolated from Capraria biflora L. induces selective cytotoxicity in tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Wisintainer, G G N; Scola, G; Moura, S; Lemos, T L G; Pessoa, C; de Moraes, M O; Souza, L G S; Roesch-Ely, M; Henriques, J A P

    2015-12-21

    Biflorin is an o-naphthoquinone isolated from the roots of the plant Capraria biflora L. (Scrophulariaceae). In this study, the cytotoxic effects of biflorin were verified, and late apoptosis was detected in various cancer cell lines by in situ analysis. The cytotoxicity was further evaluated exclusively for 48 h of treatment in different tumor and non-tumor cell lines (Hep-2, HeLa, HT-29, A-375, and A-549, and HEK-293, respectively). The results indicated that biflorin induced selective cytotoxicity in tumor cells. HeLa cells were more susceptible to biflorin, followed by HT-29, A-549, A-375, and Hep-2 at all concentrations (range 5-50 μg/mL), and the highest half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 (56.01 ± 1.17 μg/mL) was observed in HEK-293 cells. Late apoptotic/necrotic events, observed by in situ immunostaining with Annexin V, varied with each cell line; an increase in late apoptotic events was observed corresponding to the increase in biflorin dosage. Hep-2 cells showed a greater percentage of late apoptotic events among the tumor cell lines when treated with higher concentrations of biflorin (69.63 ± 2.28%). The non-tumor HEK-293 line showed greater resistance to late apoptotic events, as well as a lower level of cytotoxicity (77.69 ± 6.68%) than the tested tumor lines. The data presented indicate that biflorin showed an important, possibly selective, cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines, thereby revealing a promising novel substance with potential anticancer activity for tumor therapy.

  16. Oxidative damage to DNA and repair induced by Norwegian wood smoke particles in human A549 and THP-1 cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Kocbach, Anette

    2009-01-01

    Genotoxic effects of traffic-generated particulate matter (PM) are well described, whereas little data are available on PM from combustion of biomass and wood, which contributes substantially to air pollution world wide. The aim of this study was to compare the genotoxicity of wood smoke particul......Genotoxic effects of traffic-generated particulate matter (PM) are well described, whereas little data are available on PM from combustion of biomass and wood, which contributes substantially to air pollution world wide. The aim of this study was to compare the genotoxicity of wood smoke...... than PM collected from vehicle exhaust with respect to development of lung cancer....

  17. [The CK2 inhibitor quninalizarin enhances the anti-proliferative effect of icotinib on EGFR-TKIs-resistant cell lines and its underlying mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Zhang, S; Li, K; Li, Q W; Zhou, F Z; Li, Z Y; Ma, H; Dong, X R; Liu, L; Wu, G; Meng, R

    2016-02-01

    To explore whether quninalizarin, an specific inhibitor of protein kinase CK2, could sensitize icotinib in EGFR-TKIs (epithelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor)-resistant cell lines and uncover the underlying mechanisms. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of quninalizarin, icotinib or the combination of both on cell proliferation in several lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Western blot assay was used to assess if combined inhibition of EGFR and protein kinase CK2 by icotinib and quninalizarin, exerts effect on the expression and phosphorylation of major proteins of EGFR signaling pathways. The IC50 of HCC827, H1650, H1975 and A549 cells for icotinib were (8.07±2.00)μmol/L, (66.01±6.64)μmol/L, (265.60±9.47)μmol/L and (87.88±6.8)μmol/L, respectively, indicating that HCC827 cells are sensitive to icotinib, and the H1650, H1975 and A549 cells are relatively resistant to icotinib. When treated with both quninalizarin and icotinib in the concentration of 50 μmol/L, the viability of H1650, H1975 and A549 cells was (40.64±3.73)%, (65.74±3.27)% and (44.96±0.48)%, respectively, significantly lower than that of H1650, H1975 and A549 cells treated with 50 μmol/L icotinib alone (55.05±1.22)%, (71.98±1.60)% and (61.74±6.18)%, respectively (Picotinib, the viability of H1650, H1975 and A549 ells were (23.35±0.81)%, (55.70±1.03)%, (33.42±1.33)%, respectively, significantly lower than the viability of H1650, H1975 and A549 cells treated with 100 μmol/L icotinib alone (40.57±2.65)%, (62.40±2.05)% and (44.97±8.20)%, respectively, (Picotinib alone, the viability of cells treated with icotinib and quinalizarin were significantly suppressed, and the differences were statistically significant (Picotinib together in the H1650 cells while the expression of Akt and ERK changed little. Quinalizarin, as a specific CK2 inhibitor, may overcome icotinib resistance by inhibiting proliferation mediated by Akt and ERK in human lung

  18. Difference in membrane repair capacity between cancer cell lines and a normal cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; McNeil, Anna K.; Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    repair was investigated by disrupting the plasma membrane using laser followed by monitoring fluorescent dye entry over time in seven cancer cell lines, an immortalized cell line, and a normal primary cell line. The kinetics of repair in living cells can be directly recorded using this technique...... cancer cell lines (p immortalized cell line (p

  19. Involvement of ERK, Bcl-2 family and caspase 3 in recombinant human activin A-induced apoptosis in A549

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baiding; Feng Yuling; Song Xingbo; Liu Qingqing; Ning Yunye; Ou Xuemei; Yang Jie; Zhang Xiaohong; Wen, Fuqiang

    2009-01-01

    Background: Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. Previous studies have shown that activin A may have a central role in regulating both apoptosis and proliferation. However, direct studies of recombination human activin A on human NSCLC A549 cells have not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether activin A could induce apoptosis in A549 cells and the possible mechanisms via which it worked. Methods: Cellular apoptosis induced by activin A was detected by TUNEL assay and the levels of protein expression were detected by western blot. Results: Recombination human activin A induced apoptosis in human NSCLC A549 cells in a concentrate-dependent manner. Activin A-induced A549 apoptosis was accompanied by the up-regulation of Bax, Bad and Bcl-Xs and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Moreover, activin A treatment increased the expression of its typeII receptors, activated ERK and caspase 3 in A549. These results clearly demonstrate that the induction of apoptosis by activin-A involves multiple cellular/molecular pathways and strongly suggest that pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins and caspase 3 participate in activin A-induced apoptotic process in A549 cells. On the other hand, activin A treatment had little effect on primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs). Conclusion: Recombination human activin A induced apoptosis in A549 cells, at least partially, through ERK and mitochondrial pathway. The result that activin A did not affect the normal SAEC revealed activin A might be considered as a potential anticancer agent and worthy of further studies

  20. The effect of intra- and extracellular GSH depletion on aerobic radiosensitization in three cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, E.P.; Epp, E.R.; Morse-Gaudio, M.; Biaglow, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of changes in the intra- and extracellular glutathione (GSH) concentrations on aerobic radiosensitization was studied in thee cell lines: CHO, V79 and A549. Intracellular GSH was metabolically depleted after the inhibition of GSH synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) treatment of attached cell cultures. Extracellular GSH was controlled through the replacement of growth medium with a thiol-free salt solution and, where desired, by the exogenous addition of GSH. Each of the cell lines examined exhibited an enhanced aerobic radioresponse when the intracellular GSH was extensively depleted (GSH < 5% of control after 1.0 mM BSO/24 hr treatment) and the extracellular GSH concentration was zero. However, this enhanced radiosensitivity was eliminated by the addition of exogenous GSH, albeit at a high concentration (5 mM). Most interesting and as yet unexplained is the observation that GSH appears to affect restoration of the control radioresponse without increasing the intracellular GSH concentration

  1. Simultaneous targeting of ATM and Mcl-1 increases cisplatin sensitivity of cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuquan; Shen, Mingjing; Yang, Li; Yang, Xiaodong; Tsai, Ying; Keng, Peter C; Chen, Yongbing; Lee, Soo Ok; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2017-08-03

    Development of cisplatin-resistance is an obstacle in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapeutics. To investigate which molecules are associated with cisplatin-resistance, we analyzed expression profiles of several DNA repair and anti-apoptosis associated molecules in parental (A549P and H157P) and cisplatin-resistant (A549CisR and H157CisR) NSCLC cells. We detected constitutively upregulated nuclear ATM and cytosolic Mcl-1 molcules in cisplatin-resistant cells compared with parental cells. Increased levels of phosphorylated ATM (p-ATM) and its downstream molecules, CHK2, p-CHK2, p-53, and p-p53 were also detected in cisplatin-resistant cells, suggesting an activation of ATM signaling in these cells. Upon inhibition of ATM and Mcl-1 expression/activity using specific inhibitors of ATM and/or Mcl-1, we found significantly enhanced cisplatin-cytotoxicity and increased apoptosis of A549CisR cells after cisplatin treatment. Several A549CisR-derived cell lines, including ATM knocked down (A549CisR-siATM), Mcl-1 knocked down (A549CisR-shMcl1), ATM/Mcl-1 double knocked down (A549CisR-siATM/shMcl1) as well as scramble control (A549CisR-sc), were then developed. Higher cisplatin-cytotoxicity and increased apoptosis were observed in A549CisR-siATM, A549CisR-shMcl1, and A549CisR-siATM/shMcl1 cells compared with A549CisR-sc cells, and the most significant effect was shown in A549CisR-siATM/shMcl1 cells. In in vivo mice studies using subcutaneous xenograft mouse models developed with A549CisR-sc and A549CisR-siATM/shMcl1 cells, significant tumor regression in A549CisR-siATM/shMcl1 cells-derived xenografts was observed after cisplatin injection, but not in A549CisR-sc cells-derived xenografts. Finally, inhibitor studies revealed activation of Erk signaling pathway was most important in upregulation of ATM and Mcl-1 molcules in cisplatin-resistant cells. These studies suggest that simultaneous blocking of ATM/Mcl-1 molcules or downstream Erk signaling may recover the

  2. Dihydrochalcone Compounds Isolated from Crabapple Leaves Showed Anticancer Effects on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Qin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seven dihydrochalcone compounds were isolated from the leaves of Malus crabapples, cv. “Radiant”, and their chemical structures were elucidated by UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR analyses. These compounds, which include trilobatin (A1, phloretin (A2, 3-hydroxyphloretin (A3, phloretin rutinoside (A4, phlorizin (A5, 6′′-O-coumaroyl-4′-O-glucopyranosylphloretin (A6, and 3′′′-methoxy-6′′-O-feruloy-4′-O-glucopyranosyl-phloretin (A7, all belong to the phloretin class and its derivatives. Compounds A6 and A7 are two new rare dihydrochalcone compounds. The results of a MTT cancer cell growth inhibition assay demonstrated that phloretin and these derivatives showed significant positive anticancer activities against several human cancer cell lines, including the A549 human lung cancer cell line, Bel 7402 liver cancer cell line, HepG2 human ileocecal cancer cell line, and HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. A7 had significant effects on all cancer cell lines, suggesting potential applications for phloretin and its derivatives. Adding a methoxyl group to phloretin dramatically increases phloretin’s anticancer activity.

  3. Low cytotoxicity effect of dendrosome as an efficient carrier for rotavirus VP2 gene transferring into a human lung cell line : dendrosome, as a novel intranasally gene porter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourasgari, Farzaneh; Ahmadian, Shahin; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Sarbolouki, Mohammad Nabi; Massumi, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of dendrosome (a gene porter) was assessed in transferring recombinant human rotavirus VP2 cDNA into A549, a human lung cell line. After gene transferring, transmission electron microscopy showed core-like particles (CLPs) formation in the transfected cells both with dendrosome and lipofectamine porters. In addition, western blotting analysis showed that the expression of VP2 gene was almost equal in the dendrosome and lipofectamine-transfected cells. Also, the cytotoxicity studies revealed that dendrosome had a lower cytotoxicity than lipofectamine. Therefore, our study may introduce dendrosome as a possible carrier for gene transferring into the human lung cell line, especially, for intranasally administration of DNA vaccines.

  4. Apoptotic induction activity of Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L. P.B. and Eleusine indica (L. Gaerth. extracts on human lung and cervical cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintusorn Hansakul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L. P.B. (Yaa paak khwaai and Eleusine indica (L. Gaerth. (Yaa teen-ka have long been used in traditional Thai medicine because of their diuretic, anti-inflamatory, and antipyretic effects. The present study examined the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of the hexane and butanolic extracts of these two grass species. All the grass extracts exhibited selective growth inhibition effect on human lung cancer (A549 and cervical cancer (HeLa cells relative to normal human lung MRC-5 fibroblasts with IC50 values in a range of 202 to 845 mg/ml. Apparently, HeLa cellswere more sensitive to the extracts than A549 cells. Moreover, all the extracts induced lethality in both cancer cell lines atconcentrations close to 1,000 mg/ml, indicating their selective cytotoxicity effects. ELISA assay showed that only the hexaneextract of D. aegyptium (L. P.B. and E. indica (L. Gaerth. significantly increased the apoptotic level in extract-treatedA549 cells. However, DNA ladder assay detected classic DNA ladder patterns, a characteristic feature of apoptosis, in both cancer cell lines treated with all the extracts in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicatethat the cytotoxic activity of the grass extracts against lung and cervical cancer cells is mediated through the induction ofapoptosis.

  5. In vitro cytotoxic effects of PM{sub 2.5} from the city of Abidjan (Ivory Coast) on human A549 lung cells; Effets cytotoxiques in vitro des PM{sub 2,} {sub 5} de la ville d'Abidjan (Cote-d'Ivoire) sur des cellules pulmonaires humaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouassi, Kouakou-Serge [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant, EA 4492 MREI, Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, Dunkerque (France); Universite Cocody-Abidjan et Institut Pasteur, Abidjan (Cote d' Ivoire); Billet, Sylvain; Garcon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony; Courcot, Dominique; Shirali, Pirouz [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant, EA 4492 MREI, Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, Dunkerque (France); Diouf, Amadou [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Faculte de Medecine Pharmacologie Odontologie, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar (Senegal); Cazier, Fabrice [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Centre Commun de Mesures, MREI 1, Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, Dunkerque (France); Djaman, Joseph [Universite Cocody-Abidjan et Institut Pasteur, Abidjan (Cote d' Ivoire)

    2012-01-15

    Epidemiological studies associate air pollution, especially particulate, increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular origin . Africa, which has an urbanization rate among the highest in the world, is particularly exposed. The 'Initiative on the air quality in Sub-Saharan Africa' showed the importance of atmospheric concentrations of certain pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}). Like the great capitals of Africa, Abidjan, economic capital and most industrialized city of Ivory Coast is facing an air pollution from industrial-urban and health consequences for its population of nearly 6 million inhabitants. To better understand the mechanisms of action resulting from pulmonary exposure to particulate atmospheric aerosols, we proposed: (i) to collect atmospheric particles (PM{sub 2.5}) using high volume cascade impaction in the District of Abidjan in three influences (rural, urban or industrial), (ii) to determine their main physicochemical, (iii) assess their cytotoxicity and their role in the induction of oxidative damage in a model of human lung cells (A549) in culture. The chemical composition of the atmospheric particles revealed their heterogeneity, and many inorganic (e.g. Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mg) and organic compounds (e.g. paraffins) were quantified at the three sites. Their effect concentrations (EC) to 10 and 50% on the A549 were as follows: influence rural: EC{sub 10} = 5.91 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} and EC{sub 50} 29.55 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}, urban influence: EC{sub 10} = 5 .45 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} and EC{sub 50} = 27.23 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}, and industrial influence: EC{sub 10} = 6.86 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} and EC{sub 50} = 34.29 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}. Exposure of A549 cells to Abidjan city's PM samples for 24, 48 or 72 hours to their EC{sub 10} or EC{sub 50} induced oxidative damage, as demonstrated by the formation of malon-dialdehyde, changes in enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase

  6. MiR-122 Induces Radiosensitization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debin Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MiR-122 is a novel tumor suppresser and its expression induces cell cycle arrest, or apoptosis, and inhibits cell proliferation in multiple cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells. Radioresistance of cancer cell leads to the major drawback of radiotherapy for NSCLC and the induction of radiosensitization could be a useful strategy to fix this problem. The present work investigates the function of miR-122 in inducing radiosensitization in A549 cell, a type of NSCLC cells. MiR-122 induces the radiosensitization of A549 cells. MiR-122 also boosts the inhibitory activity of ionizing radiation (IR on cancer cell anchor-independent growth and invasion. Moreover, miR-122 reduced the expression of its targeted genes related to tumor-survival or cellular stress response. These results indicate that miR-122 would be a novel strategy for NSCLC radiation-therapy.

  7. Establishment of a radioresistant human lung cancer cell subline and its mechanism of radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wei; Wang Qiong; Liu Li; Shi Xing; Ding Qian; Wu Gang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish a radioresistant cell subline from a human A549 lung cancer cell line and investigate the mechanism of radioresistance. Methods: Two proposals were applied for the non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells irradiated with X-rays: A group of A549 cell line was irradiated five times, the fractionated dose was 600 cGy, and the other group was exposed 15 times, the fractionated dose was 200 cGy. After the completion of irradiation, two monoclones were obtained from the survival of cells and named the subline A549-S1 and A549-S2. The radiosensitivity and cell cycle distribution of these two clones, together with its parental A549 cells were measured by clone formation assay and flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein levels of Notchl in A549 cell line and the sublines were determined by RT-PCR and Western-blots. Results: Compared with the parental A549 cells, A549-S1 cells showed significant resistance to radiation with D 0 , D q and N values increased, and a broader initial shoulder as well as 1.38-fold increased value of SF 2 . The A549-S1 subline also showed higher percentage of cells in S phase and G 2 /M phase, but lower percentages in G 1 /G 1 phase (P 0 , D q and N values decreased and a curve initial shoulder. The ratio of cells in S and G 0 /G 1 phase ratio was lower than that in parental A549 cells, but that in G 2 /M phase ratio was higher significantly (P<0.05). The expression of Notchl had no marked change compared to A549 cell. Conclusions: The radioresistance of the A549 cell subline is correlated with the irradiation program. The cell subline shows a different cell cycle distribution from their parental line. The cell cycle distribution has a close correlaiton with the expression of Notchl. (authors)

  8. Sequentially administrated of pemetrexed with icotinib/erlotinib in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiuli; Zhang, Yan; Li, Tao; Li, Yu

    2017-12-26

    Combination of chemotherapy and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) had been proved to be a potent anti-drug for the treatment of tumors. However, survival time was not extended for the patients with lung adenocarcinoma (AdC) compared with first-line chemotherapy. In the present study, we attempt to assess the optimal schedule of the combined administration of pemetrexed and icotinib/erlotinib in AdC cell lines. Human lung AdC cell lines with wild-type (A549), EGFR T790M (H1975) and activating EGFR mutation (HCC827) were applied in vitro to assess the differential efficacy of various sequential regimens on cell viability, cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. The results suggested that the antiproliferative effect of the sequence of pemetrexed followed by icotinib/erlotinib was more effective than that of icotinib/erlotinib followed by pemetrexed. Additionally, a reduction of G1 phase and increased S phase in sequence of pemetrexed followed by icotinib/erlotinib was also observed, promoting cell apoptosis. Thus, the sequential administration of pemetrexed followed by icotinib/erlotinib exerted a synergistic effect on HCC827 and H1975 cell lines compared with the reverse sequence. The sequential treatment of pemetrexed followed by icotinib/erlotinib has been demonstrated promising results. This treatment strategy warrants further confirmation in patients with advanced lung AdC.

