WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell j-4 tests

  1. Extracellular ATP4- promotes cation fluxes in the J774 mouse macrophage cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, T.H.; Silverstein, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Extracellular ATP stimulates transmembrane ion fluxes in the mouse macrophage cell line J774. In the presence of Mg2+, nonhydrolyzable ATP analogs and other purine and pyrimidine nucleotides do not elicit this response, suggesting the presence of a specific receptor for ATP on the macrophage plasma membrane. One candidate for such a receptor is the ecto-ATPase expressed on these cells. We, therefore, investigated the role of this enzyme in ATP-induced 86 Rb+ efflux in J774 cells. The ecto-ATPase had a broad nucleotide specificity and did not hydrolyze extracellular ATP in the absence of divalent cations. 86 Rb+ efflux was not blocked by inhibition of the ecto-ATPase and did not require Ca2+ or Mg2+. In fact, ATP-stimulated 86 Rb+ efflux was inhibited by Mg2+ and correlated with the availability of ATP4- in the medium. In the absence of divalent cations, the slowly hydrolyzable ATP analogs adenosine 5'-(beta, gamma-imido)triphosphate (AMP-PNP) and adenosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (ATP-gamma-S) also stimulated 86 Rb+ efflux, albeit at higher concentrations than that required for ATP4-. Exposure of J774 cells to 10 mM ATP for 45 min caused death of 95% of cells. By this means we selected variant J774 cells that did not exhibit 86 Rb+ efflux in the presence of extracellular ATP but retained ecto-ATPase activity. These results show that the ecto-ATPase of J774 cells does not mediate the effects of ATP on these cells; that ATP4- and not MgATP2- promotes 86 Rb+ efflux from these cells; and that hydrolysis of ATP is not required to effect this change in membrane permeability. These findings suggest that J774 cells possess a plasma membrane receptor which binds ATP4-, AMP-PNP, and ATP-gamma-S, and that the ecto-ATPase limits the effects of ATP on these cells by hydrolyzing Mg-ATP2-

  2. Notch-RBP-J signaling regulates the mobilization and function of endothelial progenitor cells by dynamic modulation of CXCR4 expression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    Full Text Available Bone marrow (BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC have therapeutic potentials in promoting tissue regeneration, but how these cells are modulated in vivo has been elusive. Here, we report that RBP-J, the critical transcription factor mediating Notch signaling, modulates EPC through CXCR4. In a mouse partial hepatectomy (PHx model, RBP-J deficient EPC showed attenuated capacities of homing and facilitating liver regeneration. In resting mice, the conditional deletion of RBP-J led to a decrease of BM EPC, with a concomitant increase of EPC in the peripheral blood. This was accompanied by a down-regulation of CXCR4 on EPC in BM, although CXCR4 expression on EPC in the circulation was up-regulated in the absence of RBP-J. PHx in RBP-J deficient mice induced stronger EPC mobilization. In vitro, RBP-J deficient EPC showed lowered capacities of adhering, migrating, and forming vessel-like structures in three-dimensional cultures. Over-expression of CXCR4 could at least rescue the defects in vessel formation by the RBP-J deficient EPC. These data suggested that the RBP-J-mediated Notch signaling regulated EPC mobilization and function, at least partially through dynamic modulation of CXCR4 expression. Our findings not only provide new insights into the regulation of EPC, but also have implications for clinical therapies using EPC in diseases.

  3. Neo4j cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    If you are already using Neo4j in your application and want to learn more about data analysis or database graphs, this is the book for you. This book also caters for your needs if you are looking to migrate your existing application to Neo4j in the future. We assume that you are already familiar with any general purpose programming language and have some familiarity with Neo4j.

  4. Log4J

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Log4j has been around for a while now, and it seems like so many applications use it. I've used it in my applications for years now, and I'll bet you have too. But every time I need to do something with log4j I've never done before I find myself searching for examples of how to do whatever that is, and I don't usually have much luck. I believe the reason for this is that there is a not a great deal of useful information about log4j, either in print or on the Internet. The information is too simple to be of real-world use, too complicated to be distilled quickly (which is what most developers

  5. Epitopes associated with MHC restriction site of T cells. III. I-J epitope on MHC-restricted T helper cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Kubo, M.; Yagi, J.; Tada, T.

    1987-01-01

    I-J epitopes were found to be associated with the functional site of the class II MHC-restricted helper T (Th) cells: Virtually all of the H-2k-restricted Th cell function of H-2kxbF1 T cells was inhibited by the anti-I-Jk mAb, leaving the H-2b-restricted function unaffected. The I-Jk epitope was inducible in Th cells of different genotype origin according to the environmental class II antigens present in the early ontogeny of T cells. Although above results suggested that I-J is the structure reflecting the inducible MHC restriction specificity, further studies revealed some interesting controversies: First, the I-J phenotype did not always correlate with the class II restriction specificity, e.g., I-Ab-restricted Th from 5R was I-Jk-positive, whereas I-Ak-restricted Th of 4R was not. Second, there was no trans expression of parental I-J phenotypes and restriction specificities in F1 Th, e.g., the I-J phenotype was detected only on I-Ab-restricted Th of (4R X 5R)F1, whereas it was absent on I-Ak-restricted Th. This strict linkage between the restriction specificity and I-J phenotype was also found on Th cells developed in bone marrow chimera constructed with intra-H-2-recombinant mice. The expression of I-Jk was always associated with the restriction specificity of the relevant host. Thus, the restriction specificity of Th cells followed the host type, and the I-J expression on Th was exactly the same as that expressed by the host haplotype. These results indicate that I-J is an isomorphic structure adaptively expressed on Th cells that is involved in the unidirectional regulatory cell interactions, and that the polymorphism cannot be explained merely by the restriction specificity of the conventional T cell receptor heterodimer

  6. Both flagella and F4 fimbriae from F4ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli contribute to attachment to IPEC-J2 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingxu; Duan, Qiangde; Zhu, Xiaofang; Guo, Zhiyan; Li, Yinchau; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2013-05-13

    The role of flagella in the pathogenesis of F4ac+ Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) mediated neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) is not currently understood. We targeted the reference C83902 ETEC strain (O8:H19:F4ac+ LT+ STa+ STb+), to construct isogenic mutants in the fliC (encoding the major flagellin protein), motA (encoding the flagella motor), and faeG (encoding the major subunit of F4 fimbriae) genes. Both the ΔfliC and ΔfaeG mutants had a reduced ability to adhere to porcine intestinal epithelial IPEC-J2 cells. F4 fimbriae expression was significantly down-regulated after deleting fliC, which revealed that co-regulation exists between flagella and F4 fimbriae. However, there was no difference in adhesion between the ΔmotA mutant and its parent strain. These data demonstrate that both flagella and F4 fimbriae are required for efficient F4ac+ ETEC adhesion in vitro.

  7. Dynamic J-R Characteristics of RCS Pipe Materials for Ulchin Unit 3/4. (Evaluation of Dynamic Strain Aging Effects)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jun Hwa; Lee, Bong Sang; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Oh, Jong Myung; Kim, Jin Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    5 materials (45 1T-CT specimens) were tested to evaluate dynamic J-R characteristics of RCS Pipe Materials for Ulchin Unit 3/4 (Evaluation of Dynamic Strain Aging Effects). The tests were performed by DCPD method at 316 deg C and 25 deg C. The loading rates were 1000mm/min and 2000mm/min. The objectives of this project were to obtain the dynamic J-R curves data of ferritic steels for application of LBB to the RCS pipes of Ulchin Unit 3/4. The test results showed that all of the tested dynamic J-R curves of 5 materials were above the lower bound curve of static J-R curve of pipe materials for Ulchin Unit 3/4. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 16 figs. (author)

  8. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 4 Receptor in the Endothelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Profirovic, Jasmina; Vardya, Irina; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana

    2006-01-01

    39 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE 4 RECEPTOR IN THE ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. J. Profirovic, I. Vardya, T. Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is an important neurotransmitter that regulates multiple events in the ce......39 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE 4 RECEPTOR IN THE ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. J. Profirovic, I. Vardya, T. Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is an important neurotransmitter that regulates multiple events...... gap formation in HUVECs. We are currently investigating the mechanism underlying 5-HT4 receptor-induced actin cytoskeleton changes in the endothelial cells. These data suggest that by activating 5-HT4 receptor, serotonin could be involved in regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in the endothelial...

  9. Identification of Cha o 3 homolog Cry j 4 from Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) pollen: Limitation of the present Japanese cedar-specific ASIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Yuki; Yamada, Akira; Sasaki, Eiji; Utsugi, Teruhiro

    2018-03-07

    About one-third of the Japanese population suffers from Japanese cedar pollinosis, which is frequently accompanied by Japanese cypress pollinosis. Recently, a novel major Japanese cypress pollen allergen, Cha o 3, was discovered. However, whether a Cha o 3 homolog is present in Japanese cedar pollen remains to be determined. Western blot analysis was performed using Cha o 3-specific antiserum. In addition, cloning of the gene encoding Cry j 4 was conducted using total cDNA from the male flower of Japanese cedar trees. Allergen potency and cross-reactivity were investigated using a T-cell proliferation assay, basophil activation test, and ImmunoCAP inhibition assay. A low amount of Cha o 3 homolog protein was detected in Japanese cedar pollen extract. The deduced amino acid sequence of Cry j 4 showed 84% identity to that of Cha o 3. Cross-reactivity between Cry j 4 and Cha o 3 was observed at the T cell and IgE levels. Cry j 4 was discovered as a counterpart allergen of Cha o 3 in Japanese cedar pollen, with a relationship similar to that between Cry j 1-Cha o 1 and Cry j 2-Cha o 2. Our findings also suggest that allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) using Japanese cedar pollen extract does not induce adequate immune tolerance to Cha o 3 due to the low amount of Cry j 4 in Japanese cedar pollen. Therefore, ASIT using Cha o 3 or cypress pollen extract coupled with Japanese cedar pollen extract is required in order to optimally control allergy symptoms during Japanese cypress pollen season. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Breast cancer instructs dendritic cells to prime interleukin 13–secreting CD4+ T cells that facilitate tumor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspord, Caroline; Pedroza-Gonzalez, Alexander; Gallegos, Mike; Tindle, Sasha; Burton, Elizabeth C.; Su, Dan; Marches, Florentina; Banchereau, Jacques; Palucka, A. Karolina

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported (Bell, D., P. Chomarat, D. Broyles, G. Netto, G.M. Harb, S. Lebecque, J. Valladeau, J. Davoust, K.A. Palucka, and J. Banchereau. 1999. J. Exp. Med. 190: 1417–1426) that breast cancer tumors are infiltrated with mature dendritic cells (DCs), which cluster with CD4+ T cells. We now show that CD4+ T cells infiltrating breast cancer tumors secrete type 1 (interferon γ) as well as high levels of type 2 (interleukin [IL] 4 and IL-13) cytokines. Immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections revealed intense IL-13 staining on breast cancer cells. The expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 in breast cancer cells suggests that IL-13 actually delivers signals to cancer cells. To determine the link between breast cancer, DCs, and CD4+ T cells, we implanted human breast cancer cell lines in nonobese diabetic/LtSz-scid/scid β2 microglobulin–deficient mice engrafted with human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and autologous T cells. There, CD4+ T cells promote early tumor development. This is dependent on DCs and can be partially prevented by administration of IL-13 antagonists. Thus, breast cancer targets DCs to facilitate its development. PMID:17438063

  11. Brosimacutins J-M, four new flavonoids from Brosimum acutifolium and their cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Junko; Komiyama, Kanki; Ishiyama, Haruaki; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi; Ohsaki, Ayumi

    2005-07-01

    Four new flavonoids, brosimacutins J-M (1 - 4), were isolated from the bark of Brosimum acutifolium Huber together with a known flavan, brosimine A (5). The structures of compounds 1-4 were elucidated by spectroscopic means. 27 constituents of this plant including compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against murine leukemia P388 cells. Although no compounds tested had any reversal effect on vincristine resistance, brocimacutins J-M (1-4) were cytotoxic to vincristine-resistant P388 cells (IC50 4.4 - 19 microg/mL).

  12. Comparison of male chimeric mice generated from microinjection of JM8.N4 embryonic stem cells into C57BL/6J and C57BL/6NTac blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Thomas J; Yi, Charles S; Masumi, Juliet; Waymire, Katrina G; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Shuling; Shi, Kai-Xuan; Wallace, Douglas C; MacGregor, Grant R

    2012-12-01

    To identify ways to improve the efficiency of generating chimeric mice via microinjection of blastocysts with ES cells, we compared production and performance of ES-cell derived chimeric mice using blastocysts from two closely related and commonly used sub-strains of C57BL/6. Chimeras were produced by injection of the same JM8.N4 (C57BL/6NTac) derived ES cell line into blastocysts of mixed sex from either C57BL/6J (B6J) or C57BL/6NTac (B6NTac) mice. Similar efficiency of production and sex-conversion of chimeric animals was observed with each strain of blastocyst. However, B6J chimeric males had fewer developmental abnormalities involving urogenital and reproductive tissues (1/12, 8%) compared with B6NTac chimeric males (7/9, 78%). The low sample size did not permit determination of statistical significance for many parameters. However, in each category analyzed the B6J-derived chimeric males performed as well, or better, than their B6NTac counterparts. Twelve of 14 (86%) B6J male chimeras were fertile compared with 6 of 11 (55%) B6NTac male chimeras. Ten of 12 (83%) B6J chimeric males sired more than 1 litter compared with only 3 of 6 (50%) B6NTac chimeras. B6J male chimeras produced more litters per productive mating (3.42 ± 1.73, n = 12) compared to B6NTac chimeras (2.17 ± 1.33, n = 6). Finally, a greater ratio of germline transmitting chimeric males was obtained using B6J blastocysts (9/14; 64%) compared with chimeras produced using B6NTac blastocysts (4/11; 36%). Use of B6J host blastocysts for microinjection of ES cells may offer improvements over blastocysts from B6NTac and possibly other sub-strains of C57BL/6 mice.

  13. 29 CFR 451.4 - Labor organizations under section 3(j).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organizations under section 3(j). 451.4 Section 451.4... 1959 § 451.4 Labor organizations under section 3(j). (a) General. Section 3(j) sets forth five... one of these categories listed in section 3(j) is subject to the requirements of the Act. (b...

  14. DENSE GAS TRACERS AND STAR FORMATION LAWS IN ACTIVE GALAXIES: APEX SURVEY OF HCN J = 4 → 3, HCO{sup +} J = 4 → 3, AND CS J = 7 → 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gao, Yu; Zhao, Yinghe [Purple Mountain Observatory/Key Lab for Radio Astronomy, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Henkel, Christian; Menten, Karl M.; Güsten, Rolf [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Wang, Junzhi, E-mail: zyzhang@pmo.ac.cn [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2014-04-01

    We report HCN J = 4 → 3, HCO{sup +} J = 4 → 3, and CS J = 7 → 6 observations in 20 nearby star-forming galaxies with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment 12 m telescope. Combined with four HCN, three HCO{sup +}, and four CS detections from the literature, we probe the empirical link between the luminosity of molecular gas (L{sub gas}{sup ′}) and that of infrared emission (L {sub IR}), up to the highest gas densities (∼10{sup 6} cm{sup –3}) that have been probed so far. For nearby galaxies with large radii, we measure the IR luminosity within the submillimeter beam size (14''-18'') to match the molecular emission. We find linear slopes for L{sub CS} {sub J=7--6}{sup ′}-L {sub IR} and L{sub HCN} {sub J=4--3}{sup ′}-L {sub IR}, and a slightly super-linear slope for L{sub HCO{sup +}} {sub J=4--3}{sup ′}-L {sub IR}. The correlation of L{sub CS} {sub J=7--6}{sup ′}-L {sub IR} even extends over eight orders of luminosity magnitude down to Galactic dense cores, with a fit of log(L {sub IR}) =1.00(± 0.01) ×log(L{sub CS} {sub J=7--6}{sup ′}) + 4.03(± 0.04). Such linear correlations appear to hold for all densities >10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}, and indicate that star formation rate is not related to the free-fall timescale for dense molecular gas.

  15. Photoionization cross section of the 4p55d[7/2] J=4 state and radiative lifetimes of three states of Kr I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, B.D.; Glab, W.L.; Ogorzalek-Loo, R.

    1993-01-01

    Three states in Kr I were studied in a pure Kr discharge at pressures ≤15 mTorr. Two-photon excitation from the metastable 4p 5 5s[3/2] J=2 state produced the 4p 5 5d[7/2] J=4 state whose photoionization cross section and lifetime were measured. The photoionization cross section at λ=1064 nm is 32±5 Mb, and the radiative lifetime is 142±12 ns. One-photon excitation produced the 4p 5 5p[5/2] J=2 and J=3 states of Kr I, whose radiative lifetimes were measured. In contrast to previous lifetime measurements of these two 5p states, this work used both state-specific excitation and low pressures. The pressures were low enough that collisional transfer between these two states was negligible. In a very clean 8-mm-diam cell, the 5p[5/2] J=3 lifetime increased with Kr pressure. This increase is attributed to radiation trapping on the 5s[3/2] J=2 to 5p[5/2] J=3 transition. This radiation trapping by the metastable first excited state of Kr I was observed in a pure Kr discharge at pressures below 4 mTorr

  16. A New Experiment for the Measurement of nJ(C,P) Coupling Constants Including 3J(C4'i,Pi) and 3J(C4'i,Pi+1) in Oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Christian; Reif, Bernd; Woerner, Karlheinz; Quant, Stefanie; Marino, John P.; Engels, Joachim W.; Griesinger, Christian; Schwalbe, Harald

    1998-01-01

    A new experiment for the measurement of nJ(C,P) coupling constants along the phosphodiester backbone in RNA and DNA based on a quantitative-J HCP experiment is presented. In addition to coupling constants, in which a carbon atom couples to only one phosphorus atom, both the intraresidual 3J(C4'i,Pi) and the sequential 3J(C4'i,Pi+1) for the C4' resonances that couple to two phosphorus atoms can be obtained. Coupling constants obtained by this new method are compared to values obtained from the P-FIDS experiment. Together with 3J(H,P) coupling constants measured using the P-FIDS experiment, the backbone angles β and element of can be determined

  17. The J-2X Fuel Turbopump - Design, Development, and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, James G.; Hawkins, Lakiesha V.; Shinguchi, Brian H.; Marsh, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR), a NASA subcontractor, is executing the design, development, test, and evaluation (DDT&E) of a liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen two hundred ninety four thousand pound thrust rocket engine initially intended for the Upper Stage (US) and Earth Departure Stage (EDS) of the Constellation Program Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). A key element of the design approach was to base the new J-2X engine on the heritage J-2S engine with the intent of uprating the engine and incorporating SSME and RS-68 lessons learned. The J-2S engine was a design upgrade of the flight proven J-2 configuration used to put American astronauts on the moon. The J-2S Fuel Turbopump (FTP) was the first Rocketdyne-designed liquid hydrogen centrifugal pump and provided many of the early lessons learned for the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Fuel Turbopumps. This paper will discuss the design trades and analyses performed for the current J-2X FTP to increase turbine life; increase structural margins, facilitate component fabrication; expedite turbopump assembly; and increase rotordynamic stability margins. Risk mitigation tests including inducer water tests, whirligig turbine blade tests, turbine air rig tests, and workhorse gas generator tests characterized operating environments, drove design modifications, or identified performance impact. Engineering design, fabrication, analysis, and assembly activities support FTP readiness for the first J-2X engine test scheduled for July 2011.

  18. Test Series 4: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Exide EMP-13 battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1985-03-01

    This report, the fourth in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of a 27-year old lead-antimony Exide EMP-13 cells from the recently decommissioned Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; and multicell (five-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of nine electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations. None of the nine cells failed during the actual seismic tests when a range of ZPAs up to 1.5 g was imposed. Subsequent discharge capacity tests of five of the cells showed, however, that none of the cells could deliver the accepted standard of 80% of their rated electrical capacity for 3 hours. In fact, none of the 5 cells could deliver more than a 33% capacity. Two of the seismically tested cells and one untested, low capacity cell were disassembled for examination and metallurgical analyses. The inspection showed the cells to be in poor condition. The negative plates in the vicinity of the bus connections were extremely weak, the positive buses were corroded and brittle, negative and positive active material utilization was extremely uneven, and corrosion products littered the cells

  19. Neo4j essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer or software architect who wants to dive into the Cypher language and learn the concepts of graph theory and graph-based data models, this is the book for you. Prior experience with a graph-based or NoSQL-based database is expected. Some knowledge of Java will be beneficial, as this will give you more insights into Neo4j's extensibility.

  20. Antiproliferative effect of ASC-J9 delivered by PLGA nanoparticles against estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderio, Paolo; Pandolfi, Laura; Mazzucchelli, Serena; Marinozzi, Maria Rosaria; Vanna, Renzo; Gramatica, Furio; Corsi, Fabio; Colombo, Miriam; Morasso, Carlo; Prosperi, Davide

    2014-08-04

    Among polymeric nanoparticles designed for cancer therapy, PLGA nanoparticles have become one of the most popular polymeric devices for chemotherapeutic-based nanoformulations against several kinds of malignant diseases. Promising properties, including long-circulation time, enhanced tumor localization, interference with "multidrug" resistance effects, and environmental biodegradability, often result in an improvement of the drug bioavailability and effectiveness. In the present work, we have synthesized 1,7-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one (ASC-J9) and developed uniform ASC-J9-loaded PLGA nanoparticles of about 120 nm, which have been prepared by a single-emulsion process. Structural and morphological features of the nanoformulation were analyzed, followed by an accurate evaluation of the in vitro drug release kinetics, which exhibited Fickian law diffusion over 10 days. The intracellular degradation of ASC-J9-bearing nanoparticles within estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells was correlated to a time- and dose-dependent activity of the released drug. A cellular growth inhibition associated with a specific cell cycle G2/M blocking effect caused by ASC-J9 release inside the cytosol allowed us to put forward a hypothesis on the action mechanism of this nanosystem, which led to the final cell apoptosis. Our study was accomplished using Annexin V-based cell death analysis, MTT assessment of proliferation, radical scavenging activity, and intracellular ROS evaluation. Moreover, the intracellular localization of nanoformulated ASC-J9 was confirmed by a Raman optical imaging experiment designed ad hoc. PLGA nanoparticles and ASC-J9 proved also to be safe for a healthy embryo fibroblast cell line (3T3-L1), suggesting a possible clinical translation of this potential nanochemotherapeutic to expand the inherently poor bioavailability of hydrophobic ASC-J9 that could be proposed for the treatment of malignant breast cancer.

  1. Planning for Plume Diagnostics for Ground Testing of J-2X Engines at the SSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    SaintCyr, William W.; Tejwani, Gopal D.; McVay, Gregory P.; Langford, Lester A.; SaintCyr, William W.

    2010-01-01

    ). To achieve the simulated altitude environment, chemical steam generators using isopropyl alcohol, LOX, and RELEASED - Printed documents may be obsolete; validate prior to use. water would run for the duration of the test and would generate approximately 2096 Kg/s of steam to reduce pressure in the test cell and downstream of the engine. The testing at the A-3 Test Stand is projected to begin in late 2010, meanwhile the J-2X component testing on A-1 is scheduled to begin later this year.

  2. Radioimmunoassay of type D oncovirus from continuous J-96 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasenkova, N.K.; Altshtejn, A.D.; Zhdanov, V.M.; Kitsak, V.Ya.

    1978-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay of the J-96 virus and an extract of J-96 cells in the homologous and heterologous systems aimed at detecting antigenic determinants of p25 of Mason-Pfizer virus and group-specific and interspecies antigenic determinants p30 of Rauscher leukaemia virus demonstrated that (1) J-96 virus contains a major internal protein immunologically identical with p25 protein of Mason-Pfizer virus based on the antigenic determinants detectable by the radioimmunoassay used; and (2) no interspecies antigenic determinants characteristic of the major internal protein of mammalian type C viruses were detectable in the J-96 virus or the J-96 cell extract. (author)

  3. Neuroanatomical characterization of the cellular and axonal architecture of subcortical band heterotopia in the BXD29-Tlr4lps-2J/J mouse cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raddy L; Toia, Alyssa R; Pasternack, Daniel M; Dotzler, Timothy P; Cuoco, Joshua A; Esposito, Anthony W; Le, Megan M; Parker, Alexander K; Goodman, Jeffrey H; Sarkisian, Matthew R

    2016-11-19

    Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) are malformations of the human cerebral cortex typically associated with epilepsy and cognitive delay/disability. Rodent models of SBH have demonstrated strong face validity as they are accompanied by both cognitive deficits and spontaneous seizures or reduced seizure threshold. BXD29-Tlr4 lps-2J /J recombinant inbred mice display striking bilateral SBH, partial callosal agenesis, morphological changes in subcortical structures of the auditory pathway, and display sensory deficits in behavioral tests (Rosen et al., 2013; Truong et al., 2013, 2015). Surprisingly, these mice show no cognitive deficits and have a higher seizure threshold to chemi-convulsive treatment (Gabel et al., 2013) making them different than other rodent SBH models described previously. In the present report, we perform a detailed characterization of the cellular and axonal constituents of SBH in BXD29-Tlr4 lps-2J /J mice and demonstrate that various types of interneurons and glia as well as cortical and subcortical projections are found in SBH. In addition, the length of neuronal cilia was reduced in SBH compared to neurons in the overlying and adjacent normotopic cortex. Finally, we describe additional and novel malformations of the hippocampus and neocortex present in BXD29-Tlr4 lps-2J /J mice. Together, our findings in BXD29-Tlr4 lps-2J /J mice are discussed in the context of the known neuroanatomy and phenotype of other SBH rodent models. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans, gomisins J and N inhibit the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway in HCT116 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Yoo, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hee Ju [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul Young [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Chu Won, E-mail: cwnho@kist.re.kr [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-16

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the possible molecular mechanism underlying the inhibition of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway and the induction of G0/G1-phase arrest by gomisins J and N, derived from the fruits of S. chinensis, in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N inhibited Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway in HCT116 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N disrupted the binding of {beta}-catenin to specific DNA sequences, TBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N inhibited the HCT116 cell proliferation through G0/G1 phase arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N inhibited the expression of Cyc D1, a Wnt/{beta}-catenin target gene. -- Abstract: Here, we report that gomisin J and gomisin N, dibenzocyclooctadiene type lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis, inhibit Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in HCT116 cells. Gomisins J and N appear to inhibit Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling by disrupting the interaction between {beta}-catenin and its specific target DNA sequences (TCF binding elements, TBE) rather than by altering the expression of the {beta}-catenin protein. Gomisins J and N inhibit HCT116 cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. The G0/G1 phase arrest induced by gomisins J and N appears to be caused by a decrease in the expression of Cyclin D1, a representative target gene of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway, as well as Cdk2, Cdk4, and E2F-1. Therefore, gomisins J and N, the novel Wnt/{beta}-catenin inhibitors discovered in this study, may serve as potential agents for the prevention and treatment of human colorectal cancers.

  5. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans, gomisins J and N inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HCT116 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Yoo, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hee Ju; Kim, Chul Young; Nho, Chu Won

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the possible molecular mechanism underlying the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and the induction of G0/G1-phase arrest by gomisins J and N, derived from the fruits of S. chinensis, in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Highlights: ► Gomisins J and N inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HCT116 cells. ► Gomisins J and N disrupted the binding of β-catenin to specific DNA sequences, TBE. ► Gomisins J and N inhibited the HCT116 cell proliferation through G0/G1 phase arrest. ► Gomisins J and N inhibited the expression of Cyc D1, a Wnt/β-catenin target gene. -- Abstract: Here, we report that gomisin J and gomisin N, dibenzocyclooctadiene type lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis, inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling in HCT116 cells. Gomisins J and N appear to inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling by disrupting the interaction between β-catenin and its specific target DNA sequences (TCF binding elements, TBE) rather than by altering the expression of the β-catenin protein. Gomisins J and N inhibit HCT116 cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. The G0/G1 phase arrest induced by gomisins J and N appears to be caused by a decrease in the expression of Cyclin D1, a representative target gene of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, as well as Cdk2, Cdk4, and E2F-1. Therefore, gomisins J and N, the novel Wnt/β-catenin inhibitors discovered in this study, may serve as potential agents for the prevention and treatment of human colorectal cancers.

  6. bg/sup J//bg/sup J/:W/W/sup v/ bone marrow chimera. A model for studying stem cell regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, H M; Maloney, M A

    1978-01-01

    In studies with bg/sup J//bg/sup J/:W/W/sup v/ chimeric mice, we used the beige neutrophil marker as a criterion of W/W/sup v/ marrow replacement by implanted bg/sup J//bg/sup J/ stem cells. Data from a 50-fold range of inoculum doses and a 2 y period of observation indicate a hyperbolic pattern of replacement expressed as a log dose-response relationship. The saturating effect with increasing inoculum dose was interpreted as reflecting random initial stem cell seeding in bone marrow coupled with a decreasing efficiency of colonization by migration. From the statistics of random sampling and the exponential decrease of the 63% replacement dose with time, we estimate that W/W/sup v/ marrow contains about 2600 stem cell regulatory volumes of about 10/sup 8/ ..mu../sup 3/ (50 cell diameters) each, a dimension consistent with concepts of short-range cell-cell interactions. Our observations suggest that each regulatory volume is essentially self-contained and that stem cell migration is generally restricted to contiguous volumes.

  7. Joint Chiefs of Staff > Directorates > J6 | C4 & Cyber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint Staff Structure Joint Staff Inspector General Origin of Joint Concepts U.S. Code | Joint Chiefs of Management J1 | Manpower and Personnel J2 | Joint Staff Intelligence J3 | Operations J4 | Logistics► the Joint Staff Chief Information Officer (CIO), the J-6 provides business class Information

  8. Human cytochrome c enters murine J774 cells and causes G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Granja, Ana Teresa; Fialho, Arsenio M.; Schlarb-Ridley, Beatrix G.; Das Gupta, Tapas K.; Chakrabarty, Ananda M.; Yamada, Tohru

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome c is well known as a carrier of electrons during respiration. Current evidence indicates that cytochrome c also functions as a major component of apoptosomes to induce apoptosis in eukaryotic cells as well as an antioxidant. More recently, a prokaryotic cytochrome c, cytochrome c 551 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has been shown to enter in mammalian cells such as the murine macrophage-like J774 cells and causes inhibition of cell cycle progression. Much less is known about such functions by mammalian cytochromes c, particularly the human cytochrome c. We now report that similar to P. aeruginosa cytochrome c 551 , the purified human cytochrome c protein can enter J774 cells and induce cell cycle arrest at the G 1 to S phase, as well as at the G 2 /M phase at higher concentrations. Unlike P. aeruginosa cytochrome c 551 which had no effect on the induction of apoptosis, human cytochrome c induces significant apoptosis and cell death in J774 cells, presumably through inhibition of the cell cycle at the G 2 /M phase. When incubated with human breast cancer MCF-7 and normal mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A1 cells, human cytochrome c entered in both types of cells but induced cell death only in the normal MCF-10A1 cells. The ability of human cytochrome c to enter J774 cells was greatly reduced at 4 deg. C, suggesting energy requirement in the entry process

  9. Note on a simple test method for estimaing J/sub Ic/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, T.A.; McHenry, H.I.

    1980-01-01

    Fracture toughness testing is generally a time-consuming and expensive procedure; therefore, there has been a significant amount of effort directed toward developing an inexpensive and rapid method of estimating the fracture toughness of materials. In this paper, a simple method for estimating J/sub Ic/ through the use of small, notched, bend bars is evaluated. The test only involves the measurement of the energy necessary to fracture the sample. Initial tests on Fe-18Cr-3Ni-13Mn and 304L stainless steel at 76 and 4 0 K have yielded results consistent with other fracture toughness tests, for materials in the low- to medium-toughness range

  10. JAERI Fuel Cleanup System (J-FCU) stand-alone tritium test at the TSTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Inoue, Masahiko

    1993-03-01

    JAERI designed, fabricated, and installed the JAERI Fuel Cleanup System (J-FCU) as a subsystem of simulated fusion fuel loop at the TSTA. The main function of the J-FCU is to purify and to recover hydrogen isotopes from simulated plasma exhaust while exhausting tritium free impurities. After a lot of deuterium tests, a first tritium test of the J-FCU was performed with one gram of tritium at the TSTA on June 1991. Main purpose of this test was to evaluate the total integrity and function of the J-FCU system with a DT mixture. Through this test, the J-FCU was operated well and its function with tritium was demonstrated. This report describes the detail test results of the J-FCU first tritium test and discuss its functions by stand-alone mode. Residual tritium inventory of the J-FCU system was also discussed. (author)

  11. Immune Checkpoint Function of CD85j in CD8 T Cell Differentiation and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Gustafson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with an increased susceptibility to infection and a failure to control latent viruses thought to be driven, at least in part, by alterations in CD8 T cell function. The aging T cell repertoire is characterized by an accumulation of effector CD8 T cells, many of which express the negative regulatory receptor CD85j. To define the biological significance of CD85j expression on CD8 T cells and to address the question whether presence of CD85j in older individuals is beneficial or detrimental for immune function, we examined the specific attributes of CD8 T cells expressing CD85j as well as the functional role of CD85j in antigen-specific CD8 T cell responses during immune aging. Here, we show that CD85j is mainly expressed by terminally differentiated effector (TEMRAs CD8 T cells, which increase with age, in cytomegalovirus (CMV infection and in males. CD85j+ CMV-specific cells demonstrate clonal expansion. However, TCR diversity is similar between CD85j+ and CD85j− compartments, suggesting that CD85j does not directly impact the repertoire of antigen-specific cells. Further phenotypic and functional analyses revealed that CD85j identifies a specific subset of CMV-responsive CD8 T cells that coexpress a marker of senescence (CD57 but retain polyfunctional cytokine production and expression of cytotoxic mediators. Blocking CD85j binding enhanced proliferation of CMV-specific CD8 T cells upon antigen stimulation but did not alter polyfunctional cytokine production. Taken together, these data demonstrate that CD85j characterizes a population of “senescent,” but not exhausted antigen-specific effector CD8 T cells and indicates that CD85j is an important checkpoint regulator controlling expansion of virus-specific T cells during aging. Inhibition of CD85j activity may be a mechanism to promote stronger CD8 T cell effector responses during immune aging.

  12. Confirmation test of powder mixing process in J-MOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Hiroshi; Osaka, Shuichi; Kurita, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. (hereafter, JNFL) MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant (hereafter, J-MOX) is what fabricates MOX fuel for domestic light water power plants. Development of design concept of J-MOX was started mid 90's and the frame of J-MOX process was clarified around 2000 including adoption of MIMAS process as apart of J-MOX powder process. JNFL requires to take an answer to any technical question that has not been clarified ever before by world's MOX and/or Uranium fabricators before it commissions equipment procurement. J-MOX is to be constructed adjacent to the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) and to utilize MH-MOX powder recovered at RRP. The combination of the MIMAS process and the MH-MOX powder is what has never tried in the world. Therefore JNFL started a series of confirmation tests of which the most important is the powder test to confirm the applicability of MH-MOX powder to the MIMAS process. The MH-MOX powder, consisting of 50% plutonium oxide and 50% uranium oxide, originates JAEA development utilizing microwave heating (MH) technology. The powder test started with laboratory scale small equipment utilizing both uranium and the MOX powder in 2000, left a solution to tough problem such as powder adhesion onto equipment, and then was followed by a large scale equipment test again with uranium and the MOX powder. For the MOX test, actual size equipment within glovebox was manufactured and installed in JAEA plutonium fuel center in 2005, and based on results taken so far an understanding that the MIMAS equipment, with the MH-MOX powder, can present almost same quality MOX pellet as what is introduced as fabricated in Europe was developed. The test was finished at the end of Japanese fiscal year (JFY) 2007, and it was confirmed that the MOX pellets fabricated in this test were almost satisfied with the targeted specifications set for domestic LWR MOX fuels. (author)

  13. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j)) J Appendix J to Part 122 Protection of Environment... POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Pt. 122, App. J Appendix J to Part 122—NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j)) Table 1A—Effluent Parameters for All POTWS...

  14. 99m Tc-HYNIC-(Ser)3 -J18 peptide: A radiotracer for non-small-cell lung cancer targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghi, Zahra; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2018-02-14

    Radiolabeled peptide could be a useful tool for the diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, HYNIC-(Ser) 3 -J18 peptide was labeled with 99m Tc using EDDA/tricine as coligands. The in vitro and in vivo studies of this radiolabeled peptide were performed for cellular-specific binding and tumor targeting in A-549 cells and tumor-bearing mice, respectively. The high radiochemical purity was obtained and this radiolabeled peptide exhibited high stability in buffer and serum. The radiolabeled peptide showed high affinity for the A-549 cells with a dissociation constant value (K D ) of 4.4 ± 0.8 nm. The tumor-muscles ratios were 2.7 and 4.4 at 1 and 2 hr after injection of 99m Tc-(EDDA/tricine)-HYNIC-(Ser) 3 -J18 in tumor-bearing mice. The tumor uptake was decreased after preinjection with non-labeled peptide for this radiolabeled peptide in blocking experiment. The results of this study showed the 99m Tc-(EDDA/tricine)-(Ser) 3 -HYNIC-J18 peptide might be a promising radiolabeled peptide for NSCLC targeting. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Neo4j graph data modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Lal, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer who wants to understand the fundamentals of modeling data in Neo4j and how it can be used to model full-fledged applications, then this book is for you. Some understanding of domain modeling may be advantageous but is not essential.

  16. Cell overcharge testing inside sodium metal halide battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutschy, Kris; Chatwin, Troy; Bull, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Testing was conducted to measure electrical performance and safety of the General Electric Durathon™ E620 battery module (600 V class 20 kWh) during cell overcharge. Data gathered from this test was consistent with SAE Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing specification J2464 [1]. After cell overcharge failure and 24 A current flow for additional 60 minutes, battery was then discharged at 7.5 KW average power to 12% state of charge (SOC) and recharged back to 100% SOC. This overcharging test was performed on two cells. No hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas was detected during front cell (B1) test, and small amount (6.2 ppm peak) was measured outside the battery after center cell (F13) overcharge. An additional overcharge test was performed per UL Standard 1973 - Batteries for Use in Light Electric Rail (LER) Applications and Stationary Applications[2]. With the battery at 11% SOC and 280 °C float temperature, an individual cell near the front (D1) was deliberately imbalanced by charging it to 62% SOC. The battery was then recharged to 100% SOC. In all three tests, the battery cell pack was stable and individual cell failure did not propagate to other cells. Battery discharge performance, charge performance, and electrical isolation were normal after all three tests.

  17. Impact of 4 Lactobacillus plantarum capsular polysaccharide clusters on surface glycan composition and host cell signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Daniela M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial cell surface-associated polysaccharides are involved in the interactions of bacteria with their environment and play an important role in the communication between pathogenic bacteria and their host organisms. Cell surface polysaccharides of probiotic species are far less well described. Therefore, improved knowledge on these molecules is potentially of great importance to understand the strain-specific and proposed beneficial modes of probiotic action. Results The Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 genome encodes 4 clusters of genes that are associated with surface polysaccharide production. Two of these clusters appear to encode all functions required for capsular polysaccharide formation (cps2A-J and cps4A-J, while the remaining clusters are predicted to lack genes encoding chain-length control functions and a priming glycosyl-transferase (cps1A-I and cps3A-J. We constructed L. plantarum WCFS1 gene deletion mutants that lack individual (Δcps1A-I, Δcps2A-J, Δcps3A-J and Δcps4A-J or combinations of cps clusters (Δcps1A-3J and Δcps1A-3I, Δcps4A-J and assessed the genome wide impact of these mutations by transcriptome analysis. The cps cluster deletions influenced the expression of variable gene sets in the individual cps cluster mutants, but also considerable numbers of up- and down-regulated genes were shared between mutants in cps cluster 1 and 2, as well as between mutant in cps clusters 3 and 4. Additionally, the composition of overall cell surface polysaccharide fractions was altered in each mutant strain, implying that despite the apparent incompleteness of cps1A-I and cps3A-J, all clusters are active and functional in L. plantarum. The Δcps1A-I strain produced surface polysaccharides in equal amounts as compared to the wild-type strain, while the polysaccharides were characterized by a reduced molar mass and the lack of rhamnose. The mutants that lacked functional copies of cps2A-J, cps3A-J or cps4A-J

  18. LGR4 modulates breast cancer initiation, metastasis, and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhiying; Yuan, Zengjin; Zeng, Li; Wang, Ying; Lai, Li; Li, Jing; Sun, Peng; Xue, Xiwen; Qi, Junyi; Yang, Zhengfeng; Zheng, Yansen; Fang, Yuanzhang; Li, Dali; Siwko, Stefan; Li, Yi; Luo, Jian; Liu, Mingyao

    2018-05-01

    The fourth member of the leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCR family (LGR4, frequently referred to as GPR48) and its cognate ligands, R-spondins (RSPOs) play crucial roles in the development of multiple organs as well as the survival of adult stem cells by activation of canonical Wnt signaling. Wnt/β-catenin signaling acts to regulate breast cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms determining its spatiotemporal regulation are largely unknown. In this study, we identified LGR4 as a master controller of Wnt/β-catenin signaling-mediated breast cancer tumorigenesis, metastasis, and cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance. LGR4 expression in breast tumors correlated with poor prognosis. Either Lgr4 haploinsufficiency or mammary-specific deletion inhibited mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)- PyMT- and MMTV- Wnt1-driven mammary tumorigenesis and metastasis. Moreover, LGR4 down-regulation decreased in vitro migration and in vivo xenograft tumor growth and lung metastasis. Furthermore, Lgr4 deletion in MMTV- Wnt1 tumor cells or knockdown in human breast cancer cells decreased the number of functional CSCs by ∼90%. Canonical Wnt signaling was impaired in LGR4-deficient breast cancer cells, and LGR4 knockdown resulted in increased E-cadherin and decreased expression of N-cadherin and snail transcription factor -2 ( SNAI2) (also called SLUG), implicating LGR4 in regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Our findings support a crucial role of the Wnt signaling component LGR4 in breast cancer initiation, metastasis, and breast CSCs.-Yue, Z., Yuan, Z., Zeng, L., Wang, Y., Lai, L., Li, J., Sun, P., Xue, X., Qi, J., Yang, Z., Zheng, Y., Fang, Y., Li, D., Siwko, S., Li, Y., Luo, J., Liu, M. LGR4 modulates breast cancer initiation, metastasis, and cancer stem cells.

  19. Mechanism of protection induced by group A Streptococcus vaccine candidate J8-DT: contribution of B and T-cells towards protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Pandey

    Full Text Available Vaccination with J8-DT, a leading GAS vaccine candidate, results in protective immunity in mice. Analysis of immunologic correlates of protection indicated a role of J8-specific antibodies that were induced post-immunization. In the present study, several independent experimental approaches were employed to investigate the protective immunological mechanisms involved in J8-DT-mediated immunity. These approaches included the passive transfer of mouse or rabbit immune serum/antibodies in addition to selective depletion of T-cell subsets prior to bacterial challenge. Passive transfer of J8-DT antiserum/antibodies from mice and rabbits conferred significant resistance against challenge to mice. To exclude the possibility of involvement of other host immune factors, the studies were repeated in SCID mice, which highlighted the need for an ongoing immune response for long-lived protection. Depletion of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T-cell subsets confirmed that an active de novo immune response, involving CD4(+ T-helper cells, is required for continued synthesis of antibodies resulting in protection against GAS infection. Taken together these results indicate an involvement of CD4(+ T-cells in J8-DT-mediated protection possibly via an ability to maintain antibody levels. These results have considerable relevance to the development of a broad spectrum passive immunotherapy for GAS disease.

  20. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J promotes cell proliferation and cell cycle progression through miR-221 by targeting CDKN1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chaoqi; Yu, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yao; Fan, Minghui; Chang, Fangfang; Xing, Lixiao; Liu, Yongzhen; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Cui, Hongyu; Li, Kai; Gao, Li; Pan, Qing; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2018-04-23

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), a highly oncogenic retrovirus, causes leukemia-like proliferative diseases in chickens. microRNAs post-transcriptionally suppress targets and are involved in the development of various tumors. We previously showed that miR-221 is upregulated in ALV-J-induced tumors. In this study, we analyzed the possible function of miR-221 in ALV-J tumorigenesis. The target validation system showed that CDKN1B is a target of miR-221 and is downregulated in ALV-J infection. As CDKN1B arrests the cell cycle and regulates its progression, we analyzed the proliferation of ALV-J-infected DF-1 cells. ALV-J-infection-induced DF1 cell derepression of G1/S transition and overproliferation required high miR-221 expression followed by CDKN1B downregulation. Cell cycle pathway analysis showed that ALV-J infection induced DF-1 cell overproliferation via the CDKN1B-CDK2/CDK6 pathway. Thus, miR-221 may play an important role in ALV-J-induced aggressive growth of DF-1 cells; these findings have expanded our insights into the mechanism underlying ALV-J infection and tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cells of the J774 macrophage cell line are primed for antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity following exposure to γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerst, R.; Werberig, K.

    1991-01-01

    Activation of macrophages (M phi) for host defense against tumor cells follows a sequence of priming events followed by an initiating stimulus that results in production and release of cytotoxic molecules that mediate target cell killing. The authors have developed a model to study specific macrophage cytotoxicity in vitro utilizing a cultured murine M phi cell line, J774. Specific cytotoxicity of cultured human gastrointestinal tumor cells is achieved in the presence of murine IgG2a monoclonal antibody (mAb) 17-1-A. The ability of these cells to mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is greatly enhanced following gamma-irradiation. ADCC can be demonstrated at mAb 17-1-A concentrations greater than or equal to 1 microgram/ml and effector/target cell ratios greater than or equal to 2. Exposure to doses greater than or equal to 10 Gy of gamma-irradiation increases ADCC threefold. Varying the duration from J774 M phi exposure to γ-irradiation until addition of antibody-coated target cells showed that the primed state for ADCC is stable for at least 8 days but approximately 24 hr is required for complete development of the primed state. mAb-dependent target cell death begins 8 hr after addition of mAb and labeled target cells to primed effector cells and is complete by 24 hr. Incubation of unirradiated J774 M phi effector cells with recombinant murine interferon-γ (rmIFN-γ) also results in enhanced ADCC, but the extent of target cell killing achieved is less than that following priming by γ-irradiation. Concomitant priming of γ-irradiated J774 M phi with rmIFN-γ increases the extent of ADCC. Further study of irradiated J774 cells may elucidate the molecular pathways utilized by M phi for achieving and maintaining the primed state for ADCC

  2. Neo4j high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional or enthusiast who has a basic understanding of graphs or has basic knowledge of Neo4j operations, this is the book for you. Although it is targeted at an advanced user base, this book can be used by beginners as it touches upon the basics. So, if you are passionate about taming complex data with the help of graphs and building high performance applications, you will be able to get valuable insights from this book.

  3. J-2X Test Articles Using FDM Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ted; Ruf, Joe; Steele, Phil

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a brief history of the J-2X engine, along with detailed description of the material demonstrator and test articles that were created using Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process.

  4. LOCA analysis program RELAP4J for water cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motizuki, Yooji; Sobajima, Makoto; Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Soda, Kunihisa; Tasaka, Kanji.

    1978-02-01

    RELAP4J, a version of RELAP4-Mod2 based on the ROSA-I and II tests has the following alterations : discharge coefficient correlation in discharge flow calculation, Zaloudek's equation for subcooled discharge flow, sonic choke instead of Moody choke in high quality regions, Wilson's equation for bubble rising velocity, bubble rise model for counter-current flow, steady-state pressure distribution calculation, stabilized numerical integration and unit conversion from Ft-1b to MKS. With these alterations both practical and useful, the agreement between calculations and experiments is good and computer times are 1/5 -- 1/10 those without the numerical stability. (auth.)

  5. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 23 - HIRF Environments and Equipment HIRF Test Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false HIRF Environments and Equipment HIRF Test Levels J Appendix J to Part 23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF.... 23, App. J Appendix J to Part 23—HIRF Environments and Equipment HIRF Test Levels This appendix...

  6. The stimulation of EL-4 cells to produce interleukin-2 and its potential use in immunocytotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasek, W.; Steer, S.; Clothier, R.; Balls, M.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of EL-4 thymoma cells to produce interleukin-2 (IL-2) following exposure to phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and Concanavalin A (Con A) has been studied in vitro using medium containing either 10% or 1% fetal calf serum (FCS). The potent stimulatory effect of PMA on IL-2 production by EL-4 cells has been confirmed by measuring 3H-thymidine incorporation by the IL-2-dependent T cell line, CTLL-2, in the presence of conditioned medium (CM) from stimulated cultures. EL-4 cells produced several times more IL-2 when cultured in medium containing 10% FCS than when only 1% FCS was present. Added together, PMA and Con A acted synergistically in some EL-4 cell cultures. The ability of E:-4 cells to produce IL-2 was maintained after further incubation without stimulants. CM with IL-2 activity from stimulated EL-4 cells could prove useful in immunotoxicity testing

  7. Neutralisation of HIV-1 cell-cell spread by human and llama antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Laura E; Groppelli, Elisabetta; Blanchetot, Christophe; de Haard, Hans; Verrips, Theo; Rutten, Lucy; Weiss, Robin A; Jolly, Clare

    2014-10-02

    Direct cell-cell spread of HIV-1 is a very efficient mode of viral dissemination, with increasing evidence suggesting that it may pose a considerable challenge to controlling viral replication in vivo. Much current vaccine research involves the study of broadly neutralising antibodies (bNabs) that arise during natural infection with the aims of eliciting such antibodies by vaccination or incorporating them into novel therapeutics. However, whether cell-cell spread of HIV-1 can be effectively targeted by bNabs remains unclear, and there is much interest in identifying antibodies capable of efficiently neutralising virus transmitted by cell-cell contact. In this study we have tested a panel of bNAbs for inhibition of cell-cell spread, including some not previously evaluated for inhibition of this mode of HIV-1 transmission. We found that three CD4 binding site antibodies, one from an immunised llama (J3) and two isolated from HIV-1-positive patients (VRC01 and HJ16) neutralised cell-cell spread between T cells, while antibodies specific for glycan moieties (2G12, PG9, PG16) and the MPER (2F5) displayed variable efficacy. Notably, while J3 displayed a high level of potency during cell-cell spread we found that the small size of the llama heavy chain-only variable region (VHH) J3 is not required for efficient neutralisation since recombinant J3 containing a full-length human heavy chain Fc domain was significantly more potent. J3 and J3-Fc also neutralised cell-cell spread of HIV-1 from primary macrophages to CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, while bNabs display variable efficacy at preventing cell-cell spread of HIV-1, we find that some CD4 binding site antibodies can inhibit this mode of HIV-1 dissemination and identify the recently described llama antibody J3 as a particularly potent inhibitor. Effective neutralisation of cell-cell spread between physiologically relevant cell types by J3 and J3-Fc supports the development of VHH J3 nanobodies for therapeutic or

  8. J-2 Engine ready to go into test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Two technicians watch carefully as cables prepare to lift a J-2 engine into a test stand. The J-2 powered the second stage and the third stage of the Saturn V moon rocket. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  9. Device characterization for design optimization of 4 junction inverted metamorphic concentrator solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, John F.; France, Ryan M.; Steiner, Myles A.; Friedman, Daniel J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); García, Iván [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 USA and Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avda Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26

    Quantitative electroluminescence (EL) and luminescent coupling (LC) analysis, along with more conventional characterization techniques, are combined to completely characterize the subcell JV curves within a fourjunction (4J) inverted metamorphic solar cell (IMM). The 4J performance under arbitrary spectral conditions can be predicted from these subcell JV curves. The internal radiative efficiency (IRE) of each junction has been determined as a function of current density from the external radiative efficiency using optical modeling, but this required the accurate determination of the individual junction current densities during the EL measurement as affected by LC. These measurement and analysis techniques can be applied to any multijunction solar cell. The 4J IMM solar cell used to illustrate these techniques showed excellent junction quality as exhibited by high IRE and a one-sun AM1.5D efficiency of 36.3%. This device operates up to 1000 suns without limitations due to any of the three tunnel junctions.

  10. Direct comparison of unloading compliance and potential drop techniques in J-integral testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, J.J.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    Single-specimen J-integral testing is performed commonly with the unloading compliance technique. Use of modern instrumentation techniques and powerful desktop computers have made this technique a standard. However, this testing technique is slow and tedious, with the loading rate fixed at a slow quasi-static rate. For these reasons the dc potential drop technique was investigated for crack length measurement during a J-integral test. For direct comparison, both unloading compliance and potential drop were used simultaneously during a J-integral test. The results showed good agreement between the techniques. However, the potential drop technique showed an offset in crack length due to plastic blunting processes. Taking this offset into account, J/sub Ic/ values calculated by both techniques compared well

  11. Improved cell line IPEC-J2, characterized as a model for porcine jejunal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke S Zakrzewski

    Full Text Available Cell lines matching the source epithelium are indispensable for investigating porcine intestinal transport and barrier properties on a subcellular or molecular level and furthermore help to reduce animal usage. The porcine jejunal cell line IPEC-J2 is established as an in vitro model for porcine infection studies but exhibits atypically high transepithelial resistances (TER and only low active transport rates so that the effect of nutritional factors cannot be reliably investigated. This study aimed to properly remodel IPEC-J2 and then to re-characterize these cells regarding epithelial architecture, expression of barrier-relevant tight junction (TJ proteins, adequate TER and transport function, and reaction to secretagogues. For this, IPEC-J2 monolayers were cultured on permeable supports, either under conventional (fetal bovine serum, FBS or species-specific (porcine serum, PS conditions. Porcine jejunal mucosa was analyzed for comparison. Main results were that under PS conditions (IPEC-J2/PS, compared to conventional FBS culture (IPEC-J2/FBS, the cell height increased 6-fold while the cell diameter was reduced by 50%. The apical cell membrane of IPEC-J2/PS exhibited typical microvilli. Most importantly, PS caused a one order of magnitude reduction of TER and of trans- and paracellular resistance, and a 2-fold increase in secretory response to forskolin when compared to FBS condition. TJ ultrastructure and appearance of TJ proteins changed dramatically in IPEC-J2/PS. Most parameters measured under PS conditions were much closer to those of typical pig jejunocytes than ever reported since the cell line's initial establishment in 1989. In conclusion, IPEC-J2, if cultured under defined species-specific conditions, forms a suitable model for investigating porcine paracellular intestinal barrier function.

  12. Different G2/M accumulation in M059J and M059K cells after exposure to DNA double-strand break-inducing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgersson, Asa; Heiden, Thomas; Castro, Juan; Edgren, Margareta R.; Lewensohn, Rolf; Meijer, Annelie E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and compare the cell cycle progression in relation to cell death in the human glioma cell lines, M059J and M059K, after exposure to DNA double-strand break-inducing agents. Methods and materials: The M059J and M059K cells, deficient and proficient in the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase, respectively, were exposed to 1 and 4 Gy of photons or accelerated nitrogen ions. In addition, M059J and M059K cells were treated with 10 and 40 μg/mL of bleomycin for 30 min, respectively. Cell cycle progression, monitored by DNA flow cytometry, was measured up to 72 h after treatment. Results: M059J, but not M059K, cells displayed G 2 /M accumulation after low linear energy transfer irradiation. High linear energy transfer radiation exposure however, resulted in a substantial increase of M059K cells in the G 2 /M phase detected at 48 h. At 72 h, the number of cells in the G 2 /M phase was equivalent to its control. M059J cells accumulated mainly in S phase after high linear energy transfer irradiation. In contrast to M059K, M059J cells were still blocked at 72 h. Bleomycin induced G 2 /M accumulation for both M059J and M059K cells detected 24 h after treatment. At 48 h, the percentage of bleomycin-treated M059J cells in G 2 /M phase remained high, and the number of M059K cells had decreased to control levels. Neither cell line showed cell cycle arrest (≤10 h) after exposure to these agents. Conclusion: Distinct cell cycle block and release is dependent on the complexity of the induced DNA damage and the presence of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit

  13. Excitation relaxation and structure of TPPS4 J-aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelbauskas, L.; Bagdonas, S.; Dietel, W.; Rotomskis, R.

    2003-01-01

    The energy relaxation kinetics and the structure of the J-aggregates of water-soluble porphyrin 5,10,15,20-tetrasulphonatophenyl porphine (TPPS 4 ) were investigated in aqueous medium by means of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy. The excitation of the J-aggregates, at excitation intensities higher than ∼10 15 photons/cm 2 per pulse, results in a remarkable decrease of the fluorescence quantum yield and in the appearance of an additional, non-exponential energy relaxation channel with a decay constant that depends on the excitation intensity. This relaxation mechanism was attributed to the exciton single-singlet annihilation. The exciton lifetime in the absence of the annihilation was calculated to be ∼150 ps. Using exciton annihilation theory, the exciton migration within the J-aggregates could be characterized by determining the exciton diffusion constant (1.8±0.9) 10 -3 cm 2 /s and the hopping time (1.2±0.6) ps. Using the experimental data, the size of the J-aggregate could be evaluated and was seen to yield at least 20 TPPS 4 molecules per aggregate. It was shown by means of confocal fluorescence laser scanning microscopy that TPPS 4 does self-associate in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at acidic pH forming molecular macro-assemblies on a scale of ∼1 μm in PVA matrices

  14. Cryogenic test of the 4 K / 2 K insert for the ARIEL e-Linac cryomodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Ma, Y.; Harmer, P.; Kishi, D.; Koveshnikov, A.; Muller, N.; Vrielink, A.; O'Brien, M.; Ahammed, M.

    2014-01-01

    The ARIEL project at TRIUMF requires a 50 MeV superconducting electron linac consisting of five nine cell 1.3 GHz cavities divided into three cryomodules with one, two and two cavities in each module respectively. LHe is distributed in parallel to each module at 4 K and at ∼1.2 bar. Each module has a cryogenic insert on board that receives the 4 K liquid and produces 2 K into a cavity phase separator. The module combines a 4 K phase separator, a plate and fin heat exchanger from DATE and a J-T valve expanding into the 2 K phase separator. The unit also supplies 4 K liquid to thermal intercepts in the module in siphon loops that return the vaporized liquid to the 4 K reservoir. For testing purposes the unit is outfitted with a dummy 2 K phase separator and thermal intercepts with variable heaters that mimic the final heat loads in order to test the cryogenic performance. The design of the 4 K / 2 K insert, the results of the cold tests and a summary of the test infrastructure including cryogenics services will be presented

  15. Cryogenic test of the 4 K / 2 K insert for the ARIEL e-Linac cryomodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Ma, Y.; Harmer, P.; Kishi, D.; Koveshnikov, A.; Muller, N.; Vrielink, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); O' Brien, M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Ahammed, M. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkata (India)

    2014-01-29

    The ARIEL project at TRIUMF requires a 50 MeV superconducting electron linac consisting of five nine cell 1.3 GHz cavities divided into three cryomodules with one, two and two cavities in each module respectively. LHe is distributed in parallel to each module at 4 K and at ∼1.2 bar. Each module has a cryogenic insert on board that receives the 4 K liquid and produces 2 K into a cavity phase separator. The module combines a 4 K phase separator, a plate and fin heat exchanger from DATE and a J-T valve expanding into the 2 K phase separator. The unit also supplies 4 K liquid to thermal intercepts in the module in siphon loops that return the vaporized liquid to the 4 K reservoir. For testing purposes the unit is outfitted with a dummy 2 K phase separator and thermal intercepts with variable heaters that mimic the final heat loads in order to test the cryogenic performance. The design of the 4 K / 2 K insert, the results of the cold tests and a summary of the test infrastructure including cryogenics services will be presented.

  16. Transport of surface engineered polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers across IPEC-J2 cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisal, Dipak S; Yellepeddi, Venkata K; Kumar, Ajay; Palakurthi, Srinath

    2008-11-01

    The aim of our study was to prepare arginine-and ornithine-conjugated Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers and study their permeability across IPEC-J2 cell monolayers, a new intestinal cell line model for drug absorption studies. Arginine and ornithine were conjugated to the amine terminals of the PAMAM(G4) dendrimers by Fmoc synthesis. The apical-to-basolateral (AB) and basolateral-to-apical (BA) apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) for the PAMAM dendrimers increased by conjugating the dendrimers with both of these polyamines. The enhancement in permeability was dependent on the dendrimer concentration and duration of incubation. Correlation between monolayer permeability and the decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) with the PAMAM dendrimers and the polyamine-conjugated dendrimers suggests that paracellular transport is one of the mechanisms of transport across the epithelial cells. Cytotoxicity of these surface-modified dendrimers was evaluated in IPEC-J2 cells by MTT (methylthiazoletetrazolium) assay. Arginine-conjugated dendrimers were insignificantly more toxic than PAMAM dendrimer as well as ornithine-conjugated dendrimers. Though investigations on the possible involvement of other transport mechanisms are in progress, results of the present study suggest the potential of dendrimer-polyamine conjugates as the carriers for antigen/drug delivery through the oral mucosa.

