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Sample records for cell layers measured

  1. Electrode-less measurement of cell layers impedance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krůšek, Jan; Ďaďo, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 6 (2014), s. 705-711 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cell impedance measurement * transepithelial resistance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  2. Measurement of diffuse and specular reflections through single cell layers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karsten, AE

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available ) • On average 50 000 new cases/year • LR at least • Male: 1 in 6 • Female: 1 in 7 Slide 4 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Background • Diabetes • High prevalence in SA • Not a notifiable disease • Indian: Av. 17% (11% - 30%) • Black...: 8% • White: 6% • Type II diabetes on the increase • Limp amputation • Research aimed at PDT and accelerated wound healing Slide 5 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Experimental work at UJ WS1Cell line Induce wound: sterile...

  3. The Experimental Measurement of Local and Bulk Oxygen Transport Resistances in the Catalyst Layer of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Cheng, Xiaojing; Lu, Jiabin; Shen, Shuiyun; Yan, Xiaohui; Yin, Jiewei; Wei, Guanghua; Zhang, Junliang

    2017-12-07

    Remarkable progress has been made in reducing the cathodic Pt loading of PEMFCs; however, a huge performance loss appears at high current densities, indicating the existence of a large oxygen transport resistance associated with the ultralow Pt loading catalyst layer. To reduce the Pt loading without sacrificing cell performance, it is essential to illuminate the oxygen transport mechanism in the catalyst layer. Toward this goal, an experimental approach to measure the oxygen transport resistance in catalyst layers is proposed and realized for the first time in this study. The measuring approach involves a dual-layer catalyst layer design, which consists of a dummy catalyst layer and a practical catalyst layer, followed by changing the thickness of dummy layer to respectively quantify the local and bulk resistances via limiting current measurements combined with linear extrapolation. The experimental results clearly reveal that the local resistance dominates the total resistance in the catalyst layer.

  4. Measurement of in-plane elasticity of live cell layers using a pressure sensor embedded microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Han; Wang, Chien-Kai; Chen, Yu-An; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2016-11-01

    In various physiological activities, cells experience stresses along their in-plane direction when facing substrate deformation. Capability of continuous monitoring elasticity of live cell layers during a period is highly desired to investigate cell property variation during various transformations under normal or disease states. This paper reports time-lapsed measurement of live cell layer in-plane elasticity using a pressure sensor embedded microfluidic device. The sensor converts pressure-induced deformation of a flexible membrane to electrical signals. When cells are cultured on top of the membrane, flexural rigidity of the composite membrane increases and further changes the output electrical signals. In the experiments, human embryonic lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cells are cultured and analyzed to estimate the in-plane elasticity. In addition, the cells are treated with a growth factor to simulate lung fibrosis to study the effects of cell transformation on the elasticity variation. For comparison, elasticity measurement on the cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is also performed. The experimental results confirm highly anisotropic configuration and material properties of cells. Furthermore, the in-plane elasticity can be monitored during the cell transformation after the growth factor stimulation. Consequently, the developed microfluidic device provides a powerful tool to study physical properties of cells for fundamental biophysics and biomedical researches.

  5. Study of interface layer effect in organic solar cells by electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Dai; Sumiyoshi, Ryota; Chen, Xiangyu; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp

    2014-03-03

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the effect of the use of bathocuproine (BCP) interface layer. The EFISHG measurements of indium–zinc–oxide (IZO)/C{sub 60}/Al diodes showed that the BCP layer inserted between C{sub 60} and Al formed an electrostatic field |E{sub i}| = 2.5 × 10{sup 4} V/cm in the C{sub 60} layer, pointing in a direction from the Al to the IZO. Accordingly, in the IZO/pentacene/C{sub 60}/BCP/Al organic solar cells (OSCs), holes (electrons) move to the IZO (Al) electrode, enhancing the short-circuit current. The EFISHG measurement is capable of directly probing internal fields in the layers used for OSCs, and is helpful for studying the contribution of the interface layer in OSCs. - Highlights: • Internal field in organic solar cells (OSCs) were directly probed. • Interface layer formed internal electric field, enhancing the OSC performance. • Maxwell–Wagner effect accounts for the internal electric field formation.

  6. Thermal diffusivity measurements of molten salts using a three-layered cell by the laser flash method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Hiromichi; Ogura, Gaku; Waseda, Yoshio; Suzuki, Mustumi

    1990-10-01

    A simple cell and easy data processing are described for measuring the thermal diffusivity of a liquid sample at high temperatures using the laser flash method. A cell consists of a liquid sample sandwiched by two metallic plates. The front surface of one metallic plate is exposed to a single pulse of beam laser and the resulting temperature rise of the back surface of the other metallic plate is measured. The logarithmic analysis proposed by James using the initial time region of the temperature response curve of a two layered cell system has been extended to apply to the present three layered cell system in order to estimate the thermal diffusivity value of a liquid sample. Measurements of distilled water and methanol were made first and the results were found to be in good agreement with the reference data. Then, the thermal diffusivities of molten NaNO3 at 593-660 K and of molten KNO3 at 621-694 K were determined and the results also appear to agree reasonably well with those reported in the literature.

  7. Band alignment measurements at heterojunction interfaces in layered thin film solar cells & thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang

    2011-12-01

    Public awareness of the increasing energy crisis and the related serious environmental concerns has led to a significantly growing demand for alternative clean and renewable energy resources. Thin film are widely applied in multiple renewable energy devices owing to the reduced amount of raw materials and increase flexibility of choosing from low-cost candidates, which translates directly into reduced capital cost. This is a key driving force to make renewable technology competitive in the energy market. This thesis is focused on the measurement of energy level alignments at interfaces of thin film structures for renewable energy applications. There are two primary foci: II -VI semiconductor ZnSe/ZnTe thin film solar cells and Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 thin film structures for thermoelectric applications. In both cases, the electronic structure and energy band alignment at interfaces usually controls the carrier transport behavior and determines the quality of the device. High-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (lab-based XPS & synchrotron-based UPS) was used to investigate the chemical and electronic properties of epitaxial Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films, in order to validate the anticipated band alignment at interfaces in Bi 2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices as one favoring electron-transmission. A simple, thorough two-step treatment of a chemical etching in dilute hydrochloric acid solution and a subsequent annealing at ˜150°C under ultra-high vacuum environment is established to remove the surface oxides completely. It is an essential step to ensure the measurements on electronic states are acquired on stoichimetric, oxide-free clean surface of Bi 2Te3 and Sb2Te3 films. The direct measurement of valence band offsets (VBO) at a real Sb 2Te3/Bi2Te3 interface is designed based on the Kraut model; a special stacking film structure is prepared intentionally: sufficiently thin Sb2Te3 film on top of Bi2Te 3 that photoelectrons from both of them are collected simultaneously. From a

  8. Measurement of the oxygen binding properties of haemocyanin with the aid of a thin-layer optical cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. van Aardt

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available The merits of the thin-layer method of Dolman and Gill to study the oxygen binding of haemocyanin were experimentally tested with haemocyanin obtained from arthropods and molluscs. The results show that, spectrophotometrically, oxyhaemocyanin from both arthropods and molluscs has a prominent absorption peak between 335 and 345 nm. Haemocyanin is more stable in the thin- layer preparation when compared with haemoglobin. At 35 °C a decrease in the initial absorbance value of less than 2% was found after three hours. For haemoglobin the initial value decreases nearly 10% during the same period. For a high-affinity haemocyanin such as Marisa cornuarietis (P⁵⁰ = 1,07 mmHg the thin-layer method of Dolman and Gill (1978 shows better PO₂ resolution than other methods. The reason for this is that the dilution valve, which is absent in other thin-layer methods, intrinsically measures the resultant PO₂ values at very low tensions more accurately. In this study a step-by-step explanation of the technique is given. The calculations have been explained using real figures and examples. It is hoped that this detailed description will make this technique more readily available for use by respiratory physiologists.

  9. Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

  10. Active unjamming of confluent cell layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, M. Cristina

    Cell motion inside dense tissues governs many biological processes, including embryonic development and cancer metastasis, and recent experiments suggest that these tissues exhibit collective glassy behavior. Motivated by these observations, we have studied a model of dense tissues that combines self-propelled particle models and vertex models of confluent cell layers. In this model, referred to as self-propelled Voronoi (SPV), cells are described as polygons in a Voronoi tessellation with directed noisy cell motility and interactions governed by a shape energy that incorporates the effects of cell volume incompressibility, contractility and cell-cell adhesion. Using this model, we have demonstrated a new density-independent solid-liquid transition in confluent tissues controlled by cell motility and a cell-shape parameter measuring the interplay of cortical tension and cell-cell adhesion. An important insight of this work is that the rigidity and dynamics of cell layers depends sensitively on cell shape. We have also used the SPV model to test a new method developed by our group to determine cellular forces and tissue stresses from experimentally accessible cell shapes and traction forces, hence providing the spatio-temporal distribution of stresses in motile dense tissues. This work was done with Dapeng Bi, Lisa Manning and Xingbo Yang. MCM was supported by NSF-DMR-1305184 and by the Simons Foundation.

  11. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  12. Measurements in a synthetic turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, J. H.; Coles, D. E.

    Some measurements in a synthetic turbulent boundary layer (SBL) are reported. The main diagnostic tool is an X-wire probe. The velocity of the large eddies is determined to be 0.842 times the freestream velocity. The mean properties of the SBL are reasonably close to those of a natural turbulent boundary layer. The large eddy in the SBL appears to be a pair of counterrotating eddies in the stream direction, inclined at a shallow angle and occupying much of the boundary-layer thickness.

  13. Structure of gels layers with cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokusaev, B. G.; Karlov, S. P.; Vyazmin, A. V.; Nekrasov, D. A.; Zakharov, N. S.; Khramtsov, D. P.; Skladnev, D. A.; Tyupa, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    The structure of two-layer agarose gels containing yeast cells is investigated experimentally by spectrometry, to shed a light on the theoretical foundations for the development of bioreactors by the method of 3D bioprinting. Due to division, cells overcome the layer of the dispersion phase separating successively applied layers of the agarose gel. However a gel layer of 100 μm thick with a high concentration of silver nanoparticles completely excludes the infiltration of yeast cells through it. A special sort of agarose is suggested where the concentration of silver nanoparticles formed by cells from salt of silver can serve as an indicator of the state of the yeast cells in the volume of the gel.

  14. Portfolio analysis of layered security measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Hora, Stephen C; Rosoff, Heather

    2015-03-01

    Layered defenses are necessary for protecting the public from terrorist attacks. Designing a system of such defensive measures requires consideration of the interaction of these countermeasures. In this article, we present an analysis of a layered security system within the lower Manhattan area. It shows how portfolios of security measures can be evaluated through portfolio decision analysis. Consideration is given to the total benefits and costs of the system. Portfolio diagrams are created that help communicate alternatives among stakeholders who have differing views on the tradeoffs between security and economic activity. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Study of Electrical Transport Properties of Thin Films Used as HTL and as Active Layer in Organic Solar Cells, through Impedance Spectroscopy Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo A. Otalora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Impedance spectroscopy (IS is used for studying the electrical transport properties of thin films used in organic solar cells with structure ITO/HTL/active layer/cathode, where PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonic acid and CuPC (tetrasulfonated copper-phthalocyanine were investigated as HTL (hole transport layer and P3HT:PCBM (poly-3-hexylthiophene:phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blends prepared from mesitylene and chlorobenzene based solutions were studied as active layer and Ag and Al were used as cathode. The study allowed determining the influence of the type of solvent used for the preparation of the active layer as well as the speed at which the solvents are removed on the carriers mobility. The effect of exposing the layer of P3HT to the air on its mobility was also studied. It was established that samples of P3HT and P3HT:PCBM prepared using mesitylene as a solvent have mobility values significantly higher than those prepared from chlorobenzene which is the solvent most frequently used. It was also determined that the mobility of carriers in P3HT films strongly decreases when this sample is exposed to air. In addition, it was found that the electrical properties of P3HT:PCBM thin films can be improved by removing the solvent slowly which is achieved by increasing the pressure inside the system of spin-coating during the film growth.

  16. Effect of duration and severity of migraine on retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, and choroidal thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, Mona K; Fouad, Mohamed M

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the factors in migraine that have the highest significance on retinal and choroidal layers' thickness. Ninety patients with migraine and 40 age-matched healthy participants were enrolled in this observational, cross-sectional study. After full ophthalmological examination, spectral domain-optical coherence tomography was done for all patients measuring the thickness of ganglion cell layer and retinal nerve fiber layer. Enhanced depth imaging technique was used to measure the choroidal thickness. There was significant thinning in the superior and inferior ganglion cell layers, all retinal nerve fiber layer quadrants, and all choroidal quadrants (except for the central subfield) in migraineurs compared to controls. The duration of migraine was significantly correlated with ganglion cell layer, retinal nerve fiber layer, and all choroidal quadrants, while the severity of migraine was significantly correlated with ganglion cell layer and retinal nerve fiber layer only. Multiregression analysis showed that the duration of migraine is the most important determinant factor of the superior retinal nerve fiber layer quadrant (β = -0.375, p = 0.001) and in all the choroidal quadrants (β = -0.531, -0.692, -0.503, -0.461, -0.564, respectively, p  layer quadrants (β = -0.256, -0.335, -0.308; p  = 0.036, 0.005, 0.009, respectively) and the inferior ganglion cell layer hemisphere (β = -0.377 and p = 0.001). Ganglion cell layer, retinal nerve fiber layer, and choroidal thickness are significantly thinner in patients with migraine. The severity of migraine has more significant influence in the thinning of ganglion cell layer and retinal nerve fiber layer, while the duration of the disease affected the choroidal thickness more.

  17. Shock timing measurements in DT ice layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R. J.; Ross, J. S.; Lepape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Boehly, T. R.; Nikroo, A.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J.

    2013-10-01

    Shock timing experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are routinely conducted using the keyhole target geometry, in which the strength and timing of multiple shocks are measured in a liquid-deuterium (D2) filled capsule interior. These targets have recently been modified to improve the surrogacy to ignition implosions by replacing the standard, continuous liquid D2 capsule fill with a deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer with a central DT gas fill. These experiments remove any possible material surrogacy difference between D2 and DT as well as incorporating the physics of multiple shock release and recompression events from an ice layer of finite thickness, an effect that is absent in the liquid-filled targets. Experimental results and comparisons with numerical simulation are presented. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Layer-by-layer self-assembled active electrodes for hybrid photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniprath, Rolf

    2008-11-18

    behaviour in the dark and a pronounced photovoltaic effect in simulated sunlight. Measurements of the photocurrent action spectra of the devices reveal that the charge injection efficiencies of the absorbers are different. While CdSe QDs effectively sensitize TiO{sub 2}, CdTe QDs do not. This finding is attributed to different strengths of the charge carrier confinement in the QDs. The power conversion efficiency is optimized and the charge transport is investigated by a variation of the cell structure with respect to the layer thicknesses and composition. Comparisons with simulated diode I/V curves show that the efficiencies of the cells investigated here are limited by high internal resistances of the cells. (orig.)

  19. Protective layer formation on magnesium in cell culture medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, V.; Virtanen, S., E-mail: virtanen@ww.uni-erlangen.de

    2016-06-01

    In the past, different studies showed that hydroxyapatite (HA) or similar calcium phosphates can be precipitated on Mg during immersion in simulated body fluids. However, at the same time, in most cases a dark grey or black layer is built under the white HA crystals. This layer seems to consist as well of calcium phosphates. Until now, neither the morphology nor its influence on Mg corrosion have been investigated in detail. In this work commercially pure magnesium (cp) was immersed in cell culture medium for one, three and five days at room temperature and in the incubator (37 °C, 5% CO{sub 2}). In addition, the influence of proteins on the formation of a corrosion layer was investigated by adding 20% of fetal calf serum (FCS) to the cell culture medium in the incubator. In order to analyze the formed layers, SEM images of cross sections, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements were carried out. Characterization of the corrosion behavior was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and by potentio-dynamic polarization in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) at 37 °C. Surface analysis showed that all formed layers consist mainly of amorphous calcium phosphate compounds. For the immersion at room temperature the Ca/P ratio indicates the formation of HA, while in the incubator probably pre-stages to HA are formed. The different immersion conditions lead to a variation in layer thicknesses. However, electrochemical characterization shows that the layer thickness does not influence the corrosion resistance of magnesium. The main influencing factor for the corrosion behavior is the layer morphology. Thus, immersion at room temperature leads to the highest corrosion protection due to the formation of a compact outer layer. Layers formed in the incubator show much worse performances due to completely porous

  20. Protective layer formation on magnesium in cell culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagener, V.; Virtanen, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the past, different studies showed that hydroxyapatite (HA) or similar calcium phosphates can be precipitated on Mg during immersion in simulated body fluids. However, at the same time, in most cases a dark grey or black layer is built under the white HA crystals. This layer seems to consist as well of calcium phosphates. Until now, neither the morphology nor its influence on Mg corrosion have been investigated in detail. In this work commercially pure magnesium (cp) was immersed in cell culture medium for one, three and five days at room temperature and in the incubator (37 °C, 5% CO_2). In addition, the influence of proteins on the formation of a corrosion layer was investigated by adding 20% of fetal calf serum (FCS) to the cell culture medium in the incubator. In order to analyze the formed layers, SEM images of cross sections, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements were carried out. Characterization of the corrosion behavior was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and by potentio-dynamic polarization in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) at 37 °C. Surface analysis showed that all formed layers consist mainly of amorphous calcium phosphate compounds. For the immersion at room temperature the Ca/P ratio indicates the formation of HA, while in the incubator probably pre-stages to HA are formed. The different immersion conditions lead to a variation in layer thicknesses. However, electrochemical characterization shows that the layer thickness does not influence the corrosion resistance of magnesium. The main influencing factor for the corrosion behavior is the layer morphology. Thus, immersion at room temperature leads to the highest corrosion protection due to the formation of a compact outer layer. Layers formed in the incubator show much worse performances due to completely porous structures. The

  1. Evaluation of white matter hyperintensities and retinal fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, inner-plexiform layer, and choroidal layer in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Ali Zeynel Abidin; Sengul, Yıldızhan; Bilak, Şemsettin

    2018-03-01

    The aim of our study is to assess retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), the ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner-plexiform layer (IPL), and choroidal layer in migraine patients with white matter lesion (WML) or without WML, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). To our study, 77 migraine patients who are diagnosed with migraine in accordance to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-3 beta and 43 healthy control are included. In accordance to cranial MRI, migraine patients are divided into two groups as those who have white matter lesions (39 patients), and those who do not have a lesion (38 patients). OCT was performed for participants. The average age of participants was comparable. The RNFL average thickness parameter in the migraine group was significantly lower than in the control group (p layer measuring scales. The proofs showing that affected retinal nerve fiber layer are increased in migraine patients. However, it is not known whether this may affect other layers of retina, or whether there is a correlation between affected retinal structures and white matter lesions. In our study, we found thinner RNFL in migraine patients when we compared with controls but IPL, GCL, and choroid layer values were similar between each patient groups and controls. Also, all parameters were similar between patients with WML and without WML. Studies in this regard are required.

  2. Highly doped layer for tunnel junctions in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Christopher M.

    2017-08-01

    A highly doped layer for interconnecting tunnel junctions in multijunction solar cells is presented. The highly doped layer is a delta doped layer in one or both layers of a tunnel diode junction used to connect two or more p-on-n or n-on-p solar cells in a multijunction solar cell. A delta doped layer is made by interrupting the epitaxial growth of one of the layers of the tunnel diode, depositing a delta dopant at a concentration substantially greater than the concentration used in growing the layer of the tunnel diode, and then continuing to epitaxially grow the remaining tunnel diode.

  3. Study of buffer layer thickness on bulk heterojunction solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seunguk; Suman, C K; Lee, Donggu; Kim, Seohee; Lee, Changhee

    2010-10-01

    We studied the effect of the buffer layer (molybdenum-oxide (MoO3)) thickness on the performance of organic solar cell based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester fullerene derivative (PCBM). The thickness of MoO3 was varied from 1 nm to 30 nm for optimization of device performance. The photocurrent-voltage and impedance spectroscopy were measured under dark and AM1.5G solar simulated illumination of 100 mW/cm2 for exploring the role of the buffer layer thickness on carrier collection at an anode. The MoO3 thickness of the optimized device (efficiency approximately 3.7%) was found to be in the range of 5 approximately 10 nm. The short-circuit current and the shunt resistance decrease gradually for thicker MoO3 layer over 5 nm. The device can be modeled as the combination of three RC parallel circuits (each one for the active layer, buffer layer and interface between the buffer layer and the active layer) in series with contact resistance (Rs approximately 60 ohm).

  4. Protective layer formation on magnesium in cell culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, V; Virtanen, S

    2016-06-01

    In the past, different studies showed that hydroxyapatite (HA) or similar calcium phosphates can be precipitated on Mg during immersion in simulated body fluids. However, at the same time, in most cases a dark grey or black layer is built under the white HA crystals. This layer seems to consist as well of calcium phosphates. Until now, neither the morphology nor its influence on Mg corrosion have been investigated in detail. In this work commercially pure magnesium (cp) was immersed in cell culture medium for one, three and five days at room temperature and in the incubator (37 °C, 5% CO2). In addition, the influence of proteins on the formation of a corrosion layer was investigated by adding 20% of fetal calf serum (FCS) to the cell culture medium in the incubator. In order to analyze the formed layers, SEM images of cross sections, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements were carried out. Characterization of the corrosion behavior was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and by potentio-dynamic polarization in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) at 37°C. Surface analysis showed that all formed layers consist mainly of amorphous calcium phosphate compounds. For the immersion at room temperature the Ca/P ratio indicates the formation of HA, while in the incubator probably pre-stages to HA are formed. The different immersion conditions lead to a variation in layer thicknesses. However, electrochemical characterization shows that the layer thickness does not influence the corrosion resistance of magnesium. The main influencing factor for the corrosion behavior is the layer morphology. Thus, immersion at room temperature leads to the highest corrosion protection due to the formation of a compact outer layer. Layers formed in the incubator show much worse performances due to completely porous structures. The

  5. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  6. Passivation Layers for Indoor Solar Cells at Low Irradiation Intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Rühle, K.; Rauer, M.; Rüdiger, M.; Giesecke, J.; Niewelt, T.; Schmiga, C.; Glunz, S.W.; Kasemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    The passivation mechanisms and qualities of Al2O3, SiNx, SiO2 and a-Si:H(i) on p- and n-type silicon are investigated by quasi-steady-state photoluminescence measurements. This technique allows effective lifetime measurements in an extremely large injection range between 1010 cm-3 and 1017 cm-3. The measurements are discussed focusing on injections below 1012 cm-3 in order to determine the most effective passivation layer for solar cells arranged for indoor applications. Fixed negative charge...

  7. InP solar cell with window layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K. (Inventor); Landis, Geoffrey A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention features a thin light transmissive layer of the ternary semiconductor indium aluminum arsenide (InAlAs) as a front surface passivation or 'window' layer for p-on-n InP solar cells. The window layers of the invention effectively reduce front surface recombination of the object semiconductors thereby increasing the efficiency of the cells.

  8. Convection Cells in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Katherine; Mellado, Juan-Pedro

    2017-04-01

    In dry, shear-free convective boundary layers (CBLs), the turbulent flow of air is known to organise itself on large scales into coherent, cellular patterns, or superstructures, consisting of fast, narrow updraughts and slow, wide downdraughts which together form circulations. Superstructures act as transport mechanisms from the surface to the top of the boundary layer and vice-versa, as opposed to small-scale turbulence, which only modifies conditions locally. This suggests that a thorough investigation into superstructure properties may help us better understand transport across the atmospheric boundary layer as a whole. Whilst their existence has been noted, detailed studies into superstructures in the CBL have been scarce. By applying methods which are known to successfully isolate similar large-scale patterns in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection, we can assess the efficacy of those detection techniques in the CBL. In addition, through non-dimensional analysis, we can systematically compare superstructures in various convective regimes. We use direct numerical simulation of four different cases for intercomparison: Rayleigh-Bénard convection (steady), Rayleigh-Bénard convection with an adiabatic top lid (quasi-steady), a stably-stratified CBL (quasi-steady) and a neutrally-stratified CBL (unsteady). The first two are non-penetrative and the latter two penetrative. We find that although superstructures clearly emerge from the time-mean flow in the non-penetrative cases, they become obscured by temporal averaging in the CBL. This is because a rigid lid acts to direct the flow into counter-rotating circulation cells whose axis of rotation remains stationary, whereas a boundary layer that grows in time and is able to entrain fluid from above causes the circulations to not only grow in vertical extent, but also to move horizontally and merge with neighbouring circulations. Spatial filtering is a useful comparative technique as it can be performed on boundary

  9. Solar cell efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostoja, P.

    1989-01-01

    Solar cells (and solar modules) have to be tested for their performance by means of sound reliable measurement procedures. The need for such measurements arises at various stages of research, of production, and of photovoltaic systems sizing and dimensioning. In fact, accurate measurements are necessary to the researcher, who studies new materials and new processes, to the manufacturer, who has to control his product and, finally, to the user, who needs sound measurements, in order to be in a position to make effective decisions about what kink of product will be needed and with what critical characteristics. In short, standard measurements that allow cells and modules to be characterized serve as a common language, allowing effective communication about products and requirements. 3 refs

  10. Organic photovoltaic cells utilizing ultrathin sensitizing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Barry P [Princeton, NJ; Forrest, Stephen R [Princeton, NJ

    2011-05-24

    A photosensitive device includes a series of organic photoactive layers disposed between two electrodes. Each layer in the series is in direct contact with a next layer in the series. The series is arranged to form at least one donor-acceptor heterojunction, and includes a first organic photoactive layer comprising a first host material serving as a donor, a thin second organic photoactive layer comprising a second host material disposed between the first and a third organic photoactive layer, and the third organic photoactive layer comprising a third host material serving as an acceptor. The first, second, and third host materials are different. The thin second layer serves as an acceptor relative to the first layer or as a donor relative to the third layer.

  11. Thin layer activation: measuring wear and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvigne, T.; Leyman, D.; Oxorn, K.

    1995-01-01

    The technique known as thin layer activation (TLA) is explained and assessed in this article. Widely used, in for example the automotive industry, TLA allows on-line monitoring of the loss of matter from a critical surface, by wear erosion and corrosion. The technique offers extremely high sensitivity thus leading to reduced test times. On-line wear phenomena can be assessed during operation of a mechanical process, even through thick engine walls. (UK)

  12. Layer-by-Layer Bioprinting of Stem Cells for Retinal Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Precision Tissue Models”, Distinguished Seminar, Eli and Edythe Broad CIRM Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of...in vitro drug screening and potential in vivo retinal neuron repair. The expansion of ganglion cells is tightly related to the spatial arrangement of...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0522 TITLE: Layer-by-Layer Bioprinting of Stem Cells for Retinal Tissue Regeneration PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  13. Organic photovoltaic cells utilizing ultrathin sensitizing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R [Ann Arbor, MI; Yang, Fan [Piscataway, NJ; Rand, Barry P [Somers, NY

    2011-09-06

    A photosensitive device includes a plurality of organic photoconductive materials disposed in a stack between a first electrode and a second electrode, including a first continuous layer of donor host material, a second continuous layer of acceptor host material, and at least one other organic photoconductive material disposed as a plurality of discontinuous islands between the first continuous layer and the second continuous layer. Each of these other photoconductive materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor host material and the acceptor host material. Preferably, each of the discontinuous islands consists essentially of a crystallite of the respective organic photoconductive material, and more preferably, the crystallites are nanocrystals.

  14. Solid Layer Thermal-conductivity Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    deposited on the sample, and the absorption of laser radiation. Temperature-measurement tools include thermocouples, infrared (IR) pyrometers , and...A, Nishimura H, and Sawada T (1990), Laser-Induc~d Surface Acoustic Waves and Photothc:rmal Surfitce Gratings Generated by Crossing Two Pulsed

  15. Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer scintillometer. ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... of soil heat flux and net irradiance, evaporation rates were calculated as a residual of the ...

  16. Effect of p-layer properties on nanocrystalline absorber layer and thin film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Amartya; Adhikary, Koel; Mukhopadhyay, Sumita; Ray, Swati

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the p-layer on the crystallinity of the absorber layer and nanocrystalline silicon thin film solar cells has been studied. Boron doped Si : H p-layers of different crystallinities have been prepared under different power pressure conditions using the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition method. The crystalline volume fraction of p-layers increases with the increase in deposition power. Optical absorption of the p-layer reduces as the crystalline volume fraction increases. Structural studies at the p/i interface have been done by Raman scattering studies. The crystalline volume fraction of the i-layer increases as that of the p-layer increases, the effect being more prominent near the p/i interface. Grain sizes of the absorber layer decrease from 9.2 to 7.2 nm and the density of crystallites increases as the crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer increases and its grain size decreases. With increasing crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer solar cell efficiency increases

  17. Layer-by-Layer Nanoassembly of Copper Indium Gallium Selenium Nanoparticle Films for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hemati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of CIGS nanoparticles interdigited with polymers have been fabricated through a cost-effective nonvacuum film deposition process called layer-by-layer (LbL nanoassembly. CIGS nanoparticles synthesized by heating copper chloride, indium chloride, gallium chloride, and selenium in oleylamine were dispersed in water, and desired surface charges were obtained through pH regulation and by coating the particles with polystyrene sulfonate (PSS. Raising the pH of the nanoparticle dispersion reduced the zeta-potential from +61 mV at pH 7 to −51 mV at pH 10.5. Coating the CIGS nanoparticles with PSS (CIGS-PSS produced a stable dispersion in water with −56.9 mV zeta-potential. Thin films of oppositely charged CIGS nanoparticles (CIGS/CIGS, CIGS nanoparticles and PSS (CIGS/PSS, and PSS-coated CIGS nanoparticles and polyethylenimine (CIGS-PSS/PEI were constructed through the LbL nanoassembly. Film thickness and resistivity of each bilayer of the films were measured, and photoelectric properties of the films were studied for solar cell applications. Solar cell devices fabricated with a 219 nm CIGS film, when illuminated by 50 W light-source, produced 0.7 V open circuit voltage and 0.3 mA/cm2 short circuit current density.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of contact layers in amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolter, M.

    1993-04-01

    The production and characterisation of amorphous and microcrystalline n-doped layers (a-Si:H(n) and c-Si:H(n)) for thin film solar cells is described together contact investigations. The layers were produced in a plasma CVD. The electric conductivity was measured

  19. Backscattering measurement device for measuring the thickness of a layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstock, J.; Lieber, D.; Hay, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided for a measuring wheel on the run of which backscattering probes are mounted, serving for irradiation and measurement of the radiation reflected from a strip of substrate tape coated e.g. with Au. The probes are of the model HH-3 of Unit Process Assemblies Inc. The material strip is guided on the outside of the wheel run. The measuring wheel is rotating with such speed that the tangential velocity of a point on the run is equal to the speed of the strip. Therefore the movement of the strip need not be stopped during measurement (on-line measurement). (DG) [de

  20. Enhanced Charge Collection with Passivation Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Hui; Luo, Jingshan; Son, Min-Kyu; Gao, Peng; Cho, Kyung Taek; Seo, Jiyoun; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-05-01

    The Al2 O3 passivation layer is beneficial for mesoporous TiO2 -based perovskite solar cells when it is deposited selectively on the compact TiO2 surface. Such a passivation layer suppressing surface recombination can be formed by thermal decomposition of the perovskite layer during post-annealing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. An Innovative Flow-Measuring Device: Thermocouple Boundary Layer Rake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    An innovative flow-measuring device, a thermocouple boundary layer rake, was developed. The sensor detects the flow by using a thin-film thermocouple (TC) array to measure the temperature difference across a heater strip. The heater and TC arrays are microfabricated on a constant-thickness quartz strut with low heat conductivity. The device can measure the velocity profile well into the boundary layer, about 65 gm from the surface, which is almost four times closer to the surface than has been possible with the previously used total pressure tube.

  2. Interferometric measurements of a dendritic growth front solutal diffusion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John A.; Mccay, T. D.; Mccay, Mary H.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to measure solutal distributions in the diffusion layer produced during the vertical directional solidification (VDS) of an ammonium chloride - water (NH4Cl-H2O) solution. Interferometry was used to obtain concentration measurements in the 1-2 millimeter region defining the diffusion layer. These measurements were fitted to an exponential form to extract the characteristic diffusion parameter for various times after the start of solidification. The diffusion parameters are within the limits predicted by steady state theory and suggest that the effective solutal diffusivity is increasing as solidification progresses.

  3. The effect of interfacial layers on charge transport in organic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbuyise, Xolani G.; Tonui, Patrick; Mola, Genene Tessema, E-mail: mola@ukzn.ac.za

    2016-09-01

    The effect of interfacial buffer layers in organic photovoltaic cell (OPV) whose active layer is composed of poly(3 hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend was studied. The electrical properties of OPV devices produced with and without interfacial layers are compared and discussed in terms of measured parameters of the cells. The charge transport properties showed significant difference on the mobility and activation factor between the two types of device structures. The life time measurements in the unprotected conditions are also presented and discussed.

  4. Role of experimental resolution in measurements of critical layer thickness for strained-layer epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental measurements of critical layer thicknesses (CLT's) in strained-layer epitaxy are considered. Finite experimental resolution can have a major effect on measured CLT's and can easily lead to spurious results. The theoretical approach to critical layer thicknesses of J. W. Matthews [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 126 (1975)] has been modified in a straightforward way to predict the apparent critical thickness for an experiment with finite resolution in lattice parameter. The theory has also been modified to account for the general empirical result that fewer misfit dislocations are generated than predicted by equilibrium calculation. The resulting expression is fit to recent x-ray diffraction data on InGaAs/GaAs and SiGe/Si. The results suggest that CLT's in these systems may not be significantly larger than predicted by equilibrium theory, in agreement with high-resolution measurements

  5. Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Rajeewa R.

    1988-01-12

    Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells comprise a plurality of first and second lattices of amorphous silicon alternatingly formed on one another. Each of the first lattices has a first optical bandgap and each of the second lattices has a second optical bandgap different from the first optical bandgap. A method of fabricating the superlattice doped layers also is disclosed.

  6. Characterization and use of crystalline bacterial cell surface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleytr, Uwe B.; Sára, Margit; Pum, Dietmar; Schuster, Bernhard

    2001-10-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most common outermost cell envelope components of prokaryotic organisms (archaea and bacteria). S-layers are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. S-layers as the most abundant of prokaryotic cellular proteins are appealing model systems for studying the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly and function of proteinaceous supramolecular structures. The wealth of information existing on the general principle of S-layers have revealed a broad application potential. The most relevant features exploited in applied S-layer research are: (i) pores passing through S-layers show identical size and morphology and are in the range of ultrafiltration membranes; (ii) functional groups on the surface and in the pores are aligned in well-defined positions and orientations and accessible for chemical modifications and binding functional molecules in very precise fashion; (iii) isolated S-layer subunits from a variety of organisms are capable of recrystallizing as closed monolayers onto solid supports (e.g., metals, polymers, silicon wafers) at the air-water interface, on lipid films or onto the surface of liposomes; (iv) functional domains can be incorporated in S-layer proteins by genetic engineering. Thus, S-layer technologies particularly provide new approaches for biotechnology, biomimetics, molecular nanotechnology, nanopatterning of surfaces and formation of ordered arrays of metal clusters or nanoparticles as required for nanoelectronics.

  7. PIV measurement of turbulent mixing layer flow with polymer additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, T; Guo, F; Chen, B; Zhang, X

    2009-01-01

    Turbulent mixing layer flow with polymer additives was experimentally investigated by PIV in present paper. The velocity ratio between high and low speed is 4:1 and the Reynolds number for pure water case based on the velocity differences of two steams and hydraulic diameter of the channel ranges from 14667∼73333. Flow field and turbulent quantities of turbulent mixing layer with 200ppm polymer additives were measured and compared with pure water mixing layer flow. It is shown that the dynamic development of mixing layer is greatly influenced by polymer addictives. The smaller vortices are eliminated and the coherent structure is much clearer. Similar with pure water case, Reynolds stress and vorticity still concentrate in a coniform area of central part of mixing layer and the width will increase with the Reynolds number increasing. However, compared with pure water case, the coniform width of polymer additives case is larger, which means the polymer additives will lead to the diffusion of coherent structure. The peak value of vorticity in different cross section will decrease with the development of mixing layer. Compared with pure water case, the vorticity is larger at the beginning of the mixing layer but decreases faster in the case with polymer additives.

  8. Estimation of Penetrated Bone Layers During Craniotomy via Bioimpedance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Daniel; Rohe, Lucas; Niesche, Annegret; Mueller, Meiko; Radermacher, Klaus; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2017-04-01

    Craniotomy is the removal of a bone flap from the skull and is a first step in many neurosurgical interventions. During craniotomy, an efficient cut of the bone without injuring adjoining soft tissues is very critical. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of estimating the currently penetrated cranial bone layer by means of bioimpedance measurement. A finite-element model was developed and a simulation study conducted. Simulations were performed at different positions along an elliptical cutting path and at three different operation areas. Finally, the validity of the simulation was demonstrated by an ex vivo experiment based on use of a bovine shoulder blade bone and a commercially available impedance meter. The curve of the absolute impedance and phase exhibits characteristic changes at the transition from one bone layer to the next, which can be used to determine the bone layer last penetrated by the cutting tool. The bipolar electrode configuration is superior to the monopolar measurement. A horizontal electrode arrangement at the tip of the cutting tool produces the best results. This study successfully demonstrates the feasibility to detect the transition between cranial bone layers during craniotomy by bioimpedance measurements using electrodes located on the cutting tool. Based on the results of this study, bioimpedance measurement seems to be a promising option for intra operative ad hoc information about the bone layer currently penetrated and could contribute to patient safety during neurosurgery.

  9. Rotor blade boundary layer measurement hardware feasibility demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. R.; Lawton, T. D.

    1972-01-01

    A traverse mechanism which allows the measurement of the three dimensional boundary layers on a helicopter rotor blade has been built and tested on a full scale rotor to full scale conditions producing centrifugal accelerations in excess of 400 g and Mach numbers of 0.6 and above. Boundary layer velocity profiles have been measured over a range of rotor speeds and blade collective pitch angles. A pressure scanning switch and transducer were also tested on the full scale rotor and found to be insensitive to centrifugal effects within the normal main rotor operating range. The demonstration of the capability to measure boundary layer behavior on helicopter rotor blades represents the first step toward obtaining, in the rotating system, data of a quality comparable to that already existing for flows in the fixed system.

  10. Scrape-off layer profile modifications by convective cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J.R.; DIppolito, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Convective cells (CC close-quote s) are important in understanding density profile modifications induced by ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) antennas. This has motivated the present work in which the effect of CC close-quote s on transport in the scrape-off layer is studied, in the regime where the density gradient scale length L n and the cell size L are comparable. Monte Carlo simulations show that closed cell convection acts to flatten the density profile, and that open cells enhance the particle flow to the wall, depleting the density and yielding profiles similar to those measured near ICRF antennas. A new one-dimensional, two-branch model of CC transport is shown to agree well with the simulations. The model gives rise to two characteristic scale lengths, only one of which is retained in the enhanced diffusion models that are applicable for L n >L. The two-branch model is expected to be useful in analyzing ICRF experiments. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Interfacial Layer Engineering for Performance Enhancement in Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Improving power conversion efficiency and device performance stability is the most critical challenge in polymer solar cells for fulfilling their applications in industry at large scale. Various methodologies have been developed for realizing this goal, among them interfacial layer engineering has shown great success, which can optimize the electrical contacts between active layers and electrodes and lead to enhanced charge transport and collection. Interfacial layers also show profound impacts on light absorption and optical distribution of solar irradiation in the active layer and film morphology of the subsequently deposited active layer due to the accompanied surface energy change. Interfacial layer engineering enables the use of high work function metal electrodes without sacrificing device performance, which in combination with the favored kinetic barriers against water and oxygen penetration leads to polymer solar cells with enhanced performance stability. This review provides an overview of the recent progress of different types of interfacial layer materials, including polymers, small molecules, graphene oxides, fullerene derivatives, and metal oxides. Device performance enhancement of the resulting solar cells will be elucidated and the function and operation mechanism of the interfacial layers will be discussed.

  12. Modeling and performance analysis dataset of a CIGS solar cell with ZnS buffer layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Billal Hosen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the baseline data of the several semiconductor materials used in the model of a CIGS thin film solar cell with an inclusion of ZnS buffer layer. As well, input parameters, contact layer data and operating conditions for CIGS solar cell simulation with ZnS buffer layer have been described. The schematic diagram of photovoltaic solar cell has been depicted. Moreover, the most important performance measurement graph, J-V characteristic curve, resulting from CIGS solar cell simulation has been analyzed to estimate the optimum values of fill factor and cell efficiency. These optimum results have been obtained from the open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, and the maximum points of voltage and current density generated from the cell.

  13. Layer thickness measurement using the X-ray fluorescence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengelkamp, B.

    1980-01-01

    Curium 244 having a gamma energy of about 15.5 keV is used as excitation emitter for contactless and continuous measuring of the thickness of metallic layers on iron strip. Soft gamma radiation is absorbed in matter according to the photo effect, so that X-ray fluorescence radiation is generated in the matter, which depends on the element and is radiated to all sides. For instance, it amounts for iron 6.4 keV and is measured with a specific ionisation chamber for this energy range. With increasing atomic number of the elements, the energy of fluorescence radiation increases and hence also the emission signal of the detector. The prerequisite for a usable measuring effect is an element distance of at least two and the thickness of the layer to be measured being in an optimum range. A signal dependent on the thickness of the layer is produced either by absorption of iron radiation (absorption method - aluminium and tin) or by build-up radiation of the material of the layer (emission method - zinc and lead). (orig./GSCH) [de

  14. Preparation of TiO{sub 2} films by layer-by-layer assembly and their application in solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Anhui Key Laboratory of Spin Electron and Nanomaterials (Cultivating Base), Suzhou University, Suzhou 234000 (China); Xie, A.J. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Shen, Y.H., E-mail: s_yuhua@163.co [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Li, S.K. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2010-09-03

    Polyacrylate sodium (PAAS)/titania (TiO{sub 2}) multilayers have been fabricated through the electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly technique. The composite films display an excellent photovoltaic performance after sintering and sensitization by cyanine dye (CD), which can be applied in dye-sensitized solar cells. The properties of PAAS/TiO{sub 2} multilayers are investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and photovoltaic measurements. The results indicate that the thermal stability of the PAAS has a direct influence on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. The energy conversion efficiency of approximately 1.29% was obtained for dye-sensitized solar cell with TiO{sub 2}/PAAS (40 bilayers) as precursor film. In addition, the composite films also show a good self-cleaning property for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

  15. Measuring single-cell density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, William H; Bryan, Andrea K; Diez-Silva, Monica; Suresh, Subra; Higgins, John M; Manalis, Scott R

    2011-07-05

    We have used a microfluidic mass sensor to measure the density of single living cells. By weighing each cell in two fluids of different densities, our technique measures the single-cell mass, volume, and density of approximately 500 cells per hour with a density precision of 0.001 g mL(-1). We observe that the intrinsic cell-to-cell variation in density is nearly 100-fold smaller than the mass or volume variation. As a result, we can measure changes in cell density indicative of cellular processes that would be otherwise undetectable by mass or volume measurements. Here, we demonstrate this with four examples: identifying Plasmodium falciparum malaria-infected erythrocytes in a culture, distinguishing transfused blood cells from a patient's own blood, identifying irreversibly sickled cells in a sickle cell patient, and identifying leukemia cells in the early stages of responding to a drug treatment. These demonstrations suggest that the ability to measure single-cell density will provide valuable insights into cell state for a wide range of biological processes.

  16. UV radiation hardness of silicon inversion layer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezel, R.

    1990-01-01

    For full utilization of the high spectral response of inversion layer solar cells in the very-short-wavelength range of the solar spectrum sufficient ultraviolet-radiation hardness is required. In addition to the charge-induced passivation achieved by cesium incorporation into the silicon nitride AR coating, in this paper the following means for further drastic reduction of UV light-induced effects in inversion layer solar cells without encapsulation are introduced and interpretations are given: increasing the nitride deposition temperature, silicon surface oxidation at low temperatures, and texture etching and using higher substrate resistivities. High UV radiation tolerance and improvement of the cell efficiency could be obtained simultaneously

  17. A microfluidic galvanic cell on a single layer of paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Krutarth H.; Emrani, Saina; Rodriguez, Sandra; Liaw, Shi-Shen; Pham, Linda; Galvan, Vicente; Domalaon, Kryls; Gomez, Frank A.; Haan, John L.

    2016-06-01

    Paper microfluidics is used to produce single layer galvanic and hybrid cells to produce energy that could power paper-based analytical sensors. When two aqueous streams are absorbed onto paper to establish co-laminar flow, the streams stay in contact with each other with limited mixing. The interface at which mixing occurs acts as a charge-transfer region, eliminating the need for a salt bridge. We designed a Cusbnd Zn galvanic cell that powers an LED when two are placed in series. We also used more powerful redox couples (formate and silver, formate and permanganate) to produce higher power density (18 and 3.1 mW mg-1 Pd). These power densities are greater than previously reported paper microfluidic fuel cells using formate or methanol. The single layer design is much more simplified than previous reports of multi-layer galvanic cells on paper.

  18. Droplet Measurement below Single-Layer Grid Fill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitkovic Pavol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main part of the heat transfer in a cooling tower is in a fill zone. This one is consist of a cooling fill. For the cooling tower is used a film fill or grid fill or splash fill in the generally. The grid fill has lower heat transfer performance like film fill usually. But their advantage is high resistance to blockage of the fill. The grid fill is consisted with independent layers made from plastic usually. The layers consist of several bars connected to the different shapes. For experiment was used the rhombus shape. The drops diameter was measured above and below the Grid fill.

  19. FLEXIBLE PH SENSOR WITH POLYANILINE LAYER BASED ON IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Cheng-Hsin; Wu, Hsun-Pei; Chen, Cheng-Ho; Wu, Peng-Rong

    2012-01-01

    A flexible sensor with conducting polyaniline layer for detecting pH value based on the impedance measurement is fabricated and demonstrated in this study. The pH sensor consists of an interdigital electrode array on a flexible printed circuit and a thin-film polyaniline as the sensing layer. As the conductivity of polyaniline depends on the redox state, the impedance change of the polyaniline after it has reacted with different pH value solutions works as the sensing mechanism. In order to o...

  20. Experimental measurements and modelling of the WEGA boundary layer plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shaer, M.; Ichtchenko, G.

    1983-02-01

    The boundary layer of the WEGA Tokamak has been investigated by using specific diagnostics: movable 4 mm microwave interferometer, several types of movable and fixed probes, Katsumata probe, and multigrid electrostatic analyzer. During the RF heating at the lower hybrid frequency, some modifications in the parameters of the boundary layer are observed which are interpreted by the ponderomotive force effects. A comparison between the measured reflection coefficients of the grill waveguides and their predicted values by a coupling theory (not taking into account the real conditions facing the Grill) is presented. A diffusion model was also made to describe this particular region and to fit the experimental results

  1. Measurement of half-value layer in mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, H; Saruwatari, R; Doi, N; Yamane, E

    2003-01-01

    The half-value layer (HVL) of an X-ray beam for film-screen mammography is considered an important parameter for image quality and patient dose. Thus, HVL must be measured in accordance with The Manual of Accuracy for Mammography printed by the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology. The manual prescribes exactly the geometry of measurement, chamber position of measurement in the field, selection of chamber, and so on. However, the measurement of HVL is difficult in the actual clinical setting. This study examined the results of failure to perform the measurement of HVL in accordance with the manual for measuring HVL in the clinical setting. The investigation indicated that serious problems do not arise when measuring HVL for routine quality control even if the chamber in the field is not always set according to the manual and if a chamber for radiotherapy or diagnosis is used that is not recommended for soft X-ray by the manual. (author)

  2. 3D LDV Measurements in Oscillatory Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, J. M.; Garcia, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    The oscillatory boundary layer represents a particular case of unsteady wall-bounded flows in which fluid particles follow a periodic sinusoidal motion. Unlike steady boundary layer flows, the oscillatory flow regime and bed roughness character change in time along the period for every cycle, a characteristic that introduces a high degree of complexity in the analysis of these flows. Governing equations can be derived from the general Navier-Stokes equations for the motion of fluids, from which the exact solution for the laminar oscillatory boundary layer is obtained (also known as the 2nd Stokes problem). No exact solution exists for the turbulent case, thus, understanding of the main flow characteristics comes from experimental work. Several researchers have reported experimental work in oscillatory boundary layers since the 1960's; however, larger scale facilities and the development of newer measurement techniques with improved temporal and spatial resolution in recent years provides a unique opportunity to achieve a better understanding about this type of flows. Several experiments were performed in the Large Oscillatory Water and Sediment Tunnel (LOWST) facility at the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory, for a range of Reynolds wave numbers between 6x10^4 3D Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) system was used to measure instantaneous flow velocities with a temporal resolution up to ~ 1,000 Hz. It was mounted on a 3-axis traverse with a spatial resolution of 0.01 mm in all three directions. The closest point to the bottom was measured at z = 0.2 mm (z+ ≈ 4), which allowed to capture boundary layer features with great detail. In order to achieve true 3D measurements, 2 probes were used on a perpendicular configuration, such that u and w components were measured from a probe on the side of the flume and v component was measured from a probe pointing down through and access window on top of the flume. The top probe was submerged in a water container, such that the

  3. Stereoscopic PIV measurement of boundary layer affected by DBD actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procházka Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ionic wind generated by plasma actuator on developed boundary layer inside a narrow channel was investigated recently. Since the main investigated plane was parallel to the channel axis, the description of flow field was not evaluated credibly. This paper is dealing with cross-section planes downstream the actuator measured via 3D time-resolved PIV. The actuator position is in spanwise or in streamwise orientation so that ionic wind is blown in the same direction as the main flow or in opposite direction or perpendicularly. The interaction between boundary layer and ionic wind is evaluated for three different velocities of main flow and several parameters of plasma actuation (steady and unsteady regime, frequency etc.. Statistical properties of the flow are shown as well as dynamical behaviour of arising longitudinal vortices are discussed via phase-locked measurement and decomposition method.

  4. Simple solution-processed CuOX as anode buffer layer for efficient organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wenfei; Yang, Chunpeng; Bao, Xichang; Sun, Liang; Wang, Ning; Tang, Jianguo; Chen, Weichao; Yang, Renqiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Simple solution-processed CuO X hole transport layer for efficient organic solar cell. • Good photovoltaic performances as hole transport layer in OSCs with P3HT and PBDTTT-C as donor materials. • The device with CuO X as hole transport layer shows great improved stability compared with that of device with PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer. - Abstract: A simple, solution-processed ultrathin CuO X anode buffer layer was fabricated for high performance organic solar cells (OSCs). XPS measurement demonstrated that the CuO X was the composite of CuO and Cu 2 O. The CuO X modified ITO glass exhibit a better surface contact with the active layer. The photovoltaic performance of the devices with CuO X layer was optimized by varying the thickness of CuO X films through changing solution concentration. With P3HT:PC 61 BM as the active layer, we demonstrated an enhanced PCE of 4.14% with CuO X anode buffer layer, compared with that of PEDOT:PSS layer. The CuO X layer also exhibits efficient photovoltaic performance in devices with PBDTTT-C:PC 71 BM as the active layer. The long-term stability of CuO X device is better than that of PEDOT:PSS device. The results indicate that the easy solution-processed CuO X film can act as an efficient anode buffer layer for high-efficiency OSCs

  5. Impact of Interfacial Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, An-Na; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2017-10-09

    Perovskite solar cells (PCSs) are composed of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite as the light harvester. Since the first report on a long-term-durable, 9.7 % efficient, solid-state perovskite solar cell, organic-inorganic halide perovskites have received considerable attention because of their excellent optoelectronic properties. As a result, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 22 % was certified. Controlling the grain size, grain boundary, morphology, and defects of the perovskite layer is important for achieving high efficiency. In addition, interfacial engineering is equally or more important to further improve the PCE through better charge collection and a reduction in charge recombination. In this Review, the type of interfacial layers and their impact on photovoltaic performance are investigated for both the normal and the inverted cell architectures. Four different interfaces of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/electron-transport layer (ETL), ETL/perovskite, perovskite/hole-transport layer (HTL), and HTL/metal are classified, and their roles are investigated. The effects of interfacial engineering with organic or inorganic materials on photovoltaic performance are described in detail. Grain-boundary engineering is also included because it is related to interfacial engineering and the grain boundary in the perovskite layer plays an important role in charge conduction, recombination, and chargecarrier life time. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Solar cells with perovskite-based light sensitization layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Chang, Robert P.H.; Stoumpos, Konstantinos; Lee, Byunghong

    2018-05-08

    Solar cells are provided which comprise an electron transporting layer and a light sensitizing layer of perovskite disposed over the surface of the electron transporting layer. The perovskite may have a formula selected from the group consisting of A2MX6, Z2MX6 or YMX6, wherein A is an alkali metal, M is a metal or a metalloid, X is a halide, Z is selected from the group consisting of a primary ammonium, an iminium, a secondary ammonium, a tertiary ammonium, and a quaternary ammonium, and Y has formula Mb(L)3, wherein Mb is a transition metal in the 2+ oxidation state L is an N--N neutral chelating ligand. Methods of making the solar cells are also provided, including methods based on electrospray deposition.

  7. A vertically integrated dynamic RAM-cell: Buried bit line memory cell with floating transfer layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.; Vertregt, Maarten

    1986-01-01

    A charge injection device has been realized in which charge can be injected on to an MOS-capacitor from a buried layer via an isolated transfer layer. The cell is positioned vertically between word and bit line. LOCOS (local oxidation) is used to isolate the cells and (deep) ion implantation to

  8. Transparent conducting oxide layers for thin film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.; Liu, Y.; de Jong, M.M.; de Wild, J.; Schuttauf, J.A.; Brinza, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2009-01-01

    Texture etching of ZnO:1%Al layers using diluted HCl solution provides excellent TCOs with crater type surface features for the front contact of superstrate type of thin film silicon solar cells. The texture etched ZnO:Al definitely gives superior performance than Asahi SnO2:F TCO in case of

  9. Thin Cell Layer technology in ornamental plant micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin cell layer (TCL) technology originated almost 30 years ago with the controlled development of flowers, roots, shoots and somatic embryos on tobacco pedicel longitudinal TCLs. Since then TCLs have been successfully used in the micropropagation of many ornamental plant species whose previous in vitro ...

  10. Structure measurements in a synthetic turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    1987-09-01

    Extensive hot-wire measurements have been made to determine the structure of the large eddy in a synthejc turbulent boundary layer on a flat-plate model. The experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel at a nominal free-stream velocity of 12 m/s. The synthetic turbulent boundary layer had a hexagonal pattern of eddies and a ratio of streamwise scale to spanwise scale of 3.2:1. The measured celerity of the large eddy was 84.2 percent of the free-stream velocity. There was some loss of coherence, but very little distortion, as the eddies moved downstream. Several mean properties of the synthetic boundary layer were found to agree quite well with the mean properties of a natural turbulent boundary layer at the same Reynolds number. The large eddy is composed of a pair of primary counter-rotating vortices about five [...] long in the streamwise direction and about one [...] apart in the spanwise direction, where [...] is the mean boundary-layer thickness. The sense of the primary pair is such as to pump fluid away from the wall in the region between the vortices. A secondary pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices, having a sense opposite to that of the primary pair, is observed outside of and slightly downstream from the primary vortices. Both pairs of vortices extend across the full thickness of the boundary layer and are inclined at a shallow angle to the surface of the flat plate. The data show that the mean vorticity vectors are not tangential to the large-eddy vortices. In fact, the streamwise and normal vorticity components that signal the presence of the eddy are of the same order of magnitude. Definite signatures are obtained in terms of the mean skin-friction coefficient and the mean wake parameter averaged at constant phase. Velocities induced by the vortices are partly responsible for entrainment of irrotational fluid, for transport of momentum, for generation of Reynolds stresses, and for maintenance of streamwise and normal vorticity in the outer

  11. Se interlayer in CIGS absorption layer for solar cell devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Kyu; Sim, Jae-Kwan [Semiconductor Materials Process Laboratory, School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Research Center for Advanced Materials Development, Chonbuk National University, Deokjin-Dong 664-14, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kissinger, N.J. Suthan [Department of General Studies, Physics Group, Jubail University College, Royal Commission for Jubail, Jubail 10074 (Saudi Arabia); Song, Il-Seok; Kim, Jin-Soo; Baek, Byung-Joon [Semiconductor Materials Process Laboratory, School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Research Center for Advanced Materials Development, Chonbuk National University, Deokjin-Dong 664-14, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheul-Ro, E-mail: crlee7@jbnu.ac.kr [Semiconductor Materials Process Laboratory, School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Research Center for Advanced Materials Development, Chonbuk National University, Deokjin-Dong 664-14, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • Se interlayer is deposited between the CuGa and CuIn/In/Mo/STS stacked layer. • Both CIG precursor layers were selenized at 500 °C for 1 h. • SIMS depth profile shows that Ga distribution is uniform by Se interlayer. • The efficiency was improved for the CIGS solar cell by Se interlayer. - Abstract: A CIGS absorber layer with high gallium contents in the space-charge region can reduce the carrier recombination and improve the open circuit voltage V{sub oc}. Therefore, controlling Ga grading on top of CIGS thin film solar cells is the main objective of this experiment. To reduce Selenium (Se) vacancy, it is important that the diffusion of Ga elements into Se vacancy between Mo back contact and CIGS absorption layer would be controlled. In order to reduce Se vacancy and confirm Ga inter-diffusion, two CIGS solar cells were fabricated by converting CIG precursor with and without Se interlayer. The copper-indium metallic precursors were fabricated corresponding to the sequence CuIn/In/Mo/STS on stainless steel (STS) substrates by sequential direct current magnetron sputtering while Se layer was evaporated by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system to obtain a Se/CuIn/In/Mo/STS stack. CuGa precursor layer was also fabricated on the Se/CuIn/In/Mo/STS stack. Finally, both CuGa/Se/CuIn/In/Mo/STS and CuGa/CuIn/In/Mo/STS stacks were selenized at 500 °C for 1 h. It was clearly observed from the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) that there was a change between the fabricated CIGS absorption layers and the amount of Ga elements. Furthermore, the Ga elements gradually decreased from the top to the bottom layer of the CIGS absorption layer. We also discussed the effect of Se interlayer in the CIGS absorption layer and its influence on the solar cell’s performance.

  12. Se interlayer in CIGS absorption layer for solar cell devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Kyu; Sim, Jae-Kwan; Kissinger, N.J. Suthan; Song, Il-Seok; Kim, Jin-Soo; Baek, Byung-Joon; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Se interlayer is deposited between the CuGa and CuIn/In/Mo/STS stacked layer. • Both CIG precursor layers were selenized at 500 °C for 1 h. • SIMS depth profile shows that Ga distribution is uniform by Se interlayer. • The efficiency was improved for the CIGS solar cell by Se interlayer. - Abstract: A CIGS absorber layer with high gallium contents in the space-charge region can reduce the carrier recombination and improve the open circuit voltage V oc . Therefore, controlling Ga grading on top of CIGS thin film solar cells is the main objective of this experiment. To reduce Selenium (Se) vacancy, it is important that the diffusion of Ga elements into Se vacancy between Mo back contact and CIGS absorption layer would be controlled. In order to reduce Se vacancy and confirm Ga inter-diffusion, two CIGS solar cells were fabricated by converting CIG precursor with and without Se interlayer. The copper-indium metallic precursors were fabricated corresponding to the sequence CuIn/In/Mo/STS on stainless steel (STS) substrates by sequential direct current magnetron sputtering while Se layer was evaporated by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system to obtain a Se/CuIn/In/Mo/STS stack. CuGa precursor layer was also fabricated on the Se/CuIn/In/Mo/STS stack. Finally, both CuGa/Se/CuIn/In/Mo/STS and CuGa/CuIn/In/Mo/STS stacks were selenized at 500 °C for 1 h. It was clearly observed from the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) that there was a change between the fabricated CIGS absorption layers and the amount of Ga elements. Furthermore, the Ga elements gradually decreased from the top to the bottom layer of the CIGS absorption layer. We also discussed the effect of Se interlayer in the CIGS absorption layer and its influence on the solar cell’s performance

  13. Optimized Estimation of Surface Layer Characteristics from Profiling Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreene Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New sampling techniques such as tethered-balloon-based measurements or small unmanned aerial vehicles are capable of providing multiple profiles of the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer (MASL in a short time period. It is desirable to obtain surface fluxes from these measurements, especially when direct flux measurements are difficult to obtain. The profiling data is different from the traditional mean profiles obtained at two or more fixed levels in the surface layer from which surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat are derived based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST. This research develops an improved method to derive surface fluxes and the corresponding MASL mean profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity with a least-squares optimization method using the profiling measurements. This approach allows the use of all available independent data. We use a weighted cost function based on the framework of MOST with the cost being optimized using a quasi-Newton method. This approach was applied to seven sets of data collected from the Monterey Bay. The derived fluxes and mean profiles show reasonable results. An empirical bias analysis is conducted using 1000 synthetic datasets to evaluate the robustness of the method.