  9. Tuft (caveolated) cells in two human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Barkla, D. H.; Whitehead, R. H.; Foster, H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of an unusual cell type in two human colon carcinoma cell lines is reported. The cells show the same morphology as "tuft" (caveolated) cells present in normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Tuft cells were seen in cell line LIM 1863 growing in vitro and in human colon carcinoma cell line LIM 2210 growing as subcutaneous solid tumour xenografts in nude mice. Characteristic morphologic features of tuft cells included a wide base, narrow apex and a tuft of long microvilli projecting f...

  10. Phytol isolated from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sprouts induces cell death in human T-lymphoid cell line Jurkat cells via S-phase cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Ono, Akito; Kawaguchi, Kaori; Teraoka, Sayaka; Harada, Mayo; Sumi, Keitaro; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Koketsu, Mamoru; Hashizume, Toshiharu

    2018-05-01

    The phytol isolated from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sprouts inhibited the growth of a human T-cell leukemia line Jurkat cell and suppressed tumor progression in a xenograft model of human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549 in nude mice. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the phytol-induced cell death in the present study, we examined the changes in cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and performed flow cytometric analysis to evaluate cell cycle stage. There were no significant changes in apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis marker in cells treated with the phytol. But, we found, for the first time, that phytol remarkably induced S-phase cell cycle arrest accompanied with intracellular ROS production. Western blot analyses showed that phytolinduced S-phase cell cycle arrest was mediated through the decreased expression of cyclins A and D and the downregulations of MAPK and PI3K/Akt. The tumor volume levels in mice treated with phytol were lower than those of non-treatment groups, and it showed very similar suppression compared with those of mice treated with cyclophosphamide. Based on the data of in vitro and in vivo studies and previous studies, we suggest phytol as a potential therapeutic compound for cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SU-F-T-675: Down-Regulating the Expression of Cdc42 and Inhibition of Migration of A549 with Combined Treatment of Ionizing Radiation and Sevoflurane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y; Feng, J; Huang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Cdc42 is involved in cell transformation, proliferation, invasion and metastasis of human cancer cells. Cdc42 overexpression has been reported in several types of cancers. This study investigated the combined treatment effects of ionizing radiation and sevoflurane on down-regulating Cdc42 expression and suppressing migration of human adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Methods: Samples of A549 cells with Cdc42 overexpression were created and Cdc42 expression was determined by Western blotting. Increase of migration speed by Cdc42-HA overexpression was confirmed with an initial in-vitro scratch assay. The cells grown in culture media were separated into 2 groups of 6 samples: one for the control and the other was treated with 4% sevoflurane for 5hrs prior to a single-fraction radiation of 4Gy using a 6MV beam. Cell migration speeds of the 2 groups were measured with an initial in-vitro scratch assay. The scratch was created with a pipette tip immediately after treatment and images at 4 post-treatment time points (0h, 3h, 6h, 12h) were acquired. The distance between the two separated sides at 0h was used as reference and subsequent changes of the distance over time was defined as the cell migration speed. Image processing and measurement were performed with an in-house software. The experiment was repeated three times independently to evaluate the repeatability and reliability. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0. Results: Western blotting showed the treatment down-regulated Cdc42 overexpression. Quantitative analysis and two-tailed t-test showed that cell migration speed of the treated group was higher than the control group at all time points after treatment (p < 0.02). Conclusion: Combined treatment of 6MV photon and sevoflurane can cause the effects of down-regulating Cdc42 overexpression and decrease of migration speed of A549 cells which provides potential of clinical benefit for the cancer therapy. More investigation is needed to further

  12. SU-F-T-675: Down-Regulating the Expression of Cdc42 and Inhibition of Migration of A549 with Combined Treatment of Ionizing Radiation and Sevoflurane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Y [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Feng, J [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Huang, Z [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Cdc42 is involved in cell transformation, proliferation, invasion and metastasis of human cancer cells. Cdc42 overexpression has been reported in several types of cancers. This study investigated the combined treatment effects of ionizing radiation and sevoflurane on down-regulating Cdc42 expression and suppressing migration of human adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Methods: Samples of A549 cells with Cdc42 overexpression were created and Cdc42 expression was determined by Western blotting. Increase of migration speed by Cdc42-HA overexpression was confirmed with an initial in-vitro scratch assay. The cells grown in culture media were separated into 2 groups of 6 samples: one for the control and the other was treated with 4% sevoflurane for 5hrs prior to a single-fraction radiation of 4Gy using a 6MV beam. Cell migration speeds of the 2 groups were measured with an initial in-vitro scratch assay. The scratch was created with a pipette tip immediately after treatment and images at 4 post-treatment time points (0h, 3h, 6h, 12h) were acquired. The distance between the two separated sides at 0h was used as reference and subsequent changes of the distance over time was defined as the cell migration speed. Image processing and measurement were performed with an in-house software. The experiment was repeated three times independently to evaluate the repeatability and reliability. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0. Results: Western blotting showed the treatment down-regulated Cdc42 overexpression. Quantitative analysis and two-tailed t-test showed that cell migration speed of the treated group was higher than the control group at all time points after treatment (p < 0.02). Conclusion: Combined treatment of 6MV photon and sevoflurane can cause the effects of down-regulating Cdc42 overexpression and decrease of migration speed of A549 cells which provides potential of clinical benefit for the cancer therapy. More investigation is needed to further

  13. Carboxylated nanodiamonds are neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic on liver, kidney, intestine and lung human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, V; Sergent, J A; Grall, R; Altmeyer-Morel, S; Girard, H A; Petit, T; Gesset, C; Mermoux, M; Bergonzo, P; Arnault, J C; Chevillard, S

    2014-08-01

    Although nanodiamonds (NDs) appear as one of the most promising nanocarbon materials available so far for biomedical applications, their risk for human health remains unknown. Our work was aimed at defining the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of two sets of commercial carboxylated NDs with diameters below 20 and 100 nm, on six human cell lines chosen as representative of potential target organs: HepG2 and Hep3B (liver), Caki-1 and Hek-293 (kidney), HT29 (intestine) and A549 (lung). Cytotoxicity of NDs was assessed by measuring cell impedance (xCELLigence® system) and cell survival/death by flow cytometry while genotoxicity was assessed by γ-H2Ax foci detection, which is considered the most sensitive technique for studying DNA double-strand breaks. To validate and check the sensitivity of the techniques, aminated polystyrene nanobeads were used as positive control in all assays. Cell incorporation of NDs was also studied by flow cytometry and luminescent N-V center photoluminescence (confirmed by Raman microscopy), to ensure that nanoparticles entered the cells. Overall, we show that NDs effectively entered the cells but NDs do not induce any significant cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on the six cell lines up to an exposure dose of 250 µg/mL. Taken together these results strongly support the huge potential of NDs for human nanomedicine but also their potential as negative control in nanotoxicology studies.

  14. Clarifying CB2 Receptor-Dependent and Independent Effects of THC on Human Lung Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sarafian, Theodore; Montes, Cindy; Harui, Airi; Beedanagari, Sudheer R.; Kiertscher, Sylvia; Stripecke, Renata; Hossepian, Derik; Kitchen, Christina; Kern, Rita; Belperio, John; Roth, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana smoking is associated with a number of abnormal findings in the lungs of habitual smokers. Previous studies revealed that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) caused mitochondrial injury in primary lung epithelial cells and in the cell line, A549 (Sarafian et al., 2003; Sarafian et al., 2005). The role of cannabinoid receptors in this injury was unclear, as was the potential impact on cell function. In order to investigate these questions, A549 cells were engineered to over-express the typ...

  15. Essential Oil Content of the Rhizome of Curcuma purpurascens Bl. (Temu Tis) and Its Antiproliferative Effect on Selected Human Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sok-Lai; Lee, Guan-Serm; Ahmed Hamdi, Omer Abdalla; Awang, Khalijah; Aznam Nugroho, Nurfina

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma purpurascens Bl., belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, is known as temu tis in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In this study, the hydrodistilled dried ground rhizome oil was investigated for its chemical content and antiproliferative activity against selected human carcinoma cell lines (MCF7, Ca Ski, A549, HT29, and HCT116) and a normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5). Results from GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of the rhizome oil of temu tis showed turmerone as the major component, followed by germacrone, ar-turmerone, germacrene-B, and curlone. The rhizome oil of temu tis exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HT29 cells (IC50 value of 4.9 ± 0.4 μg/mL), weak cytotoxicity against A549, Ca Ski, and HCT116 cells (with IC50 values of 46.3 ± 0.7, 32.5 ± 1.1, and 35.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL, resp.), and no inhibitory effect against MCF7 cells. It exhibited mild cytotoxicity against a noncancerous human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5), with an IC50 value of 25.2 ± 2.7 μg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of this rhizome's oil and its selective antiproliferative effect on HT29. The obtained data provided a basis for further investigation of the mode of cell death. PMID:25177723

  16. Establishment of cell lines with rat spermatogonial stem cell characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, Ans M. M.; Roepers-Gajadien, Hermien L.; Gademan, Iris S.; Creemers, Laura B.; de Rooij, Dirk G.; van Dissel-Emiliani, Federica M. F.

    2002-01-01

    Spermatogonial cell lines were established by transfecting a mixed population of purified rat A(s) (stem cells), A(pr) and A(al) spermatogonia with SV40 large T antigen. Two cell lines were characterized and found to express Hsp90alpha and oct-4, specific markers for germ cells and A spermatogonia,

  17. Higher susceptibility of NOD/LtSz-scid Il2rg−/− NSG mice to xenotransplanted lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Tadokoro, Akira; Susaki, Kentaro; Yokokura, Saki; Ohmichi, Kiyomi; Haba, Reiji; Watanabe, Naoki; Bandoh, Shuji; Ishii, Tomoya; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Matsunaga, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    No lung cancer xenograft model using non-obese diabetic (NOD)-scid Il2rg −/− mice has been reported. The purpose of this study is to select a suitable mouse strain as a xenogenic host for testing tumorigenicity of lung cancer. We directly compared the susceptibility of four immunodeficient mouse strains, c-nu, C.B-17 scid, NOD-scid, and NOD/LtSz-scid Il2rg −/− (NSG) mice, for tumor formation from xenotransplanted lung cancer cell lines. Various numbers (10 1 –10 5 cells/head) of two lung cancer cell lines, A549 and EBC1, were subcutaneously inoculated and tumor sizes were measured every week up to 12 weeks. When 10 4 EBC1 cells were inoculated, no tumor formation was observed in BALB/c-nu or C.B-17 scid mice. Tumors developed in two of the five NOD-scid mice (40%) and in all the five NSG mice (100%). When 10 3 EBC1 cells were injected, no tumors developed in any strain other than NSG mice, while tumorigenesis was achieved in all the five NSG mice (100%, P=0.0079) within 9 weeks. NSG mice similarly showed higher susceptibility to xenotransplantation of A549 cells. Tumor formation was observed only in NSG mice after inoculation of 10 3 or fewer A549 cells (40% vs 0% in 15 NSG mice compared with others, respectively, P=0.0169). We confirmed that the engrafted tumors originated from inoculated human lung cancer cells by immunohistochemical staining with human cytokeratin and vimentin. NSG mice may be the most suitable strain for testing tumorigenicity of lung cancer, especially if only a few cells are available

  18. Expression of G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs in lung cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuller Hildegard M

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous data from our laboratory has indicated that there is a functional link between the β-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway and the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1 in human breast cancer cell lines. We wanted to determine if GIRK channels were expressed in lung cancers and if a similar link exists in lung cancer. Methods GIRK1-4 expression and levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and real-time PCR. GIRK protein levels were determined by western blots and cell proliferation was determined by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU assay. Results GIRK1 mRNA was expressed in three of six small cell lung cancer (SCLC cell lines, and either GIRK2, 3 or 4 mRNA expression was detected in all six SCLC cell lines. Treatment of NCI-H69 with β2-adrenergic antagonist ICI 118,551 (100 μM daily for seven days led to slight decreases of GIRK1 mRNA expression levels. Treatment of NCI-H69 with the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (10 μM decreased growth rates in these cells. The GIRK inhibitor U50488H (2 μM also inhibited proliferation, and this decrease was potentiated by isoproterenol. In the SCLC cell lines that demonstrated GIRK1 mRNA expression, we also saw GIRK1 protein expression. We feel these may be important regulatory pathways since no expression of mRNA of the GIRK channels (1 & 2 was found in hamster pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, a suggested cell of origin for SCLC, nor was GIRK1 or 2 expression found in human small airway epithelial cells. GIRK (1,2,3,4 mRNA expression was also seen in A549 adenocarcinoma and NCI-H727 carcinoid cell lines. GIRK1 mRNA expression was not found in tissue samples from adenocarcinoma or squamous cancer patients, nor was it found in NCI-H322 or NCI-H441 adenocarcinoma cell lines. GIRK (1,3,4 mRNA expression was seen in three squamous cell lines, GIRK2 was only expressed in one squamous cell line. However, GIRK1 protein

  19. The Effects of Allicin, a Reactive Sulfur Species from Garlic, on a Selection of Mammalian Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C. H. Gruhlke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. has been used as a spice and medicinal plant since ancient times. Garlic produces the thiol-reactive defence substance, allicin, upon wounding. The effects of allicin on human lung epithelium carcinoma (A549, mouse fibroblast (3T3, human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC, human colon carcinoma (HT29 and human breast cancer (MCF7 cell lines were tested. To estimate toxic effects of allicin, we used a standard MTT-test (methylthiazoltetrazolium for cell viability and 3H-thymidine incorporation for cell proliferation. The glutathione pool was measured using monobromobimane and the formation of reactive species was identified using 2′,7′-dichlorofluoresceine-diacetate. The YO-PRO-1 iodide staining procedure was used to estimate apoptosis. Allicin reduced cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. In the bimane test, it was observed that cells treated with allicin showed reduced fluorescence, suggesting glutathione oxidation. The cell lines tested differed in sensitivity to allicin in regard to viability, cell proliferation and glutathione oxidation. The 3T3 and MCF-7 cells showed a higher proportion of apoptosis compared to the other cell types. These data show that mammalian cell lines differ in their sensitivity and responses to allicin.

  20. Radiosensitization of tumour cell lines by the polyphenol Gossypol results from depressed double-strand break repair and not from enhanced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Windhorst, Sabine; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Mayr, Georg; Dikomey, Ekkehard

    2007-06-01

    New drugs are needed to increase the efficiency of radiotherapy in order to improve the therapeutic outcome of tumour patients. In this respect, the polyphenol Gossypol might be of interest, because of its effect on apoptosis and DNA repair, which is either mediated directly or indirectly via the inositol phosphate metabolism. It was investigated, whether these effects result in enhanced radiosensitivity of tumour cells. Tumour cell lines investigated: A549, FaDu, H1299, MCF7 and Du145. Cell cycle distribution was determined by FACS analysis, apoptosis was measured by DAPI staining and caspase3/7 activity. Double-strand breaks (DSB) were investigated via gammaH2AX-foci and cell survival by colony formation assay. The level of inositol phosphates was determined by HPLC, protein expression by Western blot. In A549 cells, Gossypol at concentrations 1microM strongly affects proliferation with only a modest arrest in the G1-phase, but with no increase in the fraction of apoptotic cells or the number of additional DSB. Additional DSB were only seen in FaDu cells, where Gossypol (2microM) was extremely toxic with a plating efficiency even found to be enhanced by Gossypol. For some tumour cell lines treatment with low concentrations of Gossypol can be used to inhibit DSB repair capacity and with that to increase the cellular radiosensitivity.

  1. The variable chemotherapeutic response of Malabaricone-A in leukemic and solid tumor cell lines depends on the degree of redox imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Alak; De Sarkar, Sritama; De, Soumita; Bauri, Ajay K; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2015-07-15

    The 'two-faced' character of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in cancer biology by acting as secondary messengers in intracellular signaling cascades, enhancing cell proliferation and survival, thereby sustaining the oncogenic phenotype. Conversely, enhanced generation of ROS can trigger an oxidative assault leading to a redox imbalance translating into an apoptotic cell death. Intrinsically, cancer cells have higher basal levels of ROS which if supplemented by additional oxidative insult by pro-oxidants can be cytotoxic, an example being Malabaricone-A (MAL-A). MAL-A is a plant derived diarylnonanoid, purified from fruit rind of the plant Myristica malabarica whose anti-cancer activity has been demonstrated in leukemic cell lines, the modality of cell death being apoptosis. This study aimed to compare the degree of effectiveness of MAL-A in leukemic vs. solid tumor cell lines. The cytotoxicity of MAL-A was evaluated by the MTS-PMS cell viability assay in leukemic cell lines (MOLT3, K562 and HL-60) and compared with solid tumor cell lines (MCF7, A549 and HepG2); further studies then proceeded with MOLT3 vs. MCF7 and A549. The contribution of redox imbalance in MAL-A induced cytotoxicity was confirmed by pre-incubating cells with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or a thiol depletor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). MAL-A induced redox imbalance was quantitated by flow cytometry, by measuring the generation of ROS and levels of non protein thiols using dichlorofluorescein diacetate (CM-H2DCFDA) and 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) respectively. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone 1) NQO1 and glutathione-S-transferase GST were measured spectrophotometrically. The mitochondrial involvement of MAL-A induced cell death was measured by evaluation of cardiolipin peroxidation using 10-N-nonyl acridine orange (NAO), transition pore activity with calcein

  2. Enhancement of radiosensitivity of recombinant Ad-p53 gene on human lung adenocarcinoma cell with different p53 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Dequan; Wang Peiguo; Wang Ping; Zhang Weiming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the enhancement of radiosensitivity of recombinant Ad-p53 gene on human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines(A549 and GLC-82) with different p53 status in vitro. Methods: Two human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines of A549 and GLC-82 were examined on their difference in p53 status with immunohistochemistry stain and PCR-SSCP technique. Expand Ad-wtp53 was transfected into tumor cells. Clonogenic assays were performed to evaluate the inhibition effect on cell growth and the degree of sensitization to irradiation. Apoptosis and cell cycle changes were determined using the flow cytometry assay. Results: The A549 cell line presented positive P53 expression while GLC-82 negative. GLC-82 bore mutant p53 on the exon 7. The wtp53 gene could be efficiently expressed in the two cell lines and greatly inhibit the cell growth. Its efficiency didn't depend on the intrinsic p53 genetic status. After irradiation, its function of inducing G 1 arrest and apoptosis on GLC-82 cell line was much stronger than the A549 cell line. In both the A549 and GLC-82 cell lines, the combination of Ad-p53 plus radiation resulted in more apoptosis than the others. There was no significant difference between two groups. Conclusions: Ad-p53 can depress the tumor growth and enhance the radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma cells. And this effect is independent of endogenous p53 status. (authors)

  3. SU-F-T-674: In Vitro Study of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Mediated Photo Dynamic Therapy in Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, D; Wang, B; Gupta, R; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Photodynamic therapy (PTD) is a promising cancer treatment modality. 5-sminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a clinically approved photosensitizer. Here we studied the effect of 5-ALA administration with irradiation on several cell lines in vitro. Methods: Human head and neck (FaDu), lung (A549) and prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells (104/well) were seeded overnight in 96-well plates (Figure 1). 5-ALA at a range from 0.1 to 30.0mg/ml was added to confluent cells 3h before irradiation in 100ul of culture medium. 15MV photon beams from a Siemens Artiste linear accelerator were used to deliver 2 Gy dose in one fraction to the cells. Cell viability was evaluated by WST1 assay. The development of orange color was measured 3h after the addition of WST-1 reagent at 450nm on an Envision Multilabel Reader (Figure 2) and directly correlated to cell number. Control, untreated cells were incubated without 5-ALA. The experiment was performed twice for each cell line. Results: The cell viability rates for the head and neck cancer line are shown in Figure 3. FaDu cell viability was reduced significantly to 36.5% (5-ALA) and 18.1% (5-ALA + RT) only at the highest concentration of 5-ALA, 30mg/ml. This effect was observed in neither A549, nor LNCaP cell line. No toxicity was detected at lower 5-ALA concentrations. Conclusion: Application of 5-ALA and subsequent PDT was found to be cytotoxic at the highest dose of the photosensitizer used in the FaDu head and neck cell line, and their effect was synergistic. Further efforts are necessary to study the potential therapeutic effects of 5-ALA PTD in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest 5-ALA may improve the efficacy of radiotherapy by acting as a radiomediator in head and neck cancer.