  17. A Selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Promotes EGFR-Independent Akt Activation in an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88-Infected IPEC-J2 Cell Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC are important intestinal pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Although probiotic bacteria may protect against ETEC-induced enteric infections, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, porcine intestinal epithelial J2 cells (IPEC-J2 were pre-incubated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and then exposed to F4+ ETEC. Increases in TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA expression were observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge, but these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus treatment. Expression of TLR2 and NOD1 mRNA was up-regulated in cells pre-treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus counteracted F4+ ETEC-induced increases in TNF-α concentration. Increased PGE2. concentrations were observed in cells infected with F4+ ETEC and in cells treated with L. rhamnosus only. A decrease in phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR was observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge in cells treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus enhanced Akt phosphorylation and increased ZO-1 and occludin protein expression. Our findings suggest that L. rhamnosus protects intestinal epithelial cells from F4+ ETEC-induced damage, partly through the anti-inflammatory response involving synergism between TLR2 and NOD1. In addition, L. rhamnosus promotes EGFR-independent Akt activation, which may activate intestinal epithelial cells in response to bacterial infection, in turn increasing tight junction integrity and thus enhancing the barrier function and restricting pathogen invasion. Pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus was superior to co-incubation in reducing the adhesion of F4+ ETEC to IPEC-J2 cells and subsequently attenuating F4+ ETEC-induced mucin layer destruction and suppressing apoptosis. Our data indicate that a selected L. rhamnosus strain interacts with porcine intestinal epithelial cells to maintain the epithelial barrier and promote intestinal epithelial

  18. A Selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Promotes EGFR-Independent Akt Activation in an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88-Infected IPEC-J2 Cell Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Yang, Jin-Cai; Yang, Gui-Yan; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are important intestinal pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Although probiotic bacteria may protect against ETEC-induced enteric infections, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, porcine intestinal epithelial J2 cells (IPEC-J2) were pre-incubated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and then exposed to F4+ ETEC. Increases in TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA expression were observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge, but these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus treatment. Expression of TLR2 and NOD1 mRNA was up-regulated in cells pre-treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus counteracted F4+ ETEC-induced increases in TNF-α concentration. Increased PGE2. concentrations were observed in cells infected with F4+ ETEC and in cells treated with L. rhamnosus only. A decrease in phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge in cells treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus enhanced Akt phosphorylation and increased ZO-1 and occludin protein expression. Our findings suggest that L. rhamnosus protects intestinal epithelial cells from F4+ ETEC-induced damage, partly through the anti-inflammatory response involving synergism between TLR2 and NOD1. In addition, L. rhamnosus promotes EGFR-independent Akt activation, which may activate intestinal epithelial cells in response to bacterial infection, in turn increasing tight junction integrity and thus enhancing the barrier function and restricting pathogen invasion. Pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus was superior to co-incubation in reducing the adhesion of F4+ ETEC to IPEC-J2 cells and subsequently attenuating F4+ ETEC-induced mucin layer destruction and suppressing apoptosis. Our data indicate that a selected L. rhamnosus strain interacts with porcine intestinal epithelial cells to maintain the epithelial barrier and promote intestinal epithelial cell activation in

  19. Effect of azadirachtin of neemix-4.5 on SWR/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Tarboush, F M; El-Ashmaoui, H M; Hussein, H I; Al-Rajhy, D; Al-Assiry, M

    2009-10-01

    Inbred normal SWR/J male and female mice, 8-10 weeks old and weighing 22.55-26.72 g, were used throughout the study. A total of 100 males and 100 females were used and were divided into 20 groups, 10 animals in each group. Azadirachtin of neemix-4.5, a commercial botanical pesticide derived from the neem tree, orally administered to male and female SWR/J mice at a dose level 9.0 mg/kg (1/10 LD50) for different treatment periods (2, 4, 6, 8 or 11.5 weeks) has produced signs of toxicity, mortality and changes in body and tissue weights of both sexes at almost all treated periods used in the present study. Moreover the oral administration of this dose level for 11.5 weeks has also resulted in some histopathological changes in the livers, kidneys and testes of treated animals compared with the control group, and the degree of these changes ranged from mild to severe in these organs of treated males. However, conflicting results have been reported concerning the toxicity of azadirachtin in mammalian species using different formulations of neem-based pesticides. It appears, therefore, that the toxicity produced by neemix-4.5 in the present study may be due to factors other than azadirachtin in this formulation.

  20. Test results for a heat-treated 4-cell 805 MHz superconducting cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnak, B.; Shapiro, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    Assessing superconducting technology for potential upgrades to existing proton accelerators as well as applications to future high-current machines necessitates developing expertise in the processing and handling of multicell cavities at useful frequencies. In order to address some of these technological issues, Los Alamos has purchased a 4-cell 805-MHz superconducting cavity from Siemens AG. The individual cavity cells were double-sided titanium heat-treated after equatorial welding, then the irises were welded to complete the cavity assembly. The resulting high RRR (residual resistance ratio) in the cells enables stable operation at higher cavity field levels than are possible with lower RRR material. Additionally, the high thermal conductivity of the material is conducive to rf and high peak power processing. The cavity was also cleaned at Los Alamos with high-pressure water rinsing. Results from the initial cavity tests, utilizing various processing techniques, are presented

  1. Exponential-time constitutive law for Palo Duro Unit 4 Salt from the J. Friemel No. 1 Well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senseny, P.E.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1986-07-01

    Values for the nine parameters in the exponential-time constitutive law are presented for Palo Duro Unit 4 salt. The values given for the thermal expansion and two elastic parameters are taken from previous laboratory studies. The six remaining constitutive parameters are evaluated by analyzing data from 12 triaxial compression creep tests. The specimens tested in this study are from the J. Friemel No. 1 well in Deaf County, Texas. 15 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  2. PDDL4J: a planning domain description library for java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellier, D.; Fiorino, H.

    2018-01-01

    PDDL4J (Planning Domain Description Library for Java) is an open source toolkit for Java cross-platform developers meant (1) to provide state-of-the-art planners based on the Pddl language, and (2) to facilitate research works on new planners. In this article, we present an overview of the Automated Planning concepts and languages. We present some planning systems and their most significant applications. Then, we detail the Pddl4j toolkit with an emphasis on the available informative structures, heuristics and search algorithms.

  3. Testing J/PSI production mechanisms in B -> J/PSI + X

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, P W; Song, H S

    1999-01-01

    Using the color evaporation model (CEM), we consider the decay rate of B -> J/PSI + X and the polarization of J/PSI therein, and we compare the results with the data and with the predictions by the nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics (NRQCD) approach. In the CEM, we use the input parameter determined from photo/hadro productions of J/PSI, and we find that it is difficult to make the CEM predictions confront with the CLEO data on these observables.

  4. Synthesis of Substituted Thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ones and Their Testing for Evaluation of Cytotoxic Activity on Mammalian Cell Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. A. Bozorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From 2-amino-3-ethoxycarbonyl-4,5-dimethyl-, -polymethylenethiophenes (1-4 were synthesized 2,3-disubstituted thieno[2,3-d]dihydropyrrolo-, tetrahydropyrido-, and tetrahydroazepino[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-ones (5-16 for pharmacological investigations. The 12 compounds (5-16 were individually evaluated for their antiproliferative activities on mammalian cancer cell models. All tested compounds showed weak affection on human cervix adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa whereas some of the tested compounds exhibited more consistent inhibition of cell growth on murine myeloma cells (P3X. In both cases some compounds enhanced cell proliferation.

  5. Accurate reconstruction of the jV-characteristic of organic solar cells from measurements of the external quantum efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Toni; Körner, Christian; Vandewal, Koen; Leo, Karl

    2018-04-01

    In two terminal tandem solar cells, the current density - voltage (jV) characteristic of the individual subcells is typically not directly measurable, but often required for a rigorous device characterization. In this work, we reconstruct the jV-characteristic of organic solar cells from measurements of the external quantum efficiency under applied bias voltages and illumination. We show that it is necessary to perform a bias irradiance variation at each voltage and subsequently conduct a mathematical correction of the differential to the absolute external quantum efficiency to obtain an accurate jV-characteristic. Furthermore, we show that measuring the external quantum efficiency as a function of voltage for a single bias irradiance of 0.36 AM1.5g equivalent sun provides a good approximation of the photocurrent density over voltage curve. The method is tested on a selection of efficient, common single-junctions. The obtained conclusions can easily be transferred to multi-junction devices with serially connected subcells.

  6. Determination of the onset of ductile crack extension in 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel by multi-specimen J integral testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, S.G.

    1982-02-01

    Results obtained at AERE Harwell as part of the first phase of the European Group on Fracture round robin activity into ductile crack initiation detection are presented and discussed. Data are analysed using the current ASTM Jsub(IC) testing procedure and by an alternative procedure. Difficulties in the definition of 'initiation' are highlighted and deficiencies of the ASTM procedure exposed. The ASTM Jsub(IC) value for 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel was determined as 0.21 MN/m. The alternative procedure provides a more accurate evaluation of the 'initiation' value of J, that is, at the point of crack advance in excess of that due to crack tip blunting. Using this procedure the 'initiation' value, Jsub(i), was measured as 0.14 MN/m. (author)

  7. Differential biologic effects of CPD and 6-4PP UV-induced DNA damage on the induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Hsin-Lung; Nakajima, Satoshi; Ma, Lisa; Walter, Barbara; Yasui, Akira; Ethell, Douglas W; Owen, Laurie B

    2005-01-01

    UV-induced damage can induce apoptosis or trigger DNA repair mechanisms. Minor DNA damage is thought to halt the cell cycle to allow effective repair, while more severe damage can induce an apoptotic program. Of the two major types of UV-induced DNA lesions, it has been reported that repair of CPD, but not 6-4PP, abrogates mutation. To address whether the two major forms of UV-induced DNA damage, can induce differential biological effects, NER-deficient cells containing either CPD photolyase or 6-4 PP photolyase were exposed to UV and examined for alterations in cell cycle and apoptosis. In addition, pTpT, a molecular mimic of CPD was tested in vitro and in vivo for the ability to induce cell death and cell cycle alterations. NER-deficient XPA cells were stably transfected with CPD-photolyase or 6-4PP photolyase to specifically repair only CPD or only 6-4PP. After 300 J/m 2 UVB exposure photoreactivation light (PR, UVA 60 kJ/m 2 ) was provided for photolyase activation and DNA repair. Apoptosis was monitored 24 hours later by flow cytometric analysis of DNA content, using sub-G1 staining to indicate apoptotic cells. To confirm the effects observed with CPD lesions, the molecular mimic of CPD, pTpT, was also tested in vitro and in vivo for its effect on cell cycle and apoptosis. The specific repair of 6-4PP lesions after UVB exposure resulted in a dramatic reduction in apoptosis. These findings suggested that 6-4PP lesions may be the primary inducer of UVB-induced apoptosis. Repair of CPD lesions (despite their relative abundance in the UV-damaged cell) had little effect on the induction of apoptosis. Supporting these findings, the molecular mimic of CPD, (dinucleotide pTpT) could mimic the effects of UVB on cell cycle arrest, but were ineffective to induce apoptosis. The primary response of the cell to UV-induced 6-4PP lesions is to trigger an apoptotic program whereas the response of the cell to CPD lesions appears to principally involve cell cycle arrest. These

  8. Complex rearrangements within the human J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus and aberrant recombination between J alpha segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baer, R.; Boehm, T.; Yssel, H.; Spits, H.; Rabbitts, T. H.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined DNA rearrangements within a 120 kb cloned region of the human T cell receptor J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus. Three types of pattern emerge from an analysis of T cell lines and clones. Firstly, cells with two rearrangements within J delta-C delta; secondly, cells with one

  9. The origin of RX J1856.5-3754 and RX J0720.4-3125 - updated using new parallax measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzlaff, N.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Neuhäuser, R.; Hohle, M. M.

    2011-10-01

    RX J1856.5-3754 and RX J0720.4-3125 are the only young isolated radio-quiet neutron stars (NSs) for which trigonometric parallaxes were measured. Due to detection of their thermal emission in X-rays, they are important to study NS cooling and to probe theoretical cooling models. Hence, a precise determination of their age is essential. Recently, new parallax measurements of RX J1856.5-3754 and RX J0720.4-3125 were obtained. Considering that NSs may originate from binary systems that got disrupted due to an asymmetric supernova, we attempt to identify runaway stars which may have been former companions to the NS progenitors. Such an identification would strongly support a particular birth scenario with time and place. We trace back each NS, runaway star and the centres of possible birth associations (assuming that most NSs are ejected directly from their parent association) to find close encounters. The kinematic age is then given by the time since the encounter. We use Monte Carlo simulations to account for observational uncertainties and evaluate the outcome statistically. Using the most recent parallax measurement of 8.16 ± 0.80 mas for RX J1856.5-3754 by Walter et al., we find that it originated in the Upper Scorpius association 0.46 ± 0.05 Myr ago. This kinematic age is slightly larger than the value we reported earlier (0.3 Myr) using the old parallax value of 5.6 ± 0.6 mas by Kaplan. Our result is strongly supported by its current radial velocity which we predict to be 6+19- 20 km s-1. This implies an inclination angle to the line of sight of 88°± 6° consistent with estimates by van Kerkwijk & Kulkarni from the bow shock. No suitable runaway star was found to be a potential former companion of RX J1856.5-3754. Making use of a recent parallax measurement for RX J0720.4-3125 of 3.6 ± 1.6 mas by Eisenbeiss, we find that this NS was possibly born in Trumpler 10 0.85 ± 0.15 Myr ago. This kinematic age is somewhat larger than the one obtained using the old

  10. Toxicology Study No. S.0024589d 15, Human Cell Line Activation Test of the Novel Energetic, 3,4 -Dinitropyrazole (DNP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Assay 1 0.259 0.278 Assay 2 0.299 6.3 CD54 and CD86 expression in response to DNP exposure of THP -1 cells Three independent tests were...2 Toxicology Study No. S.0024589d-15, April 2016 Toxicology Directorate Human Cell Line Activation Test of the Novel Energetic 3,4...report. 17-05-2016 Technical Report March 2016-April 2016 Toxicology Study No. S.0024589d-15 Human Cell Line Activation Test of the Novel

  11. MS4a4B, a CD20 homologue in T cells, inhibits T cell propagation by modulation of cell cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available MS4a4B, a CD20 homologue in T cells, is a novel member of the MS4A gene family in mice. The MS4A family includes CD20, FcεRIβ, HTm4 and at least 26 novel members that are characterized by their structural features: with four membrane-spanning domains, two extracellular domains and two cytoplasmic regions. CD20, FcεRIβ and HTm4 have been found to function in B cells, mast cells and hematopoietic cells respectively. However, little is known about the function of MS4a4B in T cell regulation. We demonstrate here that MS4a4B negatively regulates mouse T cell proliferation. MS4a4B is highly expressed in primary T cells, natural killer cells (NK and some T cell lines. But its expression in all malignant T cells, including thymoma and T hybridoma tested, was silenced. Interestingly, its expression was regulated during T cell activation. Viral vector-driven overexpression of MS4a4B in primary T cells and EL4 thymoma cells reduced cell proliferation. In contrast, knockdown of MS4a4B accelerated T cell proliferation. Cell cycle analysis showed that MS4a4B regulated T cell proliferation by inhibiting entry of the cells into S-G2/M phase. MS4a4B-mediated inhibition of cell cycle was correlated with upregulation of Cdk inhibitory proteins and decreased levels of Cdk2 activity, subsequently leading to inhibition of cell cycle progression. Our data indicate that MS4a4B negatively regulates T cell proliferation. MS4a4B, therefore, may serve as a modulator in the negative-feedback regulatory loop of activated T cells.

  12. MS4a4B, a CD20 homologue in T cells, inhibits T cell propagation by modulation of cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Yan, Yaping; Williams, Mark S; Carey, Gregory B; Yang, Jingxian; Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2010-11-01

    MS4a4B, a CD20 homologue in T cells, is a novel member of the MS4A gene family in mice. The MS4A family includes CD20, FcεRIβ, HTm4 and at least 26 novel members that are characterized by their structural features: with four membrane-spanning domains, two extracellular domains and two cytoplasmic regions. CD20, FcεRIβ and HTm4 have been found to function in B cells, mast cells and hematopoietic cells respectively. However, little is known about the function of MS4a4B in T cell regulation. We demonstrate here that MS4a4B negatively regulates mouse T cell proliferation. MS4a4B is highly expressed in primary T cells, natural killer cells (NK) and some T cell lines. But its expression in all malignant T cells, including thymoma and T hybridoma tested, was silenced. Interestingly, its expression was regulated during T cell activation. Viral vector-driven overexpression of MS4a4B in primary T cells and EL4 thymoma cells reduced cell proliferation. In contrast, knockdown of MS4a4B accelerated T cell proliferation. Cell cycle analysis showed that MS4a4B regulated T cell proliferation by inhibiting entry of the cells into S-G2/M phase. MS4a4B-mediated inhibition of cell cycle was correlated with upregulation of Cdk inhibitory proteins and decreased levels of Cdk2 activity, subsequently leading to inhibition of cell cycle progression. Our data indicate that MS4a4B negatively regulates T cell proliferation. MS4a4B, therefore, may serve as a modulator in the negative-feedback regulatory loop of activated T cells.

  13. Numerical modelling of the V-J combinations of the T cell receptor TRA/TRD locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Thuderoz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available T-Cell antigen Receptor (TR repertoire is generated through rearrangements of V and J genes encoding alpha and beta chains. The quantification and frequency for every V-J combination during ontogeny and development of the immune system remain to be precisely established. We have addressed this issue by building a model able to account for Valpha-Jalpha gene rearrangements during thymus development of mice. So we developed a numerical model on the whole TRA/TRD locus, based on experimental data, to estimate how Valpha and Jalpha genes become accessible to rearrangements. The progressive opening of the locus to V-J gene recombinations is modeled through windows of accessibility of different sizes and with different speeds of progression. Furthermore, the possibility of successive secondary V-J rearrangements was included in the modelling. The model points out some unbalanced V-J associations resulting from a preferential access to gene rearrangements and from a non-uniform partition of the accessibility of the J genes, depending on their location in the locus. The model shows that 3 to 4 successive rearrangements are sufficient to explain the use of all the V and J genes of the locus. Finally, the model provides information on both the kinetics of rearrangements and frequencies of each V-J associations. The model accounts for the essential features of the observed rearrangements on the TRA/TRD locus and may provide a reference for the repertoire of the V-J combinatorial diversity.

  14. Numerical Modelling Of The V-J Combinations Of The T Cell Receptor TRA/TRD Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariz, Aurélie; Baum, Thierry Pascal; Hierle, Vivien; Demongeot, Jacques; Marche, Patrice Noël; Jouvin-Marche, Evelyne

    2010-01-01

    T-Cell antigen Receptor (TR) repertoire is generated through rearrangements of V and J genes encoding α and β chains. The quantification and frequency for every V-J combination during ontogeny and development of the immune system remain to be precisely established. We have addressed this issue by building a model able to account for Vα-Jα gene rearrangements during thymus development of mice. So we developed a numerical model on the whole TRA/TRD locus, based on experimental data, to estimate how Vα and Jα genes become accessible to rearrangements. The progressive opening of the locus to V-J gene recombinations is modeled through windows of accessibility of different sizes and with different speeds of progression. Furthermore, the possibility of successive secondary V-J rearrangements was included in the modelling. The model points out some unbalanced V-J associations resulting from a preferential access to gene rearrangements and from a non-uniform partition of the accessibility of the J genes, depending on their location in the locus. The model shows that 3 to 4 successive rearrangements are sufficient to explain the use of all the V and J genes of the locus. Finally, the model provides information on both the kinetics of rearrangements and frequencies of each V-J associations. The model accounts for the essential features of the observed rearrangements on the TRA/TRD locus and may provide a reference for the repertoire of the V-J combinatorial diversity. PMID:20174554

  15. Formula giving the J-R curve from the results of one experimental test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    At the onset of crack propagation, the J value can be obtained from the load-deflection curve given by testing one sample. The formula used for the computation of this J value is not valid when stable propagation occurs. This paper proposes modified formula applicable for the determination of J values during plastic tearing

  16. Relative Contributions of B Cells and Dendritic Cells from Lupus-Prone Mice to CD4+ T Cell Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Chul; Xu, Zhiwei; Li, Wei; Yang, Hong; Roopenian, Derry C; Morse, Herbert C; Morel, Laurence

    2018-05-01

    Mouse models of lupus have shown that multiple immune cell types contribute to autoimmune disease. This study sought to investigate the involvement of B cells and dendritic cells in supporting the expansion of inflammatory and regulatory CD4 + T cells that are critical for lupus pathogenesis. We used lupus-prone B6.NZM2410.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (TC) and congenic C57BL/6J (B6) control mice to investigate how the genetic predisposition of these two cell types controls the activity of normal B6 T cells. Using an allogeneic in vitro assay, we showed that TC B1-a and conventional B cells expanded Th17 cells significantly more than their B6 counterparts. This expansion was dependent on CD86 and IL-6 expression and mapped to the Sle1 lupus-susceptibility locus. In vivo, TC B cells promoted greater differentiation of CD4 + T cells into Th1 and follicular helper T cells than did B6 B cells, but they limited the expansion of Foxp3 regulatory CD4 + T cells to a greater extent than did B6 B cells. Finally, when normal B6 CD4 + T cells were introduced into Rag1 -/- mice, TC myeloid/stromal cells caused their heightened activation, decreased Foxp3 regulatory CD4 + T cell differentiation, and increased renal infiltration of Th1 and Th17 cells in comparison with B6 myeloid/stromal cells. The results show that B cells from lupus mice amplify inflammatory CD4 + T cells in a nonredundant manner with myeloid/stromal cells. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 2 by Dendritic Cells Is Essential for the DnaJ-ΔA146Ply-Mediated Th1 Immune Response against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofang; Yuan, Taixian; Yuan, Jun; Su, Yufeng; Sun, Xiaoyu; Wu, Jingwen; Zhang, Hong; Min, Xun; Zhang, Xuemei; Yin, Yibing

    2018-03-01

    The fusion protein DnaJ-ΔA146Ply could induce cross-protective immunity against pneumococcal infection via mucosal and subcutaneous immunization in mice in the absence of additional adjuvants. DnaJ and Ply are both Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but not TLR2 ligands. However, we found that TLR2 -/- mice immunized subcutaneously with DnaJ-ΔA146Ply showed significantly lower survival rates and higher bacterial loads in nasal washes than did wild-type (WT) mice after being challenged with pneumococcal strain D39 or 19F. The gamma interferon (IFN-γ) level in splenocytes decreased in TLR2 -/- mice, indicating that Th1 immunity elicited by DnaJ-ΔA146Ply was impaired in these mice. We explored the mechanism of protective immunity conferred by DnaJ-ΔA146Ply and the role of TLR2 in this process. DnaJ-ΔA146Ply effectively promoted dendritic cell (DC) maturation via TLR4 but not the TLR2 signaling pathway. In a DnaJ-ΔA146Ply-treated DC and naive CD4 + T cell coculture system, the deficiency of TLR2 in DCs resulted in a significant decline of IFN-γ production and Th1 subset differentiation. The same effect was observed in adoptive-transfer experiments. In addition, TLR2 -/- DCs showed remarkably lower levels of the Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12p70 than did WT DCs, suggesting that TLR2 was indispensable for DnaJ-ΔA146Ply-induced IL-12 production and Th1 proliferation. Thus, our findings illustrate that dendritic cell expression of TLR2 is essential for optimal Th1 immune response against pneumococci in mice immunized subcutaneously with DnaJ-ΔA146Ply. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. SWIFT J1749.4-2807: A neutron or quark star?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Junwei; Xu Renxin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a unique accreting millisecond pulsar with X-ray eclipses, SWIFT J1749.4-2807 (hereafter J1749), and try to set limits on the binary system by various methods including use of the Roche lobe, the mass-radius relations of both main sequence (MS) and white dwarf (WD) companion stars, as well as the measured mass function of the pulsar. The calculations are based on the assumption that the radius of the companion star has reached its Roche radius (or is at 90%), but the pulsar's mass has not been assumed to be a certain value. Our results are as follows. The companion star should be an MS one. For the case that the radius equals its Roche one, we have a companion star with mass M ≅ 0.51 M o-dot and radius R c ≅ 0.52 R o-dot , and the inclination angle is i ≅ 76.5 0 ; for the case that the radius reaches 90% of its Roche one, we have M ≅ 0.43 M o-dot , R c ≅ 0.44 R o-dot and i ≅ 75.7 0 . We also obtain the mass of J1749, M p ≅ 1 M o-dot , and conclude that the pulsar could be a quark star if the ratio of the critical frequency of rotation-mode instability to the Keplerian one is higher than ∼ 0.3. The relatively low pulsar mass (about ∼ M o-dot ) may also challenge the conventional recycling scenario for the origin and evolution of millisecond pulsars. The results presented in this paper are expected to be tested by future observations. (letters)

  19. The Continued Spectral Evolution of the Neutron Star RX J0720.4-3125

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Jacco; de Vries, Cor P.; Méndez, Mariano; Verbunt, Frank

    2004-01-01

    We observed the isolated neutron star RX J0720.4-3125 with Chandra's Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, following the XMM-Newton discovery of the long-term spectral evolution of this source. The new observation shows that the spectrum of RX J0720.4-3125 has continued to change in the

  20. A Selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Promotes EGFR-Independent Akt Activation in an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88-Infected IPEC-J2 Cell Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Yang, Jin-Cai; Yang, Gui-Yan; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are important intestinal pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Although probiotic bacteria may protect against ETEC-induced enteric infections, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, porcine intestinal epithelial J2 cells (IPEC-J2) were pre-incubated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and then exposed to F4+ ETEC. Increases in TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA expression were observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge, but t...

  1. The seleno-organic compound ebselen impairs mitochondrial physiology and induces cell death in AR42J cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santofimia-Castaño, Patricia; Garcia-Sanchez, Lourdes; Ruy, Deborah Clea; Fernandez-Bermejo, Miguel; Salido, Gines M; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2014-09-17

    Ebselen is a seleno-organic compound that causes cell death in several cancer cell types. The mechanisms underlying its deleterious effects have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the effects of ebselen (1 μM-40 μM) on AR42J tumor cells have been examined. Cell viability was studied using AlamarBlue(®) test. Cell cycle phase determination was carried out by flow cytometry. Changes in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration were followed by fluorimetry analysis of fura-2-loaded cells. Distribution of mitochondria, mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration and mitochondrial membrane potential were monitored by confocal microscopy of cells loaded with Mitotracker Green™ FM, rhod-2 or TMRM respectively. Caspase-3 activity was calculated following the luorogenic substrate ACDEVD-AMC signal with a spectrofluorimeter. Results show that cell viability decreased in the presence of ebselen. An increase in the number of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle was observed. Ebselen induced a concentration-dependent mobilization of Ca(2+) from agonist- and thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+) pools. Ebselen induced also a transient increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration, a progressive decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential and a disruption of the mitochondrial network. Finally, a concentration-dependent increase in caspase-3 activity was detected. We conclude that ebselen exerts deleterious actions on the cells that involve the impairment of mitochondrial physiology and the activation of caspase-3-mediated apoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Significance of adipose tissue-derived stem cells regulate CD4+ T cell immune in the treatment of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-lin XIE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs are genetically engineered seed cells with immunomodulatory effects, widely used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This article focuses on the immunomodulatory effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells on CD4+ T cell subsets, including T helper cell (Th 1, 2, 17 and regulatory T cell (Treg, and its clinical significance in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.005

  3. Spectral Classification of MASTER J174041.78+272632.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, J. M.; Cohen, D. P.; Filippenko, A. V.

    2012-06-01

    We report that inspection of a CCD spectrum (range 340-1000 nm), obtained on June 27.4 UT with the Shane 3-m reflector (+ Kast spectrograph) at Lick Observatory, shows that MASTER J174041.78+272632.4 (ATel #4213) is a Galactic variable star. Hydrogen Balmer absorption superposed with weak, narrow emission is detected at redshift 0. The spectrum roughly resembles that of a B[e] star.

  4. Experience at J.E.N. with electrochemical cells for measurement of oxygen activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Torre, M.de; Lapena, J.; Couchoud, M.

    1981-01-01

    The experience gained at the J.E.N. with oxygen meters since 1974 till 1980 is presented. Thirteen oxygen meters were tested. Eight with Cu/Cu/ 2 O reference electrode and the rest with Sn/SnO 2 , and two types of electrolyte tube produced by zircoa under specifications development by UNC and HEDL. The cells equiped with Cu/Cu 2 O showed an anomalous performance giving an e.m.f. higher than the theoretical value, and one of them was in close agreement to cells using air as reference electrode. An explanation is given. The performance of the cells with Sn/SnO 2 is in good agreement with those obtained in others laboratories. To calculate the theoretical value, it has derived a correlation colubility for oxygen with 262 data obtained by the vacuum distillation method. Various recommendations are pointed out on the future development of the oxygen meters to improve its performance. (author)

  5. Optimizing Crawler4j using MapReduce Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddesh, G. M.; Suresh, Kavya; Madhuri, K. Y.; Nijagal, Madhushree; Rakshitha, B. R.; Srinivasa, K. G.

    2017-06-01

    World wide web is a decentralized system that consists of a repository of information on the basis of web pages. These web pages act as a source of information or data in the present analytics world. Web crawlers are used for extracting useful information from web pages for different purposes. Firstly, it is used in web search engines where the web pages are indexed to form a corpus of information and allows the users to query on the web pages. Secondly, it is used for web archiving where the web pages are stored for later analysis phases. Thirdly, it can be used for web mining where the web pages are monitored for copyright purposes. The amount of information processed by the web crawler needs to be improved by using the capabilities of modern parallel processing technologies. In order to solve the problem of parallelism and the throughput of crawling this work proposes to optimize the Crawler4j using the Hadoop MapReduce programming model by parallelizing the processing of large input data. Crawler4j is a web crawler that retrieves useful information about the pages that it visits. The crawler Crawler4j coupled with data and computational parallelism of Hadoop MapReduce programming model improves the throughput and accuracy of web crawling. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves significant improvements with respect to performance and throughput. Hence the proposed approach intends to carve out a new methodology towards optimizing web crawling by achieving significant performance gain.

  6. Noncoordinate expression of J-chain and Blimp-1 define nurse shark plasma cell populations during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Caitlin D; Ohta, Yuko; Dooley, Helen; Flajnik, Martin F

    2013-11-01

    B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) is the master regulator of plasma cell development, controlling genes such as those encoding J-chain and secretory Ig heavy chain. However, some mammalian plasma cells do not express J-chain, and mammalian B1 cells secrete "natural" IgM antibodies without upregulating Blimp-1. While these results have been controversial in mammalian systems, here we describe subsets of normally occurring Blimp-1(-) antibody-secreting cells in nurse sharks, found in lymphoid tissues at all ontogenic stages. Sharks naturally produce large amounts of both pentameric (classically "19S") and monomeric (classically "7S") IgM, the latter an indicator of adaptive immunity. Consistent with the mammalian paradigm, shark Blimp-1 is expressed in splenic 7S IgM-secreting cells, though rarely detected in the J-chain(+) cells producing 19S IgM. Although IgM transcript levels are lower in J-chain(+) cells, these cells nevertheless secrete 19S IgM in the absence of Blimp-1, as demonstrated by ELISPOT and metabolic labeling. Additionally, cells in the shark BM equivalent (epigonal) are Blimp-1(-). Our data suggest that, in sharks, 19S-secreting cells and other secreting memory B cells in the epigonal are maintained for long periods without Blimp-1, but like in mammals, Blimp-1 is required for terminating the B-cell program following an adaptive immune response in the spleen. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. J chain and myocyte enhancer factor 2B are useful in differentiating classical Hodgkin lymphoma from nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erika M; Swerdlow, Steven H; Gibson, Sarah E

    2017-10-01

    Although most classical Hodgkin lymphomas (CHLs) are easily distinguished from nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL), cases with significant CD20 expression cause diagnostic confusion. Although the absence of OCT-2 and BOB.1 are useful in these circumstances, a variable proportion of CHLs are positive for these antigens. We investigated the utility of J chain and myocyte enhancer factor 2B (MEF2B) in the diagnosis of CHL; NLPHL; PMBL; T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma (TCRLBL); and B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and CHL, compared with OCT-2 and BOB.1. J chain and MEF2B highlighted lymphocyte predominant (LP) cells in 20/20 (100%) NLPHLs and were negative in 43/43 (100%) CHLs. Fourteen of 15 (93%) PMBLs and 4/4 (100%) TCRLBLs were MEF2B positive, whereas 67% of PMBLs and 50% of TCRLBLs were J chain positive. Three of 3 B-cell lymphomas, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and CHL, were negative for J chain and MEF2B. J chain and MEF2B were 100% sensitive and specific for NLPHL versus CHL. MEF2B was 100% sensitive and 98% specific for PMBL versus CHL. Whereas loss of OCT-2 and/or BOB.1 expression had a sensitivity of only 86% and specificity of 100% for CHL versus NLPHL, PMBL, and TCRLBL, lack of both J chain and MEF2B expression was 100% sensitive and 97% specific. J chain and MEF2B are highly sensitive and specific markers of NLPHL versus CHL; are particularly useful in highlighting LP cells; and, with rare exception, are of greater utility than OCT-2 and BOB.1 in differentiating CHL from NLPHL and other large B-cell lymphomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The background of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup J increases the sensitivity of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy cells to 2,5-hexanedione toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ghelli

    Full Text Available Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON is a maternally inherited blinding disease due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA point mutations in complex I subunit genes, whose incomplete penetrance has been attributed to both genetic and environmental factors. Indeed, the mtDNA background defined as haplogroup J is known to increase the penetrance of the 11778/ND4 and 14484/ND6 mutations. Recently it was also documented that the professional exposure to n-hexane might act as an exogenous trigger for LHON. Therefore, we here investigate the effect of the n-hexane neurotoxic metabolite 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD on cell viability and mitochondrial function of different cell models (cybrids and fibroblasts carrying the LHON mutations on different mtDNA haplogroups. The viability of control and LHON cybrids and fibroblasts, whose mtDNAs were completely sequenced, was assessed using the MTT assay. Mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate driven by complex I substrates was determined with the luciferine/luciferase method. Incubation with 2,5-HD caused the maximal loss of viability in control and LHON cells. The toxic effect of this compound was similar in control cells irrespective of the mtDNA background. On the contrary, sensitivity to 2,5-HD induced cell death was greatly increased in LHON cells carrying the 11778/ND4 or the 14484/ND6 mutation on haplogroup J, whereas the 11778/ND4 mutation in association with haplogroups U and H significantly improved cell survival. The 11778/ND4 mutation on haplogroup U was also more resistant to inhibition of complex I dependent ATP synthesis by 2,5-HD. In conclusion, this study shows that mtDNA haplogroups modulate the response of LHON cells to 2,5-HD. In particular, haplogroup J makes cells more sensitive to its toxic effect. This is the first evidence that an mtDNA background plays a role by interacting with an environmental factor and that 2,5-HD may be a risk element for visual loss in LHON. This proof of principle has broad

  9. STARD4 knockdown in HepG2 cells disrupts cholesterol trafficking associated with the plasma membrane, ER, and ERC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbarino, J.; Pan, M. H.; Chin, H. F.

    2012-01-01

    small hairpin RNA knockdown technology to reduce STARD4 expression in HepG2 cells. In a cholesterol-poor environment, we found that a reduction in STARD4 expression leads to retention of cholesterol at the plasma membrane, reduction of endoplasmic reticulum-associated cholesterol, and decreased ACAT...... synthesized cholesteryl esters. Furthermore, D4 KD cells exhibited a reduced rate of sterol transport to the endocytic recycling compartment after cholesterol repletion. Although these cells displayed normal endocytic trafficking in cholesterol-poor and replete conditions, cell surface low density lipoprotein...... membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment to the endoplasmic reticulum and perhaps other intracellular compartments as well. -Garbarino, J., M. Pan, H.F. Chin, F.W. Lund, F.R. Maxfield, and J.L. Breslow. STARD4 knockdown in HepG2 cells disrupts cholesterol trafficking associated with the plasma...

  10. 4pnp J=0e-2e autoionizing series of calcium: experimental and theoretical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolovinos, A.; Luc-Koenig, E.; Assimopoulos, S.; Lyras, A.; Karapanagioti, N.E.; Crete Univ., Iraklion; Charalambidis, D.; Crete Univ., Iraklion; Aymar, M.

    1996-01-01

    The even parity 4pnp J=0, 1, 2 doubly excited autoionizing states of neutral calcium in an atomic beam are investigated by a two-step isolated core excitation (ICE) method using two different combinations of polarization of the laser beams. The different excited energy levels are assigned to nine autoionizing Rydberg series 4p 1/2,3/2 np J=0, 1, 2 for 8≤n≤22. The theoretical interpretation is achieved by a combination of the eigenchannel R-matrix theory and the multichannel quantum defect (MQDT) method. Two, five and six closed interacting channels are introduced for the J=0, J=1 and J=2 series respectively. Theoretical energy level positions, autoionization widths and excitation profiles are compared with the experimental data, confirming the identification of the observed structures and providing evidence of extended mixing between the 4p 1/2 np and 4p 3/2 np series. (orig.). With 9 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Depletion of 4-hydroxynonenal in hGSTA4-transfected HLE B-3 cells results in profound changes in gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, Brad; Li Jie; Jeyabal, Prince V.S.; Reddy, Prasada M.R.V.; Yang Yusong; Sharma, Rajendra; Sinha, Mala; Luxon, Bruce; Zimniak, Piotr; Awasthi, Sanjay; Awasthi, Yogesh C.

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that overexpression of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase A4-4 (hGSTA4-4) in human lens epithelial cells (HLE B-3) leads to pro-carcinogenic phenotypic transformation of these cells [R. Sharma, et al. Eur. J. Biochem. 271 (2004) 1960-1701]. We now demonstrate that hGSTA4-transfection also causes a profound change in the expression of genes involved in cell adhesion, cell cycle control, proliferation, cell growth, and apoptosis, which is consistent with phenotypic changes of the transformed cells. The expression of p53, p21, p16, fibronectin 1, laminin γ1, connexin 43, Fas, integrin α6, TGFα, and c-jun was down-regulated, while the expression of protein kinase C beta II (PKCβII), c-myc, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), and TGFβ was up-regulated in transfected cells. These results demonstrate that HNE serves as a crucial signaling molecule and, by modulating the expression of genes, can influence cellular functions

  12. Development of specimen size and test rate effects on the J-integral upper transition behavior of A533B steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, James A.

    1988-01-01

    During the past three years a test method has been developed for dynamic testing of fracture mechanics specimens which is specifically designed for application to the upper transition temperature range. The method uses drop tower loading rates of 2.5 m/sec and obtains a J IC or a J-R curve using an analytical key curve approach verified by initial and final crack length measurements obtained from the fracture surface. A J-R curve is obtained from each specimen and contains crack growth corrections so that it is directly comparable with static results obtained in accordance with the ASTM E1152 J-R curve test method. The test procedure has been applied to A106 steel, A533B steel and US Navy HY80 and HY100 steels at temperatures from -200F to 150F. Standard 1T three point bend specimens were used for the A533B and the HY100 steel. Static test results have shown that the J at cleavage initiation (which is presently an unstandardized quantity) is specimen a/W independent throughout the ductile to brittle transition but of course demonstrates considerable statistical scatter in the vicinity of the ductile upper shelf. Dynamic J-R tests have shown an increase in J IC with test rate for most, but not for all, materials. Separation of J into elastic and plastic components shows that the elastic J component increases with test rate in a fashion consistent with the materials tensile sensitivity to test rate but the plastic J component decreases with test rate - an apparent visco-plastic phenomena. For A106 steel the plastic J decrease exceeds the elastic J increase and the upper shelf toughness falls - while the other materials have demonstrated a relatively larger increase in the elastic J component and a smaller decrease in the plastic J component giving an overall increase in upper shelf toughness. Separation of the J integral into elastic and plastic components has demonstrated that J EL is specimen scale and geometry dependent while J PL is relatively scale and geometry

  13. MicroRNA modulation induced by AICA ribonucleotide in J1 mouse ES cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Shi

    Full Text Available ES cells can propagate indefinitely, maintain self-renewal, and differentiate into almost any cell type of the body. These properties make them valuable in the research of embryonic development, regenerative medicine, and organ transplantation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are considered to have essential functions in the maintenance and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ES cells. It was reported that, strong external stimuli, such as a transient low-pH and hypoxia stress, were conducive to the formation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells. AICA ribonucleotide (AICAR is an AMP-activated protein kinase activator, which can let cells in the state of energy stress. We have demonstrated that AICAR can maintain the pluripotency of J1 mouse ES cells through modulating protein expression in our previous research, but its effects on ES cell miRNA expression remain unknown. In this study, we conducted small RNA high-throughput sequencing to investigate AICAR influence on J1 mouse ES cells by comparing the miRNA expression patterns of the AICAR-treated cells and those without treatment. The result showed that AICAR can significantly modulate the expression of multiple miRNAs, including those have crucial functions in ES cell development. Some differentially expressed miRNAs were selected and confirmed by real-time PCR. For the differently expressed miRNAs identified, further study was conducted regarding the pluripotency and differentiation associated miRNAs with their targets. Moreover, miR-134 was significantly down-regulated after AICAR treatment, and this was suggested to be directly associated with the up-regulated pluripotency markers, Nanog and Sox2. Lastly, Myc was significantly down-regulated after AICAR treatment; therefore, we predicted miRNAs that may target Myc and identified that AICAR induced up-regulation of miR-34a, 34b, and 34c can repress Myc expression in J1 mouse ES cells. Taken together, our study provide a new mechanism for

  14. Critical role of γ4 chain in the expression of functional Vγ4Vδ1 T cell receptor of gastric tumour-infiltrating γδT lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Tang, F; Li, Z; Cui, L; He, W

    2012-01-01

    4Vδ1 T cell receptor (TCRγ4δ1)-expressing γδT cells were the most dominant subset in gastric tumour-infiltrating γδT cells (γδTIL) we recently analyzed. To study the essential roles of γ and δ chains in assembly and function of TCRγ4δ1, we sequenced and constructed them into lentiviral vectors for the reconstitution of TCRγ4δ1 using different modalities of transduction. We were able to efficiently reconstitute TCRγ4δ1 with functional activities when both γ4 and δ1 chains are coexpressed in TCR-negative J.RT3-T3.5 cells. However, the expression of δ1 chain is greatly diminished when γ4 expression is absent, suggesting that the coexpressing γ4 is critical in maintaining the folding and stability of δ1 product. To functionally study the reconstituted TCRγ4δ1, we examined the cytolytic activity of TCRγ4δ1-reconstituted J.RT3-T3.5 cells and cytokine secretion and found the receptors are fully functional, but their functionality also requires the presence of γ4. Our results demonstrated that γ4 is critical for the stability of δ1 and the function of TCRγ4δ1. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Results of the mission profile life test. [for J-series mercury ion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Trump, G. E.; James, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Seven J series 30-cm diameter thrusters have been tested in segments of up to 5,070 hr, for 14,541 hr in the Mission Profile Life Test facility. Test results have indicated the basic thruster design to be consistent with the lifetime goal of 15,000 hr at 2-A beam. The only areas of concern identified which appear to require additional verification testing involve contamination of mercury propellant isolators, which may be due to facility constituents, and the ability of specially covered surfaces to contain sputtered material and prevent flake formation. The ability of the SCR, series resonant inverter power processor to operate the J series thruster and autonomous computer control of the thruster/processor system were demonstrated.

  16. How to obtain J-R curve from one test on one sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Roland.

    1981-01-01

    Operational definition of J concept is first examined. Then it is shown that conventional methods of experimental determination of J values are based on the following assumption: if the load-deflexion curve is known for one value of the crack length it is possible to know the load-deflexion curve for any value of the crack length. This assumption is generalized with the help of scale functions and formula giving J are deduced. Attention is given to the effect of crack propagation on J values. The same assumption is used to extract the crack length from the load-deflexion curve. As the real crack lengths are known before propagation occurs and at the end of the test, it is possible to achieve a good calibration of the material characteristic [fr

  17. Suppressive activities and mechanisms of ugonin J on vascular smooth muscle cells and balloon angioplasty-induced neointimal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chun-Hsu; Li, Pei-Chuan; Chien, Yi-Chung; Yeh, Wan-Ting; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Wu, Chieh-Hsi

    2018-02-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia (or restenosis) is primarily attributed to excessive proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects and mechanisms of ugonin J on VSMC proliferation and migration as well as neointimal formation. Cell viability and the cell-cycle distribution were, respectively, analyzed using an MTT assay and flow cytometry. Cell migration was examined using a wound-healing analysis and a transwell assay. Protein expressions and gelatinase activities were, respectively, measured using Western blot and gelatin zymography. Balloon angioplasty-induced neointimal formation was induced in a rat carotid artery model and then examined using immunohistochemical staining. Ugonin J induced cell-cycle arrest at the G 0 /G 1 phase and apoptosis to inhibit VSMC growth. Ugonin J also exhibited marked suppressive activity on VSMC migration. Ugonin J significantly reduced activations of focal adhesion kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 proteins. Moreover, ugonin J obviously reduced expressions and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. In vivo data indicated that ugonin J prevented balloon angioplasty-induced neointimal hyperplasia. Our study suggested that ugonin J has the potential for application in the prevention of balloon injury-induced neointimal formation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Non-coordinate expression of J-chain and Blimp-1 define nurse shark plasma cell populations during ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Caitlin D.; Ohta, Yuko; Dooley, Helen; Flajnik, Martin F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Blimp-1 is the master regulator of plasma cell development, controlling genes such as J-chain and secretory Ig heavy chain. However, some mammalian plasma cells do not express J-chain, and mammalian B1 cells secrete “natural” IgM antibodies without upregulating Blimp-1. While these results have been controversial in mammalian systems, here we describe subsets of normally occurring Blimp-1- antibody secreting cells in nurse sharks, found in lymphoid tissues at all ontogenic stages. Sharks naturally produce large amounts of both pentameric (classically ‘19S’) and monomeric (classically ‘7S’) IgM, the latter an indicator of adaptive immunity. Consistent with the mammalian paradigm, shark Blimp-1 is expressed in splenic 7S IgM-secreting cells, though rarely detected in the J-chain+ cells producing 19S IgM. Although IgM transcript levels are lower in J-chain+ cells, these cells nevertheless secrete 19S IgM in the absence of Blimp-1, as demonstrated by ELISPOT and metabolic labeling. Additionally, cells in the shark bone marrow equivalent (epigonal) are Blimp-1-. Our data suggest that, in sharks, 19S-secreting cells and other secreting memory B cells in the epigonal can be maintained for long periods without Blimp-1, but like in mammals, Blimp-1 is required for terminating the B cell program following an adaptive immune response in the spleen. PMID:23897025

  19. CTNNB1 signaling in sertoli cells downregulates spermatogonial stem cell activity via WNT4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Boyer

    Full Text Available Constitutive activation of the WNT signaling effector CTNNB1 (β-catenin in the Sertoli cells of the Ctnnb1(tm1Mmt/+;Amhr2(tm3(creBhr/+ mouse model results in progressive germ cell loss and sterility. In this study, we sought to determine if this phenotype could be due to a loss of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC activity. Reciprocal SSC transplants between Ctnnb1(tm1Mmt/+;Amhr2(tm3(creBhr/+ and wild-type mice showed that SSC activity is lost in Ctnnb1(tm1Mmt/+;Amhr2(tm3(creBhr/+ testes over time, whereas the mutant testes could not support colonization by wild-type SSCs. Microarray analyses performed on cultured Sertoli cells showed that CTNNB1 induces the expression of genes associated with the female sex determination pathway, which was also found to occur in Ctnnb1(tm1Mmt/+;Amhr2(tm3(creBhr/+ testes. One CTNNB1 target gene encoded the secreted signaling molecule WNT4. We therefore tested the effects of WNT4 on SSC-enriched germ cell cultures, and found that WNT4 induced cell death and reduced SSC activity without affecting cell cycle. Conversely, conditional inactivation of Wnt4 in the Ctnnb1(tm1Mmt/+;Amhr2(tm3(creBhr/+ model rescued spermatogenesis and male fertility, indicating that WNT4 is the major effector downstream of CTNNB1 responsible for germ cell loss. Furthermore, WNT4 was found to signal via the CTNNB1 pathway in Sertoli cells, suggesting a self-reinforcing positive feedback loop. Collectively, these data indicate for the first time that ectopic activation of a signaling cascade in the stem cell niche depletes SSC activity through a paracrine factor. These findings may provide insight into the pathogenesis of male infertility, as well as embryonic gonadal development.

  20. The Z accelerator as a source of > 100 kJ of x-rays above 4.8 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.; Coverdale, C.A.; Spielman, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    Recent K-shell scaling experiments on the 20 MA Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories have shown that large diameter (40 and 55 mm) arrays can be imploded with 80 to 210 wires of titanium or stainless steel. These implosions have produced up to 150 kJ of > 4.5 keV x-rays and 65 kJ of > 6.0 keV x-rays in 7 to 18 ns FWHM pulses. This is a major advance in plasma radiation source (PRS) capability since there is presently limited test capability above 3 keV. In fact, Z produces more > 4.5 keV x-rays than previous aboveground simulators produced at 1.5 keV. Z also produces some 200 kJ of x-rays between 1 and 3 keV in a continuous spectrum for these loads. The measured spectra and yields are consistent with 1-dimensional MHD calculations performed by NRL. Thermoelastic calorimeters, PVDF gauges, and optical impulse gauges have been successfully fielded with these sources

  1. Implementation of PWR steady state self-initialization feature into RELAP4/MOD6/U4/J3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuo

    1987-07-01

    A PWR steady state self-initialization feature has been implemented into the RELAP4/MOD6/U4/J3 code which is an improved version of RELAP4/MOD6 and can analyze not only large break but also small break LOCA in LWRs. This feature is originated from RELAP4/MOD7 which is the most updated released version of RELAP4 from INEL. Several FORTRAN subroutines in MOD7 related to this feature were transplanted into MOD6/U4/J3 with some improvements, which were the modification of method to take a balance of heat transfer between primary and secondary side at SG-U tubes, and to make it possible to nodalize secondary side of SG as multi-node. Advantages realized by implementation of this option are saving of time in initializaing a new model and an assurance of steady state and self consistency of input data in a small break LOCA analysis of a PWR. (author)

  2. Measurement of e+e-→K K ¯J /ψ cross sections at center-of-mass energies from 4.189 to 4.600 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Albrecht, M.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Bakina, O.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chai, J.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, P. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fegan, S.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. G.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, S.; Gu, Y. T.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, X. Q.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ikegami Andersson, W.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Khan, T.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Koch, L.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuemmel, M.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Leiber, S.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Jin; Li, Kang; Li, Ke; Li, Lei; Li, P. L.; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Huihui; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Ke; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Long, Y. F.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Morello, G.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Papenbrock, M.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Pellegrino, J.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, J. J.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Richter, M.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, J. J.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Sowa, C.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. K.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, G. Y.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Tiemens, M.; Tsednee, B.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, Dan; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, Meng; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Zongyuan; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, X.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Y. J.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xie, Y. H.; Xiong, X. A.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. H.; Yang, Y. X.; Yang, Yifan; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; You, Z. Y.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhou, Y. X.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the process e+e-→K K ¯J /ψ at center-of-mass energies from 4.189 to 4.600 GeV using 4.7 fb-1 of data collected by the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider. The Born cross sections for the reactions e+e-→K+K-J /ψ and KS0KS0J /ψ are measured as a function of center-of-mass energy. The energy dependence of the cross section for e+e-→K+K-J /ψ is shown to differ from that for π+π-J /ψ in the region around the Y (4260 ). In addition, there is evidence for a structure around 4.5 GeV in the e+e-→K+K-J /ψ cross section that is not present in π+π-J /ψ .

  3. C.O.D. toughness testing of medium strength steel as a preliminary development for single specimen J integral toughness tests of SA533-B steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, P.; Tait, R.B.; Garrett, G.G.

    1981-10-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to set up a test facility and to develop the necessary expertise to enable reliable elasto-plastic fracture toughness tests to be performed. Initially, tests are to be conducted on material similar to that used in the Koeberg pressure vessel walls, with the ultimate goal of performing single specimen J integral tests on the pressure vessel steel itself to determine through-thickness toughness variations. The project will comprise a number of stages, each one necessary for the development of the techniques used in J integral testing. These include: (i) development of an appropriate specimen design, of suitable size and shape that is applicable to both crack opening displacement (C.O.D.) and J integral tests; (ii) development, testing and calibration of the necessary associated mechanical and electrical equipment (e.g. clip gauge, amplifiers, interface unit, etc.), with (iii) an estimation of the probable errors and noise levels with a view to their elimantion, leading to (iv) perfection of the sensitivity and reproducibility of, firstly, the multiple specimen C.O.D. technique and, secondly, the multiple specimen J integral techniques. (v) Based on the above techniques, development of the single specimen J integral test method incorporating development of a computerised testing procedure. All the above procedure is to be conducted on similar, but non-Koeberg pressure vessel material ('ROQ Tough'). (vi) Finally, development and testing of both multiple specimen and single specimen J integral tests on actual SA533B material and an investigation of the through thickness toughness and fatigue crack propagation behaviour

  4. Recommendations for J and CTOD testing of strength mismatched. GKSS and EDF view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocak, M.; Kim, Y.J.; Hornet, P

    1998-03-01

    Recommendations for toughness testing and evaluation procedures for weldments are given in this paper. For testing aspects, two testing methods are outlined, micro-flat tensile tests and the {delta}{sub 5} testing technique. The micro-flat tensile tests are extremely useful to measure tensile properties for the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) of multipass welds and very thin weld regions such as laser beam or electron beam and it is rather universal. It can be applied to any type of test pieces as well as to structural components with surface breaking cracks. These two test methods can provide efficient tools for tensile and fracture testing of metallic materials joined by fusion welding technology including high power beam welding processes. For toughness evaluation aspects, the J estimation procedures for mismatched specimens are reviewed, including a summary of a new proposal for best estimates of the mismatch on the J integral. The new procedure covers not only weld metal cracks but also HAZ cracks. Finally some recommendations are given for further development. (author) 29 refs.

  5. Hypervelocity Impact Testing of Nickel Hydrogen Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frate, David T.; Nahra, Henry K.

    1996-01-01

    Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells have been used on several satellites and are planned for use on the International Space Station. In January 1992, the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) conducted hypervelocity impact testing on Ni/H2 cells to characterize their failure modes. The cell's outer construction was a 24 mil-thick Inconel 718 pressure vessel. A sheet of 1.27 cm thick honeycomb was placed in front of the battery cells during testing to simulate the on-orbit box enclosure. Testing was conducted at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). The hypervelocity gun used was a 7.6 mm (0.30 caliber) two-stage light gas gun. Test were performed at speeds of 3, 6, and 7 km/sec using aluminum 2017 spherical particles of either 4.8 or 6.4 mm diameter as the projectile. The battery cells were electrically charged to about 75 percent of capacity, then back-filled with hydrogen gas to 900 psi simulating the full charge condition. High speed film at 10,000 frames/sec was taken of the impacts. Impacts in the dome area (top) and the electrode area (middle) of the battery cells were investigated. Five tests on battery cells were performed. The results revealed that in all of the test conditions investigated, the battery cells simply vented their hydrogen gas and some electrolyte, but did not burst or generate any large debris fragments.

  6. Engaging HIV-infected patients in antiretroviral therapy services: CD4 cell count testing after HIV diagnosis from 2005 to 2009 in Yunnan and Guangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yao; Ray Y. Chen; ZHANG Fu-jie; LU Lin; LI Hui-qin; LIU Wei; TANG Zhi-rong; FANG Hua; Jennifer Y. Chen; MA Ye; ZHAO Yan

    2011-01-01

    Background The initiation and expansion of China's national free antiretroviral therapy program has led to significant improvement of survival among its participants. Success of further scaling up treatment coverage rests upon intensifying HIV screening and efficient linkage of care. Timely CD4 cell count testing after HIV diagnosis is necessary to determine whether a patient meets criteria for antiretroviral treatment, and represents a crucial link to engage HIV-infected patients in appropriate care, which has not been evaluated in China.Methods We evaluated all patients ≥16 years who tested HIV positive from 2005 to 2009 in Yunnan and Guangxi.Multivariate Logistic regression models were applied to identify factors associated with lack of CD4 cell count testing within 6 months after HIV diagnosis.Results A total of 83 556 patients were included. Over the study period, 30 635 (37%) of subjects received a CD4 cell count within 6 months of receiving the HIV diagnosis. The rate of CD4 cell count testing within 6 months of HIV diagnosis increased significantly from 7% in 2005 to 62% in 2009. Besides the earlier years of HIV diagnosis, negative predictors for CD4 cell count testing in multivariate analyses included older age, not married or unclear marriage status,incarceration, diagnosis at sexual transmitted disease clinics, mode of HIV transmission classified as men who have sex with men, intravenous drug users or transmission route unclear, while minority ethnicity, receipt of high school or higher education, diagnosis at voluntary counseling and testing clinics, and having HIV positive parents were protective.Conclusions Significant progress has been made in increasing CD4 testing among newly diagnosed HIV positive patients in Yunnan and Guangxi from 2005-2009. However, a sizable proportion of HIV positive patients still lack CD4testing within 6 months of diagnosis. Improving CD4 testing, particularly among patients with identified risk factors, is essential to

  7. Notch controls the survival of memory CD4+ T cells by regulating glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Yoichi; Ishifune, Chieko; Tsukumo, Shin-ichi; Hozumi, Katsuto; Yagita, Hideo; Yasutomo, Koji

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T cells differentiate into memory T cells that protect the host from subsequent infection. In contrast, autoreactive memory CD4+ T cells harm the body by persisting in the tissues. The underlying pathways controlling the maintenance of memory CD4+ T cells remain undefined. We show here that memory CD4+ T cell survival is impaired in the absence of the Notch signaling protein known as recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin κ J region (Rbpj). Treatment of mice with a Notch inhibitor reduced memory CD4+ T cell numbers and prevented the recurrent induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Rbpj-deficient CD4+ memory T cells exhibit reduced glucose uptake due to impaired AKT phosphorylation, resulting in low Glut1 expression. Treating mice with pyruvic acid, which bypasses glucose uptake and supplies the metabolite downstream of glucose uptake, inhibited the decrease of autoimmune memory CD4+ T cells in the absence of Notch signaling, suggesting memory CD4+ T cell survival relies on glucose metabolism. Together, these data define a central role for Notch signaling in maintaining memory CD4+ T cells through the regulation of glucose uptake.

  8. A Novel Hydroxamate-Based Compound WMJ-J-09 Causes Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Death via LKB1-AMPK-p38MAPK-p63-Survivin Cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Sheng; Choy, Cheuk-Sing; Huang, Wei-Jan; Huang, Shiu-Wen; Lai, Pin-Ye; Yu, Meng-Chieh; Shiue, Ching; Hsu, Ya-Fen; Hsu, Ming-Jen

    2018-01-01

    Growing evidence shows that hydroxamate-based compounds exhibit broad-spectrum pharmacological properties including anti-tumor activity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying hydroxamate derivative-induced cancer cell death remain incomplete understood. In this study, we explored the anti-tumor mechanisms of a novel aliphatic hydroxamate-based compound, WMJ-J-09, in FaDu head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. WMJ-J-09 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in FaDu cells. These actions were associated with liver kinase B1 (LKB1), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) activation, transcription factor p63 phosphorylation, as well as modulation of p21 and survivin. LKB1-AMPK-p38MAPK signaling blockade reduced WMJ-J-09's enhancing effects in p63 phosphorylation, p21 elevation and survivin reduction. Moreover, WMJ-J-09 caused an increase in α-tubulin acetylation and interfered with microtubule assembly. Furthermore, WMJ-J-09 suppressed the growth of subcutaneous FaDu xenografts in vivo . Taken together, WMJ-J-09-induced FaDu cell death may involve LKB1-AMPK-p38MAPK-p63-survivin signaling cascade. HDACs inhibition and disruption of microtubule assembly may also contribute to WMJ-J-09's actions in FaDu cells. This study suggests that WMJ-J-09 may be a potential lead compound and warrant the clinical development in the treatment of HNSCC.