  14. Dynamic properties of sensory stimulation evoked responses in mouse cerebellar granule cell layer and molecular layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Guang-Jian; Sun, Lei; Chu, Chun-Ping; Qiu, De-Lai

    2015-01-12

    Sensory information coming from climbing fiber and mossy fiber-granule cell pathways, generates motor-related outputs according to internal rules of integration and computation in the cerebellar cortex. However, the dynamic properties of sensory information processing in mouse cerebellar cortex are less understood. Here, we studied the dynamic properties of sensory stimulation-evoked responses in the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) and molecular layer (ML) by electrophysiological recordings method. Our data showed that air-puff stimulation (5-10 ms in duration) of the ipsilateral whisker pad evoked single-peak responses in the GCL and ML; whereas a duration of stimulation ≥30 ms in GCL and ≥60 ms in ML, evoked double-peak responses that corresponded with stimulation-on and -off responses via mossy fiber pathway. The highest frequency of stimulation train for evoking GCL responses was 33 Hz. In contrast, the highest frequency of stimulation train for evoking ML responses was 4 Hz. These results indicate that the cerebellar granule cells transfer the high-fidelity sensory information from mossy fibers, which is cut-off by molecular layer interneurons (MLIs). Our results suggest that the MLIs network acts as a low-pass filter during the processing of high-frequency sensory information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinge; Robertson, Mark; Deces-Petit, Cyrille; Xie, Yongsong; Hui, Rob; Qu, Wei; Kesler, Olivera; Maric, Radenka; Ghosh, Dave [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5 (Canada)

    2008-01-10

    In this work, we have developed solid oxide fuel cells with a bi-layered electrolyte of 2 {mu}m SSZ and 4 {mu}m SDC using tape casting, screen printing, and co-firing processes. The cell reached power densities of 0.54 W cm{sup -2} at 650 C and 0.85 W cm{sup -2} at 700 C, with open circuit voltage (OCV) values larger than 1.02 V. The electrical leaking between anode and cathode through an SDC electrolyte has been blocked in the bi-layered electrolyte structure. However, both the electrolyte resistance (R{sub el}) and electrode polarization resistance (R{sub p,a+c}) increased in comparison to cells with single-layered SDC electrolytes. The formation of a solid solution of (Ce, Zr)O{sub 2-x} during sintering process and the flaws in the bi-layered electrolyte structure seem to be the main causes for the increase in the R{sub el} value (0.32 {omega} cm{sup 2}) at 650 C, which is almost one order of magnitude higher than the calculated value. (author)

  16. Efficient small-molecule organic solar cells incorporating a doped buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Dei-Wei [Department of aviation and Communication Electronics, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung 820, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kan-Lin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Fortune Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung 831, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chien-Jung, E-mail: chien@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Yao-Jen [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Ray; Meen, Teen-Hang [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Formosa University, Hu-Wei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)

    2013-06-01

    Small-molecule organic solar cells (OSCs) with an optimized structure of indium tin oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) (10 nm)/CuPc: fullerene (C{sub 60}) mixed (20 nm)/C{sub 60} (20 nm)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) (5 nm)/Ag were fabricated. In this study, the cesium carbonate-doped BPhen (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}:BPhen) was adopted as the buffer layer to enhance the efficiency of the OSCs. The photovoltaic parameters of the OSCs, such as the short-circuit current density and fill factor, depend on the doping concentration of Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in the BPhen layer. The cell with a Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}:BPhen (1:4) cathode buffer layer exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.51%, compared to 3.37% for the device with the pristine BPhen layer. The enhancement of PCE was attributed to the energy-level alignment between the C{sub 60} layer and the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}:BPhen layer. In addition, the characterization measured using atomic force microscopy shows that the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}:BPhen layers have smoother surfaces. - Highlight: • Cs2CO3-doped 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) cathode buffer layer. • Cs2CO3:BPhen layer with different ratios affects organic solar cells performance. • Cell with 1:4 (Cs2CO3:BPhen) ratio shows 3.51% power conversion efficiency.

  17. Lead Halide Perovskites as Charge Generation Layers for Electron Mobility Measurement in Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John A; Feuerstein, Markus; Wolff, Christian M; Facchetti, Antonio; Neher, Dieter

    2017-12-06

    Hybrid lead halide perovskites are introduced as charge generation layers (CGLs) for the accurate determination of electron mobilities in thin organic semiconductors. Such hybrid perovskites have become a widely studied photovoltaic material in their own right, for their high efficiencies, ease of processing from solution, strong absorption, and efficient photogeneration of charge. Time-of-flight (ToF) measurements on bilayer samples consisting of the perovskite CGL and an organic semiconductor layer of different thickness are shown to be determined by the carrier motion through the organic material, consistent with the much higher charge carrier mobility in the perovskite. Together with the efficient photon-to-electron conversion in the perovskite, this high mobility imbalance enables electron-only mobility measurement on relatively thin application-relevant organic films, which would not be possible with traditional ToF measurements. This architecture enables electron-selective mobility measurements in single components as well as bulk-heterojunction films as demonstrated in the prototypical polymer/fullerene blends. To further demonstrate the potential of this approach, electron mobilities were measured as a function of electric field and temperature in an only 127 nm thick layer of a prototypical electron-transporting perylene diimide-based polymer, and found to be consistent with an exponential trap distribution of ca. 60 meV. Our study furthermore highlights the importance of high mobility charge transporting layers when designing perovskite solar cells.

  18. Graphene: Polymer composites as moisture barrier and charge transport layer toward solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakorikar, Tushar; Kavitha, M. K.; Tong, Shi Wun; Vayalamkuzhi, Pramitha; Loh, Kian Ping; Jaiswal, Manu

    2018-05-01

    Graphene: polymer composite based electrically conducting films are realized by a facile solution processable method. Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) measurements on the composite films, reveal a low work function of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) obtained from hydrazine hydrate reduction of graphene oxide (GO). We suggest that the low work function could potentially make rGO: PMMA composite suitable for electron conducting layer in perovskite solar cells in place of traditionally used expensive PCBM ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) layer. Further, we demonstrate from the gravimetric experiments conducted on rGO: PMMA films, that the same coating is also resistant to moisture permeation. This latter property can be used to realize a protective coating layer for perovskite films, which are prone to moisture induced degradation. Thus, dual functionality of rGO-PMMA films is demonstrated towards integration with perovskite solar cells. Architecture of perovskite solar cell based on these concepts is proposed.

  19. Boundary layer height estimation by sodar and sonic anemometer measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contini, D; Cava, D; Martano, P; Donateo, A; Grasso, F M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an analysis of different methods for the calculation of the boundary layer height (BLH) using sodar and ultrasonic anemometer measurements is presented. All the methods used are based on single point surface measurements. In particular the automatic spectral routine developed for Remtech sodar is compared with the results obtained with the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance, with the calculation of a prognostic model and with a parameterization based on horizontal velocity spectra. Results indicate that in unstable conditions the different methods provide similar pattern, with BLH relatively low, even if the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance is affected by a large scatter that limits its efficiency in evaluating the BLH. In stable nocturnal conditions the performances of the Remtech routine are lower with respect to the ones in unstable conditions. The spectral method, applied to sodar or sonic anemometer data, seems to be the most promising in order to develop an efficient routine for BLH determination

  20. Retinal layer measurements after successful macula-off retinal detachment repair using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Marcel N; Kowal, Jens H; Dufour, Pascal; Wolf-Schnurrbusch, Ute E; Ceklic, Lala; Framme, Carsten; Wolf, Sebastian

    2014-09-04

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to analyze the thickness of various retinal layers of patients following successful macula-off retinal detachment (RD) repair. Optical coherence tomography scans of patients after successful macula-off RD repair were reanalyzed with a subsegmentation algorithm to measure various retinal layers. Regression analysis was performed to correlate time after surgery with changes in layer thickness. In addition, patients were divided in two groups. Group 1 had a follow-up period after surgery of up to 7 weeks (range, 21-49 days). In group 2, the follow-up period was >8 weeks (range, 60-438 days). Findings were compared to a group of age-matched healthy controls. Correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between inner nuclear-outer plexiform layer (INL-OPL) thickness and time after surgery (P=0.0212; r2=0.1551). Similar results were found for the ellipsoid zone-retinal pigment epithelium complex (EZ-RPE) thickness (P=0.005; r2=0.2215). Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness (GCL-IPL) was negatively correlated with time after surgery (P=0.0064; r2=0.2101). For group comparison, the retinal nerve fiber layer in both groups was thicker compared to controls. The GCL-IPL showed significant thinning in group 2. The outer nuclear layer was significantly thinner in groups 1 and 2 compared to controls. The EZ-RPE complex was significantly thinner in groups 1 and 2 compared to controls. In addition, values in group 1 were significantly thinner than in group 2. Optical coherence tomography retinal layer thickness measurements after successful macular-off RD repair revealed time-dependent thickness changes. Inner nuclear-outer plexiform layer thickness and EZ-RPE thickness was positively correlated with time after surgery. Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness was negatively correlated with time after surgery. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  1. Impacts of age and sex on retinal layer thicknesses measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with Spectralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Moreno, María; Martínez-de-la-Casa, José M; Morales-Fernández, Laura; Sánchez-Jean, Rubén; Sáenz-Francés, Federico; García-Feijoó, Julián

    2018-01-01

    To examine differences in individual retinal layer thicknesses measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Spectralis®) produced with age and according to sex. Cross-sectional, observational study. The study was conducted in 297 eyes of 297 healthy subjects aged 18 to 87 years. In one randomly selected eye of each participant the volume and mean thicknesses of the different macular layers were measured by SD-OCT using the instrument's macular segmentation software. Volume and mean thickness of macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), retinal pigmentary epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor layer (PR). Retinal thickness was reduced by 0.24 μm for every one year of age. Age adjusted linear regression analysis revealed mean GCL, IPL, ONL and PR thickness reductions and a mean OPL thickness increase with age. Women had significantly lower mean GCL, IPL, INL, ONL and PR thicknesses and volumes and a significantly greater mRNFL volume than men. The thickness of most retinal layers varies both with age and according to sex. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the rate of layer thinning produced with age.

  2. In vitro proliferation of haemopoietic cells in the presence of adherent cell layers. II. Differential effect of adherent cell layers derived from various organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimann, J.; Burger, H.

    1979-01-01

    Mouse bone marrow-derived adherent cell populations promoted proliferation of haemopoietic cells in vitro in a liquid culture system for at least 4 weeks. Adherent cell layers derived from other haemopoietic organs (foetal liver, adult spleen) and fibroblasts from embryonic tissues did not maintain

  3. Model for the ultrasound reflection from micro-beads and cells distributed in layers on a uniform surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, O; Cherin, E; Foster, F S [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2007-07-21

    A model predicting the reflection of ultrasound from multiple layers of small scattering spheres is developed. Predictions of the reflection coefficient, which takes into account the interferences between the different sphere layers, are compared to measurements performed in the 10-80 MHz and 15-35 MHz frequency range with layers of glass beads and spherical acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, respectively. For both types of scatterers, the reflection coefficient increases as a function of their density on the surface for less than three superimposed layers, at which point it saturates at 0.38 for glass beads and 0.02 for AML cells. Above three layers, oscillations of the reflection coefficient due to constructive or destructive interference between layers are observed experimentally and are accurately predicted by the model. The use of such a model could lead to a better understanding of the structures observed in layered tissue images.

  4. Layer-by-layer assembled cell instructive nanocoatings containing platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sara M; Santo, Vítor E; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2015-04-01

    Great efforts have been made to introduce growth factors (GFs) onto 2D/3D constructs in order to control cell behavior. Platelet lysate (PL) presents itself as a cost-effective source of multiple GFs and other proteins. The instruction given by a construct-PL combination will depend on how its instructive cues are presented to the cells. The content, stability and conformation of the GFs affect their instruction. Strategies for a controlled incorporation of PL are needed. Herein, PL was incorporated into nanocoatings by layer-by-layer assembling with polysaccharides presenting different sulfation degrees (SD) and charges. Heparin and several marine polysaccharides were tested to evaluate their PL and GF incorporation capability. The consequent effects of those multilayers on human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) were assessed in short-term cultures. Both nature of the polysaccharide and SD were important properties that influenced the adsorption of PL, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor b (FGFb) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). The sulfated polysaccharides-PL multilayers showed to be efficient in the promotion of morphological changes, serum-free adhesion and proliferation of high passage hASCs (P > 5). These biomimetic multilayers promise to be versatile platforms to fabricate instructive devices allowing a tunable incorporation of PL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sputter Deposited TiOx Thin-Films as Electron Transport Layers in Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsafaei, Mina; Bomholt Jensen, Pia; Lakhotiya, Harish

    transparency and favorable energy-level alignment with many commonly used electron-acceptor materials. There are several methods available for fabricating compact TiOx thin-films for use in organic solar cells, including sol-gel solution processing, spray pyrolysis and atomic-layer deposition; however...... of around 7%, by incorporating sputter deposited TiOx thin-films as electron-transport and exciton-blocking layers. In the work, we report on the effect of different TiOx deposition temperatures and thicknesses on the organic-solar-cell device performance. Besides optical characterization, AFM and XRD...... analyses are performed to characterize the morphology and crystal structure of the films, and external quantum efficiency measurements are employed to shed further light on the device performance. Our study presents a novel method for implementation of TiOx thin-films as electron-transport layer in organic...

  6. Influence of layer-by-layer assembled electrospun poly (L-lactic acid) nanofiber mats on the bioactivity of endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Keke; Zhang, Xiazhi; Yang, Wufeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Jiao, Yanpeng, E-mail: tjiaoyp@jnu.edu.cn; Zhou, Changren

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Layer-by-layer assembled PLLA nanofiber mats were successfully prepared. • The modified PLLA nanofiber mats enhanced the adhesion, proliferation of endothelial cells. • The modified PLLA nanofiber mats had inhibited the inflammatory response to some extent. - Abstract: Electrospun poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofiber mats were successfully modified by deposition of multilayers with chitosan (CS), heparin (Hep) and graphene oxide (GO) through electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly method. In this study, the surface properties of PLLA nanofiber mats before and after modification were investigated via scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), attenuated total reflectance fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement. In addition, the cytocompatibility of the modified PLLA nanofiber mats were investigated by testing endothelial cells compatibility, including cell attachment, cell proliferation and cell cycle. The results revealed that the surfaces of modified PLLA nanofiber mats become much rougher, stifiness and the hydrophilicity of the LBL modified PLLA nanofiber mats were improved compared to original PLLA one. Moreover, the modified PLLA nanofiber mats had promoted the endothelial cells viability attachment significantly. Besides, we studied the PLLA nanofiber mats on the expression of necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukine-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in endothelial cells. The results showed that modified PLLA nanofiber mats had inhibited the inflammatory response to some extent.

  7. Mechanical behaviour of PEM fuel cell catalyst layers during regular cell operation

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2010-01-01

    Damage mechanisms in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are accelerated by mechanical stresses arising during fuel cell assembly (bolt assembling), and the stresses arise during fuel cell running, because it consists of the materials with different thermal expansion and swelling coefficients. Therefore, in order to acquire a complete understanding of the mechanical behaviour of the catalyst layers during regular cell operation, mechanical response under steady-state hygro-thermal stresses s...

  8. Thin Film Catalyst Layers for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, C. K.; Chun, W.; Ruiz, R.; Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary obstacles to the widespread use of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is the high cost of the catalyst. Therefore, reducing the catalyst loading well below the current level of 8-12 mg/cm 2 would be important to commercialization. The current methods for preparation of catalyst layers consisting of catalyst, ionomer and sometimes a hydrophobic additive are applied by either painting, spraying, decal transfer or screen printing processes. Sputter deposition is a coating technique widely used in manufacturing and therefore particularly attractive. In this study we have begun to explore sputtering as a method for catalyst deposition. Present experiments focus on Pt-Ru catalyst layers for the anode.

  9. YKL-40 is differentially expressed in human embryonic stem cells and in cell progeny of the three germ layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Johansen, Julia S; Larsen, Lars A; Bak, Mads; Mikkelsen, Hanne B; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2012-03-01

    The secreted glycoprotein YKL-40 participates in cell differentiation, inflammation, and cancer progression. High YKL-40 expression is reported during early human development, but its functions are unknown. Six human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines were cultured in an atmosphere of low or high oxygen tension, in culture medium with or without basic fibroblast growth factor, and on feeder layers comprising mouse embryonic fibroblasts or human foreskin fibroblasts to evaluate whether hESCs and their progeny produced YKL-40 and to characterize YKL-40 expression during differentiation. Secreted YKL-40 protein and YKL-40 mRNA expression were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative RT-PCR. Serial-sectioned colonies were stained for YKL-40 protein and for pluripotent hESC (OCT4, NANOG) and germ layer (HNF-3β, PDX1, CD34, p63, nestin, PAX6) markers. Double-labeling showed YKL-40 expression in OCT4-positive hESCs, PAX6-positive neuroectodermal cells, and HNF-3β-positive endodermal cells. The differentiating progeny showed strong YKL-40 expression. Abrupt transition between YKL-40 and OCT4-positive hESCs and YKL-40-positive ecto- and neuroectodermal lineages was observed within the same epithelial-like layer. YKL-40-positive cells within deeper layers lacked contact with OCT4-positive cells. YKL-40 may be important in initial cell differentiation from hESCs toward ectoderm and neuroectoderm, with retained epithelial morphology, whereas later differentiation into endoderm and mesoderm involves a transition into the deeper layers of the colony.

  10. Thermal Boundary Layer Effects on Line-of-Sight Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) Gas Concentration Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhechao; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2018-06-01

    The effects of thermal boundary layers on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement results must be quantified when using the line-of-sight (LOS) TDLAS under conditions with spatial temperature gradient. In this paper, a new methodology based on spectral simulation is presented quantifying the LOS TDLAS measurement deviation under conditions with thermal boundary layers. The effects of different temperature gradients and thermal boundary layer thickness on spectral collisional widths and gas concentration measurements are quantified. A CO 2 TDLAS spectrometer, which has two gas cells to generate the spatial temperature gradients, was employed to validate the simulation results. The measured deviations and LOS averaged collisional widths are in very good agreement with the simulated results for conditions with different temperature gradients. We demonstrate quantification of thermal boundary layers' thickness with proposed method by exploitation of the LOS averaged the collisional width of the path-integrated spectrum.

  11. Effect of thermal annealing treatment with titanium chelate on buffer layer in inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhiyong [College of Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Wang, Ning, E-mail: ning_wang@outlook.com [School of Electrical and Electronic and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University 639798 (Singapore); Fu, Yan, E-mail: 1060945062@qq.com [College of Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The TIPD layer as electron extraction layer and instead of Ca or LiF. • Impact of the work function of TIPD layer by thermal annealing treatment. • Importance of TIPD layer as electron extraction layer for work function and potential barrier. - Abstract: The solution processable electron extraction layer (EEL) is crucial for polymer solar cells (PSCs). Here, we investigated titanium (diisopropoxide) bis(2,4-pentanedionate) (TIPD) as an EEL and fabricated inverted PSCs with a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) acting as the photoactive layer, with a structure of ITO/TIPD/P3HT:ICBA/MoO{sub 3}/Ag. After thermal annealing treatment at 150 °C for 15 min, the PSC performances increased from 3.85% to 6.84% and they achieve stable power conversion efficiency (PCE), with a similar PCE compared with TiO{sub 2} as an EEL by the vacuum evaporated method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) confirmed that the TIPD decomposed and formed the Ti=O bond, and the energy level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital increased. The space charge limited current (SCLC) measurements further confirmed the improvement in electron collection and the transport ability using TIPD as the EEL and thermal annealing.

  12. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of inverted pyramid-based nanostructured black-silicon solar cells passivated by an atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhang, David Wei

    2015-10-07

    Inverted pyramid-based nanostructured black-silicon (BS) solar cells with an Al2O3 passivation layer grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been demonstrated. A multi-scale textured BS surface combining silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and inverted pyramids was obtained for the first time by lithography and metal catalyzed wet etching. The reflectance of the as-prepared BS surface was about 2% lower than that of the more commonly reported upright pyramid-based SiNW BS surface over the whole of the visible light spectrum, which led to a 1.7 mA cm(-2) increase in short circuit current density. Moreover, the as-prepared solar cells were further passivated by an ALD-Al2O3 layer. The effect of annealing temperature on the photovoltaic performance of the solar cells was investigated. It was found that the values of all solar cell parameters including short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and fill factor exhibit a further increase under an optimized annealing temperature. Minority carrier lifetime measurements indicate that the enhanced cell performance is due to the improved passivation quality of the Al2O3 layer after thermal annealing treatments. By combining these two refinements, the optimized SiNW BS solar cells achieved a maximum conversion efficiency enhancement of 7.6% compared to the cells with an upright pyramid-based SiNWs surface and conventional SiNx passivation.

  13. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

    2013-08-27

    A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

  14. Layer-by-Layer Heparinization of the Cell Surface by Using Heparin-Binding Peptide Functionalized Human Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guowei; Hu, Yaning; Liu, Yusheng; Jiang, Rui

    2018-05-20

    Layer-by-layer heparinization of therapeutic cells prior to transplantation is an effective way to inhibit the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reactions (IBMIRs), which are the major cause of early cell graft loss during post-transplantation. Here, a conjugate of heparin-binding peptide (HBP) and human serum albumin (HSA), HBP-HSA, was synthesized by using heterobifunctional crosslinker. After the first heparin layer was coated on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by means of the HBP-polyethylene glycol-phospholipid conjugate, HBP-HSA and heparin were then applied to the cell surface sequentially to form multiple layers. The immobilization and retention of heparin were analyzed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively, and the cytotoxity of HBP-HSA was further evaluated by cell viability assay. Results indicated that heparin was successfully introduced to the cell surface in a layer-by-layer way and retained for at least 24 h, while the cytotoxity of HBP-HSA was negligible at the working concentration. Accordingly, this conjugate provides a promising method for co-immobilization of heparin and HSA to the cell surface under physiological conditions with improved biocompatibility.

  15. Ambient Layer-by-Layer ZnO Assembly for Highly Efficient Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed Samir; El Labban, Abdulrahman; Cruciani, Federico; Usman, Anwar; Beaujuge, Pierre; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of metal oxide interlayers in polymer solar cells has great potential because metal oxides are abundant, thermally stable, and can be used in fl exible devices. Here, a layer-by-layer (LbL) protocol is reported as a facile, room

  16. Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of TiO2 compact layers for flexible mesostructured perovskite solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zardetto, V.; Di Giacomo, F.; Lucarelli, G.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Brown, T.M.; Creatore, M.

    2017-01-01

    In mesostructured perovskite solar cell devices, charge recombination processes at the interface between the transparent conductive oxide, perovskite and hole transport layer are suppressed by depositing an efficient compact TiO2 blocking layer. In this contribution we investigate the role of the

  17. Shipborne measurements of mercury in the marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerensen, A. L.; Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Glasius, M.; Soerensen, B. T.; Steffen, A.; Jensen, B.; Christoffersen, C.; Madsen, H. W.; Johnson, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury accumulates in the human body, for example when consumed through fish and other aquatic animals. While it is poisonous to adults, only low doses are sufficient to cause severe effects in the development of foetuses where the source of mercury is through the mother's blood. From once being a problem restricted to certain populations, the negative effects of mercury consumption are becoming a global problem due to high anthropogenic emissions, long range transport in the atmosphere and bioaccumulation in the food chain after deposition. It is therefore important to understand the atmospheric photochemical pathways of mercury from source to sink. We have used a TEKRAN 2537A mercury vapor analyzer with a TEKRAN 1130 mercury speciation unit to measure gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) during an eight month circumnavigation of the Earth. This is the longest single track time series of mercury concentrations that we know of. This has offered the opportunity to give a global overview of the marine boundary layer (MBL) distribution of both GEM and RGM. Supplemented with earlier cruise measurements, we now have a broader knowledge of global GEM and RGM concentration in the MBL. The Galathea 3 cruise data offers new knowledge of the mechanisms causing the distribution patterns of GEM and RGM in the MBL. The first analysis of the Galathea 3 data indicates that measurements show a concentration difference between the northern and the southern hemispheres. In the northern hemisphere, the mean concentration in the free ocean is 2.06 ng/m3 and, including values down wind of Western Europe, an average value of 2.47 ng/m3 was found. Measurements in the southern hemisphere show a mean concentration of 1.24 ng/m3 and 1.57 ng/m3 where values close to the coast of West Africa are included. In contrast, the concentration levels of RGM are similar for the two hemispheres (northern hemisphere 3.40 pg/m3, southern hemisphere 3.95 pg/m3). Some

  18. Hot Wire Measurements in a Axisymmetric Shear Layer with Swirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, D.; Pollard, A.

    1996-11-01

    It is well known that the introduction of swirl in an axisymmetric jet can influence the development of and mixing in the near field of the jet. Recent efforts to compute this flow have demonstrated that the development of the near field is dependent on parameters at the jet outlet other than distribution of the swirl component, such as the distribution the mean radial velocity (Xai, J.L., Smith, B.L., Benim, A. C., Schmidli, J., and Yadigaroglu, G. (1996) Influence of Boundary Conditions on Swirling Flow in Combustors, Proc. ASME Fluid. Eng. Div. Summer Meeting), San Diego, Ca., July 7-11.. An experimental rig has been designed to produce co-axial round and annular swirling jets with uniform outlet conditions in each flow. The flow rate and swirl component from each of these jets can be controlled independently and the rig can be configured to produce both co- and counter-swirling flows. Thus, the rig can be used to carry out an extensive investigation of the effect of swirl on the development of axisymmetric flows. The key design features of the rig and the first sets of hot-wire measurements in the shear layer will be reported here.

  19. Investigation of ITO layers for application as transparent contacts in flexible photovoltaic cell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znajdek, Katarzyna; Sibiński, Maciej

    2013-07-01

    In this paper authors present the mechanical, optical and electrical parameters of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Transparent Conductive Layers (TCL) deposited on flexible substrate. Layers' properties are analyzed and verified. Investigated Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) was deposited, using magnetron sputtering method. Flexible polymer PET (polyethylene terephthalate) foil was used as a substrate, in order to photovoltaic (PV) cell's emitter contact application of investigated material. ITO-coated PET foils have been dynamically bent on numerous cylinders of various diameters according to the standard requirements. Resistance changes for each measured sample were measured and recorded during bending cycle. Thermal durability, as well as temperature influence on resistance and optical transmission are verified. Presented results were conducted to verify practical suitability and to evaluate possible applications of Indium Tin Oxide as a front contact in flexible photovoltaic cell structures.

  20. Multifunctional MgO Layer in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xudong; Dong, Haopeng; Li, Wenzhe; Li, Nan; Wang, Liduo

    2015-06-08

    A multifunctional magnesium oxide (MgO) layer was successfully introduced into perovskite solar cells (PSCs) to enhance their performance. MgO was coated onto the surface of mesoporous TiO(2) by the decomposition of magnesium acetate and, therefore, could block contact between the perovskite and TiO(2). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy showed that the amount of H(2)O/hydroxyl absorbed on the TiO(2) decreased after MgO modification. The UV/Vis absorption spectra of the perovskite with MgO modification revealed an enhanced photoelectric performance compared with that of unmodified perovskite after UV illumination. In addition to the photocurrent, the photovoltage and fill factor also showed an enhancement after modification, which resulted in an increase in the overall efficiency of the cell from 9.6 to 13.9 %. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) confirmed that MgO acts as an insulating layer to reduce charge recombination. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Human Chorioretinal Layer Thicknesses Measured in Macula-wide, High-Resolution Histologic Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Sloan, Kenneth R.; Mitra, Arnab; McGwin, Gerald; Spaide, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To provide a comprehensive description of chorioretinal layer thicknesses in the normal human macula, including two-layer pairs that can produce a combined signal in some optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices (ganglion cell [GCL] and inner plexiform [IPL] layers and outer plexiform [OPL] and outer nuclear [ONL] layers). Methods. In 0.8-μm-thick, macula-wide sections through the foveola of 18 donors (age range, 40–92 years), 21 layers were measured at 25 locations by a trained observer and validated by a second observer. Tissue volume changes were assessed by comparing total retinal thickness in ex vivo OCT and in sections. Results. Median tissue shrinkage was 14.5% overall and 29% in the fovea. Histologic laminar boundaries resembled those in SD-OCT scans, but the shapes of the foveolar OPL and ONL differed. Histologic GCL, IPL, and OPLHenle were thickest at 0.8. to 1, 1.5, and 0.4 mm eccentricity, respectively. ONL was thickest in an inward bulge at the foveal center. At 1 mm eccentricity, GCL, INL, and OPLHenle represented 17.3% to 21.1%, 18.0% to 18.5%, and 14.2% to 16.6% of total retinal thickness, respectively. In donors ≥70 years of age, the RPE and choroid were 17.1% and 29.6% thinner and OPLHenle was 20.8% thicker than in donors macula were generated. Newer OCT systems can separate GCL from IPL and OPLHenle from ONL, with good agreement for the proportion of retinal thickness occupied by OPLHenle in OCT and histology. The thickening of OPLHenle in older eyes may reflect Müller cell hypertrophy associated with rod loss. PMID:21421869

  2. Formation of convective cells in the scrape-off layer of the Castor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckel, J.; Hron, M.; Adamek, J.; Brotankova, J.; Dejarnac, R.; Duran, I.; Panek, R.; Stejskal, P.; Zacek, F.; Devynck, P.; Gunn, J.; Martines, E.; Bonhomme, G.; Van Oost, G.; Hansen, T.; Gorler, T.; Svoboda, V.

    2004-01-01

    We describe experiments with a biased electrode inserted into the scrape-off layer (SOL) of the CASTOR tokamak. The resulting radial and poloidal electric field and plasma density modification are measured by means of Langmuir probe arrays with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Poloidally and radially localized stationary structures of the electric field (convective cells) are identified and a related significant modification of the particle transport in the SOL is observed. (authors)

  3. Utilization of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as feeder layers to sustain propagation of human embryonic stem cells in the undifferentiated state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kehua; Cai, Zhe; Li, Yang; Shu, Jun; Pan, Lin; Wan, Fang; Li, Hong; Huang, Xiaojie; He, Chun; Liu, Yanqiu; Cui, Xiaohui; Xu, Yang; Gao, Yan; Wu, Liqun; Cao, Shanxia; Li, Lingsong

    2011-08-01

    Human embryonic stem (ES) cells are usually maintained in the undifferentiated state by culturing on feeder cells layers of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). However, MEFs are not suitable to support human ES cells used for clinical purpose because of risk of zoonosis from animal cells. Therefore, human tissue-based feeder layers need to be developed for human ES cells for clinical purpose. Hereof we report that human amniotic mesenchymal cells (hAMCs) could act as feeder cells for human ES cells, because they are easily obtained and relatively exempt from ethical problem. Like MEFs, hAMCs could act as feeder cells for human ES cells to grow well on. The self-renewal rate of human ES cells cultured on hAMCs feeders was higher than that on MEFs and human amniotic epithelial cells determined by measurement of colonial diameters and growth curve as well as cell cycle analysis. Both immunofluorescence staining and immunoblotting showed that human ES cells cultured on hAMCs expressed stem cell markers such as Oct-3/4, Sox2, and NANOG. Verified by embryoid body formation in vitro and teratoma formation in vivo, we found out that after 20 passages of culture, human ES cells grown on hAMCs feeders could still retain the potency of differentiating into three germ layers. Taken together, our data suggested hAMCs may be safe feeder cells to sustain the propagation of human ES cells in undifferentiated state for future therapeutic use.

  4. Irradiated murine fibroblasts as feeder layer used in human cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Tiago L.; Klingbeil, Fatima G.; Yoshito, Daniele; Caproni, Priscila; Mathor, Monica B.; Herson, Marisa R.

    2007-01-01

    In 1975, Rheinwald and Green published an in vitro model for keratinocyte cell cultures in which the use of murine fibroblasts, as a feeder layer was introduced. These cells are modified fibroblasts, which presence render keratinocyte cells to remain proliferative for longer periods of time. This optimization of culture outputs has allowed for several clinical applications of confluent keratinocyte cultures as skin substitutes or wound dressings in situations such as post burn extensive skin loss, loss of oral mucosa, and other skin disorders. Nevertheless, proliferation of fibroblast in co-culture with keratinocytes must be controlled by anti-proliferative measures such as irradiation; at the same time, keratinocytes require specific nutrients in the culture medium, which may interfere with the fibroblast feeder layer viability. Therefore, the thorough understanding of the impact of different issues such as culture media composition, irradiation dose and pre-plating storage conditions of irradiated fibroblast to be used as feeder layer in these co-culture systems is important. In this work, changes as far as viability and proliferative rates of irradiated fibroblasts in culture were evaluated in relation to the type of culture medium used, dose of gamma radiation exposure, storage and timing of cell plating post irradiation. Results indicate that the type of culture medium used and time-lag between irradiation, refrigeration and plating of irradiated cells do not have significant impact in culture outcomes. However, the dose of gamma radiation administered to the cells may influence the final quality of these cells if to be used as a feeder layer. (author)

  5. Development of examination technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, D. S.; Park, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Seo, H. S.; Min, D. K.; Kim, E. K.; Chun, Y. B.; Bang, K. S.

    1999-06-01

    Technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods was developed to measure oxide layer thickness and study characteristic of fuel rods. Oxide layer thickness of irradiated fuels were measured, analyzed. Outer oxide layer thickness of 3 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were 20 - 30 μm, inner oxide layer thickness 0 - 10 μm and inner oxide layer thickness on cracked cladding about 30 μm. Oxide layer thickness of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were about 2 times as thick as those of 1 cycle-irradiated fuel rods. Oxide layer on lower region of irradiated fuel rods was thin and oxide layer from lower region to upper region indicated gradual increase in thickness. Oxide layer thickness from 2500 to 3000 mm showed maximum and oxide layer thickness from 3000 to top region of irradiated fuel rods showed decreasing trend. Inner oxide layer thicknesses of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rod were about 8 μm at 750 - 3500 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. Outer oxide layer thickness were about 8 μm at 750 - 1000 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel. Oxide layer thickness technique will apply safety evaluation and study of reactor fuels. (author). 6 refs., 14 figs

  6. Efficient organic photovoltaic cells on a single layer graphene transparent conductive electrode using MoOx as an interfacial layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J H; Jin, H; Zhang, Z K; Zhang, D D; Jia, S; Ma, L P; Ren, W C; Cheng, H M; Burn, P L

    2017-01-07

    The large surface roughness, low work function and high cost of transparent electrodes using multilayer graphene films can limit their application in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Here, we develop single layer graphene (SLG) films as transparent anodes for OPV cells that contain light-absorbing layers comprised of the evaporable molecular organic semiconductor materials, zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc)/fullerene (C60), as well as a molybdenum oxide (MoO x ) interfacial layer. In addition to an increase in the optical transmittance, the SLG anodes had a significant decrease in surface roughness compared to two and four layer graphene (TLG and FLG) anodes fabricated by multiple transfer and stacking of SLGs. Importantly, the introduction of a MoO x interfacial layer not only reduced the energy barrier between the graphene anode and the active layer, but also decreased the resistance of the SLG by nearly ten times. The OPV cells with the structure of polyethylene terephthalate/SLG/MoO x /CuI/ZnPc/C60/bathocuproine/Al were flexible, and had a power conversion efficiency of up to 0.84%, which was only 17.6% lower than the devices with an equivalent structure but prepared on commercial indium tin oxide anodes. Furthermore, the devices with the SLG anode were 50% and 86.7% higher in efficiency than the cells with the TLG and FLG anodes. These results show the potential of SLG electrodes for flexible and wearable OPV cells as well as other organic optoelectronic devices.

  7. Effects of different feeder layers on culture of bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Shan; Cao, Guifang; Liu, Dongjun

    2014-12-01

    To find a suitable feeder layer is important for successful culture conditions of bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells. In this study, expression of pluripotency-related genes OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG in bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers at 1-5 passages were monitored in order to identify the possible reason that bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells could not continue growth and passage. Here, we developed two novel feeder layers, mixed embryonic fibroblast feeder layers of mouse and bovine embryonic fibroblast at different ratios and sources including mouse fibroblast cell lines. The bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells generated in our study displayed typical stem cell morphology and expressed specific markers such as OCT4, stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 and 4, alkaline phosphatase, SOX2, and NANOG mRNA levels. When feeder layers and cell growth factors were removed, the bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells formed embryoid bodies in a suspension culture. Furthermore, we compared the expression of the pluripotent markers during bovine embryonic stem cell-like cell in culture on mixed embryonic fibroblast feeder layers, including mouse fibroblast cell lines feeder layers and mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results suggested that mixed embryonic fibroblast and sources including mouse fibroblast cell lines feeder layers were more suitable for long-term culture and growth of bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells than mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers. The findings may provide useful experimental data for the establishment of an appropriate culture system for bovine embryonic stem cell lines.

  8. Application of various surface passivation layers in solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Youn; Lee, Soo Hong

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we have used different techniques for surface passivation: conventional thermal oxidation (CTO), rapid thermal oxidation (RTO), and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The surface passivation qualities of eight different single and combined double layers have been investigated both on phosphorus non-diffused p-type Float Zone (FZ) silicon wafers and on diffused emitters (100 Ω/□ and 40 Ω/□). CTO/SiN 1 passivates very well not only on a non-diffused surface (τ eff = 1361 μs) but also on an emitter (τ eff = 414 μs). However, we concluded that RTO/SiN 1 and RTO/SiN 2 stacks were more suitable than CTO/SiN stacks for surface passivation in solar cells since those stacks had relatively good passivation qualities and suitable optical reflections. RTO/SiN 1 for rear-surface passivation and RTO/SiN 2 for front-surface passivation were applied to the fabrication of solar cells. We achieved efficiencies of 18.5 % and 18.8 % on 0.5 Ω-cm (FZ) silicon with planar and textured front surfaces, respectively. An excellent open circuit voltage (V oc ) of 675.6 mV was obtained for the planar cell.

  9. Photonic intermediate layer for silicon tandem solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielawny, Andreas; Miclea, Paul-Tiberiu; Wehrspohn, Ralf [Martin-Luther Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik, Mikro-MD; Lee, Seuong-Mo; Knez, Mato [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany); Carius, Reinhard [Forschungszentrum Juelich (DE). Inst. fuer Photovoltaik (IEF-5); Lisca, Marian; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lederer, Falk [Universitaet Jena (Germany). Dept. Physik

    2008-07-01

    The concept of incorporation of a 3D photonic crystal as diffractive spectral filter within a-Si/mc-Si tandem solar cells has been investigated as a promising application. Our intermediate reflective filter enhances the pathway of spectrally selected light within an amorphous silicon top cell in its spectral region of low absorption. From our previous work, we expect a significant improvement of the tandem's efficiency of about 1.2%(absolute). This increases efficiency for a typical silicon tandem cell from 11.2% to 12.4%, as a result of the optical current-matching of the two junctions. Our wavelength-selective optical element is a 3D-structured optical thin-film - prepared by self-organized artificial opal templates and finalized with atomic layer deposition techniques. The resulting samples are highly periodical thin-film inverted opals made of zinc-oxide. We compare recent experimental data on the optical properties with our simulations and photonic bandstructure calculations.

  10. Modified Back Contact Interface of CZTSe Thin Film Solar Cells: Elimination of Double Layer Distribution in Absorber Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaojing; Yao, Liyong; Zhang, Yi; Ao, Jianping; Bi, Jinlian; Gao, Shoushuai; Gao, Qing; Jeng, Ming-Jer; Sun, Guozhong; Zhou, Zhiqiang; He, Qing; Sun, Yun

    2018-02-01

    Double layer distribution exists in Cu 2 SnZnSe 4 (CZTSe) thin films prepared by selenizing the metallic precursors, which will degrade the back contact of Mo substrate to absorber layer and thus suppressing the performance of solar cell. In this work, the double-layer distribution of CZTSe film is eliminated entirely and the formation of MoSe 2 interfacial layer is inhibited successfully. CZTSe film is prepared by selenizing the precursor deposited by electrodeposition method under Se and SnSe x mixed atmosphere. It is found that the insufficient reaction between ZnSe and Cu-Sn-Se phases in the bottom of the film is the reason why the double layer distribution of CZTSe film is formed. By increasing Sn content in the metallic precursor, thus making up the loss of Sn because of the decomposition of CZTSe and facilitate the diffusion of liquid Cu 2 Se, the double layer distribution is eliminated entirely. The crystallization of the formed thin film is dense and the grains go through the entire film without voids. And there is no obvious MoSe 2 layer formed between CZTSe and Mo. As a consequence, the series resistance of the solar cell reduces significantly to 0.14 Ω cm 2 and a CZTSe solar cell with efficiency of 7.2% is fabricated.

  11. Enhancement of device performance of organic solar cells by an interfacial perylene derivative layer

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Inho; Haverinen, Hanna M.; Li, Jian; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2010-01-01

    We report that device performance of organic solar cells consisting of zinc phthalocyanine and fullerene (C60) can be enhanced by insertion of a perylene derivative interfacial layer between fullerene and bathocuproine (BCP) exciton blocking layer

  12. Effect of Al 2 O 3 Recombination Barrier Layers Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition in Solid-State CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Roelofs, Katherine E.

    2013-03-21

    Despite the promise of quantum dots (QDs) as a light-absorbing material to replace the dye in dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) efficiencies remain low, due in part to high rates of recombination. In this article, we demonstrate that ultrathin recombination barrier layers of Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition can improve the performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with spiro-OMeTAD as the solid-state hole transport material. We explored depositing the Al2O3 barrier layers either before or after the QDs, resulting in TiO2/Al2O3/QD and TiO 2/QD/Al2O3 configurations. The effects of barrier layer configuration and thickness were tracked through current-voltage measurements of device performance and transient photovoltage measurements of electron lifetimes. The Al2O3 layers were found to suppress dark current and increase electron lifetimes with increasing Al 2O3 thickness in both configurations. For thin barrier layers, gains in open-circuit voltage and concomitant increases in efficiency were observed, although at greater thicknesses, losses in photocurrent caused net decreases in efficiency. A close comparison of the electron lifetimes in TiO2 in the TiO2/Al2O3/QD and TiO2/QD/Al2O3 configurations suggests that electron transfer from TiO2 to spiro-OMeTAD is a major source of recombination in ss-QDSSCs, though recombination of TiO2 electrons with oxidized QDs can also limit electron lifetimes, particularly if the regeneration of oxidized QDs is hindered by a too-thick coating of the barrier layer. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Translocation of Cell Penetrating Peptide Engrafted Nanoparticles Across Skin Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Ram R; Desai, Pinaki; Belay, Kalayu; Singh, Mandip

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the ability of cell penetrating peptides (CPP) to translocate the lipid payload into the skin layers. Fluorescent dye (DID-oil) encapsulated nano lipid crystal nanoparticles (FNLCN) were prepared using Compritol, Miglyol and DOGS-NTA-Ni lipids by hot melt homogenization technique. The FNLCN surface was coated with TAT peptide (FNLCNT) or control YKA peptide (FNLCNY) and in vitro rat skin permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. Observation of lateral skin sections obtained using cryotome with a confocal microscope demonstrated that skin permeation of FNLCNT was time dependent and after 24 h, fluorescence was observed upto a depth of 120 µm which was localized in the hair follicles and epidermis. In case of FNLCN and FNLCNY formulations fluorescence was mainly observed in the hair follicles. This observation was further supported by confocal Raman spectroscopy where higher fluorescence signal intensity was observed at 80 and 120 µm depth with FNLCNT treated skin and intensity of fluorescence peaks was in the ratio of 2:1:1 and 5:3:1 for FNLCNT, FNLCN, and FNLCNY treated skin sections, respectively. Furthermore, replacement of DID-oil with celecoxib (Cxb), a model lipophilic drug showed similar results and after 24 h, the CXBNT formulation increased the Cxb concentration in SC by 3 and 6 fold and in epidermis by 2 and 3 fold as compared to CXBN and CXBNY formulations respectively. Our results strongly suggest that CPP can translocate nanoparticles with their payloads into deeper skin layers. PMID:20413152

  14. Epitaxially grown polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on solid-phase crystallised seed layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili.unsw@gmail.com; Varlamov, Sergey; Xue, Chaowei

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Crystallisation kinetic is used to analyse seed layer surface cleanliness. • Simplified RCA cleaning for the seed layer can shorten the epitaxy annealing duration. • RTA for the seed layer can improve the quality for both seed layer and epi-layer. • Epitaxial poly-Si solar cell performance is improved by RTA treated seed layer. - Abstract: This paper presents the fabrication of poly-Si thin film solar cells on glass substrates using seed layer approach. The solid-phase crystallised P-doped seed layer is not only used as the crystalline template for the epitaxial growth but also as the emitter for the solar cell structure. This paper investigates two important factors, surface cleaning and intragrain defects elimination for the seed layer, which can greatly influence the epitaxial grown solar cell performance. Shorter incubation and crystallisation time is observed using a simplified RCA cleaning than the other two wet chemical cleaning methods, indicating a cleaner seed layer surface is achieved. Cross sectional transmission microscope images confirm a crystallographic transferal of information from the simplified RCA cleaned seed layer into the epi-layer. RTA for the SPC seed layer can effectively eliminate the intragrain defects in the seed layer and improve structural quality of both of the seed layer and the epi-layer. Consequently, epitaxial grown poly-Si solar cell on the RTA treated seed layer shows better solar cell efficiency, V{sub oc} and J{sub sc} than the one on the seed layer without RTA treatment.

  15. YKL-40 is differentially expressed in human embryonic stem cells and in cell progeny of the three germ layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Johansen, Julia S; Larsen, Lars A

    2012-01-01

    oxygen tension, in culture medium with or without basic fibroblast growth factor, and on feeder layers comprising mouse embryonic fibroblasts or human foreskin fibroblasts to evaluate whether hESCs and their progeny produced YKL-40 and to characterize YKL-40 expression during differentiation. Secreted......The secreted glycoprotein YKL-40 participates in cell differentiation, inflammation, and cancer progression. High YKL-40 expression is reported during early human development, but its functions are unknown. Six human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines were cultured in an atmosphere of low or high...... YKL-40 protein and YKL-40 mRNA expression were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative RT-PCR. Serial-sectioned colonies were stained for YKL-40 protein and for pluripotent hESC (OCT4, NANOG) and germ layer (HNF-3ß, PDX1, CD34, p63, nestin, PAX6) markers. Double...

  16. Ambient Layer-by-Layer ZnO Assembly for Highly Efficient Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed Samir

    2015-02-04

    The use of metal oxide interlayers in polymer solar cells has great potential because metal oxides are abundant, thermally stable, and can be used in fl exible devices. Here, a layer-by-layer (LbL) protocol is reported as a facile, room-temperature, solution-processed method to prepare electron transport layers from commercial ZnO nanoparticles and polyacrylic acid (PAA) with a controlled and tunable porous structure, which provides large interfacial contacts with the active layer. Applying the LbL approach to bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with an optimized ZnO layer thickness of H25 nm yields solar cell power-conversion effi ciencies (PCEs) of ≈6%, exceeding the effi ciency of amorphous ZnO interlayers formed by conventional sputtering methods. Interestingly, annealing the ZnO/PAA interlayers in nitrogen and air environments in the range of 60-300 ° C reduces the device PCEs by almost 20% to 50%, indicating the importance of conformational changes inherent to the PAA polymer in the LbL-deposited fi lms to solar cell performance. This protocol suggests a new fabrication method for solution-processed polymer solar cell devices that does not require postprocessing thermal annealing treatments and that is applicable to fl exible devices printed on plastic substrates.

  17. Capacitive Cells for Dielectric Constant Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco

    2015-01-01

    A simple capacitive cell for dielectric constant measurement in liquids is presented. As an illustrative application, the cell is used for measuring the degradation of overheated edible oil through the evaluation of their dielectric constant.

  18. Simulations, measurements, and optimization of OLEDs with scattering layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altazin, S.; Reynaud, C.; Mayer, U.M.; Lanz, T.; Lapagna, K.; Knaack, R.; Peninck, L.; Kirsch, C.; Pernstich, K.P.; Harkema, S.; Hermes, D.; Ruhstaller, B.

    2015-01-01

    A multi-scale optical model for organic light-emitting devices containing scattering layers is presented. This model describes the radiation of embedded oscillating dipoles and scattering from spherical particles. After successful model validation with experiments on a top-emitting white OLED, we

  19. Measuring Gene Expression in Bombarded Barley Aleurone Layers with Increased Throughput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwase, Grace; Enrico, Taylor P; Chelimo, David S; Keyser, Benjamin R; Johnson, Russell R

    2018-03-30

    The aleurone layer of barley grains is an important model system for hormone-regulated gene expression in plants. In aleurone cells, genes required for germination or early seedling development are activated by gibberellin (GA), while genes associated with stress responses are activated by abscisic acid (ABA). The mechanisms of GA and ABA signaling can be interrogated by introducing reporter gene constructs into aleurone cells via particle bombardment, with the resulting transient expression measured using enzyme assays. An improved protocol is reported that partially automates and streamlines the grain homogenization step and the enzyme assays, allowing significantly more throughput than existing methods. Homogenization of the grain samples is carried out using an automated tissue homogenizer, and GUS (β-glucuronidase) assays are carried out using a 96-well plate system. Representative results using the protocol suggest that phospholipase D activity may play an important role in the activation of HVA1 gene expression by ABA, through the transcription factor TaABF1.

  20. One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujwal K. Thakur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The electron diffusion length (Ln is smaller than the hole diffusion length (Lp in many halide perovskite semiconductors meaning that the use of ordered one-dimensional (1D structures such as nanowires (NWs and nanotubes (NTs as electron transport layers (ETLs is a promising method of achieving high performance halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs. ETLs consisting of oriented and aligned NWs and NTs offer the potential not merely for improved directional charge transport but also for the enhanced absorption of incoming light and thermodynamically efficient management of photogenerated carrier populations. The ordered architecture of NW/NT arrays affords superior infiltration of a deposited material making them ideal for use in HPSCs. Photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs as high as 18% have been demonstrated for HPSCs using 1D ETLs. Despite the advantages of 1D ETLs, there are still challenges that need to be overcome to achieve even higher PCEs, such as better methods to eliminate or passivate surface traps, improved understanding of the hetero-interface and optimization of the morphology (i.e., length, diameter, and spacing of NWs/NTs. This review introduces the general considerations of ETLs for HPSCs, deposition techniques used, and the current research and challenges in the field of 1D ETLs for perovskite solar cells.

  1. One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ujwal K.; Kisslinger, Ryan; Shankar, Karthik

    2017-01-01

    The electron diffusion length (Ln) is smaller than the hole diffusion length (Lp) in many halide perovskite semiconductors meaning that the use of ordered one-dimensional (1D) structures such as nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) as electron transport layers (ETLs) is a promising method of achieving high performance halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). ETLs consisting of oriented and aligned NWs and NTs offer the potential not merely for improved directional charge transport but also for the enhanced absorption of incoming light and thermodynamically efficient management of photogenerated carrier populations. The ordered architecture of NW/NT arrays affords superior infiltration of a deposited material making them ideal for use in HPSCs. Photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs) as high as 18% have been demonstrated for HPSCs using 1D ETLs. Despite the advantages of 1D ETLs, there are still challenges that need to be overcome to achieve even higher PCEs, such as better methods to eliminate or passivate surface traps, improved understanding of the hetero-interface and optimization of the morphology (i.e., length, diameter, and spacing of NWs/NTs). This review introduces the general considerations of ETLs for HPSCs, deposition techniques used, and the current research and challenges in the field of 1D ETLs for perovskite solar cells. PMID:28468280

  2. Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryo; Yamashita, Aichi; Hara, Hiroshi; Irifune, Tetsuo; Adachi, Shintaro; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2018-05-01

    Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped metallic diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layers have been developed for electrical transport measurements under high pressure. These designed diamonds were grown on a bottom diamond anvil via a nanofabrication process combining microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and electron beam lithography. The resistance measurements of a high-quality FeSe superconducting single crystal under high pressure were successfully demonstrated by just putting the sample and gasket on the bottom diamond anvil directly. The superconducting transition temperature of the FeSe single crystal was increased to up to 43 K by applying uniaxial-like pressure.

  3. Simple solution-processed CuO{sub X} as anode buffer layer for efficient organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wenfei [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Institute of Hybrid Materials, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yang, Chunpeng [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Bao, Xichang, E-mail: baoxc@qibebt.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Sun, Liang; Wang, Ning [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tang, Jianguo [Institute of Hybrid Materials, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Weichao [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Yang, Renqiang, E-mail: yangrq@qibebt.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Simple solution-processed CuO{sub X} hole transport layer for efficient organic solar cell. • Good photovoltaic performances as hole transport layer in OSCs with P3HT and PBDTTT-C as donor materials. • The device with CuO{sub X} as hole transport layer shows great improved stability compared with that of device with PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer. - Abstract: A simple, solution-processed ultrathin CuO{sub X} anode buffer layer was fabricated for high performance organic solar cells (OSCs). XPS measurement demonstrated that the CuO{sub X} was the composite of CuO and Cu{sub 2}O. The CuO{sub X} modified ITO glass exhibit a better surface contact with the active layer. The photovoltaic performance of the devices with CuO{sub X} layer was optimized by varying the thickness of CuO{sub X} films through changing solution concentration. With P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM as the active layer, we demonstrated an enhanced PCE of 4.14% with CuO{sub X} anode buffer layer, compared with that of PEDOT:PSS layer. The CuO{sub X} layer also exhibits efficient photovoltaic performance in devices with PBDTTT-C:PC{sub 71}BM as the active layer. The long-term stability of CuO{sub X} device is better than that of PEDOT:PSS device. The results indicate that the easy solution-processed CuO{sub X} film can act as an efficient anode buffer layer for high-efficiency OSCs.

  4. An optimized multilayer structure of CdS layer for CdTe solar cells application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Junfeng; Liao Cheng; Jiang Tao; Spanheimer, C.; Haindl, G.; Fu, Ganhua; Krishnakumar, V.; Zhao Kui; Klein, A.; Jaegermann, W.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Two different methods to prepare CdS films for CdTe solar cells. → A new multilayer structure of window layer for the CdTe solar cell. → Thinner CdS window layer for the solar cell than the standard CdS layer. → Higher performance of solar cells based on the new multilayer structure. - Abstract: CdS layers grown by 'dry' (close space sublimation) and 'wet' (chemical bath deposition) methods are deposited and analyzed. CdS prepared with close space sublimation (CSS) has better crystal quality, electrical and optical properties than that prepared with chemical bath deposition (CBD). The performance of CdTe solar cell based on the CSS CdS layer has higher efficiency than that based on CBD CdS layer. However, the CSS CdS suffers from the pinholes. And consequently it is necessary to prepare a 150 nm thin film for CdTe/CdS solar cell. To improve the performance of CdS/CdTe solar cells, a thin multilayer structure of CdS layer (∼80 nm) is applied, which is composed of a bottom layer (CSS CdS) and a top layer (CBD CdS). That bi-layer film can allow more photons to pass through it and significantly improve the short circuit current of the CdS/CdTe solar cells.

  5. Improved Efficiency of Polymer Solar Cells by means of Coating Hole Transporting Layer as Double Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonsut, T.; Kayunkid, N.; Rahong, S.; Rangkasikorn, A.; Wirunchit, S.; Kaewprajak, A.; Kumnorkaew, P.; Nukeaw, J.

    2017-09-01

    Polymer solar cells is one of the promising technologies that gain tremendous attentions in the field of renewable energy. Optimization of thickness for each layer is an important factor determining the efficiency of the solar cells. In this work, the optimum thickness of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythione): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), a famous polymer widely used as hole transporting layer in polymer solar cells, is determined through the analyzing of device’s photovoltaic parameters, e.g. short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF) as well as power conversion efficiency (PCE). The solar cells were prepared with multilayer of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PCDTBT:PC70BM/TiOx/Al by rapid convective deposition. In such preparation technique, the thickness of the thin film is controlled by the deposition speed. The faster deposition speed is used, the thicker film is obtained. Furthermore, double layer deposition of PEDOT:PSS was introduced as an approach to improve solar cell efficiency. The results obviously reveal that, with the increase of PEDOT:PSS thickness, the increments of Jsc and FF play the important role to improve PCE from 3.21% to 4.03%. Interestingly, using double layer deposition of PEDOT:PSS shows the ability to enhance the performance of the solar cells to 6.12% under simulated AM 1.5G illumination of 100 mW/cm2.

  6. Layer-by-layer buildup of polysaccharide-containing films: Physico-chemical properties and mesenchymal stem cells adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikouskaya, Viktoryia I; Pinchuk, Sergei V; Hileuskaya, Kseniya S; Kraskouski, Aliaksandr N; Vasilevich, Irina B; Matievski, Kirill A; Agabekov, Vladimir E; Volotovski, Igor D

    2018-03-22

    Layer-by-Layer assembled polyelectrolyte films offer the opportunity to control cell attachment and behavior on solid surfaces. In the present study, multilayer films based on negatively charged biopolymers (pectin, dextran sulfate, carboxymethylcellulose) and positively charged polysaccharide chitosan or synthetic polyelectrolyte polyethyleneimine has been prepared and evaluated. Physico-chemical properties of the formed multilayer films, including their growth, morphology, wettability, stability, and mechanical properties, have been studied. We demonstrated that chitosan-containing films are characterized by the linear growth, the defect-free surface, and predominantly viscoelastic properties. When chitosan is substituted for the polyethyleneimine in the multilayer system, the properties of the formed films are significantly altered: the rigidity and surface roughness increases, the film growth acquires the exponential character. The multilayer films were subsequently used for culturing mesenchymal stem cells. It has been determined that stem cells effectively adhered to chitosan-containing films and formed on them the monolayer culture of fibroblast-like cells with high viability. Our results show that cell attachment is a complex process which is not only governed by the surface functionality because one of the key parameter effects on cell adhesion is the stiffness of polyelectrolyte multilayer films. We therefore propose our Layer-by-Layer films for applications in tissue engineering. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing, between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection

  8. Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer and retinal nerve fibre layer changes within the macula in retinitis pigmentosa: a spectral domain optical coherence tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chang Ki; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2018-03-01

    To investigate how macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thicknesses within the macula change with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) severity. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to examine 177 patients with RP and 177 normal controls. An optical coherence tomography (OCT) line scan was used to grade RP severity. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) was categorized as more advanced if there was no identifiable inner segment ellipsoid (ISe) band (NISE) and as less advanced if an ISe band could be identified and peripheral loss of ISe was apparent (IISE). Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) and RNFL thicknesses were manually measured on OCT images and analysed. Pearson's correlation analyses were used to examine correlations between GCIPL thickness, RNFL thickness, visual acuity (VA) and visual field extent in patients and controls. Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) was significantly thicker in IISE than in control eyes (p layer (RNFL) was significantly thicker in eyes with IISE and NISE than in control eyes in both horizontal and vertical meridians (all p layer (GCIPL) thickness showed a weak positive correlation with vision, and RNFL thickness showed a weak negative correlation with vision and visual field extent. Based on these results, the inner retina, including the GCIPL and RNFL, maintains its gross integrity longer than the photoreceptor layer in RP. Additionally, thickening of the inner retina may have some functional implications in patients with RP. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Silicotungstate, a Potential Electron Transporting Layer for Low-Temperature Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Ho; Kim, Hyun Bin; Yang, In Seok; Sung, Sang Do; Choi, Young Sik; Kim, Jeongho; Lee, Wan In

    2017-08-02

    Thin films of a heteropolytungstate, lithium silicotungstate (Li 4 SiW 12 O 40 , termed Li-ST), prepared by a solution process at low temperature, were successfully applied as electron transporting layer (ETL) of planar-type perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Dense and uniform Li-ST films were prepared on FTO glass by depositing a thin Li-ST buffer layer, followed by coating of a main Li-ST layer. The film thickness was controlled by varying the number of coating cycles, consisting of spin-coating and thermal treatment at 150 °C. In particular, by employing 60 nm-thick Li-ST layer obtained by two cycles of coating, the fabricated CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 PSC device demonstrates the photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.26% with J SC of 22.16 mA cm -2 , V OC of 0.993 mV and FF of 64.81%. The obtained PCE is significantly higher than that of the PSC employing a TiO 2 layer processed at the same temperature (PCE = 12.27%). Spectroscopic analyses by time-resolved photoluminescence and pulsed light-induced transient measurement of photocurrent indicate that the Li-ST layer collects electrons from CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 more efficiently and also exhibits longer electron lifetime than the TiO 2 layer thermally treated at 150 °C. Thus, Li-ST is considered to be a promising ETL material that can be applied for the fabrication of flexible PSC devices.