  4. Cell lines authentication and mycoplasma detection as minimun quality control of cell lines in biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Vázquez, C; Aguilar-Quesada, R; Catalina, P; Lucena-Aguilar, G; Ligero, G; Miranda, B; Carrillo-Ávila, J A

    2017-06-01

    Establishment of continuous cell lines from human normal and tumor tissues is an extended and useful methodology for molecular characterization of cancer pathophysiology and drug development in research laboratories. The exchange of these cell lines between different labs is a common practice that can compromise assays reliability due to contamination with microorganism such as mycoplasma or cells from different flasks that compromise experiment reproducibility and reliability. Great proportions of cell lines are contaminated with mycoplasma and/or are replaced by cells derived for a different origin during processing or distribution process. The scientific community has underestimated this problem and thousand of research experiment has been done with cell lines that are incorrectly identified and wrong scientific conclusions have been published. Regular contamination and authentication tests are necessary in order to avoid negative consequences of widespread misidentified and contaminated cell lines. Cell banks generate, store and distribute cell lines for research, being mandatory a consistent and continuous quality program. Methods implementation for guaranteeing both, the absence of mycoplasma and authentication in the supplied cell lines, has been performed in the Andalusian Health System Biobank. Specifically, precise results were obtained using real time PCR detection for mycoplasma and 10 STRs identification by capillary electrophoresis for cell line authentication. Advantages and disadvantages of these protocols are discussed.

  5. Fraction against Human Cancer Cell Lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fraction of A. sieberi against seven cancer cell lines (Colo20, HCT116, DLD, MCF7, Jurkat, HepG2 and ... The morphology of the HepG2 cell nucleus was investigated by Hoechst 33342, ..... Gong F, Liang Y, Xie P, Chau F. Information theory.

  6. Chalepin: A Compound from Ruta angustifolia L. Pers Exhibits Cell Cycle Arrest at S phase, Suppresses Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Pathway, Signal Transducer and Activation of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Phosphorylation and Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Carcinoma (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jaime Stella Moses; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2017-10-01

    Plants have been a major source of inspiration in developing novel drug compounds in the treatment of various diseases that afflict human beings worldwide. Ruta angustifolia L. Pers known locally as Garuda has been conventionally used for various medicinal purposes such as in the treatment of cancer. A dihydrofuranocoumarin named chalepin, which was isolated from the chloroform extract of the plant, was tested on its ability to inhibit molecular pathways of human lung carcinoma (A549) cells. Cell cycle analysis and caspase 8 activation were conducted using a flow cytometer, and protein expressions in molecular pathways were determined using Western blot technique. Cell cycle analysis showed that cell cycle was arrested at the S phase. Further studies using Western blotting technique showed that cell cycle-related proteins such as cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and inhibitors of CDKs correspond to a cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Chalepin also showed inhibition in the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT-3), cyclooxygenase-2, and c-myc were also downregulated upon treatment with chalepin. Chalepin was found to induce extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Death receptors 4 and 5 showed a dramatic upregulation at 24 h. Analysis of activation of caspase 8 with the flow cytometer showed an increase in activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Activation of caspase 8 induced cleavage of BH3-interacting domain death agonist, which initiated a mitochondrial-dependent or -independent apoptosis. Chalepin causes S phase cell cycle arrest, NF-κB pathway inhibition, and STAT-3 inhibition, induces extrinsic apoptotic pathway, and could be an excellent chemotherapeutic agent. This study reports the capacity of an isolated bioactive compound known as chalepin to suppress the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway, signal

  7. Matrigel Basement Membrane Matrix influences expression of microRNAs in cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Karina J.; Tsykin, Anna; Giles, Keith M.; Sladic, Rosemary T.; Epis, Michael R.; Ganss, Ruth; Goodall, Gregory J.; Leedman, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Matrigel alters cancer cell line miRNA expression relative to culture on plastic. ► Many identified Matrigel-regulated miRNAs are implicated in cancer. ► miR-1290, -210, -32 and -29b represent a Matrigel-induced miRNA signature. ► miR-32 down-regulates Integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) mRNA. -- Abstract: Matrigel is a medium rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components used for three-dimensional cell culture and is known to alter cellular phenotypes and gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and have roles in cancer. While miRNA profiles of numerous cell lines cultured on plastic have been reported, the influence of Matrigel-based culture on cancer cell miRNA expression is largely unknown. This study investigated the influence of Matrigel on the expression of miRNAs that might facilitate ECM-associated cancer cell growth. We performed miRNA profiling by microarray using two colon cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW620), identifying significant differential expression of miRNAs between cells cultured in Matrigel and on plastic. Many of these miRNAs have previously been implicated in cancer-related processes. A common Matrigel-induced miRNA signature comprised of up-regulated miR-1290 and miR-210 and down-regulated miR-29b and miR-32 was identified using RT-qPCR across five epithelial cancer cell lines (SW480, SW620, HT-29, A549 and MDA-MB-231). Experimental modulation of these miRNAs altered expression of their known target mRNAs involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and invasion, in colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, ITGA5 was identified as a novel putative target of miR-32 that may facilitate cancer cell interactions with the ECM. We propose that culture of cancer cell lines in Matrigel more accurately recapitulates miRNA expression and function in cancer than culture on plastic and thus is a valuable approach to the in vitro study of miRNAs.

  8. Cellular Glycolysis and The Differential Survival of Lung Fibroblast and Lung Carcinoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ibrahim O

    2016-04-01

    Tumor growth and abnormal cell survival were shown to be associated with a number of cellular metabolic abnormalities revealed by impaired oral glucose tolerance, depressed lipoprotein lipase activity leading to hypertriglyceridemia, and changes in amino acid profile as evidenced by increased plasma free tryptophan levels in patients with breast, lung, colon, stomach, and other cancers from various origins. The above findings seem to relate to or indicate a shift to non-oxidative metabolic pathways in cancer. In contrast to normal cells, cancer cells may lose the ability to utilize aerobic respiration due to either defective mitochondria or hypoxia within the tumor microenvironments. Glucose was shown to be the major energy source in cancer cells where it utilizes aerobic /anaerobic glycolysis with the resultant lactic acid formation. The role of energetic modulations and use of glycolytic inhibitors on cancer/normal cell survival is not clearly established in the literature. We hypothesize that natural intermediates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle will differentially and negatively impact the cancer phenotype in contrast to their no effects on the normal cell phenotype. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate six potential glycolytic modulators namely, Pyruvic acid, oxalic acid, Zn acetate, sodium citrate, fructose diphosphate (FDP) and sodium bicarbonate at μM concentrations on growing A549 (lung cancer) and MRC-5 (normal; human lung fibroblast) cell lines with the objective of determining their influence on visual impact, cell metabolic activity, cell viability and end-point cell survival. Exposed and non-exposed cells were tested with phase-contrast micro-scanning, survival/death and metabolic activity trends through MTT-assays, as well as death end-point determinations by testing re-growth on complete media and T4 cellometer counts. Results showed that oxalic acid and Zn acetate both influenced the pH of the medium and resulted in

  9. Cell fusion induced by ionizing radiation in various cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khair, M.B.

    1994-07-01

    Cell fusion induced by ionizing radiation has been studied in rat's hepatocytes in vivo and in different cell lines in vitro. These cell lines were: Hela cells, V-79 fibroblasts, human and rat lymphocytes. For irradiation, 0.85 MeV fission neutrons and 14 MeV fast neutrons were used. Cell analyses were performed by fluorescent dyes using immunofluorescent microscope and flow cytometre. Our results in vivo showed that, regardless the dose-rate, a dose of 1 Gy approximately was enough to induce a significant level of cell fusion depending on neutron energy and the age of rats. The level of cell fusion was also significant in Hela cells at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Similar effect, but to a lesser extent, was observed in V-79 cells. Whereas, in lymphocytes insignificant cell fusion was noticed. The varying levels of cell-fusion in different cell lines could be attributed to the type of cells and mutual contact between cells. Furthermore irradiation did not show any influence on cell division ability in both hepatocytes and Hela cells and that fused cells were also able to divide forming a new generation of cells. (author). 36 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Cell Line Data Base: structure and recent improvements towards molecular authentication of human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Paolo; Manniello, Assunta; Aresu, Ottavia; Armento, Massimiliano; Cesaro, Michela; Parodi, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The Cell Line Data Base (CLDB) is a well-known reference information source on human and animal cell lines including information on more than 6000 cell lines. Main biological features are coded according to controlled vocabularies derived from international lists and taxonomies. HyperCLDB (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/hypercldb/) is a hypertext version of CLDB that improves data accessibility by also allowing information retrieval through web spiders. Access to HyperCLDB is provided through indexes of biological characteristics and navigation in the hypertext is granted by many internal links. HyperCLDB also includes links to external resources. Recently, an interest was raised for a reference nomenclature for cell lines and CLDB was seen as an authoritative system. Furthermore, to overcome the cell line misidentification problem, molecular authentication methods, such as fingerprinting, single-locus short tandem repeat (STR) profile and single nucleotide polymorphisms validation, were proposed. Since this data is distributed, a reference portal on authentication of human cell lines is needed. We present here the architecture and contents of CLDB, its recent enhancements and perspectives. We also present a new related database, the Cell Line Integrated Molecular Authentication (CLIMA) database (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/clima/), that allows to link authentication data to actual cell lines.

  11. Amiodarone increases the accumulation of DEA in a human alveolar epithelium-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Satoru; Itagaki, Shirou; Kobayashi, Masaki; Hirano, Takeshi; Iseki, Ken

    2008-07-01

    Amiodarone (AMD)-induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT) is the most life-threatening side-effect of AMD treatment. N-Monodesethylamiodarone (DEA), an active metabolite of AMD, also exhibits cytotoxicity and tends to accumulate in the lung more intensively than AMD. In this study, we characterized the mechanism of DEA accumulation using A549 cells as a model of the alveolar epithelium. Typical ATP-depletion compounds caused an approximately 30% increase in the accumulation of DEA in A549 cells, although these effects were less than those in Caco-2 cells. Triiodothyronine (T(3)), which exhibited an inhibitory effect on DEA efflux in Caco-2 cells, did not affect the accumulation of DEA in A549 cells. On the other hand, 100 microM AMD caused an approximately 200% increase in DEA content in A549 cells, although AMD accumulation was not affected by 100 microM DEA. Since the reducing effect of AMD on cellular ATP levels and that of FCCP were similar, the mechanism by which DEA accumulation is increased by AMD might be different from the ATP-dependent DEA efflux mechanism. The decrease in cell viability by DEA in the presence of AMD (IC(50) value of DEA for A549 cell viability: 25.4+/-2.4 microM) was more pronounced than that by DEA alone (IC(50) value: 11.5+/-3.0 microM). This further DEA accumulation by AMD might be a factor responsible for the greater accumulation of DEA than that of AMD in the lung in long-term AMD-treated patients.

  12. Rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides as mediators of the eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold spherical, face-centred cubic nanocrystals and its anti-migratory and cytotoxic potential in normal and cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun A; Castro-Aceituno, Veronica; Abbai, Ragavendran; Moon, Seong Soo; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Simu, Shakina Yesmin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2018-03-29

    The water extract of Anemarrhena asphodeloides, the traditional oriental medicinal plant, mediated the eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Aa-AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (Aa-AuNPs). First, its therapeutic rhizome was powdered prior to water extraction and then silver, gold nanoparticles were synthesized. Aa-AgNPs and Aa-AuNPs were found to be spherical, face-centred cubic nanocrystals with a Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 190 and 258 nm, respectively. In addition, proteins and aromatic biomolecules were the plausible players associated with the production and stabilization of Aa-AgNPs; instead, phenolic compounds were responsible for the synthesis and stability of Aa-AuNPs. In vitro cytotoxic analysis revealed that up to 50 μg.mL -1 concentration Aa-AuNPs did not exhibit any toxicity on 3T3-L1, HT29 and MCF7 cell lines, while being specifically cytotoxic to A549 cell line. On the contrary, Aa-AgNPs displayed a significantly higher toxicity in comparison to Aa-AuNPs in all cell lines specially MCF7 cell line. Since cancer cells were more sensitive to Aa-Au/AgNPs treatments, further evaluation was done in order to determine their anticancer potential. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was not affected by Aa-AuNPs, on the other hand, Aa-AgNPs treatment exhibited a higher potential to induce oxidative stress in A549 cells than HT29 and MCF7 cells. In addition, Aa-Ag/AuNPs reduced cell migration in A549 cells at 10 and 50 μg.mL -1 , respectively. So far, this is the only report uncovering the ability of A. asphodeloides to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles with anticancer potential and also indirectly enabling its large-scale utilization with value addition.

  13. Tuft (caveolated) cells in two human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Whitehead, R H; Foster, H; Tutton, P J

    1988-09-01

    The presence of an unusual cell type in two human colon carcinoma cell lines is reported. The cells show the same morphology as "tuft" (caveolated) cells present in normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Tuft cells were seen in cell line LIM 1863 growing in vitro and in human colon carcinoma cell line LIM 2210 growing as subcutaneous solid tumour xenografts in nude mice. Characteristic morphologic features of tuft cells included a wide base, narrow apex and a tuft of long microvilli projecting from the apical surface. The microvilli are attached by a core of long microfilaments passing deep into the apical cytoplasm. Between the microvilli are parallel arrays of vesicles (caveoli) containing flocculent material. Two different but not mutually exclusive explanations for the presence of tuft cells are proposed. The first explanation is that tuft cells came from the resected tumour and have survived by mitotic division during subsequent passages. The second explanation suggests that tuft cells are the progeny of undifferentiated tumour cells. Descriptions of tuft cells in colon carcinomas are uncommon and possible reasons for this are presented. The morphology of tuft cells is consistent with that of a highly differentiated cell specialised for absorption, and these new models provide an opportunity to further investigate the structure and function of tuft cells.

  14. Peptidomic analysis of human cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Julia S.; Sironi, Juan; Castro, Leandro M.; Ferro, Emer S.; Fricker, Lloyd D.

    2011-01-01

    Peptides have been proposed to function in intracellular signaling within the cytosol. Although cytosolic peptides are considered to be highly unstable, a large number of peptides have been detected in mouse brain and other biological samples. In the present study, we evaluated the peptidome of three diverse cell lines: SH-SY5Y, MCF7, and HEK293 cells. A comparison of the peptidomes revealed considerable overlap in the identity of the peptides found in each cell line. The majority of the observed peptides are not derived from the most abundant or least stable proteins in the cell, and approximately half of the cellular peptides correspond to the N- or C- termini of the precursor proteins. Cleavage site analysis revealed a preference for hydrophobic residues in the P1 position. Quantitative peptidomic analysis indicated that the levels of most cellular peptides are not altered in response to elevated intracellular calcium, suggesting that calpain is not responsible for their production. The similarity of the peptidomes of the three cell lines and the lack of correlation with the predicted cellular degradome implies the selective formation or retention of these peptides, consistent with the hypothesis that they are functional in the cells. PMID:21204522

  15. Breast cancer cell lines: friend or foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdall, Sarah E; Hanby, Andrew M; Lansdown, Mark RJ; Speirs, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer research is conducted using established breast cancer cell lines as in vitro models. An alternative is to use cultures established from primary breast tumours. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of using both of these models in translational breast cancer research

  16. (Asteraceae) Fraction against Human Cancer Cell Lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of crude and dichloromethane fraction of A. sieberi against seven cancer cell lines (Colo20, HCT116, DLD, MCF7, Jurkat, HepG2 and L929). Methods: A. sieberi was extracted with methanol and further purification was carried out using liquidliquid extraction ...