  9. Study of the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint in irradiated mammary epithelial cells overexpressing Cul-4A gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Anu; Yang, L.-X.; Chen, L.-C.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Members of the cullin gene family are known to be involved in cell cycle control. One of the cullin genes, Cul-4A, is amplified and overexpressed in breast cancer cells. This study investigates the effect of Cul-4A overexpression upon G2/M cell cycle checkpoint after DNA damage induced by either ionizing or nonionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: The normal mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A was stably transfected with full-length Cul-4A cDNA. Independent clones of MCF10A cells that overexpress Cul-4A proteins were selected and treated with either 8 Gy of ionizing radiation or 7 J/M 2 of UV radiation. The profile of cell cycle progression and the accumulation of several cell cycle proteins were analyzed. Results: We found that overexpression of Cul-4A in MCF10A cells abrogated the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage induced by ionizing irradiation, but not to DNA damage induced by nonionizing radiation. Analysis of cell cycle proteins showed that after ionizing irradiation, p53 accumulated in the mock-transfected MCF10A cells, but not in the Cul-4A transfectants. Conclusion: Our results suggest a role for Cul-4A in tumorigenesis and/or tumor progression, possibly through disruption of cell cycle control

  10. Fracture toughness testing of V-4Cr-4Ti at 25{degrees}C and -196{degrees}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.X.; Kurtz, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Measurements of the fracture toughness of the production-scale heat (832665) of V-4Cr-4Ti have been performed at 25{degrees}C and {minus}196{degrees}C using compact tension (CT) specimens. Test specimens were vacuum annealed at either 1000{degrees}C for 1 hour (HT1) or 1050{degrees}C for two hours (HT2). Specimens given the HT1 treatment were annealed after final machining, whereas the HT2 specimens received the 1050{degrees}C anneal at Teledyne Wah Chang prior to final machining. Following machining HT2 specimens were then vacuum annealed at 180{degrees}C for two hours to remove hydrogen. Specimens treated using HT1 had a partially recrystallized microstructure and those treated using HT2 had a fully recrystallized microstructure. The fracture toughness at 25{degrees}C was determined by J-integral tests and at {minus}196{degrees}C by ASTM E 399 type tests. Toughness values obtained at {minus}196{degrees}C were converted to J-integral values for comparison to the 25{degrees}C data. The 25{degrees}C fracture toughness was very high with none of the specimens giving valid results per ASTM criteria. Specimens fractured by microvoid coalescence. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was much lower than that at 25{degrees}C and the fracture surface showed predominantly cleavage features. The present results show a transition from ductile to brittle behavior with decreasing test temperature which is not observed from one-third scale Charpy impact tests. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was still quite high, however, at about 75 kJ/m{sup 2}. Delaminations in planes normal to the thickness direction were seen at both test temperatures. Fracture surfaces inside the delaminations exhibited nearly 100% cleavage facets. The cause of the brittle delaminations was not determined, but will be a subject for further investigation.

  11. Development of donor-derived thymic lymphomas after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in AKR/J mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumizu, R.; Hiai, H.; Sugiura, K.

    1988-01-01

    The transplantation of bone marrow cells from BALB/c (but not C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN) mice was observed to lead to the development of thymic lymphomas (leukemias) in AKR/J mice. Two leukemic cell lines, CAK1.3 and CAK4.4, were established from the primary culture of two thymic lymphoma, and surface phenotypes of these cell lines found to be H-2d and Thy-1.2+, indicating that these lymphoma cells are derived from BALB/c donor bone marrow cells. Further analyses of surface markers revealed that CAK1.3 is L3T4+ Lyt2+ IL2R-, whereas CAK4.4 is L3T4- Lyt2- IL2R+. Both CAK1.3 and CAK4.4 were transplantable into BALB/c but not AKR/J mice, further indicating that these cells are of BALB/c bone marrow donor origin. The cells were found to produce XC+-ecotropic viruses, but xenotropic and mink cell focus-forming viruses were undetectable. Inasmuch as thymic lymphomas are derived from bone marrow cells of leukemia-resistant BALB/c strain of mice under the allogeneic environment of leukemia-prone AKR/J mice, this animal model may serve as a useful tool not only for the analysis of leukemic relapse after bone marrow transplantation but also for elucidation of the mechanism of leukemogenesis

  12. Observation of ψ(3686)→e^{+}e^{-}χ_{cJ} and χ_{cJ}→e^{+}e^{-}J/ψ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, M; Achasov, M N; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Baldini Ferroli, R; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Farinelli, R; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, L; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, R P; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, X Z; Huang, Y; Huang, Z L; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kupsc, A; Kühn, W; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, H J; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, Q Y; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y B; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, M M; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y M; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales Morales, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, M; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X H; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, L J; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, J J; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, S Q; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2017-06-02

    Using 4.479×10^{8}  ψ(3686) events collected with the BESIII detector, we search for the decays ψ(3686)→e^{+}e^{-}χ_{cJ} and χ_{cJ}→e^{+}e^{-}J/ψ, where J=0, 1, 2. The decays ψ(3686)→e^{+}e^{-}χ_{cJ} and χ_{cJ}→e^{+}e^{-}J/ψ are observed for the first time. The measured branching fractions are B(ψ(3686)→e^{+}e^{-}χ_{cJ})=(11.7±2.5±1.0)×10^{-4}, (8.6±0.3±0.6)×10^{-4}, (6.9±0.5±0.6)×10^{-4} for J=0, 1, 2, and B(χ_{cJ}→e^{+}e^{-}J/ψ)=(1.51±0.30±0.13)×10^{-4}, (3.73±0.09±0.25)×10^{-3}, (2.48±0.08±0.16)×10^{-3} for J=0, 1, 2, respectively. The ratios of the branching fractions B(ψ(3686)→e^{+}e^{-}χ_{cJ})/B(ψ(3686)→γχ_{cJ}) and B(χ_{cJ}→e^{+}e^{-}J/ψ)/B(χ_{cJ}→γJ/ψ) are also reported. Also, the α values of helicity angular distributions of the e^{+}e^{-} pair are determined for ψ(3686)→e^{+}e^{-}χ_{c1,2} and χ_{c1,2}→e^{+}e^{-}J/ψ.

  13. A novel monocyclic triterpenoid and a norsesquaterpenol from the aerial parts of Suaeda monoica Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel with cell proliferative potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour S. Al-Said

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Suaeda monoica Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel (Chenopodiaceae, a mangrove herb, is distributed in tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula, India, Pakistan, Palestine and Jordan. The plant parts are used to treat sore throat, hepatitis, wounds, rheumatism, paralysis, asthma, snakebites, skin disease and ulcer. Two new phytoconstituents characterized as 13,17-octahydropentalene-4,4,10,23-tetramethyl-17,21-diisopropyl-tetradecahydrocyclo-[a]-phenanthrene-(14, 20(23, 21(30-trien-5α-ol (SMC-3 and [1,4,4-trimethyl-cyclopent-1(5-enyl]-9,10,17,21-tetramethyl-9α-ol-16α (17α-epoxy heptadecan-6,10-dione (SMC-4 belong to the class norsesquaterpenol and monocyclic triterpenoid, respectively, along with two known compounds 3-epi-lupeol (SMC-1 and 4-cyclopentylpyrocatechol (SMC-2 have been isolated from the ethanol extract of aerial parts of S. monoica using normal and reverse phase column as well as planar chromatography. The spectroscopic studies including 1D, 2D NMR (DEPT, COSY, HMBC and HSQC aided by EIMS mass and IR spectra were used to establish their structures. All the four compounds were tested for cytotoxicity on cultured HepG2 cells and for cell proliferation activities. The results revealed no cytotoxicity even at highest (6.25–50 μg/ml dose of all the four compounds. The compound SMC-1 showed prominent cell proliferative activity as compared to other SMC compounds.

  14. Measurement of direct CP violation parameters in B± → J/ψK± and B± → J/ψπ± decays with 10.4 fb-1 of Tevatron data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agnew, J P; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Augsten, K; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Beattie, M; Begalli, M; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Buszello, C P; Camacho-Pérez, E; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Caughron, S; Chakrabarti, S; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cutts, D; Das, A; Davies, G; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dominguez, A; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Evans, H; Evdokimov, V N; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Garbincius, P H; Garcia-Bellido, A; García-González, J A; Gavrilov, V; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hart, B; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hogan, J; Hohlfeld, M; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jayasinghe, A; Holzbauer, J; Jeong, M S; Jesik, R; Jiang, P; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Jung, A W; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Kiselevich, I; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Lammers, S; Lamont, I; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lei, X; Lellouch, J; Li, D; Li, H; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, H; Liu, Y; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mansour, J; Martínez-Ortega, J; Mason, N; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miconi, F; Mondal, N K; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nguyen, H T; Nunnemann, T; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Pal, A; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Pleier, M-A; Podstavkov, V M; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shaw, S; Shchukin, A A; Simak, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Soustruznik, K; Stark, J; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsai, Y-T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verkheev, A Y; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weichert, J; Welty-Rieger, L; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yamada, R; Yang, S; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, W; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J M; Zennamo, J; Zhao, T G; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L

    2013-06-14

    We present a measurement of the direct CP-violating charge asymmetry in B(±) mesons decaying to J/ψK(±) and J/ψπ(±) where J/ψ decays to μ(+) μ(-), using the full run II data set of 10.4 fb(-1) of proton-antiproton collisions collected using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. A difference in the yield of B(-) and B(+) mesons in these decays is found by fitting to the difference between their reconstructed invariant mass distributions resulting in asymmetries of A(J/ψK) = [0.59 ± 0.37]%, which is the most precise measurement to date, and A(J/ψπ) = [-4.2 ± 4.5]%. Both measurements are consistent with standard model predictions.

  15. Cell-baswd non-invasive prenatal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldbjerg, Niels; Singh, Ripudaman; Christensen, Rikke

    that fetal cells are stable in blood samples stored up to 48 hours. Using these cells, we have detected subchromosomal abnormalities including one with mosaic 45, X/46, X, r(X) which have been confirmed at DNA from chorion villus sampling. Conclusions: We conclude that fcmb-NIPT deserves full attention......CONTROL ID: 2520273 ABSTRACT FINAL ID: OC06.03 TITLE: Cell based Non-invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) AUTHORS (FIRST NAME, LAST NAME): Niels Uldbjerg2, Ripudaman Singh4, Rikke Christensen3, Palle Schelde4, Ida Vogel1, Else Marie Vestergaard3, Lotte Hatt4, Steen Kølvrå4 INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1...... therefore hypothesize that NIPT based on amplified DNA from fetal cells circulating in maternal blood (fcmb-NIPT) will make it possible to detect subchromosomal aberrations. Methods: We obtained 30 ml of whole blood from 100 pregnant women undergoing chorion villus sampling at a gestational age of 10...

  16. Control of cell volume in the J774 macrophage by microtubule disassembly and cyclic AMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melmed, RN; Karanian, PJ; Berlin, RD

    1981-01-01

    We have explored the possibilities that cell volume is regulated by the status of microtubule assembly and cyclic AMP metabolism and may be coordinated with shape change. Treatment of J774.2 mouse macrophages with colchicine caused rapid microtubule disassembly and was associated with a striking increase (from 15-20 to more than 90 percent) in the proportion of cells with a large protuberance at one pole. This provided a simple experimental system in which shape changes occurred in virtually an entire cell population in suspension. Parallel changes in cell volume could then be quantified by isotope dilution techniques. We found that the shape change caused by colchicine was accompanied by a decrease in cell volume of approximately 20 percent. Nocodozole, but not lumicolchicine, caused identical changes in both cell shape and cell volume. The volume loss was not due to cell lysis nor to inhibition of pinocytosis. The mechanism of volume loss was also examined. Colchicine induced a small but reproducible increase in activity of the ouabain-sensitive Na(+), K(+)-dependent ATPase. However, inhibition of this enzyme/transport system by ouabain did not change cell volume nor did it block the colchicines-induced decrease in volume. One the other hand, SITS (4’acetamido, 4-isothiocyano 2,2’ disulfonic acid stilbene), an inhibitor of anion transport, inhibited the effects of colchicines, thus suggesting a role for an anion transport system in cell volume regulation. Because colchicine is known to activate adenylate cyclase in several systems and because cell shape changes are often induced by hormones that elevate cyclic AMP, we also examined the effects of cyclic AMP on cell volume. Agents that act to increase syclic AMP (cholera toxin, which activates adenylate cyclase; IBMX, and inhibitor of phosphodiesterase; and dibutyryl cyclic AMP) all caused a volume decrease comparable to that of colchicine. To define the effective metabolic pathway, we studied two mutants of J

  17. Performance test of the prototype-unit for J-PARC machine protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaki, Hironao; Nakamura, Naoki; Takahashi, Hiroki; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2004-03-01

    In High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC), the high-power proton beam is accelerated. If the beam in J-PARC is not stopped at a few micro seconds or less, the fatal thermal shock destruction is caused on the surface of accelerating structure, because of the high-power proton beam. To avoid the thermal shock damage, we designed the high-speed machine protection system. And, the prototype unit for the system was produced. This report shows the result of its performance test. (author)

  18. Effects of a new bifunctional psoralen, 4,4',5'-trimethylazapsoralen and ultraviolet-A radiation on murine dendritic epidermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, F; Alcalay, J; Dall'Acqua, F; Kripke, M L

    1990-06-01

    Although some psoralens are therapeutically active in the treatment of cutaneous hyperproliferative diseases when combined with UVA (320-400 nm) radiation, the toxic effects of these compounds have led physicians to seek new photochemotherapeutic agents. One such agent is 4,4',5'-trimethylazapsoralen (TMAP), a new bifunctional psoralen compound. We investigated the effects of repetitive treatments with TMAP plus UVA radiation on the number of dendritic immune cells in murine epidermis and on the induction of phototoxicity. Mice treated 3 times per week for 4 weeks with 129 microgram TMAP plus 10 kJ/m2 UVA radiation exhibited no gross or microscopic evidence of phototoxicity. During this treatment, the numbers of ATPase+, Ia+, and Thy-l+ dendritic epidermal cells were greatly reduced, and by the end of the treatment period, few dendritic immune cells could be detected. We conclude that morphological alterations of cutaneous immune cells can occur in the absence of overt phototoxicity, and that TMAP plus low-dose UVA radiation decreases the numbers of detectable Langerhans cells and Thy-1+ cells in murine skin.

  19. Study of e(+)e(-) -> omega chi(cJ) at Center of Mass Energies from 4.21 to 4.42 GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Chu, Y. P.; Cibinetto, G.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Li, Cheng; Li, C. H.; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, R. Q.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Moeini, H.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pu, Y. N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ren, H. L.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Based on data samples collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider at nine center of mass energies from 4.21 to 4.42 GeV, we search for the production of e(+)e(-) -> omega chi(cJ) (J = 0, 1, 2). The process e(+)e(-) -> omega chi(c0) is observed for the first time, and the Born cross

  20. 0.4 mJ quasi-continuously pumped picosecond Nd:GdVO4 laser with selectable pulse duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubeček, V; Jelínek, M; Čech, M; Hiršl, P; Diels, J-C

    2010-01-01

    A quasi-continuously pumped picosecond oscillator-amplifier Nd:GdVO 4 laser system based on two identical slabs in a single bounce geometry is reported. Pulse duration is from 160 to 55 ps resulting from the pulse shortening along the extended mode locked train from passively mode locked oscillator, which was measured directly from a single laser shot. The shortest 55 ps long cavity dumped single pulses from the oscillator with the energy of 15±1 μJ and the contrast better than 10 -3 were amplified to the energy of 150 μJ with the contrast better than 10 -3 after the single-pass amplification and to the energy of 400 μJ after the double-pass amplification

  1. Relativistic model-potential oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for 4fsup(n)6s-4fsup(n)6p transitions in Eu(II), Tb(II), and Ho(II) in J1j coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdalek, J.

    1984-01-01

    The lowest 4fsup(n)6s-4fsup(n)6p transitions are studied for the Eu(II) (n=7), Tb(II) (n=9), and Ho(II) (n=11) spectra, where the J 1 J coupling is an acceptable approximation. The relativistic radial integrals, required to evaluate the oscillator strengths and transition probabilities, are calculated with the model-potential method, which includes also core-polarization effects. The similarities observed in oscillator strengths for transitions with given ΔJ but different J values are discussed and explained. The computed oscillator strengths are compared with those obtained with the Coulomb approximation and it is found that the latter are only 11-12% lower. The core polarization influence on oscillator strengths is also investigated and the 19-21% decrease in oscillator strengths due to this effect is predicted. This result may, however, be overestimated because of some deficiencies in our procedure. (author)

  2. Post-test analysis of 20kW molten carbonate fuel cell stack operated on coal gas. Final report, August 1993--February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A 20kW carbonate fuel cell stack was operated with coal gas for the first time in the world. The stack was tested for a total of 4,000 hours, of which 3,900 hours of testing was conducted at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Incorporated, Plaquemine, Louisiana outdoor site. The operation was on either natural gas or coal gas and switched several times without any effects, demonstrating duel fuel capabilities. This test was conducted with 9142 kJ/m{sup 3} (245 Btu/cft) coal gas provided by a slipstream from Destec`s entrained flow, slagging, slurry-fed gasifier equipped with a cold gas cleanup subsystem. The stack generated up to 21 kW with this coal gas. Following completion of this test, the stack was brought to Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and a detailed post-test analysis was conducted to identify any effects of coal gas on cell components. This investigation has shown that the direct fuel cell (DFC) can be operated with properly cleaned and humidified coal-as, providing stable performance. The basic C direct fuel cell component materials are stable and display normal stability in presence of the coal gas. No effects of the coal-borne contaminants are apparent. Further cell testing at ERC 1 17, confirmed these findings.

  3. Neutrophils are resistant to Yersinia YopJ/P-induced apoptosis and are protected from ROS-mediated cell death by the type III secretion system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin L Spinner

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The human innate immune system relies on the coordinated activity of macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils or PMNs for defense against bacterial pathogens. Yersinia spp. subvert the innate immune response to cause disease in humans. In particular, the Yersinia outer protein YopJ (Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis and YopP (Y. enterocolitica rapidly induce apoptosis in murine macrophages and dendritic cells. However, the effects of Yersinia Yop J/P on neutrophil fate are not clearly defined.In this study, we utilized wild-type and mutant strains of Yersinia to test the contribution of YopJ and YopP on induction of apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM and neutrophils. Whereas YopJ and YopP similarly induced apoptosis in HMDMs, interaction of human neutrophils with virulence plasmid-containing Yersinia did not result in PMN caspase activation, release of LDH, or loss of membrane integrity greater than PMN controls. In contrast, interaction of human PMNs with the virulence plasmid-deficient Y. pestis strain KIM6 resulted in increased surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS and cell death. PMN reactive oxygen species (ROS production was inhibited in a virulence plasmid-dependent but YopJ/YopP-independent manner. Following phagocytic interaction with Y. pestis strain KIM6, inhibition of PMN ROS production with diphenyleneiodonium chloride resulted in a reduction of PMN cell death similar to that induced by the virulence plasmid-containing strain Y. pestis KIM5.Our findings showed that Yersinia YopJ and/or YopP did not induce pronounced apoptosis in human neutrophils. Furthermore, robust PMN ROS production in response to virulence plasmid-deficient Yersinia was associated with increased PMN cell death, suggesting that Yersinia inhibition of PMN ROS production plays a role in evasion of the human innate immune response in part by limiting PMN apoptosis.

  4. Detection of autoreactive CD4 T cells using major histocompatibility complex class II dextramers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuszynski Charles

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetramers are useful tools to enumerate the frequencies of antigen-specific T cells. However, unlike CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells - especially self-reactive cells - are challenging to detect with major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II tetramers because of low frequencies and low affinities of their T cell receptors to MHC-peptide complexes. Here, we report the use of fluorescent multimers, designated MHC dextramers that contain a large number of peptide-MHC complexes per reagent. Results The utility of MHC dextramers was evaluated in three autoimmune disease models: 1 proteolipid protein (PLP 139-151-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL/J (H-2s mice; 2 myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG 35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57Bl/6 (H-2b mice; and 3 cardiac myosin heavy chain (Myhc-α 334-352-induced experimental autoimmune myocarditis in A/J (H-2a mice. Flow cytometrically, we demonstrate that IAs/PLP 139-151, IAb/MOG 35-55 and IAk/Myhc-α 334-352 dextramers detect the antigen-sensitized cells with specificity, and with a detection sensitivity significantly higher than that achieved with conventional tetramers. Furthermore, we show that binding of dextramers, but not tetramers, is less dependent on the activation status of cells, permitting enumeration of antigen-specific cells ex vivo. Conclusions The data suggest that MHC dextramers are useful tools to track the generation and functionalities of self-reactive CD4 cells in various experimental systems.

  5. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Hooper

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a study undertaken to determine if the electrical performance of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA 3.1 Ah 18650 battery cells can be degraded by road induced vibration typical of an electric vehicle (EV application. This study investigates if a particular cell orientation within the battery assembly can result in different levels of cell degradation. The 18650 cells were evaluated in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2380 standard. This vibration test is synthesized to represent 100,000 miles of North American customer operation at the 90th percentile. This study identified that both the electrical performance and the mechanical properties of the NCA lithium-ion cells were relatively unaffected when exposed to vibration energy that is commensurate with a typical vehicle life. Minor changes observed in the cell’s electrical characteristics were deemed not to be statistically significant and more likely attributable to laboratory conditions during cell testing and storage. The same conclusion was found, irrespective of cell orientation during the test.

  6. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis and transcytosis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasschaert, Kristien; Devriendt, Bert; Favoreel, Herman; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Cox, Eric

    2010-10-15

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause severe diarrhea in neonatal and recently weaned piglets. Previously, we demonstrated that oral immunization of F4 receptor positive piglets with purified F4 fimbriae induces a protective F4-specific intestinal immune response. However, in F4 receptor negative animals no F4-specific immune response can be elicited, indicating that the induction of an F4-specific mucosal immune response upon oral immunisation is receptor-dependent. Although F4 fimbriae undergo transcytosis across the intestinal epithelium in vivo, the endocytosis pathways used remain unknown. In the present study, we characterized the internalization of F4 fimbriae in the porcine intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2. The results in the present study demonstrate that F4 fimbriae are internalized through a clathrin-dependent pathway. Furthermore, our results suggest that F4 fimbriae are transcytosed across differentiated IPEC-J2 cells. This receptor-dependent transcytosis of F4 fimbriae may explain the immunogenicity of these fimbriae upon oral administration in vivo. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Androgen receptor (AR) degradation enhancer ASC-J9® in an FDA-approved formulated solution suppresses castration resistant prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Max A; Chou, Fu-Ju; Wang, Keliang; Yang, Rachel; Ding, Jie; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Li, Gonghui; Yeh, Shuyuan; Xu, Defeng; Chang, Chawnshang

    2018-03-28

    ASC-J9 ® is a recently-developed androgen receptor (AR)-degradation enhancer that effectively suppresses castration resistant prostate cancer (PCa) cell proliferation and invasion. The optimal half maximum inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of ASC-J9 ® at various PCa cell confluences (20%, 50%, and 100%) were assessed via both short-term MTT growth assays and long-term clonogenic proliferation assays. Our results indicate that the IC 50 values for ASC-J9 ® increased with increasing cell confluency. The IC 50 values were significantly decreased in PCa AR-positive cells compared to PCa AR-negative cells or in normal prostate cells. This suggests that ASC-J9 ® may function mainly via targeting the AR-positive PCa cells with limited unwanted side-effects to suppress the surrounding normal prostate cells. Mechanism dissection indicated that ASC-J9 ® might function via altering the apoptosis signals to suppress the PCa AR-negative PC-3 cells. Preclinical studies using multiple in vitro PCa cell lines and an in vivo mouse model with xenografted castration-resistant PCa CWR22Rv1 cells demonstrated that ASC-J9 ® has similar AR degradation effects when dissolved in FDA-approved solvents, including DMSO, PEG-400:Tween-80 (95:5), DMA:Labrasol:Tween-80 (10:45:45), and DMA:Labrasol:Tween-20 (10:45:45). Together, results from preclinical studies suggest a potential new therapy with AR-degradation enhancer ASC-J9 ® may potentially be ready to be used in human clinical trials in order to better suppress PCa at later castration resistant stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of LOFT (L1-2) experiment by code RELAP-4J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Kanji; Soda, Kunihisa; Shiba, Masayoshi; Kaminaga, Humito

    1977-04-01

    An analysis of the results in LOFT L1-2 LOCE (Loss of Coolant Experiment) was made by the computer code RELAP-4J. The L1-2 experiment is a simple isothermal blowdown test with a core simulator and no ECC activation. It provides the basis for future LOCE with a nuclear core and ECC activation. The results of the analysis lead to the following conclusions. (1) The calculated system pressure transient agrees well with experiment. Primary controlling factors for the calculation are (a) flow resistances of the steam generator simulator, pump simulator and discharge nozzle in the broken loop, (b) mixture level in the downcomer and inlet volume of the operating loop steam generator, and (c) stored heat of the downcomer structure. (2) The pressurizer pressure decreases rapidly, compared with experiment, possibly because the flow resistance in the surge line is smaller than the actual one. Further experiment and analysis are necessary in this respect. (3) The calculated density transient in the cold leg agrees well with experiment. Agreement is not good in the hot leg, however. The discrepancy is possibly caused by the non-homogeneous flow of coolant in the hot leg due to low flow rate. (4) Effect of the pump characteristics on analytical result is insignificant in the isothermal test. However, in the future nuclear test, the effect will be significant because of large steam generation in the core, so measurement of the pump characteristics and improvement of the pump model are necessary. (auth.)

  9. ALMA DETECTION OF THE VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN J = 4-3 EMISSION LINE IN THE AGN-HOSTING LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY IRAS 20551–4250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, Hawaii, 96720 (United States); Nakanishi, Kouichiro, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura 763-0355, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

    2013-10-01

    We present results from our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, at the frequencies around the HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 transition lines, of the luminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551–4250 at z = 0.043, which is known to host an energetically important obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). In addition to the targeted HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 emission lines, two additional strong emission lines are seen, which we attribute to H{sub 2}S and CH{sub 3}CN(+CCH). The HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio (∼0.7) is higher than in the other starburst-dominated galaxy (∼0.2) observed in our ALMA Cycle 0 program. We tentatively (∼5σ) detected the vibrationally excited (v {sub 2} = 1) HCN J = 4-3 (l = 1f) emission line, which is important for testing an infrared radiative pumping scenario for HCN. This is the second detection of this molecular transition in external galaxies. The most likely reason for this detection is not only the high flux of this emission line, but also the small molecular line widths observed in this galaxy, suggesting that vibrational excitation of HCN may be relatively common in AGN-hosting galaxies.

  10. Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induced by Social Isolation Reverses the Increase of α4/δ GABAA Receptor Gene Expression and Function in the Hippocampus of C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Enrico; Talani, Giuseppe; Obili, Nicola; Mascia, Maria Paola; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Pisu, Maria Giuseppina; Biggio, Francesca; Utzeri, Cinzia; Olla, Pierluigi; Biggio, Giovanni; Follesa, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Post-weaning social isolation (SI) is a model of prolonged mild stress characterized by behavioral and neurochemical alterations. We used SI in C57BL/6J mice to investigate the effects of ethanol (EtOH) in the free-choice drinking paradigm on gene expression and function of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) and the role of neuroactive steroids in the actions of EtOH in the hippocampus. SI stress induced a marked reduction in hippocampal 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (3α,5α-TH PROG) and was associated with molecular and functional changes of the GABAAR. The gene expression of the α4 and δ subunits was increased in the hippocampus of SI C57BL/6J mice; the expression of the γ2 subunit was decreased whereas that of the α1 did not change. Patch-clamp recordings in dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells obtained from SI C57BL/6J mice revealed a greater enhancement of tonic currents induced by α-(4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c] pyridin-3-ol (THIP) compared to that in control C57BL/6J mice. These neurochemical, molecular and functional changes observed in SI C57BL/6J mice were associated with an increased EtOH intake and EtOH preference. Nevertheless, the increase in EtOH consumption did not restore the reduction in hippocampal 3α,5α-TH PROG induced by SI. EtOH self-administration blocked the changes in gene expression of the α4 subunit but not those of the δ and γ2 subunits induced by SI. In addition, EtOH self-administration did not block the SI-induced changes in GABAAR-mediated tonic inhibition in hippocampal granule cells but increased the frequency of basal GABAergic sIPSCs in DG granule cells. We conclude that self-administration of EtOH selectively abolishes the increase of α4 subunit but not other neurochemical, molecular, and functional modifications induced by SI prolonged mild stress. PMID:21347217

  11. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuron as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity Ingrid L. Druwe1, Timothy J. Shafer2, Kathleen Wallace2, Pablo Valdivia3 ,and William R. Mundy2. 1University of North Carolina, Curriculum in Toxicology...

  12. INTEGRAL and Swift follow-up observations of XMMSL1 J171900.4- 353217

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavan, L.; Terrier, R.; Bozzo, E.

    2010-01-01

    :13 to 2010 August 20 at 15:08, PI R. Terrier). In the Swift/XRT FOV only one X-ray source is detected at a position consistent with that of XMMSL1 J171900.4-353217. The source spectrum was best fit (chi^2_red/dof=0.97/27) by using an absorbed power-law model with N_h=(5.1-1.2+1.4)E22 cm^(-2) and Gamma=2.......1+/-0.5. The estimated 2-10 keV flux is 2.6E-11 erg/cm^2/s (2-10 keV). XMMSL1 J171900.4-353217 was not detected in the simultaneous INTEGRAL observations. We estimated a 3 sigma upper limit on its X-ray flux of 11 mCrab (~2.6E-10 erg/cm^2/s) in the 3-20 keV energy band (Jem-X, exposure time 5.5 ks), 3.5 mCrab (~2.7E-11...... erg/cm^2/s) in the 20-40 keV energy band, and 5.5 mCrab (~3.9E-11 erg/cm^2/s) in the 40-80 keV energy band (ISGRI, exposure time 75 ks). These results suggest that XMMSL1 J171900.4-353217 might have undergone a re-brightening after its previous return to quiescence (Atel #2738) and is now fading again...

  13. Search for the Y via e(+)e(-) -> gamma phi J/psi at root s=4.23, 4.26 and 4.36 GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, R. Q.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pu, Y. N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ren, H. L.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Using data samples collected at center-of-mass energies root s = 4.23, 4.26, and 4.36 GeV with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII storage ring, we search for the production of the charmoniumlike state Y(4140) through a radiative transition followed by its decay to phi J/psi. No significant

  14. In vitro toxicity test and searching the possibility of cancer cell line extermination by magnetic heating with using Fe3O4 magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Hoai Linh; Nguyen Chi Thuan; Nguyen Anh Tuan; Pham Van Thach; Nguyen Xuan Phuc; Le Van Hong; Tran Cong Yen; Nguyen Thi Quy; Hoang Thi My Nhung; Phi Thi Xuyen

    2009-01-01

    A Fe 3 O 4 based magnetic fluid with different concentrations ranged between 0.15 ng/cell to 10 ng/cell (nano gram/cell) was used in the in vitro toxicity test on several cancer cell lines, Sarcoma 180, HeLa and H358. It shows that the fluid with a concentration of Fe 3 O 4 below 1.2 ng/cell is completely non-toxic for these cell lines. Even through in the presence of the highest concentration of 10 ng/cell, the cell viability still reaches more than 60%. The magnetic fluid with Fe 3 O 4 concentration of about 0.1 ng/cell was also used to search ex-vivo the possibility of Sarcoma 180 extermination by magnetic heating with an AC field of 120Oe and 184 KHz. The result shows that after a heat treatment for 30 min., 40% of Sarcoma 180 cells was killed.

  15. Curcumin-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma J5 Cells: Critical Role of Ca+2-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antitumor effects of curcumin, a natural biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, have been studied in many cancer cell types including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Here, we investigated the effects of Ca2+ on curcumin-induced apoptosis in human HCC J5 cells. The abrogation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and calcium release were demonstrated with flow cytometry as early as 15 minutes after curcumin treatment. In addition, an increase level of cytochrome c in the cytoplasm which led to DNA fragmentation was observed. To verify the role of Ca2+ in curcumin-induced apoptosis, 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxyethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA, an intracellular calcium chelator, was applied. Cell viability was increased, but ΔΨm, ROS production, activation of caspase 3, and cell death were decreased in J5 cells pretreated with BAPTA for 2 h followed by the treatment of 25 μM curcumin. These results suggest that the curcumin-induced apoptosis in human HCC J5 cells is via mitochondria-dependent pathway and is closely related to the level of intracellular accumulation of calcium.

  16. Δ8-Tetrahydrocannabinol induces cytotoxicity in macrophage J774-1 cells: Involvement of cannabinoid receptor 2 and p38 MAPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaori, Satoshi; Ishii, Hirosuke; Chiba, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuhito

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a psychoactive component of marijuana, is known to exert cytotoxicity in immune cells. In the present study, we examined the cytotoxicity of Δ 8 -THC in mouse macrophage J774-1 cells and a possible involvement of cannabinoid receptors and stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the cytotoxic process. J774-1 cells were treated with Δ 8 -THC (0–20 μM) for up to 6 h. As measured by the MTT and LDH assays, Δ 8 -THC induced cell death of J774-1 cells in a concentration- and/or exposure time-dependent manner. Δ 8 -THC-induced cell damage was associated with vacuole formation, cell swelling, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. The cytotoxic effect of Δ 8 -THC was significantly prevented by a caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-cmk but not a caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk. The pretreatment with SR144528, a CB 2 receptor-selective antagonist, effectively suppressed Δ 8 -THC-induced cytotoxicity in J774-1 cells, which exclusively expressed CB 2 receptors as indicated by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. In contrast, AM251, a CB 1 receptor-selective antagonist, did not affect the cytotoxicity. Pertussis toxin and α-tocopherol significantly attenuated Δ 8 -THC-induced cytotoxicity suggesting that G i/o protein coupling signal transduction and oxidative stress are responsible for the cytotoxicity. Δ 8 -THC stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in J774-1 cells, which were effectively antagonized by the pretreatment with SR144528. In addition, SB203580, a p38 MARK inhibitor, significantly attenuated the cytotoxic effect of Δ 8 -THC, whereas SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity. These results suggest that the cytotoxicity of Δ 8 -THC to J774-1 cells is exerted mediated through the CB 2 receptor followed by the activation of p38 MAPK

  17. Electric Vehicle Communications Standards Testing and Validation - Phase II: SAE J2931/1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gowri, Krishnan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Vehicle to grid communication standards enable interoperability among vehicles, charging stations and utility providers and provide the capability to implement charge management. Several standards initiatives by the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization and International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), and ZigBee/HomePlug Alliance are developing requirements for communication messages and protocols. Recent work by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with SAE and automobile manufacturers has identified vehicle to grid communication performance requirements and developed a test plan as part of SAE J2931/1 committee work. This laboratory test plan was approved by the SAE J2931/1 committee and included test configurations, test methods, and performance requirements to verify reliability, robustness, repeatability, maximum communication distance, and authentication features of power line carrier (PLC) communication modules at the internet protocol layer level. The goal of the testing effort was to select a communication technology that would enable automobile manufacturers to begin the development and implementation process. The EPRI/Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) testing teams divided the testing so that results for each test could be presented by two teams, performing the tests independently. The PNNL team performed narrowband PLC testing including the Texas Instruments (TI) Concerto, Ariane Controls AC-CPM1, and the MAXIM Tahoe 2 evaluation boards. The scope of testing was limited to measuring the vendor systems communication performance between Electric Vehicle Support Equipment (EVSE) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). The testing scope did not address PEV’s CAN bus to PLC or PLC to EVSE (Wi-Fi, cellular, PLC Mains, etc.) communication integration. In particular, no evaluation was performed to delineate the effort needed to translate the IPv6

  18. Evaluation of J-R curve testing of nuclear piping materials using the direct current potential drop technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, E.M.; Kirk, M.T.; Hays, R.A.

    1986-08-01

    A method is described for developing J-R curves for nuclear piping materials using the DC Potential Drop (DCPD) technique. Experimental calibration curves were developed for both three point bend and compact specimen geometries using ASTM A106 steel, a type 304 stainless steel and a high strength aluminum alloy. These curves were fit with a power law expression over the range of crack extension encountered during J-R curve tests (0.6 a/W to 0.8 a/W). The calibration curves were insensitive to both material and sidegrooving and depended solely on specimen geometry and lead attachment points. Crack initiation in J-R curve tests using DCPD was determined by a deviation from a linear region on a plot of COD vs. DCPD. The validity of this criterion for ASTM A106 steel was determined by a series of multispecimen tests that bracketed the initiation region. A statistical differential slope procedure for determination of the crack initiation point is presented and discussed. J-R curve tests were performed on ASTM A106 steel and type 304 stainless steel using both the elastic compliance and DCPD techniques to assess R-curve comparability. J-R curves determined using the two approaches were found to be in good agreement for ASTM A106 steel. The applicability of the DCPD technique to type 304 stainless steel and high rate loading of ferromagnetic materials is discussed. 15 refs., 33 figs

  19. Sickle cell test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell anemia Sickle cell trait Iron deficiency or blood transfusions within the past 3 months can cause a " ... slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names Sickledex; Hgb S test Images Red blood cells, sickle cell Red blood cells, multiple sickle ...

  20. INTEGRAL observations of SAX J1808.4-3658 currently in outburst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Santo, M.; Bozzo, E.; Kuulkers, E.

    2015-01-01

    The latest INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge monitoring (ATel #438) was performed during revolution 1529 on 2015 April 12 starting at 18:15 UT (57124.761 MJD) for a total of 12462 seconds. We report on the IBIS/ISGRI detection of the new outburst from the millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658 (ATels...

  1. Restoration of X-ray resistance and V(D)J recombination in mutant cells by Ku cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smider, V.; Rathmell, W.K.; Chu, G.; Lieber, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Three genetic complementation groups of rodent cells are defective for both repair of x-ray-induced double-strand breaks and V(D)J recombination. Cells from one group lack a DNA end-binding activity that is biochemically and antigenically similar to the Ku autoantigen. Transfection of complementary DNA (cDNA) that encoded the 86-kilodalton subunit of Ku rescued these mutant cells for DNA end-binding activity, x-ray resistance, and V(D)J recombination activity. These results establish a role for Ku in DNA repair and recombination. Furthermore, as a component of a DNA-dependent protein kinase, Ku may initiate a signaling pathway induced by DNA damage

  2. Intragenic complementation by the nifJ-coded protein of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, G; Zhu, J; Shah, V K; Shen, S C; Brill, W J

    1982-01-01

    A single mutation, nifC1005 (Jin et al. Sci. Sin. 23:108-118, 1980), located between nifH and nifJ in the nif cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae, genetically complemented mutations in each of the 17 known nif genes. This suggested that the mutation is located in a new nif gene. We showed by complementation analyses that only 3 of 12 nifJ mutations tested were complemented by nifC1005. Nitrogenase activity in cell extracts of the mutant with nifC1005 as well as NifJ- mutants was stimulated by th...

  3. Apical root resorption in maxillary incisors when employing micro-implant and J-hook headgear anchorage: a 4-month radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhu; Chen, Wenjing; Smales, Roger J; Peng, Hui; Hu, Xiaokun; Yin, Lu

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated, over a 4-month study period, the amount of apical root resorption occurring in maxillary central incisors following their retraction when employing either micro-implant or J-hook headgear anchorage. The prospective randomised clinical trial was conducted in Orthodontic Clinic, College of Stomatology, China from 2008-2009. Subjects are patients requiring fixed appliances on waiting list (n=20). In female Han Chinese patients aged from 16-26 years, standardized periapical radiographs from 10 randomly assigned patients with maxillary protrusions comprising the micro-implant group, and from 10 similar patients comprising the J-hook headgear group, were assessed for maxillary central incisor apical root resorption. Measurements before and after orthodontic therapy were also obtained from lateral cephalometric radiographs to calculate incisor horizontal retraction and vertical intrusion distances. Estimated retraction force vectors were calculated in horizontal and vertical directions for both treatment groups. Data analysis employed t-tests and the Pearson correlation test, with α=0.05 for statistical significance. The results showed that when compared with the J-hook group, significantly more apical root resorption shortening of the maxillary central incisors was observed in the micro-implant group (1.27 mm difference, 95% CI=0.70-1.84, Pmicro-implant group resulted in significantly more apical root resorption shortening and maxillary central incisor retraction than when intermittent J-hook retraction was employed. The employment of continuous duration orthodontic forces presents a risk for increased apical root resorption that requires careful radiographic monitoring.

  4. DTF4-J, 1-D Neutron Transport with Anisotropic Scattering by Sn Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Hideo

    1971-01-01

    Nature of physical problem solved: DTF-4-J solves the one-dimensional multi-group transport equation with anisotropic scattering by Sn method. It is a FORTRAN adaptation of the Los Alamos DTF-IV program written by K.D. Lathrop, and it is combined with the JAERI SIMPLED-4 program written by H. Nishimura

  5. Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the low-luminosity X-ray pulsators SAX J1324.4−6200 and SAX J1452.8−5949

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaur, R.; Wijnands, R.; Patruno, A.; Testa, V.; Israel, G.; Degenaar, N.; Paul, B.; Kumar, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from our Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of two low-luminosity X-ray pulsators SAX J1324.4-6200 and SAX J1452.8-5949 which have spin periods of 172 and 437 s, respectively. The XMM-Newton spectra for both sources can be fitted well with a simple power-law model of photon

  6. The central nervous system environment controls effector CD4+ T cell cytokine profile in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakowski, M L; Owens, T

    1997-01-01

    In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), CD4+ T cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS). We derived CD4+ T cell lines from SJL/J mice that were specific for encephalitogenic myelin basic protein (MBP) peptides and produced both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. These lines transferred EAE...... to naive mice. Peptide-specific cells re-isolated from the CNS only produced Th1 cytokines, whereas T cells in the lymph nodes produced both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Mononuclear cells isolated from the CNS, the majority of which were microglia, presented antigen to and stimulated MBP-specific T cell lines...... in vitro. Although CNS antigen-presenting cells (APC) supported increased production of interferon (IFN)-gamma mRNA by these T cells, there was no increase in the interleukin (IL)-4 signal, whereas splenic APC induced increases in both IFN-gamma and IL-4. mRNA for IL-12 (p40 subunit) was up...

  7. In situ targeting of dendritic cells sets tolerogenic environment and ameliorates CD4+ T-cell response in the postischemic liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funken, Dominik; Ishikawa-Ankerhold, Hellen; Uhl, Bernd; Lerchenberger, Maximilian; Rentsch, Markus; Mayr, Doris; Massberg, Steffen; Werner, Jens; Khandoga, Andrej

    2017-11-01

    CD4 + T cells recruited to the liver play a key role in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The mechanism of their activation during alloantigen-independent I/R is not completely understood. We hypothesized that liver-resident dendritic cells (DCs) interact with CD4 + T cells in the postischemic liver and that modulation of DCs or T-cell-DC interactions attenuates liver inflammation. In mice, warm hepatic I/R (90/120-240 min) was induced. Tolerogenic DCs were generated in situ by pretreatment of animals with the vitamin D analog paricalcitol. A mAb-CD44 was used for blockade of CD4 + T-cell-DC interactions. As shown by 2-photon in vivo microscopy as well as confocal microscopy, CD4 + T cells were closely colocalized with DCs in the postischemic liver. Pretreatment with paricalcitol attenuated I/R-induced maturation of DCs (flow cytometry), CD4 + T-cell recruitment into the liver (intravital microscopy), and hepatocellular/microvascular damage (intravital microscopy, alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase, histology). However, interruption of T-cell-DC interaction increased proinflammatory DC maturation and even enhanced tissue damage. Simultaneous treatment with an anti-CD44mAb completely abolished the beneficial effect of paricalcitol on T-cell migration and tissue injury. Our study demonstrates for the first time that hepatic DCs interact with CD4 + T cells in the postischemic liver in vivo ; modulation of DCs and/or generation of tolerogenic DCs attenuates intrahepatic CD4 + T-cell recruitment and reduces I/R injury; and interruption of CD44-dependent CD4 + T-cell-DC interactions enhances tissue injury by preventing the modulatory effect of hepatic DCs on T cells, especially type 1 T helper effector cells. Thus, hepatic DCs are strongly involved in the promotion of CD4 + T-cell-dependent postischemic liver inflammation.-Funken, D., Ishikawa-Ankerhold, H., Uhl, B., Lerchenberger, M., Rentsch, M., Mayr, D., Massberg, S., Werner, J

  8. Engineering HIV-resistant human CD4+ T cells with CXCR4-specific zinc-finger nucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig B Wilen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 entry requires the cell surface expression of CD4 and either the CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptors on host cells. Individuals homozygous for the ccr5Δ32 polymorphism do not express CCR5 and are protected from infection by CCR5-tropic (R5 virus strains. As an approach to inactivating CCR5, we introduced CCR5-specific zinc-finger nucleases into human CD4+ T cells prior to adoptive transfer, but the need to protect cells from virus strains that use CXCR4 (X4 in place of or in addition to CCR5 (R5X4 remains. Here we describe engineering a pair of zinc finger nucleases that, when introduced into human T cells, efficiently disrupt cxcr4 by cleavage and error-prone non-homologous DNA end-joining. The resulting cells proliferated normally and were resistant to infection by X4-tropic HIV-1 strains. CXCR4 could also be inactivated in ccr5Δ32 CD4+ T cells, and we show that such cells were resistant to all strains of HIV-1 tested. Loss of CXCR4 also provided protection from X4 HIV-1 in a humanized mouse model, though this protection was lost over time due to the emergence of R5-tropic viral mutants. These data suggest that CXCR4-specific ZFNs may prove useful in establishing resistance to CXCR4-tropic HIV for autologous transplant in HIV-infected individuals.

  9. Effect of low-dose irradiation upon T cell subsets involved in the response of primed A/J mice to SaI cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Williams, W.L.; Tokuda, Sei

    1988-01-01

    A/Jax (A/J) mice primed to Sarcoma I (SaI) exhibit an augmented response in association with low-dose (0.15 Gy) irradiation. This phenomenon is best demonstrated in tumour neutralization (Winn assay) or cell transfer experiments utilizing mice depleted of thymus-derived (T) cells. It is particularly dependent upon the duration of priming and the growth characteristics of the tumour in the primary host. The importance of these two variables appears to relate to their influence upon the cell types responsible for the host response, and includes both an effector and a suppressor component. Radiation-induced inhibition of the suppressor component appears responsible for low-dose augmentation and results in injury to a T cell of the Lyt-1 - 2 + phenotype. In Winn assays employing equal numbers of immune spleen cells and SaI cells, the smallest tumours are associated with Lyt-1-positive (Lyt-1 + 2 - and Lyt-1 + 2 + ) cells and exposure to 0.15 Gy markedly inhibits their anti-SaI activity. Thus, even though the effect is in the opposite direction, both the effector and suppressor components of the anti-SaI response in A/J mice are exceedingly radiosensitive. (author)

  10. Novel biotransformation process of podophyllotoxin to 4 β-sulfur-substituted podophyllum derivates with anti-tumor activity by Penicillium purpurogenum Y.J. Tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, J-K; Zhao, W; Li, H-M; Tang, Y-J

    2012-01-01

    According to the structure-function relationship of podophyllotoxin (PTOX) and its analogue of 4'- demethylepipodophyllotoxin (DMEP), the 4 β-substitution of sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds with a carbon-sulfur bond at 4 position of PTOX or DMEP is an essential modification direction for improving the anti-tumor activity. So, four novel 4 β-sulfursubstituted podophyllum derivatives (i.e., 4β -(1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-podophyllotoxin (4-MT-PTOX), 4β-(1,3,4- thiadiazole-2-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-podophyllotoxin (4-MTD-PTOX), 4β-(1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-4' -demethylepipodophyllotoxin (4-MT-DMEP), and 4β-(1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (4-MTD-DMEP)) were designed and then successfully biosynthesized in this work. In the novel sulfur-substituted biotransformation processes, PTOX and DMEP was linked with sulfur-containing compounds (i.e., 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (MT) and 2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MTD)) at 4 position of cycloparaffin to produce 4-MT-PTOX (1), 4-MTD-PTOX (2), 4-MT-DMEP (3), and 4-MTD-DMEP (4) by Penicillium purpurogenum Y.J. Tang, respectively, which was screened out from Diphylleia sinensis Li (Hubei, China). All the novel compounds exhibited promising in vitro bioactivity, especially 4-MT-PTOX (1). Compared with etoposide (i.e., a 50 % effective concentration [EC(50)] of 25.72, 167.97, and 1.15 M), the EC(50) values of 4-MT-PTOX (1) against tumor cell line BGC-823, A549 and HepG2 (i.e., 0.28, 0.76, and 0.42 M) were significantly improved by 91, 221 and 2.73 times, respectively. Moreover, the EC(50) value of 4-MT-PTOX (1) against the normal human cell line HK-2 (i.e., 182.4 μM) was 19 times higher than that of etoposide (i.e., 9.17 μM). Based on the rational design, four novel 4 β-sulfur-substituted podophyllum derivatives with superior in vitro anti-tumor activity were obtained for the first time. The correctness of structure-function relationship and rational drug

  11. Discovery of decaHz flaring in SAX J1808.4-3658

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, P.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the discovery of strong decaHz flaring in the early decay of two out of five outbursts of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658. The decaHz flaring switches on and, after ~3 days, off again, on a time scale of 1-2 hours. When the flaring is present, the total 0.05-10

  12. Bidie et al., Afr. J. Trad. CAM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African J. TradCAM

    Wistar rats weighing about 200 g and rabbits (Orictlagus cumulus) weighing about 1.5 Kg were used to run experiments on mechanical activities of the heart and ..... associated with inhibition of monovalent cation active transport by Ouabain in cultured myocardial cells. J. Gen. Physiol., 74: 479-494. 4. Djè, M.K., Djaman, A., ...

  13. Altered Protein Expression of Cardiac CYP2J and Hepatic CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4F in a Mouse Model of Type II Diabetes—A Link in the Onset and Development of Cardiovascular Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Drolet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Arachidonic acid can be metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450 enzymes in a tissue- and cell-specific manner to generate vasoactive products such as epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs-cardioprotective and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs-cardiotoxic. Type II diabetes is a well-recognized risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. A mouse model of Type II diabetes (C57BLKS/J-db/db was used. After sacrifice, livers and hearts were collected, washed, and snap frozen. Total proteins were extracted. Western blots were performed to assess cardiac CYP2J and hepatic CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4F protein expression, respectively. Significant decreases in relative protein expression of cardiac CYP2J and hepatic CYP2C were observed in Type II diabetes animals compared to controls (CYP2J: 0.80 ± 0.03 vs. 1.05 ± 0.06, n = 20, p < 0.001; (CYP2C: 1.56 ± 0.17 vs. 2.21 ± 0.19, n = 19, p < 0.01. In contrast, significant increases in relative protein expression of both hepatic CYP4A and CYP4F were noted in Type II diabetes mice compared to controls (CYP4A: 1.06 ± 0.09 vs. 0.18 ± 0.01, n = 19, p < 0.001; (CYP4F: 2.53 ± 0.22 vs. 1.10 ± 0.07, n = 19, p < 0.001. These alterations induced by Type II diabetes in the endogenous pathway (CYP450 of arachidonic acid metabolism may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease by disrupting the fine equilibrium between cardioprotective (CYP2J/CYP2C-generated and cardiotoxic (CYP4A/CYP4F-generated metabolites of arachidonic acid.

  14. Search for the CP-Violating Decays Υ(4S)→B0B¯0→J/ψKS0+J/ψ(ηc)KS0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, O.; Hazumi, M.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Barberio, E.; Bay, A.; Bedny, I.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bitenc, U.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Chang, M.-C.; Chang, P.; Chen, A.; Chen, K.-F.; Chen, W. T.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiang, C.-C.; Chistov, R.; Cho, I.-S.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Dash, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Go, A.; Gokhroo, G.; Golob, B.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Heffernan, D.; Hokuue, T.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hyun, H. J.; Iijima, T.; Ikado, K.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, H.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Joshi, N. J.; Kah, D. H.; Kaji, H.; Kang, J. H.; Kataoka, S. U.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Kichimi, H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, C. C.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lange, J. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, S. E.; Lesiak, T.; Li, J.; Lin, S.-W.; Liventsev, D.; Mandl, F.; Marlow, D.; McOnie, S.; Medvedeva, T.; Mitaroff, W.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyake, H.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohapatra, D.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Noguchi, S.; Nozaki, T.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Ozaki, H.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Pestotnik, R.; Piilonen, L. E.; Sahoo, H.; Sakai, Y.; Schneider, O.; Sekiya, A.; Senyo, K.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shibuya, H.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Singh, J. B.; Sokolov, A.; Somov, A.; Stanič, S.; Starič, M.; Sumisawa, K.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Teramoto, Y.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Ueno, K.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Usov, Y.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K. E.; Vervink, K.; Villa, S.; Vinokurova, A.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, Y.; Wedd, R.; Won, E.; Yabsley, B. D.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.

    2007-11-01

    We report the first search for CP-violating decays of the Υ(4S) using a data sample that contains 535×106 Υ(4S) mesons with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. A partial reconstruction technique is employed to enhance the signal sensitivity. No significant signals were observed. We obtain an upper limit of 4×10-7 at the 90% confidence level for the branching fractions of the CP violating modes, Υ(4S)→B0B¯0→J/ψKS0+J/ψ(ηc)KS0. Extrapolating the result, we find that an observation with 5σ significance is expected with a 30ab-1 data sample, which is within the reach of a future super B factory.

  15. The Effect of Interferon-γ and Lipopolysaccharide on the Growth of Francisella tularensis LVS in Murine Macrophage-like Cell Line J774

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Holická

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Francisella tularensis, a causative agent of human tularemia, displaying the ability to proliferate inside the human cells. Aims: To evaluate the growth potential of F. tularensis LVS strain in macrophage-like cell line J774 modulated by recombinant interferon γ and E. coli derived lipopolysaccharide. Results: Stimulation of J774 cells either by interferon-γ or lipopolysaccharide alone, or especially in combination before infection F. tularensis, revealed protective effects. Higher concentrations of stimulating agents were needed to inhibit ongoing F. tularensis infection. Conclusions: Stimulation of J774 cell line by combination of interferon-γ with lipopolysaccharide inhibits the intracellular growth of F. tularensis.

  16. Metadata: JPST000052 [jPOST repository metadata[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available induced pluripotent stem cell proteome analysis by one-shot nano LC-MS/MS with meter-scale monolithic silic...-shot NanoLC-MS/MS analysis with meter-scale monolithic silica columns. J Proteome Res. 2013 Jan 4;12(1):214-21 Yasushi Ishihama Takahashi Chisato Kyoto university

  17. Thermal and fast reactor benchmark testing of ENDF/B-6.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guisheng

    1999-01-01

    The benchmark testing for B-6.4 was done with the same benchmark experiments and calculating method as for B-6.2. The effective multiplication factors k eff , central reaction rate ratios of fast assemblies and lattice cell reaction rate ratios of thermal lattice cell assemblies were calculated and compared with testing results of B-6.2 and CENDL-2. It is obvious that 238 U data files are most important for the calculations of large fast reactors and lattice thermal reactors. However, 238 U data in the new version of ENDF/B-6 have not been renewed. Only data of 235 U, 27 Al, 14 N and 2 D have been renewed in ENDF/B-6.4. Therefor, it will be shown that the thermal reactor benchmark testing results are remarkably improved and the fast reactor benchmark testing results are not improved

  18. Selective enrichment of Th1 CD45RBlow CD4+ T cells in autoimmune infiltrates in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renno, T; Zeine, R; Girard, J M

    1994-01-01

    The cytokine effector status of CD4+ T cells from lymph nodes (LN) and the central nervous system (CNS) of SJL/J mice immunized with autoantigen in adjuvant for the induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was compared. CD4+ T cells were FACS sorted based on the levels...... in the sorted populations. CD45RBlow cells constituted a minority of CD4+ cells in the LN and expressed elevated levels of IL-2, IFN-gamma, and IL-4 mRNA, whereas the CD45RBlow CD4+ population did not express detectable message for these cytokines under linear PCR conditions. By contrast to the LN, CD4+ cells...... of expression of the activation marker CD45RB. Low levels of expression of this surface marker are induced by antigen recognition and are associated with 'effector' T cell function. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyze the expression of different T cell cytokine genes...

  19. Electromagneto-mechanical coupling analysis of a test module in J-TEXT Tokamak during plasma disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Haijie; Yuan, Zhensheng; Yuan, Hongwei; Pei, Cuixiang [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Shanxi Engineering Research Center for NDT and Structural Integrity Evaluation Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Chen, Zhenmao, E-mail: chenzm@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Shanxi Engineering Research Center for NDT and Structural Integrity Evaluation Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Yang, Jinhong; Wang, Weihua [Institute of Applied Physics of AOA, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the dynamic response during plasma disruption of a test blanket module in vacuum vessel (VV) of the Joint TEXT (J-TEXT), which is an experimental Tokamak device with iron core, was simulated by applying a program developed by authors on the ANSYS platform using its parametric design language (APDL). The moving coordinate method as well as the load transfer and sequential coupling strategy were adopted to cope with the electromagneto-mechanical coupling effect. To establish the numerical model, the influence of the iron core on the eddy current and electromagnetic (EM) force during disruption was numerically investigated at first and the influence was found not significant. Together with the geometrical features of the J-TEXT Tokamak structure, 180° sector models without magnetic core were finally established for the EM field and the structural response simulations. To obtain the source plasma current, the plasma current evolution during disruption was simulated by using the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC). With the numerical models and the source plasma current, the dynamic response of both the VV structure and the test module were calculated. The numerical results show that the maximum stress of the test module is in safe range, and the magnetic damping effect can weaken vibration of the test module. In addition, simulation without considering the coupling effect was carried out, which shows that the influence of coupling effect is not significant for the peak stress of the J-TEXT disruption problem.

  20. Observation of e(+)e(-) -> eta ' J/psi center-of-mass energies between 4.189 and 4.600 GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. Y.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Musiol, P.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    The process e(+)e(-) -> eta' J/psi is observed for the first time with a statistical significance of 8.6 sigma at center-of-mass energy root s = 4.226 GeV and 7.3 sigma at root s = 4.258 GeV using data samples collected with the BESIII detector. The Born cross sections are measured to be (3.7 +/-

  1. CD4+ T cell-derived novel peptide Thp5 induces interleukin-4 production in CD4+ T cells to direct T helper 2 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Moin; Chatterjee, Samit; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Pandey, Nishant Kumar; Singh, Yogesh; Tousif, Sultan; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar; Van Kaer, Luc; Das, Jyoti; Das, Gobardhan

    2012-01-20

    The differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cells into T helper 2 (Th2) cells requires production of the cytokine IL-4 in the local microenvironment. It is evident that naïve/quiescently activated CD4(+) T cells produce the IL-4 that drives Th2 cell differentiation. Because early production of IL-4 in naïve T cells leads to preferential Th2 cell differentiation, this process needs to be tightly regulated so as to avoid catastrophic and misdirected Th2 cell differentiation. Here, we show that Thp5, a novel peptide with structural similarity to vasoactive intestinal peptide, regulates production of early IL-4 in newly activated CD4(+) T cells. Induction of IL-4 in CD4(+) T cells by Thp5 is independent of the transcription factor STAT6 but dependent on ERK1/2 signaling. Furthermore, cytokines (IL-12 and TGF-β) that promote the differentiation of Th1 or Th17 cells inhibit Thp5 induction, thus suppressing Th2 cell differentiation. We further showed that Thp5 enhances Th2 responses and exacerbates allergic airway inflammation in mice. Taken together, our findings reveal that early activated CD4(+) T cells produce Thp5, which plays a critical role as a molecular switch in the differentiation of Th cells, biasing the response toward the Th2 cell phenotype.