  10. Thin layer activation technique applied to the measurement of wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, P [UKAEA Research Group, Harwell. Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    1978-01-01

    A thin layer of radioactive atoms is produced in the material by bombardment with charged particles, and as the material is worn away the total activity level is monitored. If the activity to depth relationship is then known the amount of material worn away can be determined. By a selective choice of the charged particle species and energy the depth of the active layer, its natural decay rate, and the energy of the emitted radiation can be pre-determined. The Harwell Tandem Electrostatic Generator has been found very suitable for the work. The total activity level can be made as little or as large as required, but a level around 5 to 10 microcuries is usually found to be adequate, and the active layer usually has a depth of 50 to 300 ..mu..m. The activated area can be from < 1 mm/sup 2/ to 4 cm/sup 2/. Particular reference is made to the production of /sup 56/Co in Fe. Experimental arrangements for the irradiation of components are described. Some practical applications undertaken by Harwell for industry are briefly mentioned, including wear of diesel engine valve seatings and fuel injection equipment, engine testing of lubricants, surface loss of rails and railway wheels, wear of gears, wear of graphite bearing materials, and corrosion and erosion of materials. 4 references.

  11. Conductive polymer layers to limit transfer of fuel reactants to catalysts of fuel cells to reduce reactant crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanis, Ronald J.; Lambert, Timothy N.

    2016-12-06

    An apparatus of an aspect includes a fuel cell catalyst layer. The fuel cell catalyst layer is operable to catalyze a reaction involving a fuel reactant. A fuel cell gas diffusion layer is coupled with the fuel cell catalyst layer. The fuel cell gas diffusion layer includes a porous electrically conductive material. The porous electrically conductive material is operable to allow the fuel reactant to transfer through the fuel cell gas diffusion layer to reach the fuel cell catalyst layer. The porous electrically conductive material is also operable to conduct electrons associated with the reaction through the fuel cell gas diffusion layer. An electrically conductive polymer material is coupled with the fuel cell gas diffusion layer. The electrically conductive polymer material is operable to limit transfer of the fuel reactant to the fuel cell catalyst layer.

  12. Effects of different feeder layers on culture of bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Cong, Shan; Cao, Guifang; Liu, Dongjun

    2014-01-01

    To find a suitable feeder layer is important for successful culture conditions of bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells. In this study, expression of pluripotency-related genes OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG in bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers at 1–5 passages were monitored in order to identify the possible reason that bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells could not continue growth and passage. Here, we developed two novel feeder layers, mixed embryonic ...

  13. Sol–gel derived scattering layers as substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegmann, Jan [Lehrstuhl für Chemische Technologie der Materialsynthese, Universität Würzburg, Röntgenring 11, 97070 Würzburg (Germany); Mandl, Magdalena [Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung, Neunerplatz 2, 97082 Würzburg (Germany); Löbmann, Peer, E-mail: peer.loebmann@isc.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung, Neunerplatz 2, 97082 Würzburg (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Agglomerated silica particles were coated on glass by dip-coating; the resulting films exhibited optical scattering. With constant optical transmittances > 80% their haze could be modified by the withdrawal rate applied for the respective deposition procedure. Film thickness, surface topography and coverage of the substrate were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. For the use in radiation management in thin-film silicon solar cells in a first step the scattering layers were coated with aluminum-doped zinc oxide by sputtering; the optical performance of the resulting bilayer was characterized by haze measurements and angle resolved scattering spectroscopy. Quantum efficiencies of complete solar cells could be determined after the deposition of a hydrogenated amorphous Si/hydrogenated microcrystalline Si tandem absorber and application of metallic back contacts. It turned out that the external quantum efficiency of the resulting cells is not directly related to the light scattering performance of the scattering layer used. - Highlights: • Characterization of sol–gel scattering layers • Combination of different coating-technologies to prepare stacks with optical functionality • Comprehensive material preparation and characterization for complex multilayer.

  14. Synthesis of active absorber layer by dip-coating method for perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Noor, I. M.; Singh, Pramod K.; Bhattacharya, B.; Arof, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we develop the hybrid perovskite-based n-i-p solar cell using a simple, fast and low-cost dip-coating method. Hot solution and the pre-annealed substrate are used for coating the perovskite thin film by this method this is further used for studying its structural and electrical properties. UV-vis spectroscopy is carried out for calculating the band gap of the hybrid perovskite layer which is ∼1.6 eV. X-ray spectroscopy confirms that the formation of hybrid perovskite layer. The profilometer is used to study the surface roughness and also for measuring the thickness of the perovskite layer with varying substrate temperature. The optimized sample was further used for cross-sectional SEM image to verify the thickness measured from the profiler. The electrical parameter of JV characteristic with varying temperature is tabulated in the table. Whereas, the perovskite sensitized solar cell exhibits highest short circuit current density, Jsc of 11 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage, Voc of 0.87 V, fill factor of 0.55 and efficiency, η of >5%.

  15. Organic photovoltaic cell incorporating electron conducting exciton blocking layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.

    2014-08-26

    The present disclosure relates to photosensitive optoelectronic devices including a compound blocking layer located between an acceptor material and a cathode, the compound blocking layer including: at least one electron conducting material, and at least one wide-gap electron conducting exciton blocking layer. For example, 3,4,9,10 perylenetetracarboxylic bisbenzimidazole (PTCBI) and 1,4,5,8-napthalene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (NTCDA) function as electron conducting and exciton blocking layers when interposed between the acceptor layer and cathode. Both materials serve as efficient electron conductors, leading to a fill factor as high as 0.70. By using an NTCDA/PTCBI compound blocking layer structure increased power conversion efficiency is achieved, compared to an analogous device using a conventional blocking layers shown to conduct electrons via damage-induced midgap states.

  16. Cellular interaction of a layer-by-layer based drug delivery system depending on material properties and cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckner, Mandy; Jankuhn, Steffen; Jülke, Eva-Maria; Reibetanz, Uta

    2018-01-01

    Drug delivery systems (DDS) and their interaction with cells are a controversial topic in the development of therapeutic concepts and approaches. On one hand, DDS are very useful for protected and targeted transport of defined dosages of active agents. On the other hand, their physicochemical properties such as material, size, shape, charge, or stiffness have a huge impact on cellular uptake and intracellular processing. Additionally, even identical DDS can undergo a completely diverse interaction with different cell types. However, quite often in in vitro DDS/cell interaction experiments, those aspects are not considered and DDS and cells are randomly chosen. Hence, our investigations provide an insight into layer-by-layer designed microcarriers with modifications of only some of the most important parameters (surface charge, stiffness, and applied microcarrier/cell ratio) and their influence on cellular uptake and viability. We also considered the interaction of these differently equipped DDS with several cell types and investigated professional phagocytes (neutrophil granulocytes; macrophages) as well as non-professional phagocytes (epithelial cells) under comparable conditions. We found that even small modifications such as layer-by-layer (LbL)-microcarriers with positive or negative surface charge, or LbL-microcarriers with solid core or as hollow capsules but equipped with the same surface properties, show significant differences in interaction and viability, and several cell types react very differently to the offered DDS. As a consequence, the properties of the DDS have to be carefully chosen with respect to the addressed cell type with the aim to efficiently transport a desired agent.

  17. Electrochemical Characterization of TiO 2 Blocking Layers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kavan, Ladislav; Té treault, Nicolas; Moehl, Thomas; Grä tzel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Thin compact layers of TiO2 are grown by thermal oxidation of Ti, by spray pyrolysis, by electrochemical deposition, and by atomic layer deposition. These layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells to prevent recombination of electrons from

  18. Fabrication of Polymer Solar Cells Using Aqueous Processing for All Layers Including the Metal Back Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar; Helgesen, Martin; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of printing all layers in polymer solar cells from aqueous solution are met by design of inks for the electron-, hole-, active-, and metallic back electrode-layers. The conversion of each layer to an insoluble state after printing enables multilayer formation from the same solvent...

  19. Electrochemically Produced Graphene for Microporous Layers in Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafabadi, Amin Taheri; Leeuwner, Magrieta J; Wilkinson, David P; Gyenge, Előd L

    2016-07-07

    The microporous layer (MPL) is a key cathodic component in proton exchange membrane fuel cells owing to its beneficial influence on two-phase mass transfer. However, its performance is highly dependent on material properties such as morphology, porous structure, and electrical resistance. To improve water management and performance, electrochemically exfoliated graphene (EGN) microsheets are considered as an alternative to the conventional carbon black (CB) MPLs. The EGN-based MPLs decrease the kinetic overpotential and the Ohmic potential loss, whereas the addition of CB to form a composite EGN+CB MPL improves the mass-transport limiting current density drastically. This is reflected by increases of approximately 30 and 70 % in peak power densities at 100 % relative humidity (RH) compared with those for CB- and EGN-only MPLs, respectively. The composite EGN+CB MPL also retains the superior performance at a cathode RH of 20 %, whereas the CB MPL shows significant performance loss. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Polymer coatings as separator layers for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.

    2011-03-01

    Membrane separators reduce oxygen flux from the cathode into the anolyte in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but water accumulation and pH gradients between the separator and cathode reduces performance. Air cathodes were spray-coated (water-facing side) with anion exchange, cation exchange, and neutral polymer coatings of different thicknesses to incorporate the separator into the cathode. The anion exchange polymer coating resulted in greater power density (1167 ± 135 mW m-2) than a cation exchange coating (439 ± 2 mW m-2). This power output was similar to that produced by a Nafion-coated cathode (1114 ± 174 mW m-2), and slightly lower than the uncoated cathode (1384 ± 82 mW m-2). Thicker coatings reduced oxygen diffusion into the electrolyte and increased coulombic efficiency (CE = 56-64%) relative to an uncoated cathode (29 ± 8%), but decreased power production (255-574 mW m-2). Electrochemical characterization of the cathodes ex situ to the MFC showed that the cathodes with the lowest charge transfer resistance and the highest oxygen reduction activity produced the most power in MFC tests. The results on hydrophilic cathode separator layers revealed a trade off between power and CE. Cathodes coated with a thin coating of anion exchange polymer show promise for controlling oxygen transfer while minimally affecting power production. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. TFB:TPDSi2 interfacial layer usable in organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Iobin J [Evanston, IL; Hains, Alexander W [Evanston, IL

    2011-02-15

    The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode; an active organic layer comprising an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material; and an interfacial layer formed between the anode and active organic layer, where the interfacial layer comprises a hole-transporting polymer characterized with a hole-mobility higher than that of the electron-donating organic material in the active organic layer, and a small molecule that has a high hole-mobility and is capable of crosslinking on contact with air.

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell cathode with oxygen-reducing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdoval, Wayne A.; Berry, David A.; Shultz, Travis

    2018-04-03

    The disclosure provides a SOFC comprised of an electrolyte, anode, and cathode, where the cathode comprises an MIEC and an oxygen-reducing layer. The oxygen-reducing layer is in contact with the MIEC, and the MIEC is generally between and separating the oxygen-reducing layer and the electrolyte. The oxygen-reducing layer is comprised of single element oxides, single element carbonates, or mixtures thereof, and has a thickness of less than about 30 nm. In a particular embodiment, the thickness is less than 5 nm. In another embodiment, the thickness is about 3 monolayers or less. The oxygen-reducing layer may be a continuous film or a discontinuous film with various coverage ratios. The oxygen-reducing layer at the thicknesses described may be generated on the MIEC surface using means known in the art such as, for example, ALD processes.

  3. Programming voltage reduction in phase change memory cells with tungsten trioxide bottom heating layer/electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Feng; Song Zhitang; Gong Yuefeng; Wu Liangcai; Feng Songlin; Chen, Bomy

    2008-01-01

    A phase change memory cell with tungsten trioxide bottom heating layer/electrode is investigated. The crystalline tungsten trioxide heating layer promotes the temperature rise in the Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 layer which causes the reduction in the reset voltage compared to a conventional phase change memory cell. Theoretical thermal simulation and calculation for the reset process are applied to understand the thermal effect of the tungsten trioxide heating layer/electrode. The improvement in thermal efficiency of the PCM cell mainly originates from the low thermal conductivity of the crystalline tungsten trioxide material.

  4. Influence of layer-by-layer assembled electrospun poly (L-lactic acid) nanofiber mats on the bioactivity of endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Keke; Zhang, Xiazhi; Yang, Wufeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Jiao, Yanpeng; Zhou, Changren

    2016-12-01

    Electrospun poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofiber mats were successfully modified by deposition of multilayers with chitosan (CS), heparin (Hep) and graphene oxide (GO) through electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly method. In this study, the surface properties of PLLA nanofiber mats before and after modification were investigated via scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), attenuated total reflectance fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement. In addition, the cytocompatibility of the modified PLLA nanofiber mats were investigated by testing endothelial cells compatibility, including cell attachment, cell proliferation and cell cycle. The results revealed that the surfaces of modified PLLA nanofiber mats become much rougher, stifiness and the hydrophilicity of the LBL modified PLLA nanofiber mats were improved compared to original PLLA one. Moreover, the modified PLLA nanofiber mats had promoted the endothelial cells viability attachment significantly. Besides, we studied the PLLA nanofiber mats on the expression of necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukine-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in endothelial cells. The results showed that modified PLLA nanofiber mats had inhibited the inflammatory response to some extent.

  5. Movement of beta-irradiated epidermal basal cells to the spinous-granular layers in the absence of cell division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etoh, H.; Taguchi, Y.H.; Tabachnick, J.

    1975-01-01

    Guinea-pig epidermis was irradiated with 3000 rad of beta rays 1 hr after two injections of [ 3 H]thymidine 5 hr apart (labeled cells in S phase and G 2 phase) or 18 hr after injection (labeled early G 1 cells). In nonirradiated epidermis labeled basal cells divided within 24 hr with daughter cells remaining in the basal layer, and approximately 50 percent of the labeled cells moved into the spinal layer by the 3rd day. Cell division in nonirradiated epidermis diluted the number of silver grains/nucleus, and lightly labeled cells were found in the granular layer by day 7. Beta irradiation inhibited cell division but it did not slow the rate of transit (ca 8 days) of irradiated labeled cells from basal to granular layer, some of these remaining heavily labeled. Although cell division may play some role in upward movement of basal cells in normal epidermis detachment of a basal cell from the basement membrane and its transit to the granular layer is unimpaired in the absence of cell division. These findings suggest that some radioresistant metabolic function(s), not cell division, is responsible for upward movement of basal cells. (auth)

  6. Generation of organized germ layers from a single mouse embryonic stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Yeh-Chuin; Chen, Junwei; Hong, Ying; Yi, Haiying; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Junjian; Wu, Douglas C; Wang, Lili; Jia, Qiong; Singh, Rishi; Yao, Wenting; Tan, Youhua; Tajik, Arash; Tanaka, Tetsuya S; Wang, Ning

    2014-05-30

    Mammalian inner cell mass cells undergo lineage-specific differentiation into germ layers of endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm during gastrulation. It has been a long-standing challenge in developmental biology to replicate these organized germ layer patterns in culture. Here we present a method of generating organized germ layers from a single mouse embryonic stem cell cultured in a soft fibrin matrix. Spatial organization of germ layers is regulated by cortical tension of the colony, matrix dimensionality and softness, and cell-cell adhesion. Remarkably, anchorage of the embryoid colony from the 3D matrix to collagen-1-coated 2D substrates of ~1 kPa results in self-organization of all three germ layers: ectoderm on the outside layer, mesoderm in the middle and endoderm at the centre of the colony, reminiscent of generalized gastrulating chordate embryos. These results suggest that mechanical forces via cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions are crucial in spatial organization of germ layers during mammalian gastrulation. This new in vitro method could be used to gain insights on the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of germ layer formation.

  7. Plated copper front side metallization on printed seed-layers for silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Achim

    2015-01-01

    A novel copper front side metallization architecture for silicon solar cells based on a fine printed silver seed-layer, plated with nickel, copper and silver, is investigated. The work focuses on the printing of fine seed-layers with low silver consumption, the corrosion of the printed seed-layers by the interaction with electrolyte solutions and the encapsulation material on module level and on the long term stability of the cells due to copper migration. The investigation of the correlation...

  8. Layer of protection analysis: Selecting cost effective safety measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, M.N.; Gort, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, in process industry risks are reduced by applying technical solutions and taking organisational measures. The performance of both types of 'solutions' depends on many factors and can not easily be compared. Especially the effectiveness of organisational measures such as the use of

  9. Improved fill factor in inverted planar perovskite solar cells with zirconium acetate as the hole-and-ion-blocking layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewen; Liang, Chunjun; Sun, Mengjie; Zhang, Huimin; Ji, Chao; Guo, Zebang; Xu, Yajun; Sun, Fulin; Song, Qi; He, Zhiqun

    2018-03-14

    Planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have gained great interest due to their low-temperature solution preparation and simple process. In inverted planar PSCs, an additional buffer layer is usually needed on the top of the PCBM electron-transport layer (ETL) to enhance the device performance. In this work, we used a new buffer layer, zirconium acetate (Zr(Ac) 4 ). The inclusion of the Zr(Ac) 4 buffer layer leads to the increase of FF from ∼68% to ∼79% and PCE from ∼14% to ∼17% in the planar PSCs. The UPS measurement indicates that the Zr(Ac) 4 layer has a low HOMO level of -8.2 eV, indicating that the buffer layer can act as a hole-blocking layer. Surface morphology and surface chemistry investigations reveal that the elements I, MA and Pb can diffuse across the PCBM ETL, damaging the device performance. The covering Zr(Ac) 4 molecules fill in the pinholes of the PCBM layer and effectively block the ions/molecules of the perovskite from diffusion across the ETL. The resulting more robust PCBM/Zr(Ac) 4 ETL leads to weaker ionic charge accumulation and lower diode leakage current. The double role of hole-and-ion blocking of the Zr(Ac) 4 layer explains the improved FF and PCE in the PSCs.

  10. Electrodeposition of ZnO-doped films as window layer for Cd-free CIGS-based solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsin, Fabien; Vénérosy, Amélie; Hildebrandt, Thibaud; Hariskos, Dimitrios; Naghavi, Negar; Lincot, Daniel; Rousset, Jean

    2016-02-01

    The Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film solar cell technology has made a steady progress within the last decade reaching efficiency up to 22.3% on laboratory scale, thus overpassing the highest efficiency for polycrystalline silicon solar cells. High efficiency CIGS modules employ a so-called buffer layer of cadmium sulfide CdS deposited by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD), which presence and Cd-containing waste present some environmental concerns. A second potential bottleneck for CIGS technology is its window layer made of i-ZnO/ZnO:Al, which is deposited by sputtering requiring expensive vacuum equipment. A non-vacuum deposition of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) relying on simpler equipment with lower investment costs will be more economically attractive, and could increase competitiveness of CIGS-based modules with the mainstream silicon-based technologies. In the frame of Novazolar project, we have developed a low-cost aqueous solution photo assisted electrodeposition process of the ZnO-based window layer for high efficiency CIGS-based solar cells. The window layer deposition have been first optimized on classical CdS buffer layer leading to cells with efficiencies similar to those measured with the sputtered references on the same absorber (15%). The the optimized ZnO doped layer has been adapted to cadmium free devices where the CdS is replaced by chemical bath deposited zinc oxysulfide Zn(S,O) buffer layer. The effect of different growth parameters has been studied on CBD-Zn(S,O)-plated co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 substrates provided by the Zentrum für Sonnenenergie-und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW). This optimization of the electrodeposition of ZnO:Cl on CIGS/Zn(S,O) stacks led to record efficiency of 14%, while the reference cell with a sputtered (Zn,Mg)O/ZnO:Al window layer has an efficiency of 15.2%.

  11. Enhanced performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell by introducing nitrogen-doped CNTs in both catalyst layer and gas diffusion layer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hou, S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is significantly improved through introducing nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) into the catalyst layer (CL) and microporous layer (MPL) of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA...

  12. Subnanometer Ga 2 O 3 Tunnelling Layer by Atomic Layer Deposition to Achieve 1.1 V Open-Circuit Potential in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chandiran, Aravind Kumar; Tetreault, Nicolas; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Kessler, Florian; Baranoff, Etienne; Yi, Chenyi; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grä tzel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we present the first use of a gallium oxide tunnelling layer to significantly reduce electron recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC). The subnanometer coating is achieved using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and leading to a new

  13. Surface passivation of InP solar cells with InAlAs layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of indium phosphide solar cells is limited by high values of surface recombination. The effect of a lattice-matched In(0.52)Al(0.48)As window layer material for InP solar cells, using the numerical code PC-1D is investigated. It was found that the use of InAlAs layer significantly enhances the p(+)n cell efficiency, while no appreciable improvement is seen for n(+)p cells. The conduction band energy discontinuity at the heterojunction helps in improving the surface recombination. An optimally designed InP cell efficiency improves from 15.4 percent to 23 percent AMO for a 10 nm thick InAlAs layer. The efficiency improvement reduces with increase in InAlAs layer thickness, due to light absorption in the window layer.

  14. DEPTH MEASUREMENT OF DISRUPTED LAYER ON SILICON WAFER SURFACE USING AUGER SPECTROSCOPY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Solodukha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for depth measurement of a disrupted layer on silicon wafer surface which is based on application of Auger spectroscopy with the precision sputtering of surface silicon layers and registration of the Auger electron yield intensity. In order to measure the disrupted layer with the help of Auger spectroscopy it is necessary to determine dependence of the released Auger electron amount on sputtering time (profile and then the dependence is analyzed. Silicon amount in the disrupted layer is less than in the volume. While going deeper the disruptive layer is decreasing that corresponds to an increase of atom density in a single layer. The essence of the method lies in the fact the disruptive layer is removed by ion beam sputtering and detection of interface region is carried out with the help of registration of the Auger electron yield intensity from the sputtered surface up to the moment when it reaches the value which is equal to the Auger electron yield intensity for single-crystal silicon. While removing surface silicon layers the registration of the Auger electron yield intensity from silicon surface makes it possible to control efficiently a presence of the disrupted layer on the silicon wafer surface. In this case depth control locality is about 1.0 nm due to some peculiarities of Auger spectroscopy method. The Auger electron yield intensity is determined automatically while using Auger spectrometer and while removing the disrupted layer the intensity is gradually increasing. Depth of the disrupted layer is determined by measuring height of the step which has been formed as a result of removal of the disrupted layer from the silicon wafer surface. Auger spectroscopy methods ensures an efficient depth control surface disruptions at the manufacturing stages of silicon wafers and integrated circuits. The depth measurement range of disruptions constitutes 0.001–1.000 um.

  15. Radioimmunoassay to quantitatively measure cell surface immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishman, E.C.; Jewell, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay techniques developed to quantitatively measure the presence of immunoglobulins on the surface of cells, is described. The amount of immunoglobulins found on different tumor cells varied from 200 to 1140 ng/10 6 cells. Determination of immunoglobulins on the peripheral lymphocytes obtained from different cancer patients varied between 340 to 1040 ng/10 6 cells. Cultured tumor cells, on the other hand, were found to contain negligible quantities of human IgG [pt

  16. Bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells sandwiched by solution processed molybdenum oxide and titania nanosheet layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Eiji; Goto, Yoshinori; Fukuda, Katsutoshi

    2014-02-01

    The contributions of ultrathin titania nanosheet (TN) crystallites were studied in both an inverted bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) cell in an indium-tin oxide (ITO)/titania nanosheet (TN)/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) active layer/MoOx/Ag multilayered photovoltaic device and a conventional BHJ cell in ITO/MoOx/P3HT:PCBM active layer/TN/Al multilayered photovoltaic device. The insertion of only one or two layers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and TN multilayered film prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition technique effectively decreased the leakage current and increased the open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (η). The conventional cell sandwiched between a solution-processed, partially crystallized molybdenum oxide hole-extracting buffer layer and a TN electron extracting buffer layer showed comparable cell performance to a device sandwiched between vacuum-deposited molybdenum oxide and TN layers, whereas the inverted cell with solution-processed molybdenum oxide showed a poorer performance probably owing to the increment in the leakage current across the film. The abnormal S-shaped curves observed in the inverted BHJ cell above VOC disappeared with the use of a polyfluorene-based cationic semiconducting polymer as a substitute for an insulating PDDA film, resulting in the improved cell performance.

  17. SiNx layers on nanostructured Si solar cells: Effective for optical absorption and carrier collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yunae; Kim, Eunah; Gwon, Minji; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    2015-01-01

    We compared nanopatterned Si solar cells with and without SiN x layers. The SiN x layer coating significantly improved the internal quantum efficiency of the nanopatterned cells at long wavelengths as well as short wavelengths, whereas the surface passivation helped carrier collection of flat cells mainly at short wavelengths. The surface nanostructured array enhanced the optical absorption and also concentrated incoming light near the surface in broad wavelength range. Resulting high density of the photo-excited carriers near the surface could lead to significant recombination loss and the SiN x layer played a crucial role in the improved carrier collection of the nanostructured solar cells

  18. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Caprio, Di; Stokes, Chris; Higgins, John M.; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin in red blood cells. While the oxygen affinity of blood is well understood and is routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of red blood cell volume and hemoglobin concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers and are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system....

  19. Multi-bits memory cell using degenerated magnetic states in a synthetic antiferromagnetic reference layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Akio; Yakushiji, Kay; Konoto, Makoto; Kubota, Hitoshi; Imamura, Hiroshi; Yuasa, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    We newly developed a magnetic memory cell having multi-bit function. The memory cell composed of a perpendicularly magnetized magnetic tunnel junction (MB-pMTJ) and a synthetic antiferromagnetic reference layer. The multi-bit function is realized by combining the freedom of states of the magnetic free layer and that in the antiferromagnetically coupled reference layer. The structure of the reference layer is (FeB/Ta/[Co/Pt]_3)/Ru/([Co/Pt]_6); the top and the bottom layers are coupled through Ru layer where the reference layer has two degrees of freedom of a head-to-head and a bottom-to-bottom magnetic configuration. A four-state memory cell is realized by combination of both degrees of freedom. The states in the reference layer however is hardly detected by the total resistance of MB-pMTJ, because the magnetoresistance effect in the reference layer is negligibly small. That implies that the resistance values for the different states in the reference layer are degenerated. On the other hand, the two different states in the reference layer bring different stray fields to the free layer, which generate two different minor loop with different switching fields. Therefore, the magnetic states in the reference layer can be differentiated by the two-step reading, before and after applying the appropriately pulsed magnetic field which can identify the initial state in the reference layer. This method is similar to distinguishing different magnetic states in an in-plane magnetized spin-valve element. We demonstrated that four different states in the MB-pMTJ can be distinguished by the two-step read-out. The important feature of the two-step reading is a practically large operation margins (large resistance change in reading) which is equal to that of a single MTJ. Even though the two-step reading is a destructive method by which 50% of the magnetic state is changed, this MB-pMTJ is promising for high density non-volatile memory cell with a minor cost of operation speed

  20. Direct measurements of air layer profiles under impacting droplets using high-speed color interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Roeland; Tran, Tuan; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2012-01-01

    A drop impacting on a solid surface deforms before the liquid makes contact with the surface. We directly measure the time evolution of the air layer profile under the droplet using high-speed color interferometry, obtaining the air layer thickness before and during the wetting process. Based on the

  1. Characterization of up-converter layers on bifacial silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, A.C.; Canizo, C. del; Luque, A.

    2009-01-01

    Photon converters can enhance the performance of solar cells as they have the ability to condition the solar spectrum, thus suiting the semiconductor bandgap better. This paper analyzes the implementation and characterization of rare earth-doped up-converters on bifacial silicon solar cells. The bifacial structures considered absorb the light emitted by the up-converter layer located at the rear of the cell. Two different ways of attaching the up-converter to the bifacial solar cell have been implemented: by dissolving the powder in a spin-on oxide and by dissolving it in a silicone gel. The characterization of this system through measurements of quantum efficiency and photocurrent is described. The measurement setup has been adapted to detect the device response in the NIR (near-infrared) range. A key aspect is the light power impinging on the cell; the system has a quartz-tungsten-halogen lamp as a source, and is capable of giving 240 mW m -2 . As the signals we want to detect are very small, an effort has been made to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio by using a low noise pre-amplifier, optimizing the power of the lamp and reducing the chopper frequency. The characterization of two commercial up-converter materials shows the functioning of the approach, as an increase in the photocurrent when illuminated in the 1500 nm wavelength range is detected in some of the cases.

  2. Tuning cell adhesion and growth on biomimetic polyelectrolyte multilayers by variation of pH during layer-by-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neha; Altgärde, Noomi; Svedhem, Sofia; Michanetzis, Georgios; Missirlis, Yannis; Groth, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers of chitosan and heparin are assembled on glass where heparin is applied at pH = 4, 9 and 4 during the formation of the first layers followed by pH = 9 at the last steps (denoted pH 4 + 9). Measurements of wetting properties, layer mass, and topography show that multilayers formed at pH = 4 are thicker, contain more water and have a smoother surface compared to those prepared at pH = 9 while the pH = 4 + 9 multilayers expressed intermediate properties. pH = 9 multilayers are more cell adhesive and support growth of C2C12 cells better than pH = 4 ones. However, pH 4 + 9 conditions improve the bioactivity to a similar level of pH = 9 layers. Multilayers prepared using pH 4 + 9 conditions form thick enough layers that may allow efficient loading of bioactive molecules. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Fabrication of Hybrid Polymer Solar Cells By Inverted Structure Based on P3HT:PCBM Active Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobih Shobih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid polymer solar cell has privilege than its conventional structure, where it usually has structure of (ITO/PEDOT:PSS/Active Layer/Al. In humid environment the PEDOT:PSS will absorb water and hence can easily etch the ITO. Therefore it is necessary to use an alternative method to avoid this drawback and obtain more stable polymer solar cells, namely by using hybrid polymer solar cells structure with an inverted device architecture from the conventional, by reversing the nature of charge collection. In this paper we report the results of the fabrication of inverted bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM as active layer, utilizing ZnO interlayer as buffer layer between the ITO and active layer with a stacked structure of ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag. The ZnO interlayer is formed through short route, i.e. by dissolving ZnO nanoparticles powder in chloroform-methanol solvent blend rather than by sol-gel process. Based on the measurement results on electrical characteristics of inverted polymer solar cells under 500 W/m2 illumination and AM 1.5 direct filter at room temperature, cell with annealing process of active layer at 110 °C for 10 minutes results in higher cell performance than without annealing, with an open-circuit voltage of 0.21 volt, a short-circuit current density of 1.33 mA/cm2 , a fill factor of 43.1%, and a power conversion efficiency of 0.22%. The low cell’s performance is caused by very rough surface of ZnO interlayer.

  4. Transport parameters of thin, supported cathode layers in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs); Transportparameter duenner, getraegerter Kathodenschichten der oxidkeramischen Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedershoven, Christian

    2010-12-22

    The aim of this work was to determine the transport properties of thin cathode layers, which are part of the composite layer of a fabricated anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The transport properties of the anode and cathode have a significant influence on the electrochemical performance of a fuel cell stack and therefore represent an important parameter when designing fuel cell stacks. In order to determine the transport parameters of the cathode layers in a fabricated SOFC, it is necessary to permeate the thin cathode layer deposited on the gas-tight electrolyte with a defined gas transport. These thin cathode layers cannot be fabricated as mechanically stable single layers and cannot therefore be investigated in the diffusion and permeation experiments usually used to determine transport parameters. The setup of these experiments - particularly the sample holder - was therefore altered in this work. The result of this altered setup was a three-dimensional flow configuration. Compared to the conventional setup, it was no longer possible to describe the gas transport in the experiments with an analytical one-dimensional solution. A numerical solution process had to be used to evaluate the measurements. The new setup permitted a sufficiently symmetrical gas distribution and thus allowed the description of the transport to be reduced to a two-dimensional description, which significantly reduced the computational effort required to evaluate the measurements. For pressure-induced transport, a parametrized coherent expression of transport could be derived. This expression is equivalent to the analytical description of the transport in conventional measurement setups, with the exception of parameters that describe the geometry of the gas diffusion. In this case, a numerical process is not necessary for the evaluation. Using the transport parameters of mechanically stable anode substrates, which can be measured both in the old and the new setups, the old and

  5. Retina ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer and peripapillary nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Muhammed; Şahin, Alparslan; Kılınç, Faruk; Yüksel, Harun; Özkurt, Zeynep Gürsel; Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Pekkolay, Zafer; Soylu, Hikmet; Çaça, İhsan

    2017-06-01

    Increased secretion of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in acromegaly has various effects on multiple organs. However, the ocular effects of acromegaly have yet to be investigated in detail. The aim of the present study was to compare retina ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) and peripapillary nerve fiber layer thickness (pRNFL) between patients with acromegaly and healthy control subjects using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This cross-sectional, comparative study included 18 patients with acromegaly and 20 control subjects. All participants underwent SD-OCT to measure pRNFL (in the seven peripapillary areas), GCIPL (in the nine ETDRS areas), and central macular thickness (CMT). Visual field (VF) examinations were performed using a Humphrey field analyzer in acromegalic patients. Measurements were compared between patients with acromegaly and control subjects. A total of 33 eyes of 18 patients with acromegaly and 40 eyes of 20 control subjects met the inclusion criteria of the present study. The overall calculated average pRNFL thickness was significantly lower in patients with acromegaly than in control subjects (P = 0.01), with pRNFL thickness significantly lower in the temporal superior and temporal inferior quadrants. Contrary to our expectations, pRNFL thickness in the nasal quadrant was similar between acromegalic and control subjects. The mean overall pRNFL thickness and superonasal, nasal, inferonasal, and inferotemporal quadrant pRNFL thicknesses were found to correlate with the mean deviation (MD) according to Spearman's correlation. However, other quadrants were not correlated with VF sensitivity. No significant difference in CMT values was observed (P = 0.6). GCIPL thickness was significantly lower in all quadrants of the inner and outer macula, except for central and inferior outer quadrants, in the acromegaly group than that in the control group (P acromegaly compared with that in control subjects

  6. Pluripotency Factors in Embryonic Stem Cells Regulate Differentiation into Germ Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Matt; Liu, Siyuan John; Zou, Ling-Nan; Smith, Zack; Meissner, Alexander; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2011-01-01

    Cell fate decisions are fundamental for development, but we do not know how transcriptional networks reorganize during the transition from a pluripotent to a differentiated cell state. Here, we asked how mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) leave the pluripotent state and choose between germ layer fates. By analyzing the dynamics of the transcriptional circuit that maintains pluripotency, we found that Oct4 and Sox2, proteins that maintain ESC identity, also orchestrate germ layer fate selection...

  7. Novel lidar algorithms for atmospheric slantrange visibility, planetary boundary layer height, meteorogical phenomena and atmospheric layering measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, Alexandros; Papayannis, Alexandros; Georgoussis, Georgios

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we present a development of novel algorithms and techniques implemented within the Laser Remote Sensing Laboratory (LRSL) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), in collaboration with Raymetrics S.A., in order to incorporate them into a 3-Dimensional (3D) lidar. The lidar is transmitting at 355 nm in the eye safe region and the measurements then are transposed to the visual range at 550 nm, according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) rules of daytime visibility. These algorithms are able to provide horizontal, slant and vertical visibility for tower aircraft controllers, meteorologists, but also from pilot's point of view. Other algorithms are also provided for detection of atmospheric layering in any given direction and vertical angle, along with the detection of the Planetary Boundary Layer Height (PBLH).

  8. Measurement of the mechanical properties of layered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, E.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films for integrated electronic circuitry, packaging and small structures in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) as well as protective coatings require mechanical testing to control fabrication processes, guarantee product quality and establish data bases for engineering purposes. They generally escape classical materials testing owing to their small size in at least one dimension and their incorporation into larger structures. The fact that material properties change in the micro- and nanometer range when sample dimensions reach the scale of defect structures, implies that sample and probe size become part of the property evaluation process. Although research into the mechanical behaviour of thin films and small structures now is established, the fundamentals of mechanical testing continue to be identified while there is a growing need for methods allowing to measure intrinsic material properties. This lecture will focus on the mechanics of thin film and small volume structures and review recently developed testing techniques for measuring materials properties, particularly indentation, bulge and bend testing. The effect of specimen and probe geometry on property evaluation will be discussed. The use of Raman spectroscopy for residual stress measurement will be illustrated. (Author)

  9. Measuring The Contact Resistances Of Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Simple method devised to measure contact resistances of photovoltaic solar cells. Method uses readily available equipment and applicable at any time during life of cell. Enables evaluation of cell contact resistance, contact-end resistance, contact resistivity, sheet resistivity, and sheet resistivity under contact.

  10. Voc enhancement of a solar cell with doped Li+-PbS as the active layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Portillo, M.; Alvarado Pulido, J.; Gallardo Hernández, S.; Soto Cruz, B. S.; Alcántara Iniesta, S.; Gutiérrez Pérez, R.; Portillo Moreno, O.

    2018-06-01

    In this report, we investigate the fabrication of solar cells obtained by chemical bath technique, based on CdS as window layer and PbS and PbS-Li+-doped as the active layer. We report open-circuit-voltage Voc values of ∼392 meV for PbS and ∼630 meV for PbSLi+-doped, a remarkable enhanced in the open circuit voltage is shown for solar cells with doped active layer. Li+ ion passivate the dangling bonds in PbS-metal layer interface in consequence reducing the recombination centers.

  11. Detection of Entrainment Influences on Surface-Layer Measurements and Extension of Monin–Obukhov Similarity Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, van de A.; Moene, A.F.; Graf, A.; Schüttemeyer, D.; Simmer, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to detect influences of boundary-layer processes on surface-layer measurements, using statistics and spectra of surface-layer variables only. We validated our detection method with boundary-layer measurements. Furthermore, we confirm that Monin–Obukhov similarity functions fit

  12. Influence of intermediate layers on the surface condition of laser crystallized silicon thin films and solar cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höger, Ingmar, E-mail: ingmar.hoeger@ipht-jena.de; Gawlik, Annett; Brückner, Uwe; Andrä, Gudrun [Leibniz-Institut für Photonische Technologien, PF 100239, 07702 Jena (Germany); Himmerlich, Marcel; Krischok, Stefan [Institut für Mikro-und Nanotechnologien, Technische Universität Ilmenau, PF 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2016-01-28

    The intermediate layer (IL) between glass substrate and silicon plays a significant role in the optimization of multicrystalline liquid phase crystallized silicon thin film solar cells on glass. This study deals with the influence of the IL on the surface condition and the required chemical surface treatment of the crystallized silicon (mc-Si), which is of particular interest for a-Si:H heterojunction thin film solar cells. Two types of IL were investigated: sputtered silicon nitride (SiN) and a layer stack consisting of silicon nitride and silicon oxide (SiN/SiO). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed the formation of silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) or silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) layers at the surface of the mc-Si after liquid phase crystallization on SiN or SiN/SiO, respectively. We propose that SiO{sub x}N{sub y} formation is governed by dissolving nitrogen from the SiN layer in the silicon melt, which segregates at the crystallization front during crystallization. This process is successfully hindered, when additional SiO layers are introduced into the IL. In order to achieve solar cell open circuit voltages above 500 mV, a removal of the formed SiO{sub x}N{sub y} top layer is required using sophisticated cleaning of the crystallized silicon prior to a-Si:H deposition. However, solar cells crystallized on SiN/SiO yield high open circuit voltage even when a simple wet chemical surface treatment is applied. The implementation of SiN/SiO intermediate layers facilitates the production of mesa type solar cells with open circuit voltages above 600 mV and a power conversion efficiency of 10%.

  13. Application of a Novel Laser-Doppler Velocimeter for Turbulence: Structural Measurements in Turbulent Boundary Layers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lowe, Kevin T; Simpson, Roger L

    2006-01-01

    An advanced laser-Doppler velocimeter (LDV), deemed the 'comprehensive LDV', is designed to acquire fully-resolved turbulence structural measurements in high Reynolds number two- and three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers...

  14. Marine boundary layer and turbulent fluxes over the Baltic Sea: Measurements and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.

    2002-01-01

    Two weeks of measurements of the boundary-layer height over a small island (Christianso) in the Baltic Sea are discussed. The meteorological conditions are characterised by positive heat flux over the sea. The boundary-layer height was simulated with two models, a simple applied high-resolution (2...... km x 2 km) model, and the operational numerical weather prediction model HIRLAM (grid resolution of 22.5 km x 22.5 km). For southwesterly winds it was found that a relatively large island (Bornholm) lying 20-km upwind of the measuring site influences the boundary-layer height. In this situation...... the high-resolution simple applied model reproduces the characteristics of the boundary-layer height over the measuring site. Richardson-number based methods using data from simulations with the HIRLAM model fail, most likely because the island and the water fetch to the measuring site are about the size...

  15. Study on the use of TiO2 passivation layer to reduce recombination losses in dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander bin Samsudin, Adel; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Nayan, Nafarizal; Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Shariffuddin, Sharifah Amira Amir; Omar, Salwa

    2012-01-01

    A lot of research on various aspects of dye solar cells (DSC) has been carried out in order to improve efficiency. This paper analyzes the utilization of TiO 2 passivation layers of different thicknesses by improving the electron transport properties. Four different thicknesses of passivation layers namely 10, 20, 50 and 100 nm were deposited onto the working electrode using r.f sputtering. The electrodes were assembled into TiO 2 based DSC with active area of 1 cm 2 . The solar performance was investigated using 100 mW/cm 2 of AM 1.5 simulated sunlight from solar simulator. The kinetics of the solar cells was investigated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement and the spectral response was measured using Incident Photon to Electron Conversion (IPCE) measurement system. The highest efficiency was found for DSC with 20 nm passivation layer. DSCs with the passivation layer have open circuit voltage, V OC increased by 57 mV, their current density, J SC increased by 0.774 mA cm −2 compared to the one without the passivation layer. The quantum efficiency of the 20 nm passivation layer is the highest, peaking at the wavelength of 534 nm, resulting in the highest performance. All DSCs with the passivation layer recorded higher ratio of R BR /R T where R T is the diffusion resistance of the TiO 2 particles in the mesoscopic layer and R BR is the recombination resistance of the electron to the electrolyte. This implies that the recombination of the electrolyte I − 3 /3I − couple at the substrate/electrolyte interface has been effectively reduced resulting in an enhanced efficiency.

  16. Using white noise to gate organic transistors for dynamic monitoring of cultured cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Leleux, Pierre; Hama, Adel; Ramuz, Marc; Huerta, Miriam; Malliaras, George G; Owens, Roisin M

    2015-06-26

    Impedance sensing of biological systems allows for monitoring of cell and tissue properties, including cell-substrate attachment, layer confluence, and the "tightness" of an epithelial tissue. These properties are critical for electrical detection of tissue health and viability in applications such as toxicological screening. Organic transistors based on conducting polymers offer a promising route to efficiently transduce ionic currents to attain high quality impedance spectra, but collection of complete impedance spectra can be time consuming (minutes). By applying uniform white noise at the gate of an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), and measuring the resulting current noise, we are able to dynamically monitor the impedance and thus integrity of cultured epithelial monolayers. We show that noise sourcing can be used to track rapid monolayer disruption due to compounds which interfere with dynamic polymerization events crucial for maintaining cytoskeletal integrity, and to resolve sub-second alterations to the monolayer integrity.

  17. Fabrication of hybrid graphene oxide/polyelectrolyte capsules by means of layer-by-layer assembly on erythrocyte cell templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba Irigoyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel and facile method was developed to produce hybrid graphene oxide (GO–polyelectrolyte (PE capsules using erythrocyte cells as templates. The capsules are easily produced through the layer-by-layer technique using alternating polyelectrolyte layers and GO sheets. The amount of GO and therefore its coverage in the resulting capsules can be tuned by adjusting the concentration of the GO dispersion during the assembly. The capsules retain the approximate shape and size of the erythrocyte template after the latter is totally removed by oxidation with NaOCl in water. The PE/GO capsules maintain their integrity and can be placed or located on other surfaces such as in a device. When the capsules are dried in air, they collapse to form a film that is approximately twice the thickness of the capsule membrane. AFM images in the present study suggest a film thickness of approx. 30 nm for the capsules in the collapsed state implying a thickness of approx. 15 nm for the layers in the collapsed capsule membrane. The polyelectrolytes used in the present study were polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH and polystyrenesulfonate sodium salt (PSS. Capsules where characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, dynamic light scattering (DLS and Raman microscopy, the constituent layers by zeta potential and GO by TEM, XRD, and Raman and FTIR spectroscopies.

  18. p-Type semiconducting nickel oxide as an efficiency-enhancing anodal interfacial layer in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael D; Buchholz, Donald B; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2014-11-25

    The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode, a p-type semiconductor layer formed on the anode, and an active organic layer formed on the p-type semiconductor layer, where the active organic layer has an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material.

  19. New Normative Database of Inner Macular Layer Thickness Measured by Spectralis OCT Used as Reference Standard for Glaucoma Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Moreno, María; Martínez-de-la-Casa, José M; Bambo, María P; Morales-Fernández, Laura; Van Keer, Karel; Vandewalle, Evelien; Stalmans, Ingeborg; García-Feijoó, Julián

    2018-02-01

    This study examines the capacity to detect glaucoma of inner macular layer thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) using a new normative database as the reference standard. Participants ( N = 148) were recruited from Leuven (Belgium) and Zaragoza (Spain): 74 patients with early/moderate glaucoma and 74 age-matched healthy controls. One eye was randomly selected for a macular scan using the Spectralis SD-OCT. The variables measured with the instrument's segmentation software were: macular nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) volume and thickness along with circumpapillary RNFL thickness (cpRNFL). The new normative database of macular variables was used to define the cutoff of normality as the fifth percentile by age group. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of each macular measurement and of cpRNFL were used to distinguish between patients and controls. Overall sensitivity and specificity to detect early-moderate glaucoma were 42.2% and 88.9% for mRNFL, 42.4% and 95.6% for GCL, 42.2% and 94.5% for IPL, and 53% and 94.6% for RNFL, respectively. The best macular variable to discriminate between the two groups of subjects was outer temporal GCL thickness as indicated by an AUROC of 0.903. This variable performed similarly to mean cpRNFL thickness (AUROC = 0.845; P = 0.29). Using our normative database as reference, the diagnostic power of inner macular layer thickness proved comparable to that of peripapillary RNFL thickness. Spectralis SD-OCT, cpRNFL thickness, and individual macular inner layer thicknesses show comparable diagnostic capacity for glaucoma and RNFL, GCL, and IPL thickness may be useful as an alternative diagnostic test when the measure of cpRNFL shows artifacts.

  20. Label-free electrochemical aptasensor constructed by layer-by-layer technology for sensitive and selective detection of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianshu; Liu, Jiyang; Gu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Dan; Wang, Jin; Wang, Erkang

    2015-07-02

    Here, a cytosensor was constructed with ferrocene-appended poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (Fc-PAH) functionalized graphene (Fc-PAH-G), poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and aptamer (AS1411) by layer-by-layer assembly technology. The hybrid nanocomposite Fc-PAH-G not only brings probes on the electrode and also promotes electron transfer between the probes and the substrate electrode. Meanwhile, LBL technology provides more effective probes to enhance amplified signal for improving the sensitivity of the detection. While AS1411 forming G-quardruplex structure and binding cancer cells, the current response of the sensing electrode decreased due to the insulating properties of cellular membrane. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was performed to investigate the electrochemical detection of HeLa cells attributing to its sensitivity of the current signal change. The as-prepared aptasensor showed a high sensitivity and good stability, a widely detection range from 10 to 10(6) cells/mL with a detection limit as low as 10 cells/mL for the detection of cancer cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Thermal conductivity of catalyst layer of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: Part 1 - Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Mohammad; Tam, Mickey; Saha, Madhu S.; Stumper, Jürgen; Bahrami, Majid

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a new methodology is proposed for measuring the through-plane thermal conductivity of catalyst layers (CLs) in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The proposed methodology is based on deconvolution of bulk thermal conductivity of a CL from measurements of two thicknesses of the CL, where the CLs are sandwiched in a stack made of two catalyst-coated substrates. Effects of hot-pressing, compression, measurement method, and substrate on the through-plane thermal conductivity of the CL are studied. For this purpose, different thicknesses of catalyst are coated on ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) and aluminum (Al) substrates by a conventional Mayer bar coater and measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The through-plane thermal conductivity of the CLs is measured by the well-known guarded heat flow (GHF) method as well as a recently developed transient plane source (TPS) method for thin films which modifies the original TPS thin film method. Measurements show that none of the studied factors has any effect on the through-plane thermal conductivity of the CL. GHF measurements of a non-hot-pressed CL on Al yield thermal conductivity of 0.214 ± 0.005 Wṡm-1ṡK-1, and TPS measurements of a hot-pressed CL on ETFE yield thermal conductivity of 0.218 ± 0.005 Wṡm-1ṡK-1.

  2. Pore-Network Modeling of Water and Vapor Transport in the Micro Porous Layer and Gas Diffusion Layer of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, C.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; van Oosterhout, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the cathode side of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), a micro porous layer (MPL) added between the catalyst layer (CL) and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) plays an important role in water management. In this work, by using both quasi-static and dynamic pore-network models, water and vapor

  3. Real cell overlay measurement through design based metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Gyun; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Lee, Taehyeong; Ji, Sunkeun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun

    2014-04-01

    Until recent device nodes, lithography has been struggling to improve its resolution limit. Even though next generation lithography technology is now facing various difficulties, several innovative resolution enhancement technologies, based on 193nm wavelength, were introduced and implemented to keep the trend of device scaling. Scanner makers keep developing state-of-the-art exposure system which guarantees higher productivity and meets a more aggressive overlay specification. "The scaling reduction of the overlay error has been a simple matter of the capability of exposure tools. However, it is clear that the scanner contributions may no longer be the majority component in total overlay performance. The ability to control correctable overlay components is paramount to achieve the desired performance.(2)" In a manufacturing fab, the overlay error, determined by a conventional overlay measurement: by using an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO, often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area of a memory device. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion, caused by etching or CMP, also can be a source of the mismatch. Therefore, the requirement of a direct overlay measurement in the cell pattern gradually increases in the manufacturing field, and also in the development level. In order to overcome the mismatch between conventional overlay measurement and the real placement error of layer to layer in the cell area of a memory device, we suggest an alternative overlay measurement method utilizing by design, based metrology tool. A basic concept of this method is shown in figure1. A CD-SEM measurement of the overlay error between layer 1 and 2 could be the ideal method but it takes too long time to extract a lot of data from wafer level. An E-beam based DBM tool provides high speed to cover the whole wafer with high repeatability. It is enabled by using the design as a

  4. Fabrication of contacts for silicon solar cells including printing burn through layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, David S; Kaydanova, Tatiana; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2014-06-24

    A method for fabricating a contact (240) for a solar cell (200). The method includes providing a solar cell substrate (210) with a surface that is covered or includes an antireflective coating (220). For example, the substrate (210) may be positioned adjacent or proximate to an outlet of an inkjet printer (712) or other deposition device. The method continues with forming a burn through layer (230) on the coating (220) by depositing a metal oxide precursor (e.g., using an inkjet or other non-contact printing method to print or apply a volume of liquid or solution containing the precursor). The method includes forming a contact layer (240) comprising silver over or on the burn through layer (230), and then annealing is performed to electrically connect the contact layer (240) to the surface of the solar cell substrate (210) through a portion of the burn through layer (230) and the coating (220).

  5. Considerably improved photovoltaic performance of carbon nanotube-based solar cells using metal oxide layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feijiu; Kozawa, Daichi; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Hiraoka, Kazushi; Mouri, Shinichiro; Ohno, Yutaka; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2015-02-18

    Carbon nanotube-based solar cells have been extensively studied from the perspective of potential application. Here we demonstrated a significant improvement of the carbon nanotube solar cells by the use of metal oxide layers for efficient carrier transport. The metal oxides also serve as an antireflection layer and an efficient carrier dopant, leading to a reduction in the loss of the incident solar light and an increase in the photocurrent, respectively. As a consequence, the photovoltaic performance of both p-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/n-Si and n-SWNT/p-Si heterojunction solar cells using MoOx and ZnO layers is improved, resulting in very high photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of 17.0 and 4.0%, respectively. These findings regarding the use of metal oxides as multifunctional layers suggest that metal oxide layers could improve the performance of various electronic devices based on carbon nanotubes.

  6. Considerably improved photovoltaic performance of carbon nanotube-based solar cells using metal oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feijiu; Kozawa, Daichi; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Hiraoka, Kazushi; Mouri, Shinichiro; Ohno, Yutaka; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2015-02-01

    Carbon nanotube-based solar cells have been extensively studied from the perspective of potential application. Here we demonstrated a significant improvement of the carbon nanotube solar cells by the use of metal oxide layers for efficient carrier transport. The metal oxides also serve as an antireflection layer and an efficient carrier dopant, leading to a reduction in the loss of the incident solar light and an increase in the photocurrent, respectively. As a consequence, the photovoltaic performance of both p-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/n-Si and n-SWNT/p-Si heterojunction solar cells using MoOx and ZnO layers is improved, resulting in very high photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of 17.0 and 4.0%, respectively. These findings regarding the use of metal oxides as multifunctional layers suggest that metal oxide layers could improve the performance of various electronic devices based on carbon nanotubes.

  7. Fabrication of heterojunction solar cells by improved tin oxide deposition on insulating layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1980-01-01

    Highly efficient tin oxide-silicon heterojunction solar cells are prepared by heating a silicon substrate, having an insulating layer thereon, to provide a substrate temperature in the range of about 300.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C. and thereafter spraying the so-heated substrate with a solution of tin tetrachloride in a organic ester boiling below about 250.degree. C. Preferably the insulating layer is naturally grown silicon oxide layer.

  8. Ultrathin Oxide Passivation Layer by Rapid Thermal Oxidation for the Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Youngseok; Oh, Woongkyo; Dao, Vinh Ai; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Yi, Junsin

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to deposit extremely thin a-Si:H layer in heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cell due to thermal damage and tough process control. This study aims to understand oxide passivation mechanism of silicon surface using rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) process by examining surface effective lifetime and surface recombination velocity. The presence of thin insulating a-Si:H layer is the key to get high Voc by lowering the leakage current (I0) which improves the efficie...

  9. ON Cone Bipolar Cell Axonal Synapses in the OFF Inner Plexiform Layer of the Rabbit Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, J. Scott; Anderson, James R.; Jones, Bryan W.; Watt, Carl B.; Mohammed, Shoeb; Hoang, John V.; Marc, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the rabbit retinal connectome RC1 reveals that the division between the ON and OFF inner plexiform layer (IPL) is not structurally absolute. ON cone bipolar cells make non-canonical axonal synapses onto specific targets and receive amacrine cell synapses in the nominal OFF layer, creating novel motifs, including inhibitory crossover networks. Automated transmission electron microscope (ATEM) imaging, molecular tagging, tracing, and rendering of ≈ 400 bipolar cells reveals axonal ribbons in 36% of ON cone bipolar cells, throughout the OFF IPL. The targets include GABA-positive amacrine cells (γACs), glycine-positive amacrine cells (GACs) and ganglion cells. Most ON cone bipolar cell axonal contacts target GACs driven by OFF cone bipolar cells, forming new architectures for generating ON-OFF amacrine cells. Many of these ON-OFF GACs target ON cone bipolar cell axons, ON γACs and/or ON-OFF ganglion cells, representing widespread mechanisms for OFF to ON crossover inhibition. Other targets include OFF γACs presynaptic to OFF bipolar cells, forming γAC-mediated crossover motifs. ON cone bipolar cell axonal ribbons drive bistratified ON-OFF ganglion cells in the OFF layer and provide ON drive to polarity-appropriate targets such as bistratified diving ganglion cells (bsdGCs). The targeting precision of ON cone bipolar cell axonal synapses shows that this drive incidence is necessarily a joint distribution of cone bipolar cell axonal frequency and target cell trajectories through a given volume of the OFF layer. Such joint distribution sampling is likely common when targets are sparser than sources and when sources are coupled, as are ON cone bipolar cells. PMID:23042441

  10. Effect of Nafion ionometer content on proton conductivity in the catalyst layer of proton exchange fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozalevlia, Cihan Cemil; Jian Xie; Xu, Fan [METU MS Mechanical Engineering (United States)], email: cihan.ozalevli@metu.edu.tr, email: jianxie@iupui.edu, email: fanxu@iupui.edu

    2011-07-01

    In the energy conversion sector, proton exchange fuel cells (PEFC's) are among the most promising technologies for the future. The Nafion ionometer is the most important part of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) which is the core technology of the system. The Nafion ionometer is both a proton conductor and a binder for the catalyst layer in the technology. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of the Nafion content in the cathode catalyst layer on the proton conductivity of the MEA. Two MEAs with different Nafion content were prepared following the LANL process and the proton conductivity of the catalyst layer was measured. Results showed a much higher performance of the 28wt. % Nafion MEA than the 10wt. %. This study demonstrated that when the Nafion ionometer content decreases, the performance of the fuel cell decreases; further investigations should be undertaken with Nafion ionometer amounts of 15wt. % to 20wt. %.

  11. Cell Measurements | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    standard AM1.5 Global reference spectrum (IEC 60904-3 edition 2). The irradiance is adjustable from 0.2 to light. A 1-ms shutter is used to measure open-circuit voltage (Voc) prior to heating, allowing the stage adjustable; ~1-ms flash; minimal heating; dedicated spectroradiometer 2 Xe flash lamps 30 cm long with mirror

  12. Magnetostriction measurement of a giant magnetoresistance film on a practical substrate covered by a shield layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kazuhiko; Ishiyama, Kazushi; Miura, Hideo

    2012-04-01

    Magnetostriction constant of a magnetic thin film is conventionally measured by detecting the deformation of a coupon sample that consists of the magnetic film deposited on a thin glass substrate (e.g., cover glass of size 10 mm × 25 mm) under an applied field using a laser beam [A. C. Tam and H. Schroeder, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 5422 (1988)]. This method, however, cannot be applied to films deposited on actual large-size substrates (wafers) with diameter from 3 to 6 in. or more. In a previous paper [Okita et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 200, 112008 (2010)], the authors presented a method for measuring magnetostriction of a magnetic thin film deposited on an actual substrate by detecting the change of magnetic anisotropy field, Hk, under mechanical bending of the substrate. It was validated that the method is very effective for measuring the magnetostriction constant of a free layer on the actual substrate. However, since a Ni-Fe shield layer usually covers a magnetic head used for a hard disk drive, this shield layer disturbs the effective measurement of R-H curve under minor loop. Therefore, a high magnetic field that can saturate the magnetic material in the shield layer should be applied to the head in order to measure the magnetostriction constant of a pinned layer under the shield layer. In this paper, this method was applied to the measurement of the magnetostriction constant of a pinned layer under the shield layer by using a high magnetic field up to 320 kA/m (4 kOe).

  13. Spatial atmospheric ALD of functional layers for CIGS Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illiberi, A.; Frijters, C.; Balder, J. E.; Poodt, P.; Roozeboom, F.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial Atmospheric Atomic Layer Deposition combines the advantages of temporal ALD, i.e. excellent control of film composition and uniformity over large area substrates, with high growth rates (up to nm/s). In this paper we present a short overview of our research activity carried out on S-ALD of

  14. Spatial atmospheric ALD of functional layers for CIGS Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illiberi, A.; Frijters, C.; Balder, J.E.; Poodt, P.W.G.; Roozeboom, F.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial Atmosperic Atomic Layer Depositon combines the advantages of temporal ALD, i.e. excellent control of film composition and uniformity over large area substrates, with high growth rages (up tot nm/s). In this paper we present a short overview of our research acctivity carried out on S-ALD of

  15. Atomic layer deposition: prospects for solar cell manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, W.M.M.; Hoex, B.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin film growth technology that is capable of depositing uniform and conformal films on complex, three-dimensional objects with atomic precision. ALD is a rapidly growing field and it is currently at the verge of being introduced in the semiconductor industry.

  16. Ultrathin Oxide Passivation Layer by Rapid Thermal Oxidation for the Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngseok Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to deposit extremely thin a-Si:H layer in heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT solar cell due to thermal damage and tough process control. This study aims to understand oxide passivation mechanism of silicon surface using rapid thermal oxidation (RTO process by examining surface effective lifetime and surface recombination velocity. The presence of thin insulating a-Si:H layer is the key to get high Voc by lowering the leakage current (I0 which improves the efficiency of HIT solar cell. The ultrathin thermal passivation silicon oxide (SiO2 layer was deposited by RTO system in the temperature range 500–950°C for 2 to 6 minutes. The thickness of the silicon oxide layer was affected by RTO annealing temperature and treatment time. The best value of surface recombination velocity was recorded for the sample treated at a temperature of 850°C for 6 minutes at O2 flow rate of 3 Lpm. A surface recombination velocity below 25 cm/s was obtained for the silicon oxide layer of 4 nm thickness. This ultrathin SiO2 layer was employed for the fabrication of HIT solar cell structure instead of a-Si:H, (i layer and the passivation and tunneling effects of the silicon oxide layer were exploited. The photocurrent was decreased with the increase of illumination intensity and SiO2 thickness.