  17. Radiation sensitivity of Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J.H.; Ramsay, J.R.; Birrell, G.W. [Queensland Institute of Medical Research (Australia)] [and others

    1995-07-30

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a position to determine their sensitivity under controlled conditions. Some of the MCC lines grew as suspension cultures and could not be single cell cloned; therefore, it was not possible to use clonogenic survival for all cell lines. A tetrazolium based (MTT) assay was used for these lines, to estimate cell growth after {gamma} irradiation. Control experiments were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and the adherent MCC line, MCC13, to demonstrate that the two assays were comparable under the conditions used. We have examined cell lines from MCC, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), malignant melanomas, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphocytes (LCL), and skin fibroblasts for their sensitivity to {gamma} irradiation using both clonogenic cell survival and MTT assays. The results show that the tumor cell lines have a range of sensitivities, with melanoma being more resistant (surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) 0.57 and 0.56) than the small cell carcinoma lines, MCC (SF2 range 0.21-0.45, mean SF2 0.30, n = 8) and SCLC (SF2 0.31). Fibroblasts were the most sensitive (SF2 0.13-0.20, mean 0.16, n = 5). The MTT assay, when compared to clonogenic assay for the MCC13 adherent line and the LCL, gave comparable results under the conditions used. Both assays gave a range of SF2 values for the MCC cell lines, suggesting that these cancers would give a heterogeneous response in vivo. The results with the two derivative clones of MCC14 (SF2 for MCC14/1 0.38, MCC14/2 0.45) would further suggest that some of them may develop resistance during clonogenic evolution. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Radiation sensitivity of Merkell cell carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J. Helen; Ramsay, Jonathan R.; Kearsley, John H.; Birrell, Geoff W.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a position to determine their sensitivity under controlled conditions. Methods and Materials: Some of the MCC lines grew as suspension cultures and could not be single cell cloned; therefore, it was not possible to use clonogenic survival for all cell lines. A tetrazolium based (MTT) assay was used for these lines, to estimate cell growth after γ irradiation. Control experiments were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and the adherent MCC line, MCC13, to demonstrate that the two assays were comparable under the conditions used. Results: We have examined cell lines from MCC, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), malignant melanomas, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphocytes (LCL), and skin fibroblasts for their sensitivity to γ irradiation using both clonogenic cell survival and MTT assays. The results show that the tumor cell lines have a range of sensitivities, with melanoma being more resistant (surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) 0.57 and 0.56) than the small cell carcinoma lines, MCC (SF2 range 0.21-0.45, mean SF2 0.30, n = 8) and SCLC (SF2 0.31). Fibroblasts were the most sensitive (SF2 0.13-0.20, mean 0.16, n = 5). The MTT assay, when compared to clonogenic assay for the MCC13 adherent line and the LCL, gave comparable results under the conditions used. Conclusion: Both assays gave a range of SF2 values for the MCC cell lines, suggesting that these cancers would give a heterogeneous response in vivo. The results with the two derivative clones of MCC14 (SF2 for MCC14/1 0.38, MCC14/2 0.45) would further suggest that some of them may develop resistance during clonogenic evolution

  19. SHP1-mediated cell cycle redistribution inhibits radiosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Rubo; Ding, Qian; Li, Pindong; Xue, Jun; Zou, Zhenwei; Huang, Jing; Peng, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Radioresistance is the common cause for radiotherapy failure in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and the degree of radiosensitivity of tumor cells is different during different cell cycle phases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of cell cycle redistribution in the establishment of radioresistance in NSCLC, as well as the signaling pathway of SH2 containing Tyrosine Phosphatase (SHP1). A NSCLC subtype cell line, radioresistant A549 (A549S1), was induced by high-dose hypofractionated ionizing radiations. Radiosensitivity-related parameters, cell cycle distribution and expression of cell cycle-related proteins and SHP1 were investigated. siRNA was designed to down-regulate SHP1expression. Compared with native A549 cells, the proportion of cells in the S phase was increased, and cells in the G0/G1 phase were consequently decreased, however, the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase did not change in A549S1 cells. Moreover, the expression of SHP1, CDK4 and CylinD1 were significantly increased, while p16 was significantly down-regulated in A549S1 cells compared with native A549 cells. Furthermore, inhibition of SHP1 by siRNA increased the radiosensitivity of A549S1 cells, induced a G0/G1 phase arrest, down-regulated CDK4 and CylinD1expressions, and up-regulated p16 expression. SHP1 decreases the radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells through affecting cell cycle distribution. This finding could unravel the molecular mechanism involved in NSCLC radioresistance

  20. Biological activity of Xanthium strumarium seed extracts on different cancer cell lines and Aedes caspius, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Fahd A. Al-Mekhlafi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of methanol extracts of Xanthium strumarium on different cancer cell lines and on the mortality rates of Aedes caspius, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae were investigated. Among the cell lines tested, the Jurkat cell line was the most sensitive to the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction, with reported LC50 values of 50.18 and 48.73 μg/ml respectively. Conversely, methanol extracts were not that toxic to the A549 cell line though the toxicity increased on further purification. The percentage of growth inhibition was dose dependent for the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction. The ethyl acetate fraction showed higher toxicity to all cell lines tested when compared to the methanol extract. The results showed that methanol extracts of plant seeds caused 100% mortality of mosquito larvae at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml after 24 h of treatment. The LC50 and LC90 values of X. strumarium were found to be 531.07 and 905.95 μg/ml against Ae. caspius and 502.32 and 867.63 μg/ml against Cx. Pipiens, respectively. From the investigations, it was concluded that the crude extract of X. strumarium showed a weak potential for controlling the larval instars of Ae. caspius and Cx. pipiens. However, on further purification the extract lost the larvicidal activity. The ethyl acetate fraction showed higher toxicity to all cell lines tested when compared to the methanol extract. The ethyl acetate fraction investigated in this study appears to have a weak larvicidal activity but a promising cytotoxic activity. Future studies will include purification and investigation in further detail of the action of X. strumarium on Cancer Cell Lines and mosquitoes.

  1. Biological activity of Xanthium strumarium seed extracts on different cancer cell lines and Aedes caspius, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Fahd A; Abutaha, Nael; Mashaly, Ashraf M A; Nasr, Fahd A; Ibrahim, Khalid E; Wadaan, Mohamed A

    2017-05-01

    Effects of methanol extracts of Xanthium strumarium on different cancer cell lines and on the mortality rates of Aedes caspius, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated. Among the cell lines tested, the Jurkat cell line was the most sensitive to the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction, with reported LC 50 values of 50.18 and 48.73 μg/ml respectively. Conversely, methanol extracts were not that toxic to the A549 cell line though the toxicity increased on further purification. The percentage of growth inhibition was dose dependent for the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction. The ethyl acetate fraction showed higher toxicity to all cell lines tested when compared to the methanol extract. The results showed that methanol extracts of plant seeds caused 100% mortality of mosquito larvae at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml after 24 h of treatment. The LC 50 and LC 90 values of X. strumarium were found to be 531.07 and 905.95 μg/ml against Ae. caspius and 502.32 and 867.63 μg/ml against Cx. Pipiens, respectively. From the investigations, it was concluded that the crude extract of X. strumarium showed a weak potential for controlling the larval instars of Ae. caspius and Cx. pipiens . However, on further purification the extract lost the larvicidal activity. The ethyl acetate fraction showed higher toxicity to all cell lines tested when compared to the methanol extract. The ethyl acetate fraction investigated in this study appears to have a weak larvicidal activity but a promising cytotoxic activity. Future studies will include purification and investigation in further detail of the action of X. strumarium on Cancer Cell Lines and mosquitoes.

  2. Effect of radiation on the expression of E-cadherin and α-catenin and invasive capacity in human lung cancer cell line in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Saito, Yoshihiro; Ebara, Takeshi; Niibe, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of radiation on E-cadherin and α-catenin expression in a human lung cancer cell line, and also evaluate invasive capacity in the membrane invasion culture system using the Boyden Chamber. Materials and Methods: The immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses were performed using the human lung cancer cell line A549 to examine altered expression of E-cadherin and α-catenin after irradiation. We also compared invasive capacity of untreated cells with that of irradiated cells. Results: Immunoblot analysis revealed that the expression of E-cadherin increased after irradiation. In a time-course analysis, the expression was increased 6 h after irradiation with 10 Gy and reached its peak level at 24 h, being 2.3 times the control value, whereas expression at 1 and 3 h after irradiation was almost equivalent to that of the control. A slight increase in expression was observed after irradiation of 2 Gy and the expression reached peak levels after 5 Gy. After fractionated irradiation, the increase in expression of both E-cadherin and α-catenin was observed, and the alteration of α-catenin was more prominent than that after a single irradiation of the same total dose. In the immunofluorescence study for E-cadherin antibody analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, increased intensity in irradiated cells produced as a nondisrupted and continuous line at cell-cell contact sites. In an invasive assay, the number of migrated cells in irradiated cells after a dose of 5 and 10 Gy was reduced significantly compared to untreated cells. Conclusion: The results indicate that irradiation of A549 increased the expression of E-cadherin, possibly preserving their functional property

  3. A universal mammalian vaccine cell line substrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackelyn Murray

    Full Text Available Using genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA screens for poliovirus, influenza A virus and rotavirus, we validated the top 6 gene hits PV, RV or IAV to search for host genes that when knocked-down (KD enhanced virus permissiveness and replication over wild type Vero cells or HEp-2 cells. The enhanced virus replication was tested for 12 viruses and ranged from 2-fold to >1000-fold. There were variations in virus-specific replication (strain differences across the cell lines examined. Some host genes (CNTD2, COQ9, GCGR, NDUFA9, NEU2, PYCR1, SEC16G, SVOPL, ZFYVE9, and ZNF205 showed that KD resulted in enhanced virus replication. These findings advance platform-enabling vaccine technology, the creation of diagnostic cells substrates, and are informative about the host mechanisms that affect virus replication in mammalian cells.

  4. Steroids from the leaves of Chinese Melia azedarach and their cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Biao; Ji, Yan-Ping; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Zhao, Yun; Xia, Gang; Hu, Ying-He; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2009-09-01

    Three new (1-3) and several known (4-6) steroids were isolated from the leaves of Chinese Melia azedarach. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry to be (20S)-5,24(28)-ergostadiene-3beta,7alpha,16beta,20-tetrol (1), (20S)-5-ergostene-3beta,7alpha,16beta,20-tetrol (2), and 2alpha,3beta-dihydro-5-pregnen-16-one (3). The cytotoxicities of the isolated compounds against three human cancer cell lines (A549, H460, U251) were evaluated; only compounds 1, 2, and (20S)-5-stigmastene-3beta,7alpha,20-triol (4) were found to show significant cyctotoxic effects with IC(50)s from 12.0 to 30.1 microg/mL.

  5. Cellular radiosensitivity of small-cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, M; Poulsen, H S; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the radiobiological characteristics of a panel of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines by use of a clonogenic assay. In addition, we tested whether comparable results could be obtained by employing a growth extrapolation method based...

  6. Polyphenolic Profile and Targeted Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Mediterranean Ethnomedicinal Plants on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Pollio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extracts of the aerial part of four ethnomedicinal plants of Mediterranean region, two non-seed vascular plants, Equisetum hyemale L. and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L. Newman, and two Spermatophyta, Juniperus communis L. (J. communis and Cotinus coggygria Scop. (C. coggygria, were screened against four human cells lines (A549, MCF7, TK6 and U937. Only the extracts of J. communis and C. coggygria showed marked cytotoxic effects, affecting both cell morphology and growth. A dose-dependent effect of these two extracts was also observed on the cell cycle distribution. Incubation of all the cell lines in a medium containing J. communis extract determined a remarkable accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase, whereas the C. coggygria extract induced a significant increase in the percentage of G1 cells. The novelty of our findings stands on the observation that the two extracts, consistently, elicited coherent effects on the cell cycle in four cell lines, independently from their phenotype, as two of them have epithelial origin and grow adherent and two are lymphoblastoid and grow in suspension. Even the expression profiles of several proteins regulating cell cycle progression and cell death were affected by both extracts. LC-MS investigation of methanol extract of C. coggygria led to the identification of twelve flavonoids (compounds 1–11, 19 and eight polyphenols derivatives (12–18, 20, while in J. communis extract, eight flavonoids (21–28, a α-ionone glycoside (29 and a lignin (30 were found. Although many of these compounds have interesting individual biological activities, their natural blends seem to exert specific effects on the proliferation of cell lines either growing adherent or in suspension, suggesting potential use in fighting cancer.

  7. Gene expression profiles in asbestos-exposed epithelial and mesothelial lung cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaski Samuel

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asbestos has been shown to cause chromosomal damage and DNA aberrations. Exposure to asbestos causes many lung diseases e.g. asbestosis, malignant mesothelioma, and lung cancer, but the disease-related processes are still largely unknown. We exposed the human cell lines A549, Beas-2B and Met5A to crocidolite asbestos and determined time-dependent gene expression profiles by using Affymetrix arrays. The hybridization data was analyzed by using an algorithm specifically designed for clustering of short time series expression data. A canonical correlation analysis was applied to identify correlations between the cell lines, and a Gene Ontology analysis method for the identification of enriched, differentially expressed biological processes. Results We recognized a large number of previously known as well as new potential asbestos-associated genes and biological processes, and identified chromosomal regions enriched with genes potentially contributing to common responses to asbestos in these cell lines. These include genes such as the thioredoxin domain containing gene (TXNDC and the potential tumor suppressor, BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kD-interacting protein gene (BNIP3L, GO-terms such as "positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade" and "positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent", and chromosomal regions such as 2p22, 9p13, and 14q21. We present the complete data sets as Additional files. Conclusion This study identifies several interesting targets for further investigation in relation to asbestos-associated diseases.

  8. IN VITRO BIOACTIVITY TEST OF IRRADIATED MAHKOTA DEWA BARK [Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl.] AGAINST HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES

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    Ermin Katrin Winarno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation has been used to preserve an herbal medicine, but it has not been known the effects of gamma irradiation on their bioactivity as an anticancer agent yet. In the previous study, the gamma irradiation on mahkota dewa bark with the optimum dose of 7.5 kGy could be used for decontamination of bacteria and fungus/yeast. In this report, the effect of gamma irradiation with the dose of 7.5 kGy on the bioactivities of mahkota dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff Boerl. bark against leukemia L1210 cells was studied. The control and irradiated samples were successively macerated with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. In the previous results, silica gel column chromatography of ethyl acetate extract of non irradiated sample (control gave 8 fractions. Among these fractions, fraction 6 indicated the most cytotoxic-potential fraction, so that in this experiment, the ethyl acetate extract of irradiated and non irradiated sample were fractionated with the same manner as previous fractionation. The fraction 6 obtained both from control and irradiated samples were then assayed their inhibitory activities against 4 kinds of human cancer lines, i.e. HeLa, THP-1, HUT-78 and A-549. The results showed that the fraction 6 from control sample gave IC50 values of 3.65, 5.59, 3.55, and 4.06 µg/mL, against HeLa, THP-1, HUT-78 and A-549, respectively, meanwhile fraction 6 from irradiated sample gave IC50 values of 8.26, 7.02, 5.03, and 5.59 µg/mL, respectively. Gamma irradiation dose of 7.5 kGy on mahkota dewa bark could decreased the cytotoxic activity of fraction 6 as the most cytotoxic-potential fraction against HeLa, THP-1, HUT-78 and A-549 cancer cell lines, but decreasing the cytotoxic activity has not exceeded the limit of an extract and the fraction declared inactive. So that the irradiation dose of 7.5 kGy can be use for decontamination of bacteria and fungus/yeast without eliminating the cytotoxic activity.

  9. Anti-tumor effect of bisphosphonate (YM529 on non-small cell lung cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Date Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background YM529 is a newly developed nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BP classified as a third-generation BP that shows a 100-fold greater potency against bone resorption than pamidronate, a second-generation BP. This agent is, therefore expected to be extremely useful clinically for the treatment of osteoporosis and hypercalcemia. Recently, YM529 as well as other third-generation BPs have also been shown to exert anti-tumor effects against various types of cancer cells both in vitro or/and in vivo. In this study, we investigate the anti-tumor effect of YM529 on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods Direct anti-tumor effect of YM529 against 8 NSCLC cell lines (adenocarcinoma: H23, H1299, NCI-H1819, NCI-H2009, H44, A549, adenosquamous cell carcinoma: NCI-H125, squamous cell carcinoma: NCI-H157 were measured by MTS assay and calculated inhibition concentration 50 % (IC50 values. YM529 induced apoptosis of NCI-H1819 was examined by DNA fragmentation of 2 % agarose gel electrophoresis and flowcytometric analysis (sub-G1 method. We examined where YM529 given effect to apoptosis of NSCLC cells in signaling pathway of the mevalonate pathway by western blotting analysis. Results We found that there was direct anti-tumor effect of YM529 on 8 NSCLC cell lines in a dose-dependent manner and their IC50 values were 2.1 to 7.9 μM and YM529 induced apoptosis and G1 arrest cell cycle with dose-dependent manner and YM529 caused down regulation of phospholyration of ERK1/2 in signaling pathways of NSCLC cell line (NCI-H1819. Conclusion Our study demonstrate that YM529 showed direct anti-tumor effect on NSCLC cell lines in vitro, which supports the possibility that third-generation BPs including YM529 can be one of therapeutic options for NSCLC.

  10. Chrysin enhances doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in human lung epithelial cancer cell lines: The role of glutathione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechbuhl, Heather M. [Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado (United States); Kachadourian, Remy; Min, Elysia [Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado (United States); Chan, Daniel [Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center (United States); Day, Brian J., E-mail: dayb@njhealth.org [Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center (United States); Immunology, University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center (United States); Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center (United States); Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that flavonoid-induced glutathione (GSH) efflux through multi-drug resistance proteins (MRPs) and subsequent intracellular GSH depletion is a viable mechanism to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapies. This concept was demonstrated using chrysin (5–25 μM) induced GSH efflux in human non-small cell lung cancer lines exposed to the chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (DOX). Treatment with chrysin resulted in significant and sustained intracellular GSH depletion and the GSH enzyme network in the four cancer cell types was predictive of the severity of chrysin induced intracellular GSH depletion. Gene expression data indicated a positive correlation between basal MRP1, MRP3 and MRP5 expression and total GSH efflux before and after chrysin exposure. Co-treating the cells for 72 h with chrysin (5–30 μM) and DOX (0.025–3.0 μM) significantly enhanced the sensitivity of the cells to DOX as compared to 72-hour DOX alone treatment in all four cell lines. The maximum decrease in the IC{sub 50} values of cells treated with DOX alone compared to co-treatment with chrysin and DOX was 43% in A549 cells, 47% in H157 and H1975 cells and 78% in H460 cells. Chrysin worked synergistically with DOX to induce cancer cell death. This approach could allow for use of lower concentrations and/or sensitize cancer cells to drugs that are typically resistant to therapy. -- Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms by which chrysin enhances doxorubicin-induced toxicity in cancer cells. Highlights: ► Chyrsin sustains a significant depletion of GSH levels in lung cancer cells. ► Chyrsin synergistically potentiates doxorubicin-induced cancer cell cytotoxicity. ► Cancer cell sensitivity correlated with GSH and MRP gene network expression. ► This approach could allow for lower side effects and targeting resistant tumors.