  2. Acute Malaria Induces PD1+CTLA4+ Effector T Cells with Cell-Extrinsic Suppressor Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sophia Mackroth

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In acute Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum malaria, the pro- and anti-inflammatory immune pathways must be delicately balanced so that the parasitemia is controlled without inducing immunopathology. An important mechanism to fine-tune T cell responses in the periphery is the induction of coinhibitory receptors such as CTLA4 and PD1. However, their role in acute infections such as P. falciparum malaria remains poorly understood. To test whether coinhibitory receptors modulate CD4+ T cell functions in malaria, blood samples were obtained from patients with acute P. falciparum malaria treated in Germany. Flow cytometric analysis showed a more frequent expression of CTLA4 and PD1 on CD4+ T cells of malaria patients than of healthy control subjects. In vitro stimulation with P. falciparum-infected red blood cells revealed a distinct population of PD1+CTLA4+CD4+ T cells that simultaneously produced IFNγ and IL10. This antigen-specific cytokine production was enhanced by blocking PD1/PDL1 and CTLA4. PD1+CTLA4+CD4+ T cells were further isolated based on surface expression of PD1 and their inhibitory function investigated in-vitro. Isolated PD1+CTLA4+CD4+ T cells suppressed the proliferation of the total CD4+ population in response to anti-CD3/28 and plasmodial antigens in a cell-extrinsic manner. The response to other specific antigens was not suppressed. Thus, acute P. falciparum malaria induces P. falciparum-specific PD1+CTLA4+CD4+ Teffector cells that coproduce IFNγ and IL10, and inhibit other CD4+ T cells. Transient induction of regulatory Teffector cells may be an important mechanism that controls T cell responses and might prevent severe inflammation in patients with malaria and potentially other acute infections.

  3. Test of Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Fuel Cell Stack at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.; Jakupca, Ian J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes performance characterization tests of a 64 cell hydrogen oxygen PEM fuel cell stack at NASA Glenn Research Center in February 2003. The tests were part of NASA's ongoing effort to develop a regenerative fuel cell for aerospace energy storage applications. The purpose of the tests was to verify capability of this stack to operate within a regenerative fuel cell, and to compare performance with earlier test results recorded by the stack developer. Test results obtained include polarization performance of the stack at 50 and 100 psig system pressure, and a steady state endurance run at 100 psig. A maximum power output of 4.8 kWe was observed during polarization runs, and the stack sustained a steady power output of 4.0 kWe during the endurance run. The performance data obtained from these tests compare reasonably close to the stack developer's results although some additional spread between best to worst performing cell voltages was observed. Throughout the tests, the stack demonstrated the consistent performance and repeatable behavior required for regenerative fuel cell operation.

  4. Recon2Neo4j: applying graph database technologies for managing comprehensive genome-scale networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaur, Irina; Mazein, Alexander; Saqi, Mansoor; Lysenko, Artem; Rawlings, Christopher J; Auffray, Charles

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this work is to offer a computational framework for exploring data from the Recon2 human metabolic reconstruction model. Advanced user access features have been developed using the Neo4j graph database technology and this paper describes key features such as efficient management of the network data, examples of the network querying for addressing particular tasks, and how query results are converted back to the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) standard format. The Neo4j-based metabolic framework facilitates exploration of highly connected and comprehensive human metabolic data and identification of metabolic subnetworks of interest. A Java-based parser component has been developed to convert query results (available in the JSON format) into SBML and SIF formats in order to facilitate further results exploration, enhancement or network sharing. The Neo4j-based metabolic framework is freely available from: https://diseaseknowledgebase.etriks.org/metabolic/browser/ . The java code files developed for this work are available from the following url: https://github.com/ibalaur/MetabolicFramework . ibalaur@eisbm.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Search for the Rare Decays $J/\\psi \\to D_{S}^{-} \\pi^{+}$, $J/\\psi \\to D^{-} \\pi^{+}$, and $J/\\psi \\to \\bar D^{0} \\bar K^{0}$

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, J Z; Cai, X; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, H X; Chen, J C; Chen, Jin; Chen, Y B; Chu, Y P; Dai, Y S; Diao, L Y; Deng, Z Y; Dong, Q F; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fu, C D; Gao, C S; Gao, Y N; Gu, S D; Gu, Y T; Guo, Y N; Guo, Z J; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; Heng, Y K; Hou, J; Hu, H M; Hu, J H; Hu, T; Huang, G S; Huang, X T; Ji, X B; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Lai, Y F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J; Li, R Y; Li, S M; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Liang, Y F; Liao, H B; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, F; Liu, Fang; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, Jian; Liu, Q; Liu, R G; Liu, Z A; Lou, Y C; Lu, F; Lu, G R; Lu, J G; Luo, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Mao, Z P; Mo, X H; Nie, J; Olsen, S L; Ping, R G; Qi, N D; Qin, H; Qiu, J F; Ren, Z Y; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Shan, L Y; Shang, L; Shen, C P; Shen, D L; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Sun, H S; Sun, S S; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Tang, X; Tong, G L; Varner, G S; Wang, D Y; Wang, L; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, W F; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Wang, Zheng; Wei, C L; Wei, D H; Weng, Y; Wu, N; Xia, X M; Xie, X X; Xu, G F; Xu, X P; Xu, Y; Yan, M L; Yang, H X; Yang, Y X; Ye, M H; Ye, Y X; Yu, G W; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H Q; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Yiyun; Zhang, Z X; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhao, J W; Zhao, M G; Zhao, P P; Zhao, W R; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, H Q; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Z P; Zhou, L; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, B A; Zhuang, X A; Zou, B S

    2007-01-01

    Rare decay modes $J/\\psi \\to D_{S}^{-} \\pi^{+} + c.c.$, $J/\\psi \\to D^{-} \\pi^{+} + c.c.$, and $J/\\psi \\to \\bar D^{0} \\bar K^{0} + c.c.$ are searched for using 5.77$\\times 10^{7}$ $J/\\psi$ events collected with the BESII detector at the BEPC. No signal above background is observed. We present upper limits on the branching fractions $B(J/\\psi \\to D_{S}^{-} \\pi^{+})$ $<$ 1.4$\\times10^{-4}$, $B(J/\\psi \\to D^{-} \\pi^{+})$ $<7.5\\times10^{-5}$, and $B(J/\\psi \\to \\bar D^{0} \\bar K^{0})$ $<$ 1.7$\\times10^{-4}$ at the 90% confidence level.

  6. Identifying parasitic current pathways in CIGS solar cells by modelling dark J-V response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, B.L.; Smit, S.; Kniknie, B.J.; Bakker, K.J.; Keuning, W.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Creatore, M.

    2015-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model, which allows for the presence of three types of shunting pathways, has been developed to describe the dark J-V characteristics in CIGS solar cells. Excellent agreement between the model and experimental data was apparent throughout a temperature range of 183-323K.

  7. The J-resistance curve Leak-before-Break test program on material for the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Darlington Leak-Before-Break (DLBB) approach has been developed for large diameter (21, 22, 24 inch) SA106B heat transport (HT) piping and SA105 fittings as a design alternative to pipewhip restraints and in recognition of the questionable benefits of providing such restraints. Ontario Hydro's DLBB approach is based on the elastic plastic fracture mechanics method. In this test program, J-resistance curves were determined from actual pipe heats that were used in the construction of the Darlington heat transport systems (Units 1 and 2). Test blocks were prepared using four different welding procedures for nuclear Class I piping. The test program was designed to take into account the effect of various factors such as test temperature, crack plane orientation, welding effects, etc., which have influence on fracture properties. A total of 91 tests were conducted. An acceptable lower bound J-resistance curve for the piping steels was obtained by machining maximum thickness specimens from the pipes and by testing side grooved compact tension specimens. Test results showed that all pipes, welds and heat-affected zone materials within the scope of the DLBB program exhibited uppershelf toughness behaviour. All specimens showed high crack initiation toughness Jsub(lc), rising J-resistance curve and stable and ductile crack extension. Toughness of product forms depended on the direction of crack extension (circumferential versus axial crack orientation). Toughness of DLBB welds and parent materials at 250 0 C was lower than that at 20 0 C. (author)

  8. The cholinergic-inducing effect of BMP4 on rat's cerebral neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yan; Xue Yilong; Luo Yun; Tian Lei; Pan Jingkun; Cui Xin

    2004-01-01

    The cholinergic-inducing effect of BMP4 on isolated and cultivated rat's cerebral neural stem cells (NSC) was examined. NSC isolated from two months old rat's brain region like hippocampus and striatum was cultivated in a DMEM/F12 medium containing EGF and bFGF, and was identified with morphological character and nestin immunocytochemistry test. After 24 hours, cultivating the NSC with the BMP4-added medium for 7-8 days, then the microscopical change were observed, ChAT and nestin double-labelling immunocytochemistry test was done. Results showed that about 34% NSC of neuron-like character was observed by microscope in the paper. That ChAT-positive cells coexist with nestin-positive cells was found by immunocytochemistry test. There were 28% ChAT-positive cells and 38% nestin-positive cells in the study. Cholinergic neurons differentiated from NSC could be induced by adding BMP4 to the medium

  9. MRI studies of the hydrodynamics in a USP 4 dissolution testing cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiko, G; Gladden, L F; Sederman, A J; Connolly, P C; Butler, J M

    2011-03-01

    We present a detailed study of hydrodynamics inside the flow-through dissolution apparatus when operated according to USP recommendations. The pulsatile flow inside the flow-through cell was measured quantitatively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at a spatial resolution of 234 × 234 μm(2) and slice thickness of 1 mm. We report the experimental protocols developed for in situ MRI studies and the effect that the operating conditions and tablet orientation have on the hydrodynamics inside commercial flow cells. It was found that the flow field inside the dissolution cells was, at most operating conditions, heterogeneous, rather than fully developed laminar flow, and characterised by re-circulation and backward flow. A model tablet was shown to be contacted by a wide distribution of local velocities as a function of position and orientation in the flow cell. The use of 1 mm beads acted as a distributor of the flow but did not suffice to ensure a fully developed laminar flow profile. These results emphasise the necessity to understand the influence of test conditions on dissolution behaviour in defining robust flow-through dissolution methods. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Test plan for reactions between spent fuel and J-13 well water under unsaturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Hoh, J.C.; Emery, J.W.; Hafenrichter, L.D.; Bates, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is evaluating the long-term performance of a high-level nuclear waste form, spent fuel from commercial reactors. Permanent disposal of the spent fuel is possible in a potential repository to be located in the volcanic tuff beds near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. During the post-containment period the spent fuel could be exposed to water condensation since of the cladding is assumed to fail during this time. Spent fuel leach (SFL) tests are designed to simulate and monitor the release of radionuclides from the spent fuel under this condition. This Test Plan addresses the anticipated conditions whereby spent fuel is contacted by small amounts of water that trickle through the spent fuel container. Two complentary test plans are presented, one to examine the reaction of spent fuel and J-13 well water under unsaturated conditions and the second to examine the reaction of unirradiated UO 2 pellets and J-13 well water under unsaturated conditions. The former test plan examines the importance of the water content, the oxygen content as affected by radiolysis, the fuel burnup, fuel surface area, and temperature. The latter test plant examines the effect of the non-presence of Teflon in the test vessel

  11. [Changes of CD(4)(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and CD(4)(+)IL-17(+)T cells in cigarette smoke-exposed rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing-jing; Zhong, Xiao-ning; Bai, Jing; He, Zhi-yi; Zhang, Jian-quan; Huang, Qiu-pin

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the changes of CD(4)(+)IL-17(+) T (Th17) and CD(4)(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and therefore to explore the role of Th17 and Treg in cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation/COPD in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: a 12 wk smoke-exposure group, a 24 wk smoke-exposure group, a 12 wk control group and a 24 wk control group (n = 10 each). Cells in BALF were collected and analyzed by absolute and differential cell counts. IL-17 and IL-6 levels in serum and BALF were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proportion of CD(4)(+)IL-17(+) T and CD(4)(+)Foxp3(+) Treg in peripheral blood and BALF were determined by flow cytometry. The mRNA expressions of IL-17 and Foxp3 were measured by real-time PCR. Comparisons of the data between different groups were performed using one-way ANOVA, and SNK and Games-Howell test were used for comparison between 2 groups. Levels of IL-17 were remarkable increased in the 12 wk smoke-exposure group and the 24 wk smoke-exposure group in serum [(52.6 ± 1.8) ng/L, (75.4 ± 6.0) ng/L] and BALF [(78.1 ± 5.8) ng/L, (95.0 ± 6.8) ng/L] compared with the 12 wk control group [(40.0 ± 3.2)ng/L, (54.5 ± 4.6) ng/L] and the 24 wk control group [(36.7 ± 3.2) ng/L, (53.9 ± 3.7) ng/L], all P cells and macrophages (r = 0.512, 0.543, all P cells and an increase of inflammatory cytokines were evident in airway inflammation of cigarette smoke-exposed rats, suggesting that Treg was involved in the immunological regulation and Th17 was associated with the persistent inflammation in cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation in rats.

  12. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 reduces ethanol intake and preference in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri A. Blednov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Some anti-inflammatory medications reduce alcohol consumption in rodent models. Inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDE increases cAMP and reduces inflammatory signaling. Rolipram, an inhibitor of PDE4, markedly reduced ethanol intake and preference in mice and reduced ethanol seeking and consumption in alcohol-preferring fawn-hooded rats (Hu et al., 2011;Wen et al., 2012. To determine if these effects were specific for PDE4, we compared nine PDE inhibitors with different subtype selectivity: propentofylline (nonspecific, vinpocetine (PDE1, olprinone, milrinone (PDE3, zaprinast (PDE5, rolipram, mesopram, piclamilast, and CDP840 (PDE4. Alcohol intake was measured in C57BL/6J male mice using 24-hour two-bottle choice and two-bottle choice with limited (three-hour access to alcohol. Only the selective PDE4 inhibitors reduced ethanol intake and preference in the 24-hour two-bottle choice test. For rolipram, piclamilast, and CDP840, this effect was observed after the first 6 hours but not after the next 18 hours. Mesopram, however, produced a long-lasting reduction of ethanol intake and preference. In the limited access test, rolipram, piclamilast, and mesopram reduced ethanol consumption and total fluid intake and did not change preference for ethanol, whereas CDP840 reduced both consumption and preference without altering total fluid intake. Our results provide novel evidence for a selective role of PDE4 in regulating ethanol drinking in mice. We suggest that inhibition of PDE4 may be an unexplored target for medication development to reduce excessive alcohol consumption.

  13. Chronic low-dose UVA irradiation induces local suppression of contact hypersensitivity, Langerhans cell depletion and suppressor cell activation in C3H/HeJ mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestak, Rosa; Halliday, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that chronic low-dose solar-simulated UV radiation could induce both local and systemic immunosuppression as well as tolerance to a topically applied hapten. In this study, we have used a chronic low-dose UV-irradiation protocol to investigate the effects of UVA on the skin immune system of C3H/HeJ mice. Irradiation with UVA+B significantly suppressed the local and systemic primary contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to the hapten 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene. Furthermore, UVA+B reduced Langerhans cell (LC) and dendritic epidermal T cell (DETC) densities in chronically UV-irradiated mice. Ultraviolet A irradiation induced local, but not systemic, immunosuppression and reduced LC (32%) but not DETC from the epidermis compared to the shaved control animals. Treatment of mice with both UVA+B and UVA radiation also induced an impaired secondary CHS response, and this tolerance was transferable with spleen cells. (Author)

  14. Active suppression of host-vs-graft reaction in pregnant mice. VII. Spontaneous abortion of allogeneic CBA/J x DBA/2 fetuses in the uterus of CBA/J mice correlates with deficient non-T suppressor cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.A.; Chaput, A.; Tutton, D.

    1986-01-01

    The mammalian fetus has been viewed as an unusually successful type of allograft and unexplained spontaneous abortion as a possible example of maternal rejection. Previous studies have shown the presence of small lymphocytic suppressor cells in the murine decidua which block the generation and reactivation of anti-paternal cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) by elaborating a factor that inhibits the response to interleukin 2 (IL 2). A deficiency of these suppressor cells was associated with implants of xenogeneic Mus caroli embryos in the Mus musculus uterus which are infiltrated by maternal lymphoid cells and aborted. A deficiency of such suppressor cells in the lymph nodes draining the uterus of CBA/J females in the process of aborting their semi-allogeneic CBA x DBA/2 F 1 progeny has also been shown. CBA/J females possess significantly lower levels of decidua-associated non-T suppressor cells on day 8.5 to 10.5 of allopregnancy than do mothers that will produce large litters of live babies. The F 1 embryos are infiltrated by maternal lymphocytes prior to abortion, and the infiltration and abortion rate appears to be augmented by pre-immunization with paternal DBA/2 spleen cells. The CBA/J x DBA/2J mating combination provides a model of spontaneous abortion in which immunologic factors play an important role and demonstrates that the association between deficiency of decidua-associated suppressor cells and xenopregnancy failure also holds true for the failure of allopregnancies resulting from natural within-species mating

  15. Cost analysis of revisions to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix J, leak tests for primary and secondary containments of light-water-cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, F.; Nelson, W.; Simpkins, B.; Riordan, B.; Godfrey, P.; Cohen, S.; Beal, S.; Goldin, D.

    1985-09-01

    The report examines the differences between the existing and proposed Appendix J and identifies eleven substantive areas where quantifiable impacts will likely result. The analysis indicated that there are four areas of change which tend to dominate all others in terms of cost impacts. The applicable paragraph numbers from Draft E2 of the Appendix J revision and the nature of the change follows: III.A(4) and III.A(6) - Test Pressure and Testing at Reduced Pressure No Longer Allowed; III.A(7)(b)(i) Acceptance Criteria 1.0 L/sub a/ Acceptable ''As Found'' Leakage; III.A(8)(2) Retesting Following Failure of ''As Found'' Type A Test - Corrective Action Plan, and III.A(8)(b)(ii) Option To Do More Frequent Type B and C Testing Rather Than More Type A Penalty Tests. The best estimate is that the proposed Appendix J would result in a cost savings ranging from about $100 million to $160 million, and increase routing occupational exposure on the order of 10,000 person-rem. These estimates capture the total impact to industry and the NRC over the assumed operating life of all existing and planned future power reactors. All dollar impacts projected to occur in future years have been present worthed at discount rates ranging from 5% to 10%

  16. Observation of Cd 4d95s25p J=3 autoionizing levels in (e,2e) energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, N.L.S.; Bauman, R.P.; Wilson, M.

    1998-01-01

    Cadmium (e,2e) energy spectra have been measured for kinematics corresponding to a momentum transfer of 1 a.u. Two previously unknown cadmium autoinizing levels have been observed. Their energies are in excellent agreement with existing ab initio structure calculations of the 4d 9 5s 2 5p J=3 levels. One level is easily seen at an ejected-electron direction along the momentum-transfer axis, but is absent for a direction 39 degree away from this axis. The opposite is true for the other level; it is absent in the former, but present in the latter case. This behavior is in agreement with a calculation that takes into account that the J=3 levels can autoionize into both singlet and triplet 5sEf continua. The intensity of the new levels, relative to the well-known 4d 9 5s 2 5p J=1 levels, agrees well with a plane-wave Born approximation calculation for the J=3 levels. The third 4d 9 5s 2 5p J=3 level is calculated to lie within the broad 4d 9 5s 2 5p 1 P 1 level and cannot be seen in the present experiments. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  17. INTEGRAL detection of high energy emission from XMMSL1 J171900.4-353217

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishibashi, W.; Bozzo, Enrico; Terrier, Mereghetti, Paizis, Ducci, Gotz, Bazzano, Fiocchi, De Rosa, Tarana, Del Santo, Natalucci, Panessa, Capitanio, Sguer, Bianchin, Watanabe, Kuiper, Barragan, -

    2010-01-01

    During the observations of the SNR RXJ1713.7-3946, performed from 2010 August 12 at 00:14 to 2010 August 14 at 16:02 (UTC; PI R. Terrier), INTEGRAL detected hard X-ray emission from a position consistent with that of the recently discovered transient XMMSL1 J171900.4-353217. The source was within...... the IBIS/ISGRI FOV for a total exposure time of 170 ks and was detected at a significance level of 6.5 sigma (20-40 keV energy band). The best fit position obtained from the OSA software is at RA: 259.738 DEC: -35.508 (J2000), with an associated error of 3.9 arcmin. The ISGRI spectrum is best fit...

  18. The majority of lamina propria CD4(+) T-cells from scid mice with colitis undergo Fas-mediated apoptosis in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Petersen, T R; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2001-01-01

    We have previously shown that adoptively transferred CD4(+) T-cells mediate an chronic colitis in severe combined immune deficient (scid) mice. Colitis is accompanied by activation and apoptosis of Fas ligand and TNF-alpha expressing CD4(+) T-cells in the diseased colonic lamina propria (Eur. J....... Immunol. 28:3655 (1998)). Here we investigate the apoptosis-inducing mechanism in these lamina propria infiltrating CD4(+) T-cells. We observe that freshly isolated lamina propria CD4(+) T-cells can kill Fas transfected P815 mastocytoma cells in a TCR/CD3 redirected chromium-release assay, but do...... not express TNF-alpha mediated cytotoxicity. Pre-incubation of the isolated lamina propria CD4(+) T-cells with an anti-FasL antiserum partially blocked killing of the Fas transfected target cells, indicating a role for the Fas-FasL system in the killing process. Treatment of scid mice with colitis with anti-Fas...

  19. Recovering probabilities for nucleotide trimming processes for T cell receptor TRA and TRG V-J junctions analyzed with IMGT tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefranc Marie-Paule

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleotides are trimmed from the ends of variable (V, diversity (D and joining (J genes during immunoglobulin (IG and T cell receptor (TR rearrangements in B cells and T cells of the immune system. This trimming is followed by addition of nucleotides at random, forming the N regions (N for nucleotides of the V-J and V-D-J junctions. These processes are crucial for creating diversity in the immune response since the number of trimmed nucleotides and the number of added nucleotides vary in each B or T cell. IMGT® sequence analysis tools, IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis, are able to provide detailed and accurate analysis of the final observed junction nucleotide sequences (tool "output". However, as trimmed nucleotides can potentially be replaced by identical N region nucleotides during the process, the observed "output" represents a biased estimate of the "true trimming process." Results A probabilistic approach based on an analysis of the standardized tool "output" is proposed to infer the probability distribution of the "true trimmming process" and to provide plausible biological hypotheses explaining this process. We collated a benchmark dataset of TR alpha (TRA and TR gamma (TRG V-J rearranged sequences and junctions analysed with IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis, the nucleotide sequence analysis tools from IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system®, http://imgt.cines.fr. The standardized description of the tool output is based on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts. We propose a simple first-order model that attempts to transform the observed "output" probability distribution into an estimate closer to the "true trimming process" probability distribution. We use this estimate to test the hypothesis that Poisson processes are involved in trimming. This hypothesis was not rejected at standard confidence levels for three of the four trimming processes: TRAV, TRAJ and TRGV. Conclusion By

  20. Recovering probabilities for nucleotide trimming processes for T cell receptor TRA and TRG V-J junctions analyzed with IMGT tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Kevin; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Biau, Gérard

    2008-10-02

    Nucleotides are trimmed from the ends of variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) genes during immunoglobulin (IG) and T cell receptor (TR) rearrangements in B cells and T cells of the immune system. This trimming is followed by addition of nucleotides at random, forming the N regions (N for nucleotides) of the V-J and V-D-J junctions. These processes are crucial for creating diversity in the immune response since the number of trimmed nucleotides and the number of added nucleotides vary in each B or T cell. IMGT sequence analysis tools, IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis, are able to provide detailed and accurate analysis of the final observed junction nucleotide sequences (tool "output"). However, as trimmed nucleotides can potentially be replaced by identical N region nucleotides during the process, the observed "output" represents a biased estimate of the "true trimming process." A probabilistic approach based on an analysis of the standardized tool "output" is proposed to infer the probability distribution of the "true trimmming process" and to provide plausible biological hypotheses explaining this process. We collated a benchmark dataset of TR alpha (TRA) and TR gamma (TRG) V-J rearranged sequences and junctions analysed with IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis, the nucleotide sequence analysis tools from IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system, http://imgt.cines.fr. The standardized description of the tool output is based on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts. We propose a simple first-order model that attempts to transform the observed "output" probability distribution into an estimate closer to the "true trimming process" probability distribution. We use this estimate to test the hypothesis that Poisson processes are involved in trimming. This hypothesis was not rejected at standard confidence levels for three of the four trimming processes: TRAV, TRAJ and TRGV. By using trimming of rearranged TR genes as a benchmark, we

  1. J Karuppiah

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. J Karuppiah. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 124 Issue 4 July 2012 pp 841-845. Nonthermal plasma assisted photocatalytic oxidation of dilute benzene · J Karuppiah E Linga Reddy L Sivachandiran R Karvembu Ch Subrahmanyam · More Details ...

  2. The t-J model at small t/j: Numerical, perturbative, and supersymmetric results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1991-02-01

    We discuss some recent results for one- and two-hole states in the t-J model at small t/J. These include numerical results (bandwidth determinations and accurate t/J values for 4 x 4 lattice one-hole ground-state level crossings), hopping-parameter perturbation theory (which gives the small-t/J one-hole bandwidth in terms of the static-vacancy ground state), and results at the supersymmetric point t/J = 1/2 (exact results for energies and bandwidths.) The perturbative results leads us to a new conjecture regarding the staggered magnetization of higher-spin states in the two-dimensional Heisenberg model. We also discuss extrapolation of small-t/J results to high-T c parameter values; in the two-hole ground states we find (t/J) λ behavior in the rms hole-hole separation, and an extrapolation to t/J = 3 gives a bulk-limit rms hole-hole separation of ∼ 7 angstrom. 18 refs., 6 figs

  3. The development of synthetic test procedure for hot cell equipment systems in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Bok; Lee, Key Soon; Park, Dae Kyu; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Choo, Yong Sun

    1998-04-01

    Hot cell facility should be confirmed to operation safety through pre-commissioning test after construction. In this report, the detailed procedure of hot cell equipment are described. The contents are as follows: 1. Entrance equipment of hot cell 2. Specimen transportation equipment between hot cells 3. Waste discharge equipment in hot cell 4. Specimen loading equipment to hot cell 5. Interlinking equipment in hot cell. (author). 4 tabs

  4. Rhabdomyosarcomas in aging A/J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B Sher

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcomas (RSCs are skeletal muscle neoplasms found in humans and domestic mammals. The A/J inbred strain developed a high frequency (between 70-80% of adult pleomorphic type (APT RSC at >20 months of age while BALB/cByJ also develop RSC but less frequently. These neoplasms invaded skeletal muscle surrounding either the axial or proximal appendicular skeleton and were characterized by pleomorphic cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, multiple nuclei, and cross striations. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of alpha-sarcomeric actin and myogenin in the neoplastic cells using immunocytochemistry. The A/J strain, but not the related BALB/c substrains, is also characterised by a progressive muscular dystrophy homologous to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B. The association between the development of RSC in similar muscle groups to those most severely affected by the progressive muscular dystrophy suggested that these neoplasms developed from abnormal regeneration of the skeletal muscle exacerbated by the dysferlin mutation. Transcriptome analyses of RSCs revealed marked downregulation of genes in muscular development and function signaling networks. Non-synonymous coding SNPs were found in Myl1, Abra, Sgca, Ttn, and Kcnj12 suggesting these may be important in the pathogenesis of RSC. These studies suggest that A strains of mice can be useful models for dissecting the molecular genetic basis for development, progression, and ultimately for testing novel anticancer therapeutic agents dealing with rhabdomyosarcoma.

  5. jà vu experiences in healthy subjects are unrelated to laboratory tests of recollection and familiarity for word stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Robert O'Connor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuropsychological and neuroscientific research suggests that people who experience more déjà vu display characteristic patterns in normal recognition memory. We conducted a large individual differences study (n = 206 to test these predictions using recollection and familiarity parameters recovered from a standard memory task. Participants reported déjà vu frequency and a number of its correlates, and completed a recognition memory task analogous to a Remember-Know procedure. The individual difference measures replicated an established correlation between déjà vu frequency and frequency of travel, and recognition performance showed well-established word frequency and accuracy effects. Contrary to predictions, no relationships were found between déjà vu frequency and recollection or familiarity memory parameters from the recognition test. We suggest that déjà vu in the healthy population reflects a mismatch between errant memory signalling and memory monitoring processes not easily characterised by standard recognition memory task performance.

  6. Fuel Tests on an I-16 Jet-Propulsion Engine at Static Sea-Level Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-04-29

    All fuel lines and manometer leads were Joined to tbs engine by r.;bber-hoee con::&-:tions to prov-.de flexi- bility. The test cell Itself wa3 a...The air leakage into t:.e cell was measured i:id laolntefl’ In the calculations of the air flow to the er.jine. Figure 1 also shirks tbfl...t t - ’ > / J / i / 4» / / / >•• —* / - - iw r—’ 860 <•— 4 f < Hot-« el4 oct.nt t> Unil rucl . - -Theoretical lln«i / 0 ; I T

  7. 4-phenylbutyrate Mitigates Fluoride-Induced Cytotoxicity in ALC Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Suzuki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fluoride over-exposure during pre-eruptive enamel development can cause dental fluorosis. Severe dental fluorosis is characterized by porous, soft enamel that is vulnerable to erosion and decay. The prevalence of dental fluorosis among the population in the USA, India and China is increasing. Other than avoiding excessive intake, treatments to prevent dental fluorosis remain unknown. We previously reported that high-dose fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and oxidative stress in ameloblasts. Cell stress induces gene repression, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. An aromatic fatty acid, 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA is a chemical chaperone that interacts with misfolded proteins to prevent ER stress. We hypothesized that 4PBA ameliorates fluoride-induced ER stress in ameloblasts. To determine whether 4PBA protects ameloblasts from fluoride toxicity, we analyzed gene expression of Tgf-β1, Bcl2/Bax ratio and cytochrome-c release in vitro. In vivo, we measured fluorosis levels, enamel hardness and fluoride concentration. Fluoride treated Ameloblast-lineage cells (ALC had decreased Tgf-β1 expression and this was reversed by 4PBA treatment. The anti-apoptotic Blc2/Bax ratio was significantly increased in ALC cells treated with fluoride/4PBA compared to fluoride treatment alone. Fluoride treatment induced cytochrome-c release from mitochondria into the cytosol and this was inhibited by 4PBA treatment. These results suggest that 4PBA mitigates fluoride-induced gene suppression, apoptosis and mitochondrial damage in vitro. In vivo, C57BL/6J mice were provided fluoridated water for six weeks with either fluoride free control-chow or 4PBA-containing chow (7 g/kg 4PBA. With few exceptions, enamel microhardness, fluorosis levels, and fluoride concentrations of bone and urine did not differ significantly between fluoride treated animals fed with control-chow or 4PBA-chow. Although 4PBA mitigated high-dose fluoride toxicity in vitro, a diet

  8. 4-phenylbutyrate Mitigates Fluoride-Induced Cytotoxicity in ALC Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Maiko; Everett, Eric T; Whitford, Gary M; Bartlett, John D

    2017-01-01

    Chronic fluoride over-exposure during pre-eruptive enamel development can cause dental fluorosis. Severe dental fluorosis is characterized by porous, soft enamel that is vulnerable to erosion and decay. The prevalence of dental fluorosis among the population in the USA, India and China is increasing. Other than avoiding excessive intake, treatments to prevent dental fluorosis remain unknown. We previously reported that high-dose fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress in ameloblasts. Cell stress induces gene repression, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. An aromatic fatty acid, 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) is a chemical chaperone that interacts with misfolded proteins to prevent ER stress. We hypothesized that 4PBA ameliorates fluoride-induced ER stress in ameloblasts. To determine whether 4PBA protects ameloblasts from fluoride toxicity, we analyzed gene expression of Tgf -β 1, Bcl2 / Bax ratio and cytochrome-c release in vitro . In vivo , we measured fluorosis levels, enamel hardness and fluoride concentration. Fluoride treated Ameloblast-lineage cells (ALC) had decreased Tgf -β 1 expression and this was reversed by 4PBA treatment. The anti-apoptotic Blc2 / Bax ratio was significantly increased in ALC cells treated with fluoride/4PBA compared to fluoride treatment alone. Fluoride treatment induced cytochrome-c release from mitochondria into the cytosol and this was inhibited by 4PBA treatment. These results suggest that 4PBA mitigates fluoride-induced gene suppression, apoptosis and mitochondrial damage in vitro . In vivo , C57BL/6J mice were provided fluoridated water for six weeks with either fluoride free control-chow or 4PBA-containing chow (7 g/kg 4PBA). With few exceptions, enamel microhardness, fluorosis levels, and fluoride concentrations of bone and urine did not differ significantly between fluoride treated animals fed with control-chow or 4PBA-chow. Although 4PBA mitigated high-dose fluoride toxicity in vitro , a diet rich

  9. Use of J-integral and modified J-integral as measures of elastic-plastic fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.A.; Hays, R.A.; Hackett, E.M.; Joyce, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    J-R Curve tests were conducted on 12T, 1T and 2T compact specimens of materials having J/sub IC/ values ranging from 150 in-lbsq in to over 2600 in-lbsq in. These materials were chosen such that some would exceed the maximum crack length criterion of ASTM E1152-87 prior to reaching the maximum J criterion (3-Ni steel, 5000 series Al) and some would exceed the maximum J criterion first (A533B, A710). The elastic-plastic fracture behavior of these materials was examined using both the deformation theory J-integral (J/sub D/) and the modified J-integral (J/sub M/). The J-R curve testing was performed to very large values of crack opening displacement (COD) where the crack growth was typically 75% of the original remaining ligament. The results of this work suggest that the J/sub D/-R curves exhibit no specimen size dependence to crack extensions far in excess of the E1152 allowables. The J/sub M/-R curves calculated for the same specimens show a significant amount of specimen size dependence which becomes larger as the material toughness decreases. This work suggests that it is premature to utilize the modified J-integral in assessing the flaw tolerance of structures

  10. SWIFT J1749.4-2807 : X-ray decay, refined position and optical observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.J.; Russell, D. M.; Wijnands, R.; van der Klis, M.; Altamirano, D.; Patruno, A.; Watts, A.; Armas Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; Linares, M.; Casella, P.; Rea, N.; Soleri, P.; Lewis, F.; Kong, A. K. H.

    We analyzed seven, target ID 31686, Swift follow-up observations of the neutron-star X-ray transient Swfit J1749.4-2807 (Wijnands et al. 2009) currently in outburst and which was found to be an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar (ATel #2565). The observations span from April 11 to April 20.

  11. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Photovoltaic Cells Using Reference Cells Under Simulated Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of a photovoltaic cell under simulated sunlight by means of a calibrated reference cell procedure. 1.2 Electrical performance measurements are reported with respect to a select set of standard reporting conditions (SRC) (see Table 1) or to user-specified conditions. 1.2.1 The SRC or user-specified conditions include the cell temperature, the total irradiance, and the reference spectral irradiance distribution. 1.3 This test method is applicable only to photovoltaic cells with a linear response over the range of interest. 1.4 The cell parameters determined by this test method apply only at the time of test, and imply no past or future performance level. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this s...

  12. Standard Test Method for Calibration of Non-Concentrator Photovoltaic Secondary Reference Cells

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers calibration and characterization of secondary terrestrial photovoltaic reference cells to a desired reference spectral irradiance distribution. The recommended physical requirements for these reference cells are described in Specification E1040. Reference cells are principally used in the determination of the electrical performance of a photovoltaic device. 1.2 Secondary reference cells are calibrated indoors using simulated sunlight or outdoors in natural sunlight by reference to a primary reference cell previously calibrated to the same desired reference spectral irradiance distribution. 1.3 Secondary reference cells calibrated according to this test method will have the same radiometric traceability as the of the primary reference cell used for the calibration. Therefore, if the primary reference cell is traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR, see Test Method E816), the resulting secondary reference cell will also be traceable to the WRR. 1.4 This test method appli...

  13. [Changes of CD(4)(+) Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and CD(4)(+)IL-17+T cells in acrolein exposure rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming; Tu, Ling; Liang, Yinghong; Li, Jia; Gong, Yanjie; Zhang, Yihua; Yang, Lu

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the changes of CD(4)(+) IL-17+T (Th17) and CD(4)(+)Foxp3+regulatory T (Treg) cells in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) , and therefore to explore the role of Th17 and Treg in acrolein exposure airway inflammation in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: a 2 wk acrolein exposure group, a 4 wk acrolein exposure group, a 2 wk control group and a 4 wk control group (n=10 each). Cells in BALF were collected and analyzed by absolute and differential cell counts.IL-17 and IL-6 levels in serum and BALF were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proportion of CD(4)(+)IL-17+T and CD(4)(+) Foxp3+Treg in peripheral blood and BALF were determined by flow cytometry.The mRNA expressions of IL-17 and Foxp3 were measured by real-time PCR. Comparisons of the data between different groups were performed using one-way ANOVA, and SNK and Games-Howell test were used for comparison between 2 groups. Levels of IL-17 were remarkable increased in the 2 wk acrolein exposure group and the 4 wk acrolein exposure group in serum [(52.64 ± 1.89) ng/L, (76.73 ± 5.57) ng/L], and BALF [(79.07 ± 5.67) ng/L, (96.61 ± 6.44) ng/L] compared with the 2 wk control group [(40.05 ± 3.12) ng/L, (56.75 ± 4.37) ng/L] and the 4 wk control group [(38.75 ± 3.23) ng/L, (53.27 ± 4.48) ng/L], all Pcells and macrophages (r=0.5126, 0.5437, all Pcells and an vary of inflammatory cytokines were evident in airway inflammation of acrolein exposed rats, suggesting that Treg was involved in the immunological regulation and Th17 was associated with the persistent inflammation in acrolein induced airway inflammation in rats.

  14. Synthesis of 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone and 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone as a candidate anticancer against cervical (HeLa) cancer cell and colon (WiDr) cancer cell by in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsjeh, Sabirin; Anwar, Chairil; Solikhah, Eti Nurwening; Farah, Harra Ismi; Nurfitria, Kurnia

    2017-03-01

    The compound 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone and 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone have been synthesized through cyclization reaction of 2 ', 4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone (1,3-diphenyl-2-propene-1-one). The 2 ', 4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone were synthesized through Claisen-Schmidt condensation from 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (anisaldehyde) in aqueous KOH as a catalyst in ethanol. The 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone has been synthesized through cyclization reaction of 2 ', 4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone by Oxa-Michael addition reaction with sulfuric acid as a catalyst in ethanol. The 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone has been synthesized through oxidative cyclization reaction of 2 ', 4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone using I2 in DMSO as a catalyst with a mole ratio (1: 1) mol. All these producets were characterized by FT-IR, GC-MS, and 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectrometer. Both of these compounds were tested citotoxycity activity as an anticancer against cervical and colon cancer cells (HeLa and WiDr cell lines) using MTT assay in vitro. Dose series given test solution concentration on HeLa and WiDr cells starting from 0,78; 1,56; 3,12; 6,25; 12,50; 25; 50 and 100 µg/mL with a long incubation treatment for 24 hours. The results study showed that the 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone as bright yellow crystals with a melting point 172-174 ° C and a yield of 56.67% and the 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone as bright yellow crystals with a yield of 88, 31%, and a melting point of 263-265 ° C. The test results cytotoxic 7-hydroxy-4-methoxyflavone showed active against HeLa cells with IC50 value of 25.73 µg/mL and was quite active in the WiDr cells with IC50 value of 83.75 µg/mL. The result of the activity of 7-hydroxy-4-methoxyflavanone show active cytotoxic activity against HeLa and WiDr cell growth with IC50 value of 40.13 µg/mL and 37.85 µg/mL. IC50 value indicated that 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone and 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone potential as inhibitors in HeLa and

  15. Urea enhances cell lysis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe ura4 mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Kohei; Kushima, Misaki; Kaino, Tomohiro; Matsuo, Yasuhiro; Kawamukai, Makoto

    2017-07-01

    Cell lysis is induced in Schizosaccharomyces pombe ∆ura4 cells grown in YPD medium, which contains yeast extract, polypeptone, and glucose. To identify the medium components that induce cell lysis, we first tested various kinds of yeast extracts from different suppliers. Cell lysis of ∆ura4 cells on YE medium was observed when yeast extracts from OXOID, BD, Oriental, and Difco were used, but not when using yeast extract from Kyokuto. To determine which compounds induced cell lysis, we subjected yeast extract and polypeptone to GC-MS analysis. Ten kinds of compounds were detected in OXOID and BD yeast extracts, but not in Kyokuto yeast extract. Among them was urea, which was also present in polypeptone, and it clearly induced cell lysis. Deletion of the ure2 gene, which is responsible for utilizing urea, abolished the lytic effect of urea. The effect of urea was suppressed by deletion of pub1, and a similar phenotype was observed in the presence of polypeptone. Thus, urea is an inducer of cell lysis in S. pombe ∆ura4 cells.

  16. Dehydroabietic Acid Derivative QC4 Induces Gastric Cancer Cell Death via Oncosis and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjun Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. QC4 is the derivative of rosin’s main components dehydroabietic acid (DHA. We investigated the cytotoxic effect of QC4 on gastric cancer cells and revealed the mechanisms beneath the induction of cell death. Methods. The cytotoxic effect of QC4 on gastric cancer cells was evaluated by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. The underlying mechanisms were tested by administration of cell death related inhibitors and detection of apoptotic and oncosis related proteins. Cytomembrane integrity and organelles damage were confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage assay, mitochondrial function test, and cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration detection. Results. QC4 inhibited cell proliferation dose- and time-dependently and destroyed cell membrane integrity, activated calpain-1 autolysis, and induced apoptotic protein cleavage in gastric cancer cells. The detection of decreased ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS accumulation, and cytosolic free Ca2+ elevation confirmed organelles damage in QC4-treated gastric cancer cells. Conclusions. DHA derivative QC4 induced the damage of cytomembrane and organelles which finally lead to oncosis and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Therefore, as a derivative of plant derived small molecule DHA, QC4 might become a promising agent in gastric cancer therapy.

  17. Mnengi et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(4):62 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    Mnengi et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(4):62-65 ... A drop of dry yeast suspension was added as food to each vial. Probit analysis ... of five while some children are treated with malaria medications in biomedical facilities, as the World Health Organization recommends, others obtain home-care or ...

  18. Increased memory phenotypes of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leonard Mboera

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... In this study, we investigated the phenotype and activation ... Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA), the homozygous form of Sickle Cell ..... J.L., Fenton, P., Blumberg, N. & Walters, M.C. (2005) Hematopoietic stem cell ... cell anaemia patients and effects of hydroxyurea therapy.

  19. Foxo4- and Stat3-dependent IL-10 production by progranulin in regulatory T cells restrains inflammatory arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wenyu; Hu, Wenhuo; Shi, Lei; Mundra, Jyoti Joshi; Xiao, GuoZhi; Dustin, Michael L.; Liu, Chuan-ju

    2017-01-01

    Progranulin (PGRN) restrains inflammation and is therapeutic against inflammatory arthritis; however, the underlying immunological mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was a critical mediator for PGRN-mediated anti-inflammation in collagen-induced arthritis by using PGRN and IL-10 genetically modified mouse models. IL-10 green fluorescent protein reporter mice revealed that regulatory T (Treg) cells were the predominant source of IL-10 in response to PGRN. In addition, PGRN-mediated expansion and activation of Treg cells, as well as IL-10 production, depends on JNK signaling, but not on known PGRN-activated ERK and PI3K pathways. Furthermore, microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing screens led to the discovery of forkhead box protein O4 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 as the transcription factors required for PGRN induction of IL-10 in Treg cells. These findings define a previously unrecognized signaling pathway that underlies IL-10 production by PGRN in Treg cells and present new insights into the mechanisms by which PGRN resolves inflammation in inflammatory conditions and autoimmune diseases, particularly inflammatory arthritis.—Fu, W., Hu, W., Shi, L., Mundra, J. J. Xiao, G., Dustin, M. L., Liu, C. Foxo4- and Stat3-dependent IL-10 production by progranulin in regulatory T cells restrains inflammatory arthritis. PMID:28011648

  20. Modeling of drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction by using human iPS cell-derived enterocyte-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negoro, Ryosuke; Takayama, Kazuo; Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many drugs have potential to induce the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), in small intestinal enterocytes. Therefore, a model that can accurately evaluate drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction is urgently needed. In this study, we overlaid Matrigel on the human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived enterocyte-like cells (hiPS-ELCs) to generate the mature hiPS-ELCs that could be applied to drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test. By overlaying Matrigel in the maturation process of enterocyte-like cells, the gene expression levels of intestinal markers (VILLIN, sucrase-isomaltase, intestine-specific homeobox, caudal type homeobox 2, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein) were enhanced suggesting that the enterocyte-like cells were maturated by Matrigel overlay. The percentage of VILLIN-positive cells in the hiPS-ELCs found to be approximately 55.6%. To examine the CYP3A4 induction potential, the hiPS-ELCs were treated with various drugs. Treatment with dexamethasone, phenobarbital, rifampicin, or 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in 5.8-fold, 13.4-fold, 9.8-fold, or 95.0-fold induction of CYP3A4 expression relative to that in the untreated controls, respectively. These results suggest that our hiPS-ELCs would be a useful model for CYP3A4 induction test. - Highlights: • The hiPS-ELCs were matured by Matrigel overlay. • The hiPS-ELCs expressed intestinal nuclear receptors, such as PXR, GR and VDR. • The hiPS-ELC is a useful model for the drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test.

  1. Modeling of drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction by using human iPS cell-derived enterocyte-like cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negoro, Ryosuke [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takayama, Kazuo [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Keihanshin Consortium for Fostering the Next Generation of Global Leaders in Research (K-CONNEX), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Laboratory of Hepatocyte Regulation, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Nagamoto, Yasuhito [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Hepatocyte Regulation, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Sakurai, Fuminori [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Regulatory Sciences for Oligonucleotide Therapeutics, Clinical Drug Development Project, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tachibana, Masashi [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: mizuguch@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Hepatocyte Regulation, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Global Center for Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Many drugs have potential to induce the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), in small intestinal enterocytes. Therefore, a model that can accurately evaluate drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction is urgently needed. In this study, we overlaid Matrigel on the human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived enterocyte-like cells (hiPS-ELCs) to generate the mature hiPS-ELCs that could be applied to drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test. By overlaying Matrigel in the maturation process of enterocyte-like cells, the gene expression levels of intestinal markers (VILLIN, sucrase-isomaltase, intestine-specific homeobox, caudal type homeobox 2, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein) were enhanced suggesting that the enterocyte-like cells were maturated by Matrigel overlay. The percentage of VILLIN-positive cells in the hiPS-ELCs found to be approximately 55.6%. To examine the CYP3A4 induction potential, the hiPS-ELCs were treated with various drugs. Treatment with dexamethasone, phenobarbital, rifampicin, or 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in 5.8-fold, 13.4-fold, 9.8-fold, or 95.0-fold induction of CYP3A4 expression relative to that in the untreated controls, respectively. These results suggest that our hiPS-ELCs would be a useful model for CYP3A4 induction test. - Highlights: • The hiPS-ELCs were matured by Matrigel overlay. • The hiPS-ELCs expressed intestinal nuclear receptors, such as PXR, GR and VDR. • The hiPS-ELC is a useful model for the drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test.

  2. In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline Specific CD4 T-Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0004 TITLE: In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T - Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to test the hypothesis that cit-specific CD4 T cells present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients

  3. Word Frequency Analysis. MOS: 62J. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    WCRDI COUNT2 W OR u, CO UIT 3 WORD 3 COUNT’. kCRD4 I CELL 9 CLNTER I CERERLINE t CENTRALLY 2 C [JTP I FGAL 2 CZRT..IN I CESSIVE 46 LFI’ 14 C H%1% ~ 4...4 .4* 4 AD ,G4 ANGLI 4 fC S 0A 4 r. 5 54b d204 4 BE- J 4OCK4 ECAGNE 4 TTA .(.KFTS 4 B𔃻E.KER 4 44 CC!’PPCT 4 13FL*.~If 4 CCLC CTwV7CCC~L< EL4 CO 4 CE...t CI RE I CARTcUL I CAR7~ I 3 CARRY I CAL 7I C!! 11 E t C., TFPS I CA~TCH I C4TEO I co usIN Kr I CL TC1 I CELL 1CTNlERL!NEz I ’ENI P.LIY Ic3VEI

  4. J. Genet. classic 101

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 101. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 102. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 103. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 104. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  5. J. Genet. classic 37

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 37. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 38. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 39. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 40. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  6. DJ-1/Park7 Sensitive Na+ /H+ Exchanger 1 (NHE1) in CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuetao; Shi, Xiaolong; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shaqiu; Salker, Madhuri S; Mack, Andreas F; Föller, Michael; Mak, Tak W; Singh, Yogesh; Lang, Florian

    2017-11-01

    DJ-1/Park7 is a redox-sensitive chaperone protein counteracting oxidation and presumably contributing to the control of oxidative stress responses and thus inflammation. DJ-1 gene deletion exacerbates the progression of Parkinson's disease presumably by augmenting oxidative stress. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is paralleled by activation of the Na + /H + exchanger 1 (NHE1). ROS formation in CD4 + T cells plays a decisive role in regulating inflammatory responses. In the present study, we explored whether DJ-1 is expressed in CD4 + T cells, and affects ROS production as well as NHE1 in those cells. To this end, DJ-1 and NHE1 transcript, and protein levels were quantified by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, intracellular pH (pH i ) utilizing bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) fluorescence, NHE activity from realkalinization after an ammonium pulse, and ROS production utilizing 2',7' -dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. As a result DJ-1 was expressed in CD4 + T cells. ROS formation, NHE1 transcript levels, NHE1 protein, and NHE activity were higher in CD4 + T cells from DJ-1 deficient mice than in CD4 + T cells from wild type mice. Antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor staurosporine decreased the NHE activity in DJ-1 deficient CD4 + T cells, and blunted the difference between DJ-1 -/- and DJ-1 +/+ CD4 + T cells, an observation pointing to a role of ROS in the up-regulation of NHE1 in DJ-1 -/- CD4 + T cells. In conclusion, DJ-1 is a powerful regulator of ROS production as well as NHE1 expression and activity in CD4 + T cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 3050-3059, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Nonparametric Statistics Test Software Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    25 I1l,lCELL WRITE (NCF,12 ) IvE (I ,RCCT(I) 122 FORMAT(IlXt 3(H5 9 1) IF( IeLT *NCELL) WRITE (NOF1123 J PARTV(I1J 123 FORMAT( Xll----’,FIo.3J 25 CONT...the user’s entries. Its purpose is to write two types of files needed by the program Crunch: the data file, and the option file. 211 Iuill rateLchiavar...data file and communicate the choice of test and test parameters to Crunch. After a data file is written, Lochinvar prompts the writing of the

  8. Establishment of a common acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (LC4-1) and effects of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) on the surface antigen expression of the cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, T; Mayumi, M; Yorifuji, T; Kim, K M; Heike, T; Miyanomae, T; Shinomiya, K; Mikawa, H

    1987-09-01

    A common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell line, designated LC4-1, was established from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a patient with acute non-T-cell ALL. LC4-1 cells were characteristically positive for Ia, B4, and common ALL antigens (CALLA), but negative for B2, Tac, T3, T4, T8, T11, and M1 antigens and E-rosette formation. Approximately 30% of LC4-1 cells expressed detectable amounts of B1 antigens. LC4-1 cells expressed neither Epstein-Barr-virus-associated nuclear antigen (EBNA), cytoplasmic immunoglobulins (cIg) nor surface immunoglobulins (sIg). Gene rearrangements had already occurred in LC4-1 in the D-J region of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes, but not in T-cell receptor (beta-chain) genes, suggesting that LC4-1 is a progenitor cell line of B-cell lineage earlier than pre-B-cells. The expression of cell surface antigens of LC4-1 was changed by treatment with 4-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (0.1 ng/ml) for 2 days. Before treatment with PMA, about 98% of LC4-1 cells were positive for B4, CALLA, and Ia. However, following treatment they lost CALLA expression without any change in expression of Ia and B4. There was no change in B1-positive population. The change in surface antigens on LC4-1 cells seems to be due to differentiation induced in the cells by PMA. These results support the hypothesis that CALLA is a differentiation antigen and suggest one possible differentiation pathway for pre-B-cells.

  9. Integral benchmark test of JENDL-4.0 for U-233 systems with ICSBEP handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwagaki, Kazuki; Nagaya, Yasunobu

    2017-03-01

    The integral benchmark test of JENDL-4.0 for U-233 systems using the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MVP was conducted. The previous benchmark test was performed only for U-233 thermal solution and fast metallic systems in the ICSBEP handbook. In this study, MVP input files were prepared for uninvestigated benchmark problems in the handbook including compound thermal systems (mainly lattice systems) and integral benchmark test was performed. The prediction accuracy of JENDL-4.0 was evaluated for effective multiplication factors (k eff 's) of the U-233 systems. As a result, a trend of underestimation was observed for all the categories of U-233 systems. In the benchmark test of ENDF/B-VII.1 for U-233 systems with the ICSBEP handbook, it is reported that a decreasing trend of calculated k eff values in association with a parameter ATFF (Above-Thermal Fission Fraction) is observed. The ATFF values were also calculated in this benchmark test of JENDL-4.0 and the same trend as ENDF/B-VII.1 was observed. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  10. K/sub Ic/ and J/sub Ic/ of Westerly granite: effects of thickness and in-plane dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.A.; Lutz, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation is described in which tensile properties, fracture toughness, and critical J integral are measured for Westerly granite, a rock that is widely used in rock mechanics studies. This was primarily a parameter sensitivity study in which the effects of specimen dimensions and testing techniques were assessed. It is hoped that this study will aid in establishing tentative standards and guidelines for fracture toughness testing of rock as well as indicate the feasibility of using a J integral fracture criterion for this material. ASTM standard specimen configurations of the compact and bend types were tested with compact specimens ranging in width from W = 25.4 mm to W = 406.4 mm (0.5T to 8T) and with thickness ranging from 13 mm to 100 mm. A series of 4T compact specimens were tested to assess the effects of thickness and fatigue precracking. Techniques are described that enable several values of K/sub Ic/, a complete J vs crack growth curve, and a J/sub Ic/ value to be obtained from each sample. Direct-pull tension tests on shaped specimens of Westerly granite are described which indicate a high degree of nonlinear, inelastic behavior. This fact raises questions about the use of LEFM, but the J/sub Ic/ data presented appear to validate the K/sub Ic/ measurements

  11. Next-to-leading-order tests of NRQCD factorization with J/{psi} yield and polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butenschoen, Mathias [Wien Univ. (Austria). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2012-12-15

    We report on recent progress in testing the factorization formalism of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics (NRQCD) at next-to-leading order (NLO) for J/{psi} yield and polarization. We demonstrate that it is possible to unambiguously determine the leading color-octet long-distance matrix elements (LDMEs) in compliance with the velocity scaling rules through a global fit to experimental data of unpolarized J/{psi} production in pp, p anti p, ep, {gamma}{gamma}, and e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions.Three data sets not included in the fit, from hadroproduction and from photoproduction in the fixed-target and colliding-beam modes, are nicely reproduced. The polarization observables measured in different frames at DESY HERA and CERN LHC reasonably agree with NLO NRQCD predictions obtained using the LDMEs extracted from the global fit, while measurements from the FNAL Tevatron exhibit severe disagreement. We demonstrate that alternative LDME sets recently obtained in two other NLO NRQCD analyses of J/{psi} yield and polarization, with different philosophies, also fail to reconcile the Tevatron polarization data with the other available world data.

  12. SALL4 expression in gonocytes and spermatogonial clones of postnatal mouse testes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Gassei

    Full Text Available The spermatogenic lineage is established after birth when gonocytes migrate to the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules and give rise to spermatogonial stem cells (SSC. In adults, SSCs reside within the population of undifferentiated spermatogonia (A(undiff that expands clonally from single cells (A(single to form pairs (A(paired and chains of 4, 8 and 16 A(aligned spermatogonia. Although stem cell activity is thought to reside in the population of A(single spermatogonia, new research suggests that clone size alone does not define the stem cell pool. The mechanisms that regulate self-renewal and differentiation fate decisions are poorly understood due to limited availability of experimental tools that distinguish the products of those fate decisions. The pluripotency factor SALL4 (sal-like protein 4 is implicated in stem cell maintenance and patterning in many organs during embryonic development, but expression becomes restricted to the gonads after birth. We analyzed the expression of SALL4 in the mouse testis during the first weeks after birth and in adult seminiferous tubules. In newborn mice, the isoform SALL4B is expressed in quiescent gonocytes at postnatal day 0 (PND0 and SALL4A is upregulated at PND7 when gonocytes have colonized the basement membrane and given rise to spermatogonia. During steady-state spermatogenesis in adult testes, SALL4 expression overlapped substantially with PLZF and LIN28 in A(single, A(paired and A(aligned spermatogonia and therefore appears to be a marker of undifferentiated spermatogonia in mice. In contrast, co-expression of SALL4 with GFRα1 and cKIT identified distinct subpopulations of A(undiff in all clone sizes that might provide clues about SSC regulation. Collectively, these results indicate that 1 SALL4 isoforms are differentially expressed at the initiation of spermatogenesis, 2 SALL4 is expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonia in adult testes and 3 SALL4 co-staining with GFRα1 and c

  13. Septal membrane localization by C-terminal amphipathic α-helices of MinD in Bacillus subtilis mutant cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazuki; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Hara, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kouji

    2017-10-18

    The Min system, which inhibits assembly of the cytokinetic protein FtsZ, is largely responsible for positioning the division site in rod-shaped bacteria. It has been reported that MinJ, which bridges DivIVA and MinD, is targeted to the cell poles by an interaction with DivIVA, and that MinJ in turn recruits MinCD to the cell poles. MinC, however, is located primarily at active division sites at mid-cell when expressed from its native promoter. Surprisingly, we found that Bacillus subtilis MinD is located at nascent septal membranes and at an asymmetric site on lateral membranes between nascent septal membranes in filamentous cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA. Bacillus subtilis MinD has two amphipathic α-helices rich in basic amino acid residues at its C-terminus; one of these, named MTS1 here, is the counterpart of the membrane targeting sequence (MTS) in Escherichia coli MinD while the other, named MTS-like sequence (MTSL), is the nearest helix to MTS1. These amphipathic helices were located independently at nascent septal membranes in cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA, whereas elimination of the helices from the wild type protein reduced its localization considerably. MinD variants with altered MTS1 and MTSL, in which basic amino acid residues were replaced with proline or acidic residues, were not located at nascent septal membranes, indicating that the binding to the nascent septal membranes requires basic residues and a helical structure. The septal localization of MTSL, but not of MTS1, was dependent on host cell MinD. These results suggest that MinD is targeted to nascent septal membranes via its C-terminal amphipathic α-helices in B. subtilis cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA. Moreover, the diffuse distribution of MinD lacking both MTSs suggests that only a small fraction of MinD depends on MinJ for its localization to nascent septal membranes.

  14. Cancer Cell Cytotoxicities of 1-(4-Substitutedbenzoyl-4-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Yarim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 1-(4-substitutedbenzoyl-4-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine derivatives 5ag was designed by a nucleophilic substitution reaction of 1-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine with various benzoyl chlorides and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was demonstrated on cancer cell lines from liver (HUH7, FOCUS, MAHLAVU, HEPG2, HEP3B, breast (MCF7, BT20, T47D, CAMA-1, colon (HCT-116, gastric (KATO-3 and endometrial (MFE-296 cancer cell lines. Time-dependent cytotoxicity analysis of compound 5a indicated the long-term in situ stability of this compound. All compounds showed significant cell growth inhibitory activity on the selected cancer cell lines.

  15. Endurance test and evaluation of alkaline water electrolysis cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, K. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Utilization in the development of multi-kW low orbit power systems is discussed. The following technological developments of alkaline water electrolysis cells for space power application were demonstrated: (1) four 92.9 cm2 single water electrolysis cells, two using LST's advanced anodes and two using LST's super anodes; (2) four single cell endurance test stands for life testing of alkaline water electrolyte cells; (3) the solid performance of the advanced electrode and 355 K; (4) the breakthrough performance of the super electrode; (5) the four single cells for over 5,000 hours each significant cell deterioration or cell failure. It is concluded that the static feed water electrolysis concept is reliable and due to the inherent simplicity of the passive water feed mechanism coupled with the use of alkaline electrolyte has greater potential for regenerative fuel cell system applications than alternative electrolyzers. A rise in cell voltage occur after 2,000-3,000 hours which was attributed to deflection of the polysulfone end plates due to creepage of the thermoplastic. More end plate support was added, and the performance of the cells was restored to the initial performance level.