  17. Analysis of gene expression in the outer cell layers of Arabidopsis roots during lateral root development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veth-Tello, Luz Marina

    2005-01-01

    Lateral roots are an important means for the plant to increase its absorptive area and the volume of substrate exploited. Lateral roots originate in the pericycle, the outermost layer of the vascular cylinder, and by growing penetrate the overlaying cell layers before emergence. This process is

  18. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited MoOx emitters for silicon heterojunction solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, J.; Mews, M.; Kaufmann, K.; Schneider, T.; Sprafke, A.N.; Korte, L.; Wehrsporn, R.B

    2015-01-01

    A method for the deposition of molybdenum oxide MoOx with high growth rates at temperatures below 200 C based on plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition is presented. The stoichiometry of the overstoichiometric MoOx films can be adjusted by the plasma parameters. First results of these layers acting as hole selective contacts in silicon heterojunction solar cells are presented and discussed

  19. A method for the densification of ceramic layers, especially ceramic layers within solid oxide cell (SOC) technology, and products obtained by the method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic layer, especially for use in solid oxide cell (SOC) technology, is densified in a method comprising (a) providing a multilayer system by depositing the porous ceramic layer, which is to be densified, onto the selected system of ceramic layers on a support, (b) pre-sintering the resulting......(s) in the porous layer surface and (e) performing a thermal treatment at a temperature T2, where T2 > ?1, to obtain densification of and grain growth in the porous layer formed in step (b). The method makes it possible to obtain dense ceramic layers at temperatures, which are compatible with the other materials...... present in a ceramic multilayer system....

  20. Solar Cell Calibration and Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila; Brinker, Dave; Curtis, Henry; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, Dave

    2004-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space solar cells and the increasing international markets for both cells and arrays has resulted in workshops jointly sponsored by NASDA, ESA and NASA. These workshops are designed to obtain international agreement on standardized values for the AMO spectrum and constant, recommend laboratory measurement practices and establish a set of protocols for international comparison of laboratory measurements. A working draft of an ISO standard, WD15387, "Requirements for Measurement and Calibration Procedures for Space Solar Cells" was discussed with a focus on the scope of the document, a definition of primary standard cell, and required error analysis for all measurement techniques. Working groups addressed the issues of Air Mass Zero (AMO) solar constant and spectrum, laboratory measurement techniques, and te international round robin methodology. A summary is presented of the current state of each area and the formulation of the ISO document.

  1. Method for manufacturing a solar cell with a surface-passivating dielectric double layer, and corresponding solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    We will describe a solar cell with a Dielektrikumdoppelschicht and a method for their preparation. It comprises a first dielectric layer (3) containing aluminum oxide or consisting of alumina, and a second, hydrogen-containing dielectric layer (5) is produced by sequential vapor deposition, whereby

  2. Bias of shear wave elasticity measurements in thin layer samples and a simple correction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianqiang; Xu, Hao; Qiang, Bo; Giambini, Hugo; Kinnick, Randall; An, Kai-Nan; Chen, Shigao; Luo, Zongping

    2016-01-01

    Shear wave elastography (SWE) is an emerging technique for measuring biological tissue stiffness. However, the application of SWE in thin layer tissues is limited by bias due to the influence of geometry on measured shear wave speed. In this study, we investigated the bias of Young's modulus measured by SWE in thin layer gelatin-agar phantoms, and compared the result with finite element method and Lamb wave model simulation. The result indicated that the Young's modulus measured by SWE decreased continuously when the sample thickness decreased, and this effect was more significant for smaller thickness. We proposed a new empirical formula which can conveniently correct the bias without the need of using complicated mathematical modeling. In summary, we confirmed the nonlinear relation between thickness and Young's modulus measured by SWE in thin layer samples, and offered a simple and practical correction strategy which is convenient for clinicians to use.

  3. Improving the photovoltaic parameters in Quantum dot sensitized solar cells through employment of chemically deposited compact titania blocking layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendra Prasad, M.B., E-mail: rajendraprasadmb75@gmail.com [Advanced Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, SavitibaiPhule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India); National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla, Pune, 411023 (India); Kadam, Vishal [Advanced Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, SavitibaiPhule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India); Joo, Oh-Shim [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, PO Box No. 131, Chongryang, Seoul, 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Pathan, Habib M. [Advanced Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, SavitibaiPhule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Incorporation of compact blocking layer at the Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO)/Electrolyte interface is an effective method to improve the device performance in QDSSC through mitigation of electron recombinations at this interface. This paper reports the most facile and cost effective method of depositing a rutile titania Compact Layer (CL) over Fluorine doped Tin Oxide (FTO) substrate and its application in titania based CdS QD sensitized solar cells. The deposited compact layers are characterized to study their structural, optical, morphological and electrochemical properties using X-Ray Diffractometry, UV–Visible spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry and Contact Angle measurements. Sandwich solar cells are fabricated using these CL based electrodes and characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Open Circuit Voltage Decay and J-V characteristics. The CL incorporated CdS QDSSC showed more than 100% increase in the photoconversion efficiency (1.68%) as compared to its bare FTO counterpart (0.73%) proving the efficacy of employed strategy. - Highlights: • Deposited titania compact layer by a facile room temperature chemical bath method. • Employed this to mitigate back electron transfer at TCO/Electrolyte interface. • Compact layer incorporation has improved the solar cell performance by 130%.

  4. Label-free electrochemical aptasensor constructed by layer-by-layer technology for sensitive and selective detection of cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianshu; Liu, Jiyang; Gu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Dan; Wang, Jin; Wang, Erkang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fc-PAH was modified on the surface of graphene to prepare hybid nanocomposite (Fc-PAH-G). • A cytosensor was constructed with Fc-PAH-G, PSS and aptamer AS1411 by LBL technology. • The sensing interface introduced more redox probe and enhanced current signal on electrode. • The sensor showed a detection range of 10–10 6 cells/mL with a detection limit of 10 cells/mL. - Abstract: Here, a cytosensor was constructed with ferrocene-appended poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (Fc-PAH) functionalized graphene (Fc-PAH-G), poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and aptamer (AS1411) by layer-by-layer assembly technology. The hybrid nanocomposite Fc-PAH-G not only brings probes on the electrode and also promotes electron transfer between the probes and the substrate electrode. Meanwhile, LBL technology provides more effective probes to enhance amplified signal for improving the sensitivity of the detection. While AS1411 forming G-quardruplex structure and binding cancer cells, the current response of the sensing electrode decreased due to the insulating properties of cellular membrane. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was performed to investigate the electrochemical detection of HeLa cells attributing to its sensitivity of the current signal change. The as-prepared aptasensor showed a high sensitivity and good stability, a widely detection range from 10 to 10 6 cells/mL with a detection limit as low as 10 cells/mL for the detection of cancer cells

  5. Label-free electrochemical aptasensor constructed by layer-by-layer technology for sensitive and selective detection of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tianshu [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130012 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Liu, Jiyang; Gu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Dan [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Wang, Jin, E-mail: jin.wang.1@stonybrook.edu [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130012 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Department of Chemistry, Physics and Applied Mathematics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States); Wang, Erkang, E-mail: ekwang@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2015-07-02

    Highlights: • Fc-PAH was modified on the surface of graphene to prepare hybid nanocomposite (Fc-PAH-G). • A cytosensor was constructed with Fc-PAH-G, PSS and aptamer AS1411 by LBL technology. • The sensing interface introduced more redox probe and enhanced current signal on electrode. • The sensor showed a detection range of 10–10{sup 6} cells/mL with a detection limit of 10 cells/mL. - Abstract: Here, a cytosensor was constructed with ferrocene-appended poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (Fc-PAH) functionalized graphene (Fc-PAH-G), poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and aptamer (AS1411) by layer-by-layer assembly technology. The hybrid nanocomposite Fc-PAH-G not only brings probes on the electrode and also promotes electron transfer between the probes and the substrate electrode. Meanwhile, LBL technology provides more effective probes to enhance amplified signal for improving the sensitivity of the detection. While AS1411 forming G-quardruplex structure and binding cancer cells, the current response of the sensing electrode decreased due to the insulating properties of cellular membrane. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was performed to investigate the electrochemical detection of HeLa cells attributing to its sensitivity of the current signal change. The as-prepared aptasensor showed a high sensitivity and good stability, a widely detection range from 10 to 10{sup 6} cells/mL with a detection limit as low as 10 cells/mL for the detection of cancer cells.

  6. New approaches for the analysis of confluent cell layers with quantitative phase digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, L.; Kaiser, M.; Ketelhut, S.; Pereira, S.; Goycoolea, F.; Kemper, Björn

    2016-03-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) enables high resolution non-destructive inspection of technical surfaces and minimally-invasive label-free live cell imaging. However, the analysis of confluent cell layers represents a challenge as quantitative DHM phase images in this case do not provide sufficient information for image segmentation, determination of the cellular dry mass or calculation of the cell thickness. We present novel strategies for the analysis of confluent cell layers with quantitative DHM phase contrast utilizing a histogram based-evaluation procedure. The applicability of our approach is illustrated by quantification of drug induced cell morphology changes and it is shown that the method is capable to quantify reliable global morphology changes of confluent cell layers.

  7. Improved Reliability of Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells by Double Anode Buffer Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hsun Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized hybrid planar heterojunction (PHJ of small molecule organic solar cells (SM-OSCs based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc as donor and fullerene (C60 as acceptor was fabricated, which obviously enhanced the performance of device by sequentially using both MoO3 and pentacene as double anode buffer layers (ABL, also known as hole extraction layer (HEL. A series of the vacuum-deposited ABL, acting as an electron and exciton blocking layer, were examined for their characteristics in SM-OSCs. The performance and reliability were compared between conventional ITO/ABL/CuPc/C60/BCP/Ag cells and the new ITO/double ABL/CuPc/C60/BCP/Ag cells. The effect on the electrical properties of these materials was also investigated to obtain the optimal thickness of ABL. The comparison shows that the modified cell has an enhanced reliability compared to traditional cells. The improvement of lifetime was attributed to the idea of double layers to prevent humidity and oxygen from diffusing into the active layer. We demonstrated that the interfacial extraction layers are necessary to avoid degradation of device. That is to say, in normal temperature and pressure, a new avenue for the device within double buffer layers has exhibited the highest values of open circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF, and lifetime in this work compared to monolayer of ABL.

  8. Time-resolved PIV measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer over wind-driven surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey; Stegmeir, Matt

    2017-11-01

    Complex interactions at the air-water interface result in two-way coupling between wind-driven surface waves and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Turbulence generated at the surface plays an important role in aquatic ecology and biogeochemistry, exchange of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, and it is important for the transfer of energy and controlling evaporation. Energy transferred from the ABL promotes the generation and maintenance of waves. A fraction of the energy is transferred to the surface mixed layer through the generation of turbulence. Energy is also transferred back to the ABL by waves. There is a need to quantify the details of the coupled boundary layers of the air-water system to better understand how turbulence plays a role in the interactions. We employ time-resolved PIV to measure the detailed structure of the air and water boundary layers under varying wind and wave conditions in the newly developed IIHR Boundary-Layer Wind-Wave Tunnel. The facility combines a 30-m long recirculating water channel with an open-return boundary layer wind tunnel. A thick turbulent boundary layer is developed in the 1 m high air channel, over the water surface, allowing for the study of boundary layer turbulence interacting with a wind-driven wave field.

  9. Nd:YAG laser annealing investigation of screen-printed CIGS layer on PET: Layer annealing method for photovoltaic cell fabrication process

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaggaf, Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) ink was formulated from CIGS powder, polyvinyl butyral PVB, terpineol and polyester/polyamine co-polymeric dispersant KD-1. Thin films with different thicknesses were deposited on PET substrate using screen-printing followed by heat treatment using a Nd:YAG laser. The structure and morphology of the heated thin films were studied. The characterization of the CIGS powder, ink, and film was done using TGA, SEM, FIB, EDS, and XRD. TGA analysis shows that the CIGS ink is drying at 200 °C, which is well below the decomposition temperature of the PET substrate. It was observed by SEM that 20 pulses of 532nm and 60 mJ/cm2 Nd:YAG laser annealing causes atomic diffusion on the near surface area. Furthermore, FIB cross section images were utilized to monitor the effect of laser annealing in the depth of the layer. Laser annealing effects were compared to as deposited layer using XRD in reference to CIGS powder. The measurement shows that crystallinity of deposited CIGS is retained while EDS quantification and atomic ratio result in gradual loss of selenium as laser energy increases. The laser parameters were tuned in an effort to utilize laser annealing of screen-printed CIGS layer as a layer annealing method for solar cell fabrication process.

  10. Ultrasound-based measurement of liquid-layer thickness: A novel time-domain approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praher, Bernhard; Steinbichler, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the thickness of a thin liquid layer between two solid materials is important when the adequate separation of metallic parts by a lubricant film (e.g., in bearings or mechanical seals) is to be assessed. The challenge in using ultrasound-based systems for such measurements is that the signal from the liquid layer is a superposition of multiple reflections. We have developed an algorithm for reconstructing this superimposed signal in the time domain. By comparing simulated and measured signals, the time-of-flight of the ultrasonic pulse in a layer can be estimated. With the longitudinal sound velocity known, the layer thickness can then be calculated. In laboratory measurements, we validate successfully (maximum relative error 4.9%) our algorithm for layer thicknesses ranging from 30 μm to 200 μm. Furthermore, we tested our method in the high-temperature environment of polymer processing by measuring the clearance between screw and barrel in the plasticisation unit of an injection moulding machine. The results of such measurements can indicate (i) the wear status of the tribo-mechanical screw-barrel system and (ii) unsuitable process conditions.

  11. Flexible bactericidal graphene oxide–chitosan layers for stem cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaheri, M.; Akhavan, O.; Simchi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of flexible graphene oxide–chitosan nanocomposite layers was reported. • The flexibility of the chitosan layers were improved by adding graphene oxide sheets. • The nanocomposite layers with 1.5 wt% graphene oxide content showed yielded flexible and antibacterial surfaces for stem cell proliferation. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO)–chitosan composite layers with stacked layer structures were synthesized using chemically exfoliated GO sheets (with lateral dimensions of ∼1 μm and thickness of ∼1 nm), and applied as antibacterial and flexible nanostructured templates for stem cell proliferation. By increasing the GO content from zero to 6 wt%, the strength and elastic modulus of the layers increased ∼80% and 45%, respectively. Similar to the chitosan layer, the GO–chitosan composite layers showed significant antibacterial activity (>77% inactivation after only 3 h) against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Surface density of the actin cytoskeleton fibers of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on the chitosan and GO(1.5 wt%)–chitosan composite layers was found nearly the same, while it significantly decreased by increasing the GO content to 3 and 6 wt%. Our results indicated that although a high concentration of GO in the chitosan layer (here, 6 wt%) could decelerate the proliferation of the hMSCs on the flexible layer, a low concentration of GO (i.e., 1.5 wt%) not only resulted in biocompatibility but also kept the mechanical flexibility of the self-sterilized layers for high proliferation of hMSCs

  12. Flexible bactericidal graphene oxide–chitosan layers for stem cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazaheri, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhavan, O., E-mail: oakhavan@sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 14588-89694, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simchi, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 14588-89694, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of flexible graphene oxide–chitosan nanocomposite layers was reported. • The flexibility of the chitosan layers were improved by adding graphene oxide sheets. • The nanocomposite layers with 1.5 wt% graphene oxide content showed yielded flexible and antibacterial surfaces for stem cell proliferation. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO)–chitosan composite layers with stacked layer structures were synthesized using chemically exfoliated GO sheets (with lateral dimensions of ∼1 μm and thickness of ∼1 nm), and applied as antibacterial and flexible nanostructured templates for stem cell proliferation. By increasing the GO content from zero to 6 wt%, the strength and elastic modulus of the layers increased ∼80% and 45%, respectively. Similar to the chitosan layer, the GO–chitosan composite layers showed significant antibacterial activity (>77% inactivation after only 3 h) against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Surface density of the actin cytoskeleton fibers of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on the chitosan and GO(1.5 wt%)–chitosan composite layers was found nearly the same, while it significantly decreased by increasing the GO content to 3 and 6 wt%. Our results indicated that although a high concentration of GO in the chitosan layer (here, 6 wt%) could decelerate the proliferation of the hMSCs on the flexible layer, a low concentration of GO (i.e., 1.5 wt%) not only resulted in biocompatibility but also kept the mechanical flexibility of the self-sterilized layers for high proliferation of hMSCs.

  13. Optoelectric Properties of GaInP p-i-n Solar Cells with Different i-Layer Thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Shine Ko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optoelectric properties of GaInP p-i-n solar cells with different intrinsic layer (i-layer thicknesses from 0.25 to 1 μm were studied. Both emission intensity and full width at half maximum features of the photoluminescence spectrum indicate that the optimum i-layer thickness would be between 0.5 and 0.75 μm. The integrated current results of photocurrent experiment also point out that the samples with 0.5 to 0.75 μm i-layer thicknesses have optimum value around 156 nA. Electroreflectance measurements reveal that the built-in electric field strength of the sample gradually deviates from the theoretical value larger when i-layer thickness of the sample is thicker than 0.75 μm. I-V measurements also confirm crystal quality for whole samples by obtaining the information about short currents of photovoltaic performances. A series of experiments reflect that thicker i-layer structure would induce more defects generation lowering crystal quality.

  14. Three-dimensional reciprocal space profile of an individual nanocrystallite inside a thin-film solar cell absorber layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodskyy, Taras; Schroth, Philip; Minkevich, Andrey; Grigoriev, Daniil; Fohtung, Edwin; Riotte, Markus; Baumbach, Tilo; Powalla, Michael; Lemmer, Uli; Slobodskyy, Anatoliy

    2013-01-01

    The strain profile of an individual Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 nanocrystallite in a solar cell absorber layer is accessed using synchrotron radiation. We find that the investigated crystallite is inhomogeneously strained. The strain is most likely produced by a combination of intergranular strain and composition variations in nanocrystals inside the polycrystalline semiconductor film and carries information about the intercrystalline interaction. The measurements are made nondestructively and without additional sample preparation or x-ray beam nanofocusing. This is the first step towards measurements of strain profiles of individual crystallites inside a working solar cell. (paper)

  15. In vitro evaluation of chondrosarcoma cells and canine chondrocytes on layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembled multilayer nanofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaik, J; Mohammed, J Shaikh; McShane, M J; Mills, D K

    2013-01-01

    Short-term cell–substrate interactions of two secondary chondrocyte cell lines (human chondrosarcoma cells, canine chondrocytes) with layer-by-layer self-assembled multilayer nanofilms were investigated for a better understanding of cellular-behaviour dependence on a number of nanofilm layers. Cell–substrate interactions were studied on polyelectrolyte multilayer nanofilms (PMNs) of eleven different biomaterials. Surface characterization of PMNs performed using AFM showed increasing surface roughness with increasing number of layers for most of the biomaterials. LDH-L and MTT assays were performed on chondrosarcoma cells and canine chondrocytes, respectively. A major observation was that 10-bilayer nanofilms exhibited lesser cytotoxicity towards human chondrosarcoma cells than their 5-bilayer counterparts. In the case of canine chondrocytes, BSA enhanced cell metabolic activity with increasing number of layers, underscoring the importance of the multilayer nanofilm architecture on cellular behaviour. (paper)

  16. Thermal conductivity measurement of the He-ion implanted layer of W using transient thermoreflectance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Shilian; Li, Yuanfei [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Zhigang [Department of Electronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Jia, Yuzhen [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Science and Technology on Reactor Fuel and Materials Laboratory, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu 610213 (China); Li, Chun [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, North China University of Technology, Beijing 100144 (China); Xu, Ben; Chen, Wanqi [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Bai, Suyuan [School of Physics and Electronic Technology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Huang, Zhengxing; Tang, Zhenan [Department of Electronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Wei, E-mail: liuw@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Transient thermoreflectance method was applied on the thermal conductivity measurement of the surface damaged layer of He-implanted tungsten. Uniform damages tungsten surface layer was produced by multi-energy He-ion implantation with thickness of 450 nm. Result shows that the thermal conductivity is reduced by 90%. This technique was further applied on sample with holes on the surface, which was produced by the He-implanted at 2953 K. The thermal conductivity decreases to 3% from the bulk value.

  17. Tracking atmospheric boundary layer in tehran using combined lidar remote sensing and ground base measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahifar, Hossein; Khalesifard, Hamid

    2018-04-01

    The vertical structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) has been studied by use of a depolarized LiDAR over Tehran, Iran. The boundary layer height (BLH) remains under 1km, and its retrieval from LiDAR have been compared with sonding measurements and meteorological model outputs. It is also shown that the wind speed and direction as well as topography lead to the persistence of air pollution in Tehran. The situation aggravate in fall and winter due to temperature inversion.

  18. Realization of Colored Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells with SiO2/SiNx:H Double Layer Antireflection Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented a method to use SiO2/SiNx:H double layer antireflection coatings (DARC on acid textures to fabricate colored multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si solar cells. Firstly, we modeled the perceived colors and short-circuit current density (Jsc as a function of SiNx:H thickness for single layer SiNx:H, and as a function of SiO2 thickness for the case of SiO2/SiNx:H (DARC with fixed SiNx:H (refractive index n=2.1 at 633 nm, and thickness = 80 nm. The simulation results show that it is possible to achieve various colors by adjusting the thickness of SiO2 to avoid significant optical losses. Therefore, we carried out the experiments by using electron beam (e-beam evaporation to deposit a layer of SiO2 over the standard SiNx:H for 156×156 mm2 mc-Si solar cells which were fabricated by a conventional process. Semisphere reflectivity over 300 nm to 1100 nm and I-V measurements were performed for grey yellow, purple, deep blue, and green cells. The efficiency of colored SiO2/SiNx:H DARC cells is comparable to that of standard SiNx:H light blue cells, which shows the potential of colored cells in industrial applications.

  19. An Optimal Estimation Method to Obtain Surface Layer Turbulent Fluxes from Profile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D.

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of direct turbulence measurements, the turbulence characteristics of the atmospheric surface layer are often derived from measurements of the surface layer mean properties based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST). This approach requires two levels of the ensemble mean wind, temperature, and water vapor, from which the fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and water vapor can be obtained. When only one measurement level is available, the roughness heights and the assumed properties of the corresponding variables at the respective roughness heights are used. In practice, the temporal mean with large number of samples are used in place of the ensemble mean. However, in many situations the samples of data are taken from multiple levels. It is thus desirable to derive the boundary layer flux properties using all measurements. In this study, we used an optimal estimation approach to derive surface layer properties based on all available measurements. This approach assumes that the samples are taken from a population whose ensemble mean profile follows the MOST. An optimized estimate is obtained when the results yield a minimum cost function defined as a weighted summation of all error variance at each sample altitude. The weights are based one sample data variance and the altitude of the measurements. This method was applied to measurements in the marine atmospheric surface layer from a small boat using radiosonde on a tethered balloon where temperature and relative humidity profiles in the lowest 50 m were made repeatedly in about 30 minutes. We will present the resultant fluxes and the derived MOST mean profiles using different sets of measurements. The advantage of this method over the 'traditional' methods will be illustrated. Some limitations of this optimization method will also be discussed. Its application to quantify the effects of marine surface layer environment on radar and communication signal propagation will be shown as well.

  20. Pyramid-like basket cells in the granular layer of the dentate gyrus in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seress, L

    1978-01-01

    Basket cells of the dentate gyrus were identified using Nissl (cresyl violet) staining. It has been found that the ratio between basket and granule cells is 1:150--210. Only a few glial cells, mainly astroglia, were found in the granular layer of the dentate gyrus. In accordance with earlier data it was found that the granule cells and glial cells originate mainly postnatally, but the basket cells, like the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, originate prenatally. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:701192

  1. Fe gettering by p+ layer in bifacial Si solar cell fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terakawa, T.; Wang, D.; Nakashima, H.

    2006-01-01

    Gettering behaviors of Fe into solar cell grade Si are investigated by deep level transient spectroscopy. The samples contaminated with Fe in the range of the concentration of 1.5x10 12 -2.0x10 14 cm -3 were annealed at 600 deg. C to induce gettering. It is shown that the surface layer gettering behaviors of Fe for the sample without p + layer strongly depend on the Fe contamination level, in which the surface layer gettering is not effective for the sample with low level contamination 13 cm -3 but effective for the sample with middle level contamination of 1-5x10 13 cm -3 . In contrast, the samples with p + layer show effective gettering for low and middle level contaminations. The gettering mechanisms in solar cell grade Si without and with p + layer are discussed in details

  2. Double-layered ZnO nanostructures for efficient perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid; S. Swain, Bhabani; Amassian, Aram

    2014-01-01

    To date, a single layer of TiO2 or ZnO has been the most successful implementations of any electron transport layer (ETL) in solution-processed perovskite solar cells. In a quest to improve the ETL, we explore a new nanostructured double-layer ZnO film for mesoscopic perovskite-based thin film photovoltaics. This approach yields a maximum power conversion efficiency of 10.35%, which we attribute to the morphology of oxide layer and to faster electron transport. The successful implementation of the low-temperature hydrothermally processed double-layer ZnO film as ETL in perovskite solar cells highlights the opportunities to further improve the efficiencies by focusing on the ETL in this rapidly developing field. This journal is

  3. Substrate and p-layer effects on polymorphous silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolmasov S.N.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of textured transparent conducting oxide (TCO substrate and p-layer on the performance of single-junction hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H solar cells has been addressed. Comparative studies were performed using p-i-n devices with identical i/n-layers and back reflectors fabricated on textured Asahi U-type fluorine-doped SnO2, low-pressure chemical vapor deposited (LPCVD boron-doped ZnO and sputtered/etched aluminum-doped ZnO substrates. The p-layers were hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbon and microcrystalline silicon oxide. As expected, the type of TCO and p-layer both have a great influence on the initial conversion efficiency of the solar cells. However they have no effect on the defect density of the pm-Si:H absorber layer.

  4. Recombination barrier layers in solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Roelofs, Katherine E.

    2012-06-01

    By replacing the dye in the dye-sensitized solar cell design with semiconductor quantum dots as the light-absorbing material, solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (ss-QDSSCs) were fabricated. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots (QDs) were grown in situ by successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Aluminum oxide recombination barrier layers were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at the TiO2/hole-conductor interface. For low numbers of ALD cycles, the Al2O3 barrier layer increased open circuit voltage, causing an increase in device efficiency. For thicker Al2O3 barrier layers, photocurrent decreased substantially, leading to a decrease in device efficiency. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Interaction of S-layer proteins of Lactobacillus kefir with model membranes and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Axel; Delfederico, Lucrecia; Santos, Nuno C; Disalvo, E Anibal; Semorile, Liliana

    2018-06-01

    In previous works, it was shown that S-layer proteins from Lactobacillus kefir were able to recrystallize and stabilize liposomes, this feature reveling a great potential for developing liposomal-based carriers. Despite previous studies on this subject are important milestones, a number of questions remain unanswered. In this context, the feasibility of S-layer proteins as a biomaterial for drug delivery was evaluated in this work. First, S-layer proteins were fully characterized by electron microscopy, 2D-electrophoresis, and anionic exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). Afterward, interactions of S-layer proteins with model lipid membranes were evaluated, showing that proteins adsorb to the lipid surface following a non-fickean or anomalous diffusion, when positively charged lipid were employed, suggesting that electrostatic interaction is a key factor in the recrystallization process on these proteins. Finally, the interaction of S-layer coated liposomes with Caco-2 cell line was assessed: First, cytotoxicity of formulations was tested showing no cytotoxic effects in S-layer coated vesicles. Second, by flow cytometry, it was observed an increased ability to transfer cargo molecules into Caco-2 cells from S-layer coated liposomes in comparison to control ones. All data put together, supports the idea that a combination of adhesive properties of S-layer proteins concomitant with higher stability of S-layer coated liposomes represents an exciting starting point in the development of new drug carriers.

  6. Flexible bactericidal graphene oxide-chitosan layers for stem cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, M.; Akhavan, O.; Simchi, A.

    2014-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO)-chitosan composite layers with stacked layer structures were synthesized using chemically exfoliated GO sheets (with lateral dimensions of ˜1 μm and thickness of ˜1 nm), and applied as antibacterial and flexible nanostructured templates for stem cell proliferation. By increasing the GO content from zero to 6 wt%, the strength and elastic modulus of the layers increased ˜80% and 45%, respectively. Similar to the chitosan layer, the GO-chitosan composite layers showed significant antibacterial activity (>77% inactivation after only 3 h) against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Surface density of the actin cytoskeleton fibers of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on the chitosan and GO(1.5 wt%)-chitosan composite layers was found nearly the same, while it significantly decreased by increasing the GO content to 3 and 6 wt%. Our results indicated that although a high concentration of GO in the chitosan layer (here, 6 wt%) could decelerate the proliferation of the hMSCs on the flexible layer, a low concentration of GO (i.e., 1.5 wt%) not only resulted in biocompatibility but also kept the mechanical flexibility of the self-sterilized layers for high proliferation of hMSCs.

  7. TOPOGRAPHIC ORGANIZATION AND SPECIALIZED AREAS IN THE RETINA OF Callopistes palluma: GANGLION CELL LAYER

    OpenAIRE

    Inzunza, Oscar; Barros B., Zitta; Bravo, Hermes

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the topographic distribution and cell body size of neurons (ganglion and displaced amacrine) of layer 8 of the retina in the chilean reptile Callopistes palluma; using whole mount retinaswith nissl stain. Callopistes palluma retina has an area centralis without fovea in which the ganglion cell density amounts 20.000 cells / µm2 while the displaced amacrine neurons is about 7.000 cells / µm2. This neural density decreased gradually towards the peripheral retina. A hor...

  8. Au Nanoparticles as Interfacial Layer for CdS Quantum Dot-sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Guang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO/Au/TiO2/CdS photoanode and polysulfide electrolyte are fabricated. Au nanoparticles (NPs as interfacial layer between FTO and TiO2 layer are dip-coated on FTO surface. The structure, morphology and impedance of the photoanodes and the photovoltaic performance of the cells are investigated. A power conversion efficiency of 1.62% has been obtained for FTO/Au/TiO2/CdS cell, which is about 88% higher than that for FTO/TiO2/CdS cell (0.86%. The easier transport of excited electron and the suppression of charge recombination in the photoanode due to the introduction of Au NP layer should be responsible for the performance enhancement of the cell.

  9. Interfacial Energy Alignment at the ITO/Ultra-Thin Electron Selective Dielectric Layer Interface and Its Effect on the Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Eiji; Goto, Yoshinori; Saka, Yusuke; Fukuda, Katsutoshi

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated the photovoltaic properties of an inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) cell in a device with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/electron selective layer (ESL)/P3HT:PCBM active layer/MoOx/Ag multilayered structure. The insertion of only single layer of poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) (PDDA) cationic polymer film (or poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) polymeric interfacial dipole layer) and titanium oxide nanosheet (TN) films as an ESL effectively improved cell performance. Abnormal S-shaped curves were observed in the inverted BHJ cells owing to the contact resistance across the ITO/active layer interface and the ITO/PDDA/TN/active layer interface. The series resistance across the ITO/ESL interface in the inverted BHJ cell was successfully reduced using an interfacial layer with a positively charged surface potential with respect to ITO base electrode. The positive dipole in PEI and the electronic charge phenomena at the electrophoretic deposited TN (ED-TN) films on ITO contributed to the reduction of the contact resistance at the electrode interface. The surface potential measurement revealed that the energy alignment by the transfer of electronic charges from the ED-TN to the base electrodes. The insertion of the ESL with a large positive surface potential reduced the potential barrier for the electron injection at ITO/TN interface and it improved the photovoltaic properties of the inverted cell with an ITO/TN/active layer/MoOx/Ag structure.

  10. Direct Current Sputter Epitaxy of Heavily Doped p+ Layer for Monocrystalline Si Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchang Yeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sputter epitaxy of p+ layer for fabrication of Si solar cells (SCs was demonstrated. Hall carrier concentration of p+ layer was 2.6 × 1020 cm−3 owing to cosputtering of B with Si at low temperature, which had enabled heavy and shallow p+ dope layer. p+nn+ SCs were fabricated and influence of p+ and n+ layers was investigated. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE of p+nn+ SCs was 95% at visible light and was larger than 60% at ultraviolet (UV light when the p+ layer was thinner than 30 nm. At near infrared (NIR, extra increment on IQE was achieved by rear n+ back surface field (BSF layer with a thickness thinner than 100 nm.

  11. Enhancement of device performance of organic solar cells by an interfacial perylene derivative layer

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Inho

    2010-05-26

    We report that device performance of organic solar cells consisting of zinc phthalocyanine and fullerene (C60) can be enhanced by insertion of a perylene derivative interfacial layer between fullerene and bathocuproine (BCP) exciton blocking layer (EBL). The morphology of the BCP is influenced by the underlying N,N′-dihexyl-perylene-3,4,9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PTCDI-C6), which promotes migration of the cathode metal into the BCP layer. Insertion of a PTCDI-C6 layer between fullerene and BCP layers enhances the power conversion efficiency to 2.5%, an improvement of 32% over devices without PTCDI-C6 layer. The enhancement in device performance by insertion of PTCDI-C6 is attributed to a reduction in series resistance due to promoted metal migration into BCP and optimized optical interference effects in multilayered devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Efficiency limit of solar cells with index-near-zero photon management layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, A.P.

    2017-01-01

    As single-junction solar cells saturate in efficiency, the topic of photon management has generated interest in the long running quest to exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. While a mirror applied to the backside of a solar cell has proven its benefit as a photon management layer in record setting devices that fall within the Shockley-Queisser limit, it has been proposed that a new type of photon management layer – a transparent index-near-zero (INZ) material – applied to the top surface of a solar cell will allow it to finally exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit. INZ layers – and their influence on solar cell current density, open circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency – are analyzed. By considering the principle of detailed balance, Snell's law, and the role that entropy plays, it is shown that INZ layers do not allow a solar cell to exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. At best, a solar cell with an INZ layer would have the same Shockley-Queisser limiting efficiency as a conventional solar cell tracked under a direct solar spectrum (direct beam radiation only), yet would suffer diminished efficiency under a global solar spectrum (direct beam plus diffuse light) due to the presence of an external critical acceptance angle.

  13. Efficiency limit of solar cells with index-near-zero photon management layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, A.P.

    2017-05-15

    As single-junction solar cells saturate in efficiency, the topic of photon management has generated interest in the long running quest to exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. While a mirror applied to the backside of a solar cell has proven its benefit as a photon management layer in record setting devices that fall within the Shockley-Queisser limit, it has been proposed that a new type of photon management layer – a transparent index-near-zero (INZ) material – applied to the top surface of a solar cell will allow it to finally exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit. INZ layers – and their influence on solar cell current density, open circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency – are analyzed. By considering the principle of detailed balance, Snell's law, and the role that entropy plays, it is shown that INZ layers do not allow a solar cell to exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. At best, a solar cell with an INZ layer would have the same Shockley-Queisser limiting efficiency as a conventional solar cell tracked under a direct solar spectrum (direct beam radiation only), yet would suffer diminished efficiency under a global solar spectrum (direct beam plus diffuse light) due to the presence of an external critical acceptance angle.

  14. Efficiency limit of solar cells with index-near-zero photon management layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    As single-junction solar cells saturate in efficiency, the topic of photon management has generated interest in the long running quest to exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. While a mirror applied to the backside of a solar cell has proven its benefit as a photon management layer in record setting devices that fall within the Shockley-Queisser limit, it has been proposed that a new type of photon management layer - a transparent index-near-zero (INZ) material - applied to the top surface of a solar cell will allow it to finally exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit. INZ layers - and their influence on solar cell current density, open circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency - are analyzed. By considering the principle of detailed balance, Snell's law, and the role that entropy plays, it is shown that INZ layers do not allow a solar cell to exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. At best, a solar cell with an INZ layer would have the same Shockley-Queisser limiting efficiency as a conventional solar cell tracked under a direct solar spectrum (direct beam radiation only), yet would suffer diminished efficiency under a global solar spectrum (direct beam plus diffuse light) due to the presence of an external critical acceptance angle.

  15. Atomic layer deposition for photovoltaics: applications and prospects for solar cell manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Delft, J A; Garcia-Alonso, D; Kessels, W M M

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a vapour-phase deposition technique capable of depositing high quality, uniform and conformal thin films at relatively low temperatures. These outstanding properties can be employed to face processing challenges for various types of next-generation solar cells; hence, ALD for photovoltaics (PV) has attracted great interest in academic and industrial research in recent years. In this review, the recent progress of ALD layers applied to various solar cell concepts and their future prospects are discussed. Crystalline silicon (c-Si), copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) benefit from the application of ALD surface passivation layers, buffer layers and barrier layers, respectively. ALD films are also excellent moisture permeation barriers that have been successfully used to encapsulate flexible CIGS and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Furthermore, some emerging applications of the ALD method in solar cell research are reviewed. The potential of ALD for solar cells manufacturing is discussed, and the current status of high-throughput ALD equipment development is presented. ALD is on the verge of being introduced in the PV industry and it is expected that it will be part of the standard solar cell manufacturing equipment in the near future. (paper)

  16. Distribution of electrode elements near contacts and junction layers in amorphous silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, T; Hiraki, A; Okamoto, H

    1982-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy with the ion sputter-etching technique and secondary ion mass spectroscopy have been utilized to investigate the depth distribution of Sn and In electrode elements in amorphous silicon layers of the photovoltaic device. The comparison of the depth profiles with the cell performances has indicated that the presence of the reduced state of In in both the p and i-layers affects the solar cell performance, but that of Sn does not. It was also shown that layered structure of In-Sn oxide (ITO)/SnO2 effectively prevents the diffusion of In and achieves high cell performances, having the thickness of the SnO2 layer about 200 A. 8 references.

  17. Hydrophobic Polystyrene Passivation Layer for Simultaneously Improved Efficiency and Stability in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghua; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Huan, Yahuan; Li, Yong; Zhang, Ruxiao; Zhang, Yue

    2018-06-06

    The major restraint for the commercialization of the high-performance hybrid metal halide perovskite solar cells is the long-term stability, especially at the infirm interface between the perovskite film and organic charge-transfer layer. Recently, engineering the interface between the perovskite and spiro-OMeTAD becomes an effective strategy to simultaneously improve the efficiency and stability in the perovskite solar cells. In this work, we demonstrated that introducing an interfacial polystyrene layer between the perovskite film and spiro-OMeTAD layer can effectively improve the perovskite solar cells photovoltaic performance. The inserted polystyrene layer can passivate the interface traps and defects effectively and decrease the nonradiative recombination, leading to enhanced photoluminescence intensity and carrier lifetime, without compromising the carrier extraction and transfer. Under the optimized condition, the perovskite solar cells with the polystyrene layer achieve an enhanced average power efficiency of about 19.61% (20.46% of the best efficiency) from about 17.63% with negligible current density-voltage hysteresis. Moreover, the optimized perovskite solar cells with the hydrophobic polystyrene layer can maintain about 85% initial efficiency after 2 months storage in open air conditions without encapsulation.

  18. Inverted amorphous silicon solar cell utilizing cermet layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell incorporating a transparent high work function metal cermet incident to solar radiation and a thick film cermet contacting the amorphous silicon opposite to said incident surface.

  19. Ultrasonic Measurement of Interfacial Layer Thickness of Sub-Quarter-Wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, No Hyu; Lee, Sang Soon [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    This paper describes a new technique for thickness measurement of a very thin layer less than one-quarter of the wavelength of ultrasonic wave used in the ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements. The technique determines the thickness of a thin layer in a tapered medium from constructive interference of multiple reflection waves. The interference characteristics are derived and investigated in theoretical and experimental approaches. Modified total reflection wave g(t) defined as difference between total and first reflection waves increases in amplitude as the interfacial layer thickness decreases down to zero. A layer thickness less than one-tenth of the ultrasonic wavelength is measured using the maximum amplitude of g(t) with a good accuracy and sensitivity. The method also requires no inversion process to extract the thickness information from the waveforms of reflected waves, so that it makes possible to have the on-line thickness measurement of a thin layer such as a lubricating oil film in thrust bearings and journal bearings during manufacturing process

  20. Ultrasonic Measurement of Interfacial Layer Thickness of Sub-Quarter-Wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, No Hyu; Lee, Sang Soon

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for thickness measurement of a very thin layer less than one-quarter of the wavelength of ultrasonic wave used in the ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements. The technique determines the thickness of a thin layer in a tapered medium from constructive interference of multiple reflection waves. The interference characteristics are derived and investigated in theoretical and experimental approaches. Modified total reflection wave g(t) defined as difference between total and first reflection waves increases in amplitude as the interfacial layer thickness decreases down to zero. A layer thickness less than one-tenth of the ultrasonic wavelength is measured using the maximum amplitude of g(t) with a good accuracy and sensitivity. The method also requires no inversion process to extract the thickness information from the waveforms of reflected waves, so that it makes possible to have the on-line thickness measurement of a thin layer such as a lubricating oil film in thrust bearings and journal bearings during manufacturing process

  1. Anti corrosion layer for stainless steel in molten carbonate fuel cell - comprises phase vapour deposition of titanium nitride, aluminium nitride or chromium nitride layer then oxidising layer in molten carbonate electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Forming an anticorrosion protective layer on a stainless steel surface used in a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) - comprises the phase vapour deposition (PVD) of a layer comprising at least one of titanium nitride, aluminium nitride or chromium nitride and then forming a protective layer in situ...

  2. Electrochemical atomic layer deposition of Pt nanostructures on fuel cell gas diffusion layer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available and test MEA?s performance in PEMFC. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Barbir F., (2005) PEM Fuel Cells: Theory and Practice, Elsevier Academic Press Oxford. 2. Yang T.-H., et al (2004) J. Power Sources 127 230. 3. Hirano S., Kim J. and Srinivasan S., (1997) Electrochim... stream_source_info Modibedi_2010.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 5644 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Modibedi_2010.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS...

  3. Eddy current imaging for electrical characterization of silicon solar cells and TCO layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Byungguk; Hillmann, Susanne; Schulze, Martin; Klein, Marcus; Heuer, Henning

    2015-03-01

    Eddy Current Testing has been mainly used to determine defects of conductive materials and wall thicknesses in heavy industries such as construction or aerospace. Recently, high frequency Eddy Current imaging technology was developed. This enables the acquirement of information of different depth level in conductive thin-film structures by realizing proper standard penetration depth. In this paper, we summarize the state of the art applications focusing on PV industry and extend the analysis implementing achievements by applying spatially resolved Eddy Current Testing. The specific state of frequency and complex phase angle rotation demonstrates diverse defects from front to back side of silicon solar cells and characterizes homogeneity of sheet resistance in Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) layers. In order to verify technical feasibility, measurement results from the Multi Parameter Eddy Current Scanner, MPECS are compared to the results from Electroluminescence.

  4. Optical measurements of absorption changes in two-layered diffusive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Francesco; Sassaroli, Angelo; Henry, Michael E; Fantini, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    We have used Monte Carlo simulations for a two-layered diffusive medium to investigate the effect of a superficial layer on the measurement of absorption variations from optical diffuse reflectance data processed by using: (a) a multidistance, frequency-domain method based on diffusion theory for a semi-infinite homogeneous medium; (b) a differential-pathlength-factor method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a homogeneous medium and (c) a two-distance, partial-pathlength method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a two-layered medium. Methods (a) and (b) lead to a single value for the absorption variation, whereas method (c) yields absorption variations for each layer. In the simulations, the optical coefficients of the medium were representative of those of biological tissue in the near-infrared. The thickness of the first layer was in the range 0.3-1.4 cm, and the source-detector distances were in the range 1-5 cm, which is typical of near-infrared diffuse reflectance measurements in tissue. The simulations have shown that (1) method (a) is mostly sensitive to absorption changes in the underlying layer, provided that the thickness of the superficial layer is ∼0.6 cm or less; (2) method (b) is significantly affected by absorption changes in the superficial layer and (3) method (c) yields the absorption changes for both layers with a relatively good accuracy of ∼4% for the superficial layer and ∼10% for the underlying layer (provided that the absorption changes are less than 20-30% of the baseline value). We have applied all three methods of data analysis to near-infrared data collected on the forehead of a human subject during electroconvulsive therapy. Our results suggest that the multidistance method (a) and the two-distance partial-pathlength method (c) may better decouple the contributions to the optical signals that originate in deeper tissue (brain) from those that originate in more superficial tissue layers

  5. Ni/Ni-YSZ current collector/anode dual layer hollow fibers for micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanawka, K.; Othman, M.H.D.; Droushiotis, N.; Wu, Z.; Kelsall, G.; Li, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    A co-extrusion technique was employed to fabricate a novel dual layer NiO/NiO-YSZ hollow fiber (HF) precursor which was then co-sintered at 1,400 C and reduced at 700 C to form, respectively, a meshed porous inner Ni current collector and outer Ni-YSZ anode layers for SOFC applications. The inner thin and highly porous ''mesh-like'' pure Ni layer of approximately 50 {mu}m in thickness functions as a current collector in micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), aiming at highly efficient current collection with low fuel diffusion resistance, while the thicker outer Ni-YSZ layer of 260 {mu}m acts as an anode, providing also major mechanical strength to the dual-layer HF. Achieved morphology consisted of short finger-like voids originating from the inner lumen of the HF, and a sponge-like structure filling most of the Ni-YSZ anode layer, which is considered to be suitable macrostructure for anode SOFC system. The electrical conductivity of the meshed porous inner Ni layer is measured to be 77.5 x 10{sup 5} S m{sup -1}. This result is significantly higher than previous reported results on single layer Ni-YSZ HFs, which performs not only as a catalyst for the oxidation reaction, but also as a current collector. These results highlight the advantages of this novel dual-layer HF design as a new and highly efficient way of collecting current from the lumen of micro-tubular SOFC. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Direct measurements of the velocity and thickness of ''explosively'' propagating buried molten layers in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowndes, D.H.; Jellison, G.E. Jr.; Pennycook, S.J.; Withrow, S.P.; Mashburn, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous infrared (1152 nm) and visible (633 nm) reflectivity measurements with nanosecond resolution were used to study the initial formation and subsequent motion of pulsed KrF laser-induced ''explosively'' propagating buried molten layers in ion implantation-amorphized silicon. The buried layer velocity decreases with depth below the surface, but increases with KrF laser energy density; a maximum velocity of about 14 m/s was observed, implying an undercooling-velocity relationship of approx. 14 K/(m/s). Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to form a direct chemical image of implanted Cu ions transported by the buried layer and showed that the final buried layer thickness was <15 nm

  7. Improved efficiency of NiOx-based p-i-n perovskite solar cells by using PTEG-1 as electron transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Bart G. H. M.; Najafi, Mehrdad; Steensma, Bauke; Adjokatse, Sampson; Fang, Hong-Hua; Jahani, Fatemeh; Qiu, Li; ten Brink, Gert H.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-07-01

    We present efficient p-i-n type perovskite solar cells using NiOx as the hole transport layer and a fulleropyrrolidine with a triethylene glycol monoethyl ether side chain (PTEG-1) as electron transport layer. This electron transport layer leads to higher power conversion efficiencies compared to perovskite solar cells with PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester). The improved performance of PTEG-1 devices is attributed to the reduced trap-assisted recombination and improved charge extraction in these solar cells, as determined by light intensity dependence and photoluminescence measurements. Through optimization of the hole and electron transport layers, the power conversion efficiency of the NiOx/perovskite/PTEG-1 solar cells was increased up to 16.1%.

  8. Voxel-based measurement sensitivity of spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy in layered tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2018-03-01

    We quantitatively investigated the measurement sensitivity of spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) across six tissue models: cerebral tissue, a small animal brain, the forehead of a fetus, an adult brain, forearm muscle, and thigh muscle. The optical path length in the voxel of the model was analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that the measurement sensitivity can be represented as the product of the change in the absorption coefficient and the difference in optical path length in two states with different source-detector distances. The results clarified the sensitivity ratio between the surface layer and the deep layer at each source-detector distance for each model and identified changes in the deep measurement area when one of the detectors was close to the light source. A comparison was made with the results from continuous-wave spectroscopy. The study also identified measurement challenges that arise when the surface layer is inhomogeneous. Findings on the measurement sensitivity of SRS at each voxel and in each layer can support the correct interpretation of measured values when near-infrared oximetry or functional near-infrared spectroscopy is used to investigate different tissue structures. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  9. A Customizable Chamber for Measuring Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Aniqa N; Vo, Huu Tri; Olang, Sharon; Mappus, Elliott; Peterson, Brian; Hlavac, Nora; Harvey, Tyler; Dean, Delphine

    2017-03-12

    Cell migration is a vital part of immune responses, growth, and wound healing. Cell migration is a complex process that involves interactions between cells, the extracellular matrix, and soluble and non-soluble chemical factors (e.g., chemoattractants). Standard methods for measuring the migration of cells, such as the Boyden chamber assay, work by counting cells on either side of a divider. These techniques are easy to use; however, they offer little geometric modification for different applications. In contrast, microfluidic devices can be used to observe cell migration with customizable concentration gradients of soluble factors 1 , 2 . However, methods for making microfluidics based assays can be difficult to learn. Here, we describe an easy method for creating cell culture chambers to measure cell migration in response to chemical concentration gradients. Our cell migration chamber method can create different linear concentration gradients in order to study cell migration for a variety of applications. This method is relatively easy to use and is typically performed by undergraduate students. The microchannel chamber was created by placing an acrylic insert in the shape of the final microchannel chamber well into a Petri dish. After this, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was poured on top of the insert. The PDMS was allowed to harden and then the insert was removed. This allowed for the creation of wells in any desired shape or size. Cells may be subsequently added to the microchannel chamber, and soluble agents can be added to one of the wells by soaking an agarose block in the desired agent. The agarose block is added to one of the wells, and time-lapse images can be taken of the microchannel chamber in order to quantify cell migration. Variations to this method can be made for a given application, making this method highly customizable.

  10. Two-layer tissue engineered urethra using oral epithelial and muscle derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Hiroshi; Kuwahara, Go; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yamato, Masayuki; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Kodama, Shohta

    2012-05-01

    We fabricated novel tissue engineered urethral grafts using autologously harvested oral cells. We report their viability in a canine model. Oral tissues were harvested by punch biopsy and divided into mucosal and muscle sections. Epithelial cells from mucosal sections were cultured as epithelial cell sheets. Simultaneously muscle derived cells were seeded on collagen mesh matrices to form muscle cell sheets. At 2 weeks the sheets were joined and tubularized to form 2-layer tissue engineered urethras, which were autologously grafted to surgically induced urethral defects in 10 dogs in the experimental group. Tissue engineered grafts were not applied to the induced urethral defect in control dogs. The dogs were followed 12 weeks postoperatively. Urethrogram and histological examination were done to evaluate the grafting outcome. We successfully fabricated 2-layer tissue engineered urethras in vitro and transplanted them in dogs in the experimental group. The 12-week complication-free rate was significantly higher in the experimental group than in controls. Urethrogram confirmed urethral patency without stricture in the complication-free group at 12 weeks. Histologically urethras in the transplant group showed a stratified epithelial layer overlying well differentiated submucosa. In contrast, urethras in controls showed severe fibrosis without epithelial layer formation. Two-layer tissue engineered urethras were engineered using cells harvested by minimally invasive oral punch biopsy. Results suggest that this technique can encourage regeneration of a functional urethra. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Variations of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness according to the torsion direction of optic disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Chan Yun; Kim, Na Rae

    2014-02-20

    To examine the relationship between the optic disc torsion and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness through a comparison with the macular ganglion cell inner plexiform layer complex (GCIPL) thickness measured by Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT). Ninety-four eyes of 94 subjects with optic disc torsion and 114 eyes of 114 subjects without optic disc torsion were enrolled prospectively. The participants underwent fundus photography and OCT imaging in peripapillary RNFL mode and macular GCIPL mode. The participants were divided into groups according to the presence or absence of optic disc torsion. The eyes with optic disc torsion were further divided into supranasal torsion and inferotemporal torsion groups according to the direction of optic disc torsion. The mean RNFL and GCIPL thicknesses for the quadrants and subsectors were compared. The superior and inferior peak locations of the RNFL were also measured according to the torsion direction. The temporal RNFL thickness was significantly thicker in inferotemporal torsion, whereas the GCIPL thickness at all segments was unaffected. The inferotemporal optic torsion had more temporally positioned superior peak locations of the RNFL than the nontorsion and supranasal-torted optic disc. Thickening of the temporal RNFL with a temporal shift in the superior peak within the eyes with inferotemporal optic disc torsion can lead to interpretation errors. The ganglion cell analysis algorithm can assist in differentiating eyes with optic disc torsion.

  12. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caprio, Giuseppe; Stokes, Chris; Higgins, John M; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-08-11

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin (Hb) in red blood cells (RBCs). Although the oxygen affinity of blood is well-understood and routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of RBC volume and Hb concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers, and they are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system. To better understand the variability and determinants of oxygen affinity on a cellular level, we have developed a system that quantifies the oxygen saturation, cell volume, and Hb concentration for individual RBCs in high throughput. We find that the variability in single-cell saturation peaks at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.9%, which corresponds to the maximum slope of the oxygen-Hb dissociation curve. In addition, single-cell oxygen affinity is positively correlated with Hb concentration but independent of osmolarity, which suggests variation in the Hb to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2-3 DPG) ratio on a cellular level. By quantifying the functional behavior of a cellular population, our system adds a dimension to blood cell analysis and other measurements of single-cell variability.

  13. Entropy measures of collective cell migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, Ariadne; Parrinello, Simona; Faisal, Aldo

    2015-03-01

    Collective cell migration is a critical process during tissue formation and repair. To this end there is a need to develop tools to quantitatively measure the dynamics of collective cell migration obtained from microscopy data. Drawing on statistical physics we use entropy of velocity fields derived from dense optic flow to quantitatively measure collective migration. Using peripheral nerve repair after injury as experimental system, we study how Schwann cells, guided by fibroblasts, migrate in cord-like structures across the cut, paving a highway for neurons. This process of emergence of organised behaviour is key for successful repair, yet the emergence of leader cells and transition from a random to ordered state is not understood. We find fibroblasts induce correlated directionality in migrating Schwann cells as measured by a decrease in the entropy of motion vector. We show our method is robust with respect to image resolution in time and space, giving a principled assessment of how various molecular mechanisms affect macroscopic features of collective cell migration. Finally, the generality of our method allows us to process both simulated cell movement and microscopic data, enabling principled fitting and comparison of in silico to in vitro. ICCS, Imperial College London & MRC Clinical Sciences Centre.

  14. Efficient InGaP/GaAs DJ solar cell with double back surface field layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Mishra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An effective and optimised BSF layer is an important layer in both single junction and multijunction solar cells. In this work the use of the double layer BSF for top cell with their varied thicknesses is investigated on GaInP/GaAs DJ solar cell using the computational numerical modelling TCAD tool Silvaco ATLAS. The detail photo-generation rates are determined. The major modelling stages are described and the simulation results are validated with published experimental data in order to describe the accuracy of our results produced. For this optimized cell structure, the maximum Jsc = 17.33 mA/cm2, Voc = 2.66 V, and fill factor (FF = 88.67% are obtained under AM1.5G illumination, exhibiting a maximum conversion efficiency of 34.52% (1 sun and 39.15% (1000 suns.

  15. The measurement of layer thickness by the deconvolution of ultrasonic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.J.

    1977-07-01

    An ultrasonic technique for measuring layer thickness, such as oxide on corroded steel, is described. A time domain response function is extracted from an ultrasonic signal reflected from the layered system. This signal is the convolution of the input signal with the response function of the layer. By using a signal reflected from a non-layered surface to represent the input, the response function may be obtained by deconvolution. The advantage of this technique over that described by Haines and Bel (1975) is that the quality of the results obtained using their method depends on the ability of a skilled operator in lining up an arbitrary common feature of the signals received. Using deconvolution no operator manipulations are necessary and so less highly trained personnel may successfully make the measurements. Results are presented for layers of araldite on aluminium and magnetite of steel. The results agreed satisfactorily with predictions but in the case of magnetite, its high velocity of sound meant that thicknesses of less than 250 microns were difficult to measure accurately. (author)

  16. Study on dynamic deformation synchronized measurement technology of double-layer liquid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huiying; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Zhanwei

    2017-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces plays an important role in many fields, such as fluid mechanics, biomechanics, petrochemical industry and aerospace engineering. It is difficult to measure dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces synchronously for traditional methods. In this paper, a novel and effective method for full-field static and dynamic deformation measurement of double-layer liquid surfaces has been developed, that is wavefront distortion of double-wavelength transmission light with geometric phase analysis (GPA) method. Double wavelength lattice patterns used here are produced by two techniques, one is by double wavelength laser, and the other is by liquid crystal display (LCD). The techniques combine the characteristics such as high transparency, low reflectivity and fluidity of liquid. Two color lattice patterns produced by laser and LCD were adjusted at a certain angle through the tested double-layer liquid surfaces simultaneously. On the basis of the refractive indexes difference of two transmitted lights, the double-layer liquid surfaces were decoupled with GPA method. Combined with the derived relationship between phase variation of transmission-lattice patterns and out-of plane heights of two surfaces, as well as considering the height curves of the liquid level, the double-layer liquid surfaces can be reconstructed successfully. Compared with the traditional measurement method, the developed method not only has the common advantages of the optical measurement methods, such as high-precision, full-field and non-contact, but also simple, low cost and easy to set up.

  17. Microstructure of absorber layers in CdTe/CdS solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousins, M.A.

    2001-04-01

    This work concerns the microstructure of CSS-grown CdTe layers used for CdTe/CdS solar cells. Particular attention is given to how the development of microstructure on annealing with CdCl 2 may correlate with increases in efficiency. By annealing pressed pellets of bulk CdTe powder, it is shown that microstructural change does occur on heating the material, enhanced by the inclusion of CdCl 2 flux. However, the temperature required to cause significant effects is demonstrated to be higher than that at which heavy oxidation takes place. The dynamics of this oxidation are also examined. To investigate microstructural evolution in thin-films of CdTe, bi-layers of CdTe and CdS are examined by bevelling, thus revealing the microstructure to within ∼1 μm of the interface. This allows optical microscopy and subsequent image analysis of grain structure. The work shows that the grain-size, which is well described by the Rayleigh distribution, varies linearly throughout the layer, but is invariant under CdCl 2 treatment. Electrical measurements on these bi-layers, however, showed increased efficiency, as is widely reported. This demonstrates that the efficiency of these devices is not dictated by the bulk microstructure. Further, the region within 1 μm of the interface, of similar bi-layers to above, is examined by plan-view TEM. This reveals five-fold grain-growth on CdCl 2 treatment. Moreover, these grains show a considerably smaller grain size than expected from extrapolating the linear trend in the bulk. These observations are explained in terms of the pinning of the CdTe grain size to the underlying CdS, and the small grain size this causes. A simple model was proposed for a link between the grain-growth to the efficiency improvement. The study also examines the behaviour of defects within grains upon CdCl 2 treatment provided the first direct evidence of recovery on CdCl 2 treatment in this system. Finally, a computer model is presented to describe the evolution of

  18. Hybrid solar cells based on CuInS2 and organic buffer-sensitizer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereznev, S.; Koeppe, R.; Konovalov, I.; Kois, J.; Guenes, S.; Opik, A.; Mellikov, E.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid solar cells on the basis of CuInS 2 (CIS) photoabsorber on Cu-tape (CISCuT) in combination with organic buffer layers of Zn-phthalocyanine (ZnPc), ZnPc:fullerene (ZnPc:C 60 ) composite and conductive polymer buffer layers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) were prepared using vacuum evaporation and spin-casting techniques. To prepare solar cells with an active area of 2 cm 2 , the appropriate deposition parameters and thickness of ZnPc, ZnPc:C 60 and PEDOT-PSS layers were selected experimentally. For preparation of semitransparent contact-window layers, chromium and gold were evaporated on the surface of ZnPc, ZnPc:C 60 and PEDOT-PSS films. It was found that an intermediate chromium layer improves PV properties of the structures with organic buffer layers. The photosensitivity at small illumination intensities of complete structures with ZnPc and ZnPc:C 60 layers increased more than one order of magnitude in comparison with the structures where the PEDOT-PSS buffer layer was deposited. The presence of C 60 in the composite-buffer layer results in increased photoconductivity. The best structure with composite ZnPc:C 60 buffer layer showed an open-circuit voltage of 560 mV, a short-circuit current density of around 10 mA/cm 2 and a photoconversion efficiency of around 3.3% under the light illumination with an intensity of 100 mW/cm 2 from a tungsten-halogen lamp. The low transmission of the semitransparent chromium-gold window layer is the reason for relatively low current density

  19. Enhanced photocurrent density in graphene/Si based solar cell (GSSC) by optimizing active layer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad, E-mail: a.rosikhin86@yahoo.co.id; Hidayat, Aulia Fikri; Syuhada, Ibnu; Winata, Toto, E-mail: toto@fi.itb.ac.id [Department of physics, physics of electronic materials research division Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Jawa Barat – Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Thickness dependent photocurrent density in active layer of graphene/Si based solar cell has been investigated via analytical – simulation study. This report is a preliminary comparison of experimental and analytical investigation of graphene/Si based solar cell. Graphene sheet was interfaced with Si thin film forming heterojunction solar cell that was treated as a device model for photocurrent generator. Such current can be enhanced by optimizing active layer thickness and involving metal oxide as supporting layer to shift photons absorption. In this case there are two type of devices model with and without TiO{sub 2} in which the silicon thickness varied at 20 – 100 nm. All of them have examined and also compared with each other to obtain an optimum value. From this calculation it found that generated currents almost linear with thickness but there are saturated conditions that no more enhancements will be achieved. Furthermore TiO{sub 2} layer is effectively increases photon absorption but reducing device stability, maximum current is fluctuates enough. This may caused by the disturbance of excitons diffusion and resistivity inside each layer. Finally by controlling active layer thickness, it is quite useful to estimate optimization in order to develop the next solar cell devices.