  11. Elevated pressure, a novel cancer therapeutic tool for sensitizing cisplatin-mediated apoptosis in A549

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sangnam [Cellular and Developmental Biology, Division of Biomedical Science, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Preventive Medicine and Medical Research Center for Environmental Toxico-Genomics and Proteomics, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yanghee [Department of Preventive Medicine and Medical Research Center for Environmental Toxico-Genomics and Proteomics, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joonhee [Cellular and Developmental Biology, Division of Biomedical Science, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Preventive Medicine and Medical Research Center for Environmental Toxico-Genomics and Proteomics, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Daeho [Department of Preventive Medicine and Medical Research Center for Environmental Toxico-Genomics and Proteomics, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eunil, E-mail: eunil@korea.ac.kr [Cellular and Developmental Biology, Division of Biomedical Science, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Preventive Medicine and Medical Research Center for Environmental Toxico-Genomics and Proteomics, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Sensitized apoptosis in cancer cells stimulated by EP precondition with p53 dependence. {yields} EP attenuates several CDDP-resistance mechanisms. {yields} No harmful effect of EP on normal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Intensive cancer therapy strategies have thus far focused on sensitizing cancer cells to anticancer drug-mediated apoptosis to overcome drug resistance, and this strategy has led to more effective cancer therapeutics. Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), CDDP) is an effective anticancer drug used to treat many types of cancer, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), and can be used in combination with various chemicals to enhance cancer cell apoptosis. Here, we introduce the use of elevated pressure (EP) in combination with CDDP for cancer treatment and explore the effects of EP on CDDP-mediated apoptosis in NSCLC cells. Our findings demonstrate that preconditioning NSCLC cells with EP sensitizes cells for CDDP-induced apoptosis. Enhanced apoptosis was dependent on p53 and HO-1 expression, and was associated with increased DNA damage and down-regulation of genes involved in nucleotide excision repair. The transcriptional levels of transporter proteins indicated that the mechanism by which EP-induced CDDP sensitization was intracellular drug accumulation. The protein levels of some antioxidants, such as hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), were decreased in A549 cells exposed to EP via the down-regulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf-2). Furthermore, normal human fibroblasts were resistant to EP treatment, with no elevated DNA damage or apoptosis. Collectively, these data show that administration of EP is a potential adjuvant tool for CDDP-based chemosensitivity of lung cancer cells that may reduce drug resistance.

  12. Elevated pressure, a novel cancer therapeutic tool for sensitizing cisplatin-mediated apoptosis in A549

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sangnam; Kim, Yanghee; Kim, Joonhee; Kwon, Daeho; Lee, Eunil

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sensitized apoptosis in cancer cells stimulated by EP precondition with p53 dependence. → EP attenuates several CDDP-resistance mechanisms. → No harmful effect of EP on normal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Intensive cancer therapy strategies have thus far focused on sensitizing cancer cells to anticancer drug-mediated apoptosis to overcome drug resistance, and this strategy has led to more effective cancer therapeutics. Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), CDDP) is an effective anticancer drug used to treat many types of cancer, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), and can be used in combination with various chemicals to enhance cancer cell apoptosis. Here, we introduce the use of elevated pressure (EP) in combination with CDDP for cancer treatment and explore the effects of EP on CDDP-mediated apoptosis in NSCLC cells. Our findings demonstrate that preconditioning NSCLC cells with EP sensitizes cells for CDDP-induced apoptosis. Enhanced apoptosis was dependent on p53 and HO-1 expression, and was associated with increased DNA damage and down-regulation of genes involved in nucleotide excision repair. The transcriptional levels of transporter proteins indicated that the mechanism by which EP-induced CDDP sensitization was intracellular drug accumulation. The protein levels of some antioxidants, such as hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), were decreased in A549 cells exposed to EP via the down-regulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf-2). Furthermore, normal human fibroblasts were resistant to EP treatment, with no elevated DNA damage or apoptosis. Collectively, these data show that administration of EP is a potential adjuvant tool for CDDP-based chemosensitivity of lung cancer cells that may reduce drug resistance.

  13. Cytotoxicity of flavonoid glycosides, flavonoids and phenolic acids from Inula oculus-christi on mammalian cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralitsa K. Veleva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbs of the genus Inula are well known in traditional medicine. Their extracts are used as expectorants, antitussives, bactericides as well as for the treatment of lung inflammation and have shown to possess anti-inflammatory and secretolytic activity. Experimental research findings indicate the anti-tumor effect of certain components of extracts from Inula cappa and Inula britannicа and those from Inula racemosa have antimicrobial and antidiabetic activity. We have directed our efforts on investigating the effects of different extracts from Inula oculus-christi, enriched with certain groups of biologically active substances - flavonoid glycosides (A, phenolic acids (B, flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids (C, flavonoids and phenolic acids (D. The effect of these extracts on normal (MDCK ІІ and RPE1 and carcinoma cell lines (A549 and HepG2 was evaluated. We have performed cytotoxicity study (crystal violet assay as well as morphological analysis of changes induced by the extracts. Among the tumor cell lines HepG2 show greater sensitivity. Surprisingly extract C has no significant influence on both cancer cell lines.

  14. Menadione inhibits MIBG uptake in two neuroendocrine cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.; Tytgat, G. A.; van den Brug, M.; van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Voûte, P. A.; van Gennip, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we report on our studies of the effect of menadione on the uptake of MIBG in the neuroendocrine cell lines PC12 and SK-N-SH. Menadione inhibits the uptake of MIBG in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of MIBG uptake is most pronounced in the PC12 cell line.

  15. Comparison of lung cancer cell lines representing four histopathological subtypes with gene expression profiling using quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawaguchi Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancers are the most common type of human malignancy and are intractable. Lung cancers are generally classified into four histopathological subtypes: adenocarcinoma (AD, squamous cell carcinoma (SQ, large cell carcinoma (LC, and small cell carcinoma (SC. Molecular biological characterization of these subtypes has been performed mainly using DNA microarrays. In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of these four subtypes using twelve human lung cancer cell lines and the more reliable quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Results We selected 100 genes from public DNA microarray data and examined them by DNA microarray analysis in eight test cell lines (A549, ABC-1, EBC-1, LK-2, LU65, LU99, STC 1, RERF-LC-MA and a normal control lung cell line (MRC-9. From this, we extracted 19 candidate genes. We quantified the expression of the 19 genes and a housekeeping gene, GAPDH, with qPCR, using the same eight cell lines plus four additional validation lung cancer cell lines (RERF-LC-MS, LC-1/sq, 86-2, and MS-1-L. Finally, we characterized the four subtypes of lung cancer cell lines using principal component analysis (PCA of gene expression profiling for 12 of the 19 genes (AMY2A, CDH1, FOXG1, IGSF3, ISL1, MALL, PLAU, RAB25, S100P, SLCO4A1, STMN1, and TGM2. The combined PCA and gene pathway analyses suggested that these genes were related to cell adhesion, growth, and invasion. S100P in AD cells and CDH1 in AD and SQ cells were identified as candidate markers of these lung cancer subtypes based on their upregulation and the results of PCA analysis. Immunohistochemistry for S100P and RAB25 was closely correlated to gene expression. Conclusions These results show that the four subtypes, represented by 12 lung cancer cell lines, were well characterized using qPCR and PCA for the 12 genes examined. Certain genes, in particular S100P and CDH1, may be especially important for distinguishing the different subtypes. Our results

  16. p53-independent structure-activity relationships of 3-ring mesogenic compounds' activity as cytotoxic effects against human non-small cell lung cancer lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushi, Saori; Yoshino, Hironori; Yoshizawa, Atsushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2016-07-25

    We recently demonstrated the cytotoxicity of liquid crystal precursors (hereafter referred to as "mesogenic compounds") in the human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line A549 which carry wild-type p53. p53 mutations are observed in 50 % of NSCLC and contribute to their resistance to chemotherapy. To develop more effective and cancer-specific agents, in this study, we investigated the structure-activity relationships of mesogenic compounds with cytotoxic effects against multiple NSCLC cells. The pharmacological effects of mesogenic compounds were examined in human NSCLC cells (A549, LU99, EBC-1, and H1299) and normal WI-38 human fibroblast. Analyses of the cell cycle, cell-death induction, and capsases expression were performed. The 3-ring compounds possessing terminal alkyl and hydroxyl groups (compounds C1-C5) showed cytotoxicity in NSCLC cells regardless of the p53 status. The compounds C1 and C3, which possess a pyrimidine at the center of the core, induced G2/M arrest, while the compounds without a pyrimidine (C2, C4, and C5) caused G1 arrest; all compounds produced caspase-mediated cell death. These events occurred in a p53-independent manner. Furthermore, it was suggested that compounds induced cell death through p53-independent DNA damage-signaling pathway. Compounds C2, C4, and C5 did not show strong cytotoxicity in WI-38 cells, whereas C1 and C3 did. However, the cytotoxicity of compound C1 against WI-38 cells was improved by modulating the terminal alkyl chain lengths of the compound. We showed the p53-indepdent structure-activity relationships of mesogenic compounds related to the cytotoxic effects. These structure-activity relationships will be helpful in the development of more effective and cancer-specific agents.

  17. A detailed study on the interaction of a novel water-soluble glycine bridged zinc(II) Schiff base coordination polymer with BSA: synthesis, crystal structure, molecular docking and cytotoxicity effect against A549, Jurkat and Raji cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Asadi, Z.; Golchin, M.; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal; Amirghofran, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 465, Aug (2017), s. 50-60 ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : water-soluble * coordination polymer * BSA * docking study * anticancer activity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.002, year: 2016

  18. The Cellosaurus, a Cell-Line Knowledge Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoch, Amos

    2018-01-01

    The Cellosaurus is a knowledge resource on cell lines. It aims to describe all cell lines used in biomedical research. Its scope encompasses both vertebrates and invertebrates. Currently, information for >100,000 cell lines is provided. For each cell line, it provides a wealth of information, cross-references, and literature citations. The Cellosaurus is available on the ExPASy server (https://web.expasy.org/cellosaurus/) and can be downloaded in a variety of formats. Among its many uses, the Cellosaurus is a key resource to help researchers identify potentially contaminated/misidentified cell lines, thus contributing to improving the quality of research in the life sciences. PMID:29805321

  19. Cisplatin-mediated radiosensitization of non-small cell lung cancer cells is stimulated by ATM inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulany, Mahmoud; Mihatsch, Julia; Holler, Marina; Chaachouay, Hassan; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Cisplatin activates ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), a protein with roles in DNA repair, cell cycle progression and autophagy. We investigated the radiosensitizing effect of cisplatin with respect to its effect on ATM pathway activation. Material and methods: Non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC) cell lines (A549, H460) and human fibroblast (ATM-deficient AT5, ATM-proficient 1BR3) cells were used. The effects of cisplatin combined with irradiation on ATM pathway activity, clonogenicity, DNA double-strand break (DNA-DSB) repair and cell cycle progression were analyzed with Western blotting, colony formation and γ-H2AX foci assays as well as FACS analysis, respectively. Results: Cisplatin radiosensitized H460 cells, but not A549 cells. Radiosensitization of H460 cells was not due to impaired DNA-DSB repair, increased apoptosis or cell cycle dysregulation. The lack of radiosensitization demonstrated for A549 cells was associated with cisplatin-mediated stimulation of ATM (S1981) and AMPKα (T172) phosphorylation and autophagy. However, in both cell lines inhibition of ATM and autophagy by KU-55933 and chloroquine diphosphate (CQ) respectively resulted in a significant radiosensitization. Combined treatment with the AMPK inhibitor compound-C led to radiosensitization of A549 but not of H460 cells. As compared to the treatment with KU-55933 alone, radiosensitivity of A549 cells was markedly stimulated by the combination of KU-55933 and cisplatin. However, the combination of CQ and cisplatin did not modulate the pattern of radiation sensitivity of A549 or H460 cells. In accordance with the results that cisplatin via stimulation of ATM activity can abrogate its radiosensitizing effect, ATM deficient cells were significantly sensitized to ionizing radiation by cisplatin. Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that ATM targeting can potentiate cisplatin-induced radiosensitization

  20. Cellular radiosensitivity of small-cell lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krarup, Marianne; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard; Spang-Thomsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the radiobiological characteristics of a panel of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines by use of a clonogenic assay. In addition, we tested whether comparable results could be obtained by employing a growth extrapolation method based on the construction of continuous exponential growth curves. Methods and Materials: Fifteen SCLC cell lines were studied, applying a slightly modified clonogenic assay and a growth extrapolation method. A dose-survival curve was obtained for each experiment and used for calculating several survival parameters. The multitarget single hit model was applied to calculate the cellular radiosensitivity (D 0 ), the capacity for sublethal damage repair (D q ), and the extrapolation number (n). Values for α and β were determined from best-fit curves according to the linear-quadratic model and these values were applied to calculate the surviving fraction after 2-Gy irradiation (SF 2 ). Results: In our investigation, the extrapolation method proved to be inappropriate for the study of in vitro cellular radiosensitivity due to lack of reproducibility. The results obtained by the clonogenic assay showed that the cell lines studied were radiobiologically heterogeneous with no discrete features of the examined parameters including the repair capacity. Conclusion: The results indicate that SCLC tumors per se are not generally candidates for hyperfractionated radiotherapy

  1. The experimental research in the effects of 32P combined with cisplatin on the apoptosis of lung cancer cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Nianqin; Wu Jinchuan; Huang Gang; Liu Jianjun; Cheng Xu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects and mechanism of 32 P on the apoptosis of cultured nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, A549, and explore the value of its apoptosis induced by radiation combined with Cisplatin. Methods: The A549 cells cultured in vitro were irradiated by 32 P and/or treated with Cisplatin of different doses. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) test, transmission electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry assay, flow cytometry were used to investigate the effects of β-particles on apoptosis of A549 cells, such as cell viability, cell apoptosis rate, cell ultrastructural morphological changes and related gene expression. Results: There were significant changes in the viability, cell apoptosis rate, and cellular ultrastructure of A549 cells along with the irradiation dose increasing, compared with that in the control group; and while the Cisplatin combined with low-dose 32 P radiation, the viable cell proportion markedly decreased, cell apoptosis rate significantly increased, and cellular ultrastructure was destroyed. The expression of p53, bax gene was up-regulated and bcl-2/bax down-regulated with the apoptosis of A549 cells induced by radiation. Conclusions: Low-dose radiation combined with chemotherapy on A549 cells could inhibit its proliferation, and significantly effect on cell viability, cell apoptosis rate, cell ultrastructure, meanwhile, it could result in significant apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis may be related to the expression of p53, bcl-2 and bax gene. Low-dose radiation combined with chemotherapy could be an ideal way, which not only enhance the apoptosis of A549 cells, but also decrease the doses of both agents used in the study

  2. Susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    and laboratories, but also between lineages of the same cell line. To minimise the occurrence of false negatives in a cell culture based surveillance system, we have investigated methods, to select cell lineages that are relatively superior in their susceptibility to a panel of virus isolates. The procedures...... cell lineages, we increased the number of isolates of each virus, propagated stocks in a given cell line and tested all lineages of that line in use in the laboratory. Testing of relative cell line susceptibility between laboratories is carried out annually via the Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test...... sensitivity for surveillance purposes within a cell line and between laboratories.In terms of economic and practical considerations as well as attempting to approach a realistic test system, we suggest the optimal procedure for susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation to be a combination...

  3. Encapsulation in lipid-core nanocapsules overcomes lung cancer cell resistance to tretinoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Eduarda; Ourique, Aline; Yurgel, Virginia Campello; Begnini, Karine Rech; Thurow, Helena; de Leon, Priscila Marques Moura; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Guterres, Silvia R; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Collares, Tiago

    2014-05-01

    Tretinoin is a retinoid derivative that has an antiproliferative effect on several kinds of tumours. Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell lines (A549) exhibit a profound resistance to the effects of tretinoin. Nanocarriers seem to be a good alternative to overcomecellular resistance to drugs. The aim of this study was to test whether tretinoin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules exert anantitumor effect on A549 cells. A549 cells were incubated with free tretinoin (TTN), blank nanocapsules (LNC) and tretinoin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (TTN-LNC). Data from evaluation of DNA content and Annexin V binding assay by flow cytometry showed that TTN-LNC induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G1-phase while TTN did not. TTN-LNC showed higher cytotoxic effects than TTN on A549 cells evaluated by MTT and LIVE/DEAD cell viability assay. Gene expression profiling identified up-regulated expression of gene p21 by TTN-LNC, supporting the cell cycle arrest effect. These results showed for the first time that TTN-LNC are able to overcome the resistance of adenocarcinoma cell line A549 to treatment with TTN by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, providing support for their use in applications in lung cancer therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Akt2 and nucleophosmin/B23 function as an oncogenic unit in human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Kwon; Nguyen, Truong L.X.; Lee, Sang Bae; Park, Sang Bum; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Cho, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Jee-Yin

    2011-01-01

    The signaling network of protein kinase B(PKB)/Akt has been implicated in survival of lung cancer cells. However, understanding the relative contribution of the different isoform of Akt network is nontrival. Here, we report that Akt2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells. Suppression of Akt2 expression in A549 cells results in notable inhibition of cell poliferation, soft agar growth, and invasion, accompanying by a decrease of nucleophosmin/B23 protein. Overexpression of Akt1 restores cancerous growth of A549 cells in B23-knockdown (KD) cells while Akt2 overexpression did not restore proliferating potential in cells with downregulated B23, thus suggesting Akt2 requires B23 to drive proliferation of lung cancer cell. Loss of functional Akt2 and B23 has similar defects on cell proliferation, apoptotic resistance and cell cycle regulation, while loss of Akt1 has less defects on cell proliferation, survial and cell cycle progression in A549 cells. Moreover, overexpression of B23 rescues the proliferative block induced as a consequence of loss of Akt2. Thus our data suggest that Akt2/B23 functions as an oncogenic unit to drive tumorigenesis of A549 lung cancer cells.

  5. Characterization of a Merkel Cell Polyomavirus-Positive Merkel Cell Carcinoma Cell Line CVG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Celestino; Amako, Yutaka; Harold, Alexis; Toptan, Tuna; Chang, Yuan; Shuda, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) plays a causal role in ∼80% of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC). MCV is clonally integrated into the MCC tumor genome, which results in persistent expression of large T (LT) and small T (sT) antigen oncoproteins encoded by the early locus. In MCV-positive MCC tumors, LT is truncated by premature stop codons or deletions that lead to loss of the C-terminal origin binding (OBD) and helicase domains important for replication. The N-terminal Rb binding domain remains intact. MCV-positive cell lines derived from MCC explants have been valuable tools to study the molecular mechanism of MCV-induced Merkel cell carcinogenesis. Although all cell lines have integrated MCV and express truncated LT antigens, the molecular sizes of the LT proteins differ between cell lines. The copy number of integrated viral genome also varies across cell lines, leading to significantly different levels of viral protein expression. Nevertheless, these cell lines share phenotypic similarities in cell morphology, growth characteristics, and neuroendocrine marker expression. Several low-passage MCV-positive MCC cell lines have been established since the identification of MCV. We describe a new MCV-positive MCV cell line, CVG-1, with features distinct from previously reported cell lines. CVG-1 tumor cells grow in more discohesive clusters in loose round cell suspension, and individual cells show dramatic size heterogeneity. It is the first cell line to encode an MCV sT polymorphism resulting in a unique leucine (L) to proline (P) substitution mutation at amino acid 144. CVG-1 possesses a LT truncation pattern near identical to that of MKL-1 cells differing by the last two C-terminal amino acids and also shows an LT protein expression level similar to MKL-1. Viral T antigen knockdown reveals that, like other MCV-positive MCC cell lines, CVG-1 requires T antigen expression for cell proliferation.