  16. Spiral correlations in frustrated one-dimensional spin-1/2 Heisenberg J1-J2-J3 ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinke, R; Richter, J; Drechsler, S-L

    2010-01-01

    We use the coupled cluster method for infinite chains complemented by exact diagonalization of finite periodic chains to discuss the influence of a third-neighbor exchange J 3 on the ground state of the spin- 1/2 Heisenberg chain with ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor interaction J 1 and frustrating antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor interaction J 2 . A third-neighbor exchange J 3 might be relevant to describe the magnetic properties of the quasi-one-dimensional edge-shared cuprates, such as LiVCuO 4 or LiCu 2 O 2 . In particular, we calculate the critical point J 2 c as a function of J 3 , where the ferromagnetic ground state gives way for a ground state with incommensurate spiral correlations. For antiferromagnetic J 3 the ferro-spiral transition is always continuous and the critical values J 2 c of the classical and the quantum model coincide. On the other hand, for ferromagnetic J 3 ∼ 1 | the critical value J 2 c of the quantum model is smaller than that of the classical model. Moreover, the transition becomes discontinuous, i.e. the model exhibits a quantum tricritical point. We also calculate the height of the jump of the spiral pitch angle at the discontinuous ferro-spiral transition.

  17. CD44 and SSEA-4 positive cells in an oral cancer cell line HSC-4 possess cancer stem-like cell characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Zenko; Yoshida, Toshiko; Okabe, Motonori; Koike, Chika; Fathy, Moustafa; Tsuno, Hiroaki; Tomihara, Kei; Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto; Nikaido, Toshio

    2013-08-01

    Cancer may be derived from cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), which are tumor-initiating cells that have properties similar to those of stem cells. Identification and isolation of CSCs needs to be improved further. CSCs markers were examined in human oral cancer cell lines by flow cytometry. The stem cell properties of subpopulations expressing different markers were assessed further by in vitro sphere formation assays, expression of stemness genes, drug resistance assays, and the ability to form tumors in nude mice. We demonstrated that CSCs could be isolated by the cell surface markers CD44 and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4). CD44+SSEA-4+ cells exhibited cancer stem-like properties, including extensive self-renewal into the bulk of cancer cells. In vivo xenograft experiments indicated that CD44+SSEA-4+ cells exhibit the highest tumorigenic capacity compared with the remaining subpopulations and parental cells. Double-positive cells for CD44 and SSEA-4 exhibited preferential expression of some stemness genes and were more resistant to the anticancer drugs, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In addition, cells expressing CD44 and SSEA-4 were detected in all tumor specimens analyzed, while coexpression of CD44 and SSEA-4 was not detectable in normal oral mucosa. Our findings suggest that CD44+SSEA-4+ cells exhibit the characteristics of CSCs in oral squamous cell carcinoma and provide a target for the development of more effective therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermal and electrochemical behaviour of C/Li xCoO 2 cell during safety test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doh, Chil-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Hun; Kim, Hyo-Suck; Shin, Hye-Min; Jeong, Young-Dong; Moon, Seong-In; Jin, Bong-Soo; Eom, Seung Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Ki-Won; Oh, Dae-Hee; Veluchamy, Angathevar

    Thermal and electrochemical processes in a 1000 mAh lithium-ion pouch cell with a graphite anode and a Li xCoO 2 cathode during a safety test are examined. In overcharge tests, the forced current shifts the cell voltage to above 4.2 V. This causes a cell charged at the 1 C rate to lose cycleability and a cell charged at the 3 C rate to undergo explosion. In nail penetration and impact tests, a high discharge current passing through the cells gives rise to thermal runaway. These overcharge and high discharge currents promote joule heat within the cells and leads to decomposition and release of oxygen from the de-lithiated Li xCoO 2 and combustion of carbonaceous materials. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the presence of Co 3O 4 in the cathode material of a 4.5 V cell heated to 400 °C. The major cathode product formed after the combustion process cells abused by forced current is Co 3O 4 and by discharge current the products are LiCoO 2 and Co 3O 4. The formation of a trace quantity of CoO through the reduction of Co 3O 4 by virtue of the reducing power of the organic solvent is also discussed.

  19. Induced absorption spectra of the infrared fundamental band of molecular deuterium at 77 K: S1( J)+S0( J) transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, P.G.; Prasad, R.D.G.; Reddy, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    The collision-induced spectra of the fundamental band of normal D 2 in the high frequency region 3200--3700 cm -1 were recorded for gas densities in the range 80--140 amagat at 77 K with a 2 m absorption cell. The contribution to the intensity of the band in this region comes from the high frequency wings of quadrupolar transitions S 1 ( J) and Q 1 ( J)+S 0 ( J) with J = 0 and 1, and from the group of transitions S 1 (2) and Q 1 ( J)+S 0 (2) with J = 0, 1, and 2 as well as from the relatively weaker double rotational transitions of the type S 1 ( J)+S 0 ( J); the latter transitions arise from the intermolecular interaction between the anisotropic component of the polarizability of one of the colliding pairs of molecules and the quadrupole field of the other. The experimental profiles were analyzed by assuming appropriate line shape functions and using the theoretical matrix elements of the quadrupole moment, isotropic polarizability, and anisotropy of polarizability of the D 2 molecule. From this analysis the characteristic half-width parameters delta/sub q/2 and delta/sub q/4 of the quadrupolar transitions and the binary and ternary absorption coefficients of the S 1 ( J)+S 0 ( J) transitions have been obtained. The experimental value of the binary absorption coefficient of S 1 (0)+S 0 (0) is (2.2 +- 0.1) x 10 -9 cm -1 amagat -2 and the corresponding theoretical value is 1.53 x 10 -9 cm -1 amagat -2

  20. Manifestation of J wave induced by acetylcholine applied for a coronary spasm provocation test in a patient with aborted sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Kazumasa; Moriyama, Shouhei; Irie, Kei; Noda, Hirotaka; Yokoyama, Taku; Fukata, Mitsuhiro; Arita, Takeshi; Odashiro, Keita; Maruyama, Toru; Akashi, Koichi

    2017-06-01

    A 51-year-old man with a resuscitation episode was referred to our hospital. Coronary angiography revealed a focal spasm overlapped with organic stenosis where a bare metal stent was implanted. Acetylcholine (ACh) provocation test did not induce chest pain. It revealed no discernible ST-T changes but unmasked a J wave at the end of the QRS complex, which was associated with short-coupled repetitive premature ventricular beats. A J wave reportedly appears immediately before the onset of ventricular fibrillation caused by vasospastic angina. However, a J wave observed newly after a coronary spasm provocation test using ACh without ST-T changes is informative when considering the mechanisms of the J wave.

  1. Demonstration of a 100-mJ OPO/OPA for future lidar applications and laser-induced damage threshold testing of optical components for MERLIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, Florian; Livrozet, Marie; Strotkamp, Michael; Wüppen, Jochen; Jungbluth, Bernd; Kasemann, Raphael; Löhring, Jens; Meissner, Ansgar; Meyer, Rudolf; Hoffmann, Hans-Dieter; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2018-02-01

    In the field of atmospheric research, lidar is a powerful technology that can measure gas or aerosol concentrations, wind speed, or temperature profiles remotely. To conduct such measurements globally, spaceborne systems are advantageous. Pulse energies in the 100-mJ range are required to achieve highly accurate, longitudinal resolved measurements. Measuring concentrations of specific gases, such as CH4 or CO2, requires output wavelengths in the IR-B, which can be addressed by optical-parametric frequency conversion. An OPO/OPA frequency conversion setup was designed and built as a demonstration module to address the 1.6-μm range. The pump laser is an Nd:YAG-MOPA system, consisting of a stable oscillator and two subsequent Innoslab-based amplifier stages that deliver up to 500 mJ of output pulse energy at 100 Hz repetition frequency. The OPO is inherited from the OPO design for the CH4 lidar instrument on the French-German climate satellite methane remote-sensing lidar mission (MERLIN). To address the 100-mJ regime, the OPO output beam is amplified in a subsequent multistage OPA. With potassium titanyl phosphate as nonlinear medium, the OPO/OPA delivered more than 100 mJ of output energy at 1645 nm from 450 mJ of the pump energy and a pump pulse duration of 30 ns. This corresponds to a quantum conversion efficiency of about 25%. In addition to demonstrating optical performance for future lidar systems, this laser will be part of a laser-induced damage thresholds test facility, which will be used to qualify optical components especially for the MERLIN.

  2. JETCAL 2000R Analyzer H337PA-603 Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E) on H-53 E/J Aircraft and H46 D/E Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-28

    Proposal Title PORTABLE TEST CELL - JETCAL 2000(R) Lead Proposer HOWELL INSTRUMENTS Military Customer NAVY/MARINE H53...B-4 Proposal Title PORTABLE TEST CELL - JETCAL 2000(R) Lead Proposer HOWELL INSTRUMENTS Military Customer...TEST CELL - JETCAL 2000(R) Lead Proposer HOWELL INSTRUMENTS Military Customer NAVY/MARINE H53 AIRCRAFT Baseline Costs -- DoD’s Costs When COSSI is NOT

  3. Semiclassical analysis of jm → j'm' transitions in rotationally inelastic collisions in cell experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. J.; Hickman, A. P.

    2018-02-01

    Recent quantum calculations of rotationally inelastic collisions of NaK (A1Σ+) with He or Ar in a cell experiment are analyzed using semiclassical approximations valid for large quantum numbers. The results suggest a physical interpretation of jm → j'm' transitions based on the vector model and lead to expressions that explicitly involve the initial and final polar angles of the angular momentum of the target molecule. The relation between the polar angle θ and the azimuthal quantum number m links the semiclassical results for the change in polar angle (θ → θ') to quantum results for an m → m' transition. Analytic formulas are derived that relate the location and width of peaks in the final polar angle distribution (PAD) to the K-dependence of the coefficients dK(j, j'), which are proportional to tensor cross sections σK(jj'). Several special cases are treated that lead to final PADs that are approximately Lorentzian or sinc functions centered at θ' = θ. Another interesting case, "angular momentum reversal," was observed in the calculations for He. This phenomenon, which involves a reversal of the direction of the target's angular momentum, is shown to be associated with oscillatory behavior of the dK for certain transitions. Finally, several strategies for obtaining the dK coefficients from experimental data are discussed.

  4. Critical role of CD4 T cells in maintaining lymphoid tissue structure for immune cell homeostasis and reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Paiardini, Mirko; Engram, Jessica C; Beilman, Greg J; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Schacker, Timothy W; Silvestri, Guido; Haase, Ashley T

    2012-08-30

    Loss of the fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC) network in lymphoid tissues during HIV-1 infection has been shown to impair the survival of naive T cells and limit immune reconstitution after antiretroviral therapy. What causes this FRC loss is unknown. Because FRC loss correlates with loss of both naive CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets and decreased lymphotoxin-β, a key factor for maintenance of FRC network, we hypothesized that loss of naive T cells is responsible for loss of the FRC network. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the consequences of antibody-mediated depletion of CD4 and CD8 T cells in rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys. We found that only CD4 T-cell depletion resulted in FRC loss in both species and that this loss was caused by decreased lymphotoxin-β mainly produced by the CD4 T cells. We further found the same dependence of the FRC network on CD4 T cells in HIV-1-infected patients before and after antiretroviral therapy and in other immunodeficiency conditions, such as CD4 depletion in cancer patients induced by chemotherapy and irradiation. CD4 T cells thus play a central role in the maintenance of lymphoid tissue structure necessary for their own homeostasis and reconstitution.

  5. Branching fraction measurement of J /ψ →KSKL and search for J /ψ →KSKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Albrecht, M.; Alekseev, M.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Bai, Y.; Bakina, O.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chai, J.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Chen, Z. X.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dorjkhaidav, O.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fegan, S.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. G.; Gao, Z.; Garillon, B.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, S.; Gu, Y. T.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, X. Q.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, S. H.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ikegami Andersson, W.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jin, Y.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Khan, T.; Khoukaz, A.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Koch, L.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuemmel, M.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, K. J.; Li, Lei; Li, P. L.; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Ke; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Long, Y. F.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Meng, Z. X.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Morello, G.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Mustafa, A.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Papenbrock, M.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Pellegrino, J.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Pitka, A.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qi, T. Y.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Richter, M.; Ripka, M.; Rolo, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, J. J.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Sowa, C.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, L.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. K.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, G. Y.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Tiemens, M.; Tsednee, B. T.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, Dan; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Zongyuan; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Y. J.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, X. H.; Xie, Y. G.; Xie, Y. H.; Xiong, X. A.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. H.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; You, Z. Y.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    Using a sample of 1.31 ×109 J /ψ events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, we study the decays of J /ψ →KSKL and KSKS . The branching fraction of J /ψ →KSKL is determined to be B (J /ψ →KSKL)=(1.93 ±0.01 (stat )±0.05 (syst ))×10-4 , which significantly improves on previous measurements. No clear signal is observed for the J /ψ →KSKS process, and the upper limit at the 95% confidence level for its branching fraction is determined to be B (J /ψ →KSKS)<1.4 ×10-8 , which improves on the previous searches by 2 orders in magnitude and reaches the order of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen expectation.

  6. Analysis of STAT4 expression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) patients and patient-derived cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litvinov, Ivan V; Cordeiro, Brendan; Fredholm, Simon Mayland

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of STAT signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis for a variety of cancers, including CTCL. Recent reports indicate that loss of STAT4 expression is an important prognostic marker for CTCL progression and is associated with the acquisition of T helper 2 cell phenotype......R-155 leads to upregulation in STAT4 expression in MyLa cells. In summary, our results suggest that loss of STAT4 expression and associated switch to Th2 phenotype during Mycosis Fungoides progression may be driven via aberrant histone acetylation and/or upregulation of oncogenic miR-155 microRNA....... by malignant cells. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism behind the downregulation of STAT4 in this cancer. In the current work we test the expression of STAT4 and STAT6 via RT-PCR and/or Western Blot in CTCL lesional skin samples and in immortalized patient-derived cell lines...

  7. AR42J-B-13 cell: An expandable progenitor to generate an unlimited supply of functional hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Karen; Fairhall, Emma A.; Charlton, Keith A.; Wright, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocytes are the preparation of choice for Toxicological research in vitro. However, despite the fact that hepatocytes proliferate in vivo during liver regeneration, they are resistant to proliferation in vitro, do not tolerate sub-culture and tend to enter a de-differentiation program that results in a loss of hepatic function. These limitations have resulted in the search for expandable rodent and human cells capable of being directed to differentiate into functional hepatocytes. Research with stem cells suggests that it may be possible to provide the research community with hepatocytes in vitro although to date, significant challenges remain, notably generating a sufficiently pure population of hepatocytes with a quantitative functionality comparable with hepatocytes. This paper reviews work with the AR42J-B-13 (B-13) cell line. The B-13 cell was cloned from the rodent AR42J pancreatic cell line, express genes associated with pancreatic acinar cells and readily proliferates in simple culture media. When exposed to glucocorticoid, 75-85% of the cells trans-differentiate into hepatocyte-like (B-13/H) cells functioning at a level quantitatively similar to freshly isolated rat hepatocytes (with the remaining cells retaining the B-13 phenotype). Trans-differentiation of pancreatic acinar cells also appears to occur in vivo in rats treated with glucocorticoid; in mice with elevated circulating glucocorticoid and in humans treated for long periods with glucocorticoid. The B-13 response to glucocorticoid therefore appears to be related to a real pathophysiological response of a pancreatic cell to glucocorticoid. An understanding of how this process occurs and if it can be generated or engineered in human cells would result in a cell line with the ability to generate an unlimited supply of functional human hepatocytes in a cost effective manner.

  8. Isolation and partial characterization of peripheral blood CD4+ T cell clones expressing γδT cell receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Hirai, Yuko; Kusunoki, Yoichiro.

    1990-06-01

    Rare T cell clones bearing both CD4 and T cell receptors (TCRγ and TCRδ) were obtained from human peripheral blood by cell sorting using anti-CD4 and anti-TCRδ1 antibodies. All the clones established were reactive with anti-TCRγδ1 antibody, whereas only about 20 % of the clones showed reactivity with anti-δTCS1 antibody. Unlike CD4 + T cells bearing TCRαβ, all the clones tested were lectin-dependent and showed CD3 antibody-redirected cytolytic activity. About 60 % exhibited natural killer cell-like activity. Immunoprecipitation analysis of TCRγδ showed that each clone expressed either a disulfide-linked or nondisulfide-linked heterodimer consisting of 37-44 kilodalton TCRγ and TCRδ chains. Southern blot analyses of TCRγ and TCRδ genes revealed some identical rearrangement patterns, suggesting the limited heterogeneity of CD4 + TCRγδ + T cells in peripheral blood. (author)

  9. Hot Cell Installation and Demonstration of the Severe Accident Test Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linton, Kory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burns, Zachary M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yan, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) capable of examining the oxidation kinetics and accident response of irradiated fuel and cladding materials for design basis accident (DBA) and beyond design basis accident (BDBA) scenarios has been successfully installed and demonstrated in the Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL), a hot cell facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The two test station modules provide various temperature profiles, steam, and the thermal shock conditions necessary for integral loss of coolant accident (LOCA) testing, defueled oxidation quench testing and high temperature BDBA testing. The installation of the SATS system restores the domestic capability to examine postulated and extended LOCA conditions on spent fuel and cladding and provides a platform for evaluation of advanced fuel and accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding concepts. This document reports on the successful in-cell demonstration testing of unirradiated Zircaloy-4. It also contains descriptions of the integral test facility capabilities, installation activities, and out-of-cell benchmark testing to calibrate and optimize the system.

  10. Sensitivity tests of combination treatment with interleukin-2 and radiation against renal cell carcinoma using in vivo like growing culture system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Tetsuro; Machida, Toyohei; Asano, Kouji; Hatano, Takashi; Sawada, Takuko.

    1992-01-01

    We studied the effect of the combined therapy with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and radiation on renal cell carcinoma using an in vivo like growing culture system. We tested renal cell carcinoma obtained at surgery. After tumors were sliced into 2-mm square specimens, they were placed on a collagen gel-matrix filled with medium, and cultured for 7 days. 5 and 10 Gy were irradiated 3 days after the beginning of cell cultures. We also tested 100 JRU/ml of IL-2 added to each culture medium. The killing activity of each treatment was measured by the rate of 3 H-thymidine uptake. In the 5 Gy groups (n=9), we observed a significant effect in one treated with radiation alone (11.1%) and in 4 treated with the combined therapy (44.4%). Of these 4 having a significant effect with the combined therapy, one also had it with either radiation alone or combined therapy. The combined therapy was significantly effective compared with radiation alone. One had a significant effect with the combined therapy, and the remaining 2 had a significant effect by either combined therapy or radiation alone. In the 10 Gy group (n=12), a significant effect was seen in one with IL-2 treatment alone (8.3%), one with radiation alone (8.3%), and 4 with the combined therapy (33.3%). Of these 4 cases having a significant effects with the combined therapy, one had it by either radiation alone or the combined therapy, and the combined therapy was more effective than radiation alone. Two cases had a significant effect by the combined therapy, and the remaining one had it by either the combined therapy or radiation alone. We conclude that the combined therapy with IL-2 and radiation is effective for renal carcinoma, especially in the group irradiated with 5 Gy. (J.P.N.)

  11. Specific assay measuring binding of /sup 125/I-Gp 120 from HIV to T4/sup +//CD4/sup +/ cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, K.; Nygren, A.; Ramstedt, U.; Gidlund, M.; Wigzell, H.; Arthur, L.O.; Robey, W.G.; Morein, B.

    1987-02-26

    The HIV (HTLV-III) envelope glycoprotein, Gp120, was isolated from virus-infected tissue culture cells using affinity chromatography. A radioimmunoassay was developed to determine the degree of iodinated Gp120 to target CD4/sup +/ (T4/sup +/) cells. /sup 125/I-Gp120 could be shown to selectively bind to CD4/sup +/ cells only. The Gp120 remained bound to these cells after repeated washes. Monoclonal anti-CD4 antibodies block the binding of Gp120 to CD4/sup +/ cells. Monoclonal antibodies to other cell surface components do not interfere with /sup 125/I-Gp120 binding. All IgG antibodies from HIV seropositive donors tested block /sup 125/I-GP120 binding, though with variable titers. The authors believe that this assay provides further proof for the use of CD4 (T4) as a component of the receptor for HIV. It represents a safe, objective and sensitive method for the analysis of Gp120-CD4 interactions, as well as the potential of antibodies to interfere with this binding. (Auth.). 24 refs.; 2 figs.; 8 tabs.

  12. Integrated Test and Evaluation (ITE) Flight Test Series 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The integrated Flight Test 4 (FT4) will gather data for the UAS researchers Sense and Avoid systems (referred to as Detect and Avoid in the RTCA SC 228 ToR) algorithms and pilot displays for candidate UAS systems in a relevant environment. The technical goals of FT4 are to: 1) perform end-to-end traffic encounter test of pilot guidance generated by DAA algorithms; 2) collect data to inform the initial Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for Detect and Avoid systems. FT4 objectives and test infrastructure builds from previous UAS project simulations and flight tests. NASA Ames (ARC), NASA Armstrong (AFRC), and NASA Langley (LaRC) Research Centers will share responsibility for conducting the tests, each providing a test lab and critical functionality. UAS-NAS project support and participation on the 2014 flight test of ACAS Xu and DAA Self Separation (SS) significantly contributed to building up infrastructure and procedures for FT3 as well. The DAA Scripted flight test (FT4) will be conducted out of NASA Armstrong over an eight-week period beginning in April 2016.

  13. On the use of J-integral and modified J-integral as measures of elastic-plastic fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.A.; Hays, R.A.; Hackett, E.M.; Joyce, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    J-R Curve tests were conducted on 1/2T, 1T and 2T compact specimens of materials having J IC values ranging from 150 in-1b/sq in to over 2600 in-lb/sq in. These materials were chosen such that some would exceed the maximum crack length criterion of ASTM E1152-87 prior to reaching the maximum J criterion (3-Ni steel, 5000 series A1) and some would exceed the maximum J criterion first (A533B, A710). The elastic-plastic fracture behavior of these materials was examined using both the deformation theory J-integral (J D ) and the modified J-integral (J M ). The J-R curve testing was performed to very large values of crack opening displacement (COD) where the crack growth was typically 75% of the original remaining ligament. The results of this work suggest that the J D -R curves exhibit no specimen size dependence to crack extensions far in excess of the E1152 allowables. The J M -R curves calculated for the same specimens show a significant amount of specimen size dependence which becomes larger as the material toughness decreases. This work suggests that it is premature to utilize the modified J-integral in assessing the flaw tolerance of structures. (author)

  14. Low dose ultraviolet B-irradiated Langerhans cells preferentially activate CD4+ cells of the T helper 2 subset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.C.; Cruz, P.D. Jr.; Bergstresser, P.R.; Tigelaar, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    UVB radiation distorts the Ag-presenting function of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC); this has been shown for the presentation of soluble Ag to primed T cells in vitro and for the initiation of delayed-type hypersensitivity in vivo, such as contact hypersensitivity (CH). Previous work has also demonstrated UVB-induced suppression of CH to be mediated ultimately by T cells. Two subsets of CD4+ Th cells, Th1 and Th2, have been identified, based on their cytokine production and functional activities. In particular, Th1 mediate delayed-type hypersensitivity, whereas Th2 do not. To investigate whether the perturbation of LC function induced by UVB radiation leads to a differential activation of these subsets of CD4+ cells, we examined the capacity of unirradiated and irradiated (200 J/m2) APC from adult BALB/c mice to present keyhole limpet hemocyanin to Ag-specific, H2d-restricted Th1 and Th2 cell lines. Four sources of APC were utilized: epidermal cells (EC), flow microfluorometry-purified Ia+ EC (LC), flow microfluorometry-purified Ia- EC, and splenic adherent cells (SAC). Unirradiated EC, LC, and SAC, but not Ia-EC, presented keyhole limpet hemocyanin to both Th1 and Th2. Irradiated EC and LC lost their ability to stimulate Th1, but retained fully their capacity to stimulate Th2. On the other hand, irradiated SAC were unable to induce proliferation of either Th1 or Th2. These findings indicate that suppression of CH mediated by UVB-irradiated LC may result from an alteration of the ratio and/or activity of Th1 and Th2 cells normally generated during the induction of such responses

  15. Dealing with Big Data and Network Analysis Using Neo4j

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon MacKay

    2018-02-01

    relationships between people and organizations can be. This tutorial will focus on the Neo4j graph database, and the Cypher query language that comes with it. - Neo4j is a free, open-source graph database written in java that is available for all major computing platforms. - Cypher is the query language for the Neo4j database that is designed to insert and select information from the database. By the end of this lesson you will be able to construct, analyze and visualize networks based on big — or just inconveniently large — data. The final section of this lesson contains code and data to illustrate the key points of this lesson.

  16. Development of a liquid {sup 3}He target for experimental studies of antikaon-nucleon interaction at J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iio, M., E-mail: masami.iio@kek.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ishimoto, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Sato, M. [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Enomoto, S. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Hashimoto, T. [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Suzuki, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Iwasaki, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Hayano, R.S. [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-09-21

    A liquid {sup 3}He target system was developed for experimental studies of kaonic atoms and kaonic nuclei at J-PARC. {sup 3}He gas is liquefied in a heat exchanger cooled below 3.2 K by decompression of liquid {sup 4}He. To maintain a large acceptance of the cylindrical detector system for decay particles of kaonic nuclei, efficient heat transport between the separate target cell and the main unit is realized using circulation of liquid {sup 3}He. To minimize the amount of material, a vacuum vessel containing a carbon fiber reinforced plastic cylinder having an inside diameter of 150 mm and a thickness of 1 mm was produced. A target cell made of pure beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloy was developed not only to minimize the amount of material but also to obtain high X-ray transmission. During a cooling test, the target cell was kept at 1.3 K at a pressure of 33 mbar. The total estimated heat load to the components including the target cell and heat exchanger cooled by liquid {sup 4}He decompression, was 0.21 W, and the liquid {sup 4}He consumption rate was 50 L/day.

  17. An in-depth comparison of latent HIV-1 reactivation in multiple cell model systems and resting CD4+ T cells from aviremic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celsa A Spina

    Full Text Available The possibility of HIV-1 eradication has been limited by the existence of latently infected cellular reservoirs. Studies to examine control of HIV latency and potential reactivation have been hindered by the small numbers of latently infected cells found in vivo. Major conceptual leaps have been facilitated by the use of latently infected T cell lines and primary cells. However, notable differences exist among cell model systems. Furthermore, screening efforts in specific cell models have identified drug candidates for "anti-latency" therapy, which often fail to reactivate HIV uniformly across different models. Therefore, the activity of a given drug candidate, demonstrated in a particular cellular model, cannot reliably predict its activity in other cell model systems or in infected patient cells, tested ex vivo. This situation represents a critical knowledge gap that adversely affects our ability to identify promising treatment compounds and hinders the advancement of drug testing into relevant animal models and clinical trials. To begin to understand the biological characteristics that are inherent to each HIV-1 latency model, we compared the response properties of five primary T cell models, four J-Lat cell models and those obtained with a viral outgrowth assay using patient-derived infected cells. A panel of thirteen stimuli that are known to reactivate HIV by defined mechanisms of action was selected and tested in parallel in all models. Our results indicate that no single in vitro cell model alone is able to capture accurately the ex vivo response characteristics of latently infected T cells from patients. Most cell models demonstrated that sensitivity to HIV reactivation was skewed toward or against specific drug classes. Protein kinase C agonists and PHA reactivated latent HIV uniformly across models, although drugs in most other classes did not.

  18. An In-Depth Comparison of Latent HIV-1 Reactivation in Multiple Cell Model Systems and Resting CD4+ T Cells from Aviremic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Celsa A.; Anderson, Jenny; Archin, Nancie M.; Bosque, Alberto; Chan, Jonathan; Famiglietti, Marylinda; Greene, Warner C.; Kashuba, Angela; Lewin, Sharon R.; Margolis, David M.; Mau, Matthew; Ruelas, Debbie; Saleh, Suha; Shirakawa, Kotaro; Siliciano, Robert F.; Singhania, Akul; Soto, Paula C.; Terry, Valeri H.; Verdin, Eric; Woelk, Christopher; Wooden, Stacey; Xing, Sifei; Planelles, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of HIV-1 eradication has been limited by the existence of latently infected cellular reservoirs. Studies to examine control of HIV latency and potential reactivation have been hindered by the small numbers of latently infected cells found in vivo. Major conceptual leaps have been facilitated by the use of latently infected T cell lines and primary cells. However, notable differences exist among cell model systems. Furthermore, screening efforts in specific cell models have identified drug candidates for “anti-latency” therapy, which often fail to reactivate HIV uniformly across different models. Therefore, the activity of a given drug candidate, demonstrated in a particular cellular model, cannot reliably predict its activity in other cell model systems or in infected patient cells, tested ex vivo. This situation represents a critical knowledge gap that adversely affects our ability to identify promising treatment compounds and hinders the advancement of drug testing into relevant animal models and clinical trials. To begin to understand the biological characteristics that are inherent to each HIV-1 latency model, we compared the response properties of five primary T cell models, four J-Lat cell models and those obtained with a viral outgrowth assay using patient-derived infected cells. A panel of thirteen stimuli that are known to reactivate HIV by defined mechanisms of action was selected and tested in parallel in all models. Our results indicate that no single in vitro cell model alone is able to capture accurately the ex vivo response characteristics of latently infected T cells from patients. Most cell models demonstrated that sensitivity to HIV reactivation was skewed toward or against specific drug classes. Protein kinase C agonists and PHA reactivated latent HIV uniformly across models, although drugs in most other classes did not. PMID:24385908

  19. Resveratrol given intraperitoneally does not inhibit growth of high-risk t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in NOD/SCID mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of the phytochemical resveratrol as a preventive agent against the growth of t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was evaluated in NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J mice engrafted with the human t(4;11) ALL line SEM. SEM cells were injected into the tail vein and engraftment was monitored by ...

  20. Harlan J Smith

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Harlan J Smith. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 7 Issue 8 August 2002 pp 2-4 Article-in-a-Box. Tribute to Prof. M. K. V. Bappu · Harlan J Smith · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  1. Adapted J6/JFH1-based Hepatitis C virus recombinants with genotype-specific NS4A show similar efficacies against lead protease inhibitors, alpha interferon, and a putative NS4A inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith M; Jensen, Sanne B; Serre, Stéphanie B N

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate studies of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS4A, we aimed at developing J6/JFH1-based recombinants with genotype 1- to 7-specific NS4A proteins. We developed efficient culture systems expressing NS4A proteins of genotypes (isolates) 1a (H77 and TN), 1b (J4), 2a (J6), 4a (ED43), 5a (SA13), 6a...... (HK6a), and 7a (QC69), with peak infectivity titers of ∼3.5 to 4.5 log10 focus-forming units per ml. Except for genotype 2a (J6), growth depended on adaptive mutations identified in long-term culture. Genotype 1a, 1b, and 4a recombinants were adapted by amino acid substitutions F772S (p7) and V1663A...... (NS4A), while 5a, 6a, and 7a recombinants required additional substitutions in the NS3 protease and/or NS4A. We demonstrated applicability of the developed recombinants for study of antivirals. Genotype 1 to 7 NS4A recombinants showed similar responses to the protease inhibitors telaprevir (VX-950...

  2. J. Genet. classic 235

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 235. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 236. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 237. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 238. Page 5 ...

  3. Enhanced response to antigen within lymph nodes of SJL/J mice that were protected against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by T cell vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeine, R; Heath, D; Owens, T

    1993-01-01

    The effects of T cell vaccination on peripheral immune responsiveness are not yet fully understood. We have induced resistance to rat spinal cord homogenate (RSCH)-induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in SJL/J mice by vaccination with four T cell lines (RZ8, RZ15, RZ16, and A51......) which were reactive to myelin basic protein (MBP) but not to proteolipid protein (PLP). The effect was relatively neuroantigen-specific since vaccination with ovalbumin (OVA)-reactive and alloantigen-specific cells did not prevent EAE induction. Alloantigen-reactive cells reduced the rate of relapse....... The number of central nervous system (CNS) infiltrates and mean clinical EAE scores were significantly reduced. This is the first report demonstrating T cell vaccination in the SJL/J mouse, a strain in which PLP is the predominant encephalitogen in RSCH. The vaccinating cells were of the memory/effector (CD...

  4. Post-test analysis of PANDA test P4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.; Woudstra, A.; Koning, H.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a post-test analysis of the integral system test P4, which has been executed in the PANDA facility at PSI in Switzerland within the framework of Work Package 2 of the TEPSS project are presented. The post-test analysis comprises an evaluation of the PANDA test P4 and a comparison of the test results with the results of simulations using the RELAPS/MOD3.2, TRAC-BF1, and MELCOR 1.8.4 codes. The PANDA test P4 has provided data about how trapped air released from the drywell later in the transient affects PCCS performance in an adequate manner. The well-defined measurements can serve as an important database for the assessment of thermal hydraulic system analysis codes, especially for conditions that could be met in passively operated advanced reactors, i.e. low pressure and small driving forces. Based on the analysis of the test data, the test acceptance criteria have been met. The test P4 has been successfully completed and the instrument readings were with the permitted ranges. The PCCs showed a favorable and robust performance and a wide margin for decay heat removal from the containment. The PANDA P4 test demonstrated that trapped air, released from the drywell later in the transient, only temporarily and only slightly affected the performance of the passive containment cooling system. The analysis of the results of the RELAPS code showed that the overall behaviour of the test has been calculated quite well with regards to pressure, mass flow rates, and pool boil-down. This accounts both for the pre-test and the post-test simulations. However, due to the one-dimensional, stacked-volume modeling of the PANDA DW, WW, and GDCS vessels, 3D-effects such as in-vessel mixing and recirculation could not be calculated. The post-test MELCOR simulation showed an overall behaviour that is comparable to RELAPS. However, MELCOR calculated almost no air trapping in the PCC tubes that could hinder the steam condensation rate. This resulted in lower calculated

  5. Central memory CD4 T cells are associated with incomplete restoration of the CD4 T cell pool after treatment-induced long-term undetectable HIV viraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallón, Norma; Sempere-Ortells, José M; Soriano, Vincent; Benito, José M

    2013-11-01

    It is unclear to what extent T cell reconstitution may be possible in HIV-1-infected individuals on continuous successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herein, we analysed distinct phenotypic markers of immune recovery in patients with undetectable viraemia for 8 years, taking as reference untreated patients and healthy controls. Seventy-two subjects were examined: 28 HIV-1+ patients on successful long-term HAART, 24 HIV-1+ untreated viraemic patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls. Analysis of naive and memory CD4 and CD8 T cells was combined with measurements of activation status (expression of CD38) and with thymic function (expression of CD31). Statistical significance was determined by non-parametric tests. After long-term HAART, the majority of parameters were normalized compared with age-matched control values, including T cell activation and thymic function. However, absolute counts of naive and central memory CD4 T cells remained below normal levels. The only parameters significantly associated with CD4 counts at the end of follow-up were the pre-HAART CD4 count ( β ± SD = 0.54 ± 0.16, P = 0.003) and the level of CD4 central memory cells at the end of follow-up (β ± SD = 1.18 ± 0.23, P 350 cells/mm(3) reached a complete normalization of CD4 counts. Even after long-term successful HAART, complete CD4 restoration may be attainable only in patients starting therapy with moderately high CD4 counts, prompting early initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Incomplete CD4 restoration may be associated with a defective restoration of central memory CD4 T cells, a cell subset with a pivotal role in T cell homeostasis.

  6. Solar cell contact pull strength as a function of pull-test temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, R. K.; Berman, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Four types of solar cell contacts were given pull-strength tests at temperatures between -173 and +165 C. Contacts tested were: (1) solder-coated titanium-silver contacts on n-p cells, (2) palladium-containing titanium-silver contacts on n-p cells, (3) titanium-silver contacts on 0.2-mm-thick n-p cells, and (4) solder-coated electroless-nickel-plated contacts on p-n cells. Maximum pull strength was demonstrated at temperatures significantly below the air mass zero cell equilibrium temperature of +60 C. At the lowest temperatures, the chief failure mechanism was silicon fracture along crystallographic planes; at the highest temperatures, it was loss of solder strength. In the intermediate temperatures, many failure mechanisms operated. Pull-strength tests give a good indication of the suitability of solar cell contact systems for space use. Procedures used to maximize the validity of the results are described.

  7. Expression of human olfactory receptor 10J5 in heart aorta, coronary artery, and endothelial cells and its functional role in angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Yoon, Yeo Cho; Lee, Ae Sin; Kang, NaNa; Koo, JaeHyung; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Park, Jae-Ho

    2015-05-01

    ORs are ectopically expressed in non-chemosensory tissues including muscle, kidney, and keratinocytes; however, their physiological roles are largely unknown. We found that human olfactory receptor 10J5 (OR10J5) is expressed in the human aorta, coronary artery, and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Lyral induces Ca(2+) and phosphorylation of AKT in HUVEC. A knockdown study showed the inhibition of the lyral-induced Ca(2+) and the phosphorylation AKT and implied that these processes are mediated by OR10J5. In addition, lyral enhanced migration of HUVEC, which were also inhibited by RNAi in a migration assay. In addition, matrigel plug assay showed that lyral enhanced angiogenesis in vivo. Together these data demonstrate the physiological role of OR10J5 in angiogenesis and represent roles of ORs in HUVEC cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exosomes carring gag/env of ALV-J possess negative effect on immunocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhuang, Pingping; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2017-11-01

    J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an exogenous retrovirus of avian. A key feature of ALV-J infection is leading to severe immunosuppressive characteristic of diseases. Viral components of retrovirus were reported closely associated with immunosuppression, and several similarities between exosomes and retrovirus preparations have lead to the hypotheses of retrovirus hijacker exosomes pathway. In this study, we purified exosomes from DF-1 cells infected and uninfected by ALV-J. Electron microscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis showed that ALV-J not only increased the production of exosomes from ALV-J infected DF-1 cells (Exo-J) but also stimulated some proteins expression, especially ALV-J components secreted in exosomes. Immunosuppressive domain peptide (ISD) of envelope subunit transmembrane (TM) and gag of ALV-J were secreted in Exo-J. It has been reported that HIV gag was budded from endosome-like domains of the T cell plasma membrane. But env protein was first detected in exosomes from retrovirus infected cells. We found that Exo-J caused negative effects on splenocytes in a dose-dependant manner by flow cytometric analysis. And low dose of Exo-J activated immune activity of splenocytes, while high dose possessed immunosuppressive properties. Interestingly, Exo-J has no significant effects on the immunosuppression induced by ALV-J, and the immunosuppressive effects induced by Exo-J lower than that by ALV-J. Taken together, our data indicated that Exo-J supplied a microenvironment for the replication and transformation of ALV-J. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Implementation of Point-of-Care Diagnostics Leads to Variable Uptake of Syphilis, Anemia and CD4+ T-Cell Count Testing in Rural Maternal and Child Health Clinics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline De Schacht

    Full Text Available Anemia, syphilis and HIV are high burden diseases among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in four health facilities in Southern Mozambique to evaluate the effect of point-of-care technologies for hemoglobin quantification, syphilis testing and CD4+ T-cell enumeration performed within maternal and child health services on testing and treatment coverage, and assessing acceptability by health workers.Demographic and testing data on women attending first antenatal care services were extracted from existing records, before (2011; n = 865 and after (2012; n = 808 introduction of point-of-care testing. Study outcomes per health facility were compared using z-tests (categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum test (continuous variables, while inverse variance weights were used to adjust for possible cluster effects in the pooled analysis. A structured acceptability-assessment interview was conducted with health workers before (n = 22 and after (n = 19.After implementation of point-of-care testing, there was no significant change in uptake of overall hemoglobin screening (67.9% to 83.0%; p = 0.229, syphilis screening (80.8% to 87.0%; p = 0.282 and CD4+ T-cell testing (84.9% to 83.5%; p = 0.930. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy for treatment eligible women was similar in the weighted analysis before and after, with variability among the sites. Time from HIV diagnosis to treatment initiation decreased (median of 44 days to 17 days; p<0.0001. A generally good acceptability for point-of-care testing was seen among health workers.Point-of-care CD4+ T-cell enumeration resulted in a decreased time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy among treatment eligible women, without significant increase in testing coverage. Overall hemoglobin and syphilis screening increased. Despite the perception that point-of-care technologies increase access to health services, the variability in results indicate the potential for

  10. Tumor cell-released TLR4 ligands stimulate Gr-1+CD11b+F4/80+ cells to induce apoptosis of activated T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Yan; Sun, Ling-Cong; Wei, Jing-Jing; Li, Dong; Yuan, Ye; Yan, Bin; Liang, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Hui-Fen; Xu, Yong; Li, Bo; Song, Chuan-Wang; Liao, Sheng-Jun; Lei, Zhang; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Feng, Zuo-Hua

    2010-09-01

    Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells play important roles in tumor development and have a negative effect on tumor immunotherapy. So far, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of their immunosuppressive phenotype by classical and alternative macrophage activation stimuli are not well elucidated. In this study, we found that molecules from necrotic tumor cells (NTC-Ms) stimulated Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells to induce apoptosis of activated T cells but not nonstimulated T cells. The apoptosis-inducing capacity was determined by higher expression levels of arginase I and IL-10 relative to those of NO synthase 2 and IL-12 in Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells, which were induced by NTC-Ms through TLR4 signaling. The apoptosis-inducing capacity of NTC-Ms-stimulated Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells could be enhanced by IL-10. IFN-gamma may reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells only if their response to IFN-gamma was not attenuated. However, the potential of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells to express IL-12 in response to IFN-gamma could be attenuated by tumor, partially due to the existence of active STAT3 in Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and NTC-Ms from tumor. In this situation, IFN-gamma could not effectively reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells. Tumor immunotherapy with 4-1BBL/soluble programmed death-1 may significantly reduce, but not abolish the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells in local microenvironment. Blockade of TLR4 signaling could further reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and enhance the suppressive effect of 4-1BBL/soluble form of programmed death-1 on tumor growth. These findings indicate the relationship of distinct signaling pathways with apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and emphasize the importance of blocking TLR4 signaling to prevent the induction of T cell apoptosis by Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells.

  11. Lactobacillus reuteri I5007 Modulates Intestinal Host Defense Peptide Expression in the Model of IPEC-J2 Cells and Neonatal Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin; Hou, Chengli; Wang, Gang; Jia, Hongmin; Yu, Haitao; Zeng, Xiangfang; Thacker, Philip A.; Zhang, Guolong; Qiao, Shiyan

    2017-01-01

    Modulation of the synthesis of endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) by probiotics represents a novel antimicrobial approach for disease control and prevention, particularly against antibiotic-resistant infections in human and animals. However, the extent of HDP modulation by probiotics is species dependent and strain specific. In the present study, The porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) cells and neonatal piglets were used as in-vitro and in-vivo models to test whether Lactobacillus reuteri I5007 could modulate intestinal HDP expression. Gene expressions of HDPs, toll-like receptors, and fatty acid receptors were determined, as well as colonic short chain fatty acid concentrations and microbiota. Exposure to 108 colony forming units (CFU)/mL of L. reuteri I5007 for 6 h significantly increased the expression of porcine β-Defensin2 (PBD2), pBD3, pBD114, pBD129, and protegrins (PG) 1-5 in IPEC-J2 cells. Similarly, L. reuteri I5007 administration significantly increased the expression of jejunal pBD2 as well as colonic pBD2, pBD3, pBD114, and pBD129 in neonatal piglets (p reuteri I5007 in the piglets did not affect the colonic microbiota structure. Our findings suggested that L. reuteri I5007 could modulate intestinal HDP expression and improve the gut health of neonatal piglets, probably through the increase in colonic butyric acid concentration and the up-regulation of the downstream molecules of butyric acid, PPAR-γ and GPR41, but not through modifying gut microbiota structure. PMID:28561758

  12. Increased concentration of clusterin/apolipoprotein J (apoJ) in hyperlipemic serum is paradoxically associated with decreased apoJ content in lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, Anna; Martínez-Bujidos, Maria; Pérez-Cuellar, Montserrat; Pérez, Antonio; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi; Sánchez-Quesada, José Luis

    2015-08-01

    Clusterin/apolipoprotein J (apoJ) circulates in blood in part associated to lipoproteins or in unbound form. When bound to HDL, apoJ is antiatherogenic by inhibiting endothelial cell apoptosis; thus, any factor modifying apoJ association to HDL would decrease its antiatherogenic function. However, the exact distribution of apoJ in each lipoprotein fraction, or in lipoprotein-non bound form has not been specifically investigated either in normolipemia or in dyslipemia. Basic lipid profile and apoJ concentration were determined in sera from 70 subjects, including a wide range of cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Lipoproteins were isolated by ultracentrifugation and their lipid and apolipoprotein composition was assessed. In the overall population, serum apoJ positively associated with cholesterol, triglyceride and VLDL-C concentrations, and HDL-C and triglyceride were independent predictors of increased apoJ concentration. Approximately, 20.5% of circulating apoJ was associated with lipoproteins (18.5% HDL, 0.9% LDL and 1.1% VLDL) and 79.5% was not bound to lipoproteins. Serum apoJ concentration was higher in hypercholesterolemic (HC), hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) and combined hyperlipidemic (CHL) sera compared to normolipemic (NL) sera (HC, 98.15 ± 33.6 mg/L; HTG, 103.3 ± 36.8 mg/L; CHL, 131.7 ± 26.8 mg/L; NL, 66.7 ± 33.8 mg/L; P lipoproteins in the NL group whereas this proportion rounded 15% in hyperlipidemic subjects. Our findings indicate that hyperlipidemia increases the concentration of apoJ in serum but, in turn, the content of lipoprotein-associated apoJ decreases. The redistribution of apoJ in hyperlipidemia could compromise the antiatherogenic properties of HDL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Glucagon-like Peptide-2 on the Tight Junction and Barrier Function in IPEC-J2 Cells through Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Protein Kinase B–Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsong Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2 is important for intestinal barrier function and regulation of tight junction (TJ proteins, but the intracellular mechanisms of action remain undefined. The purpose of this research was to determine the protective effect of GLP-2 mediated TJ and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER in lipopolysaccharide (LPS stressed IPEC-J2 cells and to test the hypothesis that GLP-2 regulate TJ and TER through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-protein kinase B (Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway in IPEC-J2 cells. Wortmannin and LY294002 are specific inhibitors of PI3K. The results showed that 100 μg/mL LPS stress decreased TER and TJ proteins occludin, claudin-1 and zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1 mRNA, proteins expressions (p<0.01 respectively. GLP-2 (100 nmol/L promote TER and TJ proteins occludin, claudin-1, and zo-1 mRNA, proteins expressions in LPS stressed and normal IPEC-J2 cells (p<0.01 respectively. In normal cells, both wortmannin and LY294002, PI3K inhibitors, prevented the mRNA and protein expressions of Akt and mTOR increase induced by GLP-2 (p<0.01 following with the significant decreasing of occludin, claudin-1, ZO-1 mRNA and proteins expressions and TER (p<0.01. In conclusion, these results indicated that GLP-2 can promote TJ’s expression and TER in LPS stressed and normal IPEC-J2 cells and GLP-2 could regulate TJ and TER through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

  14. Long-term variability in the X-ray emission of RX J0720.4-3125

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, C.P.; Vink, J.; Méndez, R.M.; Verbunt, F.

    2004-01-01

    We detect a gradual, long-term change in the shape of the X-ray spectrum of the isolated neutron star RX J0720.4-3125, such that the spectrum of the source can no longer be described as a blackbody spectrum. The change is accompanied by an energy-dependent change in the pulse profile. If the X-ray

  15. Regulatory CD4 T cells inhibit HIV-1 expression of other CD4 T cell subsets via interactions with cell surface regulatory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingce; Robinson, Tanya O; Duverger, Alexandra; Kutsch, Olaf; Heath, Sonya L; Cron, Randy Q

    2018-03-01

    During chronic HIV-1 infection, regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs) frequently represent the largest subpopulation of CD4 T cell subsets, implying relative resistant to HIV-1. When HIV-1 infection of CD4 T cells was explored in vitro and ex vivo from patient samples, Tregs possessed lower levels of HIV-1 DNA and RNA in comparison with conventional effector and memory CD4 T cells. Moreover, Tregs suppressed HIV-1 expression in other CD4 T cells in an in vitro co-culture system. This suppression was mediated in part via multiple inhibitory surface proteins expressed on Tregs. Antibody blockade of CTLA-4, PD-1, and GARP on Tregs resulted in increased HIV-1 DNA integration and mRNA expression in neighboring CD4 T cells. Moreover, antibody blockade of Tregs inhibitory proteins resulted in increased HIV-1 LTR transcription in co-cultured CD4 T cells. Thus, Tregs inhibit HIV-1 infection of other CD4 T cell subsets via interactions with inhibitory cell surface proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microculture-based chemosensitivity testing: a feasibility study comparing freshly explanted human melanoma cells with human melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, E S; Finlay, G J; Matthews, J H; Shaw, J H; Nixon, J; Baguley, B C

    1992-03-04

    The culture of cancer cells has many applications in chemosensitivity testing and new drug development. Our goal was to adapt simple semiautomated microculture methods for testing the chemosensitivity of melanoma cells freshly recovered from patients' tumors. Cells were cultured on a substrate of agarose and exposed continuously to cytotoxic drugs, the effects of which were measured by determining the uptake of [3H]thymidine 4-7 days later. Immunocytochemical staining of cells cultured with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine demonstrated that tumor cells were responsible for the measured thymidine incorporation. The effects of cytotoxic drugs were calculated as logarithmic 50% inhibitory concentrations and expressed as divergences from the mean in a log-mean graph. The inhibitory effects of amsacrine, etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin, mitomycin C, and fluorouracil were tested. Tumors differed widely in their sensitivity to these drugs, although sensitivity to the three topoisomerase-II-directed agents was highly correlated. Cells from two non-neoplastic hematopoietic progenitor cell lines (FT and 32D) showed chemosensitivity patterns distinct from those in the melanoma cells, indicating tissue selectivity. Two established melanoma cell lines, MM-96 and FME, were tested under the same conditions and showed sensitivity typical of at least some fresh specimens. These results support the validity of melanoma cell lines as models of freshly resected melanoma cells. If successfully applied to other tumor types, such semiautomated approaches could find wide application in routine hospital laboratories for the chemosensitivity testing of patients' tumor cells.

  17. TRPV4 Regulates Tight Junctions and Affects Differentiation in a Cell Culture Model of the Corneal Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rendón, Jacqueline; Sánchez-Guzmán, Erika; Rueda, Angélica; González, James; Gulias-Cañizo, Rosario; Aquino-Jarquín, Guillermo; Castro-Muñozledo, Federico; García-Villegas, Refugio

    2017-07-01

    TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 4) is a cation channel activated by hypotonicity, moderate heat, or shear stress. We describe the expression of TRPV4 during the differentiation of a corneal epithelial cell model, RCE1(5T5) cells. TRPV4 is a late differentiation feature that is concentrated in the apical membrane of the outmost cell layer of the stratified epithelia. Ca 2+ imaging experiments showed that TRPV4 activation with GSK1016790A produced an influx of calcium that was blunted by the specific TRPV4 blocker RN-1734. We analyzed the involvement of TRPV4 in RCE1(5T5) epithelial differentiation by measuring the development of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) as an indicator of the tight junction (TJ) assembly. We showed that TRPV4 activity was necessary to establish the TJ. In differentiated epithelia, activation of TRPV4 increases the TER and the accumulation of claudin-4 in cell-cell contacts. Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) up-regulates the TER of corneal epithelial cultures, and we show here that TRPV4 activation mimicked this EGF effect. Conversely, TRPV4 inhibition or knock down by specific shRNA prevented the increase in TER. Moreover, TRPP2, an EGF-activated channel that forms heteromeric complexes with TRPV4, is also concentrated in the outmost cell layer of differentiated RCE1(5T5) sheets. This suggests that the EGF regulation of the TJ may involve a heterotetrameric TRPV4-TRPP2 channel. These results demonstrated TRPV4 activity was necessary for the correct establishment of TJ in corneal epithelia and as well as the regulation of both the barrier function of TJ and its ability to respond to EGF. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1794-1807, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Hawkins, D. C.; Prince, J. L.; Walker, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accelerated test schedule for terrestrial solar cells is described. This schedule, based on anticipated failure modes deduced from a consideration of IC failure mechanisms, involves bias-temperature testing, humidity testing (including both 85-85 and pressure cooker stress), and thermal-cycle thermal-shock testing. Results are described for 12 different unencapsulated cell types. Both gradual electrical degradation and sudden catastrophic mechanical change were observed. These effects can be used to discriminate between cell types and technologies relative to their reliability attributes. Consideration is given to identifying laboratory failure modes which might lead to severe degradation in the field through second quadrant operation. Test results indicate that the ability of most cell types to withstand accelerated stress testing depends more on the manufacturer's design, processing, and worksmanship than on the particular metallization system. Preliminary tests comparing accelerated test results on encapsulated and unencapsulated cells are described.

  19. Modification of back electrode with WO3 layer and its effect on Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4-based solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kun; Yao, Bin; Li, Yongfeng; Ding, Zhanhui; Deng, Rui; Sui, Yingrui; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhang, Ligong

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, we designed and prepared Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe)-based solar cells with a new structure of Al/ITO/ZnO/CdS/CZTSSe/WO3/Mo/SLG (S1-5) by depositing about 5-nm-thick WO3 layer with monoclinic structure on the back electrode Mo/SLG of solar cells with the convention structure of Al/ITO/ZnO/CdS/CZTSSe/Mo/SLG (S2), with the aim of improving the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of CZTSSe-based solar cells. It is found that the average open circuit voltage (Voc) increases from 346.7 mV of the S2 cells to 400.9 mV of the S1-5 cells, the average short circuit current density (Jsc) from 26.4 mA/cm2 to 32.1 mA/cm2 and the filling factor (FF) from 33.8 to 40.0 by addition of the WO3 layer, which results in that the average PCE increases from 3.10% of the S2 cells to 5.14% of the S1-5 cells. The average increasing percent of the PCE is 65.8%. The increase in Voc, Jsc and FF of the S1-5 cells compared to the S2 cells is attributed to that the WO3 layer prevent the Se coming from Se ambient and CZTSSe to react with the Mo to form MoSe2 and other second phases, which makes the shunt resistance (Rsh) of the S1-5 increase and the series resistance (Rs) and reverse saturation current density (J0) decrease compared to the S2 cells. The decreased J0 is main factor of improvement of the PCE. A mechanism of influence of the Rsh, Rs and J0 on the PCE is also revealed. Our result demonstrates that addition of the WO3 layer with a reasonable thickness can be a promising technical route of improving the PCE of the CZTSSe-based solar cell.

  20. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spangler, Scott Wilmer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  1. Effect of extended exposure of low-dose radiation on autoimmune diseases of immunologically depressed MRL/MpJ-gld/gld mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuyama, A.; Okazaki, R.; Norimura, T.

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed alterations of splenic T cell subpopulations and amelioration of autoimmune disease of MRL/MpJ-gld/gld mice (MRL/gld mice) after the extended exposure to low-dose radiation (LDR). Four-month old MRL/gld mice were exposed to 0.05, 0.2 and 0.5 Gy/day for 4 weeks (5 days/week) with a total dose of 1, 4 and 10 Gy, respectively. The mice irradiated with 0.2 and 0.5 Gy/day showed an obvious decrease in the proportions of splenic CD4 - CD8 - T cells and remission of their autoimmune disease. In the mice irradiated with 0.2 Gy/day, apoptotic cells were found in the white pulp of the spleen after the last irradiation, but not in that of the treated MRL/MpJ-+/+ mice (MRL/wild type mice). It seems that the accumulated CD4 - CD8 - T cells are more sensitive to radiation than other T cell subpopulations and prone to apoptosis, and efficient elimination of abnormal CD4 - CD8 - T cells by radiation-induced apoptosis may lead to the amelioration of autoimmune disease. (author)

  2. Symmetries of some hypergeometric series: Implications for 3j- and 6j-coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louck, J.D.; Beyer, W.A.; Biedenharn, L.C.; Stein, P.R.

    1986-10-01

    The occurrence of generalized hypergeometric series as factors, in the Wigner-Clebsch-Gordan (3j) and Racah (6j) coefficients is well known. The recently discovered S 5 symmetry of the Saalscheutzian 4 F 3 series may be used to extend the symmetries of the 6j-coefficients to the much larger group generated by S 5 and the group of Regge symmetries. (A similar extension may be carried out for the 3j-coefficients). The required extension of the domain of definition of the 6j-coefficients and the properties of its symmetry group is developed here. 7 refs

  3. Laser Phototherapy Enhances Mesenchymal Stem Cells Survival in Response to the Dental Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Márcia Alves Diniz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the influence of laser phototherapy (LPT on the survival of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs submitted to substances leached from dental adhesives. Method. MSCs were isolated and characterized. Oral mucosa fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells were used as comparative controls. Cultured medium conditioned with two adhesive systems was applied to the cultures. Cell monolayers were exposed or not to LPT. Laser irradiations were performed using a red laser (GaAlAs, 780 nm, 0.04 cm2, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2, 0.4J, 10 seconds, 1 point, 10 J/cm2. After 24 h, cell viability was assessed by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction assay. Data were statistically compared by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test (P<0.05. Results. Different cell types showed different viabilities in response to the same materials. Substances leached from adhesives were less cytotoxic to MSCs than to other cell types. Substances leached from Clearfil SE Bond were highly cytotoxic to all cell types tested, except to the MSCs when applied polymerized and in association with LPT. LPT was unable to significantly increase the cell viability of fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells submitted to the dental adhesives. Conclusion. LPT enhances mesenchymal stem cells survival in response to substances leached from dental adhesives.

  4. Modulation of Kir4.1 and Kir4.1-Kir5.1 channels by small changes in cell volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soe, Rikke; Macaulay, Nanna; Klaerke, Dan Arne

    2009-01-01

    in Kir4.1 and Kir4.1-Kir5.1 currents upon swelling of the oocytes and a reduction in the current when the oocytes were shrunk. The volume-dependent changes in channel activity were not due to changes in the kinetics of the channels. These findings implicate a putative functional interaction between...... the Kir channels and aquaporins via small, fast cell volume changes in the glial cells....... channels and aquaporins is therefore debated. To test a possible volume-sensitivity of the Kir channels, the Kir4.1 or Kir4.1-Kir5.1 channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without co-expression of aquaporins and subsequently exposed to cell volume alterations. Our results show an increase...

  5. Generation and CRISPR/Cas9 editing of transformed progenitor B cells as a pseudo-physiological system to study DNA repair gene function in V(D)J recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenden Hasse, Hélène; Lescale, Chloé; Bianchi, Joy J; Yu, Wei; Bedora-Faure, Marie; Deriano, Ludovic

    2017-12-01

    Antigen receptor gene assembly is accomplished in developing lymphocytes by the V(D)J recombination reaction, which can be separated into two steps: DNA cleavage by the recombination-activating gene (RAG) nuclease and joining of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by components of the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Deficiencies for NHEJ factors can result in immunodeficiency and a propensity to accumulate genomic instability, thus highlighting the importance of identifying all players in this process and deciphering their functions. Bcl2 transgenic v-Abl kinase-transformed pro-B cells provide a pseudo-physiological cellular system to study V(D)J recombination. Treatment of v-Abl/Bcl2 pro-B cells with the Abl kinase inhibitor Imatinib leads to G1 cell cycle arrest, the rapid induction of Rag1/2 gene expression and V(D)J recombination. In this system, the Bcl2 transgene alleviates Imatinib-induced apoptosis enabling the analysis of induced V(D)J recombination. Although powerful, the use of mouse models carrying the Bcl2 transgene for the generation of v-Abl pro-B cell lines is time and money consuming. Here, we describe a method for generating v-Abl/Bcl2 pro-B cell lines from wild type mice and for performing gene knock-out using episomal CRISPR/Cas9 targeting vectors. Using this approach, we generated distinct NHEJ-deficient pro-B cell lines and quantified V(D)J recombination levels in these cells. Furthermore, this methodology can be adapted to generate pro-B cell lines deficient for any gene suspected to play a role in V(D)J recombination, and more generally DSB repair. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between J waves and contact of lung cancer with the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hideki; Wu, Qi; Horie, Minoru

    2017-09-01

    J waves result mainly from an increased density of transient outward current (I to ). Mechanical stretch to the heart activates multiple signal transduction pathways, in which I to may be involved. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mechanical contact of lung cancer with the heart may manifest J waves. We reviewed 12-lead electrocardiograms to examine whether J waves were associated with contact of lung cancer with the heart. J waves were defied as an elevation of ≥0.1 mV at the junction between QRS complex and ST segment with either notching or slurring morphology. The locational interaction between lung cancer and the heart was determined by computed tomography image. A total of 264 patients (176 men; mean 68.5 ± 10.7 years) with lung cancer were evaluated. The prevalence of J waves was 25.4% in the total population. J waves were present in 40 of 44 (90.9%) patients with the contact. In contrast, J waves were present in 25 of 220 (11.4%) patients without the contact. The sensitivity and specificity of the contact for J waves were 90.9% and 88.6%, respectively. The odds ratio of the contact with the heart to the presence of J waves was 78 (95% confidence interval 25.7-236.4). The appearance of J waves that coincided with the development of lung cancer was observed in 12 patients. The presence of J waves was associated with the contact of lung cancer with the heart. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Phenotypic characterization of thymic prelymphoma cells of B10 mice treated with split-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, M.; Kubo, E.; Kamisaku, H.; Sado, T.