  20. Enhanced photocurrent density in graphene/Si based solar cell (GSSC) by optimizing active layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad; Hidayat, Aulia Fikri; Syuhada, Ibnu; Winata, Toto

    2015-01-01

    Thickness dependent photocurrent density in active layer of graphene/Si based solar cell has been investigated via analytical – simulation study. This report is a preliminary comparison of experimental and analytical investigation of graphene/Si based solar cell. Graphene sheet was interfaced with Si thin film forming heterojunction solar cell that was treated as a device model for photocurrent generator. Such current can be enhanced by optimizing active layer thickness and involving metal oxide as supporting layer to shift photons absorption. In this case there are two type of devices model with and without TiO 2 in which the silicon thickness varied at 20 – 100 nm. All of them have examined and also compared with each other to obtain an optimum value. From this calculation it found that generated currents almost linear with thickness but there are saturated conditions that no more enhancements will be achieved. Furthermore TiO 2 layer is effectively increases photon absorption but reducing device stability, maximum current is fluctuates enough. This may caused by the disturbance of excitons diffusion and resistivity inside each layer. Finally by controlling active layer thickness, it is quite useful to estimate optimization in order to develop the next solar cell devices

  1. Layer- and Cell Type-Specific Modulation of Excitatory Neuronal Activity in the Neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Radnikow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available From an anatomical point of view the neocortex is subdivided into up to six layers depending on the cortical area. This subdivision has been described already by Meynert and Brodmann in the late 19/early 20. century and is mainly based on cytoarchitectonic features such as the size and location of the pyramidal cell bodies. Hence, cortical lamination is originally an anatomical concept based on the distribution of excitatory neuron. However, it has become apparent in recent years that apart from the layer-specific differences in morphological features, many functional properties of neurons are also dependent on cortical layer or cell type. Such functional differences include changes in neuronal excitability and synaptic activity by neuromodulatory transmitters. Many of these neuromodulators are released from axonal afferents from subcortical brain regions while others are released intrinsically. In this review we aim to describe layer- and cell-type specific differences in the effects of neuromodulator receptors in excitatory neurons in layers 2–6 of different cortical areas. We will focus on the neuromodulator systems using adenosine, acetylcholine, dopamine, and orexin/hypocretin as examples because these neuromodulator systems show important differences in receptor type and distribution, mode of release and functional mechanisms and effects. We try to summarize how layer- and cell type-specific neuromodulation may affect synaptic signaling in cortical microcircuits.

  2. 3D morphology of photoactive layers of polymer solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavel, van S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured polymer solar cells (PSCs) have emerged as a promising low-cost alternative to conventional silicon-based photovoltaic devices. Since PSCs can be fabricated by processing polymers, eventually together with other organic materials, from solution and depositing them onto different types

  3. In situ formation of graphene layers on graphite surfaces for efficient anodes of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiahuan; Chen, Shanshan; Yuan, Yong; Cai, Xixi; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-09-15

    Graphene can be used to improve the performance of the anode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) due to its good biocompatibility, high electrical conductivity and large surface area. However, the chemical production and modification of the graphene on the anode are environmentally hazardous because of the use of various harmful chemicals. This study reports a novel method based on the electrochemical exfoliation of a graphite plate (GP) for the in situ formation of graphene layers on the surface of a graphite electrode. When the resultant graphene-layer-based graphite plate electrode (GL/GP) was used as an anode in an MFC, a maximum power density of 0.67 ± 0.034 W/m(2) was achieved. This value corresponds to 1.72-, 1.56- and 1.26-times the maximum power densities of the original GP, exfoliated-graphene-modified GP (EG/GP) and chemically-reduced-graphene-modified GP (rGO/GP) anodes, respectively. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the high performance of the GL/GP anode was attributable to its macroporous structure, improved electron transfer and high electrochemical capacitance. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis technique for the fabrication of high-performance graphene-based electrodes for use in microbial energy harvesting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid fabrication of detachable three-dimensional tissues by layering of cell sheets with heating centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Yuji; Kagawa, Yuki; Hasegawa, Akiyuki; Kubo, Hirotsugu; Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2018-01-18

    Confluent cultured cells on a temperature-responsive culture dish can be harvested as an intact cell sheet by decreasing temperature below 32°C. A three-dimensional (3-D) tissue can be fabricated by the layering of cell sheets. A resulting 3-D multilayered cell sheet-tissue on a temperature-responsive culture dish can be also harvested without any damage by only temperature decreasing. For shortening the fabrication time of the 3-D multilayered constructs, we attempted to layer cell sheets on a temperature-responsive culture dish with centrifugation. However, when a cell sheet was attached to the culture surface with a conventional centrifuge at 22-23°C, the cell sheet hardly adhere to the surface due to its noncell adhesiveness. Therefore, in this study, we have developed a heating centrifuge. In centrifugation (55g) at 36-37°C, the cell sheet adhered tightly within 5 min to the dish without significant cell damage. Additionally, centrifugation accelerated the cell sheet-layering process. The heating centrifugation shortened the fabrication time by one-fifth compared to a multilayer tissue fabrication without centrifugation. Furthermore, the multilayered constructs were finally detached from the dishes by decreasing temperature. This rapid tissue-fabrication method will be used as a valuable tool in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative therapy. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Photoluminescence of epitactical and polycrystalline CuInS2 layers for thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, J.

    2007-01-01

    The present thesis deals with one- and polycrystalline CuInS 2 absorber layers for thin-film solar cells and especially with their optical and structural characterization. By means of detailed temperature- and power-dependent photoluminescence measurements in epitactical and polycrystalline absorber layers different radiative transitions could be analyzed and identified. The spectra were dominated by broad luminescence bands of deep perturbing levels. The implantation of hydrogen at low energies led to a passivation of these perturbing levels. On the base of the optical studies on epitactical and polycrystalline absorber layers a new improved defect model for CuInS 2 could be developed. The model contains two donor and two acceptor levels with following ionization energies: D-1=46 meV, D-2=87 meV, A-1=70 meV, and A-2=119 meV

  6. Improvement in photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells with a doped porous silicon layer with rare earth (Ce, La) as antireflection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atyaoui, Malek; Dimassi, Wissem; Atyaoui, Atef; Elyagoubi, Jalel; Ouertani, Rachid; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2013-01-01

    The performance improvement of solar cells due to the formation of a porous silicon layer treated with rare earth (Ce, La) in the n + emitter of silicon n + /p junctions has been investigated. The photovoltaic properties of the cells with and without treatment of the porous silicon layer are compared. From the reflection measurements, it was shown that the cells with treated PS layers have lower reflectivity value compared to cell with untreated PS layer. The main result is that the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of solar cells can be enhanced by using the treated porous silicon layers with the rare earth (Ce, La) as anti-reflection coatings. -- Highlights: • The reduction of optical loss in silicon (c-Si) solar cells attracts the attention of many researches to achieve high efficiencies. • To attain this aim, the treated PS layers with rare earth (La, Ce) are suggested to be used as an (ARC) of c-Si solar cell. • The result showed a decrease in the optical losses which can explain the improved photovoltaic properties

  7. Improvement in photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells with a doped porous silicon layer with rare earth (Ce, La) as antireflection coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atyaoui, Malek, E-mail: atyaoui.malek@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95, Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Dimassi, Wissem [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95,Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Atyaoui, Atef [Laboratoire de traitement des eaux usées, Centre de recherches et des technologies des eaux, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB: 273, Soliman 8020 (Tunisia); Elyagoubi, Jalel; Ouertani, Rachid; Ezzaouia, Hatem [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95,Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2013-09-15

    The performance improvement of solar cells due to the formation of a porous silicon layer treated with rare earth (Ce, La) in the n{sup +} emitter of silicon n{sup +}/p junctions has been investigated. The photovoltaic properties of the cells with and without treatment of the porous silicon layer are compared. From the reflection measurements, it was shown that the cells with treated PS layers have lower reflectivity value compared to cell with untreated PS layer. The main result is that the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of solar cells can be enhanced by using the treated porous silicon layers with the rare earth (Ce, La) as anti-reflection coatings. -- Highlights: • The reduction of optical loss in silicon (c-Si) solar cells attracts the attention of many researches to achieve high efficiencies. • To attain this aim, the treated PS layers with rare earth (La, Ce) are suggested to be used as an (ARC) of c-Si solar cell. • The result showed a decrease in the optical losses which can explain the improved photovoltaic properties.

  8. Measurements of magnetic anisotropy in sickle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvo Souza, L.H. de.

    1982-03-01

    Room temperature magnetic measurements in deoxigenated sickle cells showed the existence of magnetic anisotropy, Δchi=1,29 x 10 -3 . This effect was supposed paramagnetic and considered to be due to the iron atoms of the hemoglobin molecules which are one over the other, forming ordered chains inside the erythrocytes. Low temperature (liquid He - 4,2K) measurements of the magnetic anisotropy of sickle cells and normal red blood cells diluted in a cryoprotector was made to confirm the paramagnetic origin of the fenomena. For that purpose it was used a superconductor magnetometer coupled to a SQUID, developed in the 'Laboratorio do Estado Solido do Departamento de Fisica da PUC-RJ'. The results obtained seem to confirm the expected paramagnetic anisotropy and, furthermore, suggest the presence of magnetic interactions among the iron atoms in the sickle cells samples. (Author) [pt

  9. Measurements of atmospheric hydrocarbons and biogenic emission fluxes in the Amazon boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, P. R.; Greenberg, J. P.; Westberg, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of methane, C2-C10 hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were measured over the Amazon tropical forest near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, in July and August 1985. The measurements, consisting mostly of altitude profiles of these gases, were all made within the atmospheric boundary layer up to an altitude of 1000 m above ground level. Data characterize the diurnal hydrocarbon composition of the boundary layer. Biogenic emissions of isoprene control hydroxyl radical concentrations over the forest. Biogenic emission fluxes of isoprene and terpenes are estimated to be 25,000 micrograms/sq m per day and 5600 micrograms/sq m per day, respectively. This isoprene emission is equivalent to 2 percent of the net primary productivity of the tropical forest. Atmospheric oxidation of biogenic isoprene and terpenes emissions from the Amazon forest may account for daily increases of 8-13 ppb for carbon monoxide in the planetary boundary layer.

  10. Thermal analysis of a multi-layer microchannel heat sink for cooling concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyabi, Idris Al; Shanks, Katie; Mallick, Tapas; Sundaram, Senthilarasu

    2017-09-01

    Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) technology is increasingly being considered as an alternative option for solar electricity generation. However, increasing the light concentration ratio could decrease the system output power due to the increase in the temperature of the cells. The performance of a multi-layer microchannel heat sink configuration was evaluated using numerical analysis. In this analysis, three dimensional incompressible laminar steady flow model was solved numerically. An electrical and thermal solar cell model was coupled for solar cell temperature and efficiency calculations. Thermal resistance, solar cell temperature and pumping power were used for the system efficiency evaluation. An increase in the number of microchannel layers exhibited the best overall performance in terms of the thermal resistance, solar cell temperature uniformity and pressure drop. The channel height and width has no effect on the solar cell maximum temperature. However, increasing channel height leads to a reduction in the pressure drop and hence less fluid pumping power.

  11. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF THE NUMBER OF CUMULAR CELLS LAYER OVER THE OOCYTE MATURATION EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. CARABĂ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During the experiments we have carried out with imature oocyte collected from the ovarian follicles, wefound a variety of oocyte-cumulus complexes. We got the following experiment in order to understand therole of cumular cells on the achievement of the cytoplasma and oocyte nucleus maturation. We select theoocyte-cumulus complexes collected both from cows and sows according to the number of cumular celllayers and we watched their development to the blastocyst stade. Thus, we achieved three groups of COC(oocyte-cumulus complexes.One group was made of oocyte without cumular cells, the second group had a layer of cumular cells andthe third group had many layers of cumular cells. we performed an incubation of all these types of COCin TCM-199 enriched with 20% of bovine fetal serum. Because only 1,2 oocyte of the ones who lack thecumular cells layer had maturation signs during cultivation in the thermostat versus 55 and 115,respectively, of the ones that had many cellular layers, presents a solid evidence that cumular cells areindispensable for the maturation and even to the fecundation process. The cumular cells perform adecisive role on the cytoplasma and oocyte nucleus maturation process.

  12. Graphene Quantum Dot Layers with Energy-Down-Shift Effect on Crystalline-Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung D; Park, Myung J; Kim, Do-Yeon; Kim, Soo M; Kang, Byungjun; Kim, Seongtak; Kim, Hyunho; Lee, Hae-Seok; Kang, Yoonmook; Yoon, Sam S; Hong, Byung H; Kim, Donghwan

    2015-09-02

    Graphene quantum dot (GQD) layers were deposited as an energy-down-shift layer on crystalline-silicon solar cell surfaces by kinetic spraying of GQD suspensions. A supersonic air jet was used to accelerate the GQDs onto the surfaces. Here, we report the coating results on a silicon substrate and the GQDs' application as an energy-down-shift layer in crystalline-silicon solar cells, which enhanced the power conversion efficiency (PCE). GQD layers deposited at nozzle scan speeds of 40, 30, 20, and 10 mm/s were evaluated after they were used to fabricate crystalline-silicon solar cells; the results indicate that GQDs play an important role in increasing the optical absorptivity of the cells. The short-circuit current density was enhanced by about 2.94% (0.9 mA/cm(2)) at 30 mm/s. Compared to a reference device without a GQD energy-down-shift layer, the PCE of p-type silicon solar cells was improved by 2.7% (0.4 percentage points).

  13. Thermocouple Rakes for Measuring Boundary Layer Flows Extremely Close to Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    Of vital interest to aerodynamic researchers is precise knowledge of the flow velocity profile next to the surface. This information is needed for turbulence model development and the calculation of viscous shear force. Though many instruments can determine the flow velocity profile near the surface, none of them can make measurements closer than approximately 0.01 in. from the surface. The thermocouple boundary-layer rake can measure much closer to the surface than conventional instruments can, such as a total pressure boundary layer rake, hot wire, or hot film. By embedding the sensors (thermocouples) in the region where the velocity is equivalent to the velocity ahead of a constant thickness strut, the boundary-layer flow profile can be obtained. The present device fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center microsystem clean room has a heater made of platinum and thermocouples made of platinum and gold. Equal numbers of thermocouples are placed both upstream and downstream of the heater, so that the voltage generated by each pair at the same distance from the surface is indicative of the difference in temperature between the upstream and downstream thermocouple locations. This voltage differential is a function of the flow velocity, and like the conventional total pressure rake, it can provide the velocity profile. In order to measure flow extremely close to the surface, the strut is made of fused quartz with extremely low heat conductivity. A large size thermocouple boundary layer rake is shown in the following photo. The latest medium size sensors already provide smooth velocity profiles well into the boundary layer, as close as 0.0025 in. from the surface. This is about 4 times closer to the surface than the previously used total pressure rakes. This device also has the advantage of providing the flow profile of separated flow and also it is possible to measure simultaneous turbulence levels within the boundary layer.

  14. Atomic Layer Deposited Catalysts for Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Anne-Charlotte Elisabeth Birgitta

    catalyst toward the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). In the work described in this PhD dissertation, two series of Pt-Ru ALD catalysts supported on nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) have been evaluated toward the CO oxidation and MOR at room temperature in a three......The micro direct methanol fuel cell (µDMFC) has been proposed as a candidate to power portable applications. The device can operate at room temperature on inexpensive, energy-dense methanol fuel, and it can be easily "recharged" by fuel refilling. Microfabrication techniques could be one route......-electrode electrochemical cell. The first series was comprised of Pt-Ru ALD catalysts of various Ru compositions, between 0 and 100 at.%. For the compositions investigated, the best catalyst had a Ru composition of 29 at.%. In the second series Ru-decorated Pt catalysts of various Ru loadings, i.e., various Ru ALD cycles...

  15. Homogeneous PCBM layers fabricated by horizontal-dip coating for efficient bilayer heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yoon Ho; Bae, In-Gon; Jeon, Hong Goo; Park, Byoungchoo

    2016-10-31

    We herein report a homogeneous [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layer, produced by a solution process of horizontal-dipping (H-dipping) to improve the photovoltaic (PV) effects of bilayer heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) based on a bi-stacked poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) electron donor layer and a PCBM electron acceptor layer (P3HT/PCBM). It was shown that a homogeneous and uniform coating of PCBM layers in the P3HT/PCBM bilayer OPVs resulted in reliable and reproducible device performance. We recorded a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.89%, which is higher than that (2.00%) of bilayer OPVs with a spin-coated PCBM layer. Moreover, introducing surfactant additives of poly(oxyethylene tridecyl ether) (PTE) into the homogeneous P3HT/PCBM PV layers resulted in the bilayer OPVs showing a PCE value of 3.95%, which is comparable to those of conventional bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) OPVs (3.57-4.13%) fabricated by conventional spin-coating. This improved device performance may be attributed to the selective collection of charge carriers at the interfaces among the active layers and electrodes due to the PTE additives as well as the homogeneous formation of the functional PCBM layer on the P3HT layer. Furthermore, H-dip-coated PCBM layers were deposited onto aligned P3HT layers by a rubbing technique, and the rubbed bilayer OPV exhibited improved in-plane anisotropic PV effects with PCE anisotropy as high as 1.81, which is also higher than that (1.54) of conventional rubbed BHJ OPVs. Our results suggest that the use of the H-dip-coating process in the fabrication of PCBM layers with the PTE interface-engineering additive could be of considerable interest to those seeking to improve PCBM-based opto-electrical organic thin-film devices.

  16. Sacrificial-layer free transfer of mammalian cells using near infrared femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Hartmann, Bastian; Siegel, Julian; Marchi, Gabriele; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Sudhop, Stefanie; Huber, Heinz P.

    2018-01-01

    Laser-induced cell transfer has been developed in recent years for the flexible and gentle printing of cells. Because of the high transfer rates and the superior cell survival rates, this technique has great potential for tissue engineering applications. However, the fact that material from an inorganic sacrificial layer, which is required for laser energy absorption, is usually transferred to the printed target structure, constitutes a major drawback of laser based cell printing. Therefore alternative approaches using deep UV laser sources and protein based acceptor films for energy absorption, have been introduced. Nevertheless, deep UV radiation can introduce DNA double strand breaks, thereby imposing the risk of carcinogenesis. Here we present a method for the laser-induced transfer of hydrogels and mammalian cells, which neither requires any sacrificial material for energy absorption, nor the use of UV lasers. Instead, we focus a near infrared femtosecond (fs) laser pulse (λ = 1030 nm, 450 fs) directly underneath a thin cell layer, suspended on top of a hydrogel reservoir, to induce a rapidly expanding cavitation bubble in the gel, which generates a jet of material, transferring cells and hydrogel from the gel/cell reservoir to an acceptor stage. By controlling laser pulse energy, well-defined cell-laden droplets can be transferred with high spatial resolution. The transferred human (SCP1) and murine (B16F1) cells show high survival rates, and good cell viability. Time laps microscopy reveals unaffected cell behavior including normal cell proliferation. PMID:29718923

  17. Modeling Low-Platinum-Loading Effects in Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wonseok; Weber, Adam Z.

    2011-01-01

    The cathode catalyst layer within a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell is the most complex and critical, yet least understood, layer within the cell. The exact method and equations for modeling this layer are still being revised and will be discussed in this paper, including a 0.8 reaction order, existence of Pt oxides, possible non-isopotential agglomerates, and the impact of a film resistance towards oxygen transport. While the former assumptions are relatively straightforward to understand and implement, the latter film resistance is shown to be critically important in explaining increased mass-transport limitations with low Pt-loading catalyst layers. Model results demonstrate agreement with experimental data that the increased oxygen flux and/or diffusion pathway through the film can substantially decrease performance. Also, some scale-up concepts from the agglomerate scale to the more macroscopic porous-electrode scale are discussed and the resulting optimization scenarios investigated.

  18. Numerical simulation of solar cells besed CZTS buffer layer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... 2016, 9(2), 1001-1011. 1002. 1. INTRODUCTION. The interest of the quaternary kësterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) for solar cells based on four main factors. First, the band gap of the ... originalty and the novelty of this work lies essecialy on the calculation of the the gap energy Eg. (CZTS) and the electron affinity ...

  19. Preparation of functional layers for anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells by the reverse roll coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mücke, R.; Büchler, O.; Bram, M.; Leonide, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.; Buchkremer, H. P.

    The roll coating technique represents a novel method for applying functional layers to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). This fast process is already used for mass production in other branches of industry and offers a high degree of automation. It was utilized for coating specially developed anode (NiO + 8YSZ, 8YSZ: 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia) and electrolyte (8YSZ) suspensions on green and pre-sintered tape-cast anode supports (NiO + 8YSZ). The layers formed were co-fired in a single step at 1400 °C for 5 h. As a result, the electrolyte exhibited a thickness of 14-18 μm and sufficient gas tightness. Complete cells with a screen-printed and sintered La 0.65Sr 0.3MnO 3- δ (LSM)/8YSZ cathode yielded a current density of 0.9-1.1 A cm -2 at 800 °C and 0.7 V, which is lower than the performance of non-co-fired slip-cast or screen-printed Jülich standard cells with thinner anode and electrolyte layers. The contribution of the cell components to the total area-specific resistance (ASR) was calculated by analyzing the distribution function of the relaxation times (DRTs) of measured electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and indicates the potential improvement in the cell performance achievable by reducing the thickness of the roll-coated layers. The results show that the anode-supported planar half-cells can be fabricated cost-effectively by combining roll coating with subsequent co-firing.

  20. Internal transmission coefficient in charges carrier generation layer of graphene/Si based solar cell device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad; Winata, Toto

    2016-01-01

    Internal transmission profile in charges carrier generation layer of graphene/Si based solar cell has been explored theoretically. Photovoltaic device was constructed from graphene/Si heterojunction forming a multilayer stuck with Si as generation layer. The graphene/Si sheet was layered on ITO/glass wafer then coated by Al forming Ohmic contact with Si. Photon incident propagate from glass substrate to metal electrode and assumed that there is no transmission in Al layer. The wavelength range spectra used in this calculation was 200 – 1000 nm. It found that transmission intensity in the generation layer show non-linear behavior and partitioned by few areas which related with excitation process. According to this information, it may to optimize the photons absorption to create more excitation process by inserting appropriate material to enhance optical properties in certain wavelength spectra because of the exciton generation is strongly influenced by photon absorption.

  1. A solution-processed binary cathode interfacial layer facilitates electron extraction for inverted polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Li, Zhiqi; Liu, Chunyu; Guo, Jiaxin; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin

    2018-03-15

    The charge transfer and separation are significantly affected by the electron properties of the interface between the electron-donor layer and the carrier-transporting layer in polymer solar cells (PSCs). In this study, we investigate the electron extraction mechanism of PSCs with a low temperature solution-processed ZnO/PEI as electron transport layer. The incorporation of PEI layer can decrease the work function of ZnO and reduce interfacial barrier, which facilitates electron extraction and suppresses bimolecular recombination, leading to a significant performance enhancement. Furthermore, PEI layer can induce phase separation and passivite inorganic surface trap states as well as shift the interfacial energy offset between metal oxide and organic materials. This work offers a simple and effective way to improve the charge transporting property of organic photovoltaic devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trip-Induced Transition Measurements in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer Using Molecular Tagging Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Johansen, Craig T.; Goyne, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of mean streamwise velocity, fluctuating streamwise velocity, and instantaneous streamwise velocity profiles in a hypersonic boundary layer were obtained over a 10-degree half-angle wedge model. A laser-induced fluorescence-based molecular tagging velocimetry technique was used to make the measurements. The nominal edge Mach number was 4.2. Velocity profiles were measured both in an untripped boundary layer and in the wake of a 4-mm diameter cylindrical tripping element centered 75.4 mm downstream of the sharp leading edge. Three different trip heights were investigated: k = 0.53 mm, k = 1.0 mm and k = 2.0 mm. The laminar boundary layer thickness at the position of the measurements was approximately 1 mm, though the exact thickness was dependent on Reynolds number and wall temperature. All of the measurements were made starting from a streamwise location approximately 18 mm downstream of the tripping element. This measurement region continued approximately 30 mm in the streamwise direction. Additionally, measurements were made at several spanwise locations. An analysis of flow features show how the magnitude, spatial location, and spatial growth of streamwise velocity instabilities are affected by parameters such as the ratio of trip height to boundary layer thickness and roughness Reynolds number. The fluctuating component of streamwise velocity measured along the centerline of the model increased from approximately 75 m/s with no trip to +/-225 m/s with a 0.53-mm trip, and to +/-240 m/s with a 1-mm trip, while holding the freestream Reynolds number constant. These measurements were performed in the 31-inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  3. Wind tunnel measurements of the urban boundary layer development over a historical district in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricci, A.; Burlando, M.; Freda, A.; Repetto, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study aimed at investigating the urban boundary layer in a district of Livorno city, in Tuscany. The wind flow over this area has been measured in the wind tunnel of the University of Genova using a physical model in scale 1:300. Two sets of

  4. Comparison of Large Eddy Simulations of a convective boundary layer with wind LIDAR measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Grønnegaard; Kelly, Mark C.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Vertical profiles of the horizontal wind speed and of the standard deviation of vertical wind speed from Large Eddy Simulations of a convective atmospheric boundary layer are compared to wind LIDAR measurements up to 1400 m. Fair agreement regarding both types of profiles is observed only when...

  5. Simultaneous wall-shear-stress and wide-field PIV measurements in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomit, Guillaume; Fourrie, Gregoire; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hot-film shear stress sensor measurements were performed to study the large-scale structures associated with shear stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a high Reynolds number (Reτ ~ 4000). The PIV measurement was performed in a streamwise-wall normal plane using an array of six high resolution cameras (4 ×16MP and 2 ×29MP). The resulting field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) in the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. The spatial resolution of the measurement is approximately is approximately 70 wall units (1.8 mm) and sampled each 35 wall units (0.9 mm). In association with the PIV setup, a spanwise array of 10 skin-friction sensors (spanning one δ) was used to capture the footprint of the large-scale structures. This combination of measurements allowed the analysis of the three-dimensional conditional structures in the boundary layer. Particularly, from conditional averages, the 3D organisation of the wall normal and streamwise velocity components (u and v) and the Reynolds shear stress (-u'v') related to a low and high shear stress events can be extracted. European Research Council Grant No-277472-WBT.

  6. Multi-chamber and multi-layer thiol-ene microchip for cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, H. Y.; Hemmingsen, Mette; Lafleur, Josiane P.

    2014-01-01

    We present a multi-layer and multi-chamber microfluidic chip fabricated using two different thiol-ene mixtures. Sandwiched between the thiol-ene chip layers is a commercially available membrane whose morphology has been altered with coatings of thiol-ene mixtures. Experiments have been conducted ...... with the microchip and shown that the fabricated microchip is suitable for long term cell culture....

  7. The cerebellar Golgi cell and spatiotemporal organization of granular layer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio eD‘Angelo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellar granular layer has been suggested to perform a complex spatiotemporal reconfiguration of incoming mossy fiber signals. Central to this role is the inhibitory action exerted by Golgi cells over granule cells: Golgi cells inhibit granule cells through double feedforward and feedback inhibitory loops and generate a broad lateral inhibition that extends beyond the afferent synaptic field. This characteristic connectivity has recently been investigated in great detail and been correlated with specific functional properties of the neuron. These include theta-frequency pacemaking, network entrainment into coherent oscillations and phase resetting. Important advances have also been made in terms of determining the membrane and synaptic properties of the neuron, and clarifying the mechanisms of activation by input bursts. Moreover, voltage sensitive dye imaging and multi-electrode array recordings, combined with mathematical simulations based on realistic computational models, have improved our understanding of the impact of Golgi cell activity on granular layer circuit computations. These investigations have highlighted the critical role of Golgi cells in: generating dense clusters of granule cell activity organized in center-surround structures, implementing combinatorial operations on multiple mossy fiber inputs, regulating transmission gain and cut-off frequency, controlling spike timing and burst transmission, and determining the sign, intensity and extension of long-term synaptic plasticity at the mossy fiber-granule cell relay. This review considers recent advances in the field, highlighting the functional implications of Golgi cells for granular layer network computation and indicating new challenges for cerebellar research.

  8. Peclet number analysis of cross-flow in porous gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, P V; Jayanti, Sreenivas

    2016-10-01

    Adoption of hydrogen economy by means of using hydrogen fuel cells is one possible solution for energy crisis and climate change issues. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which is an important type of fuel cells, suffers from the problem of water management. Cross-flow is induced in some flow field designs to enhance the water removal. The presence of cross-flow in the serpentine and interdigitated flow fields makes them more effective in proper distribution of the reactants on the reaction layer and evacuation of water from the reaction layer than diffusion-based conventional parallel flow fields. However, too much of cross-flow leads to flow maldistribution in the channels, higher pressure drop, and membrane dehydration. In this study, an attempt has been made to quantify the amount of cross-flow required for effective distribution of reactants and removal of water in the gas diffusion layer. Unit cells containing two adjacent channels with gas diffusion layer (GDL) and catalyst layer at the bottom have been considered for the parallel, interdigitated, and serpentine flow patterns. Computational fluid dynamics-based simulations are carried out to study the reactant transport in under-the-rib area with cross-flow in the GDL. A new criterion based on the Peclet number is presented as a quantitative measure of cross-flow in the GDL. The study shows that a cross-flow Peclet number of the order of 2 is required for effective removal of water from the GDL. Estimates show that this much of cross-flow is not usually produced in the U-bends of Serpentine flow fields, making these areas prone to flooding.

  9. Method of bonding an interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Uday B.; Isenberg, Arnold O.; Folser, George R.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell containing an air electrode (16), contacting electrolyte and electronically conductive interconnection layer (26), and a fuel electrode, has the interconnection layer (26) attached by: (A) applying a thin, closely packed, discrete layer of LaCrO.sub.3 particles (30), doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, Mg and their mixtures on a portion of the air electrode, and then (B) electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal structure (32) between and around the doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles (30).

  10. Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Nanostructure Graphene Electron Transfer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of nanostructure graphene thin films as electron transfer layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was demonstrated. The effect of a nanostructure graphene thin film in DSSC structure was examined. The nanostructure graphene thin films provides a great electron transfer channel for the photogenerated electrons from TiO2 to indium tin oxide (ITO glass. Obvious improvements in short-circuit current density of the DSSCs were observed by using the graphene electron transport layer modified photoelectrode. The graphene electron transport layer reduces effectively the back reaction in the interface between the ITO transparent conductive film and the electrolyte in the DSSC.

  11. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Downie, Craig Michael; Fischer, Christopher; Lane, George Hamilton; Morgan, Dane; Nevin, Josh; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin Aslaug; Eaglesham, David

    2016-07-26

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqueous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negative electrode active material is described.

  12. Flexible inverted polymer solar cells with an indium-free tri-layer cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hajj, Ahmad; Lucas, Bruno; Schirr-Bonnans, Martin; Ratier, Bernard; Kraft, Thomas M.; Torchio, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO)-free inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) have been fabricated without the need of an additional electron transport layer. The indium-free transparent electrode consists of a tri-layer stack ZnO (30 nm)/Ag (14 nm)/ZnO (30 nm) deposited on glass and plastic substrates via ion-beam sputtering. The tri-layer electrodes exhibit similar physical properties to its ITO counterpart, specifically yielding high transmittance and low resistivity (76.5% T at 550 nm, R sq of 8 Ω/◻) on plastic substrates. The novel tri-layer electrode allows for the fabrication of inverted PSCs without the additional ZnO interfacial layer commonly deposited between ITO and the photoactive layer. This allows for the preparation of thinner plastic solar cells using less material than conventional architectures. Initial studies involving the newly realized architecture (tri-layer electrode/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag) have shown great promise for the transition from ITO to other viable electrodes in organic electronics

  13. Tile Surface Thermocouple Measurement Challenges from the Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Berger, Karen; Anderson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hypersonic entry flight testing motivated by efforts seeking to characterize boundary layer transition on the Space Shuttle Orbiters have identified challenges in our ability to acquire high quality quantitative surface temperature measurements versus time. Five missions near the end of the Space Shuttle Program implemented a tile surface protuberance as a boundary layer trip together with tile surface thermocouples to capture temperature measurements during entry. Similar engineering implementations of these measurements on Discovery and Endeavor demonstrated unexpected measurement voltage response during the high heating portion of the entry trajectory. An assessment has been performed to characterize possible causes of the issues experienced during STS-119, STS-128, STS-131, STS-133 and STS-134 as well as similar issues encountered during other orbiter entries.

  14. A study on the dissymmetrical microporous layer structure of a direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tongtao; Lin Caishun; Fang Yong; Ye Feng; Miao Ruiying; Wang Xindong

    2008-01-01

    The effect of carbon type, carbon loading and microporous layer structure in the microporous layer on the performance of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) at low temperature was investigated using electrochemical polarization techniques, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and other methods. Vulcan XC-72 carbon was found to be most suitable as a microporous layer for low temperature DMFC. Maximum fuel cell performance was obtained utilizing a microporous layer with carbon loading of 1.0 mg cm -2 when air was used as an oxidant. A membrane electrode assembly with 1.0 mg cm -2 Vulcan XC-72 carbon with 20 wt.% Teflon in the cathode and no microporous layer in the anode showed a maximum power density of 36.7 mW cm -2 at 35 deg. C under atmospheric pressure. The AC impedance study proved that a cell with a dissymmetrical microporous layer structure had lower internal resistance and mass transfer resistance, thus obtaining better performance

  15. Simply synthesized TiO2 nanorods as an effective scattering layer for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadpour, Mahmoud; Zad, Azam Iraji; Molaei, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    TiO 2 nanorod layers are synthesized by simple chemical oxidation of Ti substrates. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements show effective light scattering properties originating from nanorods with length scales on the order of one micron. The films are sensitized with CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and integrated as a photoanode in quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Incorporating nanorods in photoanode structures provided 4- to 8-fold enhancement in light scattering, which leads to a high power conversion efficiency, 3.03% (V oc = 497 mV, J sc = 11.32 mA/cm 2 , FF = 0.54), in optimized structures. High efficiency can be obtained just by tuning the photoanode structure without further treatments, which will make this system a promising nanostructure for efficient quantum dot sensitized solar cells. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Atmospheric spatial atomic layer deposition of Zn(O,S) buffer layer for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, C.H.; Poodt, P.; Illeberi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxysulfide has been grown by spatial atomic layer deposition (S-ALD) and successfully applied as buffer layer in Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. S-ALD combines high deposition rates (up to nm/s) with the advantages of conventional ALD, i.e. excellent control of film composition and superior

  17. Ellipsometry measurements of thickness of oxide and water layers on spherical and flat silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, M.J.; Netterfield, R.; Wielunski, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Ellipsometry has been used to measure the thickness of oxide layers on single crystal silicon surfaces, both flat and spherical and also to measure the extent of adsorption of moisture on the surface as a function of partial water vapour pressure. The measurements form part of an international collaborative project to make a precise determination of the Avogadro constant (ΔN A /N A -8 ) which will then be used to obtain an absolute definition of the kilogram, rather than one in terms of an artefact. Typically the native oxide layer on a cleaned silicon wafer is about 2 nm thick. On a polished sphere this oxide layer is typically 8 to 10 nm thick, the increased thickness being attributed to parameters related to the polishing process. Ellipsometry measurements on an 89 mm diameter polished silicon sphere at both VUW and CSIRO indicated a SiO 2 layer at 7 to 10 nm thick. It was observed that this thickness varied regularly. The crystal orientation of the sphere was determined using electron patterns generated from an electron microscope and the oxide layer was then measured through 180 arcs of great circles along (110) and (100) planes. It was observed that the thickness varied systematically with orientation. The minimum thickness was 7.4 nm at the axis (softest direction in silicon) and the greatest thickness was 9.5 nm at the axis (hardest direction in silicon). This is similar to an orientation dependent cubic pattern which has been observed to be superimposed on polished silicon spheres. At VUW, the sphere was placed in an evacuated bell jar and the ellipsometry signal was observed as the water vapour pressure was progressively increased up to saturation. The amount of water vapour adsorbed at saturation was one or two monolayers, indicating that the sphere does not wet

  18. Temperature and species measurement in a quenching boundary layer on a flat-flame burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuyuto, Takayuki; Fujikawa, Taketoshi; Akihama, Kazuhiro [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi (Japan); Kronemayer, Helmut [University of Duisburg-Essen, IVG, Institute for Combustion and Gasdynamics, Duisburg (Germany); BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Lewerich, Burkhard; Dreier, Thomas; Schulz, Christof [University of Duisburg-Essen, IVG, Institute for Combustion and Gasdynamics, Duisburg (Germany); Bruebach, Jan [Technical University Darmstadt, EKT, Institute for Energy and Powerplant Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    A detailed understanding of transport phenomena and reactions in near-wall boundary layers of combustion chambers is essential for further reducing pollutant emissions and improving thermal efficiencies of internal combustion engines. In a model experiment, the potential of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was investigated for measurements inside the boundary layer connected to flame-wall interaction at atmospheric pressure. Temperature and species distributions were measured in the quenching boundary layer formed close to a cooled metal surface located parallel to the flow of a premixed methane/air flat flame. Multi-line NO-LIF thermometry provided gas-phase temperature distributions. In addition, flame species OH, CH{sub 2}O and CO were monitored by single-photon (OH, CH{sub 2}O) and two-photon (CO) excitation LIF, respectively. The temperature dependence of the OH-LIF signal intensities was corrected for using the measured gas-phase temperature distributions. The spatial line-pair resolution of the imaging system was 22 {mu}m determined by imaging microscopic line pairs printed on a resolution target. The experimental results show the expected flame quenching behavior in the boundary layer and they reveal the potential and limitations of the applied diagnostics techniques. Limitations in spatial resolution are attributed to refraction of fluorescence radiation propagating through steep temperature gradients in the boundary layer. For the present experimental arrangements, the applied diagnostics techniques are applicable as close to the wall as 200 {mu}m with measurement precision then exceeding the 15-25% limit for species detection, with estimates of double this value for the case of H{sub 2}CO due to the unknown effect of the Boltzmann fraction corrections not included in the data evaluation process. Temperature measurements are believed to be accurate within 50 K in the near-wall zone, which amounts to roughly 10% at the lower temperatures encountered in

  19. Cell and tissue kinetics of the subependymal layer in mouse brain following heavy charged particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manley, N.B.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Alpen, E.L.

    1988-12-01

    The following studies investigate the cellular response and cell population kinetics of the subependymal layer in the mouse brain exposed to heavy charged particle irradiation. Partial brain irradiation with helium and neon ions was confined to one cortex of the brain. Both the irradiated and the unirradiated contralateral cortex showed similar disturbances of the cell and tissue kinetics in the subependymal layers. The irradiated hemisphere exhibited histological damage, whereas the unirradiated side appeared normal histologically. This study concerns the cell population and cell cycle kinetics of the subependymal layer in the mouse brain, and the effects of charged particle irradiations on this cell population. Quantitative high resolution autoradiography was used to study the kinetic parameters in this cell layer. This study should help in understanding the effects of these high-energy heavy ions on normal mammalian brain tissue. The response of the mammalian brain exposure to charged particle ionizing radiation may be extremely variable. It varies from minimal physiological changes to overt tissue necrosis depending on a number of factors such as: the administered dose, dose-rate, the volume of the irradiated tissue, and the biological end-point being examined.

  20. Status epilepticus increases mature granule cells in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus in rats★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhaoliang; Gao, Fei; Wang, Fajun; Wang, Xiaochen; Song, Xinyu; Liu, Kejing; Zhan, Ren-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus following seizure activity, especially status epilepticus, is associated with ectopic residence and aberrant integration of newborn granule cells. Hilar ectopic granule cells may be detrimental to the stability of dentate circuitry by means of their electrophysiological properties and synaptic connectivity. We hypothesized that status epilepticus also increases ectopic granule cells in the molecular layer. Status epilepticus was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine. Immunostaining showed that many doublecortin-positive cells were present in the molecular layer and the hilus 7 days after the induction of status epilepticus. At least 10 weeks after status epilepticus, the estimated number of cells positive for both prospero homeobox protein 1 and neuron-specific nuclear protein in the hilus was significantly increased. A similar trend was also found in the molecular layer. These findings indicate that status epilepticus can increase the numbers of mature and ectopic newborn granule cells in the molecular layer. PMID:25206705

  1. Role of ultrathin metal fluoride layer in organic photovoltaic cells: mechanism of efficiency and lifetime enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyung-Geun; Choi, Mi-Ri; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Dong Hun; Jung, Gwan Ho; Park, Yongsup; Lee, Jong-Lam; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2014-04-01

    Although rapid progress has been made recently in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, systematic studies on an ultrathin interfacial layer at the electron extraction contact have not been conducted in detail, which is important to improve both the device efficiency and the lifetime. We find that an ultrathin BaF2 layer at the electron extraction contact strongly influences the open-circuit voltage (Voc ) as the nanomorphology evolves with increasing BaF2 thickness. A vacuum-deposited ultrathin BaF2 layer grows by island growth, so BaF2 layers with a nominal thickness less than that of single-coverage layer (≈3 nm) partially cover the polymeric photoactive layer. As the nominal thickness of the BaF2 layer increased to that of a single-coverage layer, the Voc and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) increased but the short-circuit current remained almost constant. The fill factor and the PCE decreased abruptly as the thickness of the BaF2 layer exceeded that of a single-coverage layer, which was ascribed to the insulating nature of BaF2 . We find the major cause of the increased Voc observed in these devices is the lowered work function of the cathode caused by the reaction and release of Ba from thin BaF2 films upon deposition of Al. The OPV device with the BaF2 layer showed a slightly improved maximum PCE (4.0 %) and a greatly (approximately nine times) increased device half-life under continuous simulated solar irradiation at 100 mW cm(-2) as compared with the OPV without an interfacial layer (PCE=2.1 %). We found that the photodegradation of the photoactive layer was not a major cause of the OPV degradation. The hugely improved lifetime with cathode interface modification suggests a significant role of the cathode interfacial layer that can help to prolong device lifetimes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Work function of few layer graphene covered nickel thin films measured with Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eren, B. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Material Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Gysin, U.; Marot, L., E-mail: Laurent.marot@unibas.ch; Glatzel, Th.; Steiner, R.; Meyer, E. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-01-25

    Few layer graphene and graphite are simultaneously grown on a ∼100 nm thick polycrystalline nickel film. The work function of few layer graphene/Ni is found to be 4.15 eV with a variation of 50 meV by local measurements with Kelvin probe force microscopy. This value is lower than the work function of free standing graphene due to peculiar electronic structure resulting from metal 3d-carbon 2p(π) hybridization.

  3. Measurement of oxide-layer thickness of internal granules in high-purity aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S.; Ditroi, F.; Mahunka, I.

    1989-01-01

    Charged-particle activation analysis was used for the determination of bulk oxygen concentration in aluminium. High-purity aluminium samples and mixtures containing different amounts of alumina were irradiated by 13 MeV 3 He particles. The aim of the investigation was to determine the oxide-layer thickness on the surface of internal aluminium granules. The measurement was carried out by determining the bulk oxygen concentration in the samples, and calculating the oxide-layer thickness, by using model conditions about the microstructure of the aluminium samples. (author) 5 refs

  4. Spatial variability of carbon dioxide in the urban canopy layer and implications for flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, B.; Christen, A.

    2014-12-01

    This contribution reports CO2 mixing ratios measured in the urban canopy layer (UCL) of a residential neighborhood in Vancouver, BC, Canada and discusses the relevance of UCL CO2 temporal and spatial variability to local-scale eddy covariance (EC) fluxes measured above the UCL. Measurements were conducted from a mobile vehicle-mounted platform over a continuous, 26-h period in the longterm turbulent flux source area of an urban EC tower. Daytime mixing ratios were highest along arterial roads and largely a function of proximity to vehicle traffic CO2 sources. At night, there was a distinct negative correlation between potential air temperature and CO2 mixing ratios. The spatial distribution of CO2 was controlled by topography and micro-scale advective processes (i.e. cold-air pooling). Mobile CO2 measurements were then used to calculate CO2 storage changes (FS) in the UCL volume and compared to single-layer FS estimates calculated from the EC system. In total, five variations of FS were calculated. On average, the choice of FS calculation method affected net measured hourly emissions (FC) by 5.2%. Analysis of FS using a four-year dataset measured at the EC tower show FS was 2.8% of hourly FC for this site on average. At this urban EC location, FS was relatively minor compared to FC and calculation of FS using a single-layer method was adequate, though FS still represents a potentially large uncertainty during individual hours.

  5. Diffractive intermediate layer enables broadband light trapping for high efficiency ultrathin c-Si tandem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guijun, E-mail: gliad@connect.ust.hk; Ho, Jacob Y. L.; Li, He; Kwok, Hoi-Sing [State Key Laboratory on Advanced Displays and Optoelectronics Technologies, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-06-09

    Light management through the intermediate reflector in the tandem cell configuration is of great practical importance for achieving high stable efficiency and also low cost production. So far, however, the intermediate reflectors employed currently are mainly focused on the light absorption enhancement of the top cell. Here, we present a diffractive intermediate layer that allows for light trapping over a broadband wavelength for the ultrathin c-Si tandem solar cell. Compared with the standard intermediate reflector, this nanoscale architectural intermediate layer results in a 35% and 21% remarkable enhancement of the light absorption in the top (400–800 nm) and bottom (800–1100 nm) cells simultaneously, and ultrathin c-Si tandem cells with impressive conversion efficiency of 13.3% are made on the glass substrate.

  6. Diffractive intermediate layer enables broadband light trapping for high efficiency ultrathin c-Si tandem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guijun; Ho, Jacob Y. L.; Li, He; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2014-01-01

    Light management through the intermediate reflector in the tandem cell configuration is of great practical importance for achieving high stable efficiency and also low cost production. So far, however, the intermediate reflectors employed currently are mainly focused on the light absorption enhancement of the top cell. Here, we present a diffractive intermediate layer that allows for light trapping over a broadband wavelength for the ultrathin c-Si tandem solar cell. Compared with the standard intermediate reflector, this nanoscale architectural intermediate layer results in a 35% and 21% remarkable enhancement of the light absorption in the top (400–800 nm) and bottom (800–1100 nm) cells simultaneously, and ultrathin c-Si tandem cells with impressive conversion efficiency of 13.3% are made on the glass substrate.

  7. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a tri-layer ZnO photo-electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui; Bai, Jiafan; Feng, Bo; Lu, Xiong; Weng, Jie; Jiang, Chongxi; Wang, Jianxin, E-mail: j.wang63@gmail.com

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram for the energy-level, the paths of charge transfer, the model of light scattering in the top layer and the assembly of the DSSC. Highlights: •We successfully fabricated ZnO photo-anodes with a tri-layer ZnO structure. •The ZnO seed layer decreased the transfer resistance at the ZnO/FTO interface. •The ZnO light scattering layer could increase the number of photoelectrons. •J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} were greatly enhanced via the use of the tri-layer ZnO structure. •The efficiency of the DSSCs for a tri-layer ZnO structure was the highest. -- Abstract: In this paper, a tri-layer ZnO structure was designed to fabricate the photo-anodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The results showed that an overall energy-conversion efficiency of 1.18% was achieved for DSSC with the tri-layer photo-anode, which was 14% higher than that obtained from a bilayer ZnO photo-anode (with an efficiency of 1.04%) and 76% higher than that fabricated with a single layer photo-anode (with an efficiency of 0.67%). The photo-current density and the open circuit voltage have greatly increased via the use of the tri-layer ZnO structure. Thus, the tri-layer ZnO structure might provide a new route for the improvement of the overall energy-conversion efficiency for the DSSC of ZnO.

  8. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a tri-layer ZnO photo-electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hui; Bai, Jiafan; Feng, Bo; Lu, Xiong; Weng, Jie; Jiang, Chongxi; Wang, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram for the energy-level, the paths of charge transfer, the model of light scattering in the top layer and the assembly of the DSSC. Highlights: •We successfully fabricated ZnO photo-anodes with a tri-layer ZnO structure. •The ZnO seed layer decreased the transfer resistance at the ZnO/FTO interface. •The ZnO light scattering layer could increase the number of photoelectrons. •J sc and V oc were greatly enhanced via the use of the tri-layer ZnO structure. •The efficiency of the DSSCs for a tri-layer ZnO structure was the highest. -- Abstract: In this paper, a tri-layer ZnO structure was designed to fabricate the photo-anodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The results showed that an overall energy-conversion efficiency of 1.18% was achieved for DSSC with the tri-layer photo-anode, which was 14% higher than that obtained from a bilayer ZnO photo-anode (with an efficiency of 1.04%) and 76% higher than that fabricated with a single layer photo-anode (with an efficiency of 0.67%). The photo-current density and the open circuit voltage have greatly increased via the use of the tri-layer ZnO structure. Thus, the tri-layer ZnO structure might provide a new route for the improvement of the overall energy-conversion efficiency for the DSSC of ZnO

  9. A Structurally Specialized Uniform Wall Layer is Essential for Constructing Wall Ingrowth Papillae in Transfer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xue; Zhang, Hui-Ming; Offler, Christina E.; Patrick, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Transfer cells are characterized by wall labyrinths with either a flange or reticulate architecture. A literature survey established that reticulate wall ingrowth papillae ubiquitously arise from a modified component of their wall labyrinth, termed the uniform wall layer; a structure absent from flange transfer cells. This finding sparked an investigation of the deposition characteristics and role of the uniform wall layer using a Vicia faba cotyledon culture system. On transfer of cotyledons to culture, their adaxial epidermal cells spontaneously trans-differentiate to a reticulate architecture comparable to their abaxial epidermal transfer cell counterparts formed in planta. Uniform wall layer construction commenced once adaxial epidermal cell expansion had ceased to overlay the original outer periclinal wall on its inner surface. In contrast to the dense ring-like lattice of cellulose microfibrils in the original primary wall, the uniform wall layer was characterized by a sparsely dispersed array of linear cellulose microfibrils. A re-modeled cortical microtubule array exerted no influence on uniform wall layer formation or on its cellulose microfibril organization. Surprisingly, formation of the uniform wall layer was not dependent upon depositing a cellulose scaffold. In contrast, uniform wall cellulose microfibrils were essential precursors for constructing wall ingrowth papillae. On converging to form wall ingrowth papillae, the cellulose microfibril diameters increased 3-fold. This event correlated with up-regulated differential, and transfer-cell specific, expression of VfCesA3B while transcript levels of other cellulose biosynthetic-related genes linked with primary wall construction were substantially down-regulated. PMID:29259611

  10. Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Mayser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a highly sensitive custom made strain gauge force transducer setup. The volume of air held by a surface was quantified by comparing the buoyancy force of the specimen with and then without an air layer. Air volumes retained by the Salvinia-surfaces ranged between 0.15 and 1 L/m2 depending on differences in surface architecture. We verified the precision of the method by comparing the measured air volumes with theoretical volume calculations and could find a good agreement between both values. In this context we present techniques to calculate air volumes on surfaces with complex microstructures. The introduced method also allows to measure decrease or increase of air layers with high accuracy in real-time to understand dynamic processes.

  11. Three-dimensional cell manipulation and patterning using dielectrophoresis via a multi-layer scaffold structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, H K; Huan, Z; Mills, J K; Yang, J; Sun, D

    2015-02-07

    Cell manipulation is imperative to the areas of cellular biology and tissue engineering, providing them a useful tool for patterning cells into cellular patterns for different analyses and applications. This paper presents a novel approach to perform three-dimensional (3D) cell manipulation and patterning with a multi-layer engineered scaffold. This scaffold structure employed dielectrophoresis as the non-contact mechanism to manipulate cells in the 3D domain. Through establishing electric fields via this multi-layer structure, the cells in the medium became polarized and were attracted towards the interior part of the structure, forming 3D cellular patterns. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the manipulation and the patterning processes with the proposed structure. Results show that with the presence of a voltage input, this multi-layer structure was capable of manipulating different types of biological cells examined through dielectrophoresis, enabling automatic cell patterning in the time-scale of minutes. The effects of the voltage input on the resultant cellular pattern were examined and discussed. Viability test was performed after the patterning operation and the results confirmed that majority of the cells remained viable. After 7 days of culture, 3D cellular patterns were observed through SEM. The results suggest that this scaffold and its automated dielectrophoresis-based patterning mechanism can be used to construct artificial tissues for various tissue engineering applications.

  12. DNA methylation profiling of embryonic stem cell differentiation into the three germ layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isagawa, Takayuki; Nagae, Genta; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Fujita, Takanori; Sato, Noriko; Ishikawa, Shumpei; Kume, Shoen; Aburatani, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Embryogenesis is tightly regulated by multiple levels of epigenetic regulation such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling. DNA methylation patterns are erased in primordial germ cells and in the interval immediately following fertilization. Subsequent developmental reprogramming occurs by de novo methylation and demethylation. Variance in DNA methylation patterns between different cell types is not well understood. Here, using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and tiling array technology, we have comprehensively analyzed DNA methylation patterns at proximal promoter regions in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, ES cell-derived early germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm) and four adult tissues (brain, liver, skeletal muscle and sperm). Most of the methylated regions are methylated across all three germ layers and in the three adult somatic tissues. This commonly methylated gene set is enriched in germ cell-associated genes that are generally transcriptionally inactive in somatic cells. We also compared DNA methylation patterns by global mapping of histone H3 lysine 4/27 trimethylation, and found that gain of DNA methylation correlates with loss of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation. Our combined findings indicate that differentiation of ES cells into the three germ layers is accompanied by an increased number of commonly methylated DNA regions and that these tissue-specific alterations in methylation occur for only a small number of genes. DNA methylation at the proximal promoter regions of commonly methylated genes thus appears to be an irreversible mark which functions to fix somatic lineage by repressing the transcription of germ cell-specific genes.

  13. Excimer laser micropatterning of freestanding thermo-responsive hydrogel layers for cells-on-chip applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaniello, Tommaso; Milani, Paolo; Lenardi, Cristina; Martello, Federico; Tocchio, Alessandro; Gassa, Federico; Webb, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel reliable and repeatable technologic manufacturing protocol for the realization of micro-patterned freestanding hydrogel layers based on thermo-responsive poly-(N-isopropyl)acrylamide (PNIPAAm), which have potential to be employed as temperature-triggered smart surfaces for cells-on-chip applications. PNIPAAm-based films with controlled mechanical properties and different thicknesses (100–300 µm thickness) were prepared by injection compression moulding at room temperature. A 9 × 9 array of 20 µm diameter through-holes is machined by means of the KrF excimer laser on dry PNIPAAm films which are physically attached to flat polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrates. Machining parameters, such as fluence and number of shots, are optimized in order to achieve highly resolved features. Micro-structured freestanding films are then easily obtained after hydrogels are detached from PVC by gradually promoting the film swelling in ethanol. In the PNIPAAm water-swollen state, the machined holes’ diameter approaches a slight larger value (30 µm) according to the measured hydrogel swelling ratio. Thermo-responsive behaviour and through-hole tapering characterization are carried out by metrology measurements using an optical inverted and confocal microscope setup, respectively. After the temperature of freestanding films is raised above 32 °C, we observe that the shrinkage of the whole through-hole array occurs, thus reducing the holes’ diameter to less than a half its original size (about 15 µm) as a consequence of the film dehydration. Different holes’ diameters (10 and 30 µm) are also obtained on dry hydrogel employing suitable projection masks, showing similar shrinking behaviour when hydrated and undergone thermo-response tests. Thermo-responsive PNIPAAm-based freestanding layers could then be integrated with other suitable micro-fabricated thermoplastic components in order to preliminary test their feasibility in operating as temperature

  14. Chemical Bath Deposition and Characterization of CdS layer for CZTS Thin Film Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Tasnim; Parvez, Sheikh; Matin, Rummana; Bashar, Mohammad Shahriar; Hossain, Tasnia; Sarwar, Hasan; Rashid, Mohammad Junaebur

    2016-01-01

    CZTS is a new type of an absorber and abundant materials for thin film solar cells (TFSC). Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is the n-type buffer layer of it with band gap of 2.42 eV. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) buffer layer of CZTS solar cell was deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the Chemical Bath Deposition(CBD) method, using anhydrous Cadmium chloride(CdCl_2) and Thiourea (CS(NH_2)_2). Deposition of CdS using CBD is based on the slow release of Cd^ ions and S^ ions in an alkaline bath which is achi...

  15. DHMPIV and Tomo-PIV measurements of three-dimensional structures in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amili, O.; Atkinson, C.; Soria, J.

    In turbulent boundary layers, a large portion of total turbulence production happens in the near wall region, y/δ memory intensive reconstruction algorithm. It is based on a multiplicative line-of-sight (MLOS) estimation that determines possible particle locations in the volume, followed by simultaneous iterative correction. Application of MLOS-SART and MART to a turbulent boundary layer at Refθ=2200 using a 4 camera Tomo-PIV system with a volume of 1000×1000×160 voxels is discussed. In addition, near wall velocity measurement attempt made by digital holographic microscopic particle image velocimetry (DHMPIV). The technique provides a solution to overcome the poor axial accuracy and the low spatial resolution which are common problems in digital holography [5]. By reducing the depth of focus by at least one order of magnitude as well as increasing the lateral spatial resolution, DHMPIV provides the opportunity to resolve the small-scale structures existing in near wall layers.

  16. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryniewicz, A. M; Ryniewicz, W.; Ryniewicz, A.; Gaska, A.

    2010-01-01

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  17. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryniewicz, A. M.; Ryniewicz, A.; Ryniewicz, W.; Gaska, A.

    2010-07-01

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  18. Study on hydrophobicity degradation of gas diffusion layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Shuchun; Li, Xiaojin; Li, Jin; Liu, Sa; Lu, Wangting; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The hydrophobicity degradation mechanism of GDL was proposed thoroughly. • C-O and C=O groups appeared on the surfaces of GDL after immersion. • The relative content of PTFE in GDL decreased after immersion. • The surfaces and inner structure of GDL destroyed after immersion. - Abstract: As one of the essential components of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), gas diffusion layer (GDL) is of importance on water management, as well on the performance and durability of PEMFC. In this paper, the hydrophobicity degradation of GDL was investigated by immersing it in the 1.0 mol L −1 H 2 SO 4 solution saturated by air for 1200 h. From the measurements of contact angle and water permeability, the hydrophobic characteristics of the pristine and immersed GDLs were compared. To investigate the causes for hydrophobicity degradation, the GDLs were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. Further, the chemical compositions of H 2 SO 4 solutions before and after immersion test were analyzed with infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that the hydrophobicity of immersed GDL decreased distinctly, which was caused by the damage of physical structure and surface characteristics. Moreover, the immersed GDL showed a worse fuel cell performance than the pristine GDL, especially under a low humidity condition

  19. Impact of anode catalyst layer porosity on the performance of a direct formic acid fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauskar, Akshay S.; Rice, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lithium carbonate is used as a pore-former to increase porosity of anode catalyst layer. ► Maximum power density increased by 25%. ► Onset potential for formic acid electro-oxidation reduced by 30 mV for anode catalyst layer with 17.5 wt% pore-former. ► Electrochemical impedance spectra confirm increased formic acid concentration inside the anode catalyst layer pores. - Abstract: Direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs) have attracted much attention in the last few years for portable electronic devices, due to their potential of being high efficiency power sources. They have the potential to replace the state-of-the-art batteries in cell phones, PDAs, and laptop computers if their power density and durability can be improved. In the present investigation, the influence of increased anode catalyst layer porosity on DFAFC power density performance is studied. Lithium carbonate (Li 2 CO 3 ) was used as a pore-former in this study because of its facile and complete removal after catalyst layer fabrication. The anode catalyst layers presented herein contained unsupported Pt/Ru catalyst and Li 2 CO 3 (in the range of 0–50 wt%) bound with proton conducting ionomer. Higher DFAFC performance is obtained because of the increased porosity within the anode catalyst layer through enhanced reactant and product mass transport. The maximum power density of DFAFC increased by 25% when pore-former was added to the anode catalyst ink. The formic acid onset potential for the anode catalyst layer with 17.5 wt% pore-former was reduced by 30 mV. A constant phase element based equivalent-circuit model was used to investigate anode impedance spectra. Fitted values for the anode impedance spectra confirm the improvement in performance due to an increase in formic acid concentration inside the anode catalyst layer pores along with efficient transport of reactants and products.