  6. Retention of the In Vitro Radiosensitizing Potential of Gemcitabine Under Anoxic Conditions, in p53 Wild-Type and p53-Deficient Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, An; Pauwels, Bea; Lambrechts, Hilde A.J.; Pattyn, Greet G.O.; Ides, Johan; Baay, Marc; Meijnders, Paul; Peeters, Marc; Vermorken, Jan B.; Lardon, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Whereas radiosensitization by gemcitabine is well studied under normal oxygen conditions, little is known about its radiosensitizing potential under reduced oxygen conditions. Therefore, the present study evaluated the impact of anoxia on gemcitabine-mediated radiosensitization. Methods and Materials: The clonogenic assay was performed in three isogenic A549 cell lines differing in p53 status (24 h, 0-15 nM gemcitabine, 0-8 Gy irradiation, normoxia vs. anoxia). Using radiosensitizing conditions, cells were collected for cell cycle analysis and apoptosis detection. Results: Whereas wild-type p53 A549-LXSN cells were more sensitive to radiation than p53-deficient A549-E6 cells, both cell lines showed similar radiosensitization by gemcitabine under normoxia and anoxia. Independent of p53 functionality, gemcitabine was able to overcome anoxia-induced G 0/1 arrest and established an (early) S phase block in normoxic and anoxic cells. The percentage early and late apoptotic/necrotic cells increased with the gemcitabine/radiation combination, with a significant difference between A549-LXSN and A549-E6. Conclusions: This study is the first to show that gemcitabine retains its radiosensitizing potential under low oxygen conditions. Although radiosensitization was observed in both p53 wild-type and p53-deficient cells, p53 status might influence induction of apoptosis after gemcitabine/radiation treatment, whereas no effect on cell cycle progression was noticed.

  7. Histoplasma capsulatum-Induced Cytokine Secretion in Lung Epithelial Cells Is Dependent on Host Integrins, Src-Family Kinase Activation, and Membrane Raft Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paloma K; Suzuki, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus that causes histoplasmosis, a human systemic mycosis with worldwide distribution. In the present work, we demonstrate that H. capsulatum yeasts are able to induce cytokine secretion by the human lung epithelial cell line A549 in integrin- and Src-family kinase (SFK)-dependent manners. This conclusion is supported by small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed to α3 and α5 integrins, and PP2, an inhibitor of SFK activation. siRNA and PP2 reduced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in H. capsulatum-infected A549 cell cultures. In addition, α3 and α5 integrins from A549 cells were capable of associating with H. capsulatum yeasts, and this fungus promotes recruitment of these integrins and SFKs to A549 cell membrane rafts. Corroborating this finding, membrane raft disruption with the cholesterol-chelator methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced the levels of integrins and SFKs in these cell membrane domains. Finally, pretreatment of A549 cells with the cholesterol-binding compound, and also a membrane raft disruptor, filipin, significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-8 levels in A549-H.capsulatum cultures. Taken together, these results indicate that H. capsulatum yeasts induce secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 in human lung epithelial cells by interacting with α3 and α5 integrins, recruiting these integrins to membrane rafts, and promoting SFK activation.

  8. MODERATE CYTOTOXICITY OF PROANTHOCYANIDINS TO HUMAN TUMOR-CELL LINES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOLODZIEJ, H; HABERLAND, C; WOERDENBAG, HJ; KONINGS, AWT

    In the present study the cytotoxicity of 16 proanthocyanidins was evaluated in GLC(4), a human small cell lung carcinoma cell line, and in COLO 320, a human colorectal cancer cell line, using the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. With IC50 values ranging from 18 to >200 mu m following continuous

  9. Antioxidant properties and cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines of aqueous fermented and lipophilic quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Severina; Gallicchio, Marialuisa; Fiorentino, Antonio; Fischer, Anna; Meyer, Ulrich; Stintzing, Florian Conrad

    2012-11-01

    In the course of a screening program on quince phytochemicals, two complex preparations were in the focus of the present study, i.e., a lipophilic quince wax extract (QWE) and an aqueous fermented one (QAFE). While the phytochemical composition has been described earlier, the intention of the current investigation was to complement these data with an extensive antioxidant screening of these preparations including their radical scavenging and reductive power as well as their antilipoperoxidative properties. The Quince Aqueous Fermented Extract (QAFE) effectively scavenged the radical target species exhibiting ID(50) values equal to 68.8 μg/mL towards DPPH· and 73.7 μg/mL towards the anion superoxide radical. Quince wax extract (QWE) was more effective at preventing the formation of thiobarbituric reactive species than QAFE exhibiting an ID(50) value equal to 48.9 μg/mL. Moreover the cytotoxic effects towards human HepG2, A549, and HeLa cell lines were evaluated. The two preparations exerted a different effect on the proliferation of the three tested cell lines. Noteworthy, QAFE was almost always more active than QWE but, sometimes, its effects seemed to be strongly dependent on exposure time. Data obtained demonstrate clearly that both hydrophilic and lipophilic quince preparations are non-toxic and exert health-promoting properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer cells is associated with an abrogation of cisplatin-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Sarin

    Full Text Available The efficacy of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in cancer is limited by the occurrence of innate and acquired drug resistance. In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying acquired cisplatin resistance, we have compared the adenocarcinoma-derived non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell line A549 and its cisplatin-resistant sub-line A549rCDDP2000 with regard to cisplatin resistance mechanisms including cellular platinum accumulation, DNA-adduct formation, cell cycle alterations, apoptosis induction and activation of key players of DNA damage response. In A549rCDDP2000 cells, a cisplatin-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest was lacking and apoptosis was reduced compared to A549 cells, although equitoxic cisplatin concentrations resulted in comparable platinum-DNA adduct levels. These differences were accompanied by changes in the expression of proteins involved in DNA damage response. In A549 cells, cisplatin exposure led to a significantly higher expression of genes coding for proteins mediating G2/M arrest and apoptosis (mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2, xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC, stress inducible protein (SIP and p21 compared to resistant cells. This was underlined by significantly higher protein levels of phosphorylated Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (pAtm and p53 in A549 cells compared to their respective untreated control. The results were compiled in a preliminary model of resistance-associated signaling alterations. In conclusion, these findings suggest that acquired resistance of NSCLC cells against cisplatin is the consequence of altered signaling leading to reduced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  11. Antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects of molecular iodine, povidone-iodine and Lugol's solution in different human carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösner, Harald; Möller, Wolfgang; Groebner, Sabine; Torremante, Pompilio

    2016-09-01

    Clinical trials have revealed that molecular iodine (I 2 ) has beneficial effects in fibrocystic breast disease and in cyclic mastalgia. Likewise, povidone-iodine (PVP-I), which is widely used in clinical practice as an antiseptic agent following tumour surgery, has been demonstrated to have cytotoxic effects on colon cancer and ascites tumour cells. Our previous study indicated that the growth of breast cancer and seven other human malignant cell lines was variably diminished by I 2 and iodolactones. With the intention of developing an iodine-based anticancer therapy, the present investigations extended these studies by comparing the cytotoxic capacities of I 2 , potassium iodide (KJ), PVP-I and Lugol's solution on various human carcinoma cell lines. Upon staining the cell nuclei with Hoechst 33342, the cell densities were determined microscopically. While KJ alone did not affect cell proliferation, it enhanced the antiproliferative activity of I 2 . In addition, PVP-I significantly inhibited the proliferation of human MCF-7 breast carcinoma, IPC melanoma, and A549 and H1299 lung carcinoma cells in a concentration corresponding to 20 µM I 2 . Likewise, Lugol's solution in concentrations corresponding to 20-80 µM I 2 were observed to reduce the growth of MCF-7 cells. Experiments with fresh human blood samples revealed that the antiproliferative activity of PVP-I and I 2 is preserved in blood plasma to a high degree. These findings suggest that PVP-I, Lugol's solution, and a combination of iodide and I 2 may be potent agents for use in the development of antitumour strategies.

  12. Investigation of the selenium metabolism in cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunøe, Kristoffer; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Stürup, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare different selenium species for their ability to induce cell death in different cancer cell lines, while investigating the underlying chemistry by speciation analysis. A prostate cancer cell line (PC-3), a colon cancer cell line (HT-29) and a leukaemia cell line...... (Jurkat E6-1) were incubated with five selenium compounds representing inorganic as well as organic Se compounds in different oxidation states. Selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), methylseleninic acid (MeSeA), selenite and selenate in the concentration range 5-100 mu M were...... incubated with cells for 24 h and the induction of cell death was measured using flow cytometry. The amounts of total selenium in cell medium, cell lysate and the insoluble fractions was determined by ICP-MS. Speciation analysis of cellular fractions was performed by reversed phase, anion exchange and size...

  13. Derivation and characterization of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived exocrine pancreatic cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment and initial characterization of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic cell line, PICM-31, and a colony-cloned derivative cell line, PICM-31A, is described. The cell lines were propagated for several months at split ratios of 1:3 or 1:5 at each passage on STO feeder cells af...

  14. Effect of ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) in human lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Pengfei; Borland, Michael G.; Zhu Bokai; Sharma, Arun K.; Amin, Shantu; El-Bayoumy, Karam; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Peters, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) mediates terminal differentiation and is associated with inhibition of cell growth. However, it was recently suggested that growth of two human lung cancer cell lines is enhanced by PPARβ/δ. The goal of the present study was to provide insight in resolving this controversy. Therefore, the effect of ligand activation of PPARβ/δ in A549 and H1838 human lung cancer cell lines was examined using two high affinity PPARβ/δ ligands. Ligand activation of PPARβ/δ caused up-regulation of a known PPARβ/δ target gene, angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) but did not influence expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) or phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), and did not affect cell growth. Results from this study demonstrate that two human lung cancer cell lines respond to ligand activation of PPARβ/δ by modulation of target gene expression (Angptl4), but fail to exhibit significant modulation of cell proliferation

  15. Down-regulation of HSP27 sensitizes TRAIL-resistant tumor cell to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Hongqin; Jiang, Weiwei; Cheng, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has recently emerged as a cancer therapeutic agent because it preferentially induces apoptosis in human cancer over normal cells. Most tumor cells, including lung cancer cell line A549, unfortunately, are resistant to TRAIL tre...

  16. Feeder-cell-independent culture of the pig-embryonic-stem-cell-derived exocrine pancreatic cell line, PICM-31

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adaptation to feeder-independent growth of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic cell line is described. The parental PICM-31 cell line, previously characterized as an exocrine pancreas cell line, was colony-cloned two times in succession resulting in the subclonal cell line, PICM-31A1. P...

  17. MicroRNA-106b-5p regulates cisplatin chemosensitivity by targeting polycystic kidney disease-2 in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaorong; Qin, Xiaobing; Chen, Tingting; Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Xiaoyue; Feng, Jifeng

    2017-09-01

    Systemic therapy with cytotoxic agents remains one of the main treatment methods for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, that, when combined with other drugs, is an effective treatment for NSCLC. However, effective cancer therapy is hindered by a patient's resistance to cisplatin. Unfortunately, the potential mechanism underlying such resistance remains unclear. In this study, we explored the mechanism of microRNA-106b-5p (miR-106b-5p), which is involved in the resistance to cisplatin in the A549 cell line of NSCLC. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to test the expression of miR-106-5p in the A549 and the A549/DDP cell line of NSCLC. The cell counting kit-8 assay was used to detect cell viability. Flow cytometry was used to measure cell cycle and cell apoptosis. Luciferase reporter assays and western blot were performed to confirm whether polycystic kidney disease-2 (PKD2) is a direct target gene of miR-106b-5p. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the distribution of PKD2 expression in patients who are sensitive and resistant to cisplatin. The experiments indicated that the expression of miR-106b-5p was significantly decreased in A549/DDP compared with that in A549. MiR-106b-5p affected the tolerance of cells to cisplatin by negatively regulating PKD2. Upregulation of miR-106b-5p or downregulation of PKD2 expression can cause A549/DDP cells to become considerably more sensitive to cisplatin. The results showed that miR-106b-5p enhanced the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin by targeting the expression of PKD2. These findings suggest that the use of miR-106b-5p may be a promising clinical strategy in the treatment of NSCLC.

  18. Peroxisomal abnormalities in the immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klouwer, Femke C C; Koster, Janet; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Waterham, Hans R

    2017-04-01

    The immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) cell line is increasingly used for studies related to liver metabolism, including hepatic glucose, lipid, lipoprotein and triglyceride metabolism, and the effect of therapeutic interventions. To determine whether the IHH cell line is a good model to investigate hepatic peroxisomal metabolism, we measured several peroxisomal parameters in IHH cells and, for comparison, HepG2 cells and primary skin fibroblasts. This revealed a marked plasmalogen deficiency and a deficient fatty acid α-oxidation in the IHH cells, due to a defect of PEX7, a cytosolic receptor protein required for peroxisomal import of a subset of peroxisomal proteins. These abnormalities have consequences for the lipid homeostasis of these cells and thus should be taken into account for the interpretation of data previously generated by using this cell line and when considering using this cell line for future research.

  19. Radiation response of haematopoietic cell lines of human origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, S.; Rybka, W.B.; Suissa, S.; Giambattisto, D.

    1986-01-01

    Six human haematopoietic cell lines, five of leukaemic origin, including cells with myeloid, lymphoid and undifferentiated phenotype have been studied with respect to radiation response. The intrinsic radio-sensitivity of the cells varied widely, the D 0 s ranging from 0.53 to 1.39 Gy. Five of the cell lines showed some capacity to accumulate sublethal damage; in three of these, enhanced survival was demonstrated in split-dose experiments. One cell line (HL-60) was anomalous in that although little accumulation of sublethal damage was demonstrable, survival was enhanced by fractionation of the dose. Five of the six cell lines studied were of leukaemic origin. The results support the belief that, in contrast to the almost constant radiosensitivity of normal haematopoietic cell progenitors, leukaemic cell progenitors may show a wide range of radiosensitivities. (author)

  20. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines for rhabdomyosarcoma research: Utility and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R.P. Hinson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence. Despite intergroup clinical trials conducted in Europe and North America, outcomes for high risk patients with this disease have not significantly improved in the last several decades, and survival of metastatic or relapsed disease remains extremely poor. Accrual into new clinical trials is slow and difficult, so in vitro cell line research and in vivo xenograft models present an attractive alternative for preclinical research for this cancer type. Currently, 30 commonly used human RMS cell lines exist, with differing origins, karyotypes, histologies, and methods of validation. Selecting an appropriate cell line for RMS research has important implications for outcomes. There are also potential pitfalls in using certain cell lines including contamination with murine stromal cells, cross-contamination between cell lines, discordance between the cell line and its associated original tumor, imposter cell lines, and nomenclature errors that result in the circulation of two or more presumed unique cell lines that are actually from the same origin. These pitfalls can be avoided by testing for species-specific isoenzymes, microarray analysis, assays for subtype-specific fusion products, and short tandem repeat analysis.

  1. Human Rhabdomyosarcoma Cell Lines for Rhabdomyosarcoma Research: Utility and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Ashley R. P.; Jones, Rosanne; Crose, Lisa E. S.; Belyea, Brian C.; Barr, Frederic G.; Linardic, Corinne M.

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence. Despite intergroup clinical trials conducted in Europe and North America, outcomes for high risk patients with this disease have not significantly improved in the last several decades, and survival of metastatic or relapsed disease remains extremely poor. Accrual into new clinical trials is slow and difficult, so in vitro cell-line research and in vivo xenograft models present an attractive alternative for preclinical research for this cancer type. Currently, 30 commonly used human RMS cell lines exist, with differing origins, karyotypes, histologies, and methods of validation. Selecting an appropriate cell line for RMS research has important implications for outcomes. There are also potential pitfalls in using certain cell lines including contamination with murine stromal cells, cross-contamination between cell lines, discordance between the cell line and its associated original tumor, imposter cell lines, and nomenclature errors that result in the circulation of two or more presumed unique cell lines that are actually from the same origin. These pitfalls can be avoided by testing for species-specific isoenzymes, microarray analysis, assays for subtype-specific fusion products, and short tandem repeat analysis. PMID:23882450

  2. CD133+ cells contribute to radioresistance via altered regulation of DNA repair genes in human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Amar; Webb, Bryan; Gerson, Stanton L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Radioresistance in human tumors has been linked in part to a subset of cells termed cancer stem cells (CSCs). The prominin 1 (CD133) cell surface protein is proposed to be a marker enriching for CSCs. We explore the importance of DNA repair in contributing to radioresistance in CD133+ lung cancer cells. Materials and methods: A549 and H1299 lung cancer cell lines were used. Sorted CD133+ cells were exposed to either single 4 Gy or 8 Gy doses and clonogenic survival measured. ϒ-H2AX immunofluorescence and quantitative real time PCR was performed on sorted CD133+ cells both in the absence of IR and after two single 4 Gy doses. Lentiviral shRNA was used to silence repair genes. Results: A549 but not H1299 cells expand their CD133+ population after single 4 Gy exposure, and isolated A549 CD133+ cells demonstrate IR resistance. This resistance corresponded with enhanced repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and upregulated expression of DSB repair genes in A549 cells. Prior IR exposure of two single 4 Gy doses resulted in acquired DNA repair upregulation and improved repair proficiency in both A549 and H1299. Finally Exo1 and Rad51 silencing in A549 cells abrogated the CD133+ IR expansion phenotype and induced IR sensitivity in sorted CD133+ cells. Conclusions: CD133 identifies a population of cells within specific tumor types containing altered expression of DNA repair genes that are inducible upon exposure to chemotherapy. This altered gene expression contributes to enhanced DSB resolution and the radioresistance phenotype of these cells. We also identify DNA repair genes which may serve as promising therapeutic targets to confer radiosensitivity to CSCs

  3. Interactions of pharmacologically active snake venom sPLA2 with different cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumanov, Jordan; Mladenova, Kirilka; Aleksandrov, Radoslav; Danovski, Georgi; Petrova, Svetla

    2014-01-01

    Secreted Phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) represent a large family of structurally related enzymes, which target different tissues and organs and induce numerous pharmacological effects based on their catalytic specificity – hydrolysis of the sn-2 ester bond of glycerophospholipids. The neurotoxin vipoxin, isolated from the venom of Vipera ammodytes meriodionalis, is a heterodimeric postsynaptic ionic complex composed of two protein subunits – a basic and toxic His48 sPLA2 enzyme and an acidic, enzymatically inactive and non-toxic component. In this paper, for the first time, we demonstrate that vipoxin sPLA2 enzyme affects cell integrity and viability of four cell types and causes different cell responses. The most dramatic local tissue effects were observed with RPE-1 (retinal pigment epithelial) cells followed by A549 (adenocarcinomic human alveolar epithelial) cells and MDCK (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney epithelial) cells. Products of the enzymatic reaction, lysophospholipids and unsaturated free fatty acids, act as lipid mediators that can induce membrane damaging or can stimulate cell proliferation. Our preliminary results on the cytotoxic effect of vipoxin sPLA2 on A549 cells are promising in searching of its eventual anticancer potential. PMID:26019578

  4. Authentication of M14 melanoma cell line proves misidentification of MDA‐MB‐435 breast cancer cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korch, Christopher; Hall, Erin M.; Dirks, Wilhelm G.; Ewing, Margaret; Faries, Mark; Varella‐Garcia, Marileila; Robinson, Steven; Storts, Douglas; Turner, Jacqueline A.; Wang, Ying; Burnett, Edward C.; Healy, Lyn; Kniss, Douglas; Neve, Richard M.; Nims, Raymond W.; Reid, Yvonne A.; Robinson, William A.

    2017-01-01

    A variety of analytical approaches have indicated that melanoma cell line UCLA‐SO‐M14 (M14) and breast carcinoma cell line MDA‐MB‐435 originate from a common donor. This indicates that at some point in the past, one of these cell lines became misidentified, meaning that it ceased to correspond to the reported donor and instead became falsely identified (through cross‐contamination or other means) as a cell line from a different donor. Initial studies concluded that MDA‐MB‐435 was the misidentified cell line and M14 was the authentic cell line, although contradictory evidence has been published, resulting in further confusion. To address this question, we obtained early samples of the melanoma cell line (M14), a lymphoblastoid cell line from the same donor (ML14), and donor serum preserved at the originator's institution. M14 samples were cryopreserved in December 1975, before MDA‐MB‐435 cells were established in culture. Through a series of molecular characterizations, including short tandem repeat (STR) profiling and cytogenetic analysis, we demonstrated that later samples of M14 and MDA‐MB‐435 correspond to samples of M14 frozen in 1975, to the lymphoblastoid cell line ML14, and to the melanoma donor's STR profile, sex and blood type. This work demonstrates conclusively that M14 is the authentic cell line and MDA‐MB‐435 is misidentified. With clear provenance information and authentication testing of early samples, it is possible to resolve debates regarding the origins of problematic cell lines that are widely used in cancer research. PMID:28940260

  5. Trichloroethylene toxicity in a human hepatoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenin, E.; McMillian, J. [Medical Univ. of Charleston South Carolina, SC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The experiments conducted in this study were designed to determine the usefullness of hepatocyte cultures and a human hepatoma cell line as model systems for assessing human susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma due to exposure to trichloroethylene. The results from these studies will then be analyzed to determine if human cell lines can be used to conduct future experiments of this nature.

  6. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCM-1 was derived from a failed to fertilise egg undergoing parthenogenetic stimulation. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  7. Generation and Characterisation of Cisplatin-Resistant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines Displaying a Stem-Like Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Martin P.; Gray, Steven G.; Hoffmann, Andreas C.; Hilger, Ralf A.; Thomale, Juergen; O’Flaherty, John D.; Fennell, Dean A.; Richard, Derek; O’Leary, John J.; O’Byrne, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inherent and acquired cisplatin resistance reduces the effectiveness of this agent in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this process may result in the development of novel agents to enhance the sensitivity of cisplatin. Methods An isogenic model of cisplatin resistance was generated in a panel of NSCLC cell lines (A549, SKMES-1, MOR, H460). Over a period of twelve months, cisplatin resistant (CisR) cell lines were derived from original, age-matched parent cells (PT) and subsequently characterized. Proliferation (MTT) and clonogenic survival assays (crystal violet) were carried out between PT and CisR cells. Cellular response to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were examined by FACS analysis. A panel of cancer stem cell and pluripotent markers was examined in addition to the EMT proteins, c-Met and β-catenin. Cisplatin-DNA adduct formation, DNA damage (γH2AX) and cellular platinum uptake (ICP-MS) was also assessed. Results Characterisation studies demonstrated a decreased proliferative capacity of lung tumour cells in response to cisplatin, increased resistance to cisplatin-induced cell death, accumulation of resistant cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and enhanced clonogenic survival ability. Moreover, resistant cells displayed a putative stem-like signature with increased expression of CD133+/CD44+cells and increased ALDH activity relative to their corresponding parental cells. The stem cell markers, Nanog, Oct-4 and SOX-2, were significantly upregulated as were the EMT markers, c-Met and β-catenin. While resistant sublines demonstrated decreased uptake of cisplatin in response to treatment, reduced cisplatin-GpG DNA adduct formation and significantly decreased γH2AX foci were observed compared to parental cell lines. Conclusion Our results identified cisplatin resistant subpopulations of NSCLC cells with a putative stem-like signature, providing

  8. Generation and characterisation of cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cell lines displaying a stem-like signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Barr

    Full Text Available Inherent and acquired cisplatin resistance reduces the effectiveness of this agent in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this process may result in the development of novel agents to enhance the sensitivity of cisplatin.An isogenic model of cisplatin resistance was generated in a panel of NSCLC cell lines (A549, SKMES-1, MOR, H460. Over a period of twelve months, cisplatin resistant (CisR cell lines were derived from original, age-matched parent cells (PT and subsequently characterized. Proliferation (MTT and clonogenic survival assays (crystal violet were carried out between PT and CisR cells. Cellular response to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were examined by FACS analysis. A panel of cancer stem cell and pluripotent markers was examined in addition to the EMT proteins, c-Met and β-catenin. Cisplatin-DNA adduct formation, DNA damage (γH2AX and cellular platinum uptake (ICP-MS was also assessed.Characterisation studies demonstrated a decreased proliferative capacity of lung tumour cells in response to cisplatin, increased resistance to cisplatin-induced cell death, accumulation of resistant cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and enhanced clonogenic survival ability. Moreover, resistant cells displayed a putative stem-like signature with increased expression of CD133+/CD44+cells and increased ALDH activity relative to their corresponding parental cells. The stem cell markers, Nanog, Oct-4 and SOX-2, were significantly upregulated as were the EMT markers, c-Met and β-catenin. While resistant sublines demonstrated decreased uptake of cisplatin in response to treatment, reduced cisplatin-GpG DNA adduct formation and significantly decreased γH2AX foci were observed compared to parental cell lines.Our results identified cisplatin resistant subpopulations of NSCLC cells with a putative stem-like signature, providing a further understanding of the

  9. Comparison of steroid receptors from the androgen responsive DDT1 cell line and the nonresponsive HVP cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, J S; Kohler, P O

    1978-01-01

    Two hamster cell lines have been isolated from androgen target tissue. The DDT1 cells derived from ductus deferens tissue exhibit a growth response to androgens, while the HVP cells derived from ventral prostate are androgen unresponsive. Both cell lines contain androgen receptors, that are similar when compared by kinetic methods, sedimentation velocity, chromatographic procedures or nuclear translocation ability. The forms of the high salt extracted nuclear receptors are indistinguishable chromatographically. Therefore, we postulate that the lesion preventing androgen induced growth in the HVP cell line is subseqent to nuclear translocation of the steroid receptor complex.

  10. Identification of a novel rhabdovirus in Spodoptera frugiperda cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hailun; Galvin, Teresa A; Glasner, Dustin R; Shaheduzzaman, Syed; Khan, Arifa S

    2014-06-01

    The Sf9 cell line, derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, is used as a cell substrate for biological products, and no viruses have been reported in this cell line after extensive testing. We used degenerate PCR assays and massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to identify a novel RNA virus belonging to the order Mononegavirales in Sf9 cells. Sequence analysis of the assembled virus genome showed the presence of five open reading frames (ORFs) corresponding to the genes for the N, P, M, G, and L proteins in other rhabdoviruses and an unknown ORF of 111 amino acids located between the G- and L-protein genes. BLAST searches indicated that the S. frugiperda rhabdovirus (Sf-rhabdovirus) was related in a limited region of the L-protein gene to Taastrup virus, a newly discovered member of the Mononegavirales from a leafhopper (Hemiptera), and also to plant rhabdoviruses, particularly in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences in the L-protein gene indicated that Sf-rhabdovirus is a novel virus that branched with Taastrup virus. Rhabdovirus morphology was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy of filtered supernatant samples from Sf9 cells. Infectivity studies indicated potential transient infection by Sf-rhabdovirus in other insect cell lines, but there was no evidence of entry or virus replication in human cell lines. Sf-rhabdovirus sequences were also found in the Sf21 parental cell line of Sf9 cells but not in other insect cell lines, such as BT1-TN-5B1-4 (Tn5; High Five) cells and Schneider's Drosophila line 2 [D.Mel.(2); SL2] cells, indicating a species-specific infection. The results indicate that conventional methods may be complemented by state-of-the-art technologies with extensive bioinformatics analysis for identification of novel viruses. The Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cell line is used as a cell substrate for the development and manufacture of biological products. Extensive testing has not previously identified any viruses in this cell

  11. Polymer encapsulated dopaminergic cell lines as "alternative neural grafts".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, C B; Greene, L A; Tresco, P A; Winn, S R; Aebischer, P

    1990-01-01

    Our preliminary findings (Jaeger et al., 1988; Aebischer et al., 1989; Tresco et al., 1989) and the studies in progress show that encapsulated dopaminergic cell lines survive enclosure within a semi-permeable membrane. The encapsulated cells remained viable for extended time periods when maintained in vitro. Moreover, encapsulated PC12 and T28 cells have the potential to survive following their implantation into the forebrain of rats. Cell lines are essentially "immortal" because they continue to divide indefinitely. This property allows perpetual "self-renewal" of a given cell population. However, the capacity of continuous uncontrolled cell division may also lead to tumor formation. This in fact is the case for unencapsulated PC12 cell implants placed into the brain of young Sprague Dawley rats (Jaeger, 1985). Cell line encapsulation has the potential to prevent tumor growth (Jaeger et al., 1988). Survival for 6 months in vitro suggests that encapsulation does not preclude long-term maintenance of an homogeneous cell line like PC12 cells. The presence of mitotic figures in the capsules further supports the likelihood of propagation and self renewal of the encapsulated population. Another significant property of cell lines is that they consist of a single, genetically homogeneous cell type. They do not require specific synaptic interactions for their survival. In the case of PC12 and T28 lines, the cells synthesize and release neurotransmitters. Our data show that PC12 and T28 cells continue to release dopamine spontaneously and to express specific transmitters and enzymes following encapsulation. Thus, cell lines such as these may constitute relatively simple "neural implants" exerting their function via humoral release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Recombinant protein production from stable mammalian cell lines and pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, David L; Balasubramanian, Sowmya

    2016-06-01

    We highlight recent developments for the production of recombinant proteins from suspension-adapted mammalian cell lines. We discuss the generation of stable cell lines using transposons and lentivirus vectors (non-targeted transgene integration) and site-specific recombinases (targeted transgene integration). Each of these methods results in the generation of cell lines with protein yields that are generally superior to those achievable through classical plasmid transfection that depends on the integration of the transfected DNA by non-homologous DNA end-joining. This is the main reason why these techniques can also be used for the generation of stable cell pools, heterogenous populations of recombinant cells generated by gene delivery and genetic selection without resorting to single cell cloning. This allows the time line from gene transfer to protein production to be reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Susceptibility of various cell lines to Neospora caninum tachyzoites cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khordadmehr, M.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a coccidian protozoan parasite which is a major cause of bovine abortions and neonatal mortality in cattle, sheep, goat and horse. Occasionally, cultured cells are used for isolation and multiplication of the agent in vitro with several purposes. In this study the tachyzoite yields of N. caninum were compared in various cell cultures as the host cell lines. Among the cell cultures tested, two presented good susceptibility to the agent: cell lines Vero and MA-104. SW742 and TLI (in vitro suspension culture of lymphoid cells infected with Theileria lestoquardi showed moderate sensitivity. No viable tachyzoite were detected in the culture of MDCK and McCoy cell lines. These results demonstrate that MA-104 and SW742 cells present adequate susceptibility to N. caninum compared to Vero cells, which have been largely used to multiply the parasite in vitro. Moreover, these have easy manipulation, fast multiplication and relatively low nutritional requirements. In addition, the result of this study showed that TLI cell line as a suspension cell culture is susceptible to Nc-1 tachyzoites infection and could be used as an alternative host cell line for tachyzoites culture in vitro studies.

  14. Bioengineered 2'-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose inhibit the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enteric pathogens to human intestinal and respiratory cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichert, Stefan; Jennewein, Stefan; Hüfner, Eric; Weiss, Christel; Borkowski, Julia; Putze, Johannes; Schroten, Horst

    2013-10-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides help to prevent infectious diseases in breastfed infants. Larger scale testing, particularly in animal models and human clinical studies, is still limited due to shortened availability of more complex oligosaccharides. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) and 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL) synthesized by whole-cell biocatalysis for their biological activity in vitro. Therefore, we have tested these oligosaccharides for their inhibitory potential of pathogen adhesion in two different human epithelial cell lines. 2'-FL could inhibit adhesion of Campylobacter jejuni, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar fyris, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the intestinal human cell line Caco-2 (reduction of 26%, 18%, 12%, and 17%, respectively), as could be shown for 3-FL (enteropathogenic E coli 29%, P aeruginosa 26%). Furthermore, adherence of P aeruginosa to the human respiratory epithelial cell line A549 was significantly inhibited by 2'-FL and 3-FL (reduction of 24% and 23%, respectively). These results confirm the biological and functional activity of biotechnologically synthesized human milk oligosaccharides. Mass-tailored human milk oligosaccharides could be used in the future to supplement infant formula ingredients or as preventatives to reduce the impact of infectious diseases. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural killer cells for immunotherapy – Advantages of cell lines over blood NK cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eKlingemann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer cells are potent cytotoxic effector cells for cancer therapy and potentially for severe viral infections. However, there are technical challenges to obtain sufficient numbers of functionally active NK cells form a patient’s blood since they represent only 10% of the lymphocytes. Especially, cancer patients are known to have dysfunctional NK cells. The alternative is to obtain cells from a healthy donor, which requires depletion of the allogeneic T-cells. Establishing cell lines from donor blood NK cells have not been successful, in contrast to blood NK cells obtained from patients with a clonal NK cell lymphoma. Those cells can be expanded in culture in the presence of IL-2. However, except for the NK-92 cell line none of the other six known cell lines has consistent and reproducibly high anti-tumor cytotoxicity, nor can they be easily genetically manipulated to recognize specific tumor antigens or to augment monoclonal antibody activity through ADCC. NK-92 is also the only cell line product that has been widely given to patients with advanced cancer with demonstrated efficiency and minimal side effects.

  16. Application of DNA fingerprints for cell-line individualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D A; Reid, Y A; Gail, M H; Pee, D; White, C; Hay, R J; O'Brien, S J

    1990-09-01

    DNA fingerprints of 46 human cell lines were derived using minisatellite probes for hypervariable genetic loci. The incidence of 121 HaeIII DNA fragments among 33 cell lines derived from unrelated individuals was used to estimate allelic and genotypic frequencies for each fragment and for composite individual DNA fingerprints. We present a quantitative estimate of the extent of genetic difference between individuals, an estimate based on the percentage of restriction fragments at which they differ. The average percent difference (APD) among pairwise combinations from the population of 33 unrelated cell lines was 76.9%, compared with the APD in band sharing among cell lines derived from the same individual (less than or equal to 1.2%). Included in this survey were nine additional cell lines previously implicated as HeLa cell derivatives, and these lines were clearly confirmed as such by DNA fingerprints (APD less than or equal to 0.6%). On the basis of fragment frequencies in the tested cell line population, a simple genetic model was developed to estimate the frequencies of each DNA fingerprint in the population. The median incidence was 2.9 X 10(-17), and the range was 2.4 X 10(-21) to 6.6 X 10(-15). This value approximates the probability that a second cell line selected at random from unrelated individuals will match a given DNA fingerprint. Related calculations address the chance that any two DNA fingerprints would be identical among a large group of cell lines. This estimate is still very slight; for example, the chance of two or more common DNA fingerprints among 1 million distinct individuals is less than .001. The procedure provides a straightforward, easily interpreted, and statistically robust method for identification and individualization of human cells.

  17. Radiation sensitivity of human lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, J.; Degraff, W.G.; Gamson, J.; Russo, G.; Mitchell, J.B.; Gazdar, A.F.; Minna, J.D.; Levitt, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    X-Ray survival curves were determined using a panel of 17 human lung cancer cell lines, with emphasis on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In contrast to classic small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines, NSCLC cell lines were generally less sensitive to radiation as evidenced by higher radiation survival curve extrapolation numbers, surviving fraction values following a 2Gy dose (SF2) and the mean inactivation dose values (D) values. The spectrum of in vitro radiation responses observed was similar to that expected in clinical practice, although mesothelioma was unexpectedly sensitive in vitro. Differences in radiosensitivity were best distinguished by comparison of SF2 values. Some NSCLC lines were relatively sensitive, and in view of this demonstrable variability in radiation sensitivity, the SF2 value may be useful for in vitro predictive assay testing of clinical specimens. (author)

  18. Differential heat shock response of primary human cell cultures and established cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    degrees C treatment, whereas in immortalized cell lines usually 90% of the cells were found in suspension. Enhanced expression of the major heat shock protein (hsp 70) was found in all heat-treated cells. In contrast to the primary cell cultures, established and transformed cell lines synthesized...

  19. Antiproliferative effect of isopentenylated coumarins on several cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Ogawa, K; Sugiura, M; Yano, M; Yoshizawa, Y; Ito, C; Furukawa, H

    2001-01-01

    33 coumarins, mainly the simple isopentenylated coumarins and derived pyrano- and furanocoumarins, were examined for their antiproliferative activity towards several cancer and normal human cell lines. The pyrano- and furanocoumarins showed strong activity against the cancer cell lines, whereas they had weak antiproliferative activity against the normal human cell lines. The decreasing rank order of potency was osthenone (10), clausarin (25), clausenidin (26), dentatin (24), nordentatin (23), imperatorin (29), seselin (27), xanthyletin (21), suberosin (17), phebalosin (8) and osthol (12). The structure-activity relationship established from the results revealed that the 1,1-dimethylallyl and isopentenyl groups have an important role for antiproliferative activity.

  20. Establishment and characterization of rat portal myofibroblast cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Fausther

    Full Text Available The major sources of scar-forming myofibroblasts during liver fibrosis are activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC and portal fibroblasts (PF. In contrast to well-characterized HSC, PF remain understudied and poorly defined. This is largely due to the facts that isolation of rodent PF for functional studies is technically challenging and that PF cell lines had not been established. To address this, we have generated two polyclonal portal myofibroblast cell lines, RGF and RGF-N2. RGF and RGF-N2 were established from primary PF isolated from adult rat livers that underwent culture activation and subsequent SV40-mediated immortalization. Specifically, Ntpdase2/Cd39l1-sorted primary PF were used to generate the RGF-N2 cell line. Both cell lines were functionally characterized by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, immunoblot and bromodeoxyuridine-based proliferation assay. First, immortalized RGF and RGF-N2 cells are positive for phenotypic myofibroblast markers alpha smooth muscle actin, type I collagen alpha-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, PF-specific markers elastin, type XV collagen alpha-1 and Ntpdase2/Cd39l1, and mesenchymal cell marker ecto-5'-nucleotidase/Cd73, while negative for HSC-specific markers desmin and lecithin retinol acyltransferase. Second, both RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines are readily transfectable using standard methods. Finally, RGF and RGF-N2 cells attenuate the growth of Mz-ChA-1 cholangiocarcinoma cells in co-culture, as previously demonstrated for primary PF. Immortalized rat portal myofibroblast RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines express typical markers of activated PF-derived myofibroblasts, are suitable for DNA transfection, and can effectively inhibit cholangiocyte proliferation. Both RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines represent novel in vitro cellular models for the functional studies of portal (myofibroblasts and their contribution to the progression of liver fibrosis.

  1. A stromal myoid cell line provokes thymic erythropoiesis between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The thymus provides an optimal cellular and humoral microenvironment for cell line committed differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells. The immigration process requires the secretion of at least one peptide called thymotaxine by cells of the reticulo-epithelial (RE) network of the thymic stromal cellular ...

  2. Cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N6-furfuryladenine (kinetin) is a cytokinin growth factor with several biological effects observed in human cells and fruit flies. Kinetin exists naturally in the DNA of almost all organisms tested so far, including human cells and various plants. The cytotoxicity effect of kinetin on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines was measured by ...

  3. Pathway-specific differences between tumor cell lines and normal and tumor tissue cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tozeren Aydin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell lines are used in experimental investigation of cancer but their capacity to represent tumor cells has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to identify significant alterations in pathway usage in cell lines in comparison with normal and tumor tissue. Methods This study utilized a pathway-specific enrichment analysis of publicly accessible microarray data and quantified the gene expression differences between cell lines, tumor, and normal tissue cells for six different tissue types. KEGG pathways that are significantly different between cell lines and tumors, cell lines and normal tissues and tumor and normal tissue were identified through enrichment tests on gene lists obtained using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM. Results Cellular pathways that were significantly upregulated in cell lines compared to tumor cells and normal cells of the same tissue type included ATP synthesis, cell communication, cell cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine, pyrimidine and pyruvate metabolism, and proteasome. Results on metabolic pathways suggested an increase in the velocity nucleotide metabolism and RNA production. Pathways that were downregulated in cell lines compared to tumor and normal tissue included cell communication, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs, and ECM-receptor interaction. Only a fraction of the significantly altered genes in tumor-to-normal comparison had similar expressions in cancer cell lines and tumor cells. These genes were tissue-specific and were distributed sparsely among multiple pathways. Conclusion Significantly altered genes in tumors compared to normal tissue were largely tissue specific. Among these genes downregulation was a major trend. In contrast, cell lines contained large sets of significantly upregulated genes that were common to multiple tissue types. Pathway upregulation in cell lines was most pronounced over metabolic pathways including cell nucleotide metabolism and oxidative

  4. Global Conservation of Protein Status between Cell Lines and Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Biau

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Common preclinical models for testing anticancer treatment include cultured human tumor cell lines in monolayer, and xenografts derived from these cell lines in immunodeficient mice. Our goal was to determine how similar the xenografts are compared with their original cell line and to determine whether it is possible to predict the stability of a xenograft model beforehand. We studied a selection of 89 protein markers of interest in 14 human cell cultures and respective subcutaneous xenografts using the reverse-phase protein array technology. We specifically focused on proteins and posttranslational modifications involved in DNA repair, PI3K pathway, apoptosis, tyrosine kinase signaling, stress, cell cycle, MAPK/ERK signaling, SAPK/JNK signaling, NFκB signaling, and adhesion/cytoskeleton. Using hierarchical clustering, most cell culture-xenograft pairs cluster together, suggesting a global conservation of protein signature. Particularly, Akt, NFkB, EGFR, and Vimentin showed very stable protein expression and phosphorylation levels highlighting that 4 of 10 pathways were highly correlated whatever the model. Other proteins were heterogeneously conserved depending on the cell line. Finally, cell line models with low Akt pathway activation and low levels of Vimentin gave rise to more reliable xenograft models. These results may be useful for the extrapolation of cell culture experiments to in vivo models in novel targeted drug discovery.

  5. Induction of apoptosis by opium in some tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, M; Farsinejad, A; Dabiri, S; Asadikaram, G

    2016-09-30

    The current study is aimed at investigation of the opium effects on the apoptosis of different cell lines in culture medium and compares such effects with one another. The study is carried out on over 8 cell lines (AA8, AGS, Hela, HepG2, MCF7, N2a, PC12, WEHI). A 2.86 x 10-4 g/ml opium concentration was prepared and added to the culture medium of the cell lines for 48 hours. Cytotoxicity was tested by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptotic effect of opium on the cell lines was analyzed by Annexin-PI test. Opium with concentration of 2.86 x 10-4 g/ml in 48 hours significantly induces apoptosis in certain cell lines (i.e. AA8, N2a, WEHI), apoptosis and necrosis in some others (i.e. Hela, HepG2, MCF7, and PC12), and also solely necrosis in the AGS cell line. One could infer that the usage of opium with different levels in different tissues leads to certain disorders in some tissues and may have therapeutic effects under distinctive conditions (i.e. unchecked growth of cells) as confirmed by the results.

  6. Lining cells on normal human vertebral bone surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.B.; Lloyd, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    Thoracic vertebrae from two individuals with no bone disease were studied with the electron microscope to determine cell morphology in relation to bone mineral. The work was undertaken to determine if cell morphology or spatial relationships between the bone lining cells and bone mineral could account for the relative infrequency of bone tumors which arise at this site following radium intake, when compared with other sites, such as the head of the femur. Cells lining the vertebral mineral were found to be generally rounded in appearance with varied numbers of cytoplasmic granules, and they appeared to have a high density per unit of surface area. These features contrasted with the single layer of flattened cells characteristic of the bone lining cells of the femur. A tentative discussion of the reasons for the relative infrequency of tumors in the vertebrae following radium acquisition is presented

  7. DNA fingerprinting of the NCI-60 cell line panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Philip L; Reinhold, William C; Varma, Sudhir; Hutchinson, Amy A; Pommier, Yves; Chanock, Stephen J; Weinstein, John N

    2009-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute's NCI-60 cell line panel, the most extensively characterized set of cells in existence and a public resource, is frequently used as a screening tool for drug discovery. Because many laboratories around the world rely on data from the NCI-60 cells, confirmation of their genetic identities represents an essential step in validating results from them. Given the consequences of cell line contamination or misidentification, quality control measures should routinely include DNA fingerprinting. We have, therefore, used standard DNA microsatellite short tandem repeats to profile the NCI-60, and the resulting DNA fingerprints are provided here as a reference. Consistent with previous reports, the fingerprints suggest that several NCI-60 lines have common origins: the melanoma lines MDA-MB-435, MDA-N, and M14; the central nervous system lines U251 and SNB-19; the ovarian lines OVCAR-8 and OVCAR-8/ADR (also called NCI/ADR); and the prostate lines DU-145, DU-145 (ATCC), and RC0.1. Those lines also show that the ability to connect two fingerprints to the same origin is not affected by stable transfection or by the development of multidrug resistance. As expected, DNA fingerprints were not able to distinguish different tissues-of-origin. The fingerprints serve principally as a barcodes.

  8. Selection of radioresistant tumor cells and presence of ALDH1 activity in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihatsch, Julia; Toulany, Mahmoud; Bareiss, Petra M.; Grimm, Sabrina; Lengerke, Claudia; Kehlbach, Rainer; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tumor resistance to radiotherapy has been hypothesized to be mediated by a tumor subpopulation, called cancer stem cells (CSCs). Based on the proposed function of CSCs in radioresistance, we explored the cancer stem cell properties of cells selected for radioresistance phenotype. Materials and methods: A549 and SK-BR-3 cells were radioselected with four single doses of 4 or 3 Gy in intervals of 10-12 days and used for colony formation assay and γ-H2AX foci formation assay. Expression of putative stem cell markers, i.e. Sox2, Oct4, ALDH1, and CD133 were analyzed using Western blotting. A549 and SK-BR-3 cells sorted based on their ALDH1 activity were analyzed in clonogenic survival assays. Results: Radioselected A549 and SK-BR-3 cells (A549-R, SK-BR-3-R) showed increased radioresistance and A549-R cells presented enhanced repair of DNA-double strand breaks. PI3K inhibition significantly reduced radioresistance of A549-R cells. Cell line specific differences in the expression of the putative CSC markers Sox2 and Oct4 were observed when parental and radioselected cells were compared but could not be directly correlated to the radioresistant phenotype. However, enzyme activity of the putative stem cell marker ALDH1 showed a correlation to radioresistance. Conclusions: Subpopulations of pooled radioresistant colonies, selected by various radiation exposures were analyzed for the presence of putative stem cell markers. Although the pattern of Sox2, Oct4, and CD133 expression was not generally associated with radioresistance, presence of ALDH1 seems to be indicative for subpopulations with increased radioresistance.

  9. The influence of the stem cell marker ALDH and the EGFR-PI3 kinase act signaling pathway on the radiation resistance of human tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihatsch, Julia

    2014-01-01

    present study was to investigate the role of CSCs in resistance of radioselected subclones of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and breast cancer cells to irradiation. Additionally, the role of EGFR dependent PI3K/Akt/DNA-PKcs signaling in the context of CSC-mediated radiotherapy resistance was investigated. The following major results were obtained: (1) Radioresistant tumor cells from NSCLC-A549 cells as well as SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells could be isolated in vitro by a radioselection process. (2) In line with the proposed CSC biological behaviors radioselected cells presented extended population doubling time and decreased plating efficiency. (3) Among identified potential CSC markers such as CD133, Oct-4, Sox2 or aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression, solely expression of the embryonic stem cell marker Oct-4 was increased in the radio-selected SK-BR-3 cells. However, increased ALDH activity but not enhanced ALDH protein expression was associated with radioresis-tance of A549 cells. (4) Respectively, ALDH activity was found to be involved in radio-resistance partially through PI3K pathway. (5) Using an siRNA approach, a differential effect of ALDH1 vs ALDH2 in terms of post-irradiation survival of tumor cells was demonstrated. In this context and in contrast to the role of ALDH2 a prosurvival effect of ALDH1 could be observed. (6) Radioresistance of IR-selected tumor cells was partially mediated through EGFR/PI3K/DNA-PKcs-dependent accelerated repair of DNA-DSBs. Thus, based on the described major findings in this study it is proposed that targeting of PI3K/Akt pathway and ALDH1 might be effective approaches towards overcoming CSC-mediated radiotherapy resistance.

  10. Application of DNA fingerprints for cell-line individualization.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, D A; Reid, Y A; Gail, M H; Pee, D; White, C; Hay, R J; O'Brien, S J

    1990-01-01

    DNA fingerprints of 46 human cell lines were derived using minisatellite probes for hypervariable genetic loci. The incidence of 121 HaeIII DNA fragments among 33 cell lines derived from unrelated individuals was used to estimate allelic and genotypic frequencies for each fragment and for composite individual DNA fingerprints. We present a quantitative estimate of the extent of genetic difference between individuals, an estimate based on the percentage of restriction fragments at which they d...

  11. Establishment of cell lines from adult T-cell leukemia cells dependent on negatively charged polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Yoshitoyo; Uchiyama, Susumu; Kato, Harumi; Okada, Yasutaka; Seto, Masao; Kinoshita, Tomohiro

    2017-07-05

    Growing adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) cells in vitro is difficult. Here, we examined the effects of static electricity in the culture medium on the proliferation of ATLL cells. Six out of 10 ATLL cells did not proliferate in vitro and thus had to be cultured in a medium containing negatively charged polymers. In the presence of poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) or chondroitin sulfate (CDR), cell lines (HKOX3-PGA, HKOX3-CDR) were established from the same single ATLL case using interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and feeder cells expressing OX40L (OX40L + HK). Dextran sulfate inhibited growth in both HKOX3 cell lines. Both PGA and OX40L + HK were indispensable for HKOX3-PGA growth, but HKOX3-CDR could proliferate in the presence of CDR or OX40L + HK alone. Thus, the specific action of each negatively charged polymer promoted the growth of specific ATLL cells in vitro.

  12. Isolation of two chloroethylnitrosourea-sensitive Chinese hamster cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, H.; Numata, M.; Tohda, H.; Yasui, A.; Oikawa, A.

    1991-01-01

    1-[(4-Amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3- nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), a cancer chemotherapeutic bifunctional alkylating agent, causes chloroethylation of DNA and subsequent DNA strand cross-linking through an ethylene bridge. We isolated and characterized two ACNU-sensitive mutants from mutagenized Chinese hamster ovary cells and found them to be new drug-sensitive recessive Chinese hamster mutants. Both mutants were sensitive to various monofunctional alkylating agents in a way similar to that of the parental cell lines CHO9. One mutant (UVS1) was cross-sensitive to UV and complemented the UV sensitivity of all Chinese hamster cell lines of 7 established complementation groups. Since UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis was very low, a new locus related to excision repair is thought to be defective in this cell line. Another ACNU-sensitive mutant, CNU1, was slightly more sensitive to UV than the parent cell line. CNU1 was cross-sensitive to 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea and slightly more sensitive to mitomycin C. No increased accumulation of ACNU and a low level of UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in this cell as compared with the parental cell line suggest that there is abnormality in a repair response of this mutant cell to some types of DNA cross-links

  13. In vitro Rb-1 gene transfer to retinoblastoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Wook; Ham, Yong Hoh; Kim, Mee Heui

    1994-04-01

    After transfection of Rb-vector to packaging cell line (CRIP) by Ca-P precipitation method, we could select nineteen colonies of G-418 resistant clone by ring cloning. Each colony was transduced to NIH3T3 cells to select the one which produces high titer virus. After NIH3T3 cells transduction, we could get 28 colony counts for the high, 127 for the middle, and 6 for the low viral titer. With the supernatant of the high viral titer colony (CRIPRb 2-5). We transduct retinoblastoma cell lines. 5 figs, 11 refs. (Author)

  14. Establishment and characterization of a novel osteosarcoma cell line: CHOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunlu; Feng, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yukun; Jiang, Hongyan; Cai, Xianyi; Yan, Xinxin; Huang, Zengfa; Mo, Fengbo; Yang, Wen; Yang, Cao; Yang, Shuhua; Liu, Xianzhe

    2016-12-01

    Osteosarcoma has a well-recognized bimodal distribution, with the first peak in adolescence and another in the elderly age-group. The elderly patients have different clinical features and a poorer prognosis as compared to adolescents. To better understand the biological features of osteosarcoma in the elderly population, we established a new human osteosarcoma cell line from a 58-year-old man with primary chondroblastic osteosarcoma. After 6 months of continuous culture in vitro for over 50 passages, an immortalized cell line CHOS was established. The cell line was well-characterized by cytogenetic, biomarker, functional, and histological analyses. The CHOS cells exhibited a spindle-shaped morphology and a doubling time of 36 h. Cytogenetic analysis of CHOS cells revealed the loss of chromosome Y and the gain of chromosome 12. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and/or immunofluorescence revealed the expression of chondroblastic, mesenchymal and tumor metastasis markers in the CHOS cells. Compared with the osteosarcoma cell line, the CHOS cells were found to be more sensitive to cisplatin and doxorubicin, but were resistant to methotrexate. The cell line was highly tumorigenic and maintained the histological characteristics and invasive nature of the original tumor. Furthermore, on immunohistochemical analysis, the xenografts and metastases were found to co-express collagen II, aggrecan, vimentin and S100A4 that resembled the original tumor cells. Our results indicate, the potential of CHOS cell line to serve as a useful tool for further studies on the molecular biology of osteosarcoma, especially in the elderly patients. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:2116-2125, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Membrane lipidome of an epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampaio, Julio L; Gerl, Mathias J; Klose, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tissue differentiation is an important process that involves major cellular membrane remodeling. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells as a model for epithelium formation and investigated the remodeling of the total cell membrane lipidome during the transition from a nonpolarized morphology...... to an epithelial morphology and vice versa. To achieve this, we developed a shotgun-based lipidomics workflow that enabled the absolute quantification of mammalian membrane lipidomes with minimal sample processing from low sample amounts. Epithelial morphogenesis was accompanied by a major shift from sphingomyelin...... to generate an apical membrane domain that serves as a protective barrier for the epithelial sheet....

  16. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α promotes hypoxia-induced A549 apoptosis via a mechanism that involves the glycolysis pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, FengMing; Liu, XiaoJing; Yan, NaiHong; Li, ShuangQing; Cao, GuiQun; Cheng, QingYing; Xia, QingJie; Wang, HongJing

    2006-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α), which plays an important role in controlling the hypoxia-induced glycolysis pathway, is a 'master' gene in the tissue hypoxia response during tumor development. However, its role in the apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer remains unknown. Here, we have studied the effects of HIF-1α on apoptosis by modulating HIF-1α gene expression in A549 cells through both siRNA knock-down and over-expression. A549 cells were transfected with a HIF-1α siRNA plasmid or a HIF-1α expression vector. Transfected cells were exposed to a normoxic or hypoxic environment in the presence or absence of 25 mM HEPES and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) (5 mM). The expression of three key genes of the glycolysis pathway, glucose transporter type 1(GLUT1), phosphoglycerate kinase 1(PGK1), and hexokinase 1(HK1), were measured using real-time RT-PCR. Glycolysis was monitored by measuring changes of pH and lactate concentration in the culture medium. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry. Knocking down expression of HIF-1α inhibited the glycolysis pathway, increased the pH of the culture medium, and protected the cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. In contrast, over-expression of HIF-1α accelerated glycolysis in A549 cells, decreased the pH of the culture medium, and enhanced hypoxia-induced apoptosis. These effects of HIF-1α on glycolysis, pH of the medium, and apoptosis were reversed by treatment with the glycolytic inhibitor, 2-DG. Apoptosis induced by HIF-1α over-expression was partially inhibited by increasing the buffering capacity of the culture medium by adding HEPES. During hypoxia in A549 cells, HIF-1α promotes activity of the glycolysis pathway and decreases the pH of the culture medium, resulting in increased cellular apoptosis

  17. Effect of failures and repairs on multiple cell production lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legato, P.; Bobbio, A.; Roberti, L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines a production line composed of multiple stages, or cells, which are passed in sequential order to arrive to the final product. Two possible coordination disciplines are considered, namely: the classical tandem arrangement of sequential working centers with input buffer and the kanban scheme, considered the Japanese shop floor realization of the Just-In-Time (JIT) manifacturing approach. The production line is modelled and analysed by means of Stochastic Petri Nets (SPN). Finally an analysis is made of the possibility that the working cells can incur failure/repair cycles perturbing the production flow of the line and thus reduce performance indices.

  18. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is toxic to human colonic, lung and monocytic cell lines, but does not increase the IgE response in a mouse model for allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instanes, Christine; Hetland, Geir

    2004-01-01

    We examined whether the common crop mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) from Fusarium species is toxic to human colonic (Caco-2), lung (A