    1990-01-01

    Using an intrathymic injection assay on B10 Thy-1 congenic mice, it was demonstrated that thymic prelymphoma cells first developed within the thymuses from 4 to 8 days after split-dose irradiation and were detected in more than 63% of the test donor thymuses when examined at 21 and 31 days after irradiation. Moreover, some mice (25%) at 2 mo after split-dose irradiation had already developed thymic lymphomas in their thymuses. To characterize these thymic prelymphoma cells, the thymocytes from B10 Thy-1.1 mice 1 mo after irradiation were stained with anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 mAb and were sorted into four subpopulations. These fractionated cells were injected into the recipient thymuses to examine which subpopulation contained thymic prelymphoma cells. The results indicated that thymic prelymphoma cells existed mainly in CD4- CD8- and CD4- CD8+ thymocyte subpopulations and also in CD4+ CD8+ subpopulation. T cell lymphomas derived from CD4- CD8- prelymphoma cells had mainly CD4- CD8- or CD4- CD8+ phenotypes. T cell lymphomas developed from CD4- CD8+ prelymphoma cells mainly expressed CD4- CD8+ or CD4+ CD8+ phenotype. T cell lymphomas originating from CD4+ CD8+ prelymphoma cells were mainly CD4+ CD8+ but some CD4- CD8+ or CD4+ CD8- cells were also present. These thymic prelymphoma cells were further characterized phenotypically in relation to their expression of the marker defined by the mAb against J11d marker and TL-2 (thymus-leukemia) Ag, which is not expressed on normal thymocytes of B10.Thy-1.2 or B10.Thy-1.1 strain, but appears on the thymocytes of lymphomagenic irradiated mice. The results indicated that the prelymphoma cells existed in J11d+, TL-2+ cells

  8. Discovery of 1-5 Hz flaring at high luminosity in SAX J1808.4-3658

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bult, Peter; Van der Klis, Michiel, E-mail: p.m.bult@uva.nl [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-10

    We report the discovery of a 1-5 Hz X-ray flaring phenomenon observed at >30 mCrab near peak luminosity in the 2008 and 2011 outbursts of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658 in observations with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. In each of the two outbursts this high luminosity flaring is seen for ∼3 continuous days and switches on and off on a timescale of 1-2 hr. The flaring can be seen directly in the light curve, where it shows sharp spikes of emission at quasi-regular separation. In the power spectrum it produces a broad noise component, which peaks at 1-5 Hz. The total 0.05-10 Hz variability has a fractional rms amplitude of 20%-45%, well in excess of the 8%-12% rms broadband noise usually seen in power spectra of SAX J1808.4-3658. We perform a detailed timing analysis of the flaring and study its relation to the 401 Hz pulsations. We find that the pulse amplitude varies proportionally with source flux through all phases of the flaring, indicating that the flaring is likely due to mass density variations created at or outside the magnetospheric boundary. We suggest that this 1-5 Hz flaring is a high mass accretion rate version of the 0.5-2 Hz flaring which is known to occur at low luminosity (<13 mCrab), late in the tail of outbursts of SAX J1808.4-3658. We propose the dead-disk instability, previously suggested as the mechanism for the 0.5-2 Hz flaring, as a likely mechanism for the high luminosity flaring reported here.

  9. Transporters for Antiretroviral Drugs in Colorectal CD4+ T Cells and Circulating α4β7 Integrin CD4+ T Cells: Implications for HIV Microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Murray, Graeme I; Duncan, Linda; Yuecel, Raif; Shattock, Robin; Kelly, Charles; Iannelli, Francesco; Pozzi, Gianni; El-Omar, Emad M; Hold, Georgina L; Hijazi, Karolin

    2016-09-06

    CD4+ T lymphocytes in the colorectal mucosa are key in HIV-1 transmission and dissemination. As such they are also the primary target for antiretroviral (ARV)-based rectal microbicides for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Drug transporters expressed in mucosal CD4+ T cells determine ARV distribution across the cell membrane and, most likely, efficacy of microbicides. We describe transporters for antiretroviral drugs in colorectal mucosal CD4+ T lymphocytes and compare gene expression with circulating α4β7+CD4+ T cells, which traffic to the intestine and have been shown to be preferentially infected by HIV-1. Purified total CD4+ T cells were obtained from colorectal tissue and blood samples by magnetic separation. CD4+ T cells expressing α4β7 integrin were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers. Expressions of 15 efflux and uptake drug transporter genes were quantified using Taqman qPCR assays. Expression of efflux transporters MRP3, MRP5, and BCRP and uptake transporter CNT2 were significantly higher in colorectal CD4+ T cells compared to circulating CD4+ T cells (p = 0.01-0.03). Conversely, circulating α4β7+CD4+ T cells demonstrated significantly higher expression of OATPD compared to colorectal CD4+ T cells (p = 0.001). To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of drug transporter gene expression in colorectal CD4+ and peripheral α4β7+CD4+ T cells. The qualitative and quantitative differences in drug transporter gene expression profiles between α4β7+CD4+ T cells and total mucosal CD4+ T cells may have significant implications for the efficacy of rectally delivered ARV-microbicides. Most notably, we have identified efflux drug transporters that could be targeted by selective inhibitors or beneficial drug-drug interactions to enhance intracellular accumulation of antiretroviral drugs.

  10. jFuzz: A Concolic Whitebox Fuzzer for Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Karthick; Harvison, David; Ganesh, Vijay; Kiezun, Adam

    2009-01-01

    We present jFuzz, a automatic testing tool for Java programs. jFuzz is a concolic whitebox fuzzer, built on the NASA Java PathFinder, an explicit-state Java model checker, and a framework for developing reliability and analysis tools for Java. Starting from a seed input, jFuzz automatically and systematically generates inputs that exercise new program paths. jFuzz uses a combination of concrete and symbolic execution, and constraint solving. Time spent on solving constraints can be significant. We implemented several well-known optimizations and name-independent caching, which aggressively normalizes the constraints to reduce the number of calls to the constraint solver. We present preliminary results due to the optimizations, and demonstrate the effectiveness of jFuzz in creating good test inputs. The source code of jFuzz is available as part of the NASA Java PathFinder. jFuzz is intended to be a research testbed for investigating new testing and analysis techniques based on concrete and symbolic execution. The source code of jFuzz is available as part of the NASA Java PathFinder.

  11. Parametric Sensitivity Tests- European PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    performed based on test procedures proposed by a European project, Stack-Test. The sensitivity of a Nafion-based low temperature PEMFC stack’s performance to parametric changes was the main objective of the tests. Four crucial parameters for fuel cell operation were chosen; relative humidity, temperature......As fuel cells are increasingly commercialized for various applications, harmonized and industry-relevant test procedures are necessary to benchmark tests and to ensure comparability of stack performance results from different parties. This paper reports the results of parametric sensitivity tests......, pressure, and stoichiometry at varying current density. Furthermore, procedures for polarization curve recording were also tested both in ascending and descending current directions....

  12. In vitro biocorrosion of Ti-6Al-4V implant alloy by a mouse macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Yi; Bumgardner, Joel D

    2004-03-15

    Corrosion of implant alloys releasing metal ions has the potential to cause adverse tissue reactions and implant failure. We hypothesized that macrophage cells and their released reactive chemical species (RCS) affect the alloy's corrosion properties. A custom cell culture corrosion box was used to evaluate how cell culture medium, macrophage cells and RCS altered the Ti-6Al-4V corrosion behaviors in 72 h and how corrosion products affected the cells. There was no difference in the charge transfer in the presence (75.2 +/- 17.7 mC) and absence (62.3 +/- 18.8 mC) of cells. The alloy had the lowest charge transfer (28.2 +/- 4.1 mC) and metal ion release (Ti < 10 ppb, V < 2 ppb) with activated cells (releasing RCS) compared with the other two conditions. This was attributed to an enhancement of the surface oxides by RCS. Metal ion release was very low (Ti < 20 ppb, V < 10 ppb) with nonactivated cells and did not change cell morphology, viability, and NO and ATP release compared with controls. However, IL-1beta released from the activated cells and the proliferation of nonactivated cells were greater on the alloy than the controls. In summary, macrophage cells and RCS reduced the corrosion of Ti-6Al-4V alloys as hypothesized. These data are important in understanding host tissue-material interactions. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 68A: 717-724, 2004

  13. A Positive Control for Detection of Functional CD4 T Cells in PBMC: The CPI Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Annemarie; Zhang, Ting; Li, Ruliang; Duechting, Andrea; Sundararaman, Srividya; Przybyla, Anna; Kuerten, Stefanie; Lehmann, Paul V

    2017-12-07

    Testing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for immune monitoring purposes requires verification of their functionality. This is of particular concern when the PBMC have been shipped or stored for prolonged periods of time. While the CEF (Cytomegalo-, Epstein-Barr and Flu-virus) peptide pool has become the gold standard for testing CD8 cell functionality, a positive control for CD4 cells is so far lacking. The latter ideally consists of proteins so as to control for the functionality of the antigen processing and presentation compartments, as well. Aiming to generate a positive control for CD4 cells, we first selected 12 protein antigens from infectious/environmental organisms that are ubiquitous: Varicella, Influenza, Parainfluenza, Mumps, Cytomegalovirus, Streptococcus , Mycoplasma , Lactobacillus , Neisseria , Candida , Rubella, and Measles. Of these antigens, three were found to elicited interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD4 cells in the majority of human test subjects: inactivated cytomegalo-, parainfluenza-, and influenza virions (CPI). While individually none of these three antigens triggered a recall response in all donors, the pool of the three (the 'CPI pool'), did. One hundred percent of 245 human donors tested were found to be CPI positive, including Caucasians, Asians, and African-Americans. Therefore, the CPI pool appears to be suitable to serve as universal positive control for verifying the functionality of CD4 and of antigen presenting cells.

  14. HOS cell adhesion on Ti6Al4V ELI texturized by CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Amador, A.; Bayona–Alvarez, Y. M.; Carreño Garcia, H.; Escobar-Rivero, P.; Y Peña-Ballesteros, D.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the response of HOS cells on Ti6Al4V ELI textured surfaces by a CO2 laser was evaluated. The test surfaces were; smooth Ti6Al4V, used as the control, and four textured surfaces with linear geometry. These four surfaces had different separation distances between textured lines, D1 (1000 microns), D2 (750 microns), D3 (500 microns) and D4 (250 microns). Toxicity of textured surfaces was assessed by MTT and the cellular adhesion test was performed using HOS ATCC CRL 1543 line cells. This test was done after 5 days of culture in a RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotics. The results showed that the linear textures present 23% toxicity after 30 days of incubation, nevertheless, the adhesion tests results are inconclusive in such conditions and therefore the effect of the line separation on the cell adhesion cannot be determined.

  15. MASTER OT J014638.27+041324.4 is a Young Type IIP Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W.; Kelly, P. L.; Clubb, K. I.; Filippenko, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    We report that a CCD spectrum (range 350-1000 nm) of MASTER OT J014638.27+041324.4 (Shurpakov et al., ATel #5630) was obtained on Dec 6.5 UT with the Shane 3-m reflector (+Kast spectrograph) at Lick Observatory. The spectrum shows a blue continuum and weak, broad hydrogen Balmer lines having P-Cyg profiles, indicating that the object is a young Type IIP supernova. Weak He I 587.6 nm is also present.

  16. Functional somatostatin receptors on a rat pancreatic acinar cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viguerie, N.; Tahiri-Jouti, N.; Esteve, J.P.; Clerc, P.; Logsdon, C.; Svoboda, M.; Susini, C.; Vaysse, N.; Ribet, A.

    1988-01-01

    Somatostatin receptors from a rat pancreatic acinar cell line, AR4-2J, were characterized biochemically, structurally, and functionally. Binding of 125 I-[Tyr 11 ]Somatostatin to AR4-2J cells was saturable, exhibiting a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a maximal binding capacity of 258 ± 20 fmol/10 6 cells. Somatostatin receptor structure was analyzed by covalently cross-linking 125 I-[Tyr 11 ]somatostatin to its plasma membrane receptors. Gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of cross-linked proteins revealed a peptide containing the somatostatin receptor. Somatostatin inhibited vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) formation in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of somatostatin that caused half-maximal inhibition of cAMP formation was close to the receptor affinity for somatostatin. Pertussis toxin pretreatment of AR4-2J cells prevented somatostatin inhibition of VIP-stimulated cAMP formation as well as somatostatin binding. The authors conclude that AR4-2J cells exhibit functional somatostatin receptors that retain both specificity and affinity of the pancreatic acinar cell somatostatin receptors and act via the pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein N i to inhibit adenylate cyclase

  17. Charge-Control Unit for Testing Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Mazo, Michelle A.; Button, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    A charge-control unit was developed as part of a program to validate Li-ion cells packaged together in batteries for aerospace use. The lithium-ion cell charge-control unit will be useful to anyone who performs testing of battery cells for aerospace and non-aerospace uses and to anyone who manufacturers battery test equipment. This technology reduces the quantity of costly power supplies and independent channels that are needed for test programs in which multiple cells are tested. Battery test equipment manufacturers can integrate the technology into their battery test equipment as a method to manage charging of multiple cells in series. The unit manages a complex scheme that is required for charging Li-ion cells electrically connected in series. The unit makes it possible to evaluate cells together as a pack using a single primary test channel, while also making it possible to charge each cell individually. Hence, inherent cell-to-cell variations in a series string of cells can be addressed, and yet the cost of testing is reduced substantially below the cost of testing each cell as a separate entity. The unit consists of electronic circuits and thermal-management devices housed in a common package. It also includes isolated annunciators to signal when the cells are being actively bypassed. These annunciators can be used by external charge managers or can be connected in series to signal that all cells have reached maximum charge. The charge-control circuitry for each cell amounts to regulator circuitry and is powered by that cell, eliminating the need for an external power source or controller. A 110-VAC source of electricity is required to power the thermal-management portion of the unit. A small direct-current source can be used to supply power for an annunciator signal, if desired.

  18. Measurement of the e(+)e(-) -> eta J/psi cross section and search for e(+)e(-) -> pi(0)J/psi at center-of-mass energies between 3.810 and 4.600 GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, R. Q.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pu, Y. N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ren, H. L.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Using data samples collected with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII collider at 17 center-of-mass energies from 3.810 to 4.600 GeV, we perform a study of e(+)e(-) -> eta J/psi and pi(0)J/psi The Born cross sections of these two processes are measured at each center-of-mass energy. The

  19. Assessing anxiety in C57BL/6J mice: a pharmacological characterization of the open-field and light/dark tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Luis; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, María T; Domingo, José L

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess anxiety in mammals various tests and species are currently available. These current assays measure changes in anxiety-like behaviors. The open-field and the light/dark are anxiety tests based on the spontaneous behavior of the animals, with C57BL/6J mice being a frequently used strain in behavioral studies. However, the suitability of this strain as a choice in anxiety studies has been questioned. In this study, we performed two pharmacological characterizations of this strain in both the open-field and the light/dark tests. We examined the changes in the anxiety-like behaviors of C57BL/6J mice exposed to chlordiazepoxide (CDP), an anxiolytic drug, at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, picrotoxine (PTX), an anxiogenic drug, at doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg, and methylphenidate (MPH), a psychomotor stimulant drug, at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, in a first experiment. In a second experiment, we tested CDP at 2.5 mg/kg, PTX at 2 mg/kg and MPH at 2.5 mg/kg. Results showed an absence of anxiolytic-like effects of CDP in open-field and light/dark tests. Light/dark test was more sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of PTX than the open-field test. Finally, a clear anxiogenic effect of MPH was observed in the two tests. Although C57BL/6J mice could not be a sensitive model to study anxiolytic effects in pharmacological or behavioral interventions, it might be a suitable model to test anxiogenic effects. Further studies are necessary to corroborate these results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Test experiences with the DaimlerChrysler: Fuel cell electric vehicle NECAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedlmeier Gerardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The DalmlerChrysler fuel cell electric vehicle NECAR 4, a hydrogen-fueled zero-emission compact car based on the A-Class of Mercedes-Benz, is described. Test results obtained on the road and on the dynamometer are presented. These and other results show the high technological maturity reliability and durability already achieved with fuel cell technology.

  1. Test experiences with the DaimlerChrysler: Fuel cell electric vehicle NECAR

    OpenAIRE

    Friedlmeier Gerardo; Friedrich J.; Panik F.

    2002-01-01

    The DalmlerChrysler fuel cell electric vehicle NECAR 4, a hydrogen-fueled zero-emission compact car based on the A-Class of Mercedes-Benz, is described. Test results obtained on the road and on the dynamometer are presented. These and other results show the high technological maturity reliability and durability already achieved with fuel cell technology.

  2. Baicalin is an inhibitor of subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Kong, Zheng-Ru; Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Zong-Yi; Gu, Cheng-Xi; Shao, Hong-Xia; Qin, Ai-Jian

    2018-03-15

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can cause great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Baicalin, one of the flavonoids present in S.baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to have antiviral activities. To investigate whether baicalin has antiviral effects on the infection of ALV-J in DF-1 cells, the cells were treated with baicalin at different time points. We found that baicalin could inhibit viral mRNA, protein levels and overall virus infection in a dose- and time-dependent manner using a variety of assays. Baicalin specifically targeted virus internalization and reduced the infectivity of ALV-J particles, but had no effect on the levels of major ALV-J receptor and virus binding to DF-1 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that baicalin might have potential to be developed as a novel antiviral agent for ALV-J infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of GAMMA{sub ee}(J/psi).B(J/psi->e{sup +}e{sup -}) and GAMMA{sub ee}(J/psi).B(J/psi->mu{sup +}mu{sup -})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anashin, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Aulchenko, V.M. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova street, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Baldin, E.M., E-mail: E.M.Baldin@inp.nsk.s [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova street, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Barladyan, A.K.; Barnyakov, A.Yu.; Barnyakov, M.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Baru, S.E. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova street, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Bedny, I.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Beloborodova, O.L. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova street, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Blinov, A.E. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Blinov, V.E. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20, Karl Marx prospect, Novosibirsk, 630092 (Russian Federation); Bobrov, A.V.; Bobrovnikov, V.S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2010-03-01

    The products of the electron width of the J/psi meson and the branching fraction of its decays to the lepton pairs were measured using data from the KEDR experiment at the VEPP-4M electron-positron collider. The results are GAMMA{sub ee}xGAMMA{sub ee}/GAMMA=0.3323+-0.0064(stat.)+-0.0048(syst.) keV, GAMMA{sub ee}xGAMMA{sub m}u{sub m}u/GAMMA=0.3318+-0.0052(stat.)+-0.0063(syst.) keV. Their combinations GAMMA{sub ee}x(GAMMA{sub ee}+GAMMA{sub m}u{sub m}u)/GAMMA=0.6641+-0.0082(stat.)+-0.0100(syst.) keV, GAMMA{sub ee}/GAMMA{sub m}u{sub m}u=1.002+-0.021(stat.)+-0.013(syst.) can be used to improve the accuracy of the leptonic and full widths and test leptonic universality. Assuming emu universality and using the world average value of the lepton branching fraction, we also determine the leptonic GAMMA{sub ll}=5.59+-0.12 keV and total GAMMA=94.1+-2.7 keV widths of the J/psi meson.

  4. KOH concentration effect on the cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells. 4: Results of failure analyse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of KOH concentrations on failure modes and mechanisms of nickel-hydrogen cells were studied using long cycled boiler plate cells containing electrolytes of various KOH concentrations ranging 21 to 36 percent. Life of these cells were up to 40,000 cycles in an accelerated low earth orbit (LEO) cycle regime at 80 percent depth of discharge. An interim life test results were reported earlier in J. Power Sources, 22, 213-220, 1988. The results of final life test, end-of-life cell performance, and teardown analyses are discussed. These teardown analyses included visual observations, measurements of nickel electrode capacity in an electrolyte-flooded cell, dimensional changes of cell components, SEM studies on cell cross section, BET surface area and pore volume distribution in cycled nickel electrodes, and chemical analyses. Cycle life of a nickel-hydrogen cell was improved tremendously as KOH concentration was decreased from 36 to 31 percent and from 31 to 26 percent while effect of further concentration decrease was complicated as described in our earlier report. Failure mode of high concentration (31 to 36 percent) cells was gradual capacity decrease, while that of low concentration (21 to 26 percent) cells was mainly formation of a soft short. Long cycled (25,000 to 40,000 cycles) nickel electrodes were expanded more than 50 percent of the initial value, but no correlation was found between this expansion and measured capacity. All electrodes cycled in low concentration (21 to 26 percent) cells had higher capacity than those cycled in high concentration (31 to 36 percent) cells.

  5. The improvement of dynamic universal testing machine for hot cell usages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Bok; Lee, Key Soon; Park, Dae Kyu; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Choo, Yong Sun

    1998-01-01

    Dynamic universal testing machine(UTM) were developed for hot cell usages, which can perform tensile, compression, bending, fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth tests. In this report, technical reviews in the course of developing machine were described. Detailed subjects are as follows; 1. Outline of testing method using dynamic UTM 2. Detailed testing system organizations 3. Technical specification to develop machine 4. Setting up load string 5. Inspection and pre-commissioning tests on machine. (author). 14 figs

  6. Intracellular CXCR4+ cell targeting with T22-empowered protein-only nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta, Ugutz; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Casanova, Isolda; Cedano, Juan; Corchero, José Luis; Domingo-Espín, Joan; Villaverde, Antonio; Mangues, Ramón; Vázquez, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell-targeting peptides or proteins are appealing tools in nanomedicine and innovative medicines because they increase the local drug concentration and reduce potential side effects. CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a cell surface marker associated with several severe human pathologies, including colorectal cancer, for which intracellular targeting agents are currently missing. Results Four different peptides that bind CXCR4 were tested for their ability to internalize a green fluorescent protein-based reporter nanoparticle into CXCR4+ cells. Among them, only the 18 mer peptide T22, an engineered segment derivative of polyphemusin II from the horseshoe crab, efficiently penetrated target cells via a rapid, receptor-specific endosomal route. This resulted in accumulation of the reporter nanoparticle in a fully fluorescent and stable form in the perinuclear region of the target cells, without toxicity either in cell culture or in an in vivo model of metastatic colorectal cancer. Conclusion Given the urgent demand for targeting agents in the research, diagnosis, and treatment of CXCR4-linked diseases, including colorectal cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection, T22 appears to be a promising tag for the intracellular delivery of protein drugs, nanoparticles, and imaging agents. PMID:22923991

  7. Testing begins on Linac4

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On 3 August 2012, the Linac4 radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module was installed at the accelerator test-stand in Building 152. The site will be the module’s home for almost a year, as the linear accelerator enters the assembly and testing stage.   Final module assembly is carried out before installation in Building 152.  Over the next Long Shutdown (LS2), Linac4 will replace the current Linac2 linear accelerator as the first link in CERN’s accelerator chain. It will deliver particles at 160 MeV to the PS Booster, more than triple the energy currently delivered by Linac2. But before the accelerator team can pop the champagne, the various elements of Linac4 will be tested and re-tested in facilities across CERN. “The first Linac4 tests are currently underway, starting with the CERN-built RFQ,” says Carlo Rossi, a physicist in the RF Group of the Beams (BE) Department and the RFQ project coordinator. “It’s an extremely impre...

  8. Chemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Brazilian Green Propolis on Activated J774A.1 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Szliszka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEP-B on LPS + IFN-γ or PMA stimulated J774A.1 macrophages. The identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in green propolis extract were performed using HPLC-DAD and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS methods. The cell viability was evaluated by MTT and LDH assays. The radical scavenging ability was determined using DPPH• and ABTS•+. ROS and RNS generation was analyzed by chemiluminescence. NO concentration was detected by the Griess reaction. The release of various cytokines by activated J774A.1 cells was measured in the culture supernatants using a multiplex bead array system based on xMAP technology. Artepillin C, kaempferide, and their derivatives were the main phenolics found in green propolis. At the tested concentrations, the EEP-B did not decrease the cell viability and did not cause the cytotoxicity. EEP-B exerted strong antioxidant activity and significantly inhibited the production of ROS, RNS, NO, cytokine IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-13, TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES in stimulated J774A.1 macrophages. Our findings provide new insights for understanding the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of Brazilian green propolis extract and support its application in complementary and alternative medicine.

  9. SA-4-1BBL costimulation inhibits conversion of conventional CD4+ T cells into CD4+ FoxP3+ T regulatory cells by production of IFN-γ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravan Madireddi

    Full Text Available Tumors convert conventional CD4(+ T cells into induced CD4(+CD25(+FoxP3(+ T regulatory (iTreg cells that serve as an effective means of immune evasion. Therefore, the blockade of conventional CD4(+ T cell conversion into iTreg cells represents an attractive target for improving the efficacy of various immunotherapeutic approaches. Using a novel form of 4-1BBL molecule, SA-4-1BBL, we previously demonstrated that costimulation via 4-1BB receptor renders both CD4(+and CD8(+ T effector (Teff cells refractory to inhibition by Treg cells and increased intratumoral Teff/Treg cell ratio that correlated with therapeutic efficacy in various preclinical tumor models. Building on these studies, we herein show for the first time, to our knowledge, that signaling through 4-1BB inhibits antigen- and TGF-β-driven conversion of naïve CD4(+FoxP3(- T cells into iTreg cells via stimulation of IFN-γ production by CD4(+FoxP3(- T cells. Importantly, treatment with SA-4-1BBL blocked the conversion of CD4(+FoxP3(- T cells into Treg cells by EG.7 tumors. Taken together with our previous studies, these results show that 4-1BB signaling negatively modulate Treg cells by two distinct mechanisms: i inhibiting the conversion of CD4(+FoxP3(- T cells into iTreg cells and ii endowing Teff cells refractory to inhibition by Treg cells. Given the dominant role of Treg cells in tumor immune evasion mechanisms, 4-1BB signaling represents an attractive target for favorably tipping the Teff:Treg balance toward Teff cells with important implications for cancer immunotherapy.

  10. Degradation mechanisms and accelerated testing in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. Although there has been recent progress in improving durability, further improvements are needed to meet the commercialization targets. Past improvements have largely been made possible because of the fundamental understanding of the underlying degradation mechanisms. By investigating component and cell degradation modes; defining the fundamental degradation mechanisms of components and component interactions new materials can be designed to improve durability. Various factors have been shown to affect the useful life of PEM fuel cells. Other issues arise from component optimization. Operational conditions (such as impurities in either the fuel and oxidant stream), cell environment, temperature (including subfreezing exposure), pressure, current, voltage, etc.; or transient versus continuous operation, including start-up and shutdown procedures, represent other factors that can affect cell performance and durability. The need for Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) can be quickly understood given the target lives for fuel cell systems: 5000 hours ({approx} 7 months) for automotive, and 40,000 hrs ({approx} 4.6 years) for stationary systems. Thus testing methods that enable more rapid screening of individual components to determine their durability characteristics, such as off-line environmental testing, are needed for evaluating new component durability in a reasonable turn-around time. This allows proposed improvements in a component to be evaluated rapidly and independently, subsequently allowing rapid advancement in PEM fuel cell durability. These tests are also crucial to developers in order to make sure that they do not sacrifice durability while making improvements in costs (e.g. lower platinum group metal [PGM] loading) and performance (e.g. thinner membrane or a GDL with better water management properties). To

  11. Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory The Energy System Integration Facility's Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory supports fuel cell research and development projects through in-situ fuel cell testing. Photo of a researcher running

  12. J129 in the biocycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, J.; Kuehn, W.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey on the few known data on the radioecological behaviour of 129 J is given. Numerous investigations as to the 129 J-uptake in the thyroid of cattle were carried out in the USA. In Western Europe, practically only in the near surroundings of nuclear-technical plants measurements of 129 J were carried out. In the author's opinion, to clarify the ecological behaviour of 129 J, human thyroids should be examined as well, in special regions the share of 129 J in milk, grass, food, and ground-near air should be determined and tests with especially important iodine compounds from various soils and plants should be carried out concerning this re-emissions. (MG) [de

  13. Identification, Characterization, and Utilization of Adult Meniscal Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    meniscal findings on knee MRI in middle-aged and elderly persons. N. Engl. J. Med. 359, 1108–1115.802 Stem Cell Reports j Vol. 3 j 789–803 j November 11...PBS, pH¼7.4) with protease inhibitors (Pierce Protease Inhibitor Tablets 88266, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Rockford, IL) at 4 1C for less than 24 h

  14. On-Orbit Measurement of Next Generation Space Solar Cell Technology on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford, David S.; Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies, William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is in the process of measuring several solar cells in a supplemental experiment on NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4). Four industry and government partners have provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment will be on-orbit for approximately 18 months. It is completely self-contained and will provide its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four- junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) cells will be evaluated and the results compared to ground-based measurements.

  15. CD4/CD8/Dendritic cell complexes in the spleen: CD8+ T cells can directly bind CD4+ T cells and modulate their response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barinov, Aleksandr; Galgano, Alessia; Krenn, Gerald; Tanchot, Corinne; Vasseur, Florence

    2017-01-01

    CD4+ T cell help to CD8+ T cell responses requires that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells interact with the same antigen presenting dendritic cell (Ag+DC), but it remains controversial whether helper signals are delivered indirectly through a licensed DC and/or involve direct CD4+/CD8+ T cell contacts and/or the formation of ternary complexes. We here describe the first in vivo imaging of the intact spleen, aiming to evaluate the first interactions between antigen-specific CD4+, CD8+ T cells and Ag+DCs. We show that in contrast to CD4+ T cells which form transient contacts with Ag+DC, CD8+ T cells form immediate stable contacts and activate the Ag+DC, acquire fragments of the DC membranes by trogocytosis, leading to their acquisition of some of the DC properties. They express MHC class II, and become able to present the specific Marilyn peptide to naïve Marilyn CD4+ T cells, inducing their extensive division. In vivo, these CD8+ T cells form direct stable contacts with motile naïve CD4+ T cells, recruiting them to Ag+DC binding and to the formation of ternary complexes, where CD4+ and CD8+ T cells interact with the DC and with one another. The presence of CD8+ T cells during in vivo immune responses leads to the early activation and up-regulation of multiple functions by CD4+ T lymphocytes. Thus, while CD4+ T cell help is important to CD8+ T cell responses, CD8+ T cells can interact directly with naïve CD4+ T cells impacting their recruitment and differentiation. PMID:28686740

  16. Increased expression of the regulatory T cell-associated marker CTLA-4 in bovine leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Saori; Konnai, Satoru; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Nishimori, Asami; Kohara, Junko; Mingala, Claro N; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-02-15

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in the maintenance of the host's immune system. Tregs, particularly CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells, have been reported to be involved in the immune evasion mechanism of tumors and several pathogens that cause chronic infections. Recent studies showed that a Treg-associated marker, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), is closely associated with the progression of several diseases. We recently reported that the proportion of Foxp3(+)CD4(+) cells was positively correlated with the number of lymphocytes, virus titer, and virus load but inversely correlated with IFN-γ expression in cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which causes chronic infection and lymphoma in its host. Here the kinetics of CTLA-4(+) cells were analyzed in BLV-infected cattle. CTLA-4 mRNA was predominantly expressed in CD4(+) T cells in BLV-infected cattle, and the expression was positively correlated with Foxp3 mRNA expression. To test for differences in the protein expression level of CTLA-4, we measured the proportion of CTLA-4-expressing cells by flow cytometry. In cattle with persistent lymphocytosis (PL), mean fluorescence intensities (MFIs) of CTLA-4 on CD4(+) and CD25(+) T cells were significantly increased compared with that in control and aleukemic (AL) cattle. The percentage of CTLA-4(+) cells in the CD4(+) T cell subpopulation was positively correlated with TGF-β mRNA expression, suggesting that CD4(+)CTLA-4(+) T cells have a potentially immunosuppressive function in BLV infection. In the limited number of cattle that were tested, the anti-CTLA-4 antibody enhanced the expression of CD69, IL-2, and IFN-γ mRNA in anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BLV-infected cattle. Together with previous findings, the present results indicate that Tregs may be involved in the inhibition of T cell function during BLV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Chirality of TLR-2 ligand Pam3CysSK4 in fully synthetic peptide conjugates critically influences the induction of specific CD8+ T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Selina; Weterings, Jimmy J; Britten, Cedrik M; de Jong, Ana R; Graafland, Dirk; Melief, Cornelis J M; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; van der Marel, Gijs; Overkleeft, Hermen S; Filippov, Dmitri V; Ossendorp, Ferry

    2009-03-01

    Covalent conjugation of synthetic Toll-like receptor ligands (TLR-L) to synthetic antigenic peptides provides well-defined constructs that have significantly improved capacity to induce efficient priming of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in vivo. We have recently explored the cellular mechanisms underlying the efficient induction of a CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte response by such synthetic model vaccines [Khan, S., Bijker, M.S., Weterings, J.J., Tanke, H.J., Adema, G.J., van, H.T., Drijfhout, J.W., Melief, C.J., Overkleeft, H.S., van der Marel, G.A., Filippov, D.V., van der Burg, S.H., Ossendorp, F., 2007. Distinct uptake mechanisms but similar intracellular processing of two different toll-like receptor ligand-peptide conjugates in dendritic cells. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 21145-21159.]. In the current study we have investigated the behaviour of two diastereomers of the TLR-2 ligand Pam(3)CSK(4) (Pam) derivatives, namely the R- and S-epimers at C-2 of the glycerol moiety. Other studies have shown that the Pam(3)Cys based lipopeptides of R-configuration (Pam(R)) in the glycerol moiety enhanced macrophage and B-cell activation compared to those with S-configuration (Pam(S)). Here we report that Pam(R)-conjugates lead to better activation of dendritic cells than the Pam(S)-conjugates as judged by higher IL-12 secretion, upregulation of relevant markers for dendritic cell maturation. In contrast both epimers were internalized equally efficient in a clathrin-dependent manner indicating no qualitative difference in the uptake of the two stereoisomeric Pam-conjugates. We conclude that the enhanced DC activation is due to enhanced TLR-2 triggering by the Pam(R)-conjugate in contrast to the Pam(S)-conjugate. Importantly, induction of specific CD8(+) T-cells was significantly higher in mice injected with the Pam(R)-conjugates compared to mice injected with the Pam(S)-conjugate. In summary we show that the favourable effects of the Pam(R)-configuration of TLR-2 ligand can be attributed to

  18. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  19. Results of the 1982 intercomparison (collaborative test) on J 131 in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1982-01-01

    The quality control of J 131 measurements in milk in the Federal Republik of Germany by an intercomparison performed in March 1982 showed a reasonable result. About two thirds of the laboratories engaged in this intercomparison had no trouble with their analytical tools. To improve the standard of J 131 determinations, laboratories with deviations from the true value were pointed to possible systematic errors. In the Federal Republik of Germany those methods for the determination of J 131 in milk have been successfully used which concentrate the iodine of the milk on an anion exchanger column and measure the J 131 directly by gammaspectrometry. (orig.) [de

  20. Novel chloroacetamido compound CWR-J02 is an anti-inflammatory glutaredoxin-1 inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gorelenkova Miller

    Full Text Available Glutaredoxin (Grx1 is a ubiquitously expressed thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase that specifically catalyzes reduction of S-glutathionylated substrates. Grx1 is known to be a key regulator of pro-inflammatory signaling, and Grx1 silencing inhibits inflammation in inflammatory disease models. Therefore, we anticipate that inhibition of Grx1 could be an anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategy. We used a rapid screening approach to test 504 novel electrophilic compounds for inhibition of Grx1, which has a highly reactive active-site cysteine residue (pKa 3.5. From this chemical library a chloroacetamido compound, CWR-J02, was identified as a potential lead compound to be characterized. CWR-J02 inhibited isolated Grx1 with an IC50 value of 32 μM in the presence of 1 mM glutathione. Mass spectrometric analysis documented preferential adduction of CWR-J02 to the active site Cys-22 of Grx1, and molecular dynamics simulation identified a potential non-covalent binding site. Treatment of the BV2 microglial cell line with CWR-J02 led to inhibition of intracellular Grx1 activity with an IC50 value (37 μM. CWR-J02 treatment decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory gene transcription in the microglial cells in a parallel concentration-dependent manner, documenting the anti-inflammatory potential of CWR-J02. Exploiting the alkyne moiety of CWR-J02, we used click chemistry to link biotin azide to CWR-J02-adducted proteins, isolating them with streptavidin beads. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis identified many CWR-J02-reactive proteins, including Grx1 and several mediators of inflammatory activation. Taken together, these data identify CWR-J02 as an intracellularly effective Grx1 inhibitor that may elicit its anti-inflammatory action in a synergistic manner by also disabling other pro-inflammatory mediators. The CWR-J02 molecule provides a starting point for developing more selective Grx1 inhibitors and anti-inflammatory agents for therapeutic

  1. 1-(2,6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl Ethanone-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in G1/G0 in HT-29 Cells Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Ma Lay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1-(2,6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanone (DMHE was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl fruits and the structure confirmed by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. This compound was tested on the HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT (method of transcriptional and translational cell proliferation assay. The results of MTT assay showed that DMHE exhibited good cytotoxic effect on HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner but no cytotoxic effect on the MRC-5 cell line after 72 h incubation. Morphological features of apoptotic cells upon treatment by DMHE, e.g., cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing, were examined by an inverted and phase microscope. Other features, such as chromatin condension and nuclear fragmentation were studied using acridine orange and propidium iodide staining under the fluorescence microscope. Future evidence of apoptosis/necrosis was provided by result fromannexin V-FITC/PI (fluorescein-isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining revealed the percentage of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, necrotic and live cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner using flow cytometry. Cell cycle analysis showed G0/G1 arrest in a time-dependent manner. A western blot analysis indicated that cell death might be associated with the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax PUMA. However, the anit-apotptic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 were also found to increase in a time-dependent manner. The expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak was not observed.

  2. Accelerated stress testing of amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, W. G.; Davis, C. W.; Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for performing accelerated stress tests of large-area thin a-Si solar cells is presented. A computer-controlled short-interval test system employing low-cost ac-powered ELH illumination and a simulated a-Si reference cell (seven individually bandpass-filtered zero-biased crystalline PIN photodiodes) calibrated to the response of an a-Si control cell is described and illustrated with flow diagrams, drawings, and graphs. Preliminary results indicate that while most tests of a program developed for c-Si cells are applicable to a-Si cells, spurious degradation may appear in a-Si cells tested at temperatures above 130 C.

  3. Imprinting of CCR9 on CD4 T cells requires IL-4 signaling on mesenteric lymph node dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Raul; Sepulveda, Fernando E; Vilches, Felipe; Vargas, Leonardo; Mora, J Rodrigo; Bono, Maria Rosa; Rosemblatt, Mario

    2008-05-15

    It has recently been shown that IL-4 can educate dendritic cells (DC) to differentially affect T cell effector activity. In this study, we show that IL-4 can also act upon DC to instruct naive T cells to express the gut-associated homing receptor CCR9. Thus, effector T cells generated after coculture with mesenteric lymph node (MLN)-DC show a higher expression of CCR9 when activated in the presence of IL-4. In contrast, IL-4 had no effect on CCR9 expression when naive T cells were polyclonally activated in the absence of MLN-DC, suggesting that the effect of IL-4 on CCR9 expression passed through DC. Indeed, T cells activated by MLN-DC from IL-4Ralpha(-/-) mice showed a much lower CCR9 expression and a greatly reduced migration to the small intestine than T cells activated by wild-type MLN-DC even in the presence of IL-4. Consistent with the finding that the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) induces gut-homing molecules on T cells, we further demonstrate that IL-4 up-regulated retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 mRNA on MLN-DC, a critical enzyme involved in the synthesis of RA. Moreover, LE135, a RA receptor antagonist, blocked the increased expression of CCR9 driven by IL-4-treated MLN-DC. Thus, besides the direct effect of RA on T cell gut tropism, our results show that the induction of a gut-homing phenotype on CD4(+) T cells is also influenced by the effect of IL-4 on gut-associated DC.

  4. Murid herpesvirus-4 exploits dendritic cells to infect B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gaspar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play a central role in initiating immune responses. Some persistent viruses infect DCs and can disrupt their functions in vitro. However, these viruses remain strongly immunogenic in vivo. Thus what role DC infection plays in the pathogenesis of persistent infections is unclear. Here we show that a persistent, B cell-tropic gamma-herpesvirus, Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4, infects DCs early after host entry, before it establishes a substantial infection of B cells. DC-specific virus marking by cre-lox recombination revealed that a significant fraction of the virus latent in B cells had passed through a DC, and a virus attenuated for replication in DCs was impaired in B cell colonization. In vitro MuHV-4 dramatically altered the DC cytoskeleton, suggesting that it manipulates DC migration and shape in order to spread. MuHV-4 therefore uses DCs to colonize B cells.

  5. No Neurocognitive Advantage for Immediate Antiretroviral Treatment in adults with greater than 500 CD4+ T Cell Counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Edwina J; Grund, Birgit; Robertson, Kevin R

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral treatment (ART) on neuropsychological test performance in treatment-naive HIV-positive adults with >500 CD4+ cells/μL. DESIGN: Randomized trial. METHODS: The START parent study randomized participants to commence immediate...... versus deferred ART until CD4+ cells/μL. The START Neurology substudy used 8 neuropsychological tests, at baseline, months 4, 8, 12 and annually, to compare groups for changes in test performance. Test results were internally standardized to z-scores. The primary outcome was the average of the eight...... test z-scores (QNPZ-8). Mean changes in QNPZ-8 from baseline were compared by intent-to-treat using longitudinal mixed models. Changes from baseline to specific time points were compared using ANCOVA models. RESULTS: 592 participants had a median age of 34 years; median baseline CD4+ count of 629 cells...

  6. The Improvement of Atomita-4 Rice Variety Through Gamma Rays Irradiation of F1 Seeds from Atomita-4/Ir-64 Crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Harsanti; Mugiono

    2004-01-01

    Atom ita-4 rice variety was crossed with IR-64 variety in the greenhouse at the Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation-Batan, Pasar jumat in the wet season of 1994/1995. F 1 Seeds derived from Atomita-4/IR-64 crossing were irradiated by gamma rays at of 0.2 kGy dose. F 1 seeds were grown to obtain F 2 M 2 seed, and then selection of pedigree were carried out at F 2 generation. Six mutants lines were obtained purified and screened on biotypes 1, 2 and 3 brown plant hopper and bacterial leaf blight resistance by IRRI standard screening methods. The six mutant lines were tested for their potential yield at Pusakanegara and then continued tested in yield multi location test at several locations in Indonesia. Results of the screening test to brown plant hopper showed that two mutant lines Obs-1653/PsJ and Obs-1656/PsJ were resistant to biotype 1, biotype 2 and medium resistant to biotype 3. Obs-1653/PsJ and Obs-1656/PsJ also showed resistance to bacterial leaf blight strain 3 and medium resistance to strain 4. Results in the yield multi location test showed that Obs-1653/PsJ and Obs-1656/PsJ have highest yielding potential compared to IR-64 and Memberamo varieties. Those two mutant lines were released as new varieties under the name Merauke and Kahayan in 2001 and 2003 respectively. (author)

  7. Identification of ALV-J associated acutely transforming virus Fu-J carrying complete v-fps oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixin; Li, Jianliang; Li, Yang; Fang, Lichun; Sun, Xiaolong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2016-06-01

    Transduction of oncogenes by ALVs and generation of acute transforming viruses is common in natural viral infections. In order to understand the molecular basis for the rapid oncogenicity of Fu-J, an acutely transforming avian leukosis virus isolated from fibrosarcomas in crossbreed broilers infected with subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) in China, complete genomic structure of Fu-J virus was determined by PCR amplification and compared with those of Fu-J1, Fu-J2, Fu-J3, Fu-J4, and Fu-J5 reported previously. The results showed that the genome of Fu-J was defective, with parts of gag gene replaced by the complete v-fps oncogene and encoded a 137 kDa Gag-fps fusion protein. Sequence analysis revealed that Fu-J and Fu-J1 to Fu-J5 were related quasi-species variants carrying different lengths of v-fps oncogenes generated from recombination between helper virus and c-fps gene. Comparison of virus carrying v-fps oncogene also gave us a glimpse of the molecular characterization and evolution process of the acutely transforming ALV.

  8. A PHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF FOUR RECENTLY DISCOVERED CONTACT BINARIES: 1SWASP J064501.21+342154.9, 1SWASP J155822.10-025604.8, 1SWASP J212808.86+151622.0, AND UCAC4 436-062932

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurašević, G.; Latković, O.; Cséki, A.; Essam, A.; El-Sadek, M. A.; Abo-Elala, M. S.; Hayman, Z. M.

    2016-01-01

    We present new, high-quality multicolor observations of four recently discovered contact binaries, 1SWASP J064501.21+342154.9, 1SWASP J155822.10-025604.8, 1SWASP J212808.86+151622.0, and UCAC4 436-062932, and analyze their light curves to determine orbital and physical parameters using the modeling program of G. Djurašević. In the absence of spectroscopic observations, the effective temperatures of the brighter components are estimated from the color indices, and the mass ratios are determined with the q -search method. The analysis shows that all four systems are W UMa type binaries in shallow contact configurations, consisting of late-type main-sequence primaries and evolved secondaries with active surface regions (dark or bright spots) resulting from magnetic activity or ongoing transfer of thermal energy between the components. We compare the derived orbital and stellar parameters for these four variables with a large sample of previously analyzed W UMa stars and find that our results fit it well.

  9. Cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell adhesion are linked by syndecan-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakideeri Karat, Sandeep Gopal; Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Pocock, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-cell junctions that employ microfilaments are sites of tension. They are important for tissue repair, morphogenetic movements and can be emblematic of matrix contraction in fibrotic disease and the stroma of solid tumors. One cell surface receptor, syndecan...... calcium. While it is known that cell-ECM and cell-cell junctions may be linked, possible roles for syndecans in this process are not understood. Here we show that wild type primary fibroblasts and those lacking syndecan-4 utilize different cadherins in their adherens junctions and that tension is a major...... factor in this differential response. This corresponds to the reduced ability of fibroblasts lacking syndecan-4 to exert tension on the ECM and we now show that this may extend to reduced tension in cell-cell adhesion....

  10. ImmunoPET Imaging of Murine CD4+ T Cells Using Anti-CD4 Cys-Diabody: Effects of Protein Dose on T Cell Function and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freise, Amanda C; Zettlitz, Kirstin A; Salazar, Felix B; Lu, Xiang; Tavaré, Richard; Wu, Anna M

    2017-08-01

    Molecular imaging of CD4 + T cells throughout the body has implications for monitoring autoimmune disease and immunotherapy of cancer. Given the key role of these cells in regulating immunity, it is important to develop a biologically inert probe. GK1.5 cys-diabody (cDb), a previously developed anti-mouse CD4 antibody fragment, was tested at different doses to assess its effects on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and CD4 + T cell viability, proliferation, CD4 expression, and function. The effect of protein dose on image contrast (lymphoid tissue-to-muscle ratio) was assessed by administering different amounts of 89 Zr-labeled GK1.5 cDb to mice followed by PET imaging and ex vivo biodistribution analysis. To assess impact of GK1.5 cDb on T cell biology, GK1.5 cDb was incubated with T cells in vitro or administered intravenously to C57BL/6 mice at multiple protein doses. CD4 expression and T cell proliferation were analyzed with flow cytometry and cytokines were assayed. For immunoPET imaging, the lowest protein dose of 2 μg of 89 Zr-labeled GK1.5 cDb resulted in significantly higher % injected dose/g in inguinal lymph nodes (ILN) and spleen compared to the 12-μg protein dose. In vivo administration of GK1.5 cDb at the high dose of 40 μg caused a transient decrease in CD4 expression in spleen, blood, lymph nodes, and thymus, which recovered within 3 days postinjection; this effect was reduced, although not abrogated, when 2 μg was administered. Proliferation was inhibited in vivo in ILN but not the spleen by injection of 40 μg GK1.5 cDb. Concentrations of GK1.5 cDb in excess of 25 nM significantly inhibited CD4 + T cell proliferation and interferon-γ production in vitro. Overall, using low-dose GK1.5 cDb minimized biological effects on CD4 + T cells. Low-dose GK1.5 cDb yields high-contrast immunoPET images with minimal effects on T cell biology in vitro and in vivo and may be a useful tool for investigating CD4 + T cells in the context of

  11. Synthesis of 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone and 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone as a candidate anticancer against cervical (WiDr), colon (HeLa), and breast (T47d) cancer cell lines in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsjeh, Sabirin; Swasono, Respati Tri; Anwar, Chairil; Solikhah, Eti Nurwening; Lestari, Endang

    2017-03-01

    The compound 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone and 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone have been synthesized through Claisen-Schmidt reaction from 2-hydroxyacetophenone and 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone with 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehida (vanillin) in aqueous KOH 40% and KSF montmorillonite as catalyst in methanol. All these products were characterized by FT-IR, TLC Scanner, GC-MS, MS-Direct, and 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectrometer. Both of these compounds were tested citotoxycity activity as an anticancer against cervical, colon, and breast cancer cells (Hela, WiDr, and T47D cell lines) using MTT assay in vitro. Dose series given test solution concentration on Hela, WiDr, and T47D cells started from 6,25; 25; 50 and 100 µg/mL with incubation treatment for 24 hours. The result of study showed that the 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone as bright yellow crystal with the melting point of 114-115 °C and the yield of 13.77% and the 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone as bright yellow crystals with the melting point of 195-197 °C and the yield of 6%. Other 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone and 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone also exhibited cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines, with the 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone showed greater activities than the 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone in WiDr cell lines. The 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone and 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone exhibited strong anticancer activities with IC50 value below 20 µg/mL. The activity of 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone showed the most active against Hela and WiDr cell lines with IC50 value 8.53 and 2.66 µg/mL respectively, than T47D cell lines with IC50 value 24.61 µg/mL. The test results cytotoxic of 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone showed the most active against Hela and WiDr cell lines with IC50 value 12.80, 19.57 µg/mL than T47D cell lines with IC50 value of 20.73 µg/mL. IC50 value indicated that 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone and 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3

  12. Vertical transmission of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) from hens infected through artificial insemination with ALV-J infected semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Cui, Shuai; Li, Weihua; Wang, Yixin; Cui, Zhizhong; Zhao, Peng; Chang, Shuang

    2017-06-29

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is one of the main causes of tumour development within the poultry industry in China. The subgroup J avian leukosis viruses (ALV-J), which induce erythroblastosis and myelocytomatosis, have the greatest pathogenicity and transmission ability within this class of viruses. ALV can be transmitted both horizontally and vertically; however, the effects of ALV infection in chickens-especially roosters-during the propagation, on future generations is not clear. Knowing the role of the cock in the transmission of ALV from generation to generation might contribute to the eradication programs for ALV. The results showed that two hens inseminated with ALV-J-positive semen developed temporary antibody responses to ALV-J at 4-5 weeks post insemination. The p27 antigen was detected in cloacal swabs of six hens, and in 3 of 26 egg albumens at 1-6 weeks after insemination. Moreover, no viremia was detected at 6 weeks after insemination even when virus isolation had been conducted six times at weekly intervals for each of the 12 females. However, ALV-J was isolated from 1 of their 34 progeny chicks at 1 week of age, and its gp85 had 98.4%-99.2% sequence identity with the gp85 of ALV-J isolated from semen samples of the six cocks. Our findings indicated that females that were late horizontally infected with ALV-J by artificial insemination might transmit the virus to progeny through eggs, which amounts to vertical transmission.

  13. The anti-lung cancer activity of SEP is mediated by the activation and cytotoxicity of NK cells via TLR2/4 in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Mengyun; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Min; Tian, Yuwei; Wang, Yizhou; Li, Bing; Yu, Jie; Dou, Jie; Xi, Tao; Zhou, Changlin

    2014-05-01

    Strongylocentrotus nudus egg polysaccharide (SEP) has been reported to display antitumor activity. However, the effects of SEP and its underlying mechanism in the treatment of lung cancer remain unclear, particularly with an immunodeficient mouse model of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, we investigated the anti-lung cancer effects of SEP and its underlying mechanism of action in both Lewis lung cancer (LLC)-bearing C57/BL6J mice and human NSCLC H460-bearing nude mice. Although SEP showed no inhibitory effects on tumor cells in vitro, it markedly stimulated the percentage of CD3-NK1.1(+) cells and natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in the spleens of nude mice and C57/BL6J mice. In LLC-bearing mice, SEP not only inhibited tumor growth but also promoted NK-mediated cytotoxicity, the NK1.1(+) cell population, and IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion. SEP significantly suppressed H460 growth in nude mice, which was abrogated by the selective depletion of NK cells via the intraperitoneal injection of anti-asialo GM-1 antibodies. Furthermore, anti-TLR2/4 antibodies blocked both SEP and NK cell binding and SEP-induced perforin secretion. SEP-induced proliferation and IFN-γ secretion by NK cells in wild type mice were partially impaired in TLR2 or TLR4 knockout mice. These results suggest that SEP-promoted NK cytotoxicity, which was partially mediated via TLR2 and TLR4, was the main contributing factor to lung cancer inhibition in vivo and that SEP may be a potential immunotherapy candidate for the treatment of lung cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preliminary tests of WIMSD/4 program installed in a CDC CYBER 170/750 at IEAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, L.H.; Anaf, J.

    1989-12-01

    Some cell calculations options of the WIMSD/4 code were tested. Comparisons with the HAMMER code results are presented. Control cards for WIMSD/4 execution in the IEAv CDC CYBER 170/750 and input examples are included. (author) [pt

  15. YBR/EiJ mice: a new model of glaucoma caused by genes on chromosomes 4 and 17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Saidas Nair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of inherited animal models with different genetic causes and distinct genetic backgrounds are needed to help dissect the complex genetic etiology of glaucoma. The scarcity of such animal models has hampered progress in glaucoma research. Here, we introduce a new inherited glaucoma model: the inbred mouse strain YBR/EiJ (YBR. YBR mice develop a form of pigmentary glaucoma. They exhibit a progressive age-related pigment-dispersing iris disease characterized by iris stromal atrophy. Subsequently, these mice develop elevated intraocular pressure (IOP and glaucoma. Genetic mapping studies utilizing YBR as a glaucoma-susceptible strain and C57BL/6J as a glaucoma-resistant strain were performed to identify genetic loci responsible for the iris disease and high IOP. A recessive locus linked to Tyrp1b on chromosome 4 contributes to iris stromal atrophy and high IOP. However, this is not the only important locus. A recessive locus on YBR chromosome 17 causes high IOP independent of the iris stromal atrophy. In specific eyes with high IOP caused by YBR chromosome 17, the drainage angle (through which ocular fluid leaves the eye is largely open. The YBR alleles of genes on chromosomes 4 and 17 underlie the development of high IOP and glaucoma but do so through independent mechanisms. Together, these two loci act in an additive manner to increase the susceptibility of YBR mice to the development of high IOP. The chromosome 17 locus is important not only because it causes IOP elevation in mice with largely open drainage angles but also because it exacerbates IOP elevation and glaucoma induced by pigment dispersion. Therefore, YBR mice are a valuable resource for studying the genetic etiology of IOP elevation and glaucoma, as well as for testing new treatments.

  16. Dysregulated Intrahepatic CD4+ T-Cell Activation Drives Liver Inflammation in Ileitis-Prone SAMP1/YitFc MiceSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Omenetti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Liver inflammation is a common extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, but whether liver involvement is a consequence of a primary intestinal defect or results from alternative pathogenic processes remains unclear. Therefore, we sought to determine the potential pathogenic mechanism(s of concomitant liver inflammation in an established murine model of IBD. Methods: Liver inflammation and immune cell subsets were characterized in ileitis-prone SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP and AKR/J (AKR control mice, lymphocyte-depleted SAMP (SAMPxRag-1−/−, and immunodeficient SCID recipient mice receiving SAMP or AKR donor CD4+ T cells. Proliferation and suppressive capacity of CD4+ T-effector (Teff and T-regulatory (Treg cells from gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT and livers of SAMP and AKR mice were measured. Results: Surprisingly, prominent inflammation was detected in 4-week-old SAMP livers before histologic evidence of ileitis, whereas both disease phenotypes were absent in age-matched AKR mice. SAMP liver disease was characterized by abundant infiltration of lymphocytes, required for hepatic inflammation to occur, a TH1-skewed environment, and phenotypically activated CD4+ T cells. SAMP intrahepatic CD4+ T cells also had the ability to induce liver and ileal inflammation when adoptively transferred into SCID recipients, whereas GALT-derived CD4+ T cells produced milder ileitis but not liver inflammation. Interestingly, SAMP intrahepatic CD4+ Teff cells showed increased proliferation compared with both SAMP GALT- and AKR liver-derived CD4+ Teff cells, and SAMP intrahepatic Tregs were decreased among CD4+ T cells and impaired in in vitro suppressive function compared with AKR. Conclusions: Activated intrahepatic CD4+ T cells induce liver inflammation and contribute to experimental ileitis via locally impaired hepatic immunosuppressive function. Keywords: Hepatic CD4+ T Cells, IBD-Associated Liver

  17. Terrestrial photovoltaic cell process testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper examines critical test parameters, criteria for selecting appropriate tests, and the use of statistical controls and test patterns to enhance PV-cell process test results. The coverage of critical test parameters is evaluated by examining available test methods and then screening these methods by considering the ability to measure those critical parameters which are most affected by the generic process, the cost of the test equipment and test performance, and the feasibility for process testing.

  18. Radio Pulse Search and X-Ray Monitoring of SAX J1808.4−3658: What Causes Its Orbital Evolution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patruno, Alessandro; King, Andrew R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Neils Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA, Leiden (Netherlands); Jaodand, Amruta; Hessels, Jason W. T. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7900 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Kuiper, Lucien [SRON-National Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bult, Peter; Wijnands, Rudy; Van der Klis, Michiel [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Knigge, Christian [University of Southampton, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    The accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4−3658 shows a peculiar orbital evolution that proceeds at a very fast pace. It is important to identify the underlying mechanism responsible for this behavior because it can help to understand how this system evolves and which physical processes (such as mass loss or spin–orbit coupling) are occurring in the binary. It has also been suggested that, when in quiescence, SAX J1808.4−3658 turns on as a radio pulsar, a circumstance that might provide a link between accreting millisecond pulsars and black-widow (BW) radio pulsars. In this work, we report the results of a deep radio pulsation search at 2 GHz using the Green Bank Telescope in 2014 August and an X-ray study of the 2015 outburst with Chandra , Swift XRT, and INTEGRAL . In quiescence, we detect no radio pulsations and place the strongest limit to date on the pulsed radio flux density of any accreting millisecond pulsar. We also find that the orbit of SAX J1808.4−3658 continues evolving at a fast pace. We compare the orbital evolution of SAX J1808.4−3658 to that of several other accreting and nonaccreting binaries, including BWs, redbacks, cataclysmic variables, black holes, and neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries. We discuss two possible scenarios: either the neutron star has a large moment of inertia and is ablating the donor, generating mass loss with an efficiency of 40%, or the donor star has a strong magnetic field of at least 1 kG and is undergoing quasi-cyclic variations due to spin–orbit coupling.

  19. Cell-Intrinsic Roles for Autophagy in Modulating CD4 T Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Jacquin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The catabolic process of autophagy plays important functions in inflammatory and immune responses by modulating innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Over the last decade, a cell-intrinsic role for autophagy in modulating CD4 T cell functions and differentiation was revealed. After the initial observation of autophagosomes in effector CD4 T cells, further work has shown that not only autophagy levels are modulated in CD4 T cells in response to environmental signals but also that autophagy critically affects the biology of these cells. Mouse models of autophagy deletion in CD4 T cells have indeed shown that autophagy is essential for CD4 T cell survival and homeostasis in peripheral lymphoid organs. Furthermore, autophagy is required for CD4 T cell proliferation and cytokine production in response to T cell receptor activation. Recent developments have uncovered that autophagy controls CD4 T cell differentiation and functions. While autophagy is required for the maintenance of immunosuppressive functions of regulatory T cells, it restrains the differentiation of TH9 effector cells, thus limiting their antitumor and pro-inflammatory properties. We will here discuss these findings that collectively suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting autophagy could be exploited for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  20. Potential contribution of a novel Tax epitope-specific CD4+ T cells to graft-versus-Tax effect in adult T cell leukemia patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Yotaro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Takamori, Ayako; Sasada, Amane; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Choi, Ilseung; Utsunomiya, Atae; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Eto, Tetsuya; Koh, Ki-Ryang; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Suehiro, Youko; Kato, Koji; Takemoto, Shigeki; Okamura, Jun; Uike, Naokuni; Kannagi, Mari

    2013-04-15

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an effective treatment for adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) caused by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). We previously reported that Tax-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) contributed to graft-versus-ATL effects in ATL patients after allo-HSCT. However, the role of HTLV-1-specific CD4(+) T cells in the effects remains unclear. In this study, we showed that Tax-specific CD4(+) as well as CD8(+) T cell responses were induced in some ATL patients following allo-HSCT. To further analyze HTLV-1-specific CD4(+) T cell responses, we identified a novel HLA-DRB1*0101-restricted epitope, Tax155-167, recognized by HTLV-1-specific CD4(+) Th1-like cells, a major population of HTLV-1-specific CD4(+) T cell line, which was established from an ATL patient at 180 d after allo-HSCT from an unrelated seronegative donor by in vitro stimulation with HTLV-1-infected cells from the same patient. Costimulation of PBMCs with both the identified epitope (Tax155-167) and known CTL epitope peptides markedly enhanced the expansion of Tax-specific CD8(+) T cells in PBMCs compared with stimulation with CTL epitope peptide alone in all three HLA-DRB1*0101(+) patients post-allo-HSCT tested. In addition, direct detection using newly generated HLA-DRB1*0101/Tax155-167 tetramers revealed that Tax155-167-specific CD4(+) T cells were present in all HTLV-1-infected individuals tested, regardless of HSCT. These results suggest that Tax155-167 may be the dominant epitope recognized by HTLV-1-specific CD4(+) T cells in HLA-DRB1*0101(+)-infected individuals and that Tax-specific CD4(+) T cells may augment the graft-versus-Tax effects via efficient induction of Tax-specific CD8(+) T cell responses.

  1. Open test assembly (OTA) shear demonstration testing work/test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the development testing phase associated with the OTA Shear activity and defines the controls to be in place throughout the testing. The purpose of the OTA Shear Program was to provide equipment that is needed for the processing of 40 foot long, sodium wetted, irradiated core components previously used in the FFTF reactor to monitor fuel and materials tests. There are currently 15 of these OTA test stalks located in the Test Assembly Conditioning Station (TACS) inerted vault. These need to be dispositioned for a shutdown mission to eliminate this highly activated, high dose inventory prior to turnover to the ERC since they must be handled by remote operations. These would also need to be dispositioned for a restart mission to free up the vault they currently reside in. The waste handling and cleaning equipment in the J33M Cell was designed and built for the handling of reactor components up to the standard 12 foot length. This program will provide the equipment to the IEM Cell to remotely section the OTAS into pieces less than 12 feet in length to allow for the necessary handling and cleaning operations required for proper disposition. Due to the complexity of all operations associated with remote handling, the availability of the IEM Cell training facility, and the major difficulty with reworking contaminated equipment, it was determined that preliminary testing of the equipment was desirable, This testing activity would provide the added assurance that the equipment will operate as designed prior to performance of the formal Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) at the IEM Cell, This testing activity will also allow for some operator familiarity and procedure checkout prior to actual installation into the IEM Cell. This development testing will therefore be performed at the conclusion of equipment fabrication and prior to transfer of the equipment to the 400 Area

  2. In vitro activities of novel 4-HPR derivatives on a panel of rhabdoid and other tumor cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Bhaskar C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhabdoid tumors (RTs are aggressive pediatric malignancies with poor prognosis. N-(4-hydroxy phenyl retinamide (4-HPR or fenretinide is a potential chemotherapeutic for RTs with activity correlated to its ability to down-modulate Cyclin D1. Previously, we synthesized novel halogen-substituted and peptidomimetic-derivatives of 4-HPR that retained activity in MON RT cells. Here we analyzed the effect of 4-HPR in inhibiting the growth of several RT, glioma, and breast cancer cell lines and tested their effect on cell cycle, apoptosis and Cyclin D1 expression. Methods Effect of compounds on RT cell cycle profiles, and cell death were assessed by MTS cell survival assays and FACS analysis. The effects of treatment on Cyclin D1 expression were determined by immunoblotting. The efficacy of these compounds on glioma and breast cancer cell lines was also determined using MTS assays. Results Low micromolar concentrations of 4-HPR derivatives inhibited cell survival of all RT cells tested. The 4-HPR derivatives altered RT cell cycle profiles and induced high levels of cell death that was correlated with their potency. ATRA exhibited high IC50 values in all cell lines tested and did not cause cell death. In MON RT cells, the iodo-substituted compounds were more active than 4-HPR in inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Additionally, the activity of the compounds correlated with their ability to down-modulate Cyclin D1: while active compounds reduced Cyclin D1 levels, inactive ATRA did not. In glioma and breast cancer cell lines, 4-HPR and 4-HPR derivatives showed variable efficacy. Conclusions Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that the inhibitory activities of novel halogen-substituted and peptidomimetic derivatives of 4-HPR are correlated to their ability to induce cell death and down-modulate Cyclin D1. These 4-HPR derivatives showed varied potencies in breast cancer and glioma cell lines. These data indicate that further

  3. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Herring, J.S.; Housley, G.K.; Sohal, M.S.; Milobar, D.G.; Cable, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900 C. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Juelich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ∼10 (micro)m thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ∼1400 (micro)m thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900 C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is

  4. Engine Test Cell Aeroacoustics and Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tam, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Ground testing of turbojet engines in test cells necessarily involves very high acoustic amplitudes, often enough and severe enough that testing is interrupted and facility hardware and test articles are damaged...

  5. Expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in CD4+ T cells contributes to alleviation of Th17/Treg imbalance in collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Qin; Liu, Yan; Cai, Huan-Huan; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2016-12-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of catecholamines, is expressed in T lymphocytes. However, the role of T cell-expressed TH in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is less clear. Herein, we aimed to show the contribution of TH expression by CD4 + T cells to alleviation of helper T (Th)17/regulatory T (Treg) imbalance in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a mouse model of RA. CIA was prepared by intradermal injection of collagen type II (CII) at tail base of DBA1/J mice. Expression of TH in the spleen and the ankle joints was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Percentages of TH-expressing Th17 and Treg cells in splenic CD4 + T cells were determined by flow cytometry. Overexpression and knockdown of TH gene in CD4 + T cells were taken to evaluate effects of TH on Th17 and Treg cells in CIA. TH expression was upregulated in both the inflamed tissues (spleen and ankle joints) and the CD4 + T cells of CIA mice. In splenic CD4 + T cells, the cells expressing TH were increased during CIA. These cells that expressed more TH in CIA were mainly Th17 cells rather than Treg cells. TH gene overexpression in CD4 + T cells from CIA mice reduced Th17 cell percentage as well as Th17-related transcription factor and cytokine expression and secretion, whereas TH gene knockdown enhanced the Th17 cell activity. In contrast, TH gene overexpression increased Treg-related cytokine expression and secretion in CD4 + T cells of CIA mice, while TH gene knockdown decreased the Treg cell changes. Collectively, these findings show that CIA induces TH expression in CD4 + T cells, particularly in Th17 cells, and suggest that the increased TH expression during CIA represents an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  6. IMGT/GeneInfo: T cell receptor gamma TRG and delta TRD genes in database give access to all TR potential V(D)J recombinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Thierry-Pascal; Hierle, Vivien; Pasqual, Nicolas; Bellahcene, Fatena; Chaume, Denys; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Jouvin-Marche, Evelyne; Marche, Patrice Noël; Demongeot, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Background Adaptative immune repertoire diversity in vertebrate species is generated by recombination of variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) genes in the immunoglobulin (IG) loci of B lymphocytes and in the T cell receptor (TR) loci of T lymphocytes. These V-J and V-D-J gene rearrangements at the DNA level involve recombination signal sequences (RSS). Whereas many data exist, they are scattered in non specialized resources with different nomenclatures (eg. flat files) and are difficult to extract. Description IMGT/GeneInfo is an online information system that provides, through a user-friendly interface, exhaustive information resulting from the complex mechanisms of T cell receptor V-J and V-D-J recombinations. T cells comprise two populations which express the αβ and γδ TR, respectively. The first version of the system dealt with the Homo sapiens and Mus musculus TRA and TRB loci whose gene rearrangements allow the synthesis of the αβ TR chains. In this paper, we present the second version of IMGT/GeneInfo where we complete the database for the Homo sapiens and Mus musculus TRG and TRD loci along with the introduction of a quality control procedure for existing and new data. We also include new functionalities to the four loci analysis, giving, to date, a very informative tool which allows to work on V(D)J genes of all TR loci in both human and mouse species. IMGT/GeneInfo provides more than 59,000 rearrangement combinations with a full gene description which is freely available at . Conclusion IMGT/GeneInfo allows all TR information sequences to be in the same spot, and are now available within two computer-mouse clicks. This is useful for biologists and bioinformaticians for the study of T lymphocyte V(D)J gene rearrangements and their applications in immune response analysis. PMID:16640788

  7. Silica-induced initiation of circular ZC3H4 RNA/ZC3H4 pathway promotes the pulmonary macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiyue; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Zewei; Jiang, Rong; Huang, Jie; Chen, Lulu; Cao, Zhouli; Chu, Han; Han, Bing; Cheng, Yusi; Chao, Jie

    2018-01-22

    Phagocytosis of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) into lung cells causes an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration, followed by fibrosis. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a subclass of noncoding RNAs that are present within mammalian cells; however, researchers have not determined whether circRNAs are involved in the pathophysiologic process of silicosis. To elucidate the role of these RNAs in SiO 2 -induced inflammation in pulmonary macrophages, we investigated the upstream molecular mechanisms and functional effects of circRNAs on cell apoptosis, proliferation, and migration. Primary cultures of alveolar macrophages from healthy donors and from patients and the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line were used to explore the functions of circZC3H4 RNA in macrophage activation. The experimental results indicated the following: 1) SiO 2 concomitantly increased circZC3H4 RNA expression and increased ZC3H4 protein levels; 2) circular ZC3H4 (circZC3H4) RNA and ZC3H4 protein participated in SiO 2 -induced macrophage activation; and 3) SiO 2 -activated macrophages promoted fibroblast proliferation and migration via the circZC3H4 RNA/ZC3H4 pathway. The up-regulation of the ZC3H4 protein was confirmed in tissue samples from patients with silicosis. Our study elucidates a link between SiO 2 -induced macrophage activation and the circZC3H4 RNA/ZC3H4 pathway, thereby providing novel insight into the potential use of ZC3H4 to develop novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis.-Yang, X., Wang, J., Zhou, Z., Jiang, R., Huang, J., Chen, L., Cao, Z., Chu, H., Han, B., Cheng, Y., Chao, J. Silica-induced initiation of circular ZC3H4 RNA/ZC3H4 pathway promotes the pulmonary macrophage activation.

  8. Prediction of a missing higher charmonium around 4.26 GeV in J/ψ family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Li-Ping; Chen, Dian-Yong; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the similarity between the mass gaps of the J/ψ and Υ families, the prediction of a missing higher charmonium with mass 4,263 MeV and very narrow width is made. In addition, the properties of two charmonium-like states, X(3940) and X(4160), and charmonium ψ(4415) are discussed, where our calculation shows that X(3940) as η c (3S) is established, while the explanation of X(4160) to be η c (4S) is fully excluded and that η c (4S) is typically a very narrow state. These predictions might be accessible at BESIII, Belle, and BelleII in near future

  9. Optical Observation of Low Mass X-Ray Binary J1753.4-0126

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Aurelio; Mason, Paul A.; Robinson, E. L.

    2011-10-01

    We conducted optical observations of the black hole candidate J1753.4-0126 with the 82 inch (2.1 m) Otto Struve Telescope at the McDonald Observatory. A total of 20 nights of data were collected from May 2010 through June 2011. Data was reduced using the Interactive Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF). We present the resulting light curves. We discuss our progress in this analysis, which uses a phase dispersion minimization code in order to find periodicity. This research is supported by a National Science Foundation Partnership in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE) grant to the University of Texas at El Paso.

  10. DISSECTING THE REGION OF 3EG J1837-0423 AND HESS J1841-055 WITH INTEGRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sguera, V.; Masetti, N.; Bassani, L.; Romero, G. E.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    3EG J1837-0423 and HESS J1841-055 are two unidentified and peculiar high-energy sources located in the same region of the sky, separated by ∼1.4 deg. Specifically, 3EG J1837-0423 is a transient MeV object detected by EGRET only once during flaring activity that lasted a few days while HESS J1841-055 is a highly extended TeV source. We attempted to match the high-energy emission from the unidentified sources 3EG J1837-0423 and HESS J1841-055 with X-rays (4-20 keV) and soft γ-rays (20-100 keV) candidate counterparts detected through deep International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory observations of the sky region. As a result we propose the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT) AX J1841.0-0536 as a possible candidate counterpart of 3EG J1837-0423, based on spatial proximity and transient behavior. Alternatively, AX J1841.0-0536 could be responsible for at least a fraction of the entire TeV emission from the extended source HESS J1841-055, based on a striking spatial correlation. In either case, the proposed association is also supported from an energetic standpoint by a theoretical scenario where AX J1841.0-0536 is a low magnetized pulsar which, due to accretion of massive clumps from the supergiant companion donor star, undergoes sporadic changes to transient Atoll-states where a magnetic tower can produce transient jets and as a consequence high-energy emission. In either case (by association with 3EG J1837-0423 or alternatively with HESS J1841-055), AX J1841.0-0536 might be the prototype of a new class of Galactic transient MeV/TeV emitters.

  11. Tick Salivary Sialostatin L Represses the Initiation of/nImmune Responses by Targeting IRF4-Dependent/nTranscription in Murine Mast Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klein, M.; Brühl, T.-J.; Staudt, V.; Reuter, S.; Grebe, N.; Gerlitzki, B.; Hoffmann, M.; Bohn, T.; Ulges, A.; Stergiou, N.; de Graaf, J.; Löwer, M.; Taube, Ch.; Becker, M.; Hain, T.; Dietzen, S.; Stassen, M.; Huber, M.; Lohoff, M.; Chagas, A. C.; Andersen, J.; Kotál, Jan; Langhansová, Helena; Kopecký, Jan; Schild, H.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Schmitt, E.; Bopp, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 195, č. 2 (2015), s. 621-631 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP302/11/J029; GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : T-cells * transgenic mice * asthma model Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.985, year: 2015

  12. Small Molecules Derived from Thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) and Their Use in Solution Processed Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcias-Morales, Cesar; Romero-Borja, Daniel; Maldonado, José-Luis; Roa, Arián E; Rodríguez, Mario; García-Merinos, J Pablo; Ariza-Castolo, Armando

    2017-09-30

    In this work, microwave synthesis, chemical, optical and electrochemical characterization of three small organic molecules, TPA-TPD , TPA-PT-TPD and TPA-TT-TPD with donor-acceptor structure and their use in organic photovoltaic cells are reported. For the synthesis, 5-(2-ethylhexyl)-4 H -thieno[3,4- c ]pyrrole-4,6(5 H )-dione was used as electron withdrawing fragment while the triphenylamine was used as electron donating fragment. Molecular electronic geometry and electronic distribution density were established by density functional theory (DFT) calculations and confirmed by optical and chemical characterization. These molecules were employed as electron-donors in the active layer for manufacturing bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, where [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) was used as electron-acceptor. As cathode, Field's metal (FM), an eutectic alloy (Bi/In/Sn: 32.5%, 51%, and 16.5%, respectively) with a melting point above 62 °C, was easily deposited by drop casting under vacuum-free process and at air atmosphere. Prepared devices based on TPA-TPD :PC71BM (1:4 w / w ratio) presented a large V OC = 0.97 V, with J SC = 7.9 mA/cm², a FF = 0.34, then, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.6%.

  13. A DNA vaccine encoding multiple HIV CD4 epitopes elicits vigorous polyfunctional, long-lived CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Santoro Rosa

    Full Text Available T-cell based vaccines against HIV have the goal of limiting both transmission and disease progression by inducing broad and functionally relevant T cell responses. Moreover, polyfunctional and long-lived specific memory T cells have been associated to vaccine-induced protection. CD4(+ T cells are important for the generation and maintenance of functional CD8(+ cytotoxic T cells. We have recently developed a DNA vaccine encoding 18 conserved multiple HLA-DR-binding HIV-1 CD4 epitopes (HIVBr18, capable of eliciting broad CD4(+ T cell responses in multiple HLA class II transgenic mice. Here, we evaluated the breadth and functional profile of HIVBr18-induced immune responses in BALB/c mice. Immunized mice displayed high-magnitude, broad CD4(+/CD8(+ T cell responses, and 8/18 vaccine-encoded peptides were recognized. In addition, HIVBr18 immunization was able to induce polyfunctional CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells that proliferate and produce any two cytokines (IFNγ/TNFα, IFNγ/IL-2 or TNFα/IL-2 simultaneously in response to HIV-1 peptides. For CD4(+ T cells exclusively, we also detected cells that proliferate and produce all three tested cytokines simultaneously (IFNγ/TNFα/IL-2. The vaccine also generated long-lived central and effector memory CD4(+ T cells, a desirable feature for T-cell based vaccines. By virtue of inducing broad, polyfunctional and long-lived T cell responses against conserved CD4(+ T cell epitopes, combined administration of this vaccine concept may provide sustained help for CD8(+ T cells and antibody responses- elicited by other HIV immunogens.

  14. FIG4 regulates lysosome membrane homeostasis independent of phosphatase function

    OpenAIRE

    Bharadwaj, Rajnish; Cunningham, Kathleen M.; Zhang, Ke; Lloyd, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    FIG4 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that is mutated in several diseases including Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease 4J (CMT4J) and Yunis-Varon syndrome (YVS). To investigate the mechanism of disease pathogenesis, we generated Drosophila models of FIG4-related diseases. Fig4 null mutant animals are viable but exhibit marked enlargement of the lysosomal compartment in muscle cells and neurons, accompanied by an age-related decline in flight ability. Transgenic animals expressing Drosophila Fig4 mi...

  15. Recompletion Report for Well UE-10j

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Existing Well UE-10j was deepened and recompleted for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was originally drilled to a total depth of 725.4 meters in 1965 for use as a hydrologic test hole in the northern portion of Yucca Flat in Area 8 of the Nevada Test Site. The well is located up-gradient of the Yucca Flat underground test area and penetrates deep into the Paleozoic rocks that form the lower carbonate aquifer of the NTS and surrounding areas. The original 24.4-centimeter-diameter borehole was drilled to a depth of 725.4 meters and left uncompleted. Water-level measurements were made periodically by the U.S. Geological Survey, but access to the water table was lost between 1979 and 1981 due to hole sloughing. In 1993, the hole was opened to 44.5 centimeters and cased off to a depth of 670.0 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 796.4 meters. The depth to water in the open borehole was measured at 658.7 meters on March 18, 1993

  16. 377 Konan et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2011) 8(4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    aurantifolia (Rutaceae) sur le muscle lisse, Taenia coli de cobaye. Rev. Med. Pharm. Afr. 16: 103-112. 35. Souza, A., Aka, K.J., Abo, K.J.C., Datté, Y.J., Traoré, F. and M'Batchi, B. (2007). Myostimulating effect of the aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis (Desr) A. Juss (Meliaceae) in isolated Taenia caeci contractile activity.

  17. Different thresholds of T cell activation regulate FIV infection of CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anjali; Garg, Himanshu; Tompkins, Mary B.; Tompkins, Wayne A.

    2005-01-01

    Cellular activation plays an important role in retroviral replication. Previously, we have shown that CD4 + CD25 + T cells by the virtue of their partially activated phenotype represent ideal candidates for a productive feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection. In the present study, we extended our previous observations with regard to FIV replication in CD4 + CD25 + and CD4 + CD25 - cells under different stimulation conditions. Both CD4 + CD25 + and CD4 + CD25 - cells remain latently infected in the absence of IL-2 or concanvalinA (ConA), respectively; harboring a replication competent provirus capable of reactivation several days post-infection. While CD4 + CD25 + cells require low levels of exogenous IL-2 and virus inputs for an efficient FIV replication, CD4 + CD25 - T cells can only be productively infected in the presence of either high concentrations of IL-2 or high virus titers, even in the absence of mitogenic stimulation. Interestingly, while high virus input activates CD4 + CD25 - cells to replicate FIV, it induces apoptosis in a high percentage of CD4 + CD25 + T cells. High IL-2 concentrations but not high virus inputs lead to surface upregulation of CD25 and significant cellular proliferation in CD4 + CD25 - cells. These results suggest that CD4 + CD25 + and CD4 + CD25 - T cells have different activation requirements which can be modulated by both viral and cytokine stimuli to reach threshold activation levels in order to harbor a productive FIV infection. This holds implications in vivo for CD4 + CD25 + and CD4 + CD25 - cells to serve as potential reservoirs of a productive and latent FIV infection

  18. Generation of insulin-producing cells from rat mesenchymal stem cells using an aminopyrrole derivative XW4.4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jingfeng; Huang, Wei; Yu, Wanwan; Xiong, Wei; Mula, Ramanjaneya V R; Zou, Hongbin; Yu, Yongping

    2014-02-05

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), a multisystem disease with both biochemical and anatomical/structural consequences, is a major health concern worldwide. Pancreatic islet transplantation provides a promising treatment for T1DM. However, the limited availability of islet tissue or new sources of insulin producing cells (IPCs) that are responsive to glucose hinder this promising approach. Though slow, the development of pancreatic beta-cell lines from rodent or human origin has been steadily progressing. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent, culture-expanded, non-hematopoietic cells that are currently being investigated as a novel cellular therapy. The in vitro differentiation potential of IPCs has raised hopes for a treatment of clinical diseases associated with autoimmunity. We screened for small molecules that induce pancreatic differentiation of IPCs. There are some compounds which showed positive effects on the DTZ staining. The aminopyrrole derivative compound XW4.4 which shows the best activity among them was found to induce pancreatic differentiation of rat MSCs (rMSCs). The in vitro studies indicated that treatment of rMSCs with compound XW4.4 resulted in differentiated cells with characteristics of IPCs including islet-like clusters, spherical, grape-like morphology, insulin secretion, positive for dithizone, glucose stimulation and expression of pancreatic endocrine cell marker genes. The data has also suggested that hepatocyte nuclear factor 3β (HNF 3β) may be involved in pancreatic differentiation of rMSCs when treated with XW4.4. Results indicate that XW4.4 induced rMSCs support the efforts to derive functional IPCs and serve as a means to alleviate limitations surrounding islet cell transplantation in the treatment of T1DM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 10 CFR 474.4 - Test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures. 474.4 Section 474.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICLE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.4 Test procedures. (a) The electric vehicle energy...

  20. Determination of J/ψ leptonic branching fraction via ψ(2S)→π+π-J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, J.Z.; Bian, J.G.; Chai, Z.W.; Chen, G.P.; Chen, J.C.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y.B.; Chen, Y.Q.; Cheng, B.S.; Cui, X.Z.; Ding, H.L.; Ding, L.Y.; Dong, L.Y.; Du, Z.Z.; Feng, S.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, M.L.; Gao, S.Q.; Gu, J.H.; Gu, S.D.; Gu, W.X.; Gu, Y.F.; Guo, Y.N.; Han, S.W.; Han, Y.; He, J.; He, J.T.; Hu, G.Y.; Hu, H.M.; Hu, J.L.; Hu, Q.H.; Hu, T.; Hu, X.Q.; Huang, J.D.; Huang, Y.Z.; Jiang, C.H.; Jin, Y.; Ke, Z.J.; Lai, Y.F.; Lang, P.F.; Li, C.G.; Li, D.; Li, H.B.; Li, J.; Li, P.Q.; Li, R.B.; Li, W.; Li, W.D.; Li, W.G.; Li, X.H.; Li, X.N.; Liu, H.M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J.H.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, Y.; Lu, F.; Lu, J.G.; Lu, J.Y.; Lu, L.C.; Luo, C.H.; Ma, A.M.; Ma, E.C.; Ma, J.M.; Mao, H.S.; Mao, Z.P.; Meng, X.C.; Nie, J.; Qi, N.D.; Qi, X.R.; Qiu, J.F.; Qu, Y.H.; Que, Y.K.; Rong, G.; Shao, Y.Y.; Shen, B.W.; Shen, D.L.; Shen, H.; Shen, X.Y.; Sheng, H.Y.; Shi, H.Z.; Song, X.F.; Sun, F.; Sun, H.S.; Tang, S.Q.; Tong, G.L.; Wang, F.; Wang, L.S.; Wang, L.Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P.L.; Wang, S.M.; Wang, T.J.; Wang, Y.Y.; Wei, C.L.; Wu, Y.G.; Xi, D.M.; Xia, X.M.; Xie, P.P.; Xie, Y.; Xie, Y.H.; Xiong, W.J.; Xu, C.C.; Xu, G.F.; Xue, S.T.; Yan, J.; Yan, W.G.; Yang, C.M.; Yang, C.Y.; Yang, J.; Yang, X.F.; Ye, M.H.; Yi, K.; Yu, C.S.; Yu, C.X.; Yu, Z.Q.; Yu, Z.T.; Yuan, C.Z.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, B.Y.; Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, D.H.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.L.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, L.S.; Zhang, Q.J.; Zhang, S.Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, W.R.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zheng, J.P.; Zheng, L.S.; Zheng, Z.P.; Zhou, G.P.; Zhou, H.S.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, Q.M.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhuang, B.A.; Hitlin, D.G.; Kelsey, M.H.; Oyang, J.; Panetta, J.; Porter, F.; Weaver, M.; Chen, J.; Malchow, R.; Toki, W.; Yang, W.

    1998-01-01

    A comparison of the rates for ψ(2S)→π + π - J/ψ, J/ψ→l + l - and J/ψ→ anything is used to determine the J/ψ leptonic branching fractions. The results are B(J/ψ→e + e - )=(5.90±0.05±0.10)% and B(J/ψ→μ + μ - )=(5.84±0.06±0.10)%, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Assuming lepton universality, the leptonic branching fraction of the J/ψ is B(J/ψ→l + l - )=(5.87±0.04±0.09)% per species. This result is used to estimate the QCD scale factor Λ MS (4) and the strong coupling constant α s . copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  1. Rare B decays to states containing a J/psi meson

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J

    2003-01-01

    The report a study of the B meson decays, B sup + -> J/psi phi K sup + , B sup 0 -> J/psi phi K sub S sup 0 , B sup 0 -> J/psi phi, B sup 0 -> J/psi eta and B sup 0 -> J/psi eta(prime) using 56 million B(bar B) events collected at the UPSILON(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e sup + e sup - asymmetric-energy storage ring. They measure the branching fractions BETA(B sup + -> J/psi phi K sup +) = (4.4 +- 1.4(stat) +- 0.5(syst)) x 10 sup - sup 5 and BETA(B sup 0 -> J/psi phi K sub S sup 0) = (5.1 +- 1.9(stat) +- 0.5(syst)) x 10 sup - sup 5 , and set upper limits at 90% confidence level for the branching fractions BETA(B sup 0 -> J/psi phi) J/psi eta) J/psi eta(prime)) < 6.3 x 10 sup - sup 5.

  2. Haematological changes in HIV infection with correlation to CD4 cell count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Parinitha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHIV infection is associated with a wide range of haematological abnormalities.Methods and ObjectivesThe objectives in this study were to study haematological changes in HIV patients and to correlate them with CD4 cell counts. Two hundred and fifty HIV positive patients referred to the haematology laboratory section for complete haemogram in whom CD4 count was done were included in the study. Haematologic parameters and CD4 counts were studied in each of these patients.Descriptive statistics were applied. Association between two attributes was calculated by chi-square test and p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.ResultsAmong 250 patients, anaemia was seen in 210 (84% cases. The most common type was normocytic normochromic (40.4%. Lymphopenia was seen in 163 (65.2% cases and thrombocytopenia in 45 (18% cases. The majority of cases (70% had CD4 cell counts below 200 cells/mm3. Fifty-four cases (21.6% had CD4 counts between 200 to 499 cells/mm3 and 21 (8.4% cases had CD4 counts more than 500 cells/ mm3.In patients with CD4 counts less than 200 cells/mm3, anaemia was seen in 91.4% cases, leucopenia in 26.8%cases, lymphopenia in 80% cases and thrombocytopenia in 21.7% cases.ConclusionHaematologic manifestations of HIV infection are common and more frequent with progression of disease. The present study revealed a significant increase in the number of cases of anaemia, and lymphopenia, with decreasing CD4 cell counts. Thrombocytopenia is also seen but does not show significant increase with disease progression. The study also highlights the importance of simultaneously treating HIV patients for haematologic manifestations to reduce morbidity.

  3. Screening of potential lactobacilli antigenotoxicity by microbial and mammalian cell-based tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldini, G; Trotta, F; Villarini, M; Moretti, M; Pasquini, R; Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Cenci, G

    2005-06-25

    Antigenotoxicity is considered an important property for probiotic lactobacilli. The ability of non probiotic lactobacilli from dairy products and starters to inhibit two reference genotoxins: 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine was evaluated. The study was carried out using short-term assays with different targets, such as procaryotic cells (SOS-Chromotest for genotoxicity in Escherichia coli and Ames test for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium) and eucaryotic cells (Comet assay for genotoxicity in Caco-2 enterocytes). A high proportion of strains inhibiting 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide activity was found in Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus plantarum. Inhibition of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine activity occurred in only one L. acidophilus strain. All the strains with antigenotoxic properties also demonstrated antimutagenic activity and produced modifications in genotoxin spectroscopic profiles. Strain viability during and after genotoxin exposure was confirmed. Concordance of the results obtained with microbial and mammalian cell-based tests is underlined.

  4. Oral dendritic cells mediate antigen-specific tolerance by stimulating TH1 and regulatory CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarell, Laurent; Lombardi, Vincent; Louise, Anne; Saint-Lu, Nathalie; Chabre, Henri; Moussu, Hélène; Betbeder, Didier; Balazuc, Anne-Marie; Van Overtvelt, Laurence; Moingeon, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    A detailed characterization of oral antigen-presenting cells is critical to improve second-generation sublingual allergy vaccines. To characterize oral dendritic cells (DCs) within lingual and buccal tissues from BALB/c mice with respect to their surface phenotype, distribution, and capacity to polarize CD4(+) T-cell responses. In situ analysis of oral DCs was performed by immunohistology. Purified DCs were tested in vitro for their capacity to capture, process, and present the ovalbumin antigen to naive CD4(+) T cells. In vivo priming of ovalbumin-specific T cells adoptively transferred to BALB/c mice was analyzed by cytofluorometry in cervical lymph nodes after sublingual administration of mucoadhesive ovalbumin. Three subsets of oral DCs with a distinct tissue distribution were identified: (1) a minor subset of CD207(+) Langerhans cells located in the mucosa itself, (2) a major subpopulation of CD11b(+)CD11c(-) and CD11b(+)CD11c(+) myeloid DCs at the mucosal/submucosal interface, and (3) B220(+)120G8(+) plasmacytoid DCs found in submucosal tissues. Purified myeloid and plasmacytoid oral DCs capture and process the antigen efficiently and are programmed to elicit IFN-gamma and/or IL-10 production together with a suppressive function in naive CD4(+) T cells. Targeting the ovalbumin antigen to oral DCs in vivo by using mucoadhesive particles establishes tolerance in the absence of cell depletion through the stimulation of IFN-gamma and IL-10-producing CD4(+) regulatory T cells in cervical lymph nodes. The oral immune system is composed of various subsets of tolerogenic DCs organized in a compartmentalized manner and programmed to induce T(H)1/regulatory T-cell responses.

  5. 46 CFR 4.03-7 - Chemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical test. 4.03-7 Section 4.03-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-7 Chemical test. The term chemical test means a scientifically recognized test...

  6. Direct demonstration of the infiltration of murine central nervous system by Pgp-1/CD44high CD45RB(low) CD4+ T cells that induce experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeine, R; Owens, T

    1992-01-01

    -labelled CD4+ cells isolated from the CNS were responsive to MBP in vitro, whereas PKH2+ CD4+ cells from lymph nodes showed almost undetectable responses. In control experiments in which ovalbumin (OVA)-reactive T cells were transferred, a small number of fluorescent-labelled CD4+ T cells were also......In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), autoimmune T cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) and initiate demyelinating pathology. We have used flow cytometry to directly analyse the migration to the CNS of MBP-reactive CD4+ T cells labelled with a lipophilic fluorescent dye...... (PKH2), in SJL/J mice with passively transferred EAE. Labelled cells constituted about 45% of the CNS CD4+ population at the time of EAE onset. Almost all (greater than 90%) of the PKH2-labelled CD4+ T cells from EAE CNS were blasts and were alpha/beta T cell receptor (TCR)+, CD44(Pgp-1)high...

  7. CD4+/CD8+ double-positive T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Nana H; Jung, Ji-Won; Steptoe, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    CD4(+)/CD8(+) DP thymocytes are a well-described T cell developmental stage within the thymus. However, once differentiated, the CD4(+) lineage or the CD8(+) lineage is generally considered to be fixed. Nevertheless, mature CD4(+)/CD8(+) DP T cells have been described in the blood and peripheral...... cells, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell populations, outside of the thymus, have recently been described to express concurrently ThPOK and Runx3. Considerable heterogeneity exists within the CD4(+)/CD8(+) DP T cell pool, and the function of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell populations remains controversial, with conflicting...... reports describing cytotoxic or suppressive roles for these cells. In this review, we describe how transcriptional regulation, lineage of origin, heterogeneity of CD4 and CD8 expression, age, species, and specific disease settings influence the functionality of this rarely studied T cell population....

  8. D0 Silicon Upgrade: CTF Front End Crate J2/J3 Backplane Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baert, Mark

    1995-01-01

    GENERAL PHYSICAL LAYOUT: (1) The backplane is comprised of 2 identical sections, the upper half designated J1, and the lower half designated j3; (2) For each section, there are a total of 16 slots, designated 1 through 16, from left to right; (3) Odd numbered slots are left handed (Connectors to the left of the card), these slots utilize inverse DIN connectors; (4) Even numbered slots are right handed (Connectors to the right of the card), these slots utilize standard DIN connectors; (5) There are 2 60 pin daisy-chain headers associated with each section, 3M part number 3597-6003; (6) The headers associated with the J2 (upper) section are designated J2CHAINR and J2CHAINL; (7) The headers associated with the J3 (lower) section are designated J3CHAINL and J3CHAINR; and (8) Mechanical layout presented in drawing number 3823.113-MD-330045. TRIGGER SIGNALS: (1) There are 21 trigger signal which originate from a given slot and are routed to the slot immediately to the left and 21 trigger signals which originate from a given slot and are routed to the slot immediately to the right; (2) There are 21 trigger signals which originate from the slot immediately to the left of a given slot and 21 trigger signals which originate from the slot immediately to the right a given slot; (3) The signal are designated TRIGjk-n, when j is the source slot, k is the destination slot, and n is the signal number; (4) These signals shall be implemented as 100 ohm microstip above ground plane; and (5) No terminations. DC POWER: (1) Each slot is supplied with DC power on the connector pins designated as VCC and GND; (2) VCC and GND originates at rear of the backplane via press-in power terminals, their locations are shown in drawing number 3823.113-MD-330045; (3) Power shall be bypassed at 2 locations with a 10uF tantalum capacitor in parallel with a .01uF 100V ceramic capacitor; and (4) The total ampacity supplied by each DIN connector is 3.6 amps.

  9. Observation of B+ → J/ψπ+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.

    1995-07-01

    We report on the observation of the Cabibbo-suppresed mode B + J/ψπ + , with J/ψ → μ + μ - . Further, we calculate the relative branching ratio. BR(B + - J/ψπ + )/BR(B + → J/ψK + ) and find a value of (4.9 -1.7 + ±1.1)%

  10. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Ethics"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Ethics"ABS 1. THE DELIVERY OF BAD NEWS: A ONE OR 2-STEP APPROACH? THE CASE FOR TRISOMY 21 • M.S. Schimmel, M.Y. Kassirer, H.M. TowersABS 2. NEONATAL ORGAN DONATION: A POTENTIAL NEW DONOR SOURCE FOR CELL AND ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION • C. Jorns, E. Henckel, G. Nowak, A. Karadagi, T. Kjellin, E. Bluhme, Ö. Jynge, M. Hending, A. Croon, M. Söderström, B. Fischler, A. Nemeth, R. Gramignoli, S. Strom, E. Ellis, B. HallbergABS 3. HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS’ AND PARENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD PARENTAL AUTONOMY AND THE BEST INTEREST OF THE EXTREME PRETERM INFANT: A NATIONAL STUDY IN SWITZERLAND • M. Hendriks, H. Bucher, S. Klein, R. Baumann-Holzle, J. Streuli, J. FauchèreABS 4. CHANGING PARENTAL PERCEPTIONS IN TRISOMIES – A POTENTIAL ETHICAL DILEMMA FOR NEONATOLOGISTS? • E. Simons, P. Nath, P. ParthasarathyABS 5. INGEBORG SYLLM-RAPOPORT (1912-2017 – AN EXEMPLARY LIFE FOR CHILDREN AND PAEDIATRICS • H. Sallmon, R.R. Wauer, C.C. RoehrABS 6. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSES OF PARENTAL COUNSELING AND DECISION MAKING FOR EXTREME PRETERM BIRTH IN A TERTIARY DUTCH PERINATAL CENTER • E. de Booij, J

  11. IPEC-J2 MDR1, a Novel High-Resistance Cell Line with Functional Expression of Human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) for Drug Screening Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lasse; Helms, Hans Christian Cederberg; Brodin, Birger

    2016-01-01

    The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump has been shown to affect drug distribution and absorption in various organs and to cause drug resistance in cancer therapy. The aim of this work was to develop a cell line to serve as a screening system for potential substrates of P-gp. This requires a cell...... line with high paracellular tightness, low expression of nonhuman ABC transporters, and high expression of functional human P-gp (ABCB1). The porcine intestinal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2, was selected as a transfection host, due to its ability to form extremely high-resistance monolayers (>10,000 Ω......·cm(2)) and its low endogenous expression of ABC-type efflux transporters. The IPEC-J2 cells were transfected with a plasmid that contained the sequence of the human MDR1 gene, which encodes P-gp, followed by a selection of successfully transfected cells with geneticin and puromycin. The resulting cell...

  12. A note on the applied tearing modulus (Tsub(J)sup(app)) in ductile instability testing and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saka, Masumi; Takahashi, Hideaki; Abe, Hiroyuki; Ando, Kotoji.

    1984-01-01

    In the evaluation of the soundness of the structures made of high toughness materials, it is a very important problem to clarify by what dynamic condition the transition from the stable propagation of ductile cracks to ductile unstable breaking is controlled. As a criterion for ductile unstable breaking, Paris et al. proposed that an applied tearing modulus is not smaller than a material tearing modulus, based on J-integral. In order to make highly reliable forecast on the starting point of ductile unstable breaking, it is necessary to sufficiently examine the features of an applied tearing modulus. In this study, referring to the test results of the ductile unstable breaking of ITCT test pieces of A508 steel for reactor pressure vessels, the features of the changing tendency of an applied tearing modulus accompanying crack development and the cause of these features were examined in detail. Moreover, the errors in the theoretical forecast of J-integral and the amount of crack development at the start of ductile unstable breaking in relation to the above features were examined. The test pieces and the experimental method, the method of analysis, the experimental results, the features of an applied tearing modulus and the accuracy of forecast are reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. Elemental analysis of biological tissues of Dmdmdx/J and C57BL/6J mice strains investigated by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabrina Metairon; Zamboni, C.B.; Suzuki, M.F.; Bueno Junior, C.R.; Sant'Anna, O.A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand in more details the alterations that Duchenne muscular dystrophy disease may cause in biological tissues (blood, tibia, quadriceps and heart), correlations matrixes of the Dmd mdx /J dystrophic mice as well as C57BL/6J (control group) were generated. These mice were obtained from Jackson Laboratory (Maine, USA) and bred at IPEN (Dmd mdx /J), and at Centro de Estudos do Genoma Humano (C57BL/6J), both research centers at Sao Paulo city. Elements of clinical and nutritional relevance (Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na and S) were investigated by neutron activation analysis. These measurements were performed using the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5 MW, pool type) at IPEN. Comparisons between concentrations and correlations in these biological tissues, of these strains, showed that a Ca and Mg in blood are altered for the dystrophic mice. A significant change in the heart of dystrophic mice was also observed suggesting that a constant monitoring is required. Moreover, these results may help the researchers to evaluate the efficiency of new treatments and to compare the advantages of different treatment approaches before performing tests in patients with muscular dystrophy. (author)

  14. Structural study of phosphomannan of yeast-form cells of Candida albicans J-1012 strain with special reference to application of mild acetolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Shibata, N; Mitobe, H; Ohkubo, Y; Suzuki, S

    1989-08-01

    Structural analysis of the phosphomannan isolated from yeast-form cells of a pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans J-1012 strain, was conducted. Treatment of this phosphomannan (Fr. J) with 10 mM HCl at 100 degrees C for 60 min gave a mixture of beta-1,2-linked manno-oligosaccharides, from tetraose to biose plus mannose, and an acid-stable mannan moiety (Fr. J-a), which was then acetolyzed by means of an acetolysis medium, 100:100:1 (v/v) mixture of (CH3CO)2O, CH3COOH, and H2SO4, at 40 degrees C for 36 h in order to avoid cleavage of the beta-1,2 linkage. The resultant manno-oligosaccharide mixture was fractionated on a column of Bio-Gel P-2 to yield insufficiently resolved manno-oligosaccharide fractions higher than pentaose and lower manno-oligosaccharides ranging from tetraose to biose plus mannose. The higher manno-oligosaccharide fraction was then digested with the Arthrobacter GJM-1 alpha-mannosidase in order to cleave the enzyme-susceptible alpha-1,2 and alpha-1,3 linkages, leaving manno-oligosaccharides containing the beta-1,2 linkage at their nonreducing terminal sites, Manp beta 1----2Manp alpha 1----2Manp alpha 1----2Manp alpha 1----2Man, Manp beta 1----2Manp beta 1----2Manp alpha 1----2Manp alpha 1---- 2Manp alpha 1----2Man, and Manp beta 1----2Manp beta 1----2Manp beta 1----2Manp alpha 1---- 2Manp alpha 1----2Manp alpha 1----2Man. However, the result of acetolysis of Fr. J-a by means of a 10:10:1 (v/v) mixture of (CH3CO)2O, CH3COOH, and H2SO4 at 40 degrees C for 13 h was significantly different from that obtained by the mild acetolysis method; i.e., the amount of mannose was apparently larger than that formed by the mild acetolysis method. In summary, a chemical structure for Fr. J as a highly branched mannan containing 14 different branching moieties was proposed.

  15. DPP4 inhibitors promote biological functions of human endothelial progenitor cells by targeting the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4 inhibitors(oral hypoglycemic agentshave beneficial effects during the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the role of DPP4inhibitorsonthe biological functions of cultured human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. After treating EPCs with the DPP4 inhibitors sitagliptin and vildagliptin, we examined the mRNA expression of DPP4, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF,VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2,endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, caspase-3,stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, chemokine (C-X-C motif receptor 4 (CXCR4 were measured by RT-PCR. The protein expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4 was determined by Western blot; cell proliferation was tested by the MTT method, and DPP4 activity was determined by a DPP4 assay. Our results revealed that DPP4 expression and activity were inhibited following the treatment with various doses of DPP4 inhibitors. Cell proliferation and the expression of VEGF, VEGFR-2andeNOS were up regulated, while cell apoptosis was inhibited by DPP4 inhibitors in a dose-dependent manner. DPP4 inhibitors activated the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway, shown by the elevated expression of SDF-1/CXCR4. This further proved that after the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway was blocked by its inhibitor ADM3100, the effects of DPP4 inhibitors on the proliferation and apoptosis, and the expression of VEGF, VEGFR-2and eNOS of EPCs were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that DPP4 inhibitors promote the biological functions of human EPCs by up regulating the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway.

  16. Prediction of a missing higher charmonium around 4.26 GeV in J/ψ family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiang [Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Lanzhou University, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Chen, Dian-Yong [Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Lanzhou University, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou (China); Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Nuclear Theory Group, Lanzhou (China); Matsuki, Takayuki [Tokyo Kasei University, Itabashi, Tokyo (Japan); Nishina Center, RIKEN, Theoretical Research Division, Saitama (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    Inspired by the similarity between the mass gaps of the J/ψ and Υ families, the prediction of a missing higher charmonium with mass 4,263 MeV and very narrow width is made. In addition, the properties of two charmonium-like states, X(3940) and X(4160), and charmonium ψ(4415) are discussed, where our calculation shows that X(3940) as η{sub c}(3S) is established, while the explanation of X(4160) to be η{sub c}(4S) is fully excluded and that η{sub c}(4S) is typically a very narrow state. These predictions might be accessible at BESIII, Belle, and BelleII in near future. (orig.)

  17. Prediction of a missing higher charmonium around 4.26 GeV in J/ψ family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Li-Ping, E-mail: help08@lzu.edu.cn [Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Lanzhou University, 730000, Lanzhou (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, 730000, Lanzhou (China); Chen, Dian-Yong, E-mail: chendy@impcas.ac.cn [Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Lanzhou University, 730000, Lanzhou (China); Nuclear Theory Group, Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, 730000, Lanzhou (China); Liu, Xiang, E-mail: xiangliu@lzu.edu.cn [Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Lanzhou University, 730000, Lanzhou (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, 730000, Lanzhou (China); Matsuki, Takayuki, E-mail: matsuki@tokyo-kasei.ac.jp [Tokyo Kasei University, 1-18-1 Kaga, 173-8602, Itabashi, Tokyo (Japan); Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, 351-0198, Saitama (Japan)

    2014-12-11

    Inspired by the similarity between the mass gaps of the J/ψ and Υ families, the prediction of a missing higher charmonium with mass 4,263 MeV and very narrow width is made. In addition, the properties of two charmonium-like states, X(3940) and X(4160), and charmonium ψ(4415) are discussed, where our calculation shows that X(3940) as η{sub c}(3S) is established, while the explanation of X(4160) to be η{sub c}(4S) is fully excluded and that η{sub c}(4S) is typically a very narrow state. These predictions might be accessible at BESIII, Belle, and BelleII in near future.

  18. DISCOVERY OF A LATE L DWARF: WISEP J060738.65+242953.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Philip J.; Gizis, John E.

    2012-01-01

    We discover a late-type L dwarf, WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 (W0607+2429), by comparing the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) preliminary data release to the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in search of high proper motion objects (∼> 0.''3 yr –1 ). W0607+2429 was found to have a proper motion of 0.57 ± 0.''02 yr –1 . Based on colors and color-color diagrams using 2MASS and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry, we estimate the spectral type (optical) to be L8 within a spectral sub-type. Based on the spectral type estimated we find W0607+2429 to have a distance of 7.8 +1.4 –1.2 pc, making it one of only four very late L dwarfs within 10 pc, and the third closest L dwarf overall. This close L/T transition dwarf will play a pivotal role in resolving outstanding issues of condensate clouds of low-temperature atmospheres.

  19. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hrabina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches.

  20. Imidazole-4-acetic acid, a new lead structure for interaction with the taurine transporter in outer blood-retinal barrier cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valembois, Sophie; Krall, Jacob; Frølund, Bente; Steffansen, Bente

    2017-05-30

    Retinal diseases leading to impaired vision and ultimately blindness are mainly characterized by ischemic and hypoxic stress. Targeting the retinal ρ-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (ρ GABA A Rs) and thereby decreasing the retinal neuronal activity has been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach. The taurine transporter (TAUT) plays a key role in the retinal transport of GABA and has been previously suggested to display a higher functional activity in the retina compared to the brain. TAUT would therefore stand as a suitable target for the selective delivery of ρ GABA A R ligands into the retina. Consequently, an in vitro model of TAUT at the outer blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was developed and characterized using the ARPE-19 cell line. Furthermore, the structural requirements of GABA A R ligands for interacting with TAUT at the BRB were investigated for a series of standard GABA A R ligands by testing their ability to inhibit the TAUT-mediated influx of taurine in ARPE-19 cells. Results showed that taurine influx was seven-fold higher when the ARPE-19 cells were cultured under hyperosmotic conditions and was demonstrated to display saturable kinetics (K m =27.7±2.2μM and J max =24.2±0.6pmol/cm 2 ·min). Furthermore, the taurine influx was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by GABA and imidazole-4-acetic acid (IAA), which is a naturally occurring metabolite of histamine. These compounds display similar K i values of 644.2μM and 658.6μM, respectively. Moreover, IAA demonstrated higher inhibitory properties than the other tested GABA analogs: 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP), 4,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (Aza-THIP), muscimol, and thiomuscimol. These studies demonstrated that IAA interacts with TAUT, which makes IAA a new lead structure in the development of new compounds, which are not only interacting with TAUT but also potent ρ GABA A R ligands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  1. Chemosensitivity testing of primary human renal cell carcinoma by a tetrazolium based microculture assay (MTT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickisch, G; Fajta, S; Keilhauer, G; Schlick, E; Tschada, R; Alken, P

    1990-01-01

    MTT staining procedures have been used in chemosensitivity testing of established cell lines of human and other sources as well as of human leukaemias, but only limited information on its application in primary solid human tumors is presently available. We have evaluated MTT staining in primary human Renal Cell Carcinomas (RCCs), studied various factors interfering with the optimal use, and finally applied it in subsequent chemosensitivity testing. The method depends on the conversion of a water-soluble tetrazolium salt (MTT) to a purple colored formazan precipitate, a reaction effected by enzymes active only in living cells. Single cell suspensions of RCCs were obtained either by enzymatic dispersion or by mechanical dissagregation, filtered through gauze, and purified by Ficoll density centrifugation. Tests were carried out in 96-well microculture plates. 10(4) viable tumor cells per well at 4 h incubation time with 20 micrograms MTT/100 microliters total medium volume yielded best results. Formazan crystals were dissolved with DMSO, and the plates were immediately measured on a microculture plate reader at 540 nm. Under these criteria, linearity of the system could be demonstrated. For chemosensitivity testing, cells were continuously exposed to a number of drugs prior to the MTT staining procedure. Reproducibility of results was assessed and confirmed by culturing RCCs in flasks additionally, resubmitting them after 1, 2, and 4 weeks to the MTT assay. We conclude that the semiautomated MTT assay offers a valid, rapid, reliable and simple method to determine the degree of chemoresistance in primary human RCCs.

  2. Cell viability and repair systems in mammal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menck, C.F.; Meneghini, R.

    1982-01-01

    Synchronized cell cultures of mice are irradiated with 4,0J/m 2 ultraviolet light at different times. The possible mechanisms involved in the recuperation of the cellular survival observed, are discussed. (M.A.) [pt

  3. Determination of J-R curve from only one experimental test on one sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebey, J.; Roche, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Increasing attention has been given in fracture mechanics to the use of the J concept not only as a criterion of the onset of crack propagation, but also as an aid in the study of propagation stability. As a consequence, there is a need to determine the variation of J with crack extension, this being usually presented in curves known as J-R curves. Earlier methods for determining such curves used several specimens. The present paper describes a procedure avoiding any direct measurement of the crack length and giving a correct value of J when crack propagation occurs. (author)

  4. Local Chromatin Features Including PU.1 and IKAROS Binding and H3K4 Methylation Shape the Repertoire of Immunoglobulin Kappa Genes Chosen for V(D)J Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Louise S; Bolland, Daniel J; Chovanec, Peter; Krueger, Felix; Andrews, Simon; Koohy, Hashem; Corcoran, Anne E

    2017-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is essential for the generation of diverse antigen receptor (AgR) repertoires. In B cells, immunoglobulin kappa ( Igκ ) light chain recombination follows immunoglobulin heavy chain ( Igh ) recombination. We recently developed the DNA-based VDJ-seq assay for the unbiased quantitation of Igh VH and DH repertoires. Integration of VDJ-seq data with genome-wide datasets revealed that two chromatin states at the recombination signal sequence (RSS) of VH genes are highly predictive of recombination in mouse pro-B cells. It is unknown whether local chromatin states contribute to Vκ gene choice during Igκ recombination. Here we adapt VDJ-seq to profile the Igκ VκJκ repertoire and present a comprehensive readout in mouse pre-B cells, revealing highly variable Vκ gene usage. Integration with genome-wide datasets for histone modifications, DNase hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding and germline transcription identified PU.1 binding at the RSS, which was unimportant for Igh , as highly predictive of whether a Vκ gene will recombine or not, suggesting that it plays a binary, all-or-nothing role, priming genes for recombination. Thereafter, the frequency with which these genes recombine was shaped both by the presence and level of enrichment of several other chromatin features, including H3K4 methylation and IKAROS binding. Moreover, in contrast to the Igh locus, the chromatin landscape of the promoter, as well as of the RSS, contributes to Vκ gene recombination. Thus, multiple facets of local chromatin features explain much of the variation in Vκ gene usage. Together, these findings reveal shared and divergent roles for epigenetic features and transcription factors in AgR V(D)J recombination and provide avenues for further investigation of chromatin signatures that may underpin V(D)J-mediated chromosomal translocations.

  5. Distinct susceptibility of HIV vaccine vector-induced CD4 T cells to HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Hou, Wei; Churchyard, Gavin; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuthithum, Punnee; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2018-01-01

    The concerns raised from adenovirus 5 (Ad5)-based HIV vaccine clinical trials, where excess HIV infections were observed in some vaccine recipients, have highlighted the importance of understanding host responses to vaccine vectors and the HIV susceptibility of vector-specific CD4 T cells in HIV vaccination. Our recent study reported that human Ad5-specific CD4 T cells induced by Ad5 vaccination (RV156A trial) are susceptible to HIV. Here we further investigated the HIV susceptibility of vector-specific CD4 T cells induced by ALVAC, a canarypox viral vector tested in the Thai trial RV144, as compared to Ad5 vector-specific CD4 T cells in the HVTN204 trial. We showed that while Ad5 vector-specific CD4 T cells were readily susceptible to HIV, ALVAC-specific CD4 T cells in RV144 PBMC were substantially less susceptible to both R5 and X4 HIV in vitro. The lower HIV susceptibility of ALVAC-specific CD4 T cells was associated with the reduced surface expression of HIV entry co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 on these cells. Phenotypic analyses identified that ALVAC-specific CD4 T cells displayed a strong Th1 phenotype, producing higher levels of IFN-γ and CCL4 (MIP-1β) but little IL-17. Of interest, ALVAC and Ad5 vectors induced distinct profiles of vector-specific CD8 vs. CD4 T-cell proliferative responses in PBMC, with ALVAC preferentially inducing CD8 T-cell proliferation, while Ad5 vector induced CD4 T-cell proliferation. Depletion of ALVAC-, but not Ad5-, induced CD8 T cells in PBMC led to a modest increase in HIV infection of vector-specific CD4 T cells, suggesting a role of ALVAC-specific CD8 T cells in protecting ALVAC-specific CD4 T cells from HIV. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence for distinct HIV susceptibility of CD4 T cells induced by different vaccine vectors and highlight the importance of better evaluating anti-vector responses in HIV vaccination. PMID:29474461

  6. NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Wolford, David S.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies , William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mcnatt, Jeremiah S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Missions (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  7. The Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopJ targets the host cell proteasome to suppress salicylic-acid mediated plant defence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suayib Üstün

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv requires type III effector proteins (T3Es for virulence. After translocation into the host cell, T3Es are thought to interact with components of host immunity to suppress defence responses. XopJ is a T3E protein from Xcv that interferes with plant immune responses; however, its host cellular target is unknown. Here we show that XopJ interacts with the proteasomal subunit RPT6 in yeast and in planta to inhibit proteasome activity. A C235A mutation within the catalytic triad of XopJ as well as a G2A exchange within the N-terminal myristoylation motif abolishes the ability of XopJ to inhibit the proteasome. Xcv ΔxopJ mutants are impaired in growth and display accelerated symptom development including tissue necrosis on susceptible pepper leaves. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 restored the ability of the Xcv ΔxopJ to attenuate the development of leaf necrosis. The XopJ dependent delay of tissue degeneration correlates with reduced levels of salicylic acid (SA and changes in defence- and senescence-associated gene expression. Necrosis upon infection with Xcv ΔxopJ was greatly reduced in pepper plants with reduced expression of NPR1, a central regulator of SA responses, demonstrating the involvement of SA-signalling in the development of XopJ dependent phenotypes. Our results suggest that XopJ-mediated inhibition of the proteasome interferes with SA-dependent defence response to attenuate onset of necrosis and to alter host transcription. A central role of the proteasome in plant defence is discussed.

  8. Discovery of an Accreting Millisecond Pulsar in the Eclipsing Binary System SWIFT J1749.4-2807

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altamirano, D.; Cavecchi, Y.; Patruno, A.; Watts, A.; Linares, M.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; van der Klis, M.; Rea, N.; Casella, P.; Padilla, M. Armas; Kaur, R.; Yang, Y. J.; Soleri, P.; Wijnands, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the discovery and the timing analysis of the first eclipsing accretion-powered millisecond X-ray pulsar (AMXP): SWIFT J1749.4-2807. The neutron star rotates at a frequency of similar to 517.9 Hz and is in a binary system with an orbital period of 8.8 hr and a projected semimajor axis of

  9. Susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    and laboratories, but also between lineages of the same cell line. To minimise the occurrence of false negatives in a cell culture based surveillance system, we have investigated methods, to select cell lineages that are relatively superior in their susceptibility to a panel of virus isolates. The procedures...... cell lineages, we increased the number of isolates of each virus, propagated stocks in a given cell line and tested all lineages of that line in use in the laboratory. Testing of relative cell line susceptibility between laboratories is carried out annually via the Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test...... sensitivity for surveillance purposes within a cell line and between laboratories.In terms of economic and practical considerations as well as attempting to approach a realistic test system, we suggest the optimal procedure for susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation to be a combination...

  10. Swift J2058.4+0516: Discovery of a Possible Second Relativistic Tidal Disruption Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenko, S. Bradely; Krimm, Hans A.; Horesh, Assaf; Rau, Arne; Frail, Dale A.; Kennea, Jamie A.; Levan, Andrew J.; Holland, Stephen T.; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Quimby, Robert M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Swift hard X-ray monitor of the transient source Swift J2058.4+0516 (Sw J2058+05). Our multi-wavelength follow-up campaign uncovered a long-lived (duration approximately greater than months), luminous X-ray (L(sub x.iso) approximates 3 X 10(exp47) erg/s) and radio (vL(sub v.iso) approximates 10(exp 42) erg/s) counterpart. The associated optical emission, however, from which we measure a redshift of 1.1853, is relatively faint, and this is not due to a large amount of dust extinction in the host galaxy. Based on numerous similarities with the recently discovered GRB 110328A / Swift 1164449.3+573451 (Sw 11644+57), we suggest that Sw J2058+05 may be the second member of a new class of relativistic outbursts resulting from the tidal disruption of a star by a supermassive black hole. If so, the relative rarity of these sources implies that either these outflows are extremely narrowly collimated (theta disruptions generate relativistic ejecta. Analogous to the case of long duration gamma-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae, we speculate that the spin of the black hole may be a necessary condition to generate the relativistic component. Alternatively, if powered by gas accretion (i.e., an active galactic nucleus), this would imply that some galaxies can transition from apparent quiescence to a radiatively efficient state of accretion on quite short time scales.

  11. QTL list: RXopJ4 resistance locus [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT62244 Solanum lycopersicum Solanaceae RXopJ4 resistance locus resistance to bacterial spot... disease resistance to bacterial spot disease (Xanthomonas perforans (Xp)) 3 J350 ... Chr06 ... 10.1007/s00122-012-2004-6 23117718

  12. J R Vengateswaran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 4 Issue 5 May 1999 pp 88-94 General Article. Systems and Control Engineering - Control Systems-Analysis and Design · A Rama Kalyan J R Vengateswaran · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 4 Issue 12 December 1999 pp 76-82 General Article. Robotics - Components and Subsystems.

  13. The V domain of dog PVRL4 (nectin-4) mediates canine distemper virus entry and virus cell-to-cell spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpeut, Sebastien; Noyce, Ryan S.; Richardson, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry. - Highlights: • PVRL4 (nectin-4) is the epithelial cell receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. • V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry, cell-to-cell spread, and syncytia formation. • Chimeric PVRL1 backbone substituted with the V domain of PVRL4 can function as a receptor. • Amino acids (F132/P133/A134/G135) within the V domain are essential for PVRL4 receptor activity. • Amino acids (P493/Y539) within CDV H protein are essential for PVRL4 receptor interaction

  14. The V domain of dog PVRL4 (nectin-4) mediates canine distemper virus entry and virus cell-to-cell spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpeut, Sebastien; Noyce, Ryan S. [The Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Goldbloom Pavilion, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); Richardson, Christopher D., E-mail: chris.richardson@dal.ca [The Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Goldbloom Pavilion, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); The Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry. - Highlights: • PVRL4 (nectin-4) is the epithelial cell receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. • V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry, cell-to-cell spread, and syncytia formation. • Chimeric PVRL1 backbone substituted with the V domain of PVRL4 can function as a receptor. • Amino acids (F132/P133/A134/G135) within the V domain are essential for PVRL4 receptor activity. • Amino acids (P493/Y539) within CDV H protein are essential for PVRL4 receptor interaction.

  15. No neurocognitive advantage for immediate antiretroviral treatment in adults with greater than 500 CD4+ T-cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Edwina J; Grund, Birgit; Robertson, Kevin R; Cysique, Lucette; Brew, Bruce J; Collins, Gary L; Poehlman-Roediger, Mollie; Vjecha, Michael J; Penalva de Oliveira, Augusto César; Standridge, Barbara; Carey, Cate; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Florence, Eric; Lundgren, Jens D; Arenas-Pinto, Alejandro; Mueller, Nicolas J; Winston, Alan; Nsubuga, Moses S; Lal, Luxshimi; Price, Richard W

    2018-05-15

    To compare the effect of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral treatment (ART) on neuropsychological test performance in treatment-naive HIV-positive adults with more than 500 CD4 cells/μl. Randomized trial. The START parent study randomized participants to commence immediate versus deferred ART until CD4 less than 350 cells/μl. The START Neurology substudy used eight neuropsychological tests, at baseline, months 4, 8, 12 and annually, to compare groups for changes in test performance. Test results were internally standardized to z-scores. The primary outcome was the average of the eight test z-scores (QNPZ-8). Mean changes in QNPZ-8 from baseline were compared by intent-to-treat using longitudinal mixed models. Changes from baseline to specific time points were compared using ANCOVA models. The 592 participants had a median age of 34 years; median baseline CD4 count was 629 cells/μl; the mean follow-up was 3.4 years. ART was used for 94 and 32% of accrued person-years in the immediate and deferred groups, respectively. There was no difference between the immediate and deferred ART groups in QNPZ-8 change through follow-up [-0.018 (95% CI -0.062 to 0.027, P = 0.44)], or at any visit. However, QNPZ-8 scores increased in both arms during the first year, by 0.22 and 0.24, respectively (P < 0.001 for increase from baseline). We observed substantial improvement in neurocognitive test performance during the first year in both study arms, underlining the importance of using a control group in studies assessing neurocognitive performance over time. Immediate ART neither benefitted nor harmed neurocognitive performance in individuals with CD4 cell counts above 500 cells/μl.

  16. Multiple dendritic cell populations activate CD4+ T cells after viral stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele M Mount

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are a heterogeneous cell population that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems. CD8alpha DC play a prominent, and sometimes exclusive, role in driving amplification of CD8(+ T cells during a viral infection. Whether this reliance on a single subset of DC also applies for CD4(+ T cell activation is unknown. We used a direct ex vivo antigen presentation assay to probe the capacity of flow cytometrically purified DC populations to drive amplification of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells following infection with influenza virus by different routes. This study examined the contributions of non-CD8alpha DC populations in the amplification of CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cells in cutaneous and systemic influenza viral infections. We confirmed that in vivo, effective immune responses for CD8(+ T cells are dominated by presentation of antigen by CD8alpha DC but can involve non-CD8alpha DC. In contrast, CD4(+ T cell responses relied more heavily on the contributions of dermal DC migrating from peripheral lymphoid tissues following cutaneous infection, and CD4 DC in the spleen after systemic infection. CD4(+ T cell priming by DC subsets that is dependent upon the route of administration raises the possibility that vaccination approaches could be tailored to prime helper T cell immunity.

  17. The High Time Resolution Universe Pulsar Survey - XIII. PSR J1757-1854, the most accelerated binary pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A. D.; Champion, D. J.; Kramer, M.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Bassa, C. G.; Bhandari, S.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Eatough, R. P.; Flynn, C. M. L.; Freire, P. C. C.; Jameson, A.; Johnston, S.; Karuppusamy, R.; Keith, M. J.; Levin, L.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lyne, A. G.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Ng, C.; Petroff, E.; Possenti, A.; Ridolfi, A.; Stappers, B. W.; van Straten, W.; Tauris, T. M.; Tiburzi, C.; Wex, N.

    2018-03-01

    We report the discovery of PSR J1757-1854, a 21.5-ms pulsar in a highly-eccentric, 4.4-h orbit with a neutron star (NS) companion. PSR J1757-1854 exhibits some of the most extreme relativistic parameters of any known pulsar, including the strongest relativistic effects due to gravitational-wave damping, with a merger time of 76 Myr. Following a 1.6-yr timing campaign, we have measured five post-Keplerian parameters, yielding the two component masses (mp = 1.3384(9) M⊙ and mc = 1.3946(9) M⊙) plus three tests of general relativity, which the theory passes. The larger mass of the NS companion provides important clues regarding the binary formation of PSR J1757-1854. With simulations suggesting 3-σ measurements of both the contribution of Lense-Thirring precession to the rate of change of the semimajor axis and the relativistic deformation of the orbit within ˜7-9 yr, PSR J1757-1854 stands out as a unique laboratory for new tests of gravitational theories.

  18. Testing the strong equivalence principle with the triple pulsar PSR J 0337 +1715

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lijing

    2016-04-01

    Three conceptually different masses appear in equations of motion for objects under gravity, namely, the inertial mass, mI , the passive gravitational mass, mP, and the active gravitational mass, mA. It is assumed that, for any objects, mI=mP=mA in the Newtonian gravity, and mI=mP in the Einsteinian gravity, oblivious to objects' sophisticated internal structure. Empirical examination of the equivalence probes deep into gravity theories. We study the possibility of carrying out new tests based on pulsar timing of the stellar triple system, PSR J 0337 +1715 . Various machine-precision three-body simulations are performed, from which, the equivalence-violating parameters are extracted with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling that takes full correlations into account. We show that the difference in masses could be probed to 3 ×1 0-8 , improving the current constraints from lunar laser ranging on the post-Newtonian parameters that govern violations of mP=mI and mA=mP by thousands and millions, respectively. The test of mP=mA would represent the first test of Newton's third law with compact objects.

  19. EBR-II blanket fuel leaching test using simulated J-13 well water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonnesbeck, J. E.

    1998-05-15

    A pulsed-flow leaching test is being conducted using three EBR-II blanket fuel segments. These samples are immersed in simulated J-13 well water. The samples are kept at a constant temperature of 90 C. Leachate is exchanged weekly and analyzed for various nuclides which are of interest from a mobility and longevity point of view. Our primary interest is in the longer-lived species such as {sup 99}Tc, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 241}Am. In addition, the behavior of U, Pu, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs are being analyzed. During the course of this experiment, an interesting observation has been made involving one of the samples which could indicate the possible rapid ''anoxic'' oxidation of uranium metal to UO{sub 2}.

  20. Role of IL-4 receptor α-positive CD4(+) T cells in chronic airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstein, Frank; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E; Jayakumar, Jaisubash; Horsnell, William G C; Brombacher, Frank

    2016-06-01

    TH2 cells and their cytokines are associated with allergic asthma in human subjects and with mouse models of allergic airway disease. IL-4 signaling through the IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) chain on CD4(+) T cells leads to TH2 cell differentiation in vitro, implying that IL-4Rα-responsive CD4(+) T cells are critical for the induction of allergic asthma. However, mechanisms regulating acute and chronic allergen-specific TH2 responses in vivo remain incompletely understood. This study defines the requirements for IL-4Rα-responsive CD4(+) T cells and the IL-4Rα ligands IL-4 and IL-13 in the development of allergen-specific TH2 responses during the onset and chronic phase of experimental allergic airway disease. Development of acute and chronic ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma was assessed weekly in CD4(+) T cell-specific IL-4Rα-deficient BALB/c mice (Lck(cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox)) and respective control mice in the presence or absence of IL-4 or IL-13. During acute allergic airway disease, IL-4 deficiency did not prevent the onset of TH2 immune responses and OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness or goblet cell hyperplasia, irrespective of the presence or absence of IL-4Rα-responsive CD4(+) T cells. In contrast, deficiency of IL-13 prevented allergic asthma, irrespective of the presence or absence of IL-4Rα-responsive CD4(+) T cells. Importantly, chronic allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness were dependent on IL-4Rα-responsive CD4(+) T cells. Deficiency in IL-4Rα-responsive CD4(+) T cells resulted in increased numbers of IL-17-producing T cells and, consequently, increased airway neutrophilia. IL-4-responsive T helper cells are dispensable for acute OVA-induced airway disease but crucial in maintaining chronic asthmatic pathology. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. E-4 Test Facility Design Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Harry; Canady, Randy; Sewell, Dale; Rahman, Shamim; Gilbrech, Rick

    2001-01-01

    Combined-cycle propulsion technology is a strong candidate for meeting NASA space transportation goals. Extensive ground testing of integrated air-breathing/rocket system (e.g., components, subsystems and engine systems) across all propulsion operational modes (e.g., ramjet, scramjet) will be needed to demonstrate this propulsion technology. Ground testing will occur at various test centers based on each center's expertise. Testing at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center will be primarily concentrated on combined-cycle power pack and engine systems at sea level conditions at a dedicated test facility, E-4. This paper highlights the status of the SSC E-4 test Facility design.

  2. Energy dependence of J/ψ production in Au + Au collisions at √{sNN} = 39 , 62.4 and 200GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Behera, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Brown, D.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chankova-Bunzarova, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elsey, N.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Ewigleben, J.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Federicova, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fujita, J.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Harlenderova, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, T.; Huang, X.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, P.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Kocmanek, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulathunga, N.; Kumar, L.; Kvapil, J.; Kwasizur, J. H.; Lacey, R.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Li, W.; Li, C.; Lidrych, J.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, Y.; Liu, H.; Liu, F.; Liu, P.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Mallick, D.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nie, M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Saur, M.; Schambach, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Schweid, B. R.; Seger, J.; Sergeeva, M.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shi, Z.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, X.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2017-08-01

    The inclusive J / ψ transverse momentum spectra and nuclear modification factors are reported at mid-rapidity (| y | < 1.0) in Au + Au collisions at √{sNN} = 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV taken by the STAR experiment. A suppression of J / ψ production, with respect to the production in p + p scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, is observed in central Au + Au collisions at these three energies. No significant energy dependence of nuclear modification factors is found within uncertainties. The measured nuclear modification factors can be described by model calculations that take into account both suppression of direct J / ψ production due to the color screening effect and J / ψ regeneration from recombination of uncorrelated charm-anticharm quark pairs.

  3. HIV-infected viremic long-term non-progressors and controllers display different immunological mechanisms for preserved CD4+cell counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, J; Ronit, A; Hartling, H

    2012-01-01

    161+), and regulatory T cells (Tregs, CD4+CD25+CD127lowFoxP3+) were evaluated using flow cytometry. For statistics Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney U test were used. Data are given as medians. Summary of results: LTNP had higher frequency of activated CD4+ and CD8+cells compared to VC (3...

  4. 9 CFR 113.4 - Exemptions to tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemptions to tests. 113.4 Section 113.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... § 113.4 Exemptions to tests. (a) The test methods and procedures contained in all applicable Standard...

  5. Toxoplasma gondii: effects of 60 Co ionizing radiation in the viability and infectivity, detected in vitro in LLC-MK2 cells and in vivo in C57BL/6J mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramoto, Roberto M.; Almeida, Beatriz S.V.; Cardoso, Roselaine P.A.; Andrade Junior, Heitor F.

    1997-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, promotes devasting disease in fetus and AIDS patients. The longlife immunity of natural infection is inefficient in eliminate tissue infective cysts. Few immunization programs were tested, mostly with attenuated strains. Ionizing radiation were used with successful in vaccine production, without reproductive ability with a relatively normal physiology until reproduction. Here, we tested several schedules of 60 Co irradiation of tachzoites from RH strain of T. gondii, from peritoneal exudate or suspensions of LLC-MK2 infected cells, to optimize the viability and sterility of the irradiated agents. The tachzoites were exposed to 50, 100 and 200 Gy in a GammaCell 220 at 366 Gy/h. The viability was tested by motility, integrity and Trypan Blue dye exclusion. All irradiation schedules maintained a high (>90%) viability of the parasites. Dilutions were injected in C57Bl/6j mice with induction of specific antibodies, no clinical disease but uncertain sterility. Infection of LLC--MK2 cells showed that viable and reproductive parasites were often found in 50 Gy irradiated cells, rarely found in 100 Gy irradiated cells, rarely found in 100 Gy irradied cells, with no growth occuring with 200 Gy irradiated tachzoites. Our data show that 200 Gy 60 Co irradiation blocks the reproductive capacity without affecting the short term viability of tachzoites of T. gondii. (author). 11 refs., 1 fig

  6. Endurance Test and Evaluation of Alkaline Water Electrolysis Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Andrew J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Chang, B. J.; Larkins, Jim T.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to assess the state of alkaline water electrolysis cell technology and its potential as part of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) of a multikilowatt orbiting powerplant. The program evaluates the endurance capabilities of alkaline electrolyte water electrolysis cells under various operating conditions, including constant condition testing, cyclic testing and high pressure testing. The RFCS demanded the scale-up of existing cell hardware from 0.1 sq ft active electrode area to 1.0 sq ft active electrode area. A single water electrolysis cell and two six-cell modules of 1.0 sq ft active electrode area were designed and fabricated. The two six-cell 1.0 sq ft modules incorporate 1.0 sq ft utilized cores, which allow for minimization of module assembly complexity and increased tolerance to pressure differential. A water electrolysis subsystem was designed and fabricated to allow testing of the six-cell modules. After completing checkout, shakedown, design verification and parametric testing, a module was incorporated into the Regenerative Fuel Cell System Breadboard (RFCSB) for testing at Life Systems, Inc., and at NASA JSC.

  7. Interleukin 4-producing CD4+ T cells in the skin of cats with allergic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosje, P J; Dean, G A; Willemse, T; Rutten, V P M G; Thepen, T

    2002-03-01

    Lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis has a cellular infiltrate and a CD4/CD8 ratio comparable to that in humans with atopic dermatitis. CD4+ helper T cells and in particular cells belonging to the Th2 subset play an important role in disease pathogenesis in humans. We investigated the cytokine pattern of CD4+ T cells in situ, with special emphasis on the putative presence of cells producing interleukin 4 (IL4), in cats with allergic dermatitis. Immunohistochemical procedures were used to determine that CD4+ T cells in lesional and nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis can produce IL4, as occurs in humans. Lesional and nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis had significantly more IL4+ T cells (P = 0.001) than did skin of healthy control cats. Double staining indicated that all IL4+ cells were positive for pan-T or CD4 markers. Double labeling for mast cell chymase and IL4 stained primarily different cells. Western blotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the antibody against human IL4 and a feline recombinant IL4. These results indicate that IL4 is primarily produced by CD4+ T cells and is also present in clinically uninvolved skin, indicating a role in the pathogenesis of allergic dermatitis in cats.

  8. Cytokine production by cells in cerebrospinal fluid during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL/J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renno, T; Lin, J Y; Piccirillo, C

    1994-01-01

    Cytokine production by T cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and central nervous system (CNS) of SJL/J mice during myelin basic protein (MBP)-induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was examined. Reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) was used to measure...... interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA levels from perfused CNS tissue (brain and spinal cord) and from cells isolated from CSF. Animals were grouped according to EAE severity, ranging from asymptomatic (adjuvant only) to severe disease (paralysis or severe paresis). Cytokine signals......, normalized to actin, were almost undetectable in control tissues, and only slightly elevated in whole CNS tissue from animals with mild EAE. Both cytokine messages were strongly upregulated in CNS tissues derived from severely affected animals, consistent with previous observations correlating disease...

  9. EBR-II blanket fuel leaching test using simulated J-13 well water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonnesbeck, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a pulsed-flow leaching test using simulated J-13 well water leachant. This test was performed on three blanket fuel segments from the ANL-W EBR-II nuclear reactor which were originally made up of depleted uranium (DU). This experiment was designed to mimic conditions which would exist if, upon disposal of this material in a geological repository, it came in direct contact with groundwater. These segments were contained in pressure vessels and maintained at a constant temperature of 90 C. Weekly aliquots of leachate were taken from the three vessels and replaced with an equal volume of fresh leachant. These weekly aliquots were analyzed for both 90 Sr and 137 Cs. The results of the pulsed-flow leach test showed the formation of uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and uranium hydride (UH 3 ) particulate with rapid release of the 137 Cs and 90 Sr to the leachant. On the fifth week of sampling, one of the vessels became over pressurized and vented gas when opened. The most reasonable explanation for the presence of gas in this vessel is that the unoxidized uranium metal in the blanket segment could have reacted with the surrounding water leachant to form hydrogen. However, an investigation is currently being undertaken to both qualify and quantify H 2 formation during uranium spent nuclear fuel corrosion in water

  10. Assessment of a European V–4Cr–4Ti alloy – CEA-J57

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Flem, Marion; Gentzbittel, Jean-Marie; Wident, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    About 30 kg of 7 mm-thick plates (grade CEA-J57) were fabricated to support development of vanadium alloys for applications as structural components in future fast neutron fission reactors. After a stress relieve annealing at 973 K, the material exhibited elongated grains and large Ti-rich precipitates oriented in the rolling direction. After final heat-treatment of 2 h at 1273 K, the microstructure was fully recrystallised with remaining aligned large precipitates. Charpy V-notch and tensile specimens were machined in various directions of stress-relieved and recrystallised plates. The fracture energy and the lateral expansion were determined between 113 K and 598 K. Stress-relieved specimens clearly highlighted an anisotropic behavior with both ductile and brittle features while the recrystallized specimens are all ductile: a DBTT of 113 K is suggested. The fracture mode and morphology were related to the microstructure and especially to the Ti-rich precipitate distribution. Additionally, tensile tests were performed at room temperature and between 873 K and 1223 K. The results were consistent with previous results: after a plateau around 400 MPa, a significant decrease in tensile strength is observed above 1023 K. The fracture surfaces always exhibited ductile fracture mode. The present work suggests the good quality of this vanadium alloy

  11. Autocrine production of beta-chemokines protects CMV-Specific CD4 T cells from HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Casazza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Induction of a functional subset of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells that is resistant to HIV infection could enhance immune protection and decrease the rate of HIV disease progression. CMV-specific CD4+ T cells, which are less frequently infected than HIV-specific CD4+ T cells, are a model for such an effect. To determine the mechanism of this protection, we compared the functional response of HIV gag-specific and CMV pp65-specific CD4+ T cells in individuals co-infected with CMV and HIV. We found that CMV-specific CD4+ T cells rapidly up-regulated production of MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta mRNA, resulting in a rapid increase in production of MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta after cognate antigen stimulation. Production of beta-chemokines was associated with maturational phenotype and was rarely seen in HIV-specific CD4+ T cells. To test whether production of beta-chemokines by CD4+ T cells lowers their susceptibility to HIV infection, we measured cell-associated Gag DNA to assess the in vivo infection history of CMV-specific CD4+ T cells. We found that CMV-specific CD4+ T cells which produced MIP-1beta contained 10 times less Gag DNA than did those which failed to produce MIP-1beta. These data suggest that CD4+ T cells which produce MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta bind these chemokines in an autocrine fashion which decreases the risk of in vivo HIV infection.

  12. CD4-regulatory cells in COPD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smyth, Lucy J C; Starkey, Cerys; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The numbers of airway CD8 and B lymphocytes are increased in COPD patients, suggesting an autoimmune process. CD4-regulatory T cells control autoimmunity but have not been studied in patients with COPD. OBJECTIVE: To compare T-regulatory cell numbers in the BAL from COPD patients......, smokers with normal lung function, and healthy nonsmokers (HNS). METHODS: BAL and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were obtained from 26 COPD patients, 19 smokers, and 8 HNS. Flow cytometry was performed for regulatory phenotypic markers. RESULTS: COPD patients had increased BAL CD8...... numbers compared to smokers and HNS. CD4 numbers were similar between groups. There was increased BAL CD4CD25(bright) expression in smokers (median 28.8%) and COPD patients (median 23.1%) compared to HNS (median 0%). Increased FoxP3 expression was confirmed in BAL CD4CD25(bright) cells. BAL CD4CD25 cells...

  13. CD4+ T-cell lines used to evaluate a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) peptide vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybeck, Kari; Sjurseth, Siri K.; Al-Touama, Zainab

    The aim of the study was to establish a protocol for generation of MAP-specific T-cell lines and to use these lines for evaluation of a peptide vaccine. A protocol for culturing T-cell lines from peripheral blood of goats naturally infected with MAP was established. CD4+ T cells were positively...... selected using an anti CD4 mAb and Dynabeads. Sorted CD4+ cells were cultivated with purified protein derivative from MAP (PPDj) or E. coli sonicate, IL-2, and IL-15. After two cultivation cycles, T cells were tested for recall responses in a proliferative T-cell assay. T-cell line responses were...... in average 92 % for PPDj, and -3 % for E. coli sonicate. CD4+ T-cell lines stimulated with PPDj showed a 6 fold increase in IFN- γ production compared to controls. These results indicated that the T-cell lines were MAP-specific. The protocol was subsequently used to evaluate MAP-specific peptides as vaccine...

  14. Feasibly study of gas-cooled test cell for material testing in IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Maki, Eiji; Ebara, Shinji; Yokomine, Takehiko; Shimizu, Akihiko; Korenaga, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    Temperature control performance of test pieces enclosed in IFMIF capsule by using single phase gas was estimated experimentally. The key issue of this study is to obtain the definite value of dimension of test facility and flow conditions of coolant and to clarify the temperature response of test piece to the beam-off scenario. Firstly, we have examined the cooling performance of the test cell originally proposed in IFMIF-KEP and from results of this calculation performed in three dimensional system by using brand-new turbulence model for flow and thermal fields, it is concluded that the drastical change of design of test cell is needed in order to obtain the unformity of temperature of test piece, to improve the responsibility of temperature measurement of test piece, and to relieve the coolant flow condition, especially for inlet pressure value. Thus, we have proposed new design of test cell and test piece arrangement. A mock-up experimental facility was made based on our design and preliminary experiments for temperature control were performed. As a result, we have verified the cooling performance at the case that corresponds to two beam-off scenario by using mock-up facility

  15. ALV-J infection induces chicken monocyte death accompanied with the production of IL-1β and IL-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Manman; Feng, Min; Xie, Tingting; Li, Yuanfang; Ruan, Zhuohao; Shi, Meiqing; Liao, Ming; Zhang, Xiquan

    2017-11-21

    Immunosuppression induced by avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) causes serious reproduction problems and secondary infections in chickens. Given that monocytes are important precursors of immune cells including macrophages and dendritic cells, we investigated the fate of chicken monocytes after ALV-J infection. Our results indicated that most monocytes infected with ALV-J including field or laboratory strains could not successfully differentiate into macrophages due to cells death. And cells death was dependent upon viral titer and accompanied with increased IL-1β and IL-18 mRNA levels. In addition, ALV-J infection up-regulated caspase-1 and caspase-3 activity in monocytes. Collectively, we found that ALV-J could cause cell death in chicken monocytes, especially pyroptosis, which may be a significant reason for ALV-J induced immunosuppression.

  16. Diffractive J/Psi Production; Produção Difrativa de $J/psi$ no Experimento DØ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    dos Santos Assis Jesus, Ana Carolina [Federal Univ., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This work presents measurements of two diffractive production ratio for heavy flavour physics with the use of a reconstructed J/Ψ → μ+μ- sample in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using the D0 detector at Fermilab Tevatron. These events were selected using the Luminosity Monitor detectors, the calorimeter system and the muon system in a pseudo-rapidity region with range 2.7 ≤ |η| ≤ 4.4. The measured ratio were estimated to be N$J/Ψ\\atop{diff}$/N$J/Ψ\\atop{total}$ = (1.74 ± 0.16(stat) {+-} 0.13(syst))% e N$b\\atop{diff}$/N$b\\atop{total}$ = (0.79 ± 0.11(stat) ± 0.23(syst))%.

  17. Enteroantigen-presenting B cells efficiently stimulate CD4(+) T cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Esben Gjerløff Wedebye; Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2011-01-01

    Presentation of enterobacterial antigens by antigen-presenting cells and activation of enteroantigen-specific CD4(+) T cells are considered crucial steps in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathology. The detrimental effects of such CD4(+) T cells have been thoroughly demonstrated in models...... of colitis. Also, we have previously established an in vitro assay where murine enteroantigen-specific colitogenic CD4(+) CD25(-) T cells are activated by splenocytes pulsed with an enterobacterial extract....

  18. CD80 and CD86 Costimulatory Molecules Differentially Regulate OT-II CD4+ T Lymphocyte Proliferation and Cytokine Response in Cocultures with Antigen-Presenting Cells Derived from Pregnant and Pseudopregnant Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Maj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune phenomena during the preimplantation period of pregnancy are poorly understood. The aim of our study was to assess the capacity for antigen presentation of splenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs derived from pregnant and pseudopregnant mice in in vitro conditions. Therefore, sorted CD11c+ dendritic cells and macrophages F4/80+ and CD11b+ presenting ovalbumin (OVA were cocultured with CD4+ T cells derived from OT-II mice’s (C57BL6/J-Tg(TcraTcrb1100Mjb/J spleen. After 132 hours of cell culture, proliferation of lymphocytes (ELISA-BrdU, activation of these cells (flow cytometry, cytokine profile (ELISA, and influence of costimulatory molecules blocking on these parameters were measured. We did not detect any differences in regulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. CD86 seems to be the main costimulatory molecule involved in the proliferation response but CD80 is the main costimulatory molecule influencing cytokine secretion in pregnant mice. In conclusion, this study showed that CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules regulate OT-II CD4+ T lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine response in cocultures with antigen-presenting cells derived from pregnant and pseudopregnant mice. The implications of these changes still remain unclear.

  19. Ullah et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(4):84-86 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    Kaplan, G.B.; Greenblatt, D.J.; Ehrenberg, B.L.; Goddard, J.E.; Cotreau, M.M.; Harmatz, J.S.;Shader, R.I. (1997). Dose-dependent pharmacokinetics and psychomotor effects of caffeine in humans. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 37, 693-703. 8. Manimozhi, D.M.; Sankaranarayanan, D.S.(2012). Sampathkumar.

  20. Comparison of Cell Viability and Embryoid Body Size of Two Embryonic Stem Cell Lines After Different Exposure Times to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehleh Zarei Fard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Activation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 signaling pathway in embryonic stem (ES cells plays an important role in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adverse effects of BMP4 occur in a time dependent manner; however, little is known about the effect of different time exposure of this growth factor on cell number in culture media. In this study, we investigated the role of two different exposure times to BMP4 in cell viability, embryoid body (EB, size, and cavitation of ES cells. Methods: Embryonic stem cells (R1 and B1 lines were released from the feeder cell layers and were cultured using EBs protocol by using the hanging drop method and monolayer culture system. The cells were cultured for 5 days with 100 ng/mL BMP4 from the beginning (++BMP4 or after 48 h (+BMP4 of culture and their cell number were counted by trypan blue staining. The data were analyzed using non-parametric two-tailed Mann-Whitney test. P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In EB culture protocol, cell number significantly decreased in +BMP4 culture condition with greater cavity size compared to the ++BMP4 condition at day 5 (P=0.009. In contrast, in monolayer culture system, there was no significant difference in the cell number between all groups (P=0.91. Conclusion: The results suggest that short-term exposure of BMP4 is required to promote cavitation in EBs according to lower cell number in +BMP4 condition. Different cell lines showed different behavior in cavitation formation.

  1. A new shape specimens determined the J1c value of nuclear pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.Q.

    1989-01-01

    The J integral has two basic definitions, a two-dimensional energy line integral definition and an energy rate definition. The line integral definition cannot be used for this experimental determination. The energy rate definition can be used but the procedure is somewhat laborious. Methods were developed for more easily determining J by approximation formulas. The first of these were where J could be estimated with reasonable accuracy for a deeply cracked bend-type specimen. This method is slightly inaccurate. This paper is concerned with a new shape specimen. It is called the W-shape specimen. The W-shape specimens are smaller volume than the compact specimens. It is convenient to operate the W-shape specimens in hot cell. It can be put into surveillance capsules and can also do specimen irradiation in engineering test reactor

  2. Relations between open-field, elevated plus-maze, and emergence tests as displayed by C57/BL6J and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C

    2008-06-15

    The relations between open-field, elevated plus-maze, and emergence tests were examined in two strains of mice. In the open-field, C57BL/6J mice had more ambulatory movements and rears but not stereotyped movements relative to BALB/c. In addition, C57BL/6J mice entered more often than BALB/c into enclosed and open arms of the elevated plus-maze. When placed inside a large enclosure, C57BL/6J mice emerged more quickly than BALB/c from a small toy object. In the entire series of mice, ambulation and rears in the open-field were linearly correlated with open and enclosed arm visits in the elevated plus-maze. Ambulatory movements and rears were also correlated with emergence latencies. In contrast, stereotyped movements were correlated with emergence latencies, but not with any elevated plus-maze value. These results specify the extent and limits of association between the three tests.

  3. Production of interferon-¿ and interleukin-4 by human T cells recognizing Leishmania lipophosphoglycan-associated protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Kurtzhals, J A; Christensen, C B

    1993-01-01

    The Leishmania protein LPGAP which is co-isolated with lipophosphoglycan is a specific activator of T cells from individuals who have recovered from American leishmaniasis. We have tested the effect of LPGAP on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Kenyan donors cured from L. donovani in....... The results show that both IFN-gamma producing (Th1-like) and IL-4 producing (Th2-like) T cells recognizing LPGAP are expanded after infection with L. donovani in humans....... infections. LPGAP induced vigorous proliferation and production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) by the cells. In addition PBMC incubated with LPGAP released interleukin-4 (IL-4) after pulsing with ionomycin and phorbol myristate acetate. Single cells were isolated from LPGAP-stimulated cell lines...

  4. Inflammation increases cells expressing ZSCAN4 and progenitor cell markers in the adult pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Sakiko; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kyokane, Kazuhiro; Niida, Shumpei; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2013-01-01

    We have recently identified the zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 (Zscan4), which is transiently expressed and regulates telomere elongation and genome stability in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of ZSCAN4 in the adult pancreas and elucidate the role of ZSCAN4 in tissue inflammation and subsequent regeneration. The expression of ZSCAN4 and other progenitor or differentiated cell markers in the human pancreas was immunohistochemically examined. Pancreas sections of alcoholic or autoimmune pancreatitis patients before and under maintenance corticosteroid treatment were used in this study. In the adult human pancreas a small number of ZSCAN4-positive (ZSCAN4+) cells are present among cells located in the islets of Langerhans, acini, ducts, and oval-shaped cells. These cells not only express differentiated cell markers for each compartment of the pancreas but also express other tissue stem/progenitor cell markers. Furthermore, the number of ZSCAN4+ cells dramatically increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis, especially in the pancreatic tissues of autoimmune pancreatitis actively regenerating under corticosteroid treatment. Interestingly, a number of ZSCAN4+ cells in the pancreas of autoimmune pancreatitis returned to the basal level after 1 yr of maintenance corticosteroid treatment. In conclusion, coexpression of progenitor cell markers and differentiated cell markers with ZSCAN4 in each compartment of the pancreas may indicate the presence of facultative progenitors for both exocrine and endocrine cells in the adult pancreas. PMID:23599043

  5. Trifasciatosides A-J, Steroidal Saponins from Sansevieria trifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teponno, Rémy Bertrand; Tanaka, Chiaki; Jie, Bai; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack; Miyamoto, Tomofumi

    2016-01-01

    Four previously unreported steroidal saponins, trifasciatosides A-D (1-4), three pairs of previously undescribed steroidal saponins, trifasciatosides E-J (5a, b-7a, b) including acetylated ones, together with twelve known compounds were isolated from the n-butanol soluble fraction of the methanol extract of Sansevieria trifasciata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(1)H correlated spectroscopy (COSY), heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC), total correlated spectroscopy (TOCSY), nuclear Overhauser enhancement and exchange spectroscopy (NOESY), electrospray ionization-time of flight (ESI-TOF)-MS and chemical methods. Compounds 2, 4, and 7a, b exhibited moderate antiproliferative activity against HeLa cells.

  6. Prognostic Importance of Vitamins A, E and Retinol-binding Protein 4 in Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Roman; Čapoun, Otakar; Kalousová, Marta; Hanuš, Tomáš; Zima, Tomáš; Koštířová, Milada; Soukup, Viktor

    2017-07-01

    To assess the prognostic importance of serum levels of retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and vitamin E at the time of diagnosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this prospective study, in a cohort of 102 renal cell carcinoma patients, relationships between serum levels of the aforementioned markers and recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), as well as cancer-specific survival (CSS), were evaluated. The vitamin A and vitamin E levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while the RBP4 level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median follow-up period was 39 months. Renal cell carcinoma recurred in 9 patients; 23 patients died with 12 of them from RCC. The preoperative vitamin E level was associated to RFS (p=0.02). We found a significant relationship between OS and the level of RBP4 (p=0.002), retinol (p=0.037) and vitamin E (p=0.007). The CSS period was significantly associated with the level of RBP4 (p=0.0001) and retinol (p=0.0003). Patients with an RBP4 level less than 21.0 mg/l at the time of diagnosis had a 13.5-times higher risk of death due to RCC progression; this risk was up to 7.7-times higher with vitamin A levels under 0.52 mg/l. Low levels of vitamin A, E and RBP4 at the time of RCC diagnosis are associated with a poorer prognosis after surgery. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. a stromal myoid cell line provokes thymic erythropoiesis between

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-02-02

    Feb 2, 2004 ... D. Tamiolakis, MD, Director, Department of Cytology, General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, J. Venizelos, PhD, Associate Director, Department of Pathology, ..... Neurology 1996,. 47:1552-1555. 17. Kruisbeek, A. M., Mond, J. J., Fowlkes, B. J., et al. Absence of the Lyt-2, L3T4+ lineage of T cells in mice treated.

  8. Performance of a 200-J KrF laser amplifier for laser fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owadano, Y.; Okuda, I.; Tanimoto, M.; Kasai, T.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yaoita, A.; Nemoto, F.; Komeiji, S.; Yano, M.

    1986-01-01

    An e-beam-pumped KrF laser has been developed as a middle-stage amplifier of a 1-kJ system for laser fusion research. The laser consists of one Marx generator (1MV, 11kJ), two PFLs (4.6 Ω, 100ns) with laser triggered output switches, two e-beam diodes (10 X 60 cm/sup 2/), and a laser cell (20- X 20- X 60-cm/sup 3/ active volume). Two e-beams are injected into the cell through carbon-sprayed Kapton anode and pressure foils. Up to now, a 120-J (70-ns) laser pulse has been generated with a 90% output coupling flat-flat resonator at 80% voltage operation. Overall efficiency is 1.5% in this case. A series of experiments has been performed with the laser to measure gain characteristics of a Kr-rich mixture, which is predicted to be more efficient than a normal Ar mixture in a high-laser-intensity region (>10 MW cm/sup -2/). An injection-locked oscillator mode was used to obtain a well-defined high-intensity laser beam, and a saturated intracavity intensity was measured

  9. Single-cell duplex RT-LATE-PCR reveals Oct4 and Xist RNA gradients in 8-cell embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartung Odelya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of two distinctive cell lineages in preimplantation mouse embryos is characterized by differential gene expression. The cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent and express high levels of Oct4 mRNA, which is down-regulated in the surrounding trophectoderm. In contrast, the trophectoderm of female embryos contains Xist mRNA, which is absent from cells of the inner mass. Prior to blastocyst formation, all blastomeres of female embryos still express both of these RNAs. We, thus, postulated that simultaneous quantification of Oct4 and Xist transcripts in individual blastomeres at the 8-cell stage could be informative as to their subsequent fate. Testing this hypothesis, however, presented numerous technical challenges. We overcame these difficulties by combining PurAmp, a single-tube method for RNA preparation and quantification, with LATE-PCR, an advanced form of asymmetric PCR. Results We constructed a duplex RT-LATE-PCR assay for real-time measurement of Oct4 and Xist templates and confirmed its specificity and quantitative accuracy with different methods. We then undertook analysis of sets of blastomeres isolated from embryos at the 8-cell stage. At this stage, all cells in the embryo are still pluripotent and morphologically equivalent. Our results demonstrate, however, that both Oct4 and Xist RNA levels vary in individual blastomeres comprising the same embryo, with some cells having particularly elevated levels of either transcript. Analysis of multiple embryos also shows that Xist and Oct4 expression levels are not correlated at the 8-cell stage, although transcription of both genes is up-regulated at this time in development. In addition, comparison of data from males and females allowed us to determine that the efficiency of the Oct4/Xist assay is unaffected by sex-related differences in gene expression. Conclusion This paper describes the first example of multiplex RT-LATE-PCR and its utility, when

  10. Casticin impairs cell growth and induces cell apoptosis via cell cycle arrest in human oral cancer SCC-4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Guan-Ling; Peng, Shu-Fen; Liao, Ching-Lung; Ho, Heng-Chien; Lu, Kung-Wen; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Fan, Ming-Jen; La, Kuang-Chi; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2018-02-01

    Casticin, a polymethoxyflavone, present in natural plants, has been shown to have biological activities including anti-cancer activities. Herein, we investigated the anti-oral cancer activity of casticin on SCC-4 cells in vitro. Viable cells, cell cycle distribution, apoptotic cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and Ca 2+ production, levels of ΔΨ m and caspase activity were measured by flow cytometric assay. Cell apoptosis associated protein expressions were examined by Western blotting and confocal laser microscopy. Results indicated that casticin induced cell morphological changes, DNA condensation and damage, decreased the total viable cells, induced G 2 /M phase arrest in SCC-4 cells. Casticin promoted ROS and Ca 2+ productions, decreases the levels of ΔΨ m , promoted caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities in SCC-4 cells. Western blotting assay demonstrated that casticin affect protein level associated with G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Confocal laser microscopy also confirmed that casticin increased the translocation of AIF and cytochrome c in SCC-4 cells. In conclusion, casticin decreased cell number through G 2 /M phase arrest and the induction of cell apoptosis through caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathways in SCC-4 cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. 16 CFR 1633.4 - Prototype testing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prototype testing requirements. 1633.4... STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS The Standard § 1633.4 Prototype testing... three specimens of each prototype to be tested according to § 1633.7 and obtain passing test results...

  12. 21 CFR 864.7825 - Sickle cell test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sickle cell test. 864.7825 Section 864.7825 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7825 Sickle cell test. (a...

  13. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Esther de; Barenys, Marta; Hermsen, Sanne A.B.; Verhoef, Aart; Ossendorp, Bernadette C.; Bessems, Jos G.M.; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2011-01-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds, flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.

  14. 16 CFR 1510.4 - Test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedure. 1510.4 Section 1510.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS... plane surface. Under its own weight and in a non-compressed state apply any portion of the test sample...

  15. Verification of LOCA/ECCS analysis codes ALARM-B2 and THYDE-B1 by comparison with RELAP4/MOD6/U4/J3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takashi

    1982-08-01

    For a verification study of ALARM-B2 code and THYDE-B1 code which are the component of the JAERI code system for evaluation of BWR ECCS performance, calculations for typical small and large break LOCA in BWR were done, and compared with those by RELAP4/MOD6/U4/J3 code. This report describes the influences of differences between the analytical models incorporated in the individual code and the problems identified by this verification study. (author)

  16. Nafion-based nanocomposite membranes for fuel cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cele, NP

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available . Zhang, J. Wang and F. Sheu, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 577 (2005) 295 J. James, T.Z. McMaster, J.M. Newton, M.J. Miles, Polymer 41 (2000) 4223 M. Ludvigsson, J. Lindgren, J. Tegenfeldt, Electrochim. Acta (2000) 2267 Shoibal Banerjee..., Dennis E. Curtin Journal of Fluorine Chemistry 125 (2004) 1211–1216 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. CPO-0023 By incorporating multi walled carbon nanotubes onto proton exchange membranes (PEM), its thermal stability is increased, making PEM fuel cells ideal...

  17. Biological effects of cigarette smoke in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice L Yu

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to determine whether treatment with cigarette smoke extract (CSE induces cell loss, cellular senescence, and extracellular matrix (ECM synthesis in primary human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. Primary cultured human RPE cells were exposed to 2, 4, 8, and 12% of CSE concentration for 24 hours. Cell loss was detected by cell viability assay. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by loss of cis-parinaric acid (PNA fluorescence. Senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-Gal activity was detected by histochemical staining. Expression of apolipoprotein J (Apo J, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, fibronectin, and laminin were examined by real-time PCR, western blot, or ELISA experiments. The results showed that exposure of cells to 12% of CSE concentration induced cell death, while treatment of cells with 2, 4, and 8% CSE increased lipid peroxidation. Exposure to 8% of CSE markedly increased the number of SA-ß-Gal positive cells to up to 82%, and the mRNA expression of Apo J, CTGF, and fibronectin by approximately 3-4 fold. Treatment with 8% of CSE also increased the protein expression of Apo J and CTGF and the secretion of fibronectin and laminin. Thus, treatment with CSE can induce cell loss, senescent changes, and ECM synthesis in primary human RPE cells. It may be speculated that cigarette smoke could be involved in cellular events in RPE cells as seen in age-related macular degeneration.

  18. In vitro characterization and inhibition of the CXCR4/CXCL12 chemokine axis in human uveal melanoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antecka Emilia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The CXCR4/CXCL12 chemokine axis may play a critical role in guiding CXCR4+ circulating malignant cells to organ specific locations that actively secrete its ligand CXCL12 (SDF-1 such as bone, brain, liver, and lungs. We sought to characterize the presence of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in five uveal melanoma (UM cell lines in vitro. The ability of TN14003, a synthetic peptide inhibitor that targets the CXCR4 receptor complex, to inhibit this axis was also assessed. Methods Immunocytochemistry was performed against CXCR4 to confirm expression of this chemokine receptor in all five UM cell lines. Flow cytometry was preformed to evaluate CXCR4 cell surface expression on all five UM cell lines. A proliferation assay was also used to test effects TN14003 would have on cellular proliferation. Inhibition of cellular migration by specifically inhibiting the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis with TN14003 was also investigated. The binding efficacy of TN14003 to the CXCR4 receptor was assessed through flow cytometric methods. Results The CXCR4 receptor was present on all five UM cell lines. All five cell lines expressed different relative levels of surface CXCR4. TN14003 did not affect the proliferation of the five cell lines (p > 0.05. All cell lines migrated towards the chemokine CXCL12 at a level greater than the negative control (p Conclusion Interfering with the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, using TN14003 was shown to effectively down regulate UM cell migration in vitro. Knowing that UM expresses the CXCR4 receptor, these CXCR4+ cells may be less likely to colonize distant organs that secrete the CXCL12 ligand, if treated with an inhibitor that binds CXCR4. Further studies should be pursued in order to test TN14003 efficacy in vivo.

  19. Effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation depend on treatment dose, treatment duration and meal contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Masayuki; Ebato, Chie; Mita, Tomoya; Hirose, Takahisa; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2009-01-01

    Beta-cell proliferation is regulated by various metabolic demands including peripheral insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. In addition to enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion, agonists for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) stimulate proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of beta-cells, thereby probably preserve beta-cell mass. To evaluate the beta-cell preserving actions of GLP-1R agonists, we assessed the acute and chronic effects of exendin-4 on beta-cell proliferation, mass and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice under various conditions. Short-term administration of high-dose exendin-4 transiently stimulated beta-cell proliferation. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of IGF-1 receptor and its downstream effectors in islets. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 daily for 4 weeks (long-term administration) and feeding high-fat diet resulted in significant inhibition of weight gain and improvement of glucose tolerance with reduced insulin secretion and beta-cell mass. These findings suggest that long-term GLP-1 treatment results in insulin sensitization of peripheral organs, rather than enhancement of beta-cell proliferation and function, particularly when animals are fed high-fat diet. Thus, the effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation largely depend on treatment dose, duration of treatment and meal contents. While GLP-1 enhances proliferation of beta-cells in some diabetic mice models, our results suggest that GLP-1 stimulates beta-cell growth only when expansion of beta-cell mass is required to meet metabolic demands.

  20. Effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation depend on treatment dose, treatment duration and meal contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Masayuki; Ebato, Chie; Mita, Tomoya [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Hirose, Takahisa [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kawamori, Ryuzo [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Beta Cell Biology and Regeneration, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Fujitani, Yoshio, E-mail: fujitani@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Watada, Hirotaka, E-mail: hwatada@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-18

    Beta-cell proliferation is regulated by various metabolic demands including peripheral insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. In addition to enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion, agonists for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) stimulate proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of beta-cells, thereby probably preserve beta-cell mass. To evaluate the beta-cell preserving actions of GLP-1R agonists, we assessed the acute and chronic effects of exendin-4 on beta-cell proliferation, mass and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice under various conditions. Short-term administration of high-dose exendin-4 transiently stimulated beta-cell proliferation. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of IGF-1 receptor and its downstream effectors in islets. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 daily for 4 weeks (long-term administration) and feeding high-fat diet resulted in significant inhibition of weight gain and improvement of glucose tolerance with reduced insulin secretion and beta-cell mass. These findings suggest that long-term GLP-1 treatment results in insulin sensitization of peripheral organs, rather than enhancement of beta-cell proliferation and function, particularly when animals are fed high-fat diet. Thus, the effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation largely depend on treatment dose, duration of treatment and meal contents. While GLP-1 enhances proliferation of beta-cells in some diabetic mice models, our results suggest that GLP-1 stimulates beta-cell growth only when expansion of beta-cell mass is required to meet metabolic demands.

  1. Tracking Differential Gene Expression in MRL/MpJ Versus C57BL/6 Anergic B Cells: Molecular Markers of Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G. Clark

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anergy is a key mechanism controlling expression of autoreactive B cells and a major site for failed regulation in autoimmune diseases. Yet the molecular basis for this differentiated cell state remains poorly understood. The current lack of well-characterized surface or molecular markers hinders the isolation of anergic cells for further study. Global gene profiling recently identified transcripts whose expression differentiates anergic from naïve B cells in model mouse systems. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the molecular and cellular processes that differentiate anergic cells that develop in the healthy C57BL/6 (B6 milieu from those that develop in the autoimmune-prone MRL/MpJ (MRL background. This approach takes advantage of B6 and MRL mice bearing an anti-laminin Ig transgene with a well characterized anergic B cell phenotype.Results: Global gene expression was evaluated in purified transgenic B cells using Operon version 3.0 oligonucleotide microarray assaying 31,000 oligoprobes. Genes with a 2-fold expression difference in B6 as compared to MRL anergic B cells were identified. Expression of selected genes was confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. This approach identified 43 probes corresponding to 37 characterized genes, including Ptpn22, CD74, Birc1f/Naip, and Ctla4, as differentially expressed in anergic B cells in the two strains. Gene Ontology classification identified differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, development, apoptosis, and cell death as prominently represented ontology groups. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified two major networks incorporating 27 qualifying genes. Network 1 centers on beta-estradiol and TP53, and Network 2 encompasses RB1, p38 MAPK, and NFkB cell growth, proliferation, and cell cycle signaling pathways.Conclusion: Using microarray analysis we identified 37 characterized genes and two functional pathways engaged in maintenance of B cell anergy for which expression is

  2. The Weighted Airman Promotion System: Standardizing Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    u th o ri ze d Top 3/E6 ratio, inventory 1401206040 100 70 130 5R 2F 2G 3N 2M 2A 4J 4C 4P 4T 4B 1W 2T 3P 1T 4A 2S 5J 1A 1S1C 6F 4N 7S 4R 4E 1N 3A 3V...System: Standardizing Test Scores AFHRL convened a panel to identify the relevant factors to consider, and then sit as a promotion board and rank...Costs If the Air Force decided to standardize test scores, there would be three basic types of costs: implementation costs, marketing costs, and

  3. Structure-function analysis of RBP-J-interacting and tubulin-associated (RITA) reveals regions critical for repression of Notch target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaja, Nassif; Yuan, Zhenyu; Oswald, Franz; Kovall, Rhett A

    2017-06-23

    The Notch pathway is a cell-to-cell signaling mechanism that is essential for tissue development and maintenance, and aberrant Notch signaling has been implicated in various cancers, congenital defects, and cardiovascular diseases. Notch signaling activates the expression of target genes, which are regulated by the transcription factor CSL (CBF1/RBP-J, Su(H), Lag-1). CSL interacts with both transcriptional corepressor and coactivator proteins, functioning as both a repressor and activator, respectively. Although Notch activation complexes are relatively well understood at the structural level, less is known about how CSL interacts with corepressors. Recently, a new RBP-J (mammalian CSL ortholog)-interacting protein termed RITA has been identified and shown to export RBP-J out of the nucleus, thereby leading to the down-regulation of Notch target gene expression. However, the molecular details of RBP-J/RITA interactions are unclear. Here, using a combination of biochemical/cellular, structural, and biophysical techniques, we demonstrate that endogenous RBP-J and RITA proteins interact in cells, map the binding regions necessary for RBP-J·RITA complex formation, and determine the X-ray structure of the RBP-J·RITA complex bound to DNA. To validate the structure and glean more insights into function, we tested structure-based RBP-J and RITA mutants with biochemical/cellular assays and isothermal titration calorimetry. Whereas our structural and biophysical studies demonstrate that RITA binds RBP-J similarly to the RAM (RBP-J-associated molecule) domain of Notch, our biochemical and cellular assays suggest that RITA interacts with additional regions in RBP-J. Taken together, these results provide molecular insights into the mechanism of RITA-mediated regulation of Notch signaling, contributing to our understanding of how CSL functions as a transcriptional repressor of Notch target genes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. J-54

    OpenAIRE

    Liuming Qiu; Pei Wang; Ge Liao; Yanbo Zeng; Caihong Cai; Fandong Kong; Zhikai Guo; Peter Proksch; Haofu Dai; Wenli Mei

    2018-01-01

    Four new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids, penicieudesmol A–D (1–4), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. J-54. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, the in situ dimolybdenum CD method, and modified Mosher’s method. The bioassays results showed that 2 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against K-562 cells.

  5. New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. J-54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liuming; Wang, Pei; Liao, Ge; Zeng, Yanbo; Cai, Caihong; Kong, Fandong; Guo, Zhikai; Proksch, Peter; Dai, Haofu; Mei, Wenli

    2018-03-28

    Four new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids, penicieudesmol A-D ( 1 - 4 ), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. J-54. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, the in situ dimolybdenum CD method, and modified Mosher's method. The bioassays results showed that 2 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against K-562 cells.

  6. Evaluation of static physics performance of the jPET-D4 by Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Tomoyuki [Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Kitasato 1-15-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 228-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Eiji [Molecular Imaging Centre, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Ayako [Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Arakawa, Tokyo, 116-8551 (Japan); Shibuya, Kengo [Molecular Imaging Centre, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Nishikido, Fumihiko [Molecular Imaging Centre, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tetsuya [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Suga, Mikio [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Yamaya, Taiga [Molecular Imaging Centre, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Kitamura, Keishi [Shimadzu Corporation, 1 Nishinokyo-kuwabara-cho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto, 604-8511 (Japan); Maruyama, Koichi [Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Kitasato 1-15-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 228-8555 (Japan); Murayama, Hideo [Molecular Imaging Centre, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

    2007-01-07

    The jPET-D4 is the first PET scanner to introduce a unique four-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector scheme in order to achieve high sensitivity and uniform high spatial resolution. This paper compares measurement and Monte Carlo simulation results of the static physics performance of this prototype research PET scanner. Measurement results include single and coincidence energy spectra, point and line source sensitivities, axial sensitivity profile (slice profile) and scatter fraction. We use GATE (Geant4 application for tomographic emission) as a Monte Carlo radiation transport model. Experimental results are reproduced well by the simulation model with reasonable assumptions on characteristic responses of the DOI detectors. In a previous study, the jPET-D4 was shown to provide a uniform spatial resolution as good as 3 mm (FHWM). In the present study, we demonstrate that a high sensitivity, 11.3 {+-} 0.5%, is provided at the FOV centre. However, about three-fourths of this sensitivity is related to multiple-crystal events, for which some misidentification of the crystal cannot be avoided. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a more efficient way to identify the crystal of interaction and to reduce misidentification in order to make use of these high performance values simultaneously. We expect that effective sensitivity can be improved by replacing the GSO crystals with more absorptive crystals such as BGO and LSO. The results we describe here are essential to take full advantage of the next generation PET systems that have DOI recognition capability.

  7. RARE B DECAYS TO STATES CONTAINING A J/psi MESON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J

    2003-10-28

    Results are presented on preliminary measurements of the branching fractions for B{sup +} {yields} J{sub {psi}{phi}}K{sup +}, B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{phi}K{sub S}{sup 0}, B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{eta} and B{sup 0} {yields} {psi}{eta}{prime} using 56 million B{bar B} events collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at PEP-II. We measure branching fractions of {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} J/{psi}{phi}K{sup +}) = (4.4 {+-} 1.4(stat) {+-} 0.5(syst)) x 10{sup -5} and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{phi}K{sub S}{sup 0}) = (5.1 {+-} 1.9(stat) {+-} 0.5(syst)) x 10{sup -5}, and set upper limits at 90% C.L. for branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{phi}) < 9.2 x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{eta}) < 2.7 x 10{sup -5}, and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{eta}{prime}) < 6.3 x 10{sup -5}.

  8. Calcineurin Aβ regulates NADPH oxidase (Nox) expression and activity via nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in response to high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clintoria R; Gooch, Jennifer L

    2014-02-21

    Hypertrophy is an adaptive response that enables organs to appropriately meet increased functional demands. Previously, we reported that calcineurin (Cn) is required for glomerular and whole kidney hypertrophy in diabetic rodents (Gooch, J. L., Barnes, J. L., Garcia, S., and Abboud, H. E. (2003). Calcineurin is activated in diabetes and is required for glomerular hypertrophy and ECM accumulation. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 284, F144-F154; Reddy, R. N., Knotts, T. L., Roberts, B. R., Molkentin, J. D., Price, S. R., and Gooch, J. L. (2011). Calcineurin Aβ is required for hypertrophy but not matrix expansion in the diabetic kidney. J. Cell Mol. Med. 15, 414-422). Because studies have also implicated the reactive oxygen species-generating enzymes NADPH oxidases (Nox) in diabetic kidney responses, we tested the hypothesis that Nox and Cn cooperate in a common signaling pathway. First, we examined the role of the two main isoforms of Cn in hypertrophic signaling. Using primary kidney cells lacking a catalytic subunit of Cn (CnAα(-/-) or CnAβ(-/-)), we found that high glucose selectively activates CnAβ, whereas CnAα is constitutively active. Furthermore, CnAβ but not CnAα mediates hypertrophy. Next, we found that chronic reactive oxygen species generation in response to high glucose is attenuated in CnAβ(-/-) cells, suggesting that Cn is upstream of Nox. Consistent with this, loss of CnAβ reduces basal expression and blocks high glucose induction of Nox2 and Nox4. Inhibition of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), a CnAβ-regulated transcription factor, decreases Nox2 and Nox4 expression, whereas NFAT overexpression increases Nox2 and Nox4, indicating that the CnAβ/NFAT pathway modulates Nox. These data reveal that the CnAβ/NFAT pathway regulates Nox and plays an important role in high glucose-mediated hypertrophic responses in the kidney.

  9. Problem-Solving Test: RNA and Protein Synthesis in Bacteriophage-Infected "E. coli" Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2008-01-01

    The classic experiment presented in this problem-solving test was designed to identify the template molecules of translation by analyzing the synthesis of phage proteins in "Escherichia coli" cells infected with bacteriophage T4. The work described in this test led to one of the most seminal discoveries of early molecular biology: it dealt a…

  10. Comparison of outcomes obtained in murine local lymph node assays using CBA/J or CBA/Ca mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yosuke; Hirosaki, Haruka; Yakata, Naoaki; Takeyoshi, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice are the recommended strains for local lymph node assays (LLNAs). Here, we report quantitative and qualitative comparisons between both mouse strains to provide useful information for the strain selection of sensitization testing. LLNA was conducted, in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline No. 429, with CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice using five chemicals including typical contact sensitizers and non-sensitizers: 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), isoeugenol, α-hexylcinnamic aldehyde (HCA), propylene glycol (PG), and hexane; then outcomes were compared based on the raw data (disintegrations per minute, DPM), stimulation index (SI) values, EC3 values and positive/negative decisions. Although a significant difference was noted between DPM values derived from each strain of mice, SI values exhibited no considerable difference. The EC3 values for DNCB in CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice were 0.04 and 0.03, those for isoeugenol were 1.4 and 0.9, and those for HCA were 7.7 and 6.0, respectively. All EC values derived from each test system were almost equivalent and were within the range of acceptance criteria of the ICCVAM performance standard for LLNA. Positive/negative outcomes for all test chemicals were consistent. In conclusion, no considerable differences were observed in the final outcomes derived from CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice in LLNA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Sandwich-cell-type bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing liquid crystalline phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yuya; Usui, Toshiki; Nishikawa, Yuki; Nekelson, Fabien; Shimizu, Yo; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2018-03-01

    Sandwich-cell-type bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing the liquid crystalline phthalocyanine, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2), have been fabricated and their photovoltaic properties have been studied. The short-circuit current (J SC) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) depended on the blend ratio of donor and acceptor molecules, and the maximum performance, such as J SC of 3.4 mA/cm2 and PCE of 0.67%, was demonstrated, when the blend ratio of the acceptor was 10 mol %. The photovoltaic properties were discussed by taking the relationship between the column axis direction of C6PcH2 and the carrier mobility in the active layer into consideration.

  12. Test Review: Wilkinson, G. S., & Robertson, G. J. (2006). Wide Range Achievement Test--Fourth Edition. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. WRAT4 Introductory Kit (Includes Manual, 25 Test/Response Forms [Blue and Green], and Accompanying Test Materials): $243.00

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Cindy Ann; Harrold, Barbara; Dell, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The Wide Range Achievement Test-Fourth Edition (WRAT4) is designed to provide "a quick, simple, psychometrically sound assessment of academic skills". The test was first published in 1946 by Joseph F. Jastak, with the purpose of augmenting the cognitive performance measures of the Wechsler-Bellevue Scales, developed by David Wechsler.…

  13. 16 CFR 1611.4 - Flammability test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.4 Flammability test. (a) Apparatus and materials. The.... The center section of the rack contains an open U-shaped area in which burning of the specimen takes... fan is turned off during the test. (4) Timing mechanism. The burning rate shall be determined by a...

  14. Antibodies Expressed by Intratumoral B Cells as the Basis for a Diagnostic Test for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    including stromal, endothelial, and immune cells (20,21). Tumors can be infiltrated with many types of lymphocytes, some that may foster and others that may...reactive and less clonally expanded anti-hemagglutinin antibodies than influenza vaccination