  20. TiO2 nanofiber solid-state dye sensitized solar cells with thin TiO2 hole blocking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jinwei; Chen, Xi; Xu, Weihe; Nam, Chang-Yong; Shi, Yong

    2013-01-01

    We incorporated a thin but structurally dense TiO 2 layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as an efficient hole blocking layer in the TiO 2 nanofiber based solid-state dye sensitized solar cell (ss-DSSC). The nanofiber ss-DSSCs having ALD TiO 2 layers displayed increased open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, and power conversion efficiency compared to control devices with blocking layers prepared by spin-coating liquid TiO 2 precursor. We attribute the improved photovoltaic device performance to the structural integrity of ALD-coated TiO 2 layer and consequently enhanced hole blocking effect that results in reduced dark leakage current and increased charge carrier lifetime. - Highlights: • TiO 2 blocking locking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. • ALD-coated TiO 2 layer enhanced hole blocking effect. • ALD blocking layer improved the voltage, current and efficiency. • ALD blocking layer reduced dark leakage current and increased electron lifetime

  1. TiO{sub 2} nanofiber solid-state dye sensitized solar cells with thin TiO{sub 2} hole blocking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jinwei; Chen, Xi; Xu, Weihe [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Nam, Chang-Yong, E-mail: cynam@bnl.gov [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Shi, Yong, E-mail: Yong.Shi@stevens.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We incorporated a thin but structurally dense TiO{sub 2} layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as an efficient hole blocking layer in the TiO{sub 2} nanofiber based solid-state dye sensitized solar cell (ss-DSSC). The nanofiber ss-DSSCs having ALD TiO{sub 2} layers displayed increased open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, and power conversion efficiency compared to control devices with blocking layers prepared by spin-coating liquid TiO{sub 2} precursor. We attribute the improved photovoltaic device performance to the structural integrity of ALD-coated TiO{sub 2} layer and consequently enhanced hole blocking effect that results in reduced dark leakage current and increased charge carrier lifetime. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} blocking locking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. • ALD-coated TiO{sub 2} layer enhanced hole blocking effect. • ALD blocking layer improved the voltage, current and efficiency. • ALD blocking layer reduced dark leakage current and increased electron lifetime.

  2. Multifunctional graded index TiO{sub 2} compact layer for performance enhancement in dye sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M.H., E-mail: abuhanifahabllh@yahoo.com [NANO-Electronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rusop, M. [NANO-Electronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-01

    A specially tailored index TiO{sub 2} compact layer (arc-TiO{sub 2}) has been successfully deposited to serve as photoanode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The employment of the TiO{sub 2} compact layer in the DSSC was systematically investigated by means of UV-absorption spectra, incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE), open-circuit voltage decay (OCVD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The higher and red-shifted transmittance spectra of the ITO/arc-TiO{sub 2} electrode mimic the IPCE spectra of the DSSC, in a specific wavelength region. Furthermore, the blue-shift of the UV-absorption spectra and lower R{sub 1} value obtained from EIS measurements implied the decrease of the charge interfacial resistance, and this consequently facilitates the charge transport from the nanocrystalline-TiO{sub 2} to the ITO. The integrated effects of the arc-TiO{sub 2} compact layer originate the remarkable improvement in this type of DSSC applications. As a result, the arc-TiO{sub 2}-based DSSC showed higher conversion efficiency of about 4.38%, representing almost 53% increment compared to bare ITO cell. This work also discuss the fundamental insight of the compact layer that determines the origin of such improvement in the DSSC performance.

  3. Enhancing Photovoltaic Performance of Inverted Planar Perovskite Solar Cells by Cobalt-Doped Nickel Oxide Hole Transport Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yulin; Lu, Kai; Duan, Jiashun; Jiang, Youyu; Hu, Lin; Liu, Tiefeng; Zhou, Yinhua; Hu, Bin

    2018-04-25

    Electron and hole transport layers have critical impacts on the overall performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Herein, for the first time, a solution-processed cobalt (Co)-doped NiO X film was fabricated as the hole transport layer in inverted planar PSCs, and the solar cells exhibit 18.6% power conversion efficiency. It has been found that an appropriate Co-doping can significantly adjust the work function and enhance electrical conductivity of the NiO X film. Capacitance-voltage ( C- V) spectra and time-resolved photoluminescence spectra indicate clearly that the charge accumulation becomes more pronounced in the Co-doped NiO X -based photovoltaic devices; it, as a consequence, prevents the nonradiative recombination at the interface between the Co-doped NiO X and the photoactive perovskite layers. Moreover, field-dependent photoluminescence measurements indicate that Co-doped NiO X -based devices can also effectively inhibit the radiative recombination process in the perovskite layer and finally facilitate the generation of photocurrent. Our work indicates that Co-doped NiO X film is an excellent candidate for high-performance inverted planar PSCs.

  4. Three Dimensional Plenoptic PIV Measurements of a Turbulent Boundary Layer Overlying a Hemispherical Roughness Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kyle; Thurow, Brian; Kim, Taehoon; Blois, Gianluca; Christensen, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional, three-component (3D-3C) measurements were made using a plenoptic camera on the flow around a roughness element immersed in a turbulent boundary layer. A refractive index matched approach allowed whole-field optical access from a single camera to a measurement volume that includes transparent solid geometries. In particular, this experiment measures the flow over a single hemispherical roughness element made of acrylic and immersed in a working fluid consisting of Sodium Iodide solution. Our results demonstrate that plenoptic particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a viable technique to obtaining statistically-significant volumetric velocity measurements even in a complex separated flow. The boundary layer to roughness height-ratio of the flow was 4.97 and the Reynolds number (based on roughness height) was 4.57×103. Our measurements reveal key flow features such as spiraling legs of the shear layer, a recirculation region, and shed arch vortices. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis was applied to the instantaneous velocity and vorticity data to extract these features. Supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. 1235726.

  5. Measurements in a Transitioning Cone Boundary Layer at Freestream Mach 3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rudolph A.; Chou, Amanda; Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Owens, Lewis R.; Kegerise, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in the Supersonic Low-Disturbance Tunnel to investigate naturally-occurring instabilities in a supersonic boundary layer on a 7 deg half- angle cone. All tests were conducted with a nominal freestream Mach number of M(sub infinity) = 3:5, total temperature of T(sub 0) = 299:8 K, and unit Reynolds numbers of Re(sub infinity) x 10(exp -6) = 9:89, 13.85, 21.77, and 25.73 m(exp -1). Instability measurements were acquired under noisy- ow and quiet- ow conditions. Measurements were made to document the freestream and the boundary-layer edge environment, to document the cone baseline flow, and to establish the stability characteristics of the transitioning flow. Pitot pressure and hot-wire boundary- layer measurements were obtained using a model-integrated traverse system. All hot- wire results were single-point measurements and were acquired with a sensor calibrated to mass ux. For the noisy-flow conditions, excellent agreement for the growth rates and mode shapes was achieved between the measured results and linear stability theory (LST). The corresponding N factor at transition from LST is N 3:9. The stability measurements for the quiet-flow conditions were limited to the aft end of the cone. The most unstable first-mode instabilities as predicted by LST were successfully measured, but this unstable first mode was not the dominant instability measured in the boundary layer. Instead, the dominant instabilities were found to be the less-amplified, low-frequency disturbances predicted by linear stability theory, and these instabilities grew according to linear theory. These low-frequency unstable disturbances were initiated by freestream acoustic disturbances through a receptivity process that is believed to occur near the branch I locations of the cone. Under quiet-flow conditions, the boundary layer remained laminar up to the last measurement station for the largest Re1, implying a transition N factor of N greater than 8:5.

  6. Wire rod coating process of gas diffusion layers fabrication for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, A.M.; Sadananda, S.; Parker, D.; Munukutla, L. [Electronic Systems Department, Arizona State University, 7001 E Williams Field Road, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Wertz, J. [Hollingsworth and Vose Co., A.K. Nicholson Research Lab, 219 Townsend Road West Groton, MA 01472 (United States); Thommes, M. [Quantachrome Instruments, 1900 Corporate Drive, Boynton Beach, FL 33426 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) were fabricated using non-woven carbon paper as a macro-porous layer substrate developed by Hollingsworth and Vose Company. A commercially viable coating process was developed using wire rod for coating micro-porous layer by a single pass. The thickness as well as carbon loading in the micro-porous layer was controlled by selecting appropriate wire thickness of the wire rod. Slurry compositions with solid loading as high as 10 wt.% using nano-chain and nano-fiber type carbons were developed using dispersion agents to provide cohesive and homogenous micro-porous layer without any mud-cracking. The surface morphology, wetting characteristics and pore size distribution of the wire rod coated GDLs were examined using FESEM, Goniometer and Hg porosimetry, respectively. The GDLs were evaluated in single cell PEMFC under various operating conditions (temperature and RH) using hydrogen and air as reactants. It was observed that the wire rod coated micro-porous layer with 10 wt.% nano-fibrous carbon based GDLs showed the highest fuel cell performance at 85 C using H{sub 2} and air at 50% RH, compared to all other compositions. (author)

  7. Scanning laser polarimetry retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements after LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangwill, Linda M; Abunto, Teresa; Bowd, Christopher; Angeles, Raymund; Schanzlin, David J; Weinreb, Robert N

    2005-02-01

    To compare retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements before and after LASIK. Cohort study. Twenty participants undergoing LASIK and 14 normal controls. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was measured before LASIK and approximately 3 months after surgery in one eye each of 20 patients using a scanning laser polarimeter (GDx Nerve Fiber Analyzer) with fixed corneal compensation (FCC), one with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Fourteen normal controls also were tested at baseline and approximately 3 months later. Retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses measured with the GDx FCC, GDx VCC, and OCT. At baseline, mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) RNFL thicknesses for the GDx FCC, GDx VCC, and OCT were 78.1 microm (72.2-83.9), 54.3 microm (52.7-56.0), and 96.8 microm (93.2-100.5), respectively. In both LASIK and control groups, there were no significant changes between baseline and follow-up examinations in GDx VCC and OCT RNFL thickness measurements globally or in the superior and inferior quadrants (mean change, FCC measurements between baseline and follow-up. In LASIK patients, significant reductions were observed in GDx FCC RNFL measurements. Average absolute values of the mean (95% CI) change in thickness were 12.4 microm (7.7-17.2), 15.3 microm (9.6-20.9), and 12.9 microm (7.6-18.1) for GDx FCC RNFL measurements superiorly, inferiorly, and globally, respectively (all Ps FCC RNFL thickness measurements after LASIK is a measurement artifact and is most likely due to erroneous compensation for corneal birefringence. With scanning laser polarimetry, it is mandatory to compensate individually for change in corneal birefringence after LASIK to ensure accurate RNFL assessment.

  8. Measurement of radon emanation of drainage layer media by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtiainen, T.

    2009-01-01

    Slab-on-ground is a typical base floor construction type in Finland. The drainage layer between the slab and soil is a layer of sand, gravel or crushed stone. This layer has a minimum thickness of 200 mm and is sometimes even 600 mm thick, and thus may be a significant contributor to indoor air radon. In order to investigate radon emanation from the drainage layer material, a simple laboratory test was developed. Many organic solvents have high Ostwald coefficients for radon, i.e., the ratio of the volume of gas absorbed to the volume of the absorbing liquid, which enables direct absorption of radon into a liquid scintillation cocktail. Here, we first present equations relating to the processes of gas transfer in emanation measurement by direct absorption into liquid scintillation cocktails. In order to optimize the method for emanation measurement, four liquid scintillation cocktails were assessed for their ability to absorb radon from air. A simple apparatus consisting of a closed glass container holding an open liquid scintillation vial was designed and the diffusion/absorption rate and Ostwald coefficient were determined for a selected cocktail. Finally, a simple test was developed based on this work. (author)

  9. Laboratory-scale measurements of effective relative permeability for layered sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butts, M.G.; Korsgaard, S.

    1996-12-31

    Predictions of the impact of remediation or the extent of contamination resulting from spills of gasoline, solvents and other petroleum products, must often be made in complex geological environments. Such problems can be treated by introducing the concept of effective parameters that incorporate the effects of soil layering or other heterogeneities into a large-scale flow description. Studies that derive effective multiphase parameters are few, and approximations are required to treat the non-linear multiphase flow equations. The purpose of this study is to measure effective relative permeabilities for well-defined multi-layered soils at the laboratory scale. Relative permeabilities were determined for homogeneous and layered, unconsolidated sands using the method of Jones and Roszelle (1978). The experimental data show that endpoint relative permeabilities are important in defining the shape of the relative permeability curves, but these cannot be predicted by estimation methods base on capillary pressure data. The most significant feature of the measured effective relative permeability curves is that the entrapped (residual) oil saturation is significantly larger than the residual saturation of the individual layers. This observation agrees with previous theoretical predictions of large-scale entrapment Butts, 1993 and (1995). Enhanced entrapment in heterogeneous soils has several important implications for spill remediation, for example, the reduced efficiency of direct recovery. (au) 17 refs.

  10. Laboratory-scale measurements of effective relative permeability for layered sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butts, M.G.; Korsgaard, S.

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of the impact of remediation or the extent of contamination resulting from spills of gasoline, solvents and other petroleum products, must often be made in complex geological environments. Such problems can be treated by introducing the concept of effective parameters that incorporate the effects of soil layering or other heterogeneities into a large-scale flow description. Studies that derive effective multiphase parameters are few, and approximations are required to treat the non-linear multiphase flow equations. The purpose of this study is to measure effective relative permeabilities for well-defined multi-layered soils at the laboratory scale. Relative permeabilities were determined for homogeneous and layered, unconsolidated sands using the method of Jones and Roszelle (1978). The experimental data show that endpoint relative permeabilities are important in defining the shape of the relative permeability curves, but these cannot be predicted by estimation methods base on capillary pressure data. The most significant feature of the measured effective relative permeability curves is that the entrapped (residual) oil saturation is significantly larger than the residual saturation of the individual layers. This observation agrees with previous theoretical predictions of large-scale entrapment Butts, 1993 and (1995). Enhanced entrapment in heterogeneous soils has several important implications for spill remediation, for example, the reduced efficiency of direct recovery. (au) 17 refs

  11. Towards printed perovskite solar cells with cuprous oxide hole transporting layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Liang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed p-type metal oxide materials have shown great promise in improving the stability of perovskite-based solar cells and offering the feasibility for a low cost printing fabrication process. Herein, we performed a device modeling study on planar perovskite solar cells with cuprous...... oxide (Cu2O) hole transporting layers (HTLs) by using a solar cell simulation program, wxAMPS. The performance of a Cu2O/perovskite solar cell was correlated to the material properties of the Cu2O HTL, such as thickness, carrier mobility, mid-gap defect, and doping...

  12. Investigation of the effect of potassium on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} layers and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laemmle, A., E-mail: anke.laemmle@zsw-bw.de; Wuerz, R.; Powalla, M.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the influence of potassium (K) on the Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) growth kinetics on alkali-free alumina substrates and the electrical parameters of the CIGS solar cell by intentional K doping of the CIGS layer by a KF-precursor layer and KF-post deposition treatment (PDT). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements revealed that K can be incorporated into the CIGS layer by both processes. The CIGS composition of the KF-precursor sample shows a stronger [Ga]/([Ga] + [In]) (GGI) profile. By analysing the samples with scanning electron microscopy we observed smaller CIGS grains for the KF-precursor sample compared to the K-free reference and KF-PDT sample. jV-measurements of the KF-PDT and the KF-precursor sample show an increase in the cell efficiency η from 10.7% to 13.6% and 13.7%, respectively, compared to the K-free reference sample. The external quantum efficiency measurements of the KF-precursor sample show an increased absorption in the infrared region. Capacitance-voltage measurements reveal an increase in the net doping concentration of both samples treated with K. We assume that the enhancement is caused by passivation of grain boundaries and donor-like defects by K, as previously demonstrated for Na. - Highlights: • K-doped Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) layers from KF-precursor and KF-post deposition treatment • Separation of the K-effect from the Na-effect by using alkali-free substrates • Interdiffusion of CIGS elements during CIGS growth is hindered by K • KF-precursor leads to smaller CIGS grains and a stronger Cu depletion at the CIGS surface. • K leads to an increase in the conversion efficiency.

  13. An optical, electrical and ultrasonic layered single sensor for ingredient measurement in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimoto, A; Kitajima, T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an optical, electrical and ultrasonic layered single sensor is proposed as a new, non-invasive sensing method for the measurement of ingredients in liquid, particularly in the food industry. In the proposed sensor, the photo sensors and the PVDF films with the transparent conductive electrode are layered and the optical properties of the liquid are measured by a light emitting diode (LED) and a phototransistor (PT). In addition, the electrical properties are measured by indium tin oxide (ITO) film electrodes as the transparent conductive electrodes of PVDF films arranged on the surfaces of the LED and PT. Moreover, the ultrasonic properties are measured by PVDF films. Thus, the optical, electrical and ultrasonic properties in the same space of the liquid can be simultaneously measured at a single sensor. To test the sensor experimentally, three parameters of the liquid—such as concentrations of yellow color, sodium chloride (NaCl) and ethanol in distilled water—were estimated using the measurement values of the optical, electrical and ultrasonic properties obtained with the proposed sensor. The results suggested that it is possible to estimate the three ingredient concentrations in the same space of the liquid from the optical, electrical and ultrasonic properties measured by the proposed single sensor, although there are still some problems such as measurement accuracy that must be solved

  14. Organic solar cells with graded absorber layers processed from nanoparticle dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Stefan; Reich, Stefan; Bruns, Michael; Czolk, Jens; Colsmann, Alexander

    2016-03-28

    The fabrication of organic solar cells with advanced multi-layer architectures from solution is often limited by the choice of solvents since most organic semiconductors dissolve in the same aromatic agents. In this work, we investigate multi-pass deposition of organic semiconductors from eco-friendly ethanol dispersion. Once applied, the nanoparticles are insoluble in the deposition agent, allowing for the application of further nanoparticulate layers and hence for building poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):indene-C60 bisadduct absorber layers with vertically graded polymer and conversely graded fullerene concentration. Upon thermal annealing, we observe some degrees of polymer/fullerene interdiffusion by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Replacing the common bulk-heterojunction by such a graded photo-active layer yields an enhanced fill factor of the solar cell due to an improved charge carrier extraction, and consequently an overall power conversion efficiency beyond 4%. Wet processing of such advanced device architectures paves the way for a versatile, eco-friendly and industrially feasible future fabrication of organic solar cells with advanced multi-layer architectures.

  15. Multi-layer thin-film electrolytes for metal supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Markus; Ortner, Kai; Franco, Thomas; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Menzler, Norbert H.; Stöver, Detlev; Bräuer, Günter; Venskutonis, Andreas; Sigl, Lorenz S.; Buchkremer, Hans-Peter; Vaßen, Robert

    2014-06-01

    A key to the development of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (MSCs) is the manufacturing of gas-tight thin-film electrolytes, which separate the cathode from the anode. This paper focuses the electrolyte manufacturing on the basis of 8YSZ (8 mol.-% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2). The electrolyte layers are applied by a physical vapor deposition (PVD) gas flow sputtering (GFS) process. The gas-tightness of the electrolyte is significantly improved when sequential oxidic and metallic thin-film multi-layers are deposited, which interrupt the columnar grain structure of single-layer electrolytes. Such electrolytes with two or eight oxide/metal layers and a total thickness of about 4 μm obtain leakage rates of less than 3 × 10-4 hPa dm3 s-1 cm-2 (Δp: 100 hPa) at room temperature and therefore fulfill the gas tightness requirements. They are also highly tolerant with respect to surface flaws and particulate impurities which can be present on the graded anode underground. MSC cell tests with double-layer and multilayer electrolytes feature high power densities more than 1.4 W cm-2 at 850 °C and underline the high potential of MSC cells.

  16. Ion Temperature Measurements in the Tore Supra Scrape-Off Layer Using a Retarding Field Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocan, M.; Gunn, J.P.; Pascal, J.Y.; Gauthier, E.

    2010-01-01

    The retarding field analyzer (RFA) is one of the only widely accepted diagnostics for measuring the ion temperature T i )in the tokamak scrape-off layer. An overview of the outstanding RFA performance over ten years of operation in Tore Supra tokamak is given and the validation of T i measurements is addressed. The RFA measurements in Tore Supra are found to be well reproducible. The ion-to-electron temperature ratio is higher than one at low-to-moderate ion-electron collisionality regime and converges to unity at high collisionality regime. (authors)

  17. Measured Boundary Layer Transition and Rotor Hover Performance at Model Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmeyer, Austin D.; Martin, Preston B.

    2017-01-01

    An experiment involving a Mach-scaled, 11:08 f t: diameter rotor was performed in hover during the summer of 2016 at NASA Langley Research Center. The experiment investigated the hover performance as a function of the laminar to turbulent transition state of the boundary layer, including both natural and fixed transition cases. The boundary layer transition locations were measured on both the upper and lower aerodynamic surfaces simultaneously. The measurements were enabled by recent advances in infrared sensor sensitivity and stability. The infrared thermography measurement technique was enhanced by a paintable blade surface heater, as well as a new high-sensitivity long wave infrared camera. The measured transition locations showed extensive amounts, x=c>0:90, of laminar flow on the lower surface at moderate to high thrust (CT=s > 0:068) for the full blade radius. The upper surface showed large amounts, x=c > 0:50, of laminar flow at the blade tip for low thrust (CT=s boundary layer transition models in CFD and rotor design tools. The data is expected to be used as part of the AIAA Rotorcraft SimulationWorking Group

  18. Unsteady Heat-Flux Measurements of Second-Mode Instability Waves in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergerise, Michael A.; Rufer, Shann J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report on the application of the atomic layer thermopile (ALTP) heat- flux sensor to the measurement of laminar-to-turbulent transition in a hypersonic flat plate boundary layer. The centerline of the flat-plate model was instrumented with a streamwise array of ALTP sensors and the flat-plate model was exposed to a Mach 6 freestream over a range of unit Reynolds numbers. Here, we observed an unstable band of frequencies that are associated with second-mode instability waves in the laminar boundary layer that forms on the flat-plate surface. The measured frequencies, group velocities, phase speeds, and wavelengths of these instability waves are in agreement with data previously reported in the literature. Heat flux time series, and the Morlet-wavelet transforms of them, revealed the wave-packet nature of the second-mode instability waves. In addition, a laser-based radiative heating system was developed to measure the frequency response functions (FRF) of the ALTP sensors used in the wind tunnel test. These measurements were used to assess the stability of the sensor FRFs over time and to correct spectral estimates for any attenuation caused by the finite sensor bandwidth.

  19. Influence of the charge double layer on solid oxide fuel cell stack behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiston, Michael M.; Bilec, Melissa M.; Schaefer, Laura A.

    2015-10-01

    While the charge double layer effect has traditionally been characterized as a millisecond phenomenon, longer timescales may be possible under certain operating conditions. This study simulates the dynamic response of a previously developed solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack model that incorporates the charge double layer via an equivalent circuit. The model is simulated under step load changes. Baseline conditions are first defined, followed by consideration of minor and major deviations from the baseline case. This study also investigates the behavior of the SOFC stack with a relatively large double layer capacitance value, as well as operation of the SOFC stack under proportional-integral (PI) control. Results indicate that the presence of the charge double layer influences the SOFC stack's settling time significantly under the following conditions: (i) activation and concentration polarizations are significantly increased, or (ii) a large value of the double layer capacitance is assumed. Under normal (baseline) operation, on the other hand, the charge double layer effect diminishes within milliseconds, as expected. It seems reasonable, then, to neglect the charge double layer under normal operation. However, careful consideration should be given to potential variations in operation or material properties that may give rise to longer electrochemical settling times.

  20. Electrochemical Characterization of TiO 2 Blocking Layers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kavan, Ladislav

    2014-07-31

    Thin compact layers of TiO2 are grown by thermal oxidation of Ti, by spray pyrolysis, by electrochemical deposition, and by atomic layer deposition. These layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells to prevent recombination of electrons from the substrate (FTO or Ti) with the hole-conducting medium at this interface. The quality of blocking is evaluated electrochemically by methylviologen, ferro/ferricyanide, and spiro-OMeTAD as the model redox probes. Two types of pinholes in the blocking layers are classified, and their effective area is quantified. Frequency-independent Mott-Schottky plots are fitted from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Certain films of the thicknesses of several nanometers allow distinguishing the depletion layer formation both in the TiO2 film and in the FTO substrate underneath the titania film. The excellent blocking function of thermally oxidized Ti, electrodeposited film (60 nm), and atomic-layer-deposited films (>6 nm) is documented by the relative pinhole area of less than 1%. However, the blocking behavior of electrodeposited and atomic-layer-deposited films is strongly reduced upon calcination at 500 °C. The blocking function of spray-pyrolyzed films is less good but also less sensitive to calcination. The thermally oxidized Ti is well blocking and insensitive to calcination. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  1. Impact of annealing treatment before buffer layer deposition on Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironiwa, Daisuke; Sakai, Noriyuki; Kato, Takuya; Sugimoto, Hiroki; Tang, Zeguo; Chantana, Jakapan; Minemoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 (CZTSSe) solar cells were fabricated with an annealing treatment before the deposition of buffer layers to improve their photovoltaic performance. The CZTSSe absorbers were produced by sulfurization and selenization of metallic precursors. The efficiency of the solar cells increased from 5.5% without the annealing treatment to 8.8% with the annealing treatment at a temperature of 200 °C before buffer layer fabrication. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed that the density of defects in the CZTSSe absorber that acted as non-radiative recombination centers decreased with the annealing treatment. The PL peak intensity exhibited a linear relationship with the open circuit voltage and the fill factor. In addition, the carrier density and hole mobility of the CZTSSe absorbers, which were respectively investigated by capacitance-voltage and Hall effect measurements, increased with the annealing treatment, thus improving cell performance. - Highlights: • Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 is fabricated by sulfurization and selenization. • The annealing treatment can effectively improve the cell performance. • The defect acting as recombination is decreased by annealing treatment. • Carrier density and hole mobility is increased by annealing treatment

  2. Non-destructive lateral mapping of the thickness of the photoactive layer in polymer-based solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O.; Tromholt, Thomas; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive lateral mapping of the thickness of the photoactive layer in poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) : 1-(3-methoxy-carbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (P3HT : PCBM) solar cells is demonstrated. The method employs a spatially resolved (XY) recording of ultraviolet-visible spectra in reflection...... geometry at normal incidence, using a dense raster defined by a circular probe spot of 800-µm diameter. The evaluation of the thickness of the photoactive layer at each raster point employs an algorithm-driven comparison of the measured absorption spectrum with spectral features, as compiled from......-coated float glass substrates. After this, two application examples for solar cells processed either by spin coating or slot die coating of the P3HT : PCBM layer follow. The spin-coated solar cells have glass as the substrate with the P3HT : PCBM spun at different spinning speeds. The slot die-coated solar...

  3. Enhanced Performance of Nanowire-Based All-TiO2 Solar Cells using Subnanometer-Thick Atomic Layer Deposited ZnO Embedded Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghobadi, Amir; Yavuz, Halil I.; Ulusoy, T. Gamze; Icli, K. Cagatay; Ozenbas, Macit; Okyay, Ali K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of angstrom-thick atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO embedded layer on photovoltaic (PV) performance of Nanowire-Based All-TiO 2 solar cells has been systematically investigated. Our results indicate that by varying the thickness of ZnO layer the efficiency of the solar cell can be significantly changed. It is shown that the efficiency has its maximum for optimal thickness of 1 ALD cycle in which this ultrathin ZnO layer improves device performance through passivation of surface traps without hampering injection efficiency of photogenerated electrons. The mechanisms contributing to this unprecedented change in PV performance of the cell have been scrutinized and discussed

  4. Optimization of intrinsic layer thickness, dopant layer thickness and concentration for a-SiC/a-SiGe multilayer solar cell efficiency performance using Silvaco software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yuan Wong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar cell is expanding as green renewable alternative to conventional fossil fuel electricity generation, but compared to other land-used electrical generators, it is a comparative beginner. Many applications covered by solar cells starting from low power mobile devices, terrestrial, satellites and many more. To date, the highest efficiency solar cell is given by GaAs based multilayer solar cell. However, this material is very expensive in fabrication and material costs compared to silicon which is cheaper due to the abundance of supply. Thus, this research is devoted to develop multilayer solar cell by combining two different layers of P-I-N structures with silicon carbide and silicon germanium. This research focused on optimising the intrinsic layer thickness, p-doped layer thickness and concentration, n-doped layer thickness and concentration in achieving the highest efficiency. As a result, both single layer a-SiC and a-SiGe showed positive efficiency improvement with the record of 27.19% and 9.07% respectively via parametric optimization. The optimized parameters is then applied on both SiC and SiGe P-I-N layers and resulted the convincing efficiency of 33.80%.

  5. Optimization of intrinsic layer thickness, dopant layer thickness and concentration for a-SiC/a-SiGe multilayer solar cell efficiency performance using Silvaco software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wong Wei; Natashah Norizan, Mohd; Salwani Mohamad, Ili; Jamalullail, Nurnaeimah; Hidayah Saad, Nor

    2017-11-01

    Solar cell is expanding as green renewable alternative to conventional fossil fuel electricity generation, but compared to other land-used electrical generators, it is a comparative beginner. Many applications covered by solar cells starting from low power mobile devices, terrestrial, satellites and many more. To date, the highest efficiency solar cell is given by GaAs based multilayer solar cell. However, this material is very expensive in fabrication and material costs compared to silicon which is cheaper due to the abundance of supply. Thus, this research is devoted to develop multilayer solar cell by combining two different layers of P-I-N structures with silicon carbide and silicon germanium. This research focused on optimising the intrinsic layer thickness, p-doped layer thickness and concentration, n-doped layer thickness and concentration in achieving the highest efficiency. As a result, both single layer a-SiC and a-SiGe showed positive efficiency improvement with the record of 27.19% and 9.07% respectively via parametric optimization. The optimized parameters is then applied on both SiC and SiGe P-I-N layers and resulted the convincing efficiency of 33.80%.

  6. Simulation on the Performance of Dye Solar Cell Incorporated with TiO2 Passivation Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unan Yusmaniar Oktiawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye Solar Cell (DSC has started to gain interest in the recent years for practical application because of its ecofriendly, low cost, and easy fabrication. However, its efficiency is still not as competitive as the conventional silicon based solar cell. One of the research efforts to improve the efficiency of DSC is to use the passivation layer in between the photoelectrode material and the conductive oxide substrate. Thus, the objective of this simulation study is to investigate the effect of passivation layer on the performance of DSC. Properties from literatures which are based on physical work were captured as the input for the simulation using process, ATHENA, and device, ATLAS, simulator. Results have shown that the addition of two-20 nm TiO2 passivation layers on DSC can enhance the efficiency by 11% as the result of less recombination, higher electron mobility, and longer electron lifetime.

  7. Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell based on CdS electron transport layer

    KAUST Repository

    Abulikemu, Mutalifu

    2017-07-02

    We report on planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells employing a metal chalcogenide (CdS) electron transport layer with power conversion efficiency up to 10.8%. The CdS layer was deposited via solution-process chemical bath deposition at low-temperature (60°C). Pinhole-free and uniform thin films were obtained with good structural, optical and morphological properties. An optimal layer thickness of 60nm yielded an improved open-circuit voltage and fill factor compared to the standard TiO2-based solar cells. Devices showed a higher reproducibility of the results compared to TiO2-based ones. We also tested the effect of annealing temperature on the CdS film and the effect of CdCl2 treatment followed by high temperature annealing (410°C) that is expected to passivate the surface, thus eliminating eventual trap-states inducing recombination.

  8. Final report: Seven-layer membrane electrode assembly - an innovative approach to PEM fuel cell design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, A.

    2005-07-01

    Costs of materials and fabrication, rather than appropriateness of technology, are the major barriers to the sales of fuel cells. With the objective of reducing costs, potential alternative component materials for (a) the fluid flow plate (FFP) and (b) the gas diffusion layers were investigated. The concept of a 7-layer membrane electrode assembly (MEA), in which components are bonded into a unitised module, was also studied. The advantages of the bonded cell, and the flow field design, are expounded. Low-cost carbon particle composites were developed for the FFPs. The modular 7-layer MEA has an order of magnitude saving over current materials. Overall, the study has led to a greater volumetric power output, lower costs and greater reliability. The work was carried out by Morgan Group Technology Limited and funded by the DTI.

  9. Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell based on CdS electron transport layer

    KAUST Repository

    Abulikemu, Mutalifu; Barbe, Jeremy; El Labban, Abdulrahman; Eid, Jessica; Del Gobbo, Silvano

    2017-01-01

    We report on planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells employing a metal chalcogenide (CdS) electron transport layer with power conversion efficiency up to 10.8%. The CdS layer was deposited via solution-process chemical bath deposition at low-temperature (60°C). Pinhole-free and uniform thin films were obtained with good structural, optical and morphological properties. An optimal layer thickness of 60nm yielded an improved open-circuit voltage and fill factor compared to the standard TiO2-based solar cells. Devices showed a higher reproducibility of the results compared to TiO2-based ones. We also tested the effect of annealing temperature on the CdS film and the effect of CdCl2 treatment followed by high temperature annealing (410°C) that is expected to passivate the surface, thus eliminating eventual trap-states inducing recombination.

  10. Buffer layer between a planar optical concentrator and a solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, Manuel E. [Departamento de Ingeniería Matemática and CI" 2 MA, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Casilla 160-C (Chile); Barber, Greg D. [Penn State Institute of Energy and the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lakhtakia, Akhlesh [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Faryad, Muhammad [Department of Physics, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore 54792 (Pakistan); Monk, Peter B. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mallouk, Thomas E. [Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The effect of inserting a buffer layer between a periodically multilayered isotropic dielectric (PMLID) material acting as a planar optical concentrator and a photovoltaic solar cell was theoretically investigated. The substitution of the photovoltaic material by a cheaper dielectric material in a large area of the structure could reduce the fabrication costs without significantly reducing the efficiency of the solar cell. Both crystalline silicon (c-Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) were considered as the photovoltaic material. We found that the buffer layer can act as an antireflection coating at the interface of the PMLID and the photovoltaic materials, and the structure increases the spectrally averaged electron-hole pair density by 36% for c-Si and 38% for GaAs compared to the structure without buffer layer. Numerical evidence indicates that the optimal structure is robust with respect to small changes in the grating profile.

  11. PECVD-ONO: A New Deposited Firing Stable Rear Surface Passivation Layer System for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hofmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD stack layer system consisting of a-SiOx:H, a-SiNx:H, and a-SiOx:H is presented for silicon solar cell rear side passivation. Surface recombination velocities below 60 cm/s (after firing and below 30 cm/s (after forming gas anneal were achieved. Solar cell precursors without front and rear metallisation showed implied open-circuit voltages Voc values extracted from quasi-steady-state photoconductance (QSSPC measurements above 680 mV. Fully finished solar cells with up to 20.0% energy conversion efficiency are presented. A fit of the cell's internal quantum efficiency using software tool PC1D and a comparison to a full-area aluminium-back surface field (Al-BSF and thermal SiO2 is shown. PECVD-ONO was found to be clearly superior to Al-BSF. A separation of recombination at the metallised and the passivated area at the solar cell's rear is presented using the equations of Fischer and Kray. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA has been used to evaluate the hydrogen depth profile of the passivation layer system at different stages.

  12. Silica-sol-based spin-coating barrier layer against phosphorous diffusion for crystalline silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzum, Abdullah; Fukatsu, Ken; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Yutaka; Tanimoto, Kenji; Yoshinaga, Seiya; Jiang, Yunjian; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ito, Seigo

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorus barrier layers at the doping procedure of silicon wafers were fabricated using a spin-coating method with a mixture of silica-sol and tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which can be formed at the rear surface prior to the front phosphorus spin-on-demand (SOD) diffusion and directly annealed simultaneously with the front phosphorus layer. The optimization of coating thickness was obtained by changing the applied spin-coating speed; from 2,000 to 8,000 rpm. The CZ-Si p-type silicon solar cells were fabricated with/without using the rear silica-sol layer after taking the sheet resistance measurements, SIMS analysis, and SEM measurements of the silica-sol material evaluations into consideration. For the fabrication of solar cells, a spin-coating phosphorus source was used to form the n(+) emitter and was then diffused at 930°C for 35 min. The out-gas diffusion of phosphorus could be completely prevented by spin-coated silica-sol film placed on the rear side of the wafers coated prior to the diffusion process. A roughly 2% improvement in the conversion efficiency was observed when silica-sol was utilized during the phosphorus diffusion step. These results can suggest that the silica-sol material can be an attractive candidate for low-cost and easily applicable spin-coating barrier for any masking purpose involving phosphorus diffusion.

  13. Four-point probe measurements of a direct current potential drop on layered conductive cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yi; Bowler, John R

    2012-01-01

    We have determined the steady state electric field due to direct current flowing via point contacts at the cylindrical surface of a uniformly layered conductive rod of finite length. The solution allows one to use four-point probe potential drop measurements to estimate the conductivity or thickness of the layer assuming that the other parameters are known. The electrical potential in the rod has a zero radial derivative at its surface except at the injection and extractions points. This means that the required solution can be expressed in terms of a Green’s function satisfying a Neumann boundary condition. Four-point measurements have been made to demonstrate the validity of theoretical results. (paper)

  14. Four-point probe measurements of a direct current potential drop on layered conductive cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Bowler, John R.

    2012-11-01

    We have determined the steady state electric field due to direct current flowing via point contacts at the cylindrical surface of a uniformly layered conductive rod of finite length. The solution allows one to use four-point probe potential drop measurements to estimate the conductivity or thickness of the layer assuming that the other parameters are known. The electrical potential in the rod has a zero radial derivative at its surface except at the injection and extractions points. This means that the required solution can be expressed in terms of a Green’s function satisfying a Neumann boundary condition. Four-point measurements have been made to demonstrate the validity of theoretical results.

  15. Mass changes in NSTX Surface Layers with Li Conditioning as Measured by Quartz Microbalances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.W.; Roquemore, A.L.; Krstic, P.S.; Beste, A.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic retention, lithium deposition, and the stability of thick deposited layers were measured by three quartz crystal microbalances (QMB) deployed in plasma shadowed areas at the upper and lower divertor and outboard midplane in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Deposition of 185 (micro)/g/cm 2 over 3 months in 2007 was measured by a QMB at the lower divertor while a QMB on the upper divertor, that was shadowed from the evaporator, received an order of magnitude less deposition. During helium glow discharge conditioning both neutral gas collisions and the ionization and subsequent drift of Li + interrupted the lithium deposition on the lower divertor. We present calculations of the relevant mean free paths. Occasionally strong variations in the QMB frequency were observed of thick lithium films suggesting relaxation of mechanical stress and/or flaking or peeling of the deposited layers.

  16. Advanced Measurements of the Aggregation Capability of the MPT Network Layer Multipath Communication Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Lencse

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The MPT network layer multipath communicationlibrary is a novel solution for several problems including IPv6transition, reliable data transmission using TCP, real-time transmissionusing UDP and also wireless network layer routingproblems. MPT can provide an IPv4 or an IPv6 tunnel overone or more IPv4 or IPv6 communication channels. MPT canalso aggregate the capacity of multiple physical channels. In thispaper, the channel aggregation capability of the MPT libraryis measured up to twelve 100Mbps speed channels. Differentscenarios are used: both IPv4 and IPv6 are used as the underlyingand also as the encapsulated protocols and also both UDP andTCP are used as transport protocols. In addition, measurementsare taken with both 32-bit and 64-bit version of the MPT library.In all cases, the number of the physical channels is increased from1 to 12 and the aggregated throughput is measured.

  17. Atomic layer deposition for high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macco, B.; van de Loo, B.W.H.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bachmann, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter illustrates that Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is in fact an enabler of novel high-efficiency Si solar cells, owing to its merits such as a high material quality, precise thickness control, and the ability to prepare film stacks in a well-controlled way. It gives an overview of the

  18. Atomic layer deposition for photovoltaics : applications and prospects for solar cell manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delft, J.A.; Garcia-Alonso Garcia, D.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a vapour-phase deposition technique capable of depositing high quality, uniform and conformal thin films at relatively low temperatures. These outstanding properties can be employed to face processing challenges for various types of next-generation solar cells;

  19. Ti–Al–O nanocrystal charge trapping memory cells fabricated by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Zheng-Yi; Li, Ai-Dong; Li, Xin; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Wu, Di

    2014-01-01

    Charge trapping memory cells using Ti–Al–O (TAO) film as charge trapping layer and amorphous Al 2 O 3 as the tunneling and blocking layers were fabricated on Si substrates by atomic layer deposition method. As-deposited TAO films were annealed at 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C for 3 min in N 2 with a rapid thermal annealing process to form nanocrystals. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the microstructure and band diagram of the heterostructures. The electrical characteristics and charge storage properties of the Al 2 O 3 /TAO/Al 2 O 3 /Si stack structures were also evaluated. Compared to 700 °C and 900 °C samples, the memory cells annealed at 800 °C exhibit better memory performance with larger memory window of 4.8 V at ± 6 V sweeping, higher program/erase speed and excellent endurance. - Highlights: • The charge trapping memory cells were fabricated by atomic layer deposition method. • The anneal temperature plays a key role in forming nanocrystals. • The memory cells annealed at 800 °C exhibit better memory performance. • The band alignment is beneficial to enhance the retention characteristics

  20. High-efficiency humidity-stable planar perovskite solar cells based on atomic layer architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koushik, D.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Kuang, Y.; Veenstra, S.; Zhang, D.; Verheijen, M.A.; Creatore, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite materials are drawing tremendous interest for photovoltaic solar cell applications, but are hampered by intrinsic material and device instability issues. Such issues can arise from environmental influences as well as from the chemical incompatibility of the perovskite layer with charge

  1. Cell clusters overlying focally disrupted mammary myoepithelial cell layers and adjacent cells within the same duct display different immunohistochemical and genetic features: implications for tumor progression and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, Yan-gao; Vinh, Tuyethoa N; Strauss, Brian L; Tai, Lisa; Barner, Ross; Vang, Russell; Saenger, Jeffrey S; Shekitka, Kris M; Bratthauer, Gary L; Wheeler, Darren T; Liang, Chang Y

    2003-01-01

    Our previous studies detected focal disruptions in myoepithelial cell layers of several ducts with carcinoma in situ. The cell cluster overlying each of the myoepithelial disruptions showed a marked reduction in or a total loss of immunoreactivity for the estrogen receptor (ER). This is in contrast to the adjacent cells within the same duct, which were strongly immunoreactive for the ER. The current study attempts to confirm and expand previous observations on a larger scale. Paraffin sections from 220 patients with ER-positive intraductal breast tumors were double immunostained with the same protocol previously used. Cross-sections of ducts lined by ≥ 40 epithelial cells were examined for myoepithelial cell layer disruptions and for ER expression. In five selected cases, ER-negative cells overlying the disrupted myoepithelial cell layer and adjacent ER-positive cells within the same duct were separately microdissected and assessed for loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability. Of the 220 cases with 5698 duct cross-sections examined, 94 showed disrupted myoepithelial cell layers with 405 focal disruptions. Of the 94 cases, 79 (84%) contained only ER-negative cell clusters, nine (9.6%) contained both ER-negative and ER-positive cell clusters, and six (6.4%) contained only ER-positive cell clusters overlying disrupted myoepithelial cell layers. Of the 405 disruptions, 350 (86.4%) were overlain by ER-negative cell clusters and 55 (13.6%) were overlain by ER-positive cell clusters (P < 0.01). Microdissected ER-negative and ER-positive cells within the same duct from all five selected cases displayed a different frequency or pattern of loss of heterozygosity and/or microsatellite instability at 10 of the 15 DNA markers. Cells overlying focally disrupted myoepithelial layers and their adjacent counterparts within the same duct displayed different immunohistochemical and molecular features. These features potentially represent an early sign of the formation

  2. Thin-Film Solar Cells with InP Absorber Layers Directly Grown on Nonepitaxial Metal Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Maxwell

    2015-08-25

    The design and performance of solar cells based on InP grown by the nonepitaxial thin-film vapor-liquid-solid (TF-VLS) growth technique is investigated. The cell structure consists of a Mo back contact, p-InP absorber layer, n-TiO2 electron selective contact, and indium tin oxide transparent top electrode. An ex situ p-doping process for TF-VLS grown InP is introduced. Properties of the cells such as optoelectronic uniformity and electrical behavior of grain boundaries are examined. The power conversion efficiency of first generation cells reaches 12.1% under simulated 1 sun illumination with open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 692 mV, short-circuit current (JSC) of 26.9 mA cm-2, and fill factor (FF) of 65%. The FF of the cell is limited by the series resistances in the device, including the top contact, which can be mitigated in the future through device optimization. The highest measured VOC under 1 sun is 692 mV, which approaches the optically implied VOC of ≈795 mV extracted from the luminescence yield of p-InP. The design and performance of solar cells based on indium phosphide (InP) grown by the nonepitaxial thin-film vapor-liquid-solid growth technique is investigated. The cell structure consists of a Mo back contact, p-InP absorber layer, n-TiO2 electron selective contact, and an indium tin oxide transparent top electrode. The highest measured open circuit voltage (VOC) under 1 sun is 692 mV, which approaches the optically implied VOC of ≈795 mV extracted from the luminescence yield of p-InP.

  3. Light trapping of crystalline Si solar cells by use of nanocrystalline Si layer plus pyramidal texture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Kentaro; Nonaka, Takaaki; Onitsuka, Yuya; Irishika, Daichi; Kobayashi, Hikaru, E-mail: h.kobayashi@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Ultralow reflectivity Si wafers with light trapping effect can be obtained by forming a nanocrystalline Si layer on pyramidal textured Si surfaces. • Surface passivation using phosphosilicate glass improved minority carrier lifetime of the nanocrystalline Si layer/Si structure. • A high photocurrent density of 40.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, and a high conversion efficiency of 18.5% were achieved. - Abstract: The surface structure chemical transfer (SSCT) method has been applied to fabrication of single crystalline Si solar cells with 170 μm thickness. The SSCT method, which simply involves immersion of Si wafers in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} plus HF solutions and contact of Pt catalyst with Si taking only ∼30 s for 6 in. wafers, can decrease the reflectivity to less than 3% by the formation of a nanocrystalline Si layer. However, the reflectivity of the nanocrystalline Si layer/flat Si surface/rear Ag electrode structure in the wavelength region longer than 1000 nm is high because of insufficient absorption of incident light. The reflectivity in the long wavelength region is greatly decreased by the formation of the nanocrystalline Si layer on pyramidal textured Si surfaces due to an increase in the optical path length. Deposition of phosphosilicate glass (PSG) on the nanocrystalline Si layer for formation of pn-junction does not change the ultralow reflectivity because the surface region of the nanocrystalline Si layer possesses a refractive index of 1.4 which is nearly the same as that of PSG of 1.4–1.5. The PSG layer is found to passivate the nanocrystalline Si layer, which is evident from an increase in the minority carrier lifetime from 12 to 44 μs. Hydrogen treatment at 450 °C further increases the minority carrier lifetime approximately to a doubled value. The solar cells with the layer/pyramidal Si substrate/boron-diffused back surface field/Ag rear electrode> structure show a high conversion efficiency of 18

  4. Multifunctional Inverse Opal-Like TiO2 Electron Transport Layer for Efficient Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Yang, Shuang; Zheng, Yi Chu; Chen, Ying; Hou, Yu; Yang, Xiao Hua; Yang, Hua Gui

    2015-09-01

    A novel multifunctional inverse opal-like TiO 2 electron transport layer (IOT-ETL) is designed to replace the traditional compact layer and mesoporous scaffold layer in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Improved light harvesting efficiency and charge transporting performance in IOT-ETL based PSCs yield high power conversion efficiency of 13.11%.

  5. Electron Beam Evaporated TiO2 Layer for High Efficiency Planar Perovskite Solar Cells on Flexible Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Weiming; Paetzold, Ulrich W; Gehlhaar, Robert; Smirnov, Vladimir; Boyen, Hans-Gerd; Tait, Jeffrey Gerhart; Conings, Bert; Zhang, Weimin; Nielsen, Christian; McCulloch, Iain; Froyen, Ludo; Heremans, Paul; Cheyns, David

    2015-01-01

    The TiO2 layer made by electron beam (e-beam) induced evaporation is demonstrated as electron transport layer (ETL) in high efficiency planar junction perovskite solar cells. The temperature of the substrate and the thickness of the TiO2 layer can

  6. Measurement of relative permeability of fuel cell diffusion media

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, I.S.; Wang, C.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells plays a pivotal role in water management. Modeling of liquid water transport through the GDL relies on knowledge of relative permeability functions in the in-plane and through-plane directions

  7. Macular Ganglion Cell Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness in Glaucomatous Eyes with Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunwei Zhang

    Full Text Available To investigate macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL thickness in glaucomatous eyes with visible localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL defects on stereophotographs.112 healthy and 149 glaucomatous eyes from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study (DIGS and the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES subjects had standard automated perimetry (SAP, optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging of the macula and optic nerve head, and stereoscopic optic disc photography. Masked observers identified localized RNFL defects by grading of stereophotographs.47 eyes had visible localized RNFL defects on stereophotographs. Eyes with visible localized RNFL defects had significantly thinner mGCIPL thickness compared to healthy eyes (68.3 ± 11.4 μm versus 79.2 ± 6.6 μm respectively, P<0.001 and similar mGCIPL thickness to glaucomatous eyes without localized RNFL defects (68.6 ± 11.2 μm, P = 1.000. The average mGCIPL thickness in eyes with RNFL defects was 14% less than similarly aged healthy controls. For 29 eyes with a visible RNFL defect in just one hemiretina (superior or inferior mGCIPL was thinnest in the same hemiretina in 26 eyes (90%. Eyes with inferior-temporal RNFL defects also had significantly thinner inferior-temporal mGCIPL (P<0.001 and inferior mGCIPL (P = 0.030 compared to glaucomatous eyes without a visible RNFL defect.The current study indicates that presence of a localized RNFL defect is likely to indicate significant macular damage, particularly in the region of the macular that topographically corresponds to the location of the RNFL defect.

  8. Al2 O3 Underlayer Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinbao; Hultqvist, Adam; Zhang, Tian; Jiang, Liangcong; Ruan, Changqing; Yang, Li; Cheng, Yibing; Edoff, Marika; Johansson, Erik M J

    2017-10-09

    Perovskite solar cells, as an emergent technology for solar energy conversion, have attracted much attention in the solar cell community by demonstrating impressive enhancement in power conversion efficiencies. However, the high temperature and manually processed TiO 2 underlayer prepared by spray pyrolysis significantly limit the large-scale application and device reproducibility of perovskite solar cells. In this study, lowtemperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) is used to prepare a compact Al 2 O 3 underlayer for perovskite solar cells. The thickness of the Al 2 O 3 layer can be controlled well by adjusting the deposition cycles during the ALD process. An optimal Al 2 O 3 layer effectively blocks electron recombination at the perovskite/fluorine-doped tin oxide interface and sufficiently transports electrons through tunneling. Perovskite solar cells fabricated with an Al 2 O 3 layer demonstrated a highest efficiency of 16.2 % for the sample with 50 ALD cycles (ca. 5 nm), which is a significant improvement over underlayer-free PSCs, which have a maximum efficiency of 11.0 %. Detailed characterization confirms that the thickness of the Al 2 O 3 underlayer significantly influences the charge transfer resistance and electron recombination processes in the devices. Furthermore, this work shows the feasibility of using a high band-gap semiconductor such as Al 2 O 3 as the underlayer in perovskite solar cells and opens up pathways to use ALD Al 2 O 3 underlayers for flexible solar cells. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Microfluidically supported biochip design for culture of endothelial cell layers with improved perfusion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, Martin; Rennert, Knut; Jahn, Tobias; Peters, Sven; Henkel, Thomas; Huber, Otmar; Schulz, Ingo; Becker, Holger; Lorkowski, Stefan; Funke, Harald; Mosig, Alexander

    2015-03-02

    Hemodynamic forces generated by the blood flow are of central importance for the function of endothelial cells (ECs), which form a biologically active cellular monolayer in blood vessels and serve as a selective barrier for macromolecular permeability. Mechanical stimulation of the endothelial monolayer induces morphological remodeling in its cytoskeleton. For in vitro studies on EC biology culture devices are desirable that simulate conditions of flow in blood vessels and allow flow-based adhesion/permeability assays under optimal perfusion conditions. With this aim we designed a biochip comprising a perfusable membrane that serves as cell culture platform multi-organ-tissue-flow (MOTiF biochip). This biochip allows an effective supply with nutrition medium, discharge of catabolic cell metabolites and defined application of shear stress to ECs under laminar flow conditions. To characterize EC layers cultured in the MOTiF biochip we investigated cell viability, expression of EC marker proteins and cell adhesion molecules of ECs dynamically cultured under low and high shear stress, and compared them with an endothelial culture in established two-dimensionally perfused flow chambers and under static conditions. We show that ECs cultured in the MOTiF biochip form a tight EC monolayer with increased cellular density, enhanced cell layer thickness, presumably as the result of a rapid and effective adaption to shear stress by remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Moreover, endothelial layers in the MOTiF biochip express higher amounts of EC marker proteins von-Willebrand-factor and PECAM-1. EC layers were highly responsive to stimulation with TNFα as detected at the level of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression and modulation of endothelial permeability in response to TNFα/IFNγ treatment under flow conditions. Compared to static and two-dimensionally perfused cell culture condition we consider MOTiF biochips as a valuable tool for studying EC biology in vitro under

  10. Efficiency Enhancement of Nanotextured Black Silicon Solar Cells Using Al2O3/TiO2 Dual-Layer Passivation Stack Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Meng-Chen; Yang, Jason; Hsu, Chuck; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-05-20

    In this study, efficient nanotextured black silicon (NBSi) solar cells composed of silicon nanowire arrays and an Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack on the n(+) emitter were fabricated. The highly conformal Al2O3 and TiO2 surface passivation layers were deposited on the high-aspect-ratio surface of the NBSi wafers using atomic layer deposition. Instead of the single Al2O3 passivation layer with a negative oxide charge density, the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack treated with forming gas annealing provides a high positive oxide charge density and a low interfacial state density, which are essential for the effective field-effect and chemical passivation of the n(+) emitter. In addition, the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack suppresses the total reflectance over a broad range of wavelengths (400-1000 nm). Therefore, with the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack, the short-circuit current density and efficiency of the NBSi solar cell were increased by 11% and 20%, respectively. In conclusion, a high efficiency of 18.5% was achieved with the NBSi solar cells by using the n(+)-emitter/p-base structure passivated with the Al2O3/TiO2 stack.

  11. An iterative procedure for estimating areally averaged heat flux using planetary boundary layer mixed layer height and locally measured heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, R. L.; Gao, W.; Lesht, B. M.

    2000-04-04

    Measurements at the central facility of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) are intended to verify, improve, and develop parameterizations in radiative flux models that are subsequently used in General Circulation Models (GCMs). The reliability of this approach depends upon the representativeness of the local measurements at the central facility for the site as a whole or on how these measurements can be interpreted so as to accurately represent increasingly large scales. The variation of surface energy budget terms over the SGP CART site is extremely large. Surface layer measurements of the sensible heat flux (H) often vary by a factor of 2 or more at the CART site (Coulter et al. 1996). The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) effectively integrates the local inputs across large scales; because the mixed layer height (h) is principally driven by H, it can, in principal, be used for estimates of surface heat flux over scales on the order of tens of kilometers. By combining measurements of h from radiosondes or radar wind profiles with a one-dimensional model of mixed layer height, they are investigating the ability of diagnosing large-scale heat fluxes. The authors have developed a procedure using the model described by Boers et al. (1984) to investigate the effect of changes in surface sensible heat flux on the mixed layer height. The objective of the study is to invert the sense of the model.

  12. Nanopore Measurements of Filamentous Viruses Reveal a Sub-nanometer-Scale Stagnant Fluid Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Angus J; Tang, Jay X; Stein, Derek

    2017-11-28

    We report measurements and analyses of nanopore translocations by fd and M13, two related strains of filamentous virus that are identical except for their charge densities. The standard continuum theory of electrokinetics greatly overestimates the translocation speed and the conductance associated with counterions for both viruses. Furthermore, fd and M13 behave differently from one another, even translocating in opposite directions under certain conditions. This cannot be explained by Manning-condensed counterions or a number of other proposed models. Instead, we argue that these anomalous findings are consequences of the breakdown of the validity of continuum hydrodynamics at the scale of a few molecular layers. Next to a polyelectrolyte, there exists an extra-viscous, sub-nanometer-thin boundary layer that has a giant influence on the transport characteristics. We show that a stagnant boundary layer captures the essential hydrodynamics and extends the validity of the electrokinetic theory beyond the continuum limit. A stagnant layer with a thickness of about half a nanometer consistently improves predictions of the ionic current change induced by virus translocations and of the translocation velocity for both fd and M13 over a wide range of nanopore dimensions and salt concentrations.

  13. Boundary layer measurements of the NACA0015 and implications for noise modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolio, F.

    2011-01-15

    A NACA0015 airfoil section instrumented with an array of high frequency microphones flush-mounted beneath its surface was measured in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov. Various inflow speeds and angles of attack were investigated. In addition, a hot-wire device system was used to measure the velocity profiles and turbulence characteristics in the boundary layer near the trailing edge of the airfoil. The measured boundary layer data are presented in this report and compared with CFD results. A relative good agreement is observed, though a few discrepancies also appear. Comparisons of surface pressure fluctuations spectra are used to analyze and improve trailing edge noise modeling by the so-called TNO model. Finally, a pair of hot-wires were placed on each side of the trailing edge in order to measure the radiated trailing edge noise. However, there is no strong evidence that such noise could be measured in the higher frequency range. Nevertheless, low-frequency noise could be measured and related to the presence of the airfoil but its origin is unclear. (Author)

  14. Zinc tin oxide as high-temperature stable recombination layer for mesoscopic perovskite/silicon monolithic tandem solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Jé ré mie; Walter, Arnaud; Rucavado, Esteban; Moon, Soo Jin; Sacchetto, Davide; Rienaecker, Michael; Peibst, Robby; Brendel, Rolf; Niquille, Xavier; De Wolf, Stefaan; Lö per, Philipp; Morales-Masis, Monica; Nicolay, Sylvain; Niesen, Bjoern; Ballif, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    the concept, we fabricate monolithic tandem cells with mesoscopic top cell with up to 16% efficiency. We then investigate the effect of zinc tin oxide layer thickness variation, showing a strong influence on the optical interference pattern within the tandem

  15. The cell engineering construction and function evaluation of multi-layer biochip dialyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen; Li, Jiwei; Liu, Jianfeng

    2013-10-01

    We report the fabrication and function evaluation of multi-layer biochip dialyzer. Such device may potentially be applied to the wearable hemodialysis systems. By merging the advantages of microfluidic chip technology with cell engineering, both functions of glomerular filtration and renal tubule physiological activity are integrated in the same device. This device is designed into a laminated structure, in which the chip number of the superimposed layer can be arbitrarily tailored in accordance with the requirements of dialysis capacity. We propose that such structure can overcome the obstacles of large size and detached structure of the traditional hollow fiber dialyzer. To construct this multilayer biochips dialyzer, two types of dialyzer device with two-layered and six-layered chips are assembled, respectively. Cell adhesion and proliferation on three different dialysis membrane materials under static and dynamic conditions are investigated and compared. The filtration capability, re-absorption function and excrete ammonia function of the resulting multi-layer biochip dialyzer are evaluated. The results reveal that the constructed device can perform higher filtration efficiency and also play a role of renal tubule. This methodology may be useful in developing "scaling down" artificial kidneys that can act as wearable or even implantable hemodialysis systems.

  16. Theory of lidar method for measurement of the modulation transfer function of water layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, Lev S

    2013-01-10

    We develop a method to evaluate the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a water layer from the characteristics of lidar signal backscattered by water volume. We propose several designs of a lidar system for remote measurement of the MTF and the procedure to determine optical properties of water using the measured MTF. We discuss a laser system for sea-bottom imaging that accounts for the influence of water slab on the image structure and allows for correction of image distortions caused by light scattering in water. © 2013 Optical Society of America

  17. Measurement of mobility profile in ion-implanted silicon layers using electroreflection spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiev, G.B.; Kapaev, V.V.; Mokerov, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility is shown of the application of the low field linearized electroreflection spectroscopy for the measurement of profiles of carriers mobilities μ(x) simultaneously with the concentration profiles N(x) in thin ion-implanted silicon layers. The μ(χ) value is determined from the calibration curve of the dependence of the phenomenological broadening parameter γ on the mobility for uniformly doped samples. The results are presented for the measurements of the profiles μ(x) for boron- and arsenic-implanted silicon

  18. Transient field measurements on 56Fe- and 80Se-ions using segmented Fe-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, H.; Kremeyer, S.; Meens, A.; Maier-Komor, P.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of transient magnetic fields (TF) were performed on swift heavy ions of 56 Fe and 80 Se, with Coulomb excitation of their first 2 + state as probe, traversing thin Fe layers with segmented and unsegmented structures. The 50 μm x 50 μm squares of the segments were accomplished applying the techniques of photolithography and ion etching. The magnitude of the TF deduced clearly shows that by segmentation of the targets the ion beam induced attenuations can be eliminated. This finding has direct applications to g-factor measurements. (orig.)

  19. SERCA directs cell migration and branching across species and germ layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle V. Bower

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Branching morphogenesis underlies organogenesis in vertebrates and invertebrates, yet is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ reuptake pump (SERCA directs budding across germ layers and species. Clonal knockdown demonstrated a cell-autonomous role for SERCA in Drosophila air sac budding. Live imaging of Drosophila tracheogenesis revealed elevated Ca2+ levels in migratory tip cells as they form branches. SERCA blockade abolished this Ca2+ differential, aborting both cell migration and new branching. Activating protein kinase C (PKC rescued Ca2+ in tip cells and restored cell migration and branching. Likewise, inhibiting SERCA abolished mammalian epithelial budding, PKC activation rescued budding, while morphogens did not. Mesoderm (zebrafish angiogenesis and ectoderm (Drosophila nervous system behaved similarly, suggesting a conserved requirement for cell-autonomous Ca2+ signaling, established by SERCA, in iterative budding.

  20. The Effect of LASIK Procedure on Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Macular Ganglion Cell-Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness in Myopic Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zivkovic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the effect of applied suction during microkeratome-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK procedure on peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness as well as macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL thickness. Methods. 89 patients (124 eyes with established myopia range from −3.0 to −8.0 diopters and no associated ocular diseases were included in this study. RNFL and GC-IPL thickness measurements were performed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT one day before LASIK and at 1 and 6 months postoperatively. Results. Mean RNFL thickness prior to LASIK was 93.86±12.17 μm while the first month and the sixth month postoperatively were 94.01±12.04 μm and 94.46±12.27 μm, respectively. Comparing results, there is no significant difference between baseline, one month, and six months postoperatively for mean RNFL (p>0.05. Mean GC-IPL thickness was 81.70±7.47 μm preoperatively with no significant difference during the follow-up period (82.03±7.69 μm versus 81.84±7.64 μm; p>0.05. Conclusion. RNFL and GC-IPL complex thickness remained unaffected following LASIK intervention.

  1. Ion implantation into amorphous Si layers to form carrier-selective contacts for Si solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Frank; Mueller, Ralph; Reichel, Christian; Hermle, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports our findings on the boron and phosphorus doping of very thin amorphous silicon layers by low energy ion implantation. These doped layers are implemented into a so-called tunnel oxide passivated contact structure for Si solar cells. They act as carrier-selective contacts and, thereby, lead to a significant reduction of the cell's recombination current. In this paper we address the influence of ion energy and ion dose in conjunction with the obligatory high-temperature anneal needed for the realization of the passivation quality of the carrier-selective contacts. The good results on the phosphorus-doped (implied V oc = 725 mV) and boron-doped passivated contacts (iV oc = 694 mV) open a promising route to a simplified interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cell featuring passivated contacts. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Hybrid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Consisting of Double Titania Layers for Harvesting Light with Wide Range of Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadamasu, Kengo; Inoue, Takafumi; Ogomi, Yuhei; Pandey, Shyam S.; Hayase, Shuzi

    2011-02-01

    We report a hybrid dye-sensitized solar cell consisting of double titania layers (top and bottom layers) stained with two dyes. A top layer fabricated on a glass was mechanically pressed with a bottom layer fabricated on a glass cloth. The glass cloth acts as a supporter of a porous titania layer as well as a holder of electrolyte. The incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) curve had two peaks corresponding to those of the two dyes, which demonstrates that electrons are collected from both the top and bottom layers.

  3. Many layers of embryonic hematopoiesis: new insights into B-cell ontogeny and the origin of hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadland, Brandon; Yoshimoto, Momoko

    2018-04-01

    In adult hematopoiesis, the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) sits at the top of a hierarchy of hematopoietic progenitors responsible for generating the diverse repertoire of blood and immune cells. During embryonic development, however, the initial waves of hematopoiesis provide the first functioning blood cells of the developing embryo, such as primitive erythrocytes arising in the yolk sac, independently of HSCs. In the field of developmental immunology, it has been recognized that some components of the immune system, such as B-1a lymphocytes, are uniquely produced during the embryonic and neonatal period, suggesting a "layered" development of immunity. Several recent studies have shed new light on the developmental origin of the layered immune system, suggesting complex and sometimes multiple contributions to unique populations of innate-like immune cells from both fetal HSCs and earlier HSC-independent progenitors. In this review, we will attempt to synthesize these studies to provide an integrated model of developmental hematopoiesis and layered immunity that may offer new insights into the origin of HSCs. Copyright © 2018 ISEH – Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Induction of superficial cortical layer neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells by valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliandi, Berry; Abematsu, Masahiko; Sanosaka, Tsukasa; Tsujimura, Keita; Smith, Austin; Nakashima, Kinichi

    2012-01-01

    Within the developing mammalian cortex, neural progenitors first generate deep-layer neurons and subsequently more superficial-layer neurons, in an inside-out manner. It has been reported recently that mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) can, to some extent, recapitulate cortical development in vitro, with the sequential appearance of neurogenesis markers resembling that in the developing cortex. However, mESCs can only recapitulate early corticogenesis; superficial-layer neurons, which are normally produced in later developmental periods in vivo, are under-represented. This failure of mESCs to reproduce later corticogenesis in vitro implies the existence of crucial factor(s) that are absent or uninduced in existing culture systems. Here we show that mESCs can give rise to superficial-layer neurons efficiently when treated with valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor. VPA treatment increased the production of Cux1-positive superficial-layer neurons, and decreased that of Ctip2-positive deep-layer neurons. These results shed new light on the mechanisms of later corticogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Photovoltaic investigation of minority carrier lifetime in the heavily-doped emitter layer of silicon junction solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C.-T.

    1982-01-01

    The results of experiments on the recombination lifetime in a phosphorus diffused N(+) layer of a silicon solar cell are reported. The cells studied comprised three groups of Czochralski grown crystals: boron doped to one ohm-cm, boron doped to 6 ohm-cm, and aluminum doped to one ohm-cm, all with a shunt resistance exceeding 500 kilo-ohms. The characteristic bulk diffusion length of a cell sample was determined from the short circuit current response to light at a wavelength of one micron. The recombination rates were obtained by measurement of the open circuit voltage as a function of the photogeneration rate. The recombination rate was found to be dependent on the photoinjection level, and is positive-field controlled at low photoinjection, positive-field influence Auger recombination at a medium photoinjection level, and negative-field controlled Auger recombination at a high photoinjection level.

  6. Automated measurement of cell motility and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goff Julie

    2005-04-01

    objects, and uncertainty in the outlining and positioning of cells by automated image analysis. Exponential growth, as monitored by total cell area, did not linearly correlate with absolute cell number, but proved valuable for selection of reliable tracking data and for disclosing between-experiment variations in cell growth. Conclusion These results demonstrate the applicability of a system that uses fully automated image acquisition and analysis to study cell motility and growth. Cellular motility response is determined in an unbiased and comparatively high throughput manner. Abundant ancillary data provide opportunities for uniform filtering according to criteria that select for biological relevance and for providing insight into features of system performance. Data quality measures have been developed that can serve as a basis for the design and quality control of experiments that are facilitated by automation and the 384 well plate format. This system is applicable to large-scale studies such as drug screening and research into effects of complex combinations of factors and matrices on cell phenotype.

  7. Surface-Layer (S-Layer) Proteins Sap and EA1 Govern the Binding of the S-Layer-Associated Protein BslO at the Cell Septa of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Valerie J.; Kern, Justin W.; Theriot, Julie A.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    The Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus anthracis contains 24 genes whose products harbor the structurally conserved surface-layer (S-layer) homology (SLH) domain. Proteins endowed with the SLH domain associate with the secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) following secretion. Two such proteins, Sap and EA1, have the unique ability to self-assemble into a paracrystalline layer on the surface of bacilli and form S layers. Other SLH domain proteins can also be found within the S layer and have been designated Bacillus S-layer-associated protein (BSLs). While both S-layer proteins and BSLs bind the same SCWP, their deposition on the cell surface is not random. For example, BslO is targeted to septal peptidoglycan zones, where it catalyzes the separation of daughter cells. Here we show that an insertional lesion in the sap structural gene results in elongated chains of bacilli, as observed with a bslO mutant. The chain length of the sap mutant can be reduced by the addition of purified BslO in the culture medium. This complementation in trans can be explained by an increased deposition of BslO onto the surface of sap mutant bacilli that extends beyond chain septa. Using fluorescence microscopy, we observed that the Sap S layer does not overlap the EA1 S layer and slowly yields to the EA1 S layer in a growth-phase-dependent manner. Although present all over bacilli, Sap S-layer patches are not observed at septa. Thus, we propose that the dynamic Sap/EA1 S-layer coverage of the envelope restricts the deposition of BslO to the SCWP at septal rings. PMID:22609927

  8. Atomic force microscopy stiffness tomography on living Arabidopsis thaliana cells reveals the mechanical properties of surface and deep cell-wall layers during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radotić, Ksenija; Roduit, Charles; Simonović, Jasna; Hornitschek, Patricia; Fankhauser, Christian; Mutavdžić, Dragosav; Steinbach, Gabor; Dietler, Giovanni; Kasas, Sandor

    2012-08-08

    Cell-wall mechanical properties play a key role in the growth and the protection of plants. However, little is known about genuine wall mechanical properties and their growth-related dynamics at subcellular resolution and in living cells. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) stiffness tomography to explore stiffness distribution in the cell wall of suspension-cultured Arabidopsis thaliana as a model of primary, growing cell wall. For the first time that we know of, this new imaging technique was performed on living single cells of a higher plant, permitting monitoring of the stiffness distribution in cell-wall layers as a function of the depth and its evolution during the different growth phases. The mechanical measurements were correlated with changes in the composition of the cell wall, which were revealed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In the beginning and end of cell growth, the average stiffness of the cell wall was low and the wall was mechanically homogenous, whereas in the exponential growth phase, the average wall stiffness increased, with increasing heterogeneity. In this phase, the difference between the superficial and deep wall stiffness was highest. FTIR spectra revealed a relative increase in the polysaccharide/lignin content. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 2D scrape-off layer turbulence measurement using Deuterium beam emission spectroscopy on KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, M.; Zoletnik, S.; Bak, J. G.; Nam, Y. U.; Kstar Team

    2018-04-01

    Intermittent events in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasmas, often called blobs and holes, contribute significantly to the particle and heat loss across the magnetic field lines. In this article, the results of the scrape-off layer and edge turbulence measurements are presented with the two-dimensional Deuterium Beam Emission Spectroscopy system (DBES) at KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research). The properties of blobs and holes are determined in an L-mode and an H-mode shot with statistical tools and conditional averaging. These results show the capabilities and limitations of the SOL turbulence measurement of a 2D BES system. The results from the BES study were compared with the analysis of probe measurements. It was found that while probes offer a better signal-to-noise ratio and can measure blobs down to 3 mm size, BES can monitor the two-dimensional dynamics of larger events continuously during full discharges, and the measurement is not limited to the SOL on KSTAR.

  10. Overview of Boundary Layer Clouds Using Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, B.; Dong, X.; Wu, P.; Qiu, S.

    2017-12-01

    A comprehensive summary of boundary layer clouds properties based on our few recently studies will be presented. The analyses include the global cloud fractions and cloud macro/micro- physical properties based on satellite measurements using both CERES-MODIS and CloudSat/Caliposo data products,; the annual/seasonal/diurnal variations of stratocumulus clouds over different climate regions (mid-latitude land, mid-latitude ocean, and Arctic region) using DOE ARM ground-based measurements over Southern great plain (SGP), Azores (GRW), and North slope of Alaska (NSA) sites; the impact of environmental conditions to the formation and dissipation process of marine boundary layer clouds over Azores site; characterizing Arctice mixed-phase cloud structure and favorable environmental conditions for the formation/maintainess of mixed-phase clouds over NSA site. Though the presentation has widely spread topics, we will focus on the representation of the ground-based measurements over different climate regions; evaluation of satellite retrieved cloud properties using these ground-based measurements, and understanding the uncertainties of both satellite and ground-based retrievals and measurements.

  11. Carbon dioxide measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer over Amazonian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Culf

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of carbon dioxide concentration, temperature and windspeed were made in the nocturnal boundary layer over a tropical forest near Manaus, Brazil using a tethered balloon system. The measurements were made up to a maximum height of 300 m on ten consecutive nights in November 1995. Simultaneous surface flux and in-canopy concentration measurements were made at the surface close to the site. The observation period included several different types of conditions. Generally strong windshear and relatively weak temperature gradients prevented the formation of a strong capping inversion to the nocturnal boundary layer. On some nights, however, the inversion was sufficiently strong that the CO2 concentration at 100 m above the surface exceeded 400 ppm. The concentration within the canopy was largely controlled by the presence of an inversion very close to the canopy surface. The temperature and wind profiles are contrasted with conditions in Randônia, Brazil, where the windshear was found to be weaker and higher carbon dioxide concentrations were observed in the early morning. The difference in carbon dioxide concentrations in the nocturnal boundary layer between dusk and dawn is used to estimate the regional nighttime flux of carbon dioxide. The value obtained generally exceeds the measured surface flux and sometimes exceeds the sum of the surface flux and the in-canopy storage made at the tower site. The reasons for the discrepancy are not clear; either one of the methods is in error or the regional carbon dioxide budget differs significantly from the local budget measured at the tower site.

  12. Quantitative Measurement of Dissection Resistance in Intimal and Medial Layers of Human Coronary Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Johnson, John A.; Spinale, Francis G.; Sutton, Michael A.; Lessner, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery is the most frequently involved vessel in coronary artery dissection, a cause of acute coronary syndrome or sudden cardiac death. The biomechanical mechanisms underlying arterial dissection are not well understood. This study investigated the dissection properties of LAD specimens harvested from explanted hearts at the time of cardiac transplantation, from patients with primary dilated cardiomyopathy (n=12). Using a previously validated approach uniquely modified for these human LAD specimens, we quantified the local energy release rate, G, within different arterial layers during experimental dissection events (tissue tearing). Results show that the mean values of G during arterial dissection within the intima and within the media in human LADs are 20.7±16.5 J/m2 and 10.3±5.0 J/m2, respectively. The difference in dissection resistance between tearing events occurring within the intima and within the media is statistically significant. Our data fall in the same order of magnitude as most previous measurements of adhesive strength in other human arteries, with the differences in measured values of G within the layers most likely due to histologically observed differences in the structure and composition of arterial layers. PMID:24729631

  13. LASE Measurements of Water Vapor, Aerosol, and Cloud Distributions in Saharan Air Layers and Tropical Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard A.; Browell, Edward V.; Kooi, Susan A.; Dunion, Jason P.; Heymsfield, Gerry; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn F.; Burton, Sharon; Fenn, Marta; hide

    2010-01-01

    LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) on-board the NASA DC-8 measured high resolution profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and cloud distributions in 14 flights over the eastern North Atlantic during the NAMMA (NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) field experiment. These measurements were used to study African easterly waves (AEWs), tropical cyclones (TCs), and the Saharan Air Layer(s) (SAL). Interactions between the SAL and tropical air were observed during the early stages of the TC development. These LASE measurements represent the first simultaneous water vapor and aerosol lidar measurements to study the SAL and its impact on AEWs and TCs. Examples of profile measurements of aerosol scattering ratios, aerosol extinction coefficients, aerosol optical thickness, water vapor mixing ratios, RH, and temperature are presented to illustrate their characteristics in SAL, convection, and clear air regions. LASE data suggest that the SAL suppresses low-altitude convection at the convection-SAL interface region. Mid-level convection associated with the AEW and transport are likely responsible for high water vapor content observed in the southern regions of the SAL on August 20, 2008. This interaction is responsible for the transfer of about 7 x 10(exp 15) J latent heat energy within a day to the SAL. Measurements of lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratios in the range 36+/-5 to 45+/-5 are within the range of measurements from other lidar measurements of dust. LASE aerosol extinction and water vapor profiles are validated by comparison with onboard in situ aerosol measurements and GPS dropsonde water vapor soundings, respectively.

  14. Retinal nerve fiber layer measurements by scanning laser polarimetry with enhanced corneal compensation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Harsha L; Venkatesh, Chirravuri R; Vidyasagar, Kelli; Yadav, Ravi K; Addepalli, Uday K; Jude, Aarthi; Senthil, Sirisha; Garudadri, Chandra S

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the (i) effects of biological (age and axial length) and instrument-related [typical scan score (TSS) and corneal birefringence] parameters on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements and (ii) repeatability of RNFL measurements with the enhanced corneal compensation (ECC) protocol of scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) in healthy subjects. In a cross-sectional study, 140 eyes of 73 healthy subjects underwent RNFL imaging with the ECC protocol of SLP. Linear mixed modeling methods were used to evaluate the effects of age, axial length, TSS, and corneal birefringence on RNFL measurements. One randomly selected eye of 48 subjects from the cohort underwent 3 serial scans during the same session to determine the repeatability. Age significantly influenced all RNFL measurements. RNFL measurements decreased by 1 µm for every decade increase in age. TSS affected the overall average RNFL measurement (β=-0.62, P=0.003), whereas residual anterior segment retardance affected the superior quadrant measurement (β=1.14, P=0.01). Axial length and corneal birefringence measurements did not influence RNFL measurements. Repeatability, as assessed by the coefficient of variation, ranged between 1.7% for the overall average RNFL measurement and 11.4% for th nerve fiber indicator. Age significantly affected all RNFL measurements with the ECC protocol of SLP, whereas TSS and residual anterior segment retardance affected the overall average and the superior average RNFL measurements, respectively. Axial length and corneal birefringence measurements did not influence any RNFL measurements. RNFL measurements had good intrasession repeatability. These results are important while evaluating the change in structural measurements over time in glaucoma patients.

  15. Retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell complex thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and ganglion cell complex (GCC thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Materials and Methods: Average, inferior, and superior values of RNFL and GCC thickness were measured in 123 patients using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The values of participants with DM were compared to controls. Diabetic patients were collected in Groups 1, 2 and 3. Group 1 = 33 participants who had no diabetic retinopathy (DR; Group 2 = 30 participants who had mild nonproliferative DR and Group 3 = 30 participants who had moderate non-proliferative DR. The 30 healthy participants collected in Group 4. Analysis of variance test and a multiple linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results: The values of RNFL and GCC in the type 2 diabetes were thinner than controls, but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: This study showed that there is a nonsignificant loss of RNFL and GCC in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  16. "Supersaturated" self-assembled charge-selective interfacial layers for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Charles Kiseok; Luck, Kyle A; Zhou, Nanjia; Zeng, Li; Heitzer, Henry M; Manley, Eric F; Goldman, Samuel; Chen, Lin X; Ratner, Mark A; Bedzyk, Michael J; Chang, Robert P H; Hersam, Mark C; Marks, Tobin J

    2014-12-24

    To achieve densely packed charge-selective organosilane-based interfacial layers (IFLs) on the tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) anodes of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, a series of Ar2N-(CH2)n-SiCl3 precursors with Ar = 3,4-difluorophenyl, n = 3, 6, 10, and 18, was synthesized, characterized, and chemisorbed on OPV anodes to serve as IFLs. To minimize lateral nonbonded -NAr2···Ar2N- repulsions which likely limit IFL packing densities in the resulting self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), precursor mixtures having both small and large n values are simultaneously deposited. These "heterogeneous" SAMs are characterized by a battery of techniques: contact angle measurements, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), cyclic voltammetry, and DFT computation. It is found that the headgroup densities of these "supersaturated" heterogeneous SAMs (SHSAMs) are enhanced by as much as 17% versus their homogeneous counterparts. Supersaturation significantly modifies the IFL properties including the work function (as much as 16%) and areal dipole moment (as much as 49%). Bulk-heterojunction OPV devices are fabricated with these SHSAMs: ITO/IFL/poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][2-[[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]carbonyl]-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  17. Hydrothermal growth of double-layer TiO{sub 2} nanostructure film for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Shuanglong; Yang Junyou, E-mail: jyyang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu Ming; Zhu Hu; Zhang Jiansheng; Li Gen; Peng Jiangying; Liu Qiongzhen

    2012-01-31

    A double-layer (DL) film with a TiO{sub 2} nanosheet-layer on a layer of TiO{sub 2} nanorod-array, was synthesized on a transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate by a two-step hydrothermal method. Starting from the precursors of NaSeSO{sub 3}, CdSO{sub 4} and the complex of N(CH{sub 2}COOK){sub 3}, CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were grown on the DL-TiO{sub 2} substrate by chemical bath deposition method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersion spectroscopy, and their optical scattering property was measured by light reflection spectrometry. Some CdSe QDs sensitized DL-TiO{sub 2} films serve as the photoanodes, were assembled into solar cell devices and their photovoltaic performance were also characterized. The short circuit current and open-circuit voltage of the solar cells range from 0.75 to 4.05 mA/cm{sup 2} and 0.20 - 0.42 V under the illumination of one sun (AM1.5, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}), respectively. The photocurrent density of the DL-TiO{sub 2} film is five times higher than that of a bare TiO{sub 2} nanorod array photoelectrode cell. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A two-step hydrothermal deposition method was used to deposit TiO{sub 2} films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double-layer TiO{sub 2} films were synthesized on transparent FTO substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bi-functional character of the electrode were confirmed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocurrent density of DL-film electrode was enhanced 5 times than a single film.

  18. Low-temperature processed SnO{sub 2} compact layer for efficient mesostructure perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Jinxia; Xiong, Qiu; Feng, Bingjie; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Hao, E-mail: nanoguy@126.com

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-temperature processed 70 nm cl-SnO{sub 2} device exhibits maximum PCE. • Champion PSC after SnCl{sub 4} treatment acquires PCE of 15.07%. • Cl-SnO{sub 2} PSC via SnCl{sub 4} treatment exhibits superior stability to cl-TiO{sub 2} based PSC. - Abstract: SnO{sub 2} nanoparticle film has been synthesized via low- temperature (∼180 °C) solution-processing and proposed as compact layer in mesostructure perovskite-type solar cell (PSC). Low-temperature processed SnO{sub 2} compact layer (cl-SnO{sub 2}) brings perfect crystal-lattice and band-gap matching between electron selective layer and FTO substrate and close interface-contact between cl-SnO{sub 2} and mesoporous TiO{sub 2} layer (mp-TiO{sub 2}), which contributes to suppressing carrier recombination and optimizing device performance. In varied thickness cells, 70 nm cl-SnO{sub 2} device exhibits maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE). In order to further restrain photoelectron recombination and improve the photovoltaic performance, the surface modification of cl-SnO{sub 2} by SnCl{sub 4} aqueous solution has been carried out. The recombination behavior in the cell interior is greatly retarded via SnCl{sub 4} treatment and champion PSC after SnCl{sub 4} treatment has acquire PCE of 15.07%, which is higher than PCE of cl-TiO{sub 2} based PSC fabricated with same mp-TiO{sub 2} and perovskite procedures (13.3%). The stability of cl-SnO{sub 2} PSC via SnCl{sub 4} treatment has also been measured and its PCE reduces to 13.0% after 2 weeks in air.

  19. Destructive impact of t-lymphocytes, NK and mast cells on basal cell layers: implications for tumor invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Hongyan; Hsiao, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Yiyu; Wang, Jinlian; Yin, Chao; Shen, Rong; Su, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies have suggested that the primary impact of immune cell infiltration into the normal or pre-invasive tissue component is associated with the physical destruction of epithelial capsules, which may promote tumor progression and invasion. Our current study attempted to further verify our previous observations and determine the primary type(s) of infiltrating immune cells and the possible mechanism associated with physical destructions of the epithelial capsules. In total, the study was conducted with 250 primary breast and prostate tumors, the primary immune cell of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), Natural killer cells (NK) and Mast cells were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, fluorescent labeling and apoptosis assay. qRT-PCR was used for gene expression analysis. Our current study assessed the physical disruption of these immune cells and potential impact on the epithelial capsule of human breast and prostate tumors. Our study yield several clinically-relevant findings that have not been studied before. (1) A vast majority of these infiltrating immune cells are distributed in the normal-appearing or pre-invasive tissue components rather than in invasive cancer tissues. (2) These cells often form rings or semilunar structures that either surround focally-disrupted basal cell layers or physically attach to the basal cells. (3) Basal cells physically associated with these immune cells generally displayed distinct signs of degeneration, including substantially elevated apoptosis, necrosis, and reduced tumor suppressor p63 expression. In contrast, luminal cells overlying focally disrupted basal cell layers had a substantially increased proliferation rate and elevated expression of stem cell markers compared to their adjacent morphologically similar counterparts that overlie a non-disrupted capsule. Our findings suggest that at the early stage of tumor invasion, CTL, NK and Mast cells are the main types of tumor infiltrating immune cells involved in focal

  20. Oxide thickness measurement technique for duplex-layer Zircaloy-4 cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, R.G.; O'Leary, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Siemens Nuclear Power Corporation (SNP) is investigating the use of duplex-layer Zircaloy-4 tubing to improve the waterside corrosion resistance of cladding for high-burnup pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel designs. Standard SNP PWR cladding is typically 0.762-mm (0.030-in.)-thick Zircaloy-4. The SNP duplex cladding is nominally 0.660-mm (0.026-in.)-thick Zircalloy-4 with an ∼0.102-mm (0.004-in.) outer layer of another, more corrosion-resistant, zirconium-based alloy. It is common industry practice to monitor the in-reactor corrosion behavior of Zircaloy cladding by using an eddy-current 'lift-off' technique to measure the oxide thickness on the outer surface of the fuel cladding. The test program evaluated three different cladding samples, all with the same outer diameter and wall thickness: Zircaloy-4 and duplex clad types D2 and D4

  1. Sodar measurements of the mixed-layer depth over a large city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurygin, E.A. [Russia Academy of Sciences, Inst. of Atmospheric Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    The results of synchronous sodar`s measurements on a territory of city and suburban area have shown: (a) The types of stratification over centre of the city and periphery considerably differ, and these distinctions are more often displayed in morning and evening transition period. The agreement between types of stratification in the centre and on the periphery was observed in 40% of cases; (b) At equal temperature stratification the mixed-layer depth in centre of the city is about 50-150 m higher at inversions in comparison with a periphery, at advanced convection - these depths are identical; (c) At different stratification between the city and periphery the distinction in the mixed-layer depth can reach 200. (au)

  2. Development of n-ZnO/p-Si single heterojunction solar cell with and without interfacial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Babar

    . The spatial analysis for thickness uniformity and optical quality of ZnO films is carried out. These properties turn out to play a fundamental role in device performance and so far have been overlooked by the research community. Three different materials are used as a quantum buffer layer at the interface of ZnO and Si to suppress the interface states and improve the VOC. The best measured value of VOC of 359 mV is achieved using amorphous-ZnO (a-ZnO) as the buffer layer at the interface. Finally, supplementary simulations are performed to optimize the valence-band and conduction-band offsets by engineering the bandgap and electron affinity of ZnO. After we published our initial results related to the feasibility of n-ZnO/p-Si SHJSC [Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 139 (2015) 95-100], different research groups have fabricated and reported the solar cell performance with the best efficiency of 7.1% demonstrated very recently by Pietruszka et al. [Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 147 (2016) 164-170]. We conclude that major challenge in n-ZnO/p-Si SHJSC is to overcome Fermi-level pinning at the hetero-interface. A potential solution is to use the appropriate material as buffer layer which is confirmed by observing an improvement in VOC using a-ZnO at the interface as buffer layer. Once the interface quality is improved and the experimental value of VOC matched the theoretical prediction, the n-ZnO/p-Si SHJSC can potentially have significant contribution in solar cells industry.

  3. Filaggrin 2 deficiency results in abnormal cell-cell adhesion in the cornified cell layers and causes peeling skin syndrome type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Janan; Sarig, Ofer; Godsel, Lisa M; Peled, Alon; Malchin, Natalia; Bochner, Ron; Vodo, Dan; Rabinowitz, Tom; Pavlovsky, Mor; Taiber, Shahar; Fried, Maya; Eskin-Schwartz, Marina; Assi, Siwar; Shomron, Noam; Uitto, Jouni; Koetsier, Jennifer L; Bergman, Reuven; Green, Kathleen J; Sprecher, Eli

    2018-05-11

    Peeling skin syndromes form a large and heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by superficial detachment of the epidermal cornified cell layers, often associated with inflammatory features. Here we report on a consanguineous family featuring non-inflammatory peeling of the skin exacerbated by exposure to heat and mechanical stress. Whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation in FLG2, encoding filaggrin 2, which co-segregated with the disease phenotype in the family. The mutation was found to result in decreased FLG2 RNA levels as well almost total absence of filaggrin 2 in the patient epidermis. Filaggrin 2 was found to be expressed throughout the cornified cell layers and to co-localize with corneodesmosin which plays a crucial role in maintaining cell-cell adhesion in this region of the epidermis. Absence of filaggrin 2 in the patient skin was associated with markedly decreased corneodesmosin expression, which may contribute to the peeling phenotype displayed by the patients. Accordingly, using the dispase dissociation assay, we showed that FLG2 down-regulation interferes with keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion. Of particular interest, this effect was aggravated by temperature elevation, consistent with the clinical phenotype. Restoration of CDSN levels by ectopic expression rescued cell-cell adhesion.Taken together, the present data suggest that filaggrin 2 is essential for normal cell-cell adhesion in the cornified cell layers. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transparent conductive ZnO layers on polymer substrates: Thin film deposition and application in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosmailov, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Leonat, L.N. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Patek, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Roth, D.; Bauer, P. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Pedarnig, J.D., E-mail: johannes.pedarnig@jku.at [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-09-30

    Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polymer substrates by pulsed-laser deposition and the optical, electrical, and structural film properties are investigated. Laser fluence, substrate temperature, and oxygen pressure are varied to obtain transparent, conductive, and stoichiometric AZO layers on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) that are free of cracks. At low fluence (1 J/cm{sup 2}) and low pressure (10{sup −3} mbar), AZO/PET samples of high optical transmission in the visible range, low electrical sheet resistance, and high figure of merit (FOM) are produced. AZO films on fluorinated ethylene propylene have low FOM. The AZO films on PET substrates are used as electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cell devices employing P3HT:PCBM as photovoltaic polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction. - Highlights: • Aluminum doped and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polyethylene terephthalate. • Growth parameters laser fluence, temperature, and gas pressure are optimized. • AZO films on PET have high optical transmission and electrical conductance (FOM). • Organic solar cells on PET using AZO as electron transport layer are made. • Power conversion efficiency of these OSC devices is measured.

  5. Characterization and improvement gas diffusion layer of low temperature fuel cell; Caracterizacao e aprimoramento da camada difusora de celulas a combustivel de funcionamento a baixa temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, C.Z.; Dantas, R.; Oliveira, I.S. de; Azevedo, C.M.N.; Pires, M. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Quimica; Canalli, V. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2006-07-01

    In low temperature fuel cells the main part is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The gas diffusion layer is a component of the MEA, being a composite material constituted by carbon powder and polytetrafluoroethylene, used to increases hydrofobicity, fundamental characteristic in water transport into system. In this work methods were adapted with the aim to a better characterization of the diffusion layer by the measuring the following parameter: contact angle and hysteresis; morphology, thickness and porosity. From these characterization results optimized MEAS will be produced to better fuel cell performance. (author)

  6. Particle image velocimetry measurements of Mach 3 turbulent boundary layers at low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J. M.; Gupta, A. K.; Smith, M. S.; Marineau, E. C.

    2018-05-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of Mach 3 turbulent boundary layers (TBL) have been performed under low Reynolds number conditions, Re_τ =200{-}1000, typical of direct numerical simulations (DNS). Three reservoir pressures and three measurement locations create an overlap in parameter space at one research facility. This allows us to assess the effects of Reynolds number, particle response and boundary layer thickness separate from facility specific experimental apparatus or methods. The Morkovin-scaled streamwise fluctuating velocity profiles agree well with published experimental and numerical data and show a small standard deviation among the nine test conditions. The wall-normal fluctuating velocity profiles show larger variations which appears to be due to particle lag. Prior to the current study, no detailed experimental study characterizing the effect of Stokes number on attenuating wall-normal fluctuating velocities has been performed. A linear variation is found between the Stokes number ( St) and the relative error in wall-normal fluctuating velocity magnitude (compared to hot wire anemometry data from Klebanoff, Characteristics of Turbulence in a Boundary Layer with Zero Pressure Gradient. Tech. Rep. NACA-TR-1247, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Springfield, Virginia, 1955). The relative error ranges from about 10% for St=0.26 to over 50% for St=1.06. Particle lag and spatial resolution are shown to act as low-pass filters on the fluctuating velocity power spectral densities which limit the measurable energy content. The wall-normal component appears more susceptible to these effects due to the flatter spectrum profile which indicates that there is additional energy at higher wave numbers not measured by PIV. The upstream inclination and spatial correlation extent of coherent turbulent structures agree well with published data including those using krypton tagging velocimetry (KTV) performed at the same facility.

  7. Performance Analysis of Handover Measurements and Layer 3 Filtering for UTRAN LTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anas, Mohmmad; Calabrese, Francesco Davide; Östling, Per-Erik

    2007-01-01

    B domain L3 filtering has been studied by using a dynamic system level simulator for a 3GPP UTRAN LTE recommended scenario. The results suggest that RSS measurement with linear or dB domain L3 filtering is a better criterion for handover in terms of reduced number of handovers for a small penalty......Handover is one of the key functionalities which tries to keep a user equipment (UE) connected to the best base station (eNodeB). Handover is usually based on the downlink received signal strength (RSS) and carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR) measurements. Processing of the handover measurement...... is usually done in Layer 1 (L1) and Layer 3 (L3) by the UE, and handover is initiated by the serving eNodeB if certain event criteria are met. L3 filtering can be done in linear domain or decibel (dB) domain. A hard handover algorithm based on the downlink RSS and CIR measurements along with linear and d...

  8. Influence of the layer parameters on the performance of the CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddout, Assiya; Raidou, Abderrahim; Fahoume, Mounir

    2018-03-01

    Influence of the layer parameters on the performances of the CdTe solar cells is analyzed by SCAPS-1D. The ZnO: Al film shows a high efficiency than SnO2:F. Moreover, the thinner window layer and lower defect density of CdS films are the factor in the enhancement of the short-circuit current density. As well, to increase the open-circuit voltage, the responsible factors are low defect density of the absorbing layer CdTe and high metal work function. For the low cost of cell production, ultrathin film CdTe cells are used with a back surface field (BSF) between CdTe and back contact, such as PbTe. Further, the simulation results show that the conversion efficiency of 19.28% can be obtained for the cell with 1-μm-thick CdTe, 0.1-μm-thick PbTe and 30-nm-thick CdS.

  9. Modeling for copper transport within the boundary layer in an electrodialysis cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, J. P.; Aracena, A.; Ipinza, J.; Cifuentes, L.

    2004-01-01

    A semi empirical model was developed to characterize the transport of cupric ions within the Nernst layer generated between electrolyte bulk and the membrane surface in an electrodialysis cell. The model was derived from fundamental equations and was reduced to a linear expression incorporating the cupric ion transport number in the Nernst layer (t+BL) and in the membrane (t+m). The model critical condition is t+BL <0.5 t+m. The model correctly fits the experimental data when t+BL is o.02. the model was validated with experimental results previously published by the authors and it accounts for a linear concentration gradient within the Nernst layer. (Author) 28 refs

  10. A mathematical model and optimization of the cathode catalyst layer structure in PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qianpu; Song Datong; Navessin, Titichai; Holdcroft, Steven; Liu Zhongsheng

    2004-01-01

    A spherical flooded-agglomerate model for the cathode catalyst layer of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, which includes the kinetics of oxygen reduction, at the catalyst vertical bar electrolyte interface, proton transport through the polymer electrolyte network, the oxygen diffusion through gas pore, and the dissolved oxygen diffusion through electrolyte, is considered. Analytical and numerical solutions are obtained in various control regimes. These are the limits of (i) oxygen diffusion control (ii) proton conductivity control, and (iii) mixture control. The structure and material parameters, such as porosity, agglomerate size, catalyst layer thickness and proton conductivity, on the performance are investigated under these limits. The model could help to characterize the system properties and operation modes, and to optimize catalyst layer design

  11. Trace and surface analysis of ceramic layers of solid oxide fuel cells by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J S; Breuer, U; Westheide, J; Saprykin, A I; Holzbrecher, H; Nickel, H; Dietze, H J

    1996-06-01

    For the trace analysis of impurities in thick ceramic layers of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sensitive solid-state mass spectrometric methods, such as laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and radiofrequency glow discharge mass spectrometry (rf-GDMS) have been developed and used. In order to quantify the analytical results of LA-ICP-MS, the relative sensitivity coefficients of elements in a La(0.6)Sr(0.35)MnO(3) matrix have been determined using synthetic standards. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) - as a surface analytical method - has been used to characterize the element distribution and diffusion profiles of matrix elements on the interface of a perovskite/Y-stabilized ZrO(2) layer. The application of different mass spectrometric methods for process control in the preparation of ceramic layers for the SOFC is described.

  12. Preparation and regulating cell adhesion of anion-exchangeable layered double hydroxide micropatterned arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Feng; Hu, Hao; Xu, Sailong; Huo, Ruijie; Zhao, Zhiping; Zhang, Fazhi; Xu, Fujian

    2015-02-25

    We describe a reliable preparation of MgAl-layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) micropatterned arrays on gold substrate by combining SO3(-)-terminated self-assembly monolayer and photolithography. The synthesis route is readily extended to prepare LDH arrays on the SO3(-)-terminated polymer-bonded glass substrate amenable for cell imaging. The anion-exchangeable MgAl-LDH micropattern can act both as bioadhesive region for selective cell adhesion and as nanocarrier for drug molecules to regulate cell behaviors. Quantitative analysis of cell adhesion shows that selective HepG2 cell adhesion and spreading are promoted by the micropatterned MgAl-LDH, and also suppressed by methotrexate drug released from the LDH interlayer galleries.

  13. Retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform and nerve fiber layers in neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sai-Jing; Lu, Pei-Rong

    2018-01-01

    To determine the thickness of the retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). We conducted a cross-sectional study that included 30 NMO patients with a total of 60 eyes. Based on the presence or absence of optic neuritis (ON), subjects were divided into either the NMO-ON group (30 eyes) or the NMO-ON contra group (10 eyes). A detailed ophthalmologic examination was performed for each group; subsequently, the GCIPL and the RNFL were measured using high-definition optical coherence tomography (OCT). In the NMO-ON group, the mean GCIPL thickness was 69.28±21.12 µm, the minimum GCIPL thickness was 66.02±10.02 µm, and the RNFL thickness were 109.33±11.23, 110.47±3.10, 64.92±12.71 and 71.21±50.22 µm in the superior, inferior, temporal and nasal quadrants, respectively. In the NMO-ON contra group, the mean GCIPL thickness was 85.12±17.09 µm, the minimum GCIPL thickness was 25.39±25.1 µm, and the RNFL thicknesses were 148.33±23.22, 126.36±23.45, 82.21±22.30 and 83.36±31.28 µm in the superior, inferior, temporal and nasal quadrants, respectively. In the control group, the mean GCIPL thickness was 86.98±22.37 µm, the minimum GCIPL thickness was 85.28±10.75 µm, and the RNFL thicknesses were 150.22±22.73, 154.79±60.23, 82.33±7.01 and 85.62±13.81 µm in the superior, inferior, temporal and nasal quadrants, respectively. The GCIPL and RNFL were thinner in the NMO-ON contra group than in the control group ( P deviation (MD) and corrected pattern standard deviation (PSD) in the NMO-ON group ( P <0.05). The thickness of the GCIPL and RNFL, as measured using OCT, may indicate optic nerve damage in patients with NMO.

  14. Measurement of relative permeability of fuel cell diffusion media

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, I.S.

    2010-06-01

    Gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells plays a pivotal role in water management. Modeling of liquid water transport through the GDL relies on knowledge of relative permeability functions in the in-plane and through-plane directions. In the present work, air and water relative permeabilities are experimentally determined as functions of saturation for typical GDL materials such as Toray-060, -090, -120 carbon paper and E-Tek carbon cloth materials in their plain, untreated forms. Saturation is measured using an ex situ gravimetric method. Absolute and relative permeability functions in the two directions of interest are presented and new correlations for in-plane relative permeability of water and air are established. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvement in IBC-silicon solar cell performance by insertion of highly doped crystalline layer at heterojunction interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiri, Hadi; Azim Karami, Mohammad; Mohammadnejad, Shahramm

    2017-01-01

    By inserting a thin highly doped crystalline silicon layer between the base region and amorphous silicon layer in an interdigitated back-contact (IBC) silicon solar cell, a new passivation layer is investigated. The passivation layer performance is characterized by numerical simulations. Moreover, the dependence of the output parameters of the solar cell on the additional layer parameters (doping concentration and thickness) is studied. By optimizing the additional passivation layer in terms of doping concentration and thickness, the power conversion efficiency could be improved by a factor of 2.5%, open circuit voltage is increased by 30 mV and the fill factor of the solar cell by 7.4%. The performance enhancement is achieved due to the decrease of recombination rate, a decrease in solar cell resistivity and improvement of field effect passivation at heterojunction interface. The above-mentioned results are compared with reported results of the same conventional interdigitated back-contact silicon solar cell structure. Furthermore, the effect of a-Si:H/c-Si interface defect density on IBC silicon solar cell parameters with a new passivation layer is studied. The additional passivation layer also reduces the sensitivity of output parameter of solar cell to interface defect density. (paper)

  16. 3D turbulence measurements in inhomogeneous boundary layers with three wind LiDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in atmospheric anemometry is obtaining reliable turbulence measurements of inhomogeneous boundary layers at heights or in locations where is not possible or convenient to install tower-based measurement systems, e.g. mountainous terrain, cities, wind farms, etc. Wind LiDARs are being extensively used for the measurement of averaged vertical wind profiles, but they can only successfully accomplish this task under the limiting conditions of flat terrain and horizontally homogeneous flow. Moreover, it has been shown that common scanning strategies introduce large systematic errors in turbulence measurements, regardless of the characteristics of the flow addressed. From the point of view of research, there exist a variety of techniques and scanning strategies to estimate different turbulence quantities but most of them rely in the combination of raw measurements with atmospheric models. Most of those models are only valid under the assumption of horizontal homogeneity. The limitations stated above can be overcome by a new triple LiDAR technique which uses simultaneous measurements from three intersecting Doppler wind LiDARs. It allows for the reconstruction of the three-dimensional velocity vector in time as well as local velocity gradients without the need of any turbulence model and with minimal assumptions [EGU2013-9670]. The triple LiDAR technique has been applied to the study of the flow over the campus of EPFL in Lausanne (Switzerland). The results show the potential of the technique for the measurement of turbulence in highly complex boundary layer flows. The technique is particularly useful for micrometeorology and wind engineering studies.

  17. Adhesion and migration of CHO cells on micropatterned single layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavan, S.; Oropesa-Nuñez, R.; Diaspro, A.; Canale, C.; Dante, S.

    2017-06-01

    Cell patterning technology on single layer graphene (SLG) is a fairly new field that can find applications in tissue engineering and biomaterial/biosensors development. Recently, we have developed a simple and effective approach for the fabrication of patterned SLG substrates by laser micromachining, and we have successfully applied it for the obtainment of geometrically ordered neural networks. Here, we exploit the same approach to investigate the generalization of the cell response to the surface cues of the fabricated substrates and, contextually, to quantify cell adhesion on the different areas of the patterns. To attain this goal, we tested Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells on PDL-coated micropatterned SLG substrates and quantified the adhesion by using single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS). Our results indicate higher cell adhesion on PDL-SLG, and, consequently, an initial CHO cell accumulation on the graphene areas, confirming the neuronal behaviour observed previously; interestingly, at later time point in culture, cell migration was observed towards the adjacent SLG ablated regions, which resulted more favourable for cell proliferation. Therefore, our findings indicate that the mechanism of interaction with the surface cues offered by the micropatterned substrates is strictly cell-type dependent.

  18. Pluripotency factors in embryonic stem cells regulate differentiation into germ layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Matt; Liu, Siyuan John; Zou, Ling-Nan; Smith, Zack; Meissner, Alexander; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2011-06-10

    Cell fate decisions are fundamental for development, but we do not know how transcriptional networks reorganize during the transition from a pluripotent to a differentiated cell state. Here, we asked how mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) leave the pluripotent state and choose between germ layer fates. By analyzing the dynamics of the transcriptional circuit that maintains pluripotency, we found that Oct4 and Sox2, proteins that maintain ESC identity, also orchestrate germ layer fate selection. Oct4 suppresses neural ectodermal differentiation and promotes mesendodermal differentiation; Sox2 inhibits mesendodermal differentiation and promotes neural ectodermal differentiation. Differentiation signals continuously and asymmetrically modulate Oct4 and Sox2 protein levels, altering their binding pattern in the genome, and leading to cell fate choice. The same factors that maintain pluripotency thus also integrate external signals and control lineage selection. Our study provides a framework for understanding how complex transcription factor networks control cell fate decisions in progenitor cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cell and tissue kinetics of the subependymal layer in mouse brain following heavy charged particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    The following studies investigate the cellular response and cell population kinetics of the subependymal layer in the mouse brain exposed to heavy charged particle irradiation. Partial brain irradiation with helium and neon ions was confined to one cortex of the brain. Both the irradiated and the unirradiated contralateral cortex showed similar disturbances of the cell and tissue kinetics in the subependymal layers. The irradiated hemisphere exhibited histological damage, whereas the unirradiated side appeared normal histologically. The decrease in the values of the labeling indices 1 week after charged particle irradiation was dose- and ion-dependent. Mitotic indices 1 week after 10 and 25 Gy helium and after 10 Gy neon were the same as those seen in the control mice. Analysis of cell kinetics 1 week after 10 Gy helium and 10 Gy neon irradiation suggests the presence of a progenitor subpopulation that is proliferating with a shorter cell cycle. Comparison of the responses to the different charged particle beams indicates that neon ions are more effective in producing direct cellular damage than the helium ions, but the surviving proliferating cells several divisions later continue to maintain active cell renewal. Based on the 1 week post-irradiation H 3 -TdR labeling indices, a rough estimate of the RBE for neon ions is at least 2.5 when compared to helium ions

  20. Structure optimization of cathode microporous layer for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guicheng; Ding, Xianan; Zhou, Hongwei; Chen, Ming; Wang, Manxiang; Zhao, Zhenxuan; Yin, Zhuang; Wang, Xindong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pore-forming technology was introduced to optimize microporous layer microstructure. • The water removal and gas mass transfer property of diffusion layer were improved. • The optimum DMFC performance reached 292 mW cm −2 at 80 °C. - Abstract: To obtain the cathode microporous layer (CML) with high mass transfer performance and high electronic conductivity, a pore-forming technology was introduced to optimize CML microstructure for direct methanol fuel cells. In this paper, the effects of carbon material type, carbon material loading and pore-forming agent loading in CML on fuel cell performance were discussed systematically. The results indicated that the optimized CML consisted of carbon nanotubes and ammonium oxalate with the loading of 1.5 and 3.5 mg cm −2 respectively. The fuel cell performance was improved by 30.3%, from 224 to 292 mW cm −2 at 80 °C under 0.3 MPa O 2 . Carbon nanotube was found to be the most suitable carbon material for the CML due to its great specific surface area and small particle size, resulting in increasing the number of the hydrophobic sites and the contact area between the support and the catalyst layer. The carbon material and pore-forming agent loading directly influenced the pore distribution and the contact resistance of membrane electrode assembly. The water removal capacity and the gas mass transfer property of diffusion layer were improved by optimizing the amount of micropore and macropore structures

  1. Investigations on the double gas diffusion backing layer for performance improvement of self-humidified proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Im Mo; Jung, Aeri; Kim, Min Soo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of self-humidified PEMFCs can be improved with double GDBL. • The effect of double GDBL on water retention capability and membrane hydration was investigated. • In addition to HFR and EIS measurements, numerical analysis was conducted. • Optimized design of double GDBL for self-humidified PEMFC was investigated. • This study provides an inspiration on how to design the double GDBL. - Abstract: In order to simplify the system configuration and downsize the volume, a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) needs to be operated in a self-humidified mode without any external humidifiers. However, in self-humidified PEMFCs, relatively low cell performance is a problem to be solved. In our previous study, a gas diffusion layer (GDL) containing double gas diffusion backing layer (GDBL) coated by single micro porous layer (MPL) was introduced and its effect on the cell performance was evaluated. In the present study, the effect of the double GDBL was investigated by measuring high frequency resistance (HFR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In the experiments, the HFR value was remarkably reduced, while the diameter of semicircle of EIS was increased. It means that the membrane hydration was improved due to enhanced water retention capability of the GDL despite of interrupted gas diffusion. The result of numerical analysis also showed that the water retention capability of GDL can be improved with proper structure design of double GDBL. Based on the result, optimized design of double GDBL for water retention was obtained numerically. The result of this study provides useful information on the structural design of GDBL for self-humidified PEMFCs.

  2. Pump-probe surface photovoltage spectroscopy measurements on semiconductor epitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Dipankar; Porwal, S.; Sharma, T. K.; Oak, S. M.; Kumar, Shailendra

    2014-01-01

    Pump-probe Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy (SPS) measurements are performed on semiconductor epitaxial layers. Here, an additional sub-bandgap cw pump laser beam is used in a conventional chopped light geometry SPS setup under the pump-probe configuration. The main role of pump laser beam is to saturate the sub-bandgap localized states whose contribution otherwise swamp the information related to the bandgap of material. It also affects the magnitude of Dember voltage in case of semi-insulating (SI) semiconductor substrates. Pump-probe SPS technique enables an accurate determination of the bandgap of semiconductor epitaxial layers even under the strong influence of localized sub-bandgap states. The pump beam is found to be very effective in suppressing the effect of surface/interface and bulk trap states. The overall magnitude of SPV signal is decided by the dependence of charge separation mechanisms on the intensity of the pump beam. On the contrary, an above bandgap cw pump laser can be used to distinguish the signatures of sub-bandgap states by suppressing the band edge related feature. Usefulness of the pump-probe SPS technique is established by unambiguously determining the bandgap of p-GaAs epitaxial layers grown on SI-GaAs substrates, SI-InP wafers, and p-GaN epilayers grown on Sapphire substrates

  3. Time resolved measurements of plasma potential across an anode double layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohoata, V.; Popa, Gh.; Schrittwieser, R.; Ionita, Codrina

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on self-sustained oscillations produced by the dynamics of an anode double layer or fireball in a DP-machine. By additional ionisation processes the fireball is formed in front of an additional small plane anode inserted in the diffusive plasma. An annular (ring) electrode surrounds the anode. The thickness of the ion sheath in front of this ring affects the anode current by controlling its effective diameter during the fireball oscillations. The ring potential controls first the oscillation frequency of the anode current, but also other characteristics of the instability. The ring potential was chosen as a pulsed one so that only single anode double layer instability can be excited. The ring signal was used for triggering the data acquisition system. The spatial distribution of the plasma potential in front of the anode is presented as a time resolved measurement one. A negative drop potential was found that controls the charge flux particle across the double layer. Also the plasma density inside the fireball relaxes during the disrupting time controlled by ambipolar diffusion and also by the negative potential drop. (authors)

  4. A Tri-Layer Proton-Conducting Electrolyte for Chemically Stable Operation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei; Traversa, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Two BaZr0.7Pr0.1Y0.2O3-δ (BZPY) layers were used to sandwich a BaCe0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BCY) layer to produce a tri-layer electrolyte consisting of BZPY/BCY/BZPY. The BZPY layers significantly improved the chemical stability of the BCY electrolyte layer, which was not stable when tested alone, suggesting that the BZPY layer effectively protected the BCY layer from CO2 reaction, which is the major problem of BCY-based materials. A fuel cell with this sandwiched electrolyte supported on a Ni-based composite anode showed a reasonable cell performance, reaching 185 mW cm-2 at 700 oC, in spite of the relatively large electrolyte thickness (about 65 µm).

  5. A Tri-Layer Proton-Conducting Electrolyte for Chemically Stable Operation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei

    2013-10-07

    Two BaZr0.7Pr0.1Y0.2O3-δ (BZPY) layers were used to sandwich a BaCe0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BCY) layer to produce a tri-layer electrolyte consisting of BZPY/BCY/BZPY. The BZPY layers significantly improved the chemical stability of the BCY electrolyte layer, which was not stable when tested alone, suggesting that the BZPY layer effectively protected the BCY layer from CO2 reaction, which is the major problem of BCY-based materials. A fuel cell with this sandwiched electrolyte supported on a Ni-based composite anode showed a reasonable cell performance, reaching 185 mW cm-2 at 700 oC, in spite of the relatively large electrolyte thickness (about 65 µm).

  6. Method of forming a plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Charles J.; Folser, George R.; Vora, Shailesh D.; Kuo, Lewis; Richards, Von L.

    1995-01-01

    A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles doped with an element selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by plasma spraying doped LaCrO.sub.3 powder, preferably compensated with chromium as Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 and/or dopant element, preferably by plasma arc spraying; and, (C) heating the doped and compensated LaCrO.sub.3 layer to about 1100.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. to provide a dense, substantially gas-tight, substantially hydration-free, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell.

  7. Semitransparent Flexible Organic Solar Cells Employing Doped-Graphene Layers as Anode and Cathode Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Hee; Jang, Chan Wook; Lee, Ha Seung; Seo, Sang Woo; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2018-01-31

    Semitransparent flexible photovoltaic cells are advantageous for effective use of solar energy in many areas such as building-integrated solar-power generation and portable photovoltaic chargers. We report semitransparent and flexible organic solar cells (FOSCs) with high aperture, composed of doped graphene layers, ZnO, P3HT:PCBM, and PEDOT:PSS as anode/cathode transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs), electron transport layer, photoactive layer, and hole transport layer, respectively, fabricated based on simple solution processing. The FOSCs do not only harvest solar energy from ultraviolet-visible region but are also less sensitive to near-infrared photons, indicating semitransparency. For the anode/cathode TCEs, graphene is doped with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-amide or triethylene tetramine, respectively. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.12% is obtained from the fundamental FOSC structure, and the PCE is further enhanced to 4.23% by adding an Al reflective mirror on the top or bottom side of the FOSCs. The FOSCs also exhibit remarkable mechanical flexibilities through bending tests for various curvature radii.

  8. Quantitative characterization of water transport and flooding in the diffusion layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalegno, A.; Colombo, L.; Galbiati, S.; Marchesi, R. [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Optimization of water management in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) is a very important factor for the achievement of high performances and long lifetime. A good hydration of the electrolyte membrane is essential for high proton conductivity; on the contrary water in excess may lead to electrode flooding and severe reduction in performances. Many studies on water transport across the gas diffusion layer (GDL) have been carried out to improve these components; anyway efforts in this field are affected by lack of effective experimental methods. The present work reports an experimental investigation with the purpose to determine the global coefficient of water transport across different diffusion layers under real operating conditions. An appropriate and accurate experimental apparatus has been designed and built to test the single GDL under a wide range of operating conditions. Data analysis has allowed quantification of both the water vapor transport across different diffusion layers, and the effects of micro-porous layers; furthermore flooding onset and its consequences on the mass transport coefficient have been characterized by means of suitably defined parameters. (author)

  9. Effect of the Microstructure of the Functional Layers on the Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuzhi; Pascoe, Alexander R; Wu, Wu-Qiang; Ku, Zhiliang; Peng, Yong; Zhong, Jie; Caruso, Rachel A; Cheng, Yi-Bing

    2017-05-01

    The efficiencies of the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells have been rapidly approaching the benchmarks held by the leading thin-film photovoltaic technologies. Arguably, one of the most important factors leading to this rapid advancement is the ability to manipulate the microstructure of the perovskite layer and the adjacent functional layers within the device. Here, an analysis of the nucleation and growth models relevant to the formation of perovskite films is provided, along with the effect of the perovskite microstructure (grain sizes and voids) on device performance. In addition, the effect of a compact or mesoporous electron-transport-layer (ETL) microstructure on the perovskite film formation and the optical/photoelectric properties at the ETL/perovskite interface are overviewed. Insight into the formation of the functional layers within a perovskite solar cell is provided, and potential avenues for further development of the perovskite microstructure are identified. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Diffusion layer characteristics for increasing the performance of activated carbon air cathodes in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan; He, Weihua; Yang, Wulin; Liu, Jia; Wang, Qiuying; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of several different types of diffusion layers were systematically examined to improve the performance of activated carbon air cathodes used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). A diffusion layer of carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene (CB + PTFE) that was pressed onto a stainless steel mesh current collector achieved the highest cathode performance. This cathode also had a high oxygen mass transfer coefficient and high water pressure tolerance (>2 m), and it had the highest current densities in abiotic chronoamperometry tests compared to cathodes with other diffusion layers. In MFC tests, this cathode also produced maximum power densities (1610 ± 90 mW m−2) that were greater than those of cathodes with other diffusion layers, by 19% compared to Gore-Tex (1350 ± 20 mW m−2), 22% for a cloth wipe with PDMS (1320 ± 70 mW m−2), 45% with plain PTFE (1110 ± 20 mW m−2), and 19% higher than those of cathodes made with a Pt catalyst and a PTFE diffusion layer (1350 ± 50 mW m−2). The highly porous diffusion layer structure of the CB + PTFE had a relatively high oxygen mass transfer coefficient (1.07 × 10−3 cm s−1) which enhanced oxygen transport to the catalyst. The addition of CB enhanced cathode performance by increasing the conductivity of the diffusion layer. Oxygen mass transfer coefficient, water pressure tolerance, and the addition of conductive particles were therefore critical features for achieving higher performance AC air cathodes.

  11. Mixing layer height measurements determines influence of meteorology on air pollutant concentrations in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.

  12. Efficient Polymer Solar Cells with Alcohol-Soluble Zirconium(IV Isopropoxide Cathode Buffer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Luo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interfacial materials are essential to the performance and stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs. Herein, solution-processed zirconium(IV isopropoxide (Zr[OCH(CH32]4, ZrIPO has been employed as an efficient cathode buffer layer between the Al cathode and photoactive layer. The ZrIPO buffer layer is prepared simply via spin-coating its isopropanol solution on the photoactive layer at room temperature without any post-treatment. When using ZrIPO/Al instead of the traditionally used Ca/Al cathode in PSCs, the short-circuit current density (Jsc is significantly improved and the series resistance of the device is decreased. The power conversion efficiency (PCE of the P3HT:PCBM-based device with ZrIPO buffer layer reaches 4.47% under the illumination of AM1.5G, 100 mW/cm2. A better performance with PCE of 8.07% is achieved when a low bandgap polymer PBDTBDD is selected as donor material. The results indicate that ZrIPO is a promising electron collection material as a substitute of the traditional low-work-function cathode for high performance PSCs.

  13. Fabrication Processes to Generate Concentration Gradients in Polymer Solar Cell Active Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Shusei; Vohra, Varun

    2017-01-01

    Polymer solar cells (PSCs) are considered as one of the most promising low-cost alternatives for renewable energy production with devices now reaching power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) above the milestone value of 10%. These enhanced performances were achieved by developing new electron-donor (ED) and electron-acceptor (EA) materials as well as finding the adequate morphologies in either bulk heterojunction or sequentially deposited active layers. In particular, producing adequate vertical concentration gradients with higher concentrations of ED and EA close to the anode and cathode, respectively, results in an improved charge collection and consequently higher photovoltaic parameters such as the fill factor. In this review, we relate processes to generate active layers with ED–EA vertical concentration gradients. After summarizing the formation of such concentration gradients in single layer active layers through processes such as annealing or additives, we will verify that sequential deposition of multilayered active layers can be an efficient approach to remarkably increase the fill factor and PCE of PSCs. In fact, applying this challenging approach to fabricate inverted architecture PSCs has the potential to generate low-cost, high efficiency and stable devices, which may revolutionize worldwide energy demand and/or help develop next generation devices such as semi-transparent photovoltaic windows. PMID:28772878

  14. Acid Treatment of Titania Pastes to Create Scattering Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trystan Watson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC scattering layers are used to increase the path length of light incident on the TiO2 film. This is typically achieved by the deposition of an additional TiO2 layer on top of an existing transparent film and designed to trap light. In this work we show that a simple acid pretreatment can lead to the formation of a scattering “skin” on the surface of a single TiO2 film performing a similar function to a scattering layer without any additional depositions. This is important in increasing manufacturing throughput for DSCs as further TiO2 depositions require additional materials and heat treatment. The pretreatment leads to self-assembly of a scattering layer of TiO2 which covers the surface on short-term immersion (<30 min and penetrates the bulk layer upon longer immersion. The method has been shown to increase the efficiency of the device by 20%.

  15. Solution processed transition metal oxide anode buffer layers for efficiency and stability enhancement of polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, M. Yoosuf; Shamjid, P.; Abhijith, T.; Reddy, V. S.

    2018-01-01

    Polymer solar cells were fabricated with solution-processed transition metal oxides, MoO3 and V2O5 as anode buffer layers (ABLs). The optimized device with V2O5 ABL exhibited considerably higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to the devices based on MoO3 and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) ABLs. The space charge limited current measurements and impedance spectroscopy results of hole-only devices revealed that V2O5 provided a very low charge transfer resistance and high hole mobility, facilitating efficient hole transfer from the active layer to the ITO anode. More importantly, incorporation of V2O5 as ABL resulted in substantial improvement in device stability compared to MoO3 and PEDOT:PSS based devices. Unencapsulated PEDOT:PSS-based devices stored at a relative humidity of 45% have shown complete failure within 96 h. Whereas, MoO3 and V2O5 based devices stored in similar conditions retained 22% and 80% of their initial PCEs after 96 h. Significantly higher stability of the V2O5-based device is ascribed to the reduction in degradation of the anode/active layer interface, as evident from the electrical measurements.

  16. Thickness of the Macula, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, and Ganglion Cell Layer in the Epiretinal Membrane: The Repeatability Study of Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeng-Jin; Kim, Min-Su; Jo, Young-Joon; Kim, Jung-Yeul

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the repeatability of measurements of the thicknesses of the macula, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and ganglion cell inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in the epiretinal membrane (ERM). The prospective study analyzed patients who visited our retinal clinic from June 2013 to January 2014. An experienced examiner measured the thicknesses twice using macular cube 512 × 128 and optic disc cube 200 × 200 scans. The repeatability of the thicknesses of the macula, RNFL, and GCIPL were compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of two groups based on the central macular thickness (group A, ≤ 450 μm; group B, > 450 μm). A total of 88 patients were analyzed. The average thicknesses of the central macula, RNFL, and GCIPL were 256.5, 96.6, and 84.4 μm, respectively, in the normal fellow eye and 412.3, 94.6, and 56.7 μm in the affected eye. The ICCs of the central macula, RNFL, and GCIPL were 0.995, 0.994, and 0.996, respectively, for the normal fellow eye and 0.991, 0.973, and 0.881 for the affected eye. The average thicknesses of the central macula, RNFL, and GCIPL in group A were 360.9, 93.5, and 63.4 μm, respectively, and the ICCs were 0.997, 0.987, and 0.995. The thicknesses in group B were 489.5, 96.2, and 46.6 μm, respectively, and the ICCs were 0.910, 0.942, and 0.603, significantly lower repeatability compared with group A (P macula.

  17. LDV measurement of boundary layer on rotating blade surface in wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Murata, Junsuke; Suzuki, Daiki; Kaga, Norimitsu; Kagisaki, Yosuke

    2014-12-01

    Wind turbines generate electricity due to extracting energy from the wind. The rotor aerodynamics strongly depends on the flow around blade. The surface flow on the rotating blade affects the sectional performance. The wind turbine surface flow has span-wise component due to span-wise change of airfoil section, chord length, twisted angle of blade and centrifugal force on the flow. These span-wise flow changes the boundary layer on the rotating blade and the sectional performance. Hence, the thorough understanding of blade surface flow is important to improve the rotor performance. For the purpose of clarification of the flow behaviour around the rotor blade, the velocity in the boundary layer on rotating blade surface of an experimental HAWT was measured in a wind tunnel. The velocity measurement on the blade surface was carried out by a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). As the results of the measurement, characteristics of surface flow are clarified. In optimum tip speed operation, the surface flow on leading edge and r/R=0.3 have large span-wise velocity which reaches 20% of sectional inflow velocity. The surface flow inboard have three dimensional flow patterns. On the other hand, the flow outboard is almost two dimensional in cross sectional plane.

  18. Efficient organic solar cells using copper(I) iodide (CuI) hole transport layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ying [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Yaacobi-Gross, Nir; Perumal, Ajay K.; Faber, Hendrik A.; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D., E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: t.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Vourlias, George; Patsalas, Panos A. [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Applied Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); He, Zhiqun, E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: t.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2015-06-15

    We report the fabrication of high power conversion efficiency (PCE) polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic cells using solution-processed Copper (I) Iodide (CuI) as hole transport layer (HTL). Our devices exhibit a PCE value of ∼5.5% which is equivalent to that obtained for control devices based on the commonly used conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate as HTL. Inverted cells with PCE >3% were also demonstrated using solution-processed metal oxide electron transport layers, with a CuI HTL evaporated on top of the BHJ. The high optical transparency and suitable energetics of CuI make it attractive for application in a range of inexpensive large-area optoelectronic devices.

  19. Modified gas diffusion layer for fuel cells synthesized by pulsed laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrasu, Daniela; Stefanescu, Ioan; Dorcioman, Gabriela; Serban, Nicolae; Axente, Emil; Sima, Felix; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ioan N.; Enculescu, Ionut

    2010-01-01

    Full text; In this paper there are presented the first results regarding the development of a modified gas diffusion layer for fuel cells consisting of a simple or teflonized carbon cloth deposited by pulsed laser with metal oxide nanostructures. These are designed to operate both as co-catalyst, and oxidic support for other electrochemically active catalysts. We selected TiO 2 , ZnO and Al 2 O 3 doped (2 wt.%) ZnO which were uniformly distributed over the surface of gas diffusion layers in order to improve the catalytic activity, stability and lifetime, and reduce the production costs of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. We evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy that our depositions consisted of TiO 2 nanoparticles while in the case of ZnO and Al 2 O 3 doped (2 wt.%) ZnO transparent quasicontinuous films were synthesized. (authors)

  20. Low temperature fabrication of perovskite solar cells with TiO2 nanoparticle layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Masato; Oku, Takeo; Suzuki, Atsushi; Yamada, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Minami, Satoshi; Kohno, Kazufumi

    2016-01-01

    TiO 2 /CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 -based photovoltaic devices were fabricated by a spin-coating method using a mixture solution. TiO 2 require high-temperature processing to achieve suitably high carrier mobility. TiO 2 electron transport layers and TiO 2 scaffold layers for the perovskite were fabricated from TiO 2 nanoparticles with different grain sizes. The photovoltaic properties and microstructures of solar cells were characterized. Nanoparticle sizes of these TiO 2 were 23 nm and 3 nm and the performance of solar cells was improved by combination of two TiO 2 nanoparticles

  1. Efficient organic solar cells using copper(I) iodide (CuI) hole transport layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Ying; Yaacobi-Gross, Nir; Perumal, Ajay K.; Faber, Hendrik A.; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Vourlias, George; Patsalas, Panos A.; He, Zhiqun

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of high power conversion efficiency (PCE) polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic cells using solution-processed Copper (I) Iodide (CuI) as hole transport layer (HTL). Our devices exhibit a PCE value of ∼5.5% which is equivalent to that obtained for control devices based on the commonly used conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate as HTL. Inverted cells with PCE >3% were also demonstrated using solution-processed metal oxide electron transport layers, with a CuI HTL evaporated on top of the BHJ. The high optical transparency and suitable energetics of CuI make it attractive for application in a range of inexpensive large-area optoelectronic devices

  2. Low temperature fabrication of perovskite solar cells with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, Masato; Oku, Takeo, E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp; Suzuki, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan); Yamada, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Hiroki [Energy Technology Laboratories, Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., Osaka 554-0051 (Japan); Minami, Satoshi; Kohno, Kazufumi [Frontier Materials Laboratories, Osaka Gas Chemicals Co., Ltd., Osaka 554-0051 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    TiO{sub 2}/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}-based photovoltaic devices were fabricated by a spin-coating method using a mixture solution. TiO{sub 2} require high-temperature processing to achieve suitably high carrier mobility. TiO{sub 2} electron transport layers and TiO{sub 2} scaffold layers for the perovskite were fabricated from TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with different grain sizes. The photovoltaic properties and microstructures of solar cells were characterized. Nanoparticle sizes of these TiO{sub 2} were 23 nm and 3 nm and the performance of solar cells was improved by combination of two TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  3. Influence of artificially aged gas diffusion layers on the water management of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells analyzed with in-operando synchrotron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, Tobias; Klages, Merle; Messerschmidt, Matthias; Scholta, Joachim; Manke, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    The influence of artificial ageing of gas diffusion layers (GDLs) on the cell performance was investigated using high resolution synchrotron radiography. State-of-the-art GDLs of the type SIGRACET ® SGL 25BC were aged for 0 h, 16 h and 24 h in a hydrogen peroxide solution before they were assembled in the fuel cells. In-operando radiographic measurements were combined with voltage and contact angle measurements. Correlations between applied ageing conditions, GDL water saturation and cell performance were revealed. Hereby, all cell operating conditions were tested several times to estimate the reproducibility of in-operando radiographic fuel cell measurements. Water films at the GDL-membrane and at the GDL-flow field interfaces were found and attributed to MPL cracks and large pores in the GDL structure. The combination of these cracks and pores are assumed to play a crucial role for blocked gas paths, leading to an undersupply with reactants and an increased humidification of the membrane. It is shown that water agglomerations directly impact the membrane resistance. We assume that the hydrophobicity of the fibers inside the GDL is more important for the cell performance than water agglomerations at the membrane-GDL interface. - Highlights: • Influence of ageing of gas diffusion layers on cell performance was investigated. • Cell performance decreased using artificially aged GDLs. • Performance decrease correlated to altered water distribution. • Reproducibility of water thickness measurements with synchrotron imaging.

  4. Electric-field-induced superconductivity detected by magnetization measurements of an electric-double-layer capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Yuki; Ye, Jianting; Yuan, Hongtao; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Takahiro; Sato, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    We report evidence for superconductivity induced by the application of strong electric fields onto the surface of a band insulator, ZrNCl, provided by the observation of a shielding diamagnetic signal. We introduced an electric-double-layer capacitor configuration and in situ magnetization measurements at low temperatures as a method to detect the novel electric-field-induced superconducting state. The results showed excellent agreement with a previous report using a transistor configuration, demonstrating that the present technique is a novel method for investigating the nonequilibrium phase induced by electric fields. (author)

  5. Modification of the laser triangulation method for measuring the thickness of optical layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramov, V. N.; Adamov, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    The problem of determining the thickness of thin films by the method of laser triangulation is considered. An expression is derived for the film thickness and the distance between the focused beams on the photo detector. The possibility of applying the chosen method for measuring thickness is in the range [0.1; 1] mm. We could resolve 2 individual light marks for a minimum film thickness of 0.23 mm. We resolved with the help of computer processing of photos with a resolution of 0.10 mm. The obtained results can be used in ophthalmology for express diagnostics during surgical operations on the corneal layer.

  6. Measurements of the evaporation rate upon evaporation of thin layer at different heating modes

    OpenAIRE

    Gatapova E.Ya.; Korbanova E.G.

    2017-01-01

    Technique for measurements of the evaporation rate of a heated liquid layer is presented. The local minimum is observed which is associated with the point of equilibrium of the liquid–gas interface. It is shown when no heat is applied to the heating element temperature in gas phase is larger than in liquid, and evaporation occurs with the rate of 0.014–0.018 μl/s. Then evaporation rate is decreasing with increasing the heater temperature until the equilibrium point is reached at the liquid–ga...

  7. Measure Guideline: Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, Joseph [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This measure guideline provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ inches and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  8. Measure Guideline. Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, Joseph [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This measure guideline, written by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America team Building Science Corporation, provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ in. and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: (1) fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; (2) design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and (3) construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  9. Validation of Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme with measurements from two mid-latitude European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, R.; Schayes, G.

    2007-08-01

    Martilli's urban parameterization scheme is improved and implemented in a mesoscale model in order to take into account the typical effects of a real city on the air temperature near the ground and on the surface exchange fluxes. The mesoscale model is run on a single column using atmospheric data and radiation recorded above roof level as forcing. Here, the authors validate Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme using measurements from two mid-latitude European cities: Basel, Switzerland and Marseilles, France. For Basel, the model performance is evaluated with observations of canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes obtained during the Basel urban boundary layer experiment (BUBBLE). The results show that the urban parameterization scheme represents correctly most of the behavior of the fluxes typical of the city center of Basel, including the large heat uptake by the urban fabric and the positive sensible heat flux at night. For Marseilles, the model performance is evaluated with observations of surface temperature, canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes collected during the field experiments to constrain models of atmospheric pollution and transport of emissions (ESCOMPTE) and its urban boundary layer (UBL) campaign. At both urban sites, vegetation cover is less than 20%, therefore, particular attention was directed to the ability of Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme to reproduce the observations for the Marseilles city center, where the urban parameters and the synoptic forcing are totally different from Basel. Evaluation of the model with wall, road, and roof surface temperatures gave good results. The model correctly simulates the net radiation, canyon temperature, and the partitioning between the turbulent and storage heat fluxes.

  10. Convective Heat Transfer at the Martian Boundary Layer, Measurement and Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás Soria-Salinas, Álvaro; Zorzano-Mier, María Paz; Martín-Torres, Javier

    2016-04-01

    We present a measuring concept to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient h near a spacecraft operating on the surface of Mars. This coefficient can be used to derive the speed of the wind and direction, and to detect its modulations. This measuring concept will be used in the instrument HABIT (HabitAbility: Brines, Irradiance and Temperature) for the Surface Platform of ExoMars 2018 (ESA-Roscosmos). The method is based on the use of 3 Resistance Temperature Thermodetectors (RTD) that measure the temperature at 3 locations along the axial direction of a rod of length L: at the base of the rod, Tb, an intermediate point x = L/n, TLn, and the tip,Ta. This sensing fin is called the Air Temperature Sensor (ATS). HABIT shall incorporate three ATS, oriented in perpendicular directions and thus exposed to wind in a different way. Solving these equations for each ATS, provides three fluid temperatures Tf as well as three m parameters that are used to derive three heat transfer coefficients h. This magnitude is dependent on the local forced convection and therefore is sensitive to the direction, speed and modulations of the wind. The m-parameter has already proven to be useful to investigate the convective activity at the planetary boundary layer on Mars and to determine the height of the planetary boundary layer. This method shall be presented here by: 1) Introducing the mathematical concepts for the retrieval of the m-parameter; 2) performing ANSYS simulations of the fluid dynamics and the thermal environment around the ATS-rods under wind conditions in Mars; and 3) comparing the method by using data measurements from the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) at the Curiosity rover of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory project currently operating on Mars. The results shall be compared with the wind sensor measurements of three years of REMS operation on Mars.

  11. Skin-friction measurements in high-enthalpy hypersonic boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyne, C. P.; Stalker, R. J.; Paull, A.

    2003-06-01

    Skin-friction measurements are reported for high-enthalpy and high-Mach-number laminar, transitional and turbulent boundary layers. The measurements were performed in a free-piston shock tunnel with air-flow Mach number, stagnation enthalpy and Reynolds numbers in the ranges of 4.4 6.7, 3 13 MJ kg(-1) and 0.16× 10(6) 21× 10(6) , respectively. Wall temperatures were near 300 K and this resulted in ratios of wall enthalpy to flow-stagnation enthalpy in the range of 0.1 0.02. The experiments were performed using rectangular ducts. The measurements were accomplished using a new skin-friction gauge that was developed for impulse facility testing. The gauge was an acceleration compensated piezoelectric transducer and had a lowest natural frequency near 40 kHz. Turbulent skin-friction levels were measured to within a typical uncertainty of ± 7%. The systematic uncertainty in measured skin-friction coefficient was high for the tested laminar conditions; however, to within experimental uncertainty, the skin-friction and heat-transfer measurements were in agreement with the laminar theory of van Driest (1952). For predicting turbulent skin-friction coefficient, it was established that, for the range of Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers of the experiments, with cold walls and boundary layers approaching the turbulent equilibrium state, the Spalding & Chi (1964) method was the most suitable of the theories tested. It was also established that if the heat transfer rate to the wall is to be predicted, then the Spalding & Chi (1964) method should be used in conjunction with a Reynolds analogy factor near unity. If more accurate results are required, then an experimentally observed relationship between the Reynolds analogy factor and the skin-friction coefficient may be applied.

  12. Non-Toxic Buffer Layers in Flexible Cu(In,GaSe2 Photovoltaic Cell Applications with Optimized Absorber Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Asaduzzaman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorber layer thickness gradient in Cu(In1−xGaxSe2 (CIGS based solar cells and several substitutes for typical cadmium sulfide (CdS buffer layers, such as ZnS, ZnO, ZnS(O,OH, Zn1−xSnxOy (ZTO, ZnSe, and In2S3, have been analyzed by a device emulation program and tool (ADEPT 2.1 to determine optimum efficiency. As a reference type, the CIGS cell with CdS buffer provides a theoretical efficiency of 23.23% when the optimum absorber layer thickness was determined as 1.6 μm. It is also observed that this highly efficient CIGS cell would have an absorber layer thickness between 1 μm and 2 μm whereas the optimum buffer layer thickness would be within the range of 0.04–0.06 μm. Among all the cells with various buffer layers, the best energy conversion efficiency of 24.62% has been achieved for the ZnO buffer layer based cell. The simulation results with ZnS and ZnO based buffer layer materials instead of using CdS indicate that the cell performance would be better than that of the CdS buffer layer based cell. Although the cells with ZnS(O,OH, ZTO, ZnSe, and In2S3 buffer layers provide slightly lower efficiencies than that of the CdS buffer based cell, the use of these materials would not be deleterious for the environment because of their non-carcinogenic and non-toxic nature.

  13. Low temperature fabrication of ZnO compact layer for high performance plastic dye-sensitized ZnO solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Fangyi; Xia Yujing; Guan Zisheng; Yin Xiong; He Tao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ZnO compact layer is prepared via simple electrochemical method at low temperature. ► Compact layer can effectively block electron transfer from TCO to electrolyte. ► DSC PCE is improved by 17% when ZnO compact layer is introduced. ► Plastic DSCs with ZnO compact layer show a PCE of 3.29% under AM1.5 100 mW cm −2 . ► The above efficiency is comparable to that with high temperature sintering step. - Abstract: ZnO compact layer has been fabricated on transparent conducting oxide glass and plastic polymer substrates at low temperature via electrodeposition. The results of dark current and cyclic voltammetric measurements demonstrate that the compact layer can effectively reduce the short circuit from transparent conducting oxide to electrolyte in dye-sensitized ZnO solar cells, leading to an increase of open-circuit photovoltage and fill factor of the devices and, thereby, the power conversion efficiency. The resultant plastic dye-sensitized ZnO solar cell presents an efficiency of 3.29% under illumination of 100 mW cm −2 , AM 1.5G. This indicates that electrodeposition is a viable method to fabricate ZnO compact layer for high performance flexible devices.

  14. Spray pyrolysis of doped-ceria barrier layers for solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczewska, Dagmara; Chrzan, Aleksander; Karczewski, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Gadolinium doped ceria (Ce0.8Gd0.2O2 − x-CGO) layer fabricated by spray pyrolysis is investigated as the diffusion barrier for solid oxide fuel cell. It is deposited between the La0.6Sr0.4FeO3 − δ cathode and the yttria stabilized zirconia electrolyte to mitigate harmful interdiffusion...

  15. Solution-processed In2S3 buffer layer for chalcopyrite thin film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Lan; Lin Xianzhong; Ennaoui Ahmed; Wolf Christian; Lux-Steiner Martha Ch.; Klenk Reiner

    2016-01-01

    We report a route to deposit In2S3 thin films from air-stable, low-cost molecular precursor inks for Cd-free buffer layers in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells. Different precursor compositions and processing conditions were studied to define a reproducible and robust process. By adjusting the ink properties, this method can be applied in different printing and coating techniques. Here we report on two techniques, namely spin-coating ...

  16. ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S-based buffer layer deposition for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N [Littleton, CO

    2009-11-03

    The invention provides CBD ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S and spray deposited ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S buffer layers prepared from a solution of zinc salt, thiourea and ammonium hydroxide dissolved in a non-aqueous/aqueous solvent mixture or in 100% non-aqueous solvent. Non-aqueous solvents useful in the invention include methanol, isopropanol and triethyl-amine. One-step deposition procedures are described for CIS, CIGS and other solar cell devices.

  17. Effect of porous silicon layer on the performance of Si/oxide photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, Waheed A.

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical systems were prepared by the formation of a thin porous film on silicon. The porous silicon layer was formed on the top of a clean oxide free silicon wafer surface by anodic etching in HF/H 2 O/C 2 H 5 OH mixture (2:1:1). The silicon was then covered by an oxide film (tin oxide, ITO or titanium oxide). The oxide films were prepared by the spray/pyrolysis technique which enables doping of the oxide film by different atoms like In, Ru or Sb during the spray process. Doping of SnO 2 or TiO 2 films with Ru atoms improves the surface characteristics of the oxide film which improves the solar conversion efficiency. The prepared solar cells are stable against environmental attack due to the presence of the stable oxide film. It gives relatively high short circuit currents (I sc ), due to the presence of the porous silicon layer, which leads to the recorded high conversion efficiency. Although the open-circuit potential (V oc ) and fill factor (FF) were not affected by the thickness of the porous silicon film, the short circuit current was found to be sensitive to this thickness. An optimum thickness of the porous film and also the oxide layer is required to optimize the solar cell efficiency. The results represent a promising system for the application of porous silicon layers in solar energy converters. The use of porous silicon instead of silicon single crystals in solar cell fabrication and the optimization of the solar conversion efficiency will lead to the reduction of the cost as an important factor and also the increase of the solar cell efficiency making use of the large area of the porous structures

  18. Simple Preparation of ZnO Nano-layer by Sol-Gel Method as Active Electrode in P3HT/ZnO Heterojunction Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprilia, Annisa; Herman, Hidayat, Rahmat

    2010-10-01

    Highly transparent undoped ZnO thin films have been prepared on glass and indium tin oxide substrates with simple process by sol-gel route and dip-coating deposition. Gel precursor of ZnO was prepared from zinc acetat dehydrate solution in methanol with the addition of trietylamine as stabilizing agent. Thin layer of gel precursor was prepared by dip coating and then followed by calcination at 400° C for 5 minute in air atmosphere. The thickness of the resulted ZnO thin film produced by ten times coating is about 150 nm. The films shows high transmittance larger than 98% in the visible region (400-800 nm). Absorption is observed in the UV region with absorption onset at about 390 nm indicating varying band gap between 3.18 eV until 3.23 eV depending on the number of coating layer. The AFM image shows that the films seems to be constructed from random stacking of nano-sized ZnO particle in the order of 50 nm. Among the prepared samples, the lowest resistivity is about 1.8×107 Ωm observed in the five-layer coating film. In order to fabricate solar cell structure, P3HT was deposited onto the ZnO thin film layer by spin casting technique and then followed by metal (Au) layer deposition by thermal evaporation. The formed solar cell has the inverted type solar cell with ITO/ZnO/P3HT/Au configuration. By the insertion ZnO layer, the photocurrent was improved by more than ten orders of magnitude in comparison to that of without ZnO layer. The measured photocurrent decreases at large number of coating layer which is supposed to be related with the current limitation by the effective carrier path length in ZnO layer.

  19. Spatial Atmospheric Pressure Atomic Layer Deposition of Tin Oxide as an Impermeable Electron Extraction Layer for Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Thermal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Lukas; Brinkmann, Kai O; Malerczyk, Jessica; Rogalla, Detlef; Becker, Tim; Theirich, Detlef; Shutsko, Ivan; Görrn, Patrick; Riedl, Thomas

    2018-02-14

    Despite the notable success of hybrid halide perovskite-based solar cells, their long-term stability is still a key-issue. Aside from optimizing the photoactive perovskite, the cell design states a powerful lever to improve stability under various stress conditions. Dedicated electrically conductive diffusion barriers inside the cell stack, that counteract the ingress of moisture and prevent the migration of corrosive halogen species, can substantially improve ambient and thermal stability. Although atomic layer deposition (ALD) is excellently suited to prepare such functional layers, ALD suffers from the requirement of vacuum and only allows for a very limited throughput. Here, we demonstrate for the first time spatial ALD-grown SnO x at atmospheric pressure as impermeable electron extraction layers for perovskite solar cells. We achieve optical transmittance and electrical conductivity similar to those in SnO x grown by conventional vacuum-based ALD. A low deposition temperature of 80 °C and a high substrate speed of 2.4 m min -1 yield SnO x layers with a low water vapor transmission rate of ∼10 -4 gm -2 day -1 (at 60 °C/60% RH). Thereby, in perovskite solar cells, dense hybrid Al:ZnO/SnO x electron extraction layers are created that are the key for stable cell characteristics beyond 1000 h in ambient air and over 3000 h at 60 °C. Most notably, our work of introducing spatial ALD at atmospheric pressure paves the way to the future roll-to-roll manufacturing of stable perovskite solar cells.

  20. Rapid fabricating technique for multi-layered human hepatic cell sheets by forceful contraction of the fibroblast monolayer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sakai

    Full Text Available Cell sheet engineering is attracting attention from investigators in various fields, from basic research scientists to clinicians focused on regenerative medicine. However, hepatocytes have a limited proliferation potential in vitro, and it generally takes a several days to form a sheet morphology and multi-layered sheets. We herein report our rapid and efficient technique for generating multi-layered human hepatic cell (HepaRG® cell sheets using pre-cultured fibroblast monolayers derived from human skin (TIG-118 cells as a feeder layer on a temperature-responsive culture dish. Multi-layered TIG-118/HepaRG cell sheets with a thick morphology were harvested on day 4 of culturing HepaRG cells by forceful contraction of the TIG-118 cells, and the resulting sheet could be easily handled. In addition, the human albumin and alpha 1-antitrypsin synthesis activities of TIG-118/HepaRG cells were approximately 1.2 and 1.3 times higher than those of HepaRG cells, respectively. Therefore, this technique is considered to be a promising modality for rapidly fabricating multi-layered human hepatocyte sheets from cells with limited proliferation potential, and the engineered cell sheet could be used for cell transplantation with highly specific functions.

  1. Low-Temperature Process for Atomic Layer Chemical Vapor Deposition of an Al2O3 Passivation Layer for Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoonbae; Lee, Jihye; Sohn, Sunyoung; Jung, Donggeun

    2016-05-01

    Flexible organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells have drawn extensive attention due to their light weight, cost efficiency, portability, and so on. However, OPV cells degrade quickly due to organic damage by water vapor or oxygen penetration when the devices are driven in the atmosphere without a passivation layer. In order to prevent damage due to water vapor or oxygen permeation into the devices, passivation layers have been introduced through methods such as sputtering, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (ALCVD). In this work, the structural and chemical properties of Al2O3 films, deposited via ALCVD at relatively low temperatures of 109 degrees C, 200 degrees C, and 300 degrees C, are analyzed. In our experiment, trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O were used as precursors for Al2O3 film deposition via ALCVD. All of the Al2O3 films showed very smooth, featureless surfaces without notable defects. However, we found that the plastic flexible substrate of an OPV device passivated with 300 degrees C deposition temperature was partially bended and melted, indicating that passivation layers for OPV cells on plastic flexible substrates need to be formed at temperatures lower than 300 degrees C. The OPV cells on plastic flexible substrates were passivated by the Al2O3 film deposited at the temperature of 109 degrees C. Thereafter, the photovoltaic properties of passivated OPV cells were investigated as a function of exposure time under the atmosphere.

  2. ZnSe passivation layer for the efficiency enhancement of CuInS2 quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Zhuoyin; Liu, Yueli; Zhao, Yinghan; Chen, Keqiang; Cheng, Yuqing; Kovalev, Valery; Chen, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnSe is employed as passivation layer in CuInS 2 quantum dots sensitized solar cells. • Slight red-shift has been occurred in UV–vis absorption spectra with ZnSe coating. • CuInS 2 based solar cells coated by ZnSe have better efficiency than that of ZnS. • Higher rate of charge transport can be produced after coating with ZnSe. -- Abstract: The effect of ZnSe passivation layer is investigated in the CuInS 2 quantum dot sensitized solar cells, which is used to improve the photovoltaic performance. The CuInS 2 quantum dot sensitized TiO 2 photo-anodes are prepared by assembly linking technique, and then deposited by the ZnSe passivation layer using the successive ionic layer absorption and reaction technique. The optical absorption edge and photoluminescence peak have slightly red-shifted after the passivation layer coating. Under solar light illumination, the ZnSe passivation layer based CuInS 2 quantum dot sensitized solar cells have the higher photovoltaic efficiency of 0.95% and incident photon conversion efficiency response than that of pure CuInS 2 based solar cells and ZnS passivation layer based solar cells, as the electron injection rate becomes faster after coating with ZnSe passivation layer

  3. Optical spacing effect in organic photovoltaic cells incorporating a dilute acceptor layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menke, S. Matthew; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Holmes, Russell J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    The addition of spacing layers in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) can enhance light absorption by optimizing the spatial distribution of the incident optical field in the multilayer structure. We explore the optical spacing effect in OPVs achieved using a diluted electron acceptor layer of C{sub 60}. While optical spacing is often realized by optimizing buffer layer thickness, we find that optical spacing via dilution leads to cells with similar or enhanced photocurrent. This is observed despite a smaller quantity of absorbing molecules, suggesting a more efficient use of absorbed photons. In fact, dilution is found to concentrate optical absorption near the electron donor-acceptor interface, resulting in a marked increase in the exciton diffusion efficiency. Contrasting the use of changes in thickness to engineer optical absorption, the use of dilution does not significantly alter the overall thickness of the OPV. Optical spacing via dilution is shown to be a viable alternative to more traditional optical spacing techniques and may be especially useful in the continued optimization of next-generation, tandem OPVs where it is important to minimize competition for optical absorption between individual sub-cells.

  4. Development of a Novel Ceramic Support Layer for Planar Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Boccaccini, Dino; Brodersen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The conventional solid oxide cell is based on a Ni–YSZ support layer, placed on the fuel side of the cell, also known as the anode supported SOFC. An alternative design, based on a support of porous 3YSZ (3 mol.% Y2O3–doped ZrO2), placed on the oxygen electrode side of the cell, is proposed...... of the support can be done simultaneously with forming the oxygen electrode, since some of the best performing oxygen electrodes are based on infiltrated LSC. The potential of the proposed structure was investigated by testing the mechanical and electrical properties of the support layer. Comparable strength...... properties to the conventional Ni/YSZ support were seen, and sufficient and fairly stable conductivity of LSC infiltrated 3YSZ was observed. The conductivity of 8–15 S cm–1 at 850 °C seen for over 600 h, corresponds to a serial resistance of less than 3.5 m Ω cm2 of a 300 μm thick support layer....

  5. Optical spacing effect in organic photovoltaic cells incorporating a dilute acceptor layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, S. Matthew; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Holmes, Russell J.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of spacing layers in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) can enhance light absorption by optimizing the spatial distribution of the incident optical field in the multilayer structure. We explore the optical spacing effect in OPVs achieved using a diluted electron acceptor layer of C 60 . While optical spacing is often realized by optimizing buffer layer thickness, we find that optical spacing via dilution leads to cells with similar or enhanced photocurrent. This is observed despite a smaller quantity of absorbing molecules, suggesting a more efficient use of absorbed photons. In fact, dilution is found to concentrate optical absorption near the electron donor-acceptor interface, resulting in a marked increase in the exciton diffusion efficiency. Contrasting the use of changes in thickness to engineer optical absorption, the use of dilution does not significantly alter the overall thickness of the OPV. Optical spacing via dilution is shown to be a viable alternative to more traditional optical spacing techniques and may be especially useful in the continued optimization of next-generation, tandem OPVs where it is important to minimize competition for optical absorption between individual sub-cells.

  6. Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells with a double layer photoanode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pirhadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell was fabricated from a double layer photoanode. First, TiO2 nanoparticles  were synthesized by hydrothermal method. These TiO2 NPs were deposited on FTO glasses by electrophoretic deposition  method in applied voltage of 5 V and EPD time of 2.5-10 min. Then TiO2 hollow spheres (HSs were synthesized by sacrificed template method with Carbon Spheres as template and TTIP as precursor. Then these template scarified and the hollow structures found. Since the HSs paste was prepared as same method of prepared TiO2 nano particles and this paste was deposited on last layer by Dr. Blade method. The prepared photoanodes was soaped in N-719 dye after sintering in 500 ÚC. The dye sensitized solar cells  were fabricated with the finalized double layer photoanodes. The best photovoltaic characteristics of the optimized cell were 734 mV, 13.16 mA/cm2, 62% and 5.96% for Voc, Jsc, F.F. and efficiency respectively.

  7. Improved Power Conversion Efficiency of Inverted Organic Solar Cells by Incorporating Au Nanorods into Active Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yeyuan; Liu, Chunyu; Li, Jinfeng; Zhang, Xinyuan; Li, Zhiqi; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping

    2015-07-29

    This Research Article describes a cooperative plasmonic effect on improving the performance of organic solar cells. When Au nanorods(NRs) are incorporated into the active layers, the designed project shows superior enhanced light absorption behavior comparing with control devices, which leads to the realization of organic solar cell with power conversion efficiency of 6.83%, accounting for 18.9% improvement. Further investigations unravel the influence of plasmonic nanostructures on light trapping, exciton generation, dissociation, and charge recombination and transport inside the thin films devices. Moreover, the introduction of high-conductivity Au NRs improves electrical conductivity of the whole device, which contributes to the enhanced fill factor.

  8. Morphological Control of the Photoactive Layer in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Yisong

    2011-07-23

    For its inherent advantages, such as lightweight, low cost, flexibility, and opportunity to cover large surface areas, organic solar cells have attracted more and more attention in both academia and industry. However, the efficiency of organic solar cell is still much lower than silicon solar cells, but steadily rising as it now stands above 8%. The architecture of bulk heterojunction solar cells can improve the performance of organic solar cell a lot, but these improvements are highly dependent on the morphology of photoactive layer. Therefore, by controlling the morphology of photoactive layer, most commonly composed of a P3HT donor polymer and PCBM small molecule, the performance of organic solar cells could be optimized. The use of solvent additives in the solution formulation is particularly interesting, because it is a low cost method of controlling the phase separation of the photoactive layer and possibly removing the need for subsequent thermal and solvent vapor annealing. However, the role of the solvent additive remains not well understood and much debate remains on the mechanisms by which it impacts phase separation. In the first part of this thesis, we investigate the role of the solvent additive on the individual components (solvent, donor and acceptor) of the solution and the photoactive layer both in the bulk solution, during solution-processing and in the post-processing solid state of the film. In the second part of this thesis, we investigate the role of the additive on the blended solution state and resulting thin film phase separation. Finally, we propose a new method of controlling phase separation based on the insight into the role of the solvent additive. In the first part, we used an additive [octandiethiol (OT)] in the solvent to help the aggregation of P3HT in the solution. From the UV-vis experiments, the crystallinity of P3HT in the solutions increased while it decreased in thin films with steady increase of additive concentration. This

  9. Study of sporadic E layers based on GPS radio occultation measurements and digisonde data over the Brazilian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Laysa C. A.; Arras, Christina; Batista, Inez S.; Denardini, Clezio M.; Bertollotto, Thainá O.; Moro, Juliano

    2018-04-01

    This work presents new results about sporadic E-layers (Es layers) using GPS (global positioning system) radio occultation (RO) measurements obtained from the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites and digisonde data. The RO profiles are used to study the Es layer occurrence as well as its intensity of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the 50 Hz GPS L1 signal. The methodology was applied to identify the Es layer on RO measurements over Cachoeira Paulista, a low-latitude station in the Brazilian region, in which the Es layer development is not driven tidal winds only as it is at middle latitudes. The coincident events were analyzed using the RO technique and ionosonde observations during the year 2014 to 2016. We used the electron density obtained using the blanketing frequency parameter (fbEs) and the Es layer height (h'Es) acquired from the ionograms to validate the satellite measurements. The comparative results show that the Es layer characteristics extracted from the RO measurements are in good agreement with the Es layer parameters from the digisonde.

  10. The fabrication of a double-layer atom chip with through silicon vias for an ultra-high-vacuum cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Lin, Yun-Siang; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Huang, Chi-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a double-layer atom chip that provides users with increased diversity in the design of the wire patterns and flexibility in the design of the magnetic field. It is more convenient for use in atomic physics experiments. A negative photoresist, SU-8, was used as the insulating layer between the upper and bottom copper wires. The electrical measurement results show that the upper and bottom wires with a width of 100 µm can sustain a 6 A current without burnout. Another focus of this study is the double-layer atom chips integrated with the through silicon via (TSV) technique, and anodically bonded to a Pyrex glass cell, which makes it a desired vacuum chamber for atomic physics experiments. Thus, the bonded glass cell not only significantly reduces the overall size of the ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) chamber but also conducts the high current from the backside to the front side of the atom chip via the TSV under UHV (9.5 × 10 −10  Torr). The TSVs with a diameter of 70 µm were etched through by the inductively coupled plasma ion etching and filled by the bottom-up copper electroplating method. During the anodic bonding process, the electroplated copper wires and TSVs on atom chips also need to pass the examination of the required bonding temperature of 250 °C, under an applied voltage of 1000 V. Finally, the UHV test of the double-layer atom chips with TSVs at room temperature can be reached at 9.5 × 10 −10  Torr, thus satisfying the requirements of atomic physics experiments under an UHV environment. (paper)

  11. Barium: An Efficient Cathode Layer for Bulk-heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay; Kyaw, Aung Ko Ko; Wang, Dong Hwan; Chand, Suresh; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Heeger, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    We report Barium (Ba) cathode layer for bulk-heterojunction solar cells which enhanced the fill factor (FF) of p-DTS(FBTTh2)2/PC71BM BHJ solar cell up to 75.1%, one of the highest value reported for an organic solar cell. The external quantum efficiency exceeds 80%. Analysis of recombination mechanisms using the current-voltage (J–V) characteristics at various light intensities in the BHJ solar cell layer reveals that Ba prevents trap assisted Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination at the interface and with different thicknesses of the Ba, the recombination shifts towards bimolecular from monomolecular. Moreover, Ba increases shunt resistance and decreases the series resistance significantly. This results in an increase in the charge collection probability leading to high FF. This work identifies a new cathode interlayer which outclasses the all the reported interlayers in increasing FF leading to high power conversion efficiency and have significant implications in improving the performance of BHJ solar cells. PMID:23752562

  12. Selective deposition contact patterning using atomic layer deposition for the fabrication of crystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Joon; Shin, Woong-Chul; Chang, Hyo Sik

    2014-01-01

    Selective deposition contact (SDC) patterning was applied to fabricate the rear side passivation of crystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. By this method, using screen printing for contact patterning and atomic layer deposition for the passivation of Si solar cells with Al 2 O 3 , we produced local contacts without photolithography or any laser-based processes. Passivated emitter and rear-contact solar cells passivated with ozone-based Al 2 O 3 showed, for the SDC process, an up-to-0.7% absolute conversion-efficiency improvement. The results of this experiment indicate that the proposed method is feasible for conversion-efficiency improvement of industrial crystalline Si solar cells. - Highlights: • We propose a local contact formation process. • Local contact forms a screen print and an atomic layer deposited-Al 2 O 3 film. • Ozone-based Al 2 O 3 thin film was selectively deposited onto patterned silicon. • Selective deposition contact patterning method can increase cell-efficiency by 0.7%

  13. Excimer laser forward transfer of mammalian cells using a novel triazene absorbing layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doraiswamy, A.; Narayan, R.J.; Lippert, T.; Urech, L.; Wokaun, A.; Nagel, M.; Hopp, B.; Dinescu, M.; Modi, R.; Auyeung, R.C.Y.; Chrisey, D.B.

    2006-01-01

    We present a novel laser-based approach for developing tissue engineered constructs and other cell-based assembly's. We have deposited mesoscopic patterns of viable B35 neuroblasts using a soft direct approach of the matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation direct write (MAPLE DW) process. As a development of the conventional direct write process, an intermediate layer of absorbing triazene polymer is used to provide gentler and efficient transfers. Transferred cells were examined for viability and proliferation and compared with that of as-seeded cells to determine the efficacy of the process. Results suggest that successful transfers can be achieved at lower fluences than usual by the incorporation of the intermediate absorbing layer thus avoiding any damage to cells and other delicate materials. MAPLE DW offers rapid computer-controlled deposition of mesoscopic voxels at high spatial resolutions, with extreme versatility in depositing combinations of natural/synthetic, living/non-living, organic/inorganic and hard/soft materials. Our approach offers a gentle and efficient transfer of viable cells which when combined with a variety of matrix materials allows development of constructs and bioactive systems in bioengineering

  14. Light illumination intensity dependence of photovoltaic parameter in polymer solar cells with ammonium heptamolybdate as hole extraction layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Niu, Shengli; Wang, Ning

    2018-01-01

    A low-temperature, solution-processed molybdenum oxide (MoO X ) layer and a facile method for polymer solar cells (PSCs) is developed. The PSCs based on a MoO X layer as the hole extraction layer (HEL) is a significant advance for achieving higher photovoltaic performance, especially under weaker light illumination intensity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements show that the (NH 4 ) 6 Mo 7 O 24 molecule decomposes and forms the molybdenum oxide (MoO X ) molecule when undergoing thermal annealing treatment. In this study, PSCs with the MoO X layer as the HEL exhibited better photovoltaic performance, especially under weak light illumination intensity (from 100 to 10mWcm -2 ) compared to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)-based PSCs. Analysis of the current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics at various light intensities provides information on the different recombination mechanisms in the PSCs with a MoO X and PEDOT:PSS layer as the HEL. That the slopes of the open-circuit voltage (V OC ) versus light illumination intensity plots are close to 1 unity (kT/q) reveals that bimolecular recombination is the dominant and weaker monomolecular recombination mechanism in open-circuit conditions. That the slopes of the short-circuit current density (J SC ) versus light illumination intensity plots are close to 1 reveals that the effective charge carrier transport and collection mechanism of the MoO X /indium tin oxide (ITO) anode is the weaker bimolecular recombination in short-circuit conditions. Our results indicate that MoO X is an alternative candidate for high-performance PSCs, especially under weak light illumination intensity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on the use of TiO{sub 2} passivation layer to reduce recombination losses in dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskander bin Samsudin, Adel; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Nayan, Nafarizal; Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Shariffuddin, Sharifah Amira Amir; Omar, Salwa [Electrical and Electronics Department, 31750, Tronoh, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, 31750, Tronoh, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Electronic Engineering Department, Electrical and Electronic Engineering Faculty, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    A lot of research on various aspects of dye solar cells (DSC) has been carried out in order to improve efficiency. This paper analyzes the utilization of TiO{sub 2} passivation layers of different thicknesses by improving the electron transport properties. Four different thicknesses of passivation layers namely 10, 20, 50 and 100 nm were deposited onto the working electrode using r.f sputtering. The electrodes were assembled into TiO{sub 2} based DSC with active area of 1 cm{sup 2}. The solar performance was investigated using 100 mW/cm{sup 2} of AM 1.5 simulated sunlight from solar simulator. The kinetics of the solar cells was investigated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement and the spectral response was measured using Incident Photon to Electron Conversion (IPCE) measurement system. The highest efficiency was found for DSC with 20 nm passivation layer. DSCs with the passivation layer have open circuit voltage, V{sub OC} increased by 57 mV, their current density, J{sub SC} increased by 0.774 mA cm{sup -2} compared to the one without the passivation layer. The quantum efficiency of the 20 nm passivation layer is the highest, peaking at the wavelength of 534 nm, resulting in the highest performance. All DSCs with the passivation layer recorded higher ratio of R{sub BR}/R{sub T} where R{sub T} is the diffusion resistance of the TiO{sub 2} particles in the mesoscopic layer and R{sub BR} is the recombination resistance of the electron to the electrolyte. This implies that the recombination of the electrolyte I{sup -}{sub 3}/3I{sup -} couple at the substrate/electrolyte interface has been effectively reduced resulting in an enhanced efficiency.

  16. Bulk conductivity of soft surface layers : experimental measurement and electrokinetic implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yezek, L.P.

    2005-01-01

    Conductivity measurements were carried out on a family of polyacrylamide-co-sodium acrylate gels cross-linked with N,N¿ -methylenebisacrylamide in a homemade electrokinetic cell. The conductivity data allowed the equilibrium Donnan potential difference between the bulk gel and the bulk electrolyte

  17. Influence of the mole penetrator on measurements of heat flow in lunar subsurface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzaszek, Roman; Drogosz, Michal; Seweryn, Karol; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Grygorczuk, Jerzy

    Measuring the thermal gradient in subsurface layers is a basic method of determination the heat flux from the interior of a planetary body to its surface. In case of the Moon, such measurements complemented with the results of theoretical analysis and modeling can significantly improve our understanding of the thermal and geological evolution of the Moon. In practice, temperature gradient measurements are performed by at least two sensors located at different depths under the surface. These sensors will be attached to a penetrator [1] or to a cable pulled behind the penetrator. In both cases the object that carries the sensors, e.g. penetrator, perturb temperature measurements. In our study we analyze a case of two thermal sensors attached to the ends of 350mm long penetrator made of a composite material. In agreement with the studies of other authors we have found that the penetrator should be placed at the depth of 2-3 meters, where periodic changes of the temperature due to variation of solar flux at the surface are significantly smaller than the error of temperature measurement. The most important result of our analysis is to show how to deconvolve the real gradient of the temperature from the measurements perturbed by the penetrator body. In this way it will be possible to more accurately determine heat flux in the lunar regolith. [1] Grygorczuk J., Seweryn K., Wawrzaszek R., Banaszkiewicz M., Insertion of a Mole Pene-trator -Experimental Results, /39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference /League City, Texas 2008

  18. A buffer-layer/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer optimization for thin film amorphous silicon based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinjoo; Dao, Vinh Ai [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Chonghoon [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyeongsik [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minbum; Jung, Junhee [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Doyoung [School of Electricity and Electronics, Ulsan College West Campus, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Junsin, E-mail: yi@yurim.skku.ac.kr [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    Amorphous silicon based (a-Si:H-based) solar cells with a buffer-layer/boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiO{sub x}:H(p)) window-layer were fabricated and investigated. In the first part, in order to reduce the Schottky barrier height at the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer heterointerface, we have used buffer-layer/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) for the window-layer, in which boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H(p)) or boron doped microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H(p)) is introduced as a buffer layer between the a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) and FTO of the a-Si:H-based solar cells. The a-Si:H-based solar cell using a μc-Si:H(p) buffer-layer shows the highest efficiency compared to the optimized bufferless, and a-Si:H(p) buffer-layer in the a-Si:H-based solar cells. This highest performance was attributed not only to the lower absorption of the μc-Si:H(p) buffer-layer but also to the lower Schottky barrier height at the FTO/window-layer interface. Then, we present the dependence of the built-in potential (V{sub bi}) and blue response of the devices on the inversion of activation energy (ξ) of the a-SiO{sub x}:H(p), in the μc-Si:H(p)/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer. The enhancement of both V{sub bi} and blue response is observed, by increasing the value of ξ. The improvement of V{sub bi} and blue response can be ascribed to the enlargement of the optical gap of a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) films in the μc-Si:H(p)/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer. Finally, the conversion efficiency was increased by 22.0%, by employing μc-Si:H(p) as a buffer-layer and raising the ξ of the a-SiO{sub x}:H(p), compared to the optimized bufferless case, with a 10 nm-thick a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer. - Highlights: • Low Schottky barrier height benefits fill factor, and open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}). • High band gap is beneficial for short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}). • Boron doped microcrystalline silicon is a suitable buffer-layer for

  19. Growth factor expression pattern of homologous feeder layer for culturing buffalo embryonic stem cell-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Kamble, Nitin M; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Singla, Suresh; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the expression profile of buffalo fetal fibroblasts (BFF) used as a feeder layer for embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells. The expression of important growth factors was detected in cells at different passages. Mitomycin-C inactivation increased relative expression levels of ACTIVIN-A, TGF-β1, BMP-4 and GREMLIN but not of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The expression level of ACTIVIN-A, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) and FGF-2 was similar in buffalo fetal fibroblast (BFF) cultured in stem cell medium (SCM), SCM+1000IU mL(-1) leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), SCM+5 ngmL(-1) FGF-2 or SCM+LIF+FGF-2 for 24 h whereas GREMLIN expression was higher in FGF-2-supplemented groups. In spent medium, the concentration of ACTIVIN-A was higher in FGF-2-supplemented groups whereas that of TGF-β1 was similar in SCM and LIF+FGF-2, which was higher than when either LIF or FGF-2 was used alone. Following culture of ES cell-like cells on a feeder layer for 24 h, the TGF-β1 concentration was higher with LIF+FGF-2 than with LIF or FGF-2 alone which, in turn, was higher than that in SCM. In the LIF+FGF-2 group, the concentration of TGF-β1 was lower and that of ACTIVIN-A was higher in spent medium at 24 h than at 48 h of culture. These results suggest that BFF produce signalling molecules that may help in self-renewal of buffalo ES cell-like cells.

  20. Shock timing measurements and analysis in deuterium-tritium-ice layered capsule implosions on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Ross, J. S.; LePape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Dewald, E. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Hohenberger, M.; Boehly, T. R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92196 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Recent advances in shock timing experiments and analysis techniques now enable shock measurements to be performed in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion implosions [Boehly et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195005 (2011); Robey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215004 (2012)] were performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. These previous experiments pose two surrogacy issues: a material surrogacy due to the difference of species (D2 vs. DT) and densities of the materials used and a geometric surrogacy due to presence of an additional interface (ice/gas) previously absent in the liquid-filled targets. This report presents experimental data and a new analysis method for validating the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique. Comparison of the data with simulation shows good agreement for the timing of the first three shocks, but reveals a considerable discrepancy in the timing of the 4th shock in DT ice layered implosions. Electron preheat is examined as a potential cause of the observed discrepancy in the 4th shock timing.

  1. Shock timing measurements and analysis in deuterium-tritium-ice layered capsule implosions on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Ross, J. S.; LePape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Hohenberger, M.; Dewald, E. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Boehly, T. R.; Nikroo, A.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J.

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances in shock timing experiments and analysis techniques now enable shock measurements to be performed in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion implosions [Boehly et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195005 (2011); Robey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215004 (2012)] were performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. These previous experiments pose two surrogacy issues: a material surrogacy due to the difference of species (D2 vs. DT) and densities of the materials used and a geometric surrogacy due to presence of an additional interface (ice/gas) previously absent in the liquid-filled targets. This report presents experimental data and a new analysis method for validating the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique. Comparison of the data with simulation shows good agreement for the timing of the first three shocks, but reveals a considerable discrepancy in the timing of the 4th shock in DT ice layered implosions. Electron preheat is examined as a potential cause of the observed discrepancy in the 4th shock timing.

  2. Shock timing measurements and analysis in deuterium-tritium-ice layered capsule implosions on NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Ross, J. S.; LePape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Dewald, E. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J.; Hohenberger, M.; Boehly, T. R.; Nikroo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in shock timing experiments and analysis techniques now enable shock measurements to be performed in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion implosions [Boehly et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195005 (2011); Robey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215004 (2012)] were performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. These previous experiments pose two surrogacy issues: a material surrogacy due to the difference of species (D2 vs. DT) and densities of the materials used and a geometric surrogacy due to presence of an additional interface (ice/gas) previously absent in the liquid-filled targets. This report presents experimental data and a new analysis method for validating the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique. Comparison of the data with simulation shows good agreement for the timing of the first three shocks, but reveals a considerable discrepancy in the timing of the 4th shock in DT ice layered implosions. Electron preheat is examined as a potential cause of the observed discrepancy in the 4th shock timing

  3. Characterizing boundary layer height using surface and column measurements of NO2 and formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valin, L.; Szykman, J.; Long, R.; Whitehill, A.; Williams, D. J.; Knepp, T. N.; Crawford, J. H.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Judd, L.; Brown, S.; Matichuk, R.; Tonnesen, G.; Appel, W.; Hogrefe, C.; Abuhassan, N.; Cede, A.; Spinei, E.; Herman, J. R.; Swap, R.; Cohen, R. C.; Fried, A.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The rate of vertical mixing near the surface determines the rate of human exposure to emitted pollutants and also influences the rate at which ozone and particulate matter are formed. To characterize the variability of atmospheric composition near the surface and above, the EPA Office of Research and Development has deployed instruments to measure surface and column concentrations of NO2, an emitted species, and formaldehyde (HCHO) during KORUS-AQ (May - June 2016, Seoul, Korea), UWFPS (Jan-Feb 2016, Salt Lake City) and LMOS (May - June, 2017, Lake Michigan). We compare the mixed layer height determined by aerosol backscatter profiles to a value determined by dividing the NO2 and HCHO column density (molecule cm-2) by its surface concentration (molecule cm-3), using linear regression to remove influence of layers aloft (y-intercept), such as subtraction of the stratospheric NO2 column. We evaluate our findings by using aircraft soundings of NO2 and HCHO and discuss the implications with respect to photochemical transport modeling results from CMAQ and space-based satellite retrievals. Finally we discuss an overall strategy to make these measurements part of routine monitoring at Photochemical Assessment Monitoring System locations (PAMS).

  4. The Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer: Balloon-Borne Measurements, Satellite Observations and Modeling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J.-P.; Natarajan, M.; Deshler, Terry; Liu, H.; Wegner, T.; Baker, N.; Gadhavi, H.; Jayaraman, A.; Pandit, A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Satellite observations and numerical modeling studies have demonstrated that the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) can provide a conduit for gas-phase pollutants in south Asia to reach the lower stratosphere. Now, observations from the CALIPSO satellite have revealed the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL), a summertime accumulation of aerosols associated with ASM anticyclone, in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The ATAL has potential implications for regional cloud properties, climate, and chemical processes in the UTLS. Here, we show in situ measurements from balloon-borne instrumentation, aircraft and satellite observations, combined with trajectory and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations to explore the origin, composition, physical and optical properties of aerosols in the ATAL. In particular, we show balloon-based observations from our BATAL-2015 field campaign to India and Saudi Arabia in summer 2015, including in situ backscatter measurements from COBALD instruments, and some of the first observations of size and volatility of aerosols in the ATAL layer using optical particle counters (OPCs). Back trajectory calculations initialized from CALIPSO observations point to deep convection over North India as a principal source of ATAL aerosols. Available aircraft observations suggest significant sulfur and carbonaceous contributions to the ATAL, which is supported by simulations using the GEOS-Chem CTM. Source elimination studies conducted with the GEOS-Chem indicate that 80-90% of ATAL aerosols originate from south Asian sources, in contrast with some earlier studies.

  5. Incorporating an Electrode Modification Layer with a Vertical Phase Separated Photoactive Layer for Efficient and Stable Inverted Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenzhen; Liu, Hao; Wang, Yaping; Li, Jinyan; Bai, Yiming; Wang, Fuzhi; Bian, Xingming; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Tan, Zhan'ao

    2017-12-20

    For bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs), the donors and acceptors featuring specific phase separation and concentration distribution within the electron donor/acceptor blends crucially affect the exciton dissociation and charge transportation. Herein, efficient and stable nonfullerene inverted PSCs incorporating a phase separated photoactive layer and a titanium chelate electrode modification layer are demonstrated. Water contact angle (WCA), scanning kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques are implemented to characterize the morphology of photoactive layers. Compared with the control conventional device, the short-circuit current density (J sc ) is enhanced from 14.74 to 17.45 mAcm -2 . The power conversion efficiency (PCE) for the inverted PSCs with a titanium (diisopropoxide)-bis-(2,4-pentanedionate) (TIPD) layer increases from 9.67% to 11.69% benefiting from the declined exciton recombination and fairly enhanced charge transportation. Furthermore, the nonencapsulated inverted device with a TIPD layer demonstrates the best long-term stability, 85% of initial PCE remaining and an almost undecayed open-circuit voltage (V oc ) after 1440 h. Our results reveal that the titanium chelate is an excellent electrode modification layer to incorporate with a vertical phase separated photoactive layer for producing high-efficiency and high-stability inverted nonfullerene PSCs.

  6. Highly efficient polymer solar cells with printed photoactive layer: rational process transfer from spin-coating

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui

    2016-09-05

    Scalable and continuous roll-to-roll manufacturing is at the heart of the promise of low-cost and high throughput manufacturing of solution-processed photovoltaics. Yet, to date the vast majority of champion organic solar cells reported in the literature rely on spin-coating of the photoactive bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer, with the performance of printed solar cells lagging behind in most instances. Here, we investigate the performance gap between polymer solar cells prepared by spin-coating and blade-coating the BHJ layer for the important class of modern polymers exhibiting no long range crystalline order. We find that thickness parity does not always yield performance parity even when using identical formulations. Significant differences in the drying kinetics between the processes are found to be responsible for BHJ nanomorphology differences. We propose an approach which benchmarks the film drying kinetics and associated BHJ nanomorphology development against those of the champion laboratory devices prepared by spin-coating the BHJ layer by adjusting the process temperature. If the optimization requires the solution concentration to be changed, then it is crucial to maintain the additive-to-solute volume ratio. Emulating the drying kinetics of spin-coating is also shown to help achieve morphological and performance parities. We put this approach to the test and demonstrate printed PTB7:PC71BM polymer solar cells with efficiency of 9% and 6.5% PCEs on glass and flexible PET substrates, respectively. We further demonstrate performance parity for two other popular donor polymer systems exhibiting rigid backbones and absence of a long range crystalline order, achieving a PCE of 9.7%, the highest efficiency reported to date for a blade coated organic solar cell. The rational process transfer illustrated in this study should help the broader and successful adoption of scalable printing methods for these material systems.

  7. Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimi, Soufiene; Klier, Jens; Jonuscheit, Joachim; von Freymann, Georg; Urbansky, Ralph; Beigang, René

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution, we present a highly accurate approach for thickness measurements of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz time domain spectroscopy in reflection geometry. The proposed method combines the benefits of a model-based material parameters extraction method to calibrate the paint coatings, a generalized Rouard's method to simulate the terahertz radiation behavior within arbitrary thin films, and the robustness of a powerful evolutionary optimization algorithm to increase the sensitivity of the minimum thickness measurement limit. Within the framework of this work, a self-calibration model is introduced, which takes into consideration the real industrial challenges such as the effect of wet-on-wet spray in the painting process.

  8. Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimi, Soufiene; Beigang, René; Klier, Jens; Jonuscheit, Joachim; Freymann, Georg von; Urbansky, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, we present a highly accurate approach for thickness measurements of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz time domain spectroscopy in reflection geometry. The proposed method combines the benefits of a model-based material parameters extraction method to calibrate the paint coatings, a generalized Rouard's method to simulate the terahertz radiation behavior within arbitrary thin films, and the robustness of a powerful evolutionary optimization algorithm to increase the sensitivity of the minimum thickness measurement limit. Within the framework of this work, a self-calibration model is introduced, which takes into consideration the real industrial challenges such as the effect of wet-on-wet spray in the painting process.

  9. Architecture of the Interface between the Perovskite and Hole-Transport Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Masahiro; Hirotani, Daisuke; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Ogomi, Yuhei; Shen, Qing; Ripolles, Teresa S; Yoshino, Kenji; Toyoda, Taro; Minemoto, Takashi; Hayase, Shuzi

    2016-09-22

    The interface between the perovskite (PVK, CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 ) and hole-transport layers in perovskite solar cells is discussed. The device architecture studied is as follows: F-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass/compact TiO 2 /mesoporous TiO 2 /PVK/2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-MeOTAD)/Au. After a thin layer of 4,4,4-trifluorobutylammonium iodide (TFBA) was inserted at the interface between PVK and Spiro-MeOTAD, the photovoltaic efficiency increased from 11.6-14.5 % to 15.1-17.6 %. TFBA (10 ppm) was added in the PVK solution before coating. Owing to the low surface tension of TFBA, TFBA rose to the surface of the PVK layer spontaneously during spin-coating to make a thin organic layer. The PVK grain boundaries also seemed to be passivated with the addition of TFBA. However, large differences in Urbach energies and valence band energy level were not observed for the PVK layer with and without the addition of TFBA. The charge recombination time constant between the PVK and the Spiro-MeOTAD became slower (from 8.4 to 280 μsec) after 10 ppm of TFBA was added in the PVK. The experimental results using TFBA conclude that insertion of a very thin layer at the interface between PVK and Spiro-MeOTAD is effective for suppressing charge recombination and increasing photovoltaic performances. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Controlled cell morphology and liver-specific function of engineered primary hepatocytes by fibroblast layer cell densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yusuke; Koike, Makiko; Kawahara, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Hideko; Murai, Tomomi; Yamanouchi, Kosho; Soyama, Akihiko; Hidaka, Masaaki; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Fujita, Fumihiko; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu