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Sample records for cell immune responses

  1. The Role of the Immune Response in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triozzi, Pierre L.; Fernandez, Anthony P.

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is implicated in its pathogenesis. Immune mechanisms are also implicated. Patients who are immunosuppressed have an increased risk. There is evidence that high intratumoral T-cell counts and immune transcripts are associated with favorable survival. Spontaneous regressions implicate immune effector mechanisms. Immunogenicity is also supported by observation of autoimmune paraneoplastic syndromes. Case reports suggest that immune modulation, including reduction of immune suppression, can result in tumor regression. The relationships between MCPyV infection, the immune response, and clinical outcome, however, remain poorly understood. Circulating antibodies against MCPyV antigens are present in most individuals. MCPyV-reactive T cells have been detected in both MCC patients and control subjects. High intratumoral T-cell counts are also associated with favorable survival in MCPyV-negative MCC. That the immune system plays a central role in preventing and controlling MCC is supported by several observations. MCCs often develop, however, despite the presence of humoral and cellular immune responses. A better understanding on how MCPyV and MCC evade the immune response will be necessary to develop effective immunotherapies

  2. The Role of the Immune Response in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triozzi, Pierre L., E-mail: triozzp@ccf.org [Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Fernandez, Anthony P. [Departments of Dermatology and Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States)

    2013-02-28

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is implicated in its pathogenesis. Immune mechanisms are also implicated. Patients who are immunosuppressed have an increased risk. There is evidence that high intratumoral T-cell counts and immune transcripts are associated with favorable survival. Spontaneous regressions implicate immune effector mechanisms. Immunogenicity is also supported by observation of autoimmune paraneoplastic syndromes. Case reports suggest that immune modulation, including reduction of immune suppression, can result in tumor regression. The relationships between MCPyV infection, the immune response, and clinical outcome, however, remain poorly understood. Circulating antibodies against MCPyV antigens are present in most individuals. MCPyV-reactive T cells have been detected in both MCC patients and control subjects. High intratumoral T-cell counts are also associated with favorable survival in MCPyV-negative MCC. That the immune system plays a central role in preventing and controlling MCC is supported by several observations. MCCs often develop, however, despite the presence of humoral and cellular immune responses. A better understanding on how MCPyV and MCC evade the immune response will be necessary to develop effective immunotherapies.

  3. Modulation of immune response by alloactivated suppressor T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, A.; Sopori, M.L.; Gose, J.E.; Sondel, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    These studies show that there may be several different kinds of suppressor cells, each activated by different pathways and able to suppress different parts of the immune response either specifically or nonspecifically. As such, the physiology of one type of suppressor cell need not necessarily apply to that of another type of suppressor. Thus we emphasize the trap that the suppressor cell option provides: that is, virtually any previously inexplicable in vitro and in vivo immune phenomenon can always be adequately accounted for by evoking a suppressor mechanism, either by suppressing the response or suppressing the suppressor

  4. Immune responses to red blood cell antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegmann, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    The research described in this thesis is aimed towards elucidation of the mechanism of action of anti-D. Anti-D is administered prophylactivly to prevent alloimmunization against the immunogenic D-antigen to D⁻ pregnant women carrying a D⁺ fetus. The plasma of women who became immunized during

  5. Stimulation of dendritic cells enhances immune response after photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Pawel; Castano, Ana P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the primary tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species that cause vascular shutdown and tumor cell necrosis and apoptosis. Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due to the acute inflammatory response, priming of the immune system to recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAA). The induction of specific CD8+ Tlymphocyte cells that recognize major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) restricted epitopes of TAAs is a highly desirable goal in cancer therapy. The PDT killed tumor cells may be phagocytosed by dendritic cells (DC) that then migrate to draining lymph nodes and prime naÃve T-cells that recognize TAA epitopes. This process is however, often sub-optimal, in part due to tumor-induced DC dysfunction. Instead of DC that can become mature and activated and have a potent antigen-presenting and immune stimulating phenotype, immature dendritic cells (iDC) are often found in tumors and are part of an immunosuppressive milieu including regulatory T-cells and immunosuppressive cytokines such as TGF-beta and IL10. We here report on the use of a potent DC activating agent, an oligonucleotide (ODN) that contains a non-methylated CpG motif and acts as an agonist of toll like receptor (TLR) 9. TLR activation is a danger signal to notify the immune system of the presence of invading pathogens. CpG-ODN (but not scrambled non-CpG ODN) increased bone-marrow DC activation after exposure to PDT-killed tumor cells, and significantly increased tumor response to PDT and mouse survival after peri-tumoral administration. CpG may be a valuable immunoadjuvant to PDT especially for tumors that produce DC dysfunction.

  6. Tissue specific heterogeneity in effector immune cell response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba eTufail

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post pathogen invasion, migration of effector T-cell subsets to specific tissue locations is of prime importance for generation of robust immune response. Effector T cells are imprinted with distinct ‘homing codes’ (adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors during activation which regulate their targeted trafficking to specific tissues. Internal cues in the lymph node microenvironment along with external stimuli from food (vitamin A and sunlight (vitamin D3 prime dendritic cells, imprinting them to play centrestage in the induction of tissue tropism in effector T cells. B cells as well, in a manner similar to effector T cells, exhibit tissue tropic migration. In this review, we have focused on the factors regulating the generation and migration of effector T cells to various tissues alongwith giving an overview of tissue tropism in B cells.

  7. Curcumin prevents human dendritic cell response to immune stimulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, Shawna A.; Montpetit, Alison J.; Lockey, R.F.; Mohapatra, Shyam S.

    2008-01-01

    Curcumin, a compound found in the Indian spice turmeric, has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, though the mechanism remains unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs) are important to generating an immune response and the effect of curcumin on human DCs has not been explored. The role curcumin in the DC response to bacterial and viral infection was investigated in vitro using LPS and Poly I:C as models of infection. CD14 + monocytes, isolated from human peripheral blood, were cultured in GM-CSF- and IL-4-supplemented medium to generate immature DCs. Cultures were incubated with curcumin, stimulated with LPS or Poly I:C and functional assays were performed. Curcumin prevents DCs from responding to immunostimulants and inducing CD4 + T cell proliferation by blocking maturation marker, cytokine and chemokine expression and reducing both migration and endocytosis. These data suggest a therapeutic role for curcumin as an immune suppressant

  8. Primary immune system responders to nucleus pulposus cells: evidence for immune response in disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Murai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although intervertebral disc herniation and associated sciatica is a common disease, its molecular pathogenesis is not well understood. Immune responses are thought to be involved. This study provides direct evidence that even non-degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP cells elicit immune responses. An in vitro colony forming inhibition assay demonstrated the suppressive effects of autologous spleen cells on NP cells and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed the positive cytotoxic effects of natural killer (NK cells and macrophages on NP cells. Non-degenerated rat NP tissues transplanted into wild type rats and immune-deficient mice demonstrated a significantly higher NP cell survival rate in immune-deficient mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed the presence of macrophages and NK cells in the transplanted NP tissues. These results suggest that even non-degenerated autologous NP cells are recognized by macrophages and NK cells, which may have an immunological function in the early phase of disc herniation. These findings contribute to understanding resorption and the inflammatory reaction to disc herniation.

  9. Cell mediated immune response in human antirabies revaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Regina Veiga

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of secondary cell mediated immune response (CMI in human antirabies immunization was studied. The Puenzalida & Palácios vaccine was used because it is routinely used in Brazil. CMI was evaluated by lymphoblastic transformation indices obtained in whole blood culture in the presence of rabies and control (nervous tissue antigens. Eleven volunteers submitted to revaccination constituted the group under study, while three other volunteers submitted primo vaccination were utilized as control group. A clear secondary CMI to rabies antigen was detected in all the revaccinated volunteers who showed earlier and more intense response than the control group. Response to the control antigen, however, present in all the components of the first group was not detectable in two out of the three primovaccinated and very low in the third one.

  10. Maternal immunity enhances Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination induced cell-mediated immune responses in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrick, Meggan; Theis, Kara; Molitor, Thomas W

    2014-06-05

    Passively acquired maternal derived immunity (MDI) is a double-edged sword. Maternal derived antibody-mediated immunity (AMI) and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) are critical immediate defenses for the neonate; however, MDI may interfere with the induction of active immunity in the neonate, i.e. passive interference. The effect of antigen-specific MDI on vaccine-induced AMI and CMI responses to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) was assessed in neonatal piglets. To determine whether CMI and AMI responses could be induced in piglets with MDI, piglets with high and low levels of maternal M. hyopneumoniae-specific immunity were vaccinated against M. hyopneumoniae at 7 d of age. Piglet M. hyopneumoniae-specific antibody, lymphoproliferation, and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were measured 7 d and 14 d post vaccination. Piglets with M. hyopneumoniae-specific MDI failed to show vaccine-induced AMI responses; there was no rise in M. hyopneumoniae antibody levels following vaccination of piglets in the presence of M. hyopneumoniae-specific MDI. However, piglets with M. hyopneumoniae-specific MDI had primary (antigen-specific lymphoproliferation) and secondary (DTH) M. hyopneumoniae-specific CMI responses following vaccination. In this study neonatal M. hyopneumoniae-specific CMI was not subject to passive interference by MDI. Further, it appears that both maternal derived and endogenous CMI contribute to M. hyopneumoniae-specific CMI responses in piglets vaccinated in the face of MDI.

  11. Balancing immune protection and immune pathology by CD8+ T cell responses to influenza infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu eDuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV is a significant human pathogen causing annual epidemics and periodic pandemics. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL-mediated immunity contributes to clearance of virus-infected cells; CTL immunity targeting the conserved internal proteins of IAVs is a key protection mechanism when neutralizing antibodies are absent during heterosubtypic IAV infection. However, CTL infiltration into the airways, their cytotoxicity, and the effects of produced pro-inflammatory cytokines can cause severe lung tissue injury, thereby contributing to immunopathology. Studies have discovered complicated and exquisite stimulatory and inhibitory mechanisms that regulate CTL magnitude and effector activities during IAV infection. Here, we review the state of knowledge on the roles of IAV-specific CTLs in immune protection and immunopathology during IAV infection in animal models, highlighting the key findings of various requirements and constraints regulating the balance of immune protection and pathology involved in CTL immunity. We also discuss the evidence of cross-reactive CTL immunity as a positive correlate of cross-subtype protection during secondary IAV infection in both animal and human studies. We argue that the effects of CTL immunity on protection and immunopathology depend on multiple layers of host and viral factors, including complex host mechanisms to regulate CTL magnitude and effector activity, the pathogenic nature of the IAV, the innate response milieu, and the host historical immune context of influenza infection. Future efforts are needed to further understand these key host and viral factors, especially to differentiate those that constrain optimally effective CTL anti-viral immunity from those necessary to restrain CTL-mediated nonspecific immunopathology in the various contexts of IAV infection, in order to develop better vaccination and therapeutic strategies for modifying protective CTL immunity.

  12. Innate lymphoid cells and their role in immune response regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Patricia Ruiz-Sánchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are lymphocytes lacking antigen recognition receptors and become activated in response to cytokines and through microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP receptors. ILCs are found mainly in mucosal tissues and participate in the immune response against infections and in chronic inflammatory conditions. ILCs are divided in ILC-1, ILC-2 and ILC-3, and these cells have analogue functions to those of immune adaptive response lymphocytes Th1, Th2 and Th17. ILC-1 express T-bet, produce IFNγ, protect against infections with intracellular microorganisms and are related to inflammatory bowel disease immunopathology. ILC-2 express GATA3, produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and amphiregulin, protect against parasitic infections and related to allergy and obesity immunopathology. ILC-3 express ROR(γt, produce IL-17 and IL-22, protect against fungal infections and contribute to tolerance to intestinal microbiota and intestinal repair. They are related to inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis immunopathology. In general terms, ILCs maintain homeostasis and coadjuvate in the protection against infections.

  13. T cell immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Emel Bülbül Başkan

    2013-01-01

    Since birth, our immune system is constantly bombarded with self-antigens and foreign pathogens. To stay healthy, complex immune strategies have evolved in our immune system to maintain self-tolerance and to defend against foreign pathogens. Effector T cells are the key players in steering the immune responses to execute immune functions. While effector T cells were initially identified to be immune promoting, recent studies unraveled negative regulatory functions of effector T cells...

  14. Protective immunization with B16 melanoma induces antibody response and not cytotoxic T cell response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarzotti, M.; Sriyuktasuth, P.; Klimpel, G.R.; Cerny, J.

    1986-01-01

    C57BL/6 mice immunized with three intraperitoneal injections of syngeneic, irradiated B16 melanoma cells, became resistant to B16 tumor challenge. Immunized mice had high levels of serum antibody against a membrane antigen of B16 cells. The B16 antigen recognized by the anti-B16 sera formed a major band of 90 KD in gel electrophoresis. The anti-B16 antibody was partially protective when mixed with B16 cells and injected into normal recipient mice. Surprisingly, B16 resistance mice were incapable of generating cytotoxic T cells (CTL) specific for the B16 tumor. Both spleen and lymph node cell populations from immunized mice did not generate B16-specific CTL. Allogeneic mice (DBA/2 or C3H) were also unable to generate B16-specific CTL: however, alloreactive CTL produced in these strains of mice by immunization with C57BL/6 lymphocytes, did kill B16 target cells. Interestingly, spleen cells from syngeneic mice immunized with B16 tumor produced 6-fold more interleukin-2 (IL-2) than normal spleen cells, in vitro. These data suggest that immunization with B16 tumor activates a helper subset of T cells (for antibody and IL-2 production) but not the effector CTL response

  15. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Jensen, Tove Dannemann; Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2009-07-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate the different phases of the immune response after DNA immunization with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from canine distemper virus (CDV). Although attenuated live CDV vaccines have effectively reduced the incidence of disease, canine distemper is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV. The DNA vaccine-induced immunity protected the natural host against disease development.

  16. MMP19 is essential for T cell development and T cell-mediated cutaneous immune responses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beck, Inken; Ruckert, R.; Brandt, K.; Mueller, M.S.; Sadowski, T.; Brauer, R.; Schirmacher, P.; Mentlein, R.; Sedláček, Radislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 6 (2008), e2343-e2343 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : matrix metalloproteinase * T cell * immune response Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. Immune responses to metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herberman, R.B.; Wiltrout, R.H.; Gorelik, E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the changes in the immune system in tumor-bearing hosts that may influence the development of progression of metastases. Included are mononuclear cell infiltration of metastases; alterations in natural resistance mediated by natural killer cells and macrophages; development of specific immunity mediated by T-lymphocytes or antibodies; modulation of tumor-associated antigen expression; and the down-regulation of the immune response to the tumor by several suppressor mechanisms; the augmentation of the immune response and its potential for therapeutic application; includes the prophylaxis of metastases formation by NK cells; the therapy of metastases by augmentation NK-, macrophage-, or T-lymphocyte-mediated responses by biological response modifiers; and the transfer of anticancer activity by cytoxic T-lymphocytes or immunoconjugates of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for tumors

  18. Fluorescent dye labeled influenza virus mainly infects innate immune cells and activated lymphocytes and can be used in cell-mediated immune response assay

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Dongxu

    2009-01-01

    Early results have recognized that influenza virus infects the innate and adaptive immune cells. The data presented in this paper demonstrated that influenza virus labeled with fluorescent dye not only retained the ability to infect and replicate in host cells, but also stimulated a similar human immune response as did unlabeled virus. Influenza virus largely infected the innate and activated adaptive immune cells. Influenza B type virus was different from that of A type virus. B type virus w...

  19. Inter-donor variation in cell subset specific immune signaling responses in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Diane M; Louie, Brent; Wang, Ena; Pos, Zoltan; Marincola, Francesco M; Hawtin, Rachael E; Cesano, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Single cell network profiling (SCNP) is a multi-parameter flow cytometry based approach that allows for the simultaneous interrogation of intracellular signaling pathways in multiple cell subpopulations within heterogeneous tissues, without the need for individual cell subset isolation. Thus, the technology is extremely well-suited for characterizing the multitude of interconnected signaling pathways and immune cell subpopulations that regulate the function of the immune system. Recently, SCNP was applied to generate a functional map of the healthy human immune cell signaling network by profiling immune signaling pathways downstream of 12 immunomodulators in 7 distinct immune cell subsets within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 60 healthy donors. In the study reported here, the degree of inter-donor variation in the magnitude of the immune signaling responses was analyzed. The highest inter-donor differences in immune signaling pathway activity occurred following perturbation of the immune signaling network, rather than in basal signaling. When examining the full panel of immune signaling responses, as one may expect, the overall degree of inter-donor variation was positively correlated (r = 0.727) with the magnitude of node response (i.e. a larger median signaling response was associated with greater inter-donor variation). However, when examining the degree of heterogeneity across cell subpopulations for individual signaling nodes, cell subset specificity in the degree of inter-donor variation was observed for several nodes. For such nodes, relatively weak correlations between inter-donor variation and the magnitude of the response were observed. Further, within the phenotypically distinct subpopulations, a fraction of the immune signaling responses had bimodal response profiles in which (a) only a portion of the cells had elevated phospho-protein levels following modulation and (b) the proportion of responsive cells varied by donor. These data

  20. Cell-mediated immune responses in rainbow trout after DNA immunization against the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utke, Katrin; Kock, Holger; Schuetze, Heike

    2008-01-01

    injection site rather than to injection sites of heterologous vaccines, suggesting the antigen specificity of homing. By demonstrating CMC responses to distinct viral proteins and homing in rainbow trout, these results substantially contribute to the understanding of the teleost immune system.......To identify viral proteins that induce cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)-infected cells, rainbow trout were immunized with DNA vectors encoding the glycoprotein G or the nucleocapsid protein N of VHSV. The G protein was a more potent trigger...... of cytotoxic cells than the N protein. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from trout immunized against the G protein killed both VHSV-infected MHC class I matched (RTG-2) and VHSV-infected xenogeneic (EPC) target cells, suggesting the involvement of both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and NK cells...

  1. T cell-derived Lymphotoxin is Essential for anti-HSV-1 Humoral Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kaiting; Liang, Yong; Sun, Zhichen; Xue, Diyuan; Xu, Hairong; Zhu, Mingzhao; Fu, Yang-Xin; Peng, Hua

    2018-05-09

    B cell-derived lymphotoxin (LT) is required for the development of follicular dendritic cell clusters for the formation of primary and secondary lymphoid follicles, but the role of T cell-derived LT in antibody response has not been well demonstrated. We observed that lymphotoxin-β-receptor (LTβR) signaling is essential for optimal humoral immune response and protection against an acute HSV-1 infection. Blocking the LTβR pathway caused poor maintenance of germinal center B (GC-B) cells and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. Using bone marrow chimeric mice and adoptive transplantation, we determined that T cell-derived LT played an indispensable role in the humoral immune response to HSV-1. Up-regulation of IFNγ by the LTβR-Ig blockade impairs the sustainability of Tfh-like cells, thus leading to an impaired humoral immune response. Our findings have identified a novel role of T cell-derived LT in the humoral immune response against HSV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE Immunocompromised people are susceptible for HSV-1 infection and lethal recurrence, which could be inhibited by anti-HSV-1 humoral immune response in the host. This study sought to explore the role of T cell-derived LT in the anti-HSV-1 humoral immune response using LT-LTβR signaling deficient mice and the LTβR-Ig blockade. The data indicate that the T cell-derived LT may play an essential role in sustaining Tfh-like cells and ensure Tfh-like cells' migration into primary or secondary follicles for further maturation. This study provides insights for vaccine development against infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Defective B cell response to T-dependent immunization in lupus-prone mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haitao; Sobel, Eric S.; Morel, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Lupus anti-nuclear Abs show the characteristics of Ag-driven T cell-dependent (TD) humoral responses. If autoAgs elicit the same response as exogenous Ags, lupus should enhance humoral responses to immunization. Blunted responses to various immunizations have, however, been reported in a significant portion of lupus patients. In this study, we show that lupus-prone B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (B6.TC) mice produce significantly less Ab in response to TD immunization than congenic controls, while producing significantly more total Ig. This blunted Ab response to TD Ag could be reconstituted with B6.TC B and CD4+ T cells. Multiple defects were found in the B6.TC response to NP-KLH as compared to total Ig, including a smaller percentage of B cells participating to the NP-response, a reduced entry into germinal centers, and highly defective production of NP-specific long-lived plasma cells in the bone marrow. B6.TC plasma cells expressed reduced levels of FcγRIIb, which suggests that reduced apoptosis in resident plasma cells prevents the establishment of newly-formed NP-specific plasma cells in bone marrow niches. Overall, these results show that lupus-prone mice responded differently to auto- and exogenous antigens and suggest that low FcγRIIb, hypergammaglobulinemia and high autoantibody production would be predictive of a poor response to immunization in lupus patients. PMID:18924209

  3. [Exosomes and Immune Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Naohiro

    2017-05-01

    In addition to the cytokines and cytotoxic granules, exosomes have been known as the intercellular communicator and cytotoxic missile of immune cells for the past decade. It has been well known that mature dendritic cell(DC)-derived exosomes participate in the T cell and natural killer(NK)cell activation, while immature DCs secrete tolerogenic exosomes for regulatory T(Treg)cell generation. Treg cell-derived EVs act as a suppressor against pathogenic type-1 T helper(Th1)cell responses. CD8+ T cells produce tumoricidal exosomes for preventing tumor invasion and metastasis transiently after T cell receptor(TCR)-mediated stimulation. Thus, immune cells produce functional exosomes in the activation state- and/or differentiation stage-dependent manner. In this review, the role of immune cell-derived exosomes will be introduced, focusing mainly on immune reaction against tumor.

  4. Influence of Immune Responses in Gene/Stem Cell Therapies for Muscular Dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Farini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies (MDs are a heterogeneous group of diseases, caused by mutations in different components of sarcolemma, extracellular matrix, or enzymes. Inflammation and innate or adaptive immune response activation are prominent features of MDs. Various therapies under development are directed toward rescuing the dystrophic muscle damage using gene transfer or cell therapy. Here we discussed current knowledge about involvement of immune system responses to experimental therapies in MDs.

  5. Immune response of T cells during herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Huan; Wei, Bin

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a neurotropic member of the alphaherpes virus family, is among the most prevalent and successful human pathogens. HSV-1 can cause serious diseases at every stage of life including fatal disseminated disease in newborns, cold sores, eye disease, and fatal encephalitis in adults. HSV-1 infection can trigger rapid immune responses, and efficient inhibition and clearance of HSV-1 infection rely on both the innate and adaptive immune responses of the host. Multiple strategies have been used to restrict host innate immune responses by HSV-1 to facilitate its infection in host cells. The adaptive immunity of the host plays an important role in inhibiting HSV-1 infections. The activation and regulation of T cells are the important aspects of the adaptive immunity. They play a crucial role in host-mediated immunity and are important for clearing HSV-1. In this review, we examine the findings on T cell immune responses during HSV-1 infection, which hold promise in the design of new vaccine candidates for HSV-1.

  6. CD8(+)NKT-like cells regulate the immune response by killing antigen-bearing DCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Xi; Li, Zhengyuan; Chai, Yijie; Jiang, Yunfeng; Wang, Qian; Ji, Yewei; Zhu, Zhongli; Wan, Ying; Yuan, Zhenglong; Chang, Zhijie; Zhang, Minghui

    2015-09-15

    CD1d-dependent NKT cells have been extensively studied; however, the function of CD8(+)NKT-like cells, which are CD1d-independent T cells with NK markers, remains unknown. Here, we report that CD1d-independent CD8(+)NKT-like cells, which express both T cell markers (TCRβ and CD3) and NK cell receptors (NK1.1, CD49b and NKG2D), are activated and significantly expanded in mice immunized with GFP-expressing dendritic cells. Distinct from CD1d-dependent NKT cells, CD8(+)NKT-like cells possess a diverse repertoire of TCRs and secrete high levels of IFN-gamma but not IL-4. CD8(+)NKT-like cell development is normal in CD1d(-/-) mice, which suggests that CD8(+)NKT-like cells undergo a unique development pathway that differs from iNKT cells. Further functional analyses show that CD8(+)NKT-like cells suppress T-cell responses through elimination of dendritic cells in an antigen-specific manner. Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD8(+)NKT-like cells into RIP-OVA mice prevented subsequent development of diabetes in the animals induced by activated OT-I CD8 T cells. Our study suggests that CD8(+)NKT-like cells can function as antigen-specific suppressive cells to regulate the immune response through killing antigen-bearing DCs. Antigen-specific down regulation may provide an active and precise method for constraining an excessive immune response and avoiding bypass suppression of necessary immune responses to other antigens.

  7. CD8+NKT-like cells regulate the immune response by killing antigen-bearing DCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Xi; Li, Zhengyuan; Chai, Yijie; Jiang, Yunfeng; Wang, Qian; Ji, Yewei; Zhu, Zhongli; Wan, Ying; Yuan, Zhenglong; Chang, Zhijie; Zhang, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    CD1d-dependent NKT cells have been extensively studied; however, the function of CD8+NKT-like cells, which are CD1d-independent T cells with NK markers, remains unknown. Here, we report that CD1d-independent CD8+NKT-like cells, which express both T cell markers (TCRβ and CD3) and NK cell receptors (NK1.1, CD49b and NKG2D), are activated and significantly expanded in mice immunized with GFP-expressing dendritic cells. Distinct from CD1d-dependent NKT cells, CD8+NKT-like cells possess a diverse repertoire of TCRs and secrete high levels of IFN-gamma but not IL-4. CD8+NKT-like cell development is normal in CD1d−/− mice, which suggests that CD8+NKT-like cells undergo a unique development pathway that differs from iNKT cells. Further functional analyses show that CD8+NKT-like cells suppress T-cell responses through elimination of dendritic cells in an antigen-specific manner. Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD8+NKT-like cells into RIP-OVA mice prevented subsequent development of diabetes in the animals induced by activated OT-I CD8 T cells. Our study suggests that CD8+NKT-like cells can function as antigen-specific suppressive cells to regulate the immune response through killing antigen-bearing DCs. Antigen-specific down regulation may provide an active and precise method for constraining an excessive immune response and avoiding bypass suppression of necessary immune responses to other antigens. PMID:26369936

  8. Immunization with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells induces Th1 immune response in Balb/C mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Resende, Maria Aparecida de; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M.

    2009-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. In our laboratory yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were attenuated by gamma irradiation. We defined an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the oxidative metabolism. The immunization with these cells was able to confer protection in BALB/c mice. The aim of the present work was evaluate the immune response pathway activated in mice immunized with P. brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice, respectively. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. These groups were called G1A, G1B and G1C in the group immunized once and G2A, G2B and G2C in the group immunized twice. Recovery of CFUs and cytokines determination (IFN - γ, IL - 10 and IL IV 4) were performed three months post challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR was the method of choice used to quantify the expression of cytokines. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. A significant reduction in CFUs recovery was verified 90 days post challenge in mice submitted to one immunization: 73.0%, 96.0% and 76.3% for sub-groups G1A, G1B and G1C, respectively. In the group submitted to two immunizations, a remarkable increase in the protection was obtained. No CFUs was recovered from sub-groups G2B and G2C and very few CFUs (reduction of 98.6%) were recovered from the lungs of sub group G2A. In mice submitted to one immunization, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were simultaneously produced. In the group submitted to two immunizations, levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were very low, while IFN-γ production was maintained indicating that a Th1 pattern was dominant. For

  9. Immunization with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells induces Th1 immune response in Balb/C mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: estefaniabio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Resende, Maria Aparecida de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: maresend@mono.icb.ufmg.br; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia], e-mail: goes@mono.icb.ufmg.br, e-mail: brsgarbi@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. In our laboratory yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were attenuated by gamma irradiation. We defined an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the oxidative metabolism. The immunization with these cells was able to confer protection in BALB/c mice. The aim of the present work was evaluate the immune response pathway activated in mice immunized with P. brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice, respectively. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. These groups were called G1A, G1B and G1C in the group immunized once and G2A, G2B and G2C in the group immunized twice. Recovery of CFUs and cytokines determination (IFN - {gamma}, IL - 10 and IL IV 4) were performed three months post challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR was the method of choice used to quantify the expression of cytokines. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. A significant reduction in CFUs recovery was verified 90 days post challenge in mice submitted to one immunization: 73.0%, 96.0% and 76.3% for sub-groups G1A, G1B and G1C, respectively. In the group submitted to two immunizations, a remarkable increase in the protection was obtained. No CFUs was recovered from sub-groups G2B and G2C and very few CFUs (reduction of 98.6%) were recovered from the lungs of sub group G2A. In mice submitted to one immunization, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were simultaneously produced. In the group submitted to two immunizations, levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were very low, while IFN-{gamma} production was maintained indicating that a Th1 pattern was

  10. Modulation of Immune Responses by Exosomes Derived from Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botros B. Shenoda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exosome-mediated signaling is important in mediating the inflammatory response. To exert their biological or pathophysiological functions in the recipient cells, exosomes deliver a diverse array of biomacromolecules including long and short coding and non-coding RNAs, proteins, and lipids. Exosomes secreted by antigen-presenting cells can confer therapeutic benefits by attenuating or stimulating the immune response. Exosomes play a crucial role in carrying and presenting functional major histocompatibility peptide complexes to modulate antigen-specific T cell responses. Exosomes from Dendritic Cells (DCs can activate T and B cells and have been explored for their immunostimulatory properties in cancer therapy. The immunosuppressive properties of exosomes derived from macrophages and DCs can reduce inflammation in animal models for several inflammatory disorders. This review focuses on the protective role of exosomes in attenuating inflammation or augmenting immune response, emphasizing studies on exosomes derived from DCs and macrophages.

  11. Effect of glucocorticoids on melatonin receptor expression under T-cell activated immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauschanova, P.; Georgiev, G.; Manchev, S.; Konakchieva, R.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was aimed to explore the stress response in rats under conditions of T-cell antigen-activated immune function and to investigate the specific melatonin (MEL) receptor binding in primary and secondary immune tissue of rats employing 2-( 125 I)-iodo melatonin autoradiography and in vitro ligand binding assay. The study revealed that melatonin receptor binding was specifically expressed in discrete areas of the lymphoid sheath of the spleen and in a network of interdigitating cells of the experimental rats. Demonstration of the modulation of MEL receptor binding in the course of a primary immune response under hypercorticalemic conditions indicate that the pineal hormone might interfere in the processes of glucocorticoid-dependent immune competency. (authors)

  12. In vivo Ebola virus infection leads to a strong innate response in circulating immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Ignacio S; Honko, Anna N; Gire, Stephen K; Winnicki, Sarah M; Melé, Marta; Gerhardinger, Chiara; Lin, Aaron E; Rinn, John L; Sabeti, Pardis C; Hensley, Lisa E; Connor, John H

    2016-09-05

    Ebola virus is the causative agent of a severe syndrome in humans with a fatality rate that can approach 90 %. During infection, the host immune response is thought to become dysregulated, but the mechanisms through which this happens are not entirely understood. In this study, we analyze RNA sequencing data to determine the host response to Ebola virus infection in circulating immune cells. Approximately half of the 100 genes with the strongest early increases in expression were interferon-stimulated genes, such as ISG15, OAS1, IFIT2, HERC5, MX1 and DHX58. Other highly upregulated genes included cytokines CXCL11, CCL7, IL2RA, IL2R1, IL15RA, and CSF2RB, which have not been previously reported to change during Ebola virus infection. Comparing this response in two different models of exposure (intramuscular and aerosol) revealed a similar signature of infection. The strong innate response in the aerosol model was seen not only in circulating cells, but also in primary and secondary target tissues. Conversely, the innate immune response of vaccinated macaques was almost non-existent. This suggests that the innate response is a major aspect of the cellular response to Ebola virus infection in multiple tissues. Ebola virus causes a severe infection in humans that is associated with high mortality. The host immune response to virus infection is thought to be an important aspect leading to severe pathology, but the components of this overactive response are not well characterized. Here, we analyzed how circulating immune cells respond to the virus and found that there is a strong innate response dependent on active virus replication. This finding is in stark contrast to in vitro evidence showing a suppression of innate immune signaling, and it suggests that the strong innate response we observe in infected animals may be an important contributor to pathogenesis.

  13. To investigate the necessity of STRA6 upregulation in T cells during T cell immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Terra

    Full Text Available Our earlier study revealed that STRA6 (stimulated by retinoic acid gene 6 was up-regulated within 3 h of TCR stimulation. STRA6 is the high-affinity receptor for plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP and mediates cellular vitamin A uptake. We generated STRA6 knockout (KO mice to assess whether such up-regulation was critical for T-cell activation, differentiation and function. STRA6 KO mice under vitamin A sufficient conditions were fertile without apparent anomalies upon visual inspection. The size, cellularity and lymphocyte subpopulations of STRA6 KO thymus and spleen were comparable to those of their wild type (WT controls. KO and WT T cells were similar in terms of TCR-stimulated proliferation in vitro and homeostatic expansion in vivo. Naive KO CD4 cells differentiated in vitro into Th1, Th2, Th17 as well as regulatory T cells in an analogous manner as their WT counterparts. In vivo experiments revealed that anti-viral immune responses to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in KO mice were comparable to those of WT controls. We also demonstrated that STRA6 KO and WT mice had similar glucose tolerance. Total vitamin A levels are dramatically lower in the eyes of KO mice as compared to those of WT mice, but the levels in other organs were not significantly affected after STRA6 deletion under vitamin A sufficient conditions, indicating that the eye is the mouse organ most sensitive to the loss of STRA6. Our results demonstrate that 1 in vitamin A sufficiency, the deletion of STRA6 in T cells does no affect the T-cell immune responses so-far tested, including those depend on STAT5 signaling; 2 STRA6-independent vitamin A uptake compensated the lack of STRA6 in lymphoid organs under vitamin A sufficient conditions in mice; 3 STRA6 is critical for vitamin A uptake in the eyes even in vitamin A sufficiency.

  14. Imaging immune response of skin mast cells in vivo with two-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunqiang; Pastila, Riikka K.; Lin, Charles P.

    2012-02-01

    Intravital multiphoton microscopy has provided insightful information of the dynamic process of immune cells in vivo. However, the use of exogenous labeling agents limits its applications. There is no method to perform functional imaging of mast cells, a population of innate tissue-resident immune cells. Mast cells are widely recognized as the effector cells in allergy. Recently their roles as immunoregulatory cells in certain innate and adaptive immune responses are being actively investigated. Here we report in vivo mouse skin mast cells imaging with two-photon microscopy using endogenous tryptophan as the fluorophore. We studied the following processes. 1) Mast cells degranulation, the first step in the mast cell activation process in which the granules are released into peripheral tissue to trigger downstream reactions. 2) Mast cell reconstitution, a procedure commonly used to study mast cells functioning by comparing the data from wild type mice, mast cell-deficient mice, and mast-cell deficient mice reconstituted with bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Imaging the BMMCs engraftment in tissue reveals the mast cells development and the efficiency of BMMCs reconstitution. We observed the reconstitution process for 6 weeks in the ear skin of mast cell-deficient Kit wsh/ w-sh mice by two-photon imaging. Our finding is the first instance of imaging mast cells in vivo with endogenous contrast.

  15. Innate lymphoid cells: models of plasticity for immune homeostasis and rapid responsiveness in protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F F; Belz, G T

    2016-09-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have stormed onto the immune landscape as "newly discovered" cell types. These tissue-resident sentinels are enriched at mucosal surfaces and engage in complex cross talk with elements of the adaptive immune system and microenvironment to orchestrate immune homeostasis. Many parallels exist between innate cells and T cells leading to the initial partitioning of ILCs into rather rigid subsets that reflect their "adaptive-like" effector cytokines profiles. ILCs themselves, however, have unique attributes that are only just beginning to be elucidated. These features result in complementarity with, rather than complete duplication of, functions of the adaptive immune system. Key transcription factors determine the pathway of differentiation of progenitors towards an ILC1, ILC2, or ILC3 subset. Once formed, flexibility in the responses of these subsets to stimuli unexpectedly allows transdifferentation between the different subsets and the acquisition of altered phenotypes and function. This provides a mechanism for rapid innate immune responsiveness. Here, we discuss the models of differentiation for maintenance and activation of tissue-resident ILCs in maintaining immune homeostasis and protection.

  16. Reduced immune responses in chimeric mice engrafted with bone marrow cells from mice with airways inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Naomi M; Ng, Royce L X; McGonigle, Terence A; Gorman, Shelley; Hart, Prue H

    2015-11-01

    During respiratory inflammation, it is generally assumed that dendritic cells differentiating from the bone marrow are immunogenic rather than immunoregulatory. Using chimeric mice, the outcomes of airways inflammation on bone marrow progenitor cells were studied. Immune responses were analyzed in chimeric mice engrafted for >16 weeks with bone marrow cells from mice with experimental allergic airways disease (EAAD). Responses to sensitization and challenge with the allergen causing inflammation in the bone marrow-donor mice were significantly reduced in the chimeric mice engrafted with bone marrow cells from mice with EAAD (EAAD-chimeric). Responses to intranasal LPS and topical fluorescein isothiocyanate (non-specific challenges) were significantly attenuated. Fewer activated dendritic cells from the airways and skin of the EAAD-chimeric mice could be tracked to the draining lymph nodes, and may contribute to the significantly reduced antigen/chemical-induced hypertrophy in the draining nodes, and the reduced immune responses to sensitizing allergens. Dendritic cells differentiating in vitro from the bone marrow of >16 weeks reconstituted EAAD-chimeric mice retained an ability to poorly prime immune responses when transferred into naïve mice. Dendritic cells developing from bone marrow progenitors during airways inflammation are altered such that daughter cells have reduced antigen priming capabilities.

  17. IL-10 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, H.; Tiitinen, A; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    background. To study a relationship between interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter -1082 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response during C trachomatis infection in vitro, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine (IL-10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5) secretion were analysed in subjects with different...... IL-10 genotypes. Enhanced IL-10 secretion and reduced antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative and IFN-gamma responses were found in subjects with IL-10 -1082 GG genotype when compared to those with -1082 AA genotype. CD14+ monocytes were main source of IL-10 indicating that these cells...... are important regulators of the antigen-specific cell-mediated responses during active C trachomatis infection. We conclude that impaired cell-mediated response to C trachomatis is associated with IL-10 genotype in subjects with high IL-10 producing capacity. A comparison of immune markers between subjects...

  18. Serotonergic Chemosensory Neurons Modify the C. elegans Immune Response by Regulating G-Protein Signaling in Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alexandra; Laurenson-Schafer, Henry; Partridge, Frederick A.; Hodgkin, Jonathan; McMullan, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The nervous and immune systems influence each other, allowing animals to rapidly protect themselves from changes in their internal and external environment. However, the complex nature of these systems in mammals makes it difficult to determine how neuronal signaling influences the immune response. Here we show that serotonin, synthesized in Caenorhabditis elegans chemosensory neurons, modulates the immune response. Serotonin released from these cells acts, directly or indirectly, to regulate G-protein signaling in epithelial cells. Signaling in these cells is required for the immune response to infection by the natural pathogen Microbacterium nematophilum. Here we show that serotonin signaling suppresses the innate immune response and limits the rate of pathogen clearance. We show that C. elegans uses classical neurotransmitters to alter the immune response. Serotonin released from sensory neurons may function to modify the immune system in response to changes in the animal's external environment such as the availability, or quality, of food. PMID:24348250

  19. Interleukin-4 Supports the Suppressive Immune Responses Elicited by Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-4 (IL-4 has been considered as one of the tolerogenic cytokines in many autoimmune animal models and clinical settings. Despite its role in antagonizing pathogenic Th1 responses, little is known about whether IL-4 possesses functions that affect regulatory T cells (Tregs. Tregs are specialized cells responsible for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance through their immune modulatory capabilities. Interestingly, it has been suggested that IL-4 supplement at a high concentration protects responder T cells (Tresps from Treg-mediated immune suppression. In addition, such supplement also impedes TGF-β-induced Treg differentiation in vitro. However, these phenomena may contradict the tolerogenic role of IL-4, and the effects of IL-4 on Tregs are therefore needed to be further elucidated. In this study, we utilized IL-4 knockout (KO mice to validate the role of IL-4 on Treg-mediated immune suppression. Although IL-4 KO and control animals harbor similar frequencies of Tregs, Tregs from IL-4 KO mice weakly suppressed autologous Tresp activation. In addition, IL-4 deprivation impaired the ability of Tregs to modulate immune response, whereas IL-4 supplementation reinforced IL-4 KO Tregs in their function in suppressing Tresps. Finally, the presence of IL-4 was associated with increased cell survival and granzyme expression of Tregs. These results suggest the essential role of IL-4 in supporting Treg-mediated immune suppression, which may benefit the development of therapeutic strategies for autoimmune diseases.

  20. Natural Killer Dendritic Cells Enhance Immune Responses Elicited by α-Galactosylceramide-Stimulated Natural Killer T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer dendritic cells (NKDCs possess potent anti-tumor activity, but the cellular effect of NKDC interactions with other innate immune cells is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the interaction of NKDCs and natural killer T (NKT cells is required for the anti-tumor immune responses that are elicited by α-galactosylceramide (α-GC in mice. The rapid and strong expression of interferon-γ by NKDCs after α-GC stimulation was dependent on NKT cells. Various NK and DC molecular markers and cytotoxic molecules were up-regulated following α-GC administration. This up-regulation could improve NKDC presentation of tumor antigens and increase cytotoxicity against tumor cells. NKDCs were required for the stimulation of DCs, NK cells, and NKT cells. The strong anti-tumor immune responses elicited by α-GC may be due to the down-regulation of regulatory T cells. Furthermore, the depletion of NKDCs dampened the tumor clearance mediated by α-GC-stimulated NKT cells in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that complex interactions of innate immune cells might be required to achieve optimal anti-tumor immune responses during the early stages of tumorigenesis.

  1. Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation Disrupts Adaptive Immune Responses during Rebound Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Viremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Daniel B; Peterson, Christopher W; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Schiffer, Joshua T

    2017-07-01

    Primary HIV-1 infection induces a virus-specific adaptive/cytolytic immune response that impacts the plasma viral load set point and the rate of progression to AIDS. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses plasma viremia to undetectable levels that rebound upon cART treatment interruption. Following cART withdrawal, the memory component of the virus-specific adaptive immune response may improve viral control compared to primary infection. Here, using primary infection and treatment interruption data from macaques infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), we observe a lower peak viral load but an unchanged viral set point during viral rebound. The addition of an autologous stem cell transplant before cART withdrawal alters viral dynamics: we found a higher rebound set point but similar peak viral loads compared to the primary infection. Mathematical modeling of the data that accounts for fundamental immune parameters achieves excellent fit to heterogeneous viral loads. Analysis of model output suggests that the rapid memory immune response following treatment interruption does not ultimately lead to better viral containment. Transplantation decreases the durability of the adaptive immune response following cART withdrawal and viral rebound. Our model's results highlight the impact of the endogenous adaptive immune response during primary SHIV infection. Moreover, because we capture adaptive immune memory and the impact of transplantation, this model will provide insight into further studies of cure strategies inspired by the Berlin patient. IMPORTANCE HIV patients who interrupt combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) eventually experience viral rebound, the return of viral loads to pretreatment levels. However, the "Berlin patient" remained free of HIV rebound over a decade after stopping cART. His cure is attributed to leukemia treatment that included an HIV-resistant stem cell transplant. Inspired by this case, we studied the impact

  2. Th17 cell-mediated immune responses promote mast cell proliferation by triggering stem cell factor in keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kyung-Ah; Park, Minhwa; Kim, Yu-Hee; Woo, So-Youn

    2017-01-01

    Although mast cells are traditionally thought to function as effector cells in allergic responses, they have increasingly been recognized as important regulators of various immune responses. Mast cells mature locally; thus, tissue-specific influences are important for promoting mast cell accumulation and survival in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we determined the effects of keratinocytes on mast cell accumulation during Th17-mediated skin inflammation. We observed increases in dermal mast cells in imiquimod-induced psoriatic dermatitis in mice accompanied by the expression of epidermal stem cell factor (SCF), a critical mast cell growth factor. Similar to mouse epidermal keratinocytes, SCF was highly expressed in the human HaCaT keratinocyte cell line following stimulation with IL−17. Further, keratinocytes promoted mast cell proliferation following stimulation with IL−17 in vitro. However, the effects of keratinocytes on mast cells were significantly diminished in the presence of anti−CD117 (stem cell factor receptor) blocking antibodies. Taken together, our results revealed that the Th17-mediated inflammatory environment promotes mast cell accumulation through keratinocyte-derived SCF. - Highlights: • Psoriasis-like skin inflammation increase dermal mast cells. • Keratinocyte produce stem cell factor in psoriasis-like skin inflammation. • Keratinocyte promote mast cell proliferation by stem cell factor dependent manner

  3. Response of maternal immune cells of irradiation of mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, E.M.; Markovic, B.

    1988-01-01

    This work began as an attempt to explain the paradox of pregnancy - the survival and growth of the semi-allogenic embryo in an immunologically hostile environment. In 1982 and 1983 we reported the tracing of quinacrine labelled maternal leukocytes (WBC) in maternal, placental and embryonic mouse tissues by fluorescence microscopy. We found that cells in the placenta phagocytose labelled WBC, so that after 1-2 hours the labelled nuclear DNA is found as brightly fluorescing particles in the cytoplasm of the phagocytes with no evidence of it in the nuclei. Identical cells were observed in slide preparations of embryos which had been carefully separated from their placentas. We also found a small population of intact labelled lymphocytes, clearly maternal in origin, in the embryos. This seems to be another paradox - placental phagocytes are observed to be phagocytosing maternal WBC in the placenta and embryo, but there are also free maternal cells in the placenta and embryo. A theoretical explanation is that maternal lymphocytes alloreactive against the embryo will attempt to react with placental cells and in the process be phagocytosed, while other maternal cells will be able to enter the embryo where they could have a surveillance function, removing dead or mutant embryonic cells. To test this theory a series of experiments were carried out and are reported

  4. The type of adjuvant strongly influences the T-cell response during nanoparticle-based immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuschke, Torben; Epple, Matthias; Westendorf, Astrid M

    2014-01-01

    Potent vaccines require the ability to effectively induce immune responses. Especially for the control of infectious diseases with intracellular pathogens, like viruses or bacteria, potent T-cell responses are indispensable. Several delivery systems such as nanoparticles have been considered to boost the immunogenicity of pathogen derived peptides or subunits for the induction of potent T-cell responses. Since they can be further functionalized with immunostimulants, like Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, they improve the response by enhanced activation of the innate immune system. Currently, TLR agonists like unmethylated CpG oligonucleotides and the synthetic dsRNA derivate polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid (poly[I:C]) are widely used as vaccine adjuvants. CpG and poly(I:C) trigger different TLRs and therefore show differential signal transduction. Recently, we established biodegradable calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles as potent T cell inducing vaccination vehicles. In this commentary we discuss the role of CpG and poly(I:C) for the effective induction of virus-specific T cells during immunization with CaP nanoparticles. The presented results underline the importance of the right formulation of vaccines for specific immunization purpose. PMID:23982325

  5. HIF-mediated innate immune responses: cell signaling and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris AJ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Alison J Harris, AA Roger Thompson, Moira KB Whyte, Sarah R Walmsley Academic Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Infection and Immunity, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Abstract: Leukocytes recruited to infected, damaged, or inflamed tissues during an immune response must adapt to oxygen levels much lower than those in the circulation. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs are key mediators of cellular responses to hypoxia and, as in other cell types, HIFs are critical for the upregulation of glycolysis, which enables innate immune cells to produce adenosine triphosphate anaerobically. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that hypoxia also regulates many other innate immunological functions, including cell migration, apoptosis, phagocytosis of pathogens, antigen presentation and production of cytokines, chemokines, and angiogenic and antimicrobial factors. Many of these functions are mediated by HIFs, which are not only stabilized posttranslationally by hypoxia, but also transcriptionally upregulated by inflammatory signals. Here, we review the role of HIFs in the responses of innate immune cells to hypoxia, both in vitro and in vivo, with a particular focus on myeloid cells, on which the majority of studies have so far been carried out. Keywords: hypoxia, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages

  6. The Cell Wall of the Human Fungal Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus: Biosynthesis, Organization, Immune Response, and Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latgé, Jean-Paul; Beauvais, Anne; Chamilos, Georgios

    2017-09-08

    More than 90% of the cell wall of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus comprises polysaccharides. Biosynthesis of the cell wall polysaccharides is under the control of three types of enzymes: transmembrane synthases, which are anchored to the plasma membrane and use nucleotide sugars as substrates, and cell wall-associated transglycosidases and glycosyl hydrolases, which are responsible for remodeling the de novo synthesized polysaccharides and establishing the three-dimensional structure of the cell wall. For years, the cell wall was considered an inert exoskeleton of the fungal cell. The cell wall is now recognized as a living organelle, since the composition and cellular localization of the different constitutive cell wall components (especially of the outer layers) vary when the fungus senses changes in the external environment. The cell wall plays a major role during infection. The recognition of the fungal cell wall by the host is essential in the initiation of the immune response. The interactions between the different pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and cell wall pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) orientate the host response toward either fungal death or growth, which would then lead to disease development. Understanding the molecular determinants of the interplay between the cell wall and host immunity is fundamental to combatting Aspergillus diseases.

  7. Inhibition of cathepsin X enzyme influences the immune response of THP-1 cells and dendritic cells infected with Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvarc, Miha; Stubljar, David; Kopitar, Andreja Natasa; Jeverica, Samo; Tepes, Bojan; Kos, Janko; Ihan, Alojz

    2013-01-01

    The immune response to Helicobacter pylori importantly determines the outcome of infection as well as the success of eradication therapy. We demonstrate the role of a cysteine protease cathepsin X in the immune response to H. pylori infection. We analysed how the inhibition of cathepsin X influenced the immune response in experiments when THP-1 cells or dendritic cells isolated from patients were stimulated with 48 strains of H. pylori isolated from gastric biopsy samples of patients which had problems with the eradication of bacteria. The experiments, performed with the help of a flow cytometer, showed that the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR-4 molecules, on the membranes of THP-1 cells or dendritic cells was higher when we stimulated cells with H. pylori together with inhibitor of cathepsin X 2F12 compared to THP-1 cells or dendritic cells stimulated with H. pylori only, and also in comparison with negative control samples. We also demonstrated that when we inhibited the action of cathepsin X in THP-1 cells, the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines were lower than when THP-1 cell were stimulated with H. pylori only. We demonstrated that inhibition of cathepsin X influences the internalization of TLR-2 and TLR-4. TLR-2 and TLR-4 redistribution to intra-cytoplasmic compartments is hampered if cathepsin X is blocked. The beginning of a successful immune response against H. pylori in the case of inhibition of cathepsin X is delayed

  8. Innate Immune Responses of Bat and Human Cells to Filoviruses: Commonalities and Distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Schwarz, Toni M; Ilinykh, Philipp A; Jordan, Ingo; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Basler, Christopher F; Bukreyev, Alexander

    2017-04-15

    Marburg (MARV) and Ebola (EBOV) viruses are zoonotic pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. The natural reservoir of MARV is the Egyptian rousette bat ( Rousettus aegyptiacus ); that of EBOV is unknown but believed to be another bat species. The Egyptian rousette develops subclinical productive infection with MARV but is refractory to EBOV. Interaction of filoviruses with hosts is greatly affected by the viral interferon (IFN)-inhibiting domains (IID). Our study was aimed at characterization of innate immune responses to filoviruses and the role of filovirus IID in bat and human cells. The study demonstrated that EBOV and MARV replicate to similar levels in all tested cell lines, indicating that permissiveness for EBOV at cell and organism levels do not necessarily correlate. Filoviruses, particularly MARV, induced a potent innate immune response in rousette cells, which was generally stronger than that in human cells. Both EBOV VP35 and VP24 IID were found to suppress the innate immune response in rousette cells, but only VP35 IID appeared to promote virus replication. Along with IFN-α and IFN-β, IFN-γ was demonstrated to control filovirus infection in bat cells but not in human cells, suggesting host species specificity of the antiviral effect. The antiviral effects of bat IFNs appeared not to correlate with induction of IFN-stimulated genes 54 and 56, which were detected in human cells ectopically expressing bat IFN-α and IFN-β. As bat IFN-γ induced the type I IFN pathway, its antiviral effect is likely to be partially induced via cross talk. IMPORTANCE Bats serve as reservoirs for multiple emerging viruses, including filoviruses, henipaviruses, lyssaviruses, and zoonotic coronaviruses. Although there is no evidence for symptomatic disease caused by either Marburg or Ebola viruses in bats, spillover of these viruses into human populations causes deadly outbreaks. The reason for the lack of symptomatic disease in bats infected with

  9. Memory B-Cell and Antibody Responses Induced by Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoite Immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahrendorf, W.; Scholzen, A.; Bijker, E.M.; Teirlinck, A.C.; Bastiaens, G.J.H.; Schats, R.; Hermsen, C.C.; Visser, L.G.; Langhorne, J.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunization of healthy volunteers during receipt of chemoprophylaxis with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (CPS-immunization) induces sterile protection from malaria. Antibody responses have long been known to contribute to naturally acquired immunity against malaria, but their

  10. The Unfolded Protein Response in Homeostasis and Modulation of Mammalian Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana Sofia; Alves, Inês; Helguero, Luisa; Domingues, Maria Rosário; Neves, Bruno Miguel

    2016-11-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays important roles in eukaryotic protein folding and lipid biosynthesis. Several exogenous and endogenous cellular sources of stress can perturb ER homeostasis leading to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the lumen. Unfolded protein accumulation triggers a signal-transduction cascade known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive mechanism which aims to protect cells from protein aggregates and to restore ER functions. Further to this protective mechanism, in immune cells, UPR molecular effectors have been shown to participate in a wide range of biological processes such as cell differentiation, survival and immunoglobulin and cytokine production. Recent findings also highlight the involvement of the UPR machinery in the maturational program and antigen presentation capacities of dendritic cells. UPR is therefore a key element in immune system homeostasis with direct implications on both adaptive and innate immune responses. The present review summarizes the knowledge on the emerging roles of UPR signaling cascades in mammalian immune cells as well as the consequences of their dysregulation in relation to the pathogenesis of several diseases.

  11. B-Cell and T-Cell Immune Responses to Experimental Helicobacter pylori Infection in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurgalieva, Zhannat Z.; Conner, Margaret E.; Opekun, Antone R.; Zheng, Carl Q.; Elliott, Susan N.; Ernst, Peter B.; Osato, Michael; Estes, Mary K.; Graham, David Y.

    2005-01-01

    The acute antibody and T-cell immune response to Helicobacter pylori infection in humans has not been studied systematically. Serum from H. pylori-naive volunteers challenged with H. pylori and cured after 4 or 12 weeks was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for anti-H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA established using bacterial lysates from homologous (the infecting strain) and heterologous H. pylori. Proteins recognized by IgM antibody were identified by mass spectrometry of immunoreactive bands separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Mucosal T-cell subsets (CD4, CD8, CD3, and CD30 cells) were assessed by immunohistochemistry. All 18 infected volunteers developed H. pylori-specific IgM responses to both homologous or heterologous H. pylori antigens. H. pylori antigens reacted with IgM antibody at 4 weeks postinfection. IgM Western blotting showed immunoreactivity of postinfection serum samples to multiple H. pylori proteins with molecular weights ranging between 9,000 (9K) to 150K with homologous strains but only a 70K band using heterologous antigens. Two-dimensional electrophoresis demonstrated that production of H. pylori-specific IgM antibodies was elicited by H. pylori flagellins A and B, urease B, ABC transporter binding protein, heat shock protein 70 (DnaK), and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase. Mucosal CD3, CD4, and CD8 T-cell numbers increased following infection. IgM antibody responses were detected to a range of homologous H. pylori antigens 2 to 4 weeks postchallenge. The majority of H. pylori proteins were those involved in motility and colonization and may represent targets for vaccine development. PMID:15845507

  12. A unique dermal dendritic cell subset that skews the immune response toward Th2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Murakami

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC subsets in the skin and draining lymph nodes (LNs are likely to elicit distinct immune response types. In skin and skin-draining LNs, a dermal DC subset expressing macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin 2 (MGL2/CD301b was found distinct from migratory Langerhans cells (LCs or CD103(+ dermal DCs (dDCs. Lower expression levels of Th1-promoting and/or cross-presentation-related molecules were suggested by the transcriptome analysis and verified by the quantitative real-time PCR analysis in MGL2(+ dDCs than in CD103(+ dDCs. Transfer of MGL2(+ dDCs but not CD103(+ dDCs from FITC-sensitized mice induced a Th2-type immune response in vivo in a model of contact hypersensitivity. Targeting MGL2(+ dDCs with a rat monoclonal antibody against MGL2 efficiently induced a humoral immune response with Th2-type properties, as determined by the antibody subclass. We propose that the properties of MGL2(+ dDCs, are complementary to those of CD103(+ dDCs and skew the immune response toward a Th2-type response.

  13. Immune responsiveness and incidence of reticulum cell sarcoma in long-term syngeneic radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adorini, L.; Gorini, G.; Covelli, V.; Ballardin, E.; di Michele, A.; Bassani, B.; Metalli, P.; Doria, G.

    1976-01-01

    Long-term syngeneic radiation chimeras displayed a very low incidence of reticulum cell sarcoma as compared with control mice. Immune reactivity of these animals was studied in vivo by anti-dinitrophenyl antibody titer and affinity and in vitro by mitotic responsiveness to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide. Antibody titer and affinity as well as the response to T lectins were found to be increased in chimeras. These results were attributed to increased function of mature T2 cells, which could explain the reduced incidence of reticulum cell sarcoma in chimeras

  14. Indian Hedgehog Suppresses a Stromal Cell-Driven Intestinal Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, B Florien; Büller, Nikè V J A; Karpus, Olga N; van Dop, Willemijn A; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Koelink, Pim J; Snel, Clinton Y; Meisner, Sander; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Uhmann, Anja; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Heijmans, Jarom; Hahn, Heidi; Muncan, Vanesa; Wildenberg, Manon E; van den Brink, Gijs R

    2018-01-01

    Upon intestinal epithelial damage a complex wound healing response is initiated to restore epithelial integrity and defend against pathogenic invasion. Epithelium-derived Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) functions as a critical sensor in this process. Signaling occurs in a paracrine manner because the receptor for Ihh is expressed only in the mesenchyme, but the exact Hedgehog target cell has remained elusive. The aim of this study was to elucidate further the nature of this target cell in the context of intestinal inflammation. Hedgehog activity was modulated genetically in both cell type-specific and body-wide models and the resulting animals were analyzed for gene expression profiles and sensitivity for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis. To characterize the Hedgehog target cell, Gli1-CreERT2-Rosa26-ZsGreen animals were generated, which express ZsGreen in all Hedgehog-responsive cells. These cells were characterized using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. Loss of Indian Hedgehog from the intestinal epithelium resulted in a rapid increase in expression of inflammation-related genes, accompanied by increased influx of immune cells. Animals with epithelium-specific deletion of Ihh or lacking the Hedgehog receptor Smoothened from Hedgehog target cells were more sensitive to DSS colitis. In contrast, specific deletion of Smoothened in the myeloid compartment did not alter the response to DSS. This suggests that Hedgehog signaling does not repress intestinal immunity through an effect on myeloid cells. Indeed, we found that Hedgehog-responsive cells expressed gp38, smooth muscle actin, and desmin, indicating a fibroblastic nature. Ihh signaling inhibited expression of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) in fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo, thereby impairing the recruitment of immune cells. We show that epithelium-derived Indian Hedgehog signals exclusively to fibroblasts in the intestine. Loss of Ihh leads to a rapid immune response with up-regulation of fibroblast

  15. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Can Regulate the Immune Response in the Tumor Microenvironment

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    Alessandro Poggi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The tumor microenvironment is a good target for therapy in solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Indeed, solid tumor cells’ growth and expansion can influence neighboring cells’ behavior, leading to a modulation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC activities and remodeling of extracellular matrix components. This leads to an altered microenvironment, where reparative mechanisms, in the presence of sub-acute inflammation, are not able to reconstitute healthy tissue. Carcinoma cells can undergo epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT, a key step to generate metastasis; these mesenchymal-like cells display the functional behavior of MSC. Furthermore, MSC can support the survival and growth of leukemic cells within bone marrow participating in the leukemic cell niche. Notably, MSC can inhibit the anti-tumor immune response through either carcinoma-associated fibroblasts or bone marrow stromal cells. Experimental data have indicated their relevance in regulating cytolytic effector lymphocytes of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Herein, we will discuss some of the evidence in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. In particular, we will focus our attention on the means by which it is conceivable to inhibit MSC-mediated immune suppression and trigger anti-tumor innate immunity.

  16. Cloned, CD117 selected human amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of modulating the immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C Moorefield

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem (AFS cells are broadly multipotent, can be expanded extensively in culture, are not tumorigenic and can be readily cryopreserved for cell banking. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC show immunomodulatory activity and secrete a wide spectrum of cytokines and chemokines that suppress inflammatory responses, block mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR and other immune reactions, and have proven therapeutic against conditions such as graft-versus-host disease. AFS cells resemble MSCs in many respects including surface marker expression and differentiation potential. We therefore hypothesized that AFS cells may exhibit similar immunomodulatory capabilities. We present data to demonstrate that direct contact with AFS cells inhibits lymphocyte activation. In addition, we show that cell-free supernatants derived from AFS cells primed with total blood monocytes or IL-1β, a cytokine released by monocytes and essential in mediation of the inflammatory response, also inhibited lymphocyte activation. Further investigation of AFS cell-free supernatants by protein array revealed secretion of multiple factors in common with MSCs that are known to be involved in immune regulation including growth related oncogene (GRO and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP family members as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6. AFS cells activated by PBMCs released several additional cytokines as compared to BM-MSCs, including macrophage inflammatory protein-3α (MIP-3α, MIP-1α and Activin. AFS cells also released higher levels of MCP-1 and lower levels of MCP-2 compared to BM-MSCs in response to IL-1β activation. This suggests that there may be some AFS-specific mechanisms of inhibition of lymphocyte activation. Our results indicate that AFS cells are able to suppress inflammatory responses in vitro and that soluble factors are an essential component in the communication between lymphocytes and AFS cells. Their extensive self-renewal capacity, possibility for banking and

  17. A morphological and immunophenotypic map of the immune response in Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Noreen M; Fleming, Kirsten E; Hanly, John G; Dakin Hache, Kelly; Doucette, Steve; Ferrara, Gerardo; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    The susceptibility of Merkel cell carcinoma to the host immune response has prompted a search for effective immunotherapy. CD8-positive T lymphocytes are considered key effectors of this response, but the cellular infiltrates also harbor tumor-protective agents. By developing a comprehensive morphological and immunophenotypic map of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILS) in Merkel cell carcinoma, we aimed to establish a useful template for future studies. Twenty-two cases (mean age, 79years [range, 52-95]; male-female ratio, 10:12) were studied. TILS were categorized as brisk (7), nonbrisk (9), and absent(6). Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV)-positive (16) and -negative (6) cases were included, as were those with pure (18) and combined (4) morphologies. One MCPyV+ case had undergone spontaneous regression. Immunohistochemical markers included CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, FoxP3, PD-1, and CD123. Statistical analysis used Fisher exact tests and Spearman correlations. There was a significant correlation between brisk TILs and MCPyV+ status (P=.025). CD8+ T lymphocytes predominated, were present in significantly higher proportions in brisk infiltrates (P=.003), and showed a significant predilection for the intratumoral environment (P=.003). Immune inhibitors including T regulatory cells (FOXP3+) and PD-1+ "exhausted" immunocytes were present in lower proportions. Our findings support (1) the link between a brisk immune response and MCPyV positivity, (2) the supremacy of CD8+ cells in effecting immunity, and (3) the incorporation of immune inhibitors within the global infiltrate. Efforts to therapeutically arm the "effectors" and disarm the "detractors" are well focused. These will likely have the greatest impact on MCPyV-positive cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal obesity alters immune cell frequencies and responses in umbilical cord blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Randall M; Marshall, Nicole E; Jeske, Daniel R; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Thornburg, Kent; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-06-01

    Maternal obesity is one of the several key factors thought to modulate neonatal immune system development. Data from murine studies demonstrate worse outcomes in models of infection, autoimmunity, and allergic sensitization in offspring of obese dams. In humans, children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for asthma. These findings suggest a dysregulation of immune function in the children of obese mothers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and the human neonatal immune system. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from infants born to lean, overweight, and obese mothers. Frequency and function of major innate and adaptive immune cell populations were quantified using flow cytometry and multiplex analysis of circulating factors. Compared to babies born to lean mothers, babies of obese mothers had fewer eosinophils and CD4 T helper cells, reduced monocyte and dendritic cell responses to Toll-like receptor ligands, and increased plasma levels of IFN-α2 and IL-6 in cord blood. These results support the hypothesis that maternal obesity influences programming of the neonatal immune system, providing a potential link to increased incidence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Merck Ad5/HIV induces broad innate immune activation that predicts CD8⁺ T-cell responses but is attenuated by preexisting Ad5 immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Daniel E; Andersen-Nissen, Erica; Peterson, Eric R; Sato, Alicia; Hamilton, M Kristina; Borgerding, Joleen; Krishnamurty, Akshay T; Chang, Joanne T; Adams, Devin J; Hensley, Tiffany R; Salter, Alexander I; Morgan, Cecilia A; Duerr, Ann C; De Rosa, Stephen C; Aderem, Alan; McElrath, M Juliana

    2012-12-11

    To better understand how innate immune responses to vaccination can lead to lasting protective immunity, we used a systems approach to define immune signatures in humans over 1 wk following MRKAd5/HIV vaccination that predicted subsequent HIV-specific T-cell responses. Within 24 h, striking increases in peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression associated with inflammation, IFN response, and myeloid cell trafficking occurred, and lymphocyte-specific transcripts decreased. These alterations were corroborated by marked serum inflammatory cytokine elevations and egress of circulating lymphocytes. Responses of vaccinees with preexisting adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) neutralizing antibodies were strongly attenuated, suggesting that enhanced HIV acquisition in Ad5-seropositive subgroups in the Step Study may relate to the lack of appropriate innate activation rather than to increased systemic immune activation. Importantly, patterns of chemoattractant cytokine responses at 24 h and alterations in 209 peripheral blood mononuclear cell transcripts at 72 h were predictive of subsequent induction and magnitude of HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. This systems approach provides a framework to compare innate responses induced by vectors, as shown here by contrasting the more rapid, robust response to MRKAd5/HIV with that to yellow fever vaccine. When applied iteratively, the findings may permit selection of HIV vaccine candidates eliciting innate immune response profiles more likely to drive HIV protective immunity.

  20. Salmonella Typhimurium type III secretion effectors stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent M Bruno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of conserved bacterial products by innate immune receptors leads to inflammatory responses that control pathogen spread but that can also result in pathology. Intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to bacterial products and therefore must prevent signaling through innate immune receptors to avoid pathology. However, enteric pathogens are able to stimulate intestinal inflammation. We show here that the enteric pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium can stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells by mechanisms that do not involve receptors of the innate immune system. Instead, S. Typhimurium stimulates these responses by delivering through its type III secretion system the bacterial effector proteins SopE, SopE2, and SopB, which in a redundant fashion stimulate Rho-family GTPases leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and NF-kappaB signaling. These observations have implications for the understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella Typhimurium induces intestinal inflammation as well as other intestinal inflammatory pathologies.

  1. Immune responses to an encapsulated allogeneic islet β-cell line in diabetic NOD mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Sasha P.; Constantinidis, Ioannis; Cui, Hong; Tucker-Burden, Carol; Weber, Collin J.; Safley, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    Our goal is to develop effective islet grafts for treating type 1 diabetes. Since human islets are scarce, we evaluated the efficacy of a microencapsulated insulin-secreting conditionally transformed allogeneic β-cell line (βTC-tet) in non-obese diabetic mice treated with tetracycline to inhibit cell growth. Relatively low serum levels of tetracycline controlled proliferation of βTC-tet cells without inhibiting effective control of hyperglycemia in recipients. There was no significant host cellular reaction to the allografts or host cell adherence to microcapsules, and host cytokine levels were similar to those of sham-operated controls. We conclude that encapsulated allogeneic β-cell lines may be clinically relevant, because they effectively restore euglycemia and do not elicit a strong cellular immune response following transplantation. To our knowledge, this is First extensive characterization of the kinetics of host cellular and cytokine responses to an encapsulated islet cell line in an animal model of type 1 diabetes

  2. Ag85-focused T-cell immune response controls Mycobacterium avium chronic infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cerqueira-Rodrigues

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cells are essential players for the control of mycobacterial infections. Several mycobacterial antigens have been identified for eliciting a relevant CD4+ T cell mediated-immune response, and numerous studies explored this issue in the context of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Antigen 85 (Ag85, a highly conserved protein across Mycobacterium species, is secreted at the early phase of M. tuberculosis infection leading to the proliferation of Ag85-specific CD4+ T cells. However, in the context of Mycobacterium avium infection, little is known about the expression of this antigen and the elicited immune response. In the current work, we investigated if a T cell receptor (TCR repertoire mostly, but not exclusively, directed at Ag85 is sufficient to mount a protective immune response against M. avium. We show that P25 mice, whose majority of T cells express a transgenic TCR specific for Ag85, control M. avium infection at the same level as wild type (WT mice up to 20 weeks post-infection (wpi. During M. avium infection, Ag85 antigen is easily detected in the liver of 20 wpi mice by immunohistochemistry. In spite of the propensity of P25 CD4+ T cells to produce higher amounts of interferon-gamma (IFNγ upon ex vivo stimulation, no differences in serum IFNγ levels are detected in P25 compared to WT mice, nor enhanced immunopathology is detected in P25 mice. These results indicate that a T cell response dominated by Ag85-specific T cells is appropriate to control M. avium infection with no signs of immunopathology.

  3. Adjuvant-enhanced CD4 T Cell Responses are Critical to Durable Vaccine Immunity

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    Karen A.O. Martins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-based vaccines offer a safer alternative to live-attenuated or inactivated vaccines but have limited immunogenicity. The identification of adjuvants that augment immunogenicity, specifically in a manner that is durable and antigen-specific, is therefore critical for advanced development. In this study, we use the filovirus virus-like particle (VLP as a model protein-based vaccine in order to evaluate the impact of four candidate vaccine adjuvants on enhancing long term protection from Ebola virus challenge. Adjuvants tested include poly-ICLC (Hiltonol, MPLA, CpG 2395, and alhydrogel. We compared and contrasted antibody responses, neutralizing antibody responses, effector T cell responses, and T follicular helper (Tfh cell frequencies with each adjuvant's impact on durable protection. We demonstrate that in this system, the most effective adjuvant elicits a Th1-skewed antibody response and strong CD4 T cell responses, including an increase in Tfh frequency. Using immune-deficient animals and adoptive transfer of serum and cells from vaccinated animals into naïve animals, we further demonstrate that serum and CD4 T cells play a critical role in conferring protection within effective vaccination regimens. These studies inform on the requirements of long term immune protection, which can potentially be used to guide screening of clinical-grade adjuvants for vaccine clinical development.

  4. Adjuvant-enhanced CD4 T Cell Responses are Critical to Durable Vaccine Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Karen A O; Cooper, Christopher L; Stronsky, Sabrina M; Norris, Sarah L W; Kwilas, Steven A; Steffens, Jesse T; Benko, Jacqueline G; van Tongeren, Sean A; Bavari, Sina

    2016-01-01

    Protein-based vaccines offer a safer alternative to live-attenuated or inactivated vaccines but have limited immunogenicity. The identification of adjuvants that augment immunogenicity, specifically in a manner that is durable and antigen-specific, is therefore critical for advanced development. In this study, we use the filovirus virus-like particle (VLP) as a model protein-based vaccine in order to evaluate the impact of four candidate vaccine adjuvants on enhancing long term protection from Ebola virus challenge. Adjuvants tested include poly-ICLC (Hiltonol), MPLA, CpG 2395, and alhydrogel. We compared and contrasted antibody responses, neutralizing antibody responses, effector T cell responses, and T follicular helper (Tfh) cell frequencies with each adjuvant's impact on durable protection. We demonstrate that in this system, the most effective adjuvant elicits a Th1-skewed antibody response and strong CD4 T cell responses, including an increase in Tfh frequency. Using immune-deficient animals and adoptive transfer of serum and cells from vaccinated animals into naïve animals, we further demonstrate that serum and CD4 T cells play a critical role in conferring protection within effective vaccination regimens. These studies inform on the requirements of long term immune protection, which can potentially be used to guide screening of clinical-grade adjuvants for vaccine clinical development.

  5. Plasmodium berghei: immunosuppression of the cell-mediated immune response induced by nonviable antigenic preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, A.; Frankenburg, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this work, plasmodial antigens were examined for their ability to suppress the cellular immune response during lethal Plasmodium berghei infection. Splenic enlargement and the number and function of white spleen cells were assessed after injection of normal mice with irradiated parasitized erythrocytes (IPE) or with parasitized erythrocytes (PE) membranes. Both IPE and PE membranes caused splenomegaly and an increase in the number of splenic white cells with concurrent alteration of the relative proportions of T cells and macrophages. The percentage of T lymphocytes was fractionally diminished, but there was a marked increase in Lyt 2.2 positive (suppressor and cytotoxic) T subsets and in the number of splenic macrophage precursors. The pathological enlargement of the spleen was induced by various plasma membrane-derived antigens containing both proteins and carbohydrates. Splenocytes of mice injected with liposomes containing deoxycholate-treated PE or PE fractions showed both diminished interleukin 2 production and a decreased response to mitogen. It appears that some of the changes in the cellular immune response during P. berghei infection are a consequence of the massive provision of a wide spectrum of antigens, capable of suppressing the immune response. Thus, it may be appropriate to evaluate the possible negative effect of parasite epitopes that are candidates for vaccine

  6. T-cell-independent immune responses do not require CXC ligand 13-mediated B1 cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Matthew J; Sun, Guizhi; Alugupalli, Kishore R

    2010-09-01

    The dynamic movement of B cells increases the probability of encountering specific antigen and facilitates cell-cell interactions required for mounting a rapid antibody response. B1a and B1b cells are enriched in the coelomic cavity, contribute to T-cell-independent (TI) antibody responses, and increase in number upon antigen exposure. B1 cell movement is largely governed by Cxc ligand 13 (Cxcl13), and mice deficient in this chemokine have a severe reduction in peritoneal B1 cells. In this study, we examined the role of Cxcl13-dependent B cell migration using Borrelia hermsii infection or intraperitoneal immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide or 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl-acetyl (NP)-Ficoll, all of which induce robust antibody responses from B1b cells. Surprisingly, we found that antibody responses to B. hermsii or to FhbA, an antigenic target of B1b cells, and the resolution of bacteremia were indistinguishable between wild-type and Cxcl13-/- mice. Importantly, we did not observe an expansion of peritoneal B1b cell numbers in Cxcl13-/- mice. Nonetheless, mice that had resolved infection were resistant to reinfection, indicating that the peritoneal B1b cell reservoir is not required for controlling B. hermsii. Furthermore, despite a reduced peritoneal B1b compartment, immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine yielded comparable antigen-specific antibody responses in wild-type and Cxcl13-/- mice and conferred protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Likewise, immunization with NP-Ficoll elicited similar antibody responses in wild-type and Cxcl13-/- mice. These data demonstrate that homing of B1 cells into the coelomic cavity is not a requirement for generating protective TI antibody responses, even when antigen is initially localized to this anatomical compartment.

  7. Transcutaneous immunization with a novel imiquimod nanoemulsion induces superior T cell responses and virus protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pamela Aranda; Denny, Mark; Hartmann, Ann-Kathrin; Alflen, Astrid; Probst, Hans Christian; von Stebut, Esther; Tenzer, Stefan; Schild, Hansjörg; Stassen, Michael; Langguth, Peter; Radsak, Markus P

    2017-09-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a novel vaccination strategy utilizing the skin associated lymphatic tissue to induce immune responses. TCI using a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope and the Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist imiquimod mounts strong CTL responses by activation and maturation of skin-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and their migration to lymph nodes. However, TCI based on the commercial formulation Aldara only induces transient CTL responses that needs further improvement for the induction of durable therapeutic immune responses. Therefore we aimed to develop a novel imiquimod solid nanoemulsion (IMI-Sol) for TCI with superior vaccination properties suited to induce high quality T cell responses for enhanced protection against infections. TCI was performed by applying a MHC class I or II restricted epitope along with IMI-Sol or Aldara (each containing 5% Imiquimod) on the shaved dorsum of C57BL/6, IL-1R, Myd88, Tlr7 or Ccr7 deficient mice. T cell responses as well as DC migration upon TCI were subsequently analyzed by flow cytometry. To determine in vivo efficacy of TCI induced immune responses, CTL responses and frequency of peptide specific T cells were evaluated on day 8 or 35 post vaccination and protection in a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection model was assessed. TCI with the imiquimod formulation IMI-Sol displayed equal skin penetration of imiquimod compared to Aldara, but elicited superior CD8 + as well as CD4 + T cell responses. The induction of T-cell responses induced by IMI-Sol TCI was dependent on the TLR7/MyD88 pathway and independent of IL-1R. IMI-Sol TCI activated skin-derived DCs in skin-draining lymph nodes more efficiently compared to Aldara leading to enhanced protection in a LCMV infection model. Our data demonstrate that IMI-Sol TCI can overcome current limitations of previous imiquimod based TCI approaches opening new perspectives for transcutaneous vaccination strategies and allowing the use of this

  8. The innate immune response in fetal lung mesenchymal cells targets VEGFR2 expression and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medal, Rachel M; Im, Amanda M; Yamamoto, Yasutoshi; Lakhdari, Omar; Blackwell, Timothy S; Hoffman, Hal M; Sahoo, Debashis; Prince, Lawrence S

    2017-06-01

    In preterm infants, soluble inflammatory mediators target lung mesenchymal cells, disrupting airway and alveolar morphogenesis. However, how mesenchymal cells respond directly to microbial stimuli remains poorly characterized. Our objective was to measure the genome-wide innate immune response in fetal lung mesenchymal cells exposed to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). With the use of Affymetrix MoGene 1.0st arrays, we showed that LPS induced expression of unique innate immune transcripts heavily weighted toward CC and CXC family chemokines. The transcriptional response was different between cells from E11, E15, and E18 mouse lungs. In all cells tested, LPS inhibited expression of a small core group of genes including the VEGF receptor Vegfr2 Although best characterized in vascular endothelial populations, we demonstrated here that fetal mouse lung mesenchymal cells express Vegfr2 and respond to VEGF-A stimulation. In mesenchymal cells, VEGF-A increased cell migration, activated the ERK/AKT pathway, and promoted FOXO3A nuclear exclusion. With the use of an experimental coculture model of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, we also showed that VEGFR2 inhibition prevented formation of three-dimensional structures. Both LPS and tyrosine kinase inhibition reduced three-dimensional structure formation. Our data suggest a novel mechanism for inflammation-mediated defects in lung development involving reduced VEGF signaling in lung mesenchyme. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the different phases of the immune response after DNA immunization with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from canine distemper virus (CDV). Although attenuated live CDV vaccines have effectively reduced the incidence of disease, canine distemper...

  10. Glycosylation of Candida albicans cell wall proteins is critical for induction of innate immune responses and apoptosis of epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Wagener

    Full Text Available C. albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogen of humans, causing local and superficial mucosal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Given that the key structure mediating host-C. albicans interactions is the fungal cell wall, we aimed to identify features of the cell wall inducing epithelial responses and be associated with fungal pathogenesis. We demonstrate here the importance of cell wall protein glycosylation in epithelial immune activation with a predominant role for the highly branched N-glycosylation residues. Moreover, these glycan moieties induce growth arrest and apoptosis of epithelial cells. Using an in vitro model of oral candidosis we demonstrate, that apoptosis induction by C. albicans wild-type occurs in early stage of infection and strongly depends on intact cell wall protein glycosylation. These novel findings demonstrate that glycosylation of the C. albicans cell wall proteins appears essential for modulation of epithelial immunity and apoptosis induction, both of which may promote fungal pathogenesis in vivo.

  11. The effect of cyclosporin A on the primary immune response to allogeneic red cells in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G N

    1982-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CSA) has been used in an attempt to suppress the primary immune response of HgA(A)-negative rabbits to A-positive red cells. The immune response was assessed by measuring the survival of a small intravenous (i.v.) dose of 51Cr-labelled A-positive cells and by testing the serum of the immunized rabbits for anti-A. In one experiment, eight A-negative rabbits were given a first i.v. injection of A-positive red cells, and CSA (25 mg/kg/day) in olive oil was given by mouth for 17-34 days. There was no evidence of impaired alloimmunization compared with the responses in control animals treated with olive oil alone. In a second experiment, eight A-negative rabbits were given a first injection of A-positive muscularly (i.m.), and CSA (25 mg/kg/day) in miglyol was given by im.m. injection for 10 days. Six of these rabbits were rendered unresponsive, and the remaining two, who showed impaired survival of the monitoring red cells, produced only low anit-A titres. Seven out of eight controls given i.m. miglyol without CSA responded with good anti-A production. Rabbits that were unresponsive to A-positive red cells responded normally to sheep red blood cells 15 weeks after CSA treatment. Higher serum levels of CSA were found following i.m. administration of the drug but treatment by this route as associated with severe toxicity in some rabbits. PMID:7056563

  12. Epithelium-innate immune cell axis in mucosal responses to SIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, L; Duan, L; Perkey, K E; Wietgrefe, S; Zupancic, M; Smith, A J; Southern, P J; Johnson, R P; Haase, A T

    2017-03-01

    In the SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus)-rhesus macaque model of HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type I) transmission to women, one hallmark of the mucosal response to exposure to high doses of SIV is CD4 T-cell recruitment that fuels local virus expansion in early infection. In this study, we systematically analyzed the cellular events and chemoattractant profiles in cervical tissues that precede CD4 T-cell recruitment. We show that vaginal exposure to the SIV inoculum rapidly induces chemokine expression in cervical epithelium including CCL3, CCL20, and CXCL8. The chemokine expression is associated with early recruitment of macrophages and plasmacytoid dendritic cells that are co-clustered underneath the cervical epithelium. Production of chemokines CCL3 and CXCL8 by these cells in turn generates a chemokine gradient that is spatially correlated with the recruitment of CD4 T cells. We further show that the protection of SIVmac239Δnef vaccination against vaginal challenge is correlated with the absence of this epithelium-innate immune cell-CD4 T-cell axis response in the cervical mucosa. Our results reveal a critical role for cervical epithelium in initiating early mucosal responses to vaginal infection, highlight an important role for macrophages in target cell recruitment, and provide further evidence of a paradoxical dampening effect of a protective vaccine on these early mucosal responses.

  13. Endothelial cells: From innocent bystanders to active participants in immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Soudi, A; Kaaij, M H; Tas, S W

    2017-09-01

    The endothelium is crucially important for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients throughout the body under homeostatic conditions. However, it also contributes to pathology, including the initiation and perpetuation of inflammation. Understanding the function of endothelial cells (ECs) in inflammatory diseases and molecular mechanisms involved may lead to novel approaches to dampen inflammation and restore homeostasis. In this article, we discuss the various functions of ECs in inflammation with a focus on pathological angiogenesis, attraction of immune cells, antigen presentation, immunoregulatory properties and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). We also review the current literature on approaches to target these processes in ECs to modulate immune responses and advance anti-inflammatory therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mouse Model of Devil Facial Tumour Disease establishes that an effective immune response can be generated against the cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L Pinfold

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The largest carnivorous marsupial in Australia, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii is facing extinction in the wild due to a transmissible cancer known as Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD. DFTD is a clonal cell line transmitted from host to host with 100% mortality and no known immunity. While it was first considered that low genetic diversity of the population of devils enabled the allograft transmission of DFTD recent evidence reveals that genetically diverse animals succumb to the disease. The lack of an immune response against the DFTD tumor cells may be due to a lack of immunogenicity of the tumor cells. This could facilitate transmission between devils. To test immunogenicity, mice were injected with viable DFTD cells and anti-DFTD immune responses analyzed. A range of antibody isotypes against DFTD cells was detected, indicating that as DFTD cells can induce an immune response they are immunogenic. This was supported by cytokine production, when splenocytes from mice injected with DFTD cells were cultured in vitro with DFTD cells and the supernatant analyzed. There was a significant production of IFN-γ and TNF-α following the first injection with DFTD cells and a significant production of IL-6 and IL-10 following the second injection. Splenocytes from naïve or immunized mice killed DFTD cells in in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Thus they are also targets for immunological destruction. We conclude that as an immune response can be generated against DFTD cells they would be suitable targets for a vaccine.

  15. Antigen modulation of the immune response. III. Evaluation of the hypothetical short-lived memory cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldbush, T.L.; Lande, I.; Bryan, B.; O'Neill, E.

    1974-01-01

    The putative short-lived memory cells, whose existence has been suggested by the results of secondary adoptive transfer experiments, were investigated. On the basis of the following evidences we have concluded that the short-lived memory cell is probably an artifact of the adoptive transfer technique: when immune thoracic duct lymphocytes, known to consist predominantly of long-lived memory cells, were transferred to irradiated recipients and challenged at various times after transfer, approximately 80 to 90 percent of the initial response was absent by Day 14 challenge; preirradiating adoptive recipients with increasing dose of x-irradiation tended to lengthen the observed half life of memory cells; single or multiple treatments of immune donors with 0.3 mg Vinblastin before transfer resulted in neither a depression of the initial secondary response nor an alteration in the rate of decline of the memory potential; reconstitution of irradiated hosts with normal spleen cells one day before transfer of memory cells and challenge resulted in inhibition of the adoptive secondary response; and the transfer of memory cells to antigen free intermediate hosts, in which they were allowed to reside for one day or fourteen days before transfer to irradiated recipients, resulted in only a slight decline in their capacity to respond. We propose that the rapid decline of memory potential in adoptive recipients challenged at various times after transfer is due to modulating effects by the hosts as it recovers from irradiation. These effects may be the result of cell crowding or the loss of irradiation-produced stimulatory factors. The relevance of these findings to adoptive transfer systems in general and the secondary response of intact animals is discussed

  16. Sporothrix schenckii Immunization, but Not Infection, Induces Protective Th17 Responses Mediated by Circulating Memory CD4+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto García-Lozano

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis caused by the Sporothrix schenckii species complex and it is considered an emerging opportunistic infection in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. The host’s immune response has a main role in the development of this disease. However, it is unknown the features of the memory cellular immune response that could protect against the infection. Our results show that i.d. immunization in the ears of mice with inactivated S. schenckii conidia (iC combined with the cholera toxin (CT induces a cellular immune response mediated by circulating memory CD4+ T cells, which mainly produce interleukin 17 (IL-17. These cells mediate a strong delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction. Systemic and local protection against S. schenckii was mediated by circulating CD4+ T cells. In contrast, the infection induces a potent immune response in the skin mediated by CD4+ T cells, which have an effector phenotype that preferentially produce interferon gamma (IFN-γ and mediate a transitory DTH reaction. Our findings prove the potential value of the CT as a potent skin adjuvant when combined with fungal antigens, and they also have important implications for our better understanding of the differences between the memory immune response induced by the skin immunization and those induced by the infection; this knowledge enhances our understanding of how a protective immune response against a S. schenckii infection is developed.

  17. Cell-mediated immune response: a clinical review of the therapeutic potential of human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sonja Izquierdo; Fuglsang, Katrine; Blaakaer, Jan

    2014-12-01

    This clinical review aims to assess the efficacy of human papillomavirus 16/18 (HPV16/18) vaccination on the cell-mediated immune response in women with existing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer induced by HPV16 or HPV18. A focused and thorough literature search conducted in five different databases found 996 publications. Six relevant articles were chosen for further review. In total, 154 patients (>18 years of age) were enrolled in prospective study trials with 3-15 months of follow up. The vaccine applications were administered two to four times. The vaccines contained different combinations of HPV16 and HPV18 and early proteins, E6 and E7. The primary outcome was the cell-mediated immune response. Correlation to clinical outcome (histopathology) and human leukocyte antigen genes were secondary endpoints. All vaccines triggered a detectable cell-mediated immune response, some of which were statistically significant. Correlations between immunological response and clinical outcome (histopathology) were not significant, so neoplasms may not be susceptible to vaccine-generated cytotoxic T cells (CD8(+)). Prophylactic HPV vaccines have been introduced to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer in young women. Women already infected with HPV could benefit from a therapeutic HPV vaccination. Hence, it is important to continue the development of therapeutic HPV vaccines to lower the rate of HPV-associated malignancies and crucial to evaluate vaccine efficacy clinically. This clinical review represents an attempt to elucidate the theories supporting the development of an HPV vaccine with a therapeutic effect on human papillomavirus-induced malignancies of the cervix. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Estradiol and Progesterone Strongly Inhibit the Innate Immune Response of Mononuclear Cells in Newborns ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Eric; Guignard, Laurence; Knaup Reymond, Marlies; Perreau, Matthieu; Roth-Kleiner, Matthias; Calandra, Thierry; Roger, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Newborns are particularly susceptible to bacterial infections due to qualitative and quantitative deficiencies of the neonatal innate immune system. However, the mechanisms underlying these deficiencies are poorly understood. Given that fetuses are exposed to high concentrations of estradiol and progesterone during gestation and at time of delivery, we analyzed the effects of these hormones on the response of neonatal innate immune cells to endotoxin, bacterial lipopeptide, and Escherichia coli and group B Streptococcus, the two most common causes of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Here we show that at concentrations present in umbilical cord blood, estradiol and progesterone are as powerful as hydrocortisone for inhibition of cytokine production by cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and newborn monocytes. Interestingly, CBMCs and newborn monocytes are more sensitive to the effects of estradiol and progesterone than adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocytes. This increased sensitivity is associated with higher expression levels of estrogen and membrane progesterone receptors but is independent of a downregulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 in newborn cells. Estradiol and progesterone mediate their anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway but not the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in CBMCs. Altogether, these results suggest that elevated umbilical cord blood concentrations of estradiol and progesterone acting on mononuclear cells expressing high levels of steroid receptors contribute to impair innate immune responses in newborns. Therefore, intrauterine exposure to estradiol and progesterone may participate in increasing susceptibility to infection during the neonatal period. PMID:21518785

  19. Cell-Intrinsic Glycogen Metabolism Supports Early Glycolytic Reprogramming Required for Dendritic Cell Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwe, Phyu M; Pelgrom, Leonard; Cooper, Rachel; Beauchamp, Saritha; Reisz, Julie A; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Everts, Bart; Amiel, Eyal

    2017-09-05

    Dendritic cell (DC) activation by Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists causes rapid glycolytic reprogramming that is required to meet the metabolic demands of their immune activation. Recent efforts in the field have identified an important role for extracellular glucose sourcing to support DC activation. However, the contributions of intracellular glucose stores to these processes have not been well characterized. We demonstrate that DCs possess intracellular glycogen stores and that cell-intrinsic glycogen metabolism supports the early effector functions of TLR-activated DCs. Inhibition of glycogenolysis significantly attenuates TLR-mediated DC maturation and impairs their ability to initiate lymphocyte activation. We further report that DCs exhibit functional compartmentalization of glucose- and glycogen-derived carbons, where these substrates preferentially contribute to distinct metabolic pathways. This work provides novel insights into nutrient homeostasis in DCs, demonstrating that differential utilization of glycogen and glucose metabolism regulates their optimal immune function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in pigs following primary and challenge-exposure to Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Riber, Ulla; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2012-01-01

    not boosted by the re-inoculation, since identical intestinal IgA responses developed in response to the inoculation in both the susceptible CC pigs and the protected RE pigs. A memory recall cell-mediated immune response developed in RE pigs which was significantly stronger compared to the primary response...... responses are likely mediators of protective immunity against L. intracellularis, with CD8+ effector cells and CD4+CD8+ double positive memory T cells as main contributors to the antigen-specific IFN-γ production....

  1. Decidual Stromal Cell Response to Paracrine Signals from the Trophoblast: Amplification of Immune and Angiogenic Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, AP; Hamilton, AE; Talbi, S

    2007-01-01

    During the invasive phase of implantation, trophoblasts and maternal decidual stromal cells secrete products that regulate trophoblast differentiation and migration into the maternal endometrium. Paracrine interactions between the extravillous trophoblast and the maternal decidua are important...... a functional genomics approach to investigate these paracrine interactions. Human endometrial stromal cells were decidualized with progesterone and were further treated with conditioned media (CM) from human trophoblasts (TCM) or, as a control, with conditioned media (CCM) from non-decidualized stromal cells...... regulated groups. The data demonstrate a significant induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as angiogenic/static factors in decidualized endometrial stromal cells in response to trophoblast-secreted products. The data suggest that the trophoblast acts to alter the local immune...

  2. The innate immune response of equine bronchial epithelial cells is altered by training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frellstedt, Linda; Gosset, Philippe; Kervoaze, Gwenola; Hans, Aymeric; Desmet, Christophe; Pirottin, Dimitri; Bureau, Fabrice; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2015-01-17

    Respiratory diseases, including inflammatory airway disease (IAD), viral and bacterial infections, are common problems in exercising horses. The airway epithelium constitutes a major physical barrier against airborne infections and plays an essential role in the lung innate immune response mainly through toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. The aim of this study was to develop a model for the culture of equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBEC) in vitro and to explore EBEC innate immune responses in trained horses. Bronchial epithelial biopsies were taken from 6 adult horses during lower airway endoscopy. EBEC were grown in vitro by an explant method. The innate immune response of EBEC was evaluated in vitro by treatment with TLR ligands. TLR3 is the most strongly expressed TLR at the mRNA level in EBEC and stimulation of EBEC with Poly(I:C), an analog of viral dsRNA, triggers a strong secretion of IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and CXCL8. We further evaluated the EBEC innate immune response in horses that underwent a 4-month-training program. While training had no effect on TLR mRNA expression in EBEC as well as in bronchial biopsies, it increased the production of IFN-β after stimulation with a TLR3 ligand and decreased the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 after stimulation with a TLR2 and TLR3 ligand. These findings may be implicated in the increased risk for viral and bacterial infections observed in sport horses. Altogether, we report a successful model for the culture of EBEC that can be applied to the investigation of pathophysiologic conditions in longitudinal studies.

  3. A T-cell response to a liver-stage Plasmodium antigen is not boosted by repeated sporozoite immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean C.; Kas, Arnold; Stone, Brad C.; Bevan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Development of an antimalarial subunit vaccine inducing protective cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immunity could pave the way for malaria eradication. Experimental immunization with sporozoites induces this type of protective response, but the extremely large number of proteins expressed by Plasmodium parasites has so far prohibited the identification of sufficient discrete T-cell antigens to develop subunit vaccines that produce sterile immunity. Here, using mice singly immunized with Plasmodium yoelii sporozoites and high-throughput screening, we identified a unique CTL response against the parasite ribosomal L3 protein. Unlike CTL responses to the circumsporozoite protein (CSP), the population of L3-specific CTLs was not expanded by multiple sporozoite immunizations. CSP is abundant in the sporozoite itself, whereas L3 expression does not increase until the liver stage. The response induced by a single immunization with sporozoites reduces the parasite load in the liver so greatly during subsequent immunizations that L3-specific responses are only generated during the primary exposure. Functional L3-specific CTLs can, however, be expanded by heterologous prime-boost regimens. Thus, although repeat sporozoite immunization expands responses to preformed antigens like CSP that are present in the sporozoite itself, this immunization strategy may not expand CTLs targeting parasite proteins that are synthesized later. Heterologous strategies may be needed to increase CTL responses across the entire spectrum of Plasmodium liver-stage proteins. PMID:23530242

  4. Public speaking stress-induced neuroendocrine responses and circulating immune cell redistribution in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Lucas, Ayscha; Holtmann, Gerald; Haag, Sebastian; Gerken, Guido; Riemenschneider, Natalie; Langhorst, Jost; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2006-10-01

    Augmented neuroendocrine stress responses and altered immune functions may play a role in the manifestation of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We tested the hypothesis that IBS patients would demonstrate enhanced psychological and endocrine responses, as well as altered stress-induced redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocytes, in response to an acute psychosocial stressor when compared with healthy controls. Responses to public speaking stress were analyzed in N = 17 IBS patients without concurrent psychiatric conditions and N = 12 healthy controls. At baseline, immediately following public speaking, and after a recovery period, state anxiety, acute GI symptoms, cardiovascular responses, serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured, and numbers of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Public speaking led to significant cardiovascular activation, a significant increase in ACTH, and a redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations, including significant increases in natural killer cells and cytotoxic/suppressor T cells. IBS patients demonstrated significantly greater state anxiety both at baseline and following public speaking. However, cardiovascular and endocrine responses, as well as the redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations after public speaking stress, did not differ for IBS patients compared with controls. In IBS patients without psychiatric comorbidity, the endocrine response as well as the circulation pattern of leukocyte subpopulations to acute psychosocial stress do not differ from healthy controls in spite of enhanced emotional responses. Future studies should discern the role of psychopathology in psychological and biological stress responses in IBS.

  5. Premalignant lesions skew spleen cell responses to immune modulation by adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielma, Silvana A; Klein, Richard L; Levingston, Corinne A; Young, M Rita I

    2013-05-01

    . These results suggest that the responsiveness of spleen cells to adipocyte-derived mediators is influenced by mediators from premalignant lesion cells to favor conventional immune cell production of a Th2 and inflammatory cytokines.

  6. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to influenza vaccination in equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Sarah; Reedy, Stephanie; Barker, Virginia D; Chambers, Thomas M; Adams, Amanda A

    2018-05-01

    Obesity is an increasing problem in the equine population with recent reports indicating that the percentage of overweight horses may range anywhere from 20.6-51%. Obesity in horses has been linked to more serious health concerns such as equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). EMS is a serious problem in the equine industry given its defining characteristics of insulin dysregualtion and obesity, as well as the involvement of laminitis. Little research however has been conducted to determine the effects of EMS on routine healthcare of these horses, in particular how they respond to vaccination. It has been shown that obese humans and mice have decreased immune responses to vaccination. EMS may have similar effects on vaccine responses in horses. If this is the case, these animals may be more susceptible to disease, acting as unknown disease reservoirs. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EMS on immune responses to routine influenza vaccination. Twenty-five adult horses of mixed-sex and mixed-breed (8-21 years old) horses; 13 EMS and 12 non-EMS were selected. Within each group, 4 horses served as non-vaccinate saline controls and the remaining horses were vaccinated with a commercially available equine influenza vaccine. Vaccination (influenza or saline) was administered on weeks 0 and 3, and peripheral blood samples taken on week 0 prior to vaccination and on weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 post vaccination. Blood samples were used to measure hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and equine influenza specific IgGa, IgGb, and IgGT levels. Blood samples were also used to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for analysis of cell mediated immune (CMI) responses via real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All horses receiving influenza vaccination responded with significant increases (P equine influenza specific antibodies following vaccination compared to saline controls. EMS did not significantly affect (P > 0.05) humoral immune responses as measured

  7. Mesenchymal stromal cells engage complement and complement receptor bearing innate effector cells to modulate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Moll

    Full Text Available Infusion of human third-party mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs appears to be a promising therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD. To date, little is known about how MSCs interact with the body's innate immune system after clinical infusion. This study shows, that exposure of MSCs to blood type ABO-matched human blood activates the complement system, which triggers complement-mediated lymphoid and myeloid effector cell activation in blood. We found deposition of complement component C3-derived fragments iC3b and C3dg on MSCs and fluid-phase generation of the chemotactic anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. MSCs bound low amounts of immunoglobulins and lacked expression of complement regulatory proteins MCP (CD46 and DAF (CD55, but were protected from complement lysis via expression of protectin (CD59. Cell-surface-opsonization and anaphylatoxin-formation triggered complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18-mediated effector cell activation in blood. The complement-activating properties of individual MSCs were furthermore correlated with their potency to inhibit PBMC-proliferation in vitro, and both effector cell activation and the immunosuppressive effect could be blocked either by using complement inhibitor Compstatin or by depletion of CD14/CD11b-high myeloid effector cells from mixed lymphocyte reactions. Our study demonstrates for the first time a major role of the complement system in governing the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs and elucidates how complement activation mediates the interaction with other immune cells.

  8. Enveloped viruses disable innate immune responses in dendritic cells by direct activation of TAM receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Suchita; Zagórska, Anna; Lew, Erin D; Shrestha, Bimmi; Rothlin, Carla V; Naughton, John; Diamond, Michael S; Lemke, Greg; Young, John A T

    2013-08-14

    Upon activation by the ligands Gas6 and Protein S, Tyro3/Axl/Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinases promote phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells and downregulate immune responses initiated by Toll-like receptors and type I interferons (IFNs). Many enveloped viruses display the phospholipid phosphatidylserine on their membranes, through which they bind Gas6 and Protein S and engage TAM receptors. We find that ligand-coated viruses activate TAM receptors on dendritic cells (DCs), dampen type I IFN signaling, and thereby evade host immunity and promote infection. Upon virus challenge, TAM-deficient DCs display type I IFN responses that are elevated in comparison to wild-type cells. As a consequence, TAM-deficient DCs are relatively resistant to infection by flaviviruses and pseudotyped retroviruses, but infection can be restored with neutralizing type I IFN antibodies. Correspondingly, a TAM kinase inhibitor antagonizes the infection of wild-type DCs. Thus, TAM receptors are engaged by viruses in order to attenuate type I IFN signaling and represent potential therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatty acids isolated from royal jelly modulate dendritic cell-mediated immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucevic, Dragana; Melliou, Eleni; Vasilijic, Sasa; Gasic, Sonja; Ivanovski, Petar; Chinou, Ioanna; Colic, Miodrag

    2007-09-01

    Royal jelly (RJ), especially its protein components, has been shown to possess immunomodulatory activity. However, almost nothing is known about the influence of RJ fatty acids on the immune system. In this work we studied the effect of 10-hydroxy-2-decanoic acid (10-HDA) and 3,10-dihydroxy-decanoic acid (3,10-DDA), isolated from RJ, on the immune response using a model of rat dendritic cell (DC)-T-cell cocultures. Both fatty acids, at higher concentrations, inhibited the proliferation of allogeneic T cells. The effect of 10-HDA was stronger and was followed by a decrease in interleukin-2 (IL-2) production and down-regulation of IL-2 receptor expression. Spleen DC, cultivated with 10 microg/ml of fatty acids down-regulated the expression of CD86 and the production of IL-12, but up-regulated the production of IL-10. In contrast, DC, pretreated with 100 microg/ml of 3,10-DDA, up-regulated the expression of CD86 and augmented the proliferation of allogeneic T cells. The highest dose (200 microg/ml) of both fatty acids which was non-apoptotic for both T cells and DC, down-regulated the expression of MHC class II and CD86, decreased the production of IL-12 and made these DC less allostimulatory. The immunosuppressive activity of 3,10-DDA was also confirmed in vivo, using a model of Keyhole lymphet hemocyanine immunization of rats. In conclusion, our results showed the immunomodulatory activity of RJ fatty acids and suggest that DC are a significant target of their action.

  10. Beryllium-specific immune response in primary cells from healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Anu; Sauer, Nancy N.; Gupta, Goutam

    2004-01-01

    The effect of beryllium (Be) exposure has been extensively studied in patients with chronic beryllium disease (CBD). CBD patients carry mutated MHC class II alleles and show a hyperproliferation of T cells upon Be exposure. The exact mechanism of Be-induced T-cell proliferation in these patients is not clearly understood. It is also not known how the inflammatory and suppressive cytokines maintain a balance in healthy individuals and how this balance is lost in CBD patients. To address these issues, we have initiated cellular and biochemical studies to identify Be-responsive cytokines and other cellular markers that help maintain a balance in healthy individuals. We have established an immune cell model derived from a mixture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and dendritic cells (DCs). In this article, we demonstrate that pro-inflammatory cytokine IL6 shows decreased release whereas suppressive cytokine IL10 shows enhanced release after 5-10 h of Be treatment. Furthermore, the Be-specific pattern of IL6 and IL10 release is dependent upon induction of threonine phosphorylation of a 45 kDa cytosolic protein (p45), as early as 90 min after Be treatment. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3'K) by wortmannin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by SB203580 reveal that PI3'K mediates Be-specific p45 phosphorylation and IL6 release, whereas p38 MAPK regulates the release of IL6 and IL10 and the phosphorylation of p45 independent of metal-salt treatment. While the IL10 and IL6 release pathways are uncoupled in these cells, they are linked to phosphorylation of p45. These findings suggest that the balance between IL10 and IL6 release and the correlated p45 phosphorylation are important components of the Be-mediated immune response in healthy individuals

  11. Anti-Donor Immune Responses Elicited by Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Extracellular Vesicles: Are We Still Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lohan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC have been used to treat a broad range of disease indications such as acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, autoimmune diseases, and transplant rejection due to their potent immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory properties. The breadth of their usage is due in no small part to the vast quantity of published studies showing their ability to modulate multiple immune cell types of both the innate and adaptive immune response. While patient-derived (autologous MSC may be the safer choice in terms of avoiding unwanted immune responses, factors including donor comorbidities may preclude these cells from use. In these situations, allogeneic MSC derived from genetically unrelated individuals must be used. While allogeneic MSC were initially believed to be immune-privileged, substantial evidence now exists to prove otherwise with multiple studies documenting specific cellular and humoral immune responses against donor antigens following administration of these cells. In this article, we will review recent published studies using non-manipulated, inflammatory molecule-activated (licensed and differentiated allogeneic MSC, as well as MSC extracellular vesicles focusing on the immune responses to these cells and whether or not such responses have an impact on allogeneic MSC-mediated safety and efficacy.

  12. Clinical responses to adoptive T-cell transfer can be modeled in an autologous immune-humanized mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Henrik; Lindberg, Mattias F; Donia, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of autologous tumor-infiltrating T cells have shown durable responses in patients with melanoma. To study ACT and immunotherapies in a humanized model, we have developed PDXv2.0 - a melanoma PDX model where tumor cells and tumor...

  13. Anti-Donor Immune Responses Elicited by Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Extracellular Vesicles: Are We Still Learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Lohan, Paul; Treacy, Oliver; Griffin, Matthew D.; Ritter, Thomas; Ryan, Aideen E.

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been used to treat a broad range of disease indications such as acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, autoimmune diseases, and transplant rejection due to their potent immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory properties. The breadth of their usage is due in no small part to the vast quantity of published studies showing their ability to modulate multiple immune cell types of both the innate and adaptive immune response. While patient-derived (autologous) MS...

  14. Inhibition of viral replication reduces regulatory T cells and enhances the antiviral immune response in chronic hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoop, Jeroen N.; Molen, Renate G. van der; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kusters, Johannes G.; Janssen, Harry L.A.

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a key role in the impaired immune response that is typical for a chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To gain more insight in the mechanism that is responsible for this impaired immune response, the effect of viral load reduction resulting from treatment with the nucleotide analogue adefovir dipivoxil on the percentages of Treg and HBV-specific T-cell responses was analyzed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 12 patients were collected at baseline and during treatment. In parallel to the decline in viral load, we found a decline in circulating Treg, combined with an increase in HBV core antigen-specific IFN-γ production and proliferation. The production of IL10 did not decrease during therapy. In conclusion, adefovir induced viral load reduction results in a decline of circulating Treg together with a partial recovery of the immune response

  15. Cell-mediated immune response of synovial fluid lymphocytes to ureaplasma antigen in Reiter's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlica Ljiljana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Reiter's syndrome (RS is an seronegative arthritis that occurs after urogenital or enteric infection which in addition with occular and/or mucocutaneous manifestations presents complete form of disease. According to previous understanding arthritis in the RS is the reactive one, which means that it is impossible to isolate its causative agent. However, there are the more and more authors suggesting that arthritis in the urogenital form of disease is caused by the infective agent in the affected joint. This suggestion is based on numerous studies on the presence of Chlmaydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the inflamed joint by using new diagnostic methods in molecular biology published in the recent literature [1-3]. Besides, numerous studies of the humoral and cell-mediated immune response to "triggering" bacteria in the affected joint have supported previous suggestions [4-7]. Aim of the study was to determine whether synovial fluid T-cells specifically recognize the "triggering" bacteria presumably responsible for the Reiter's syndrome. METHOD The 3H-thymidine uptake procedure for measuring lymphocyte responses was applied to lymphocytes derived concurrently from synovial fluid (SF and from peripheral blood (PB [8]. Ureaplasma antigen and mitogen PHA stimulated lymphocytes in 24 RS patients (24 PB samples, 9 SF samples and the results were compared with those found in 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA (10 PB samples, 5 SF samples. Preparation of ureaplasma antigen. Ureaplasma was cultured on cell-free liquid medium [9]. Sample of 8 ml was heat-inactivated for 15 minutes at 601C and permanently stirred with magnetic mixer. The sample was centrifuged at 2000 x g for 40 minutes and than deposits carefully carried to other sterile glass tubes (Corex and recentrifuged at 9000 x g for 30 minutes. The deposit was washed 3 times in sterile 0.9% NaCl, and final sediment was resuspended in 1.2 ml sterile 0.9% Na

  16. Cell-mediated immune responses in the head-associated lymphoid tissues induced to a live attenuated avian coronavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjar, Rucha S; Gulley, Stephen L; van Ginkel, Frederik W

    2013-12-01

    Humoral immunity is important for controlling viral diseases of poultry, but recent studies have indicated that cytotoxic T cells also play an important role in the immune response to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). To better understand the cell mediated immune responses to IBV in the mucosal and systemic immune compartments chickens were ocularly vaccinated with IBV. This induced a lymphocyte expansion in head-associated lymphoid tissues (HALT) and to a lesser extent in the spleen, followed by a rapid decline, probably due to homing of lymphocytes out of these organs and contraction of the lymphocyte population. This interpretation was supported by observations that changes in mononuclear cells were mirrored by that in CD3(+)CD44(+) T cell abundance, which presumably represent T effector cells. Increased interferon gamma (IFN-γ) expression was observed in the mucosal immune compartment, i.e., HALT, after primary vaccination, but shifted to the systemic immune compartment after boosting. In contrast, the expression of cytotoxicity-associated genes, i.e., granzyme A (GZMA) and perforin mRNA, remained associated with the HALT after boosting. Thus, an Ark-type IBV ocular vaccine induces a central memory IFN-γ response in the spleen while the cytotoxic effector memory response, as measured by GZMA and perforin mRNA expression, remains associated with CALT after boosting. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. MyD88-dependent dendritic and epithelial cell crosstalk orchestrates immune responses to allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S Y; Whitehead, G S; Takaku, M; Ward, J M; Xu, X; Nakano, K; Lyons-Cohen, M R; Nakano, H; Gowdy, K M; Wade, P A; Cook, D N

    2018-05-01

    Sensitization to inhaled allergens is dependent on activation of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and on the adaptor molecule, MyD88. However, many cell types in the lung express Myd88, and it is unclear how signaling in these different cell types reprograms cDCs and leads to allergic inflammation of the airway. By combining ATAC-seq with RNA profiling, we found that MyD88 signaling in cDCs maintained open chromatin at select loci even at steady state, allowing genes to be rapidly induced during allergic sensitization. A distinct set of genes related to metabolism was indirectly controlled in cDCs through MyD88 signaling in airway epithelial cells (ECs). In mouse models of asthma, Myd88 expression in ECs was critical for eosinophilic inflammation, whereas Myd88 expression in cDCs was required for Th17 cell differentiation and consequent airway neutrophilia. Thus, both cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic MyD88 signaling controls gene expression in cDCs and orchestrates immune responses to inhaled allergens.

  18. Estradiol-induced vaginal mucus inhibits antigen penetration and CD8(+) T cell priming in response to intravaginal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavey, Matthew M; Mosmann, Tim R

    2009-04-14

    Although vaginal immunization has been explored as a strategy to induce mucosal immunity in the female reproductive tract, this site displays unique immunological features that probably evolved to inhibit anti-paternal T cell responses after insemination to allow successful pregnancy. We previously demonstrated that estradiol, which induces an estrus-like state, prevented CD8(+) T cell priming during intravaginal immunization of mice. We now show that estradiol prevented antigen loading of vaginal antigen presenting cells (APCs) after intravaginal immunization. Histological examination confirmed that estradiol prevented penetration of peptide antigen into the vaginal wall. Removal of the estradiol-induced mucus barrier by mucinase partially restored antigen loading of vaginal APC and CD8(+) T cell proliferation in vivo. The estradiol-induced mucus barrier may thus prevent exposure to antigens delivered intravaginally, supplementing additional estradiol-dependent mechanism(s) that inhibit CD8(+) T cell priming after insemination or vaginal vaccination.

  19. Estradiol-induced vaginal mucus inhibits antigen penetration and CD8+ T cell priming in response to intravaginal immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavey, Matthew M.; Mosmann, Tim R.

    2010-01-01

    Although vaginal immunization has been explored as a strategy to induce mucosal immunity in the female reproductive tract, this site displays unique immunological features that probably evolved to inhibit anti-paternal T cell responses after insemination to allow successful pregnancy. We previously demonstrated that estradiol, which induces an estrus-like state, prevented CD8+ T cell priming during intravaginal immunization of mice. We now show that estradiol prevented antigen loading of vaginal antigen presenting cells (APC) after intravaginal immunization. Histological examination confirmed that estradiol prevented penetration of peptide antigen into the vaginal wall. Removal of the estradiol-induced mucus barrier by mucinase partially restored antigen loading of vaginal APC and CD8+ T cell proliferation in vivo. The estradiol-induced mucus barrier may thus prevent exposure to antigens delivered intravaginally, supplementing additional estradiol-dependent mechanism(s) that inhibit CD8+ T cell priming after insemination or vaginal vaccination. PMID:19428849

  20. Effect of L-arginine supplementation on immune responsiveness in patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavella, Arnette; Leiva, Lily; Monjure, Hanh; Zea, Arnold H; Gardner, Renee V

    2010-08-01

    L-arginine (L-Arg) is deficient in sickle cell disease (SSD) during vasoocclusion. We investigated possible causal relationship between L-Arg deficiency and immune dysfunction in SSD in steady-state. Fifteen patients with SSD in steady-state and 13 controls were studied. Plasma L-Arg levels were measured using liquid chromatography. T cell subsets and CD3zeta (CD3zeta) chain expression were analyzed using flow cytometry. Lymphocyte proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and production of IL-6 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were evaluated with and without L-Arg. SSD patients had significantly lower L-Arg levels than controls. CD3 and CD19 cell populations were comparable for both groups, but SSD patients had above normal numbers of natural killer cells (P = 0.06). Patients and controls exhibited significantly increased lymphocyte blastogenesis to PHA after introduction of L-Arg to cultures; response of patients was significantly greater than values for control individuals. Proliferative response to candida in SSD patients was significantly lower than in controls; L-Arg supplementation did not increase this response. L-Arg had no effect on blastogenic response to PPD and candida albicans. No effect was likewise seen in production of IL-6 and IFN-gamma after addition of L-Arg. CD3zeta chain expression increased after addition of L-Arg in both groups; differences were insignificant. L-Arg levels in steady-state SSD are significantly lower than in controls. L-Arg supplementation enhanced lymphocyte blastogenesis to PHA for both controls and patients, but not in response to antigen. There were no significant differences in CD3zeta chain expression although upregulation of expression occurred after L-Arg supplementation for both groups. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in the induction of type 2 immunity.

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    Zhonghan Yang

    Full Text Available Type 2 immunity is essential for host protection against nematode infection but is detrimental in allergic inflammation or asthma. There is a major research focus on the effector molecules and specific cell types involved in the initiation of type 2 immunity. Recent work has implicated an important role of epithelial-derived cytokines, IL-25 and IL-33, acting on innate immune cells that are believed to be the initial sources of type 2 cytokines IL-4/IL-5/IL-13. The identities of the cell types that mediate the effects of IL-25/IL-33, however, remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in inducing type 2 immunity using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Macrophages produced type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in response to the stimulation of IL-25/IL-33 in vitro, or were the IL-13-producing cells in mice administrated with exogenous IL-33 or infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri. In addition, IL-33 induced alternative activation of macrophages primarily through autocrine IL-13 activating the IL-4Rα-STAT6 pathway. Moreover, depletion of macrophages attenuated the IL-25/IL-33-induced type 2 immunity in mice, while adoptive transfer of IL-33-activated macrophages into mice with a chronic Heligmosomoides bakeri infection induced worm expulsion accompanied by a potent type 2 protective immune response. Thus, macrophages represent a unique population of the innate immune cells pivotal to type 2 immunity and a potential therapeutic target in controlling type 2 immunity-mediated inflammatory pathologies.

  2. Co-delivery of PLGA encapsulated invariant NKT cell agonist with antigenic protein induce strong T cell-mediated antitumor immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolen, Y.; Kreutz, M.; Gileadi, U.; Tel, J.; Vasaturo, A.; Dinther, E.A.W. van; Hout-Kuijer, M.A. van; Cerundolo, V.; Figdor, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor immunity can be enhanced by the coordinated release and delivery of antigens and immune-stimulating agents to antigen-presenting cells via biodegradable vaccine carriers. So far, encapsulation of TLR ligands and tumor-associated antigens augmented cytotoxic T cell (CTLs) responses. Here,

  3. Blocking junctional adhesion molecule C enhances dendritic cell migration and boosts the immune responses against Leishmania major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Ballet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment of dendritic cells to sites of infections and their migration to lymph nodes is fundamental for antigen processing and presentation to T cells. In the present study, we showed that antibody blockade of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C on endothelial cells removed JAM-C away from junctions and increased vascular permeability after L. major infection. This has multiple consequences on the output of the immune response. In resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice, we found higher numbers of innate immune cells migrating from blood to the site of infection. The subsequent migration of dendritic cells (DCs from the skin to the draining lymph node was also improved, thereby boosting the induction of the adaptive immune response. In C57BL/6 mice, JAM-C blockade after L. major injection led to an enhanced IFN-γ dominated T helper 1 (Th1 response with reduced skin lesions and parasite burden. Conversely, anti JAM-C treatment increased the IL-4-driven T helper 2 (Th2 response in BALB/c mice with disease exacerbation. Overall, our results show that JAM-C blockade can finely-tune the innate cell migration and accelerate the consequent immune response to L. major without changing the type of the T helper cell response.

  4. Tissue factor expression by myeloid cells contributes to protective immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Sambasivan; Tripathi, Deepak; Tucker, Torry; Paidipally, Padmaja; Cheekatla, Satyanarayana; Welch, Elwyn; Raghunath, Anjana; Jeffers, Ann; Tvinnereim, Amy R; Schechter, Melissa E; Andrade, Bruno B; Mackman, Nizel; Idell, Steven; Vankayalapati, Ramakrishna

    2016-02-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an essential role in hemostasis by activating coagulation. TF is also expressed by monocytes/macrophages as part of the innate immune response to infections. In the current study, we determined the role of TF expressed by myeloid cells during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection by using mice lacking the TF gene in myeloid cells (TF(Δ) ) and human monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs). We found that during M. tb infection, a deficiency of TF in myeloid cells was associated with reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, enhanced arginase 1 (Arg1) expression, enhanced IL-10 production and reduced apoptosis in infected macrophages, which augmented M. tb growth. Our results demonstrate that a deficiency of TF in myeloid cells promotes M2-like phenotype in M .tb infected macrophages. A deficiency in TF expression by myeloid cells was also associated with reduced fibrin deposition and increased matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 mediated inflammation in M. tb infected lungs. Our studies demonstrate that TF expressed by myeloid cells has newly recognized abilities to polarize macrophages and to regulate M. tb growth. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Adaptive Immune Response Impairs the Efficacy of Autologous Transplantation of Engineered Stem Cells in Dystrophic Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzia, Clementina; Farini, Andrea; Jardim, Luciana; Razini, Paola; Belicchi, Marzia; Cassinelli, Letizia; Villa, Chiara; Erratico, Silvia; Parolini, Daniele; Bella, Pamela; da Silva Bizario, Joao Carlos; Garcia, Luis; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Meregalli, Mirella; Torrente, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common genetic muscular dystrophy. It is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, leading to absence of muscular dystrophin and to progressive degeneration of skeletal muscle. We have demonstrated that the exon skipping method safely and efficiently brings to the expression of a functional dystrophin in dystrophic CD133+ cells injected scid/mdx mice. Golden Retriever muscular dystrophic (GRMD) dogs represent the best preclinical model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, mimicking the human pathology in genotypic and phenotypic aspects. Here, we assess the capacity of intra-arterial delivered autologous engineered canine CD133+ cells of restoring dystrophin expression in Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy. This is the first demonstration of five-year follow up study, showing initial clinical amelioration followed by stabilization in mild and severe affected Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy dogs. The occurrence of T-cell response in three Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy dogs, consistent with a memory response boosted by the exon skipped-dystrophin protein, suggests an adaptive immune response against dystrophin. PMID:27506452

  6. Quantitative Methods for Measuring Repair Rates and Innate-Immune Cell Responses in Wounded Mouse Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Gothard, Elizabeth; Coles, Mark C; Ambler, Carrie A

    2018-01-01

    In skin wounds, innate-immune cells clear up tissue debris and microbial contamination, and also secrete cytokines and other growth factors that impact repair process such as re-epithelialization and wound closure. After injury, there is a rapid influx and efflux of immune cells at wound sites, yet the function of each innate cell population in skin repair is still under investigation. Flow cytometry is a valuable research tool for detecting and quantifying immune cells; however, in mouse back skin, the difficulty in extracting immune cells from small area of skin due to tissue complexity has made cytometric analysis an underutilized tool. In this paper, we provide detailed methods on the digestion of lesion-specific skin without disrupting antigen expression followed by multiplex cell staining that allows for identification of seven innate-immune populations, including rare subsets such as group-3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s), by flow-cytometry analysis. Furthermore, when studying the functions of immune cells to tissue repair an important metric to monitor is size of the wound opening. Normal wounds close steadily albeit at non-linear rates, while slow or stalled wound closure can indicate an underlying problem with the repair process. Calliper measurements are difficult and time-consuming to obtain and can require repeated sedation of experimental animals. We provide advanced methods for measuring of wound openness; digital 3D image capture and semi-automated image processing that allows for unbiased, reliable measurements that can be taken repeatedly over time.

  7. Human metapneumovirus M2-2 protein inhibits innate immune response in monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Ren

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a leading cause of lower respiratory infection in young children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Repeated hMPV infections occur throughout life. However, immune evasion mechanisms of hMPV infection are largely unknown. Recently, our group has demonstrated that hMPV M2-2 protein, an important virulence factor, contributes to immune evasion in airway epithelial cells by targeting the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS. Whether M2-2 regulates the innate immunity in human dendritic cells (DC, an important family of immune cells controlling antigen presenting, is currently unknown. We found that human DC infected with a virus lacking M2-2 protein expression (rhMPV-ΔM2-2 produced higher levels of cytokines, chemokines and IFNs, compared to cells infected with wild-type virus (rhMPV-WT, suggesting that M2-2 protein inhibits innate immunity in human DC. In parallel, we found that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88, an essential adaptor for Toll-like receptors (TLRs, plays a critical role in inducing immune response of human DC, as downregulation of MyD88 by siRNA blocked the induction of immune regulatory molecules by hMPV. Since M2-2 is a cytoplasmic protein, we investigated whether M2-2 interferes with MyD88-mediated antiviral signaling. We found that indeed M2-2 protein associated with MyD88 and inhibited MyD88-dependent gene transcription. In this study, we also identified the domains of M2-2 responsible for its immune inhibitory function in human DC. In summary, our results demonstrate that M2-2 contributes to hMPV immune evasion by inhibiting MyD88-dependent cellular responses in human DC.

  8. Immune response to H pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Giovanni; Reyes, Victor E; Beswick, Ellen J

    2006-01-01

    The gastric mucosa separates the underlying tissue from the vast array of antigens that traffic through the stomach lumen. While the extreme pH of this environment is essential in aiding the activation of enzymes and food digestion, it also renders the gastric epithelium free from bacterial colonization, with the exception of one important human pathogen, H pylori. This bacterium has developed mechanisms to survive the harsh environment of the stomach, actively move through the mucosal layer, attach to the epithelium, evade immune responses, and achieve persistent colonization. While a hallmark of this infection is a marked inflammatory response with the infiltration of various immune cells into the infected gastric mucosa, the host immune response is unable to clear the infection and may actually contribute to the associated pathogenesis. Here, we review the host responses involved during infection with H pylori and how they are influenced by this bacterium. PMID:17007009

  9. Testing the "toxin hypothesis of allergy": Mast cells, IgE, and innate and acquired immune responses to venoms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mindy; Starkl, Philipp; Marichal, Thomas; Galli, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Work in mice indicates that innate functions of mast cells, particularly degradation of venom toxins by mast cell-derived proteases, can enhance resistance to certain arthropod or reptile venoms. Recent reports indicate that acquired Th2 immune responses associated with the production of IgE antibodies, induced by Russell’s viper venom or honeybee venom, or by a component of honeybee venom, bee venom phospholipase 2 (bvPLA2), can increase the resistance of mice to challenge with potentially lethal doses of either of the venoms or bvPLA2. These findings support the conclusion that, in contrast to the detrimental effects associated with allergic Th2 immune responses, mast cells and IgE-dependent immune responses to venoms can contribute to innate and adaptive resistance to venom-induced pathology and mortality. PMID:26210895

  10. Humoral immune response to the entire human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein made in insect cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusche, J.R.; Lynn, D.L.; Robert-Guroff, M.; Langlois, A.J.; Lyerly, H.K.; Carson, H.; Krohn, K.; Ranki, A.; Gallo, R.C.; Bolognesi, D.P.; Putney, S.D.

    1987-10-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene was expressed in insect cells by using a Baculovirus expression vector. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa, appears on the surface of infected insect cells, and does not appear to be cleaved to glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Goats immunized with the 160-kDa protein have high titers of antibody that neutralizes virus infection as measured by viral gene expression or cell cytolysis. In addition, immune sera can block fusion of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in culture. Both neutralization and fusion-blocking activities are bound to and eluted from immobilized gp120.

  11. Humoral immune response to the entire human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein made in insect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusche, J.R.; Lynn, D.L.; Robert-Guroff, M.

    1987-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene was expressed in insect cells by using a Baculovirus expression vector. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa, appears on the surface of infected insect cells, and does not appear to be cleaved to glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Goats immunized with the 160-kDa protein have high titers of antibody that neutralizes virus infection as measured by viral gene expression or cell cytolysis. In addition, immune sera can block fusion of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in culture. Both neutralization and fusion-blocking activities are bound to and eluted from immobilized gp120

  12. Evidence of functional cell-mediated immune responses to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in otitis-prone children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppanen, Elke; Tan, Dino; Corscadden, Karli J.; Currie, Andrew J.; Richmond, Peter C.; Thornton, Ruth B.

    2018-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) remains a common paediatric disease, despite advances in vaccinology. Susceptibility to recurrent acute OM (rAOM) has been postulated to involve defective cell-mediated immune responses to common otopathogenic bacteria. We compared the composition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 20 children with a history of rAOM (otitis-prone) and 20 healthy non-otitis-prone controls, and assessed innate and cell-mediated immune responses to the major otopathogen nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). NTHi was a potent stimulator of inflammatory cytokine secretion from PBMC within 4 hours, with no difference in cytokine levels produced between PBMC from cases or controls. In the absence of antigen stimulation, otitis-prone children had more circulating Natural Killer (NK) cells (potitis-prone and non-otitis-prone children (potitis-prone children are functional and respond to NTHi. CD8+ T cells and NK cells from both cases and controls produced IFNγ in response to polyclonal stimulus (Staphylococcal enterotoxin B; SEB), with more IFNγ+ CD8+ T cells present in cases than controls (pOtitis-prone children had more circulating IFNγ-producing NK cells (potitis-prone children mounted innate and T cell-mediated responses to NTHi challenge that were comparable to healthy children. These data provide evidence that otitis-prone children do not have impaired functional cell mediated immunity. PMID:29621281

  13. Nanoparticle-based B-cell targeting vaccines: Tailoring of humoral immune responses by functionalization with different TLR-ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilker, Claudia; Kozlova, Diana; Sokolova, Viktoriya; Yan, Huimin; Epple, Matthias; Überla, Klaus; Temchura, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Induction of an appropriate type of humoral immune response during vaccination is essential for protection against viral and bacterial infections. We recently observed that biodegradable calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles coated with proteins efficiently targeted and activated naïve antigen-specific B-cells in vitro. We now compared different administration routes for CaP-nanoparticles and demonstrated that intramuscular immunization with such CaP-nanoparticles induced stronger immune responses than immunization with monovalent antigen. Additional functionalization of the CaP-nanoparticles with TRL-ligands allowed modulating the IgG subtype response and the level of mucosal IgA antibodies. CpG-containing CaP-nanoparticles were as immunogenic as a virus-like particle vaccine. Functionalization of CaP-nanoparticles with T-helper cell epitopes or CpG also allowed overcoming lack of T-cell help. Thus, our results indicate that CaP-nanoparticle-based B-cell targeting vaccines functionalized with TLR-ligands can serve as a versatile platform for efficient induction and modulation of humoral immune responses in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Short communication: Cytokine profiles from blood mononuclear cells of dairy cows classified with divergent immune response phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C E; Paibomesai, M A; Emam, S M; Gallienne, J; Hine, B C; Thompson-Crispi, K A; Mallard, B A

    2016-03-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced immune response has been shown to decrease disease occurrence in dairy cattle. Cows can be classified as high (H), average, or low responders based on antibody-mediated immune response (AMIR), predominated by type-2 cytokine production, and cell-mediated immune response (CMIR) through estimated breeding values for these traits. The purpose of this study was to identify in vitro tests that correlate with in vivo immune response phenotyping in dairy cattle. Blood mononuclear cells (BMC) isolated from cows classified as H-AMIR and H-CMIR through estimated breeding values for immune response traits were stimulated with concanavalin A (ConA; Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and gene expression, cytokine production, and cell proliferation was determined at multiple time points. A repeated measures model, which included the effects of immune response group, parity, and stage of lactation, was used to compare differences between immune response phenotype groups. The H-AMIR cows produced more IL-4 protein than H-CMIR cows at 48 h; however, no difference in gene expression of type-2 transcription factor GATA3 or IL4 was noted. The BMC from H-CMIR cows had increased production of IFN-γ protein at 48, 72, and 96 h compared with H-AMIR animals. Further, H-CMIR cows had increased expression of the IFNG gene at 16, 24, and 48 h post-treatment with ConA, although expression of the type-1 transcription factor gene TBX21 did not differ between immune response groups. Although proliferation of BMC increased from 24 to 72 h after ConA stimulation, no differences were found between the immune response groups. Overall, stimulation of H-AMIR and H-CMIR bovine BMC with ConA resulted in distinct cytokine production profiles according to genetically defined groups. These distinct cytokine profiles could be used to define disease resistance phenotypes in dairy cows according to stimulation in vitro; however, other immune response phenotypes should be assessed

  15. Innate Immune Responses in Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Schmitz, Veronica; Silva, Bruno Jorge de Andrade; Dias, André Alves; de Souza, Beatriz Junqueira; de Mattos Barbosa, Mayara Garcia; de Almeida Esquenazi, Danuza; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2018-01-01

    Leprosy is an infectious disease that may present different clinical forms depending on host immune response to Mycobacterium leprae. Several studies have clarified the role of various T cell populations in leprosy; however, recent evidences suggest that local innate immune mechanisms are key determinants in driving the disease to its different clinical manifestations. Leprosy is an ideal model to study the immunoregulatory role of innate immune molecules and its interaction with nervous system, which can affect homeostasis and contribute to the development of inflammatory episodes during the course of the disease. Macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and keratinocytes are the major cell populations studied and the comprehension of the complex networking created by cytokine release, lipid and iron metabolism, as well as antimicrobial effector pathways might provide data that will help in the development of new strategies for leprosy management. PMID:29643852

  16. LONG-LIVED BONE MARROW PLASMA CELLS DURING IMMUNE RESPONSE TO ALPHA (1→3 DEXTRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Chernyshova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production kinetics and some functional properties of long-lived marrow plasma cells were studied in mice immunized with T-independent type 2 antigens. Alpha (1→3 dextran was used as an antigen for immunization. The mice were immunized by dextran, and the numbers of IgM antibody producing cells were determined by ELISPOT method. The cell phenotype was determined by cytofluorimetric technique. In the area of normal bone marrow lymphocytes ~4% of T and ~85% of B cells were detected. About 35% of the cells expressed a plasmocyte marker (CD138; 3% were CD138+IgM+, and about 6% of the lymphocytes were double-positive for CD138+IgA+. Among spleen lymphocytes, 50% of T and 47% of B cells were detected. About 1.5% lymphocytes were CD138+, and 0.5% were positive for CD138 and IgM. Time kinetics of antibody-producing cells in bone marrow and spleen was different. In spleen populations, the peak amounts of antibody-secreting cells have been shown on the day 4; the process abated by the day 28. Vice versa, the numbers of the antibody-producing cells in bone marrow started to increase on the day 4. The process reached its maximum on day 14, and after 28th day became stationary. The in vitro experiments have shown that supplementation of bone marrow cells from immune mice with dextran did not influence their functional activity. It was previously shown for cells responding to T-dependent antigens only. A specific marker for the long-lived plasma cells is still unknown. However, these cells possess a common CD138 marker specific for all plasma cells. A method for isolation of bone marrow CD138+ cells was developed. The CD138+ cells were of 87-97% purity, being enriched in long-lived bone marrow cells, and produced monospecific antibodies.

  17. Fibroblast and T cells conditioned media induce maturation dendritic cell and promote T helper immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Asadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs induce pathogen-specific T cell responses. We comprehensively studied the effects of addition of maturation stimulus, fibroblasts (fibroblast conditioned medium, PHA activated T cells (T cell conditioned medium, and mixture of fibroblast & PHA activated T cells (FCM-TCCM conditioned media on maturation of DCs. Monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for five days. Maturation factors included MCM and TNF-α as control group. FCM and TCCM, or FCM-TCCM supernatant were considered as the treatment group. Tumor antigens were added at day five. Matured DCs were harvested at day seven. Phenotypic and functional analyses were carried out using anti (CD14, CD80, CD86, CD83 and HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. Phagocytic activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR and cytokine production were also evaluated. At the end of culturing period, significantly fully matured DCs with large amount cytoplasm and copious dendritic projections were found in the presence of MCM, TNF-α with or without FCM, TCCM, FCM as well as TCCM. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that expression of CD14 decreased in particular in treated DCs, at the 5th day and expression of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR was higher when FCM, TCCM, FCM plus TCCM were added to maturation factor. This study demonstrated that DCs matured with these methods had optimum function in comparison with either factor alone.

  18. Immune response to UV-induced tumors: mediation of progressor tumor rejection by natural killer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, P.R.; Fortner, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Skin tumors induced in mice by chronic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are highly antigenic and can induce a state of transplantation immunity in syngeneic animals. In the present study, the authors compared the in vitro cytolytic activity of splenic lymphocytes from mice immunized with either regressor or progressor UV-tumors. The results of this comparison implicated tumor-specific cytolytic T (Tc) lymphocytes in rejection of regressor UV-tumors, and revealed that immunization with the progressor UV-tumor 2237 failed to elicit detectable levels of progressor tumor-specific Tc cells even as the tumors rejected. Following in vitro resensitization of spleen cells from either regressor or progressor tumor immune animals, the authors found NK-like lymphocytes with anti-tumor activity. As the authors had not detected cells with this activity in splenic lymphocyte preparations prior to in vitro resensitization, the authors examined lymphocytes from the local tumor environment during the course of progressor tumor rejection for this activity. This analysis revealed NK lymphocytes exhibiting significant levels of cytolytic activity against UV-tumors. These results implicate NK cells as potential effector cells in the rejection of progressor UV-tumors by immune animals, and suggests that these cells may be regulated by T lymphocytes

  19. CHARACTERISATION OF CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNE RESPONSE IN PIGS IN A CLINICAL CHALLENGE EXPERIMENT OF A VACCINE AGAINST MYCOPLASMA HYOSYNOVIAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Josephine Skovgaard; Riber, Ulla; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll

    be due to increased systemic infection in the placebo group. Cell-mediated immune response was further characterised by four colour flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before Mhs challenge (day -1) and at days 6 and 9 after challenge. IFN-γ producing cells were found...... to be CD4 and especially CD4CD8 double positive T-cells simultaneously expressing CD25. Interestingly, the proportion of CD4CD8 double positive T-cells within the total population of CD4 positive cells increased in the vaccine group after challenge, indicating that generation of specific T-cell memory had...

  20. Inflammasome Activation Is Critical to the Protective Immune Response during Chemically Induced Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparoto, Thais Helena; de Oliveira, Carine Ervolino; de Freitas, Luisa Thomazini; Pinheiro, Claudia Ramos; Hori, Juliana Issa; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Cavassani, Karen Angélica; Schillaci, Roxana; da Silva, João Santana; Zamboni, Dario Simões; Campanelli, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation affects most stages of tumorigenesis, including initiation, promotion, malignant differentiation, invasion and metastasis. Inflammasomes have been described as involved with persistent inflammation and are known to exert both pro and antitumour effects. We evaluated the influence of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and caspase (CASP)-1 in the antitumor immune response using a multistage model of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development. Absence of ASC and CASP-1 resulted in an earlier incidence and increased number of papilloma. Loss of inflammassome function in mice resulted in decreased presence of natural killer (NK), dendritic (DC), CD4+, CD8+ and CD45RB+ T cells in the tumor lesions as well as in lymph nodes (LN) compared with WT mice. Increased percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells was associated with association with inflammasome loss of function. Moreover, significant differences were also found with neutrophils and macrophage infiltrating the lesions. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), but not elastase (ELA), activity oscillated among the groups during the SCC development. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-18, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α and Interferon (IFN)-γ were decreased in the tumor microenvironment in the absence of inflammasome proteins. These observations suggest a link between inflammasome function and SCC tumorigenesis, indicating an important role for inflammasome activation in the control of SCC development. PMID:25268644

  1. Inflammasome activation is critical to the protective immune response during chemically induced squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Helena Gasparoto

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation affects most stages of tumorigenesis, including initiation, promotion, malignant differentiation, invasion and metastasis. Inflammasomes have been described as involved with persistent inflammation and are known to exert both pro and antitumour effects. We evaluated the influence of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC and caspase (CASP-1 in the antitumor immune response using a multistage model of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC development. Absence of ASC and CASP-1 resulted in an earlier incidence and increased number of papilloma. Loss of inflammassome function in mice resulted in decreased presence of natural killer (NK, dendritic (DC, CD4(+, CD8(+ and CD45RB(+ T cells in the tumor lesions as well as in lymph nodes (LN compared with WT mice. Increased percentage of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ T cells was associated with association with inflammasome loss of function. Moreover, significant differences were also found with neutrophils and macrophage infiltrating the lesions. Myeloperoxidase (MPO, but not elastase (ELA, activity oscillated among the groups during the SCC development. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-18, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α and Interferon (IFN-γ were decreased in the tumor microenvironment in the absence of inflammasome proteins. These observations suggest a link between inflammasome function and SCC tumorigenesis, indicating an important role for inflammasome activation in the control of SCC development.

  2. Immunization of Mice with a Live Transconjugant Shigella Hybrid Strain Induced Th1 and Th17 Cell-Mediated Immune Responses and Confirmed Passive Protection Against Heterologous Shigellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, D; Koley, H; Sinha, R; Mukherjee, P; Sarkar, C; Withey, J H; Gachhui, R

    2016-02-01

    An avirulent, live transconjugant Shigella hybrid (LTSHΔstx) strain was constructed in our earlier study by introducing a plasmid vector, pPR1347, into a Shiga toxin gene deleted Shigella dysenteriae 1. Three successive oral administrations of LTSHΔstx to female adult mice produced comprehensive passive heterologous protection in their offspring against challenge with wild-type shigellae. Production of NO and different cytokines such asIL-12p70, IL-1β and IL-23 in peritoneal mice macrophages indicated that LTSHΔstx induced innate and adaptive immunity in mice. Furthermore, production of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 in LTSH-primed splenic CD4+ T cell suggested that LTSHΔstx may induce Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune responses. Exponential increase of the serum IgG and IgA titre against whole shigellae was observed in immunized adult mice during and after the immunization with the highest peak on day 35. Antigen-specific sIgA was also determined from intestinal lavage of immunized mice. The stomach extracts of neonates from immunized mice, mainly containing mother's milk, contained significant levels of anti-LTSHΔstx immunoglobulin. These studies suggest that the LTSHΔstx could be a new live oral vaccine candidate against shigellosis in the near future. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  3. Quantitative Methods for Measuring Repair Rates and Innate-Immune Cell Responses in Wounded Mouse Skin

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    Zhi Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In skin wounds, innate-immune cells clear up tissue debris and microbial contamination, and also secrete cytokines and other growth factors that impact repair process such as re-epithelialization and wound closure. After injury, there is a rapid influx and efflux of immune cells at wound sites, yet the function of each innate cell population in skin repair is still under investigation. Flow cytometry is a valuable research tool for detecting and quantifying immune cells; however, in mouse back skin, the difficulty in extracting immune cells from small area of skin due to tissue complexity has made cytometric analysis an underutilized tool. In this paper, we provide detailed methods on the digestion of lesion-specific skin without disrupting antigen expression followed by multiplex cell staining that allows for identification of seven innate-immune populations, including rare subsets such as group-3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s, by flow-cytometry analysis. Furthermore, when studying the functions of immune cells to tissue repair an important metric to monitor is size of the wound opening. Normal wounds close steadily albeit at non-linear rates, while slow or stalled wound closure can indicate an underlying problem with the repair process. Calliper measurements are difficult and time-consuming to obtain and can require repeated sedation of experimental animals. We provide advanced methods for measuring of wound openness; digital 3D image capture and semi-automated image processing that allows for unbiased, reliable measurements that can be taken repeatedly over time.

  4. Whole blood assay to access T cell-immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in healthy Brazilian individuals

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    Paulo RZ Antas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of interferon gamma (IFNgamma guarantees effective T cell-mediated immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In the present study, we simply compare the in vitro immune responses to Mycobacterium antigens in terms of IFNg production in a total of 10 healthy Brazilian volunteers. Whole blood and mononuclear cells were cultivated in parallel with PPD, Ag85B, and M. bovis hsp65, and five-days supernatants were harvested for cytokine detection by ELISA. The inter-assay result was that the overall profile of agreement in response to antigens was highly correlated (r² = 0.9266; p = 0.0102. Potential analysis is in current progress to dictate the usefulness of this method to access the immune responses also in tuberculosis patients and its contacts.

  5. Differential and site specific impact of B cells in the protective immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the mouse.

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    Egídio Torrado

    Full Text Available Cell-mediated immune responses are known to be critical for control of mycobacterial infections whereas the role of B cells and humoral immunity is unclear. B cells can modulate immune responses by secretion of immunoglobulin, production of cytokines and antigen-presentation. To define the impact of B cells in the absence of secreted immunoglobulin, we analyzed the progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection in mice that have B cells but which lack secretory immunoglobulin (AID(-/-µS(-/-mice. AID(-/-µS(-/- mice accumulated a population of activated B cells in the lungs when infected and were more susceptible to aerosol Mtb when compared to wild type (C57BL/6 mice or indeed mice that totally lack B cells. The enhanced susceptibility of AID(-/-µS(-/- mice was not associated with defective T cell activation or expression of a type 1 immune response. While delivery of normal serum to AID(-/-µS(-/- mice did not reverse susceptibility, susceptibility in the spleen was dependent upon the presence of B cells and susceptibility in the lungs of AID(-/-µS(-/-mice was associated with elevated expression of the cytokines IL-6, GM-CSF, IL-10 and molecules made by alternatively activated macrophages. Blocking of IL-10 signaling resulted in reversal of susceptibility in the spleens and lungs of AID(-/-µS(-/- mice. These data support the hypothesis that B cells can modulate immunity to Mtb in an organ specific manner via the modulation of cytokine production and macrophage activation.

  6. Differential activation behavior of dermal dendritic cells underlies the strain-specific Th1 responses to single epicutaneous immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Hung; Chen, Jau-Shiuh; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Hong, Chien-Hui; Liu, Ching-Yi; Ta, Yng-Cun; Wang, Li-Fang

    2016-12-01

    Epicutaneous immunization with allergens is an important sensitization route for atopic dermatitis. We recently showed in addition to the Th2 response following single epicutaneous immunization, a remarkable Th1 response is induced in B6 mice, but not in BALB/c mice, mimicking the immune response to allergens in human non-atopics and atopics. We investigated the underlying mechanisms driving this differential Th1 response between BALB/c and B6 mice. We characterized dermal dendritic cells by flow cytometric analysis. We measured the induced Th1/Th2 responses by measuring the IFN-γ/IL-13 contents of supernatants of antigen reactivation cultures of lymph node cells. We demonstrate that more dermal dendritic cells with higher activation status migrate into draining lymph nodes of B6 mice compared to BALB/c mice. Dermal dendritic cells of B6 mice have a greater ability to capture protein antigen than those of BALB/c mice. Moreover, increasing the activation status or amount of captured antigen in dermal dendritic cells induced a Th1 response in BALB/c mice. Further, differential activation behavior, but not antigen-capturing ability of dermal dendritic cells between BALB/c and B6 mice is dendritic cell-intrinsic. These results show that the differential activation behavior of dermal dendritic cells underlies the strain-specific Th1 responses following single epicutaneous immunization. Furthermore, our findings highlight the potential differences between human atopics and non-atopics and provide useful information for the prediction and prevention of atopic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. IL-10 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, H.; Tiitinen, A; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection induces an inflammatory response that is crucial in resolving acute infection but may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of C trachomatis associated infertility. The immune response is linked to cytokine secretion pattern which is influenced by the host genetic...

  8. Transcription Factor Networks derived from Breast Cancer Stem Cells control the immune response in the Basal subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silveira, W A; Palma, P V B; Sicchieri, R D

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and metastatic dissemination is the principal factor related to death by this disease. Breast cancer stem cells (bCSC) are thought to be responsible for metastasis and chemoresistance. In this study, based on whole transcriptome analysis...... of these networks in patient tumours is predictive of engraftment success. Our findings point out a potential molecular mechanism underlying the balance between immune surveillance and EMT activation in breast cancer. This molecular mechanism may be useful to the development of new target therapies....... and IKZF3 transcription factors which correspond to immune response modulators. Immune response network expression is correlated with pathological response to chemotherapy, and in the Basal subtype is related to better recurrence-free survival. In patient-derived xenografts, the expression...

  9. Maternal immunity enhances systemic recall immune responses upon oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ut V; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Cox, Eric

    2015-06-23

    F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrhoea and mortality in piglets leading to severe economic losses. Oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae induces a protective intestinal immune response evidenced by an F4-specific serum and intestinal IgA response. However, successful oral immunization of pigs with F4 fimbriae in the presence of maternal immunity has not been demonstrated yet. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal immunity on the induction of a systemic immune response upon oral immunization of piglets. Whereas F4-specific IgG and IgA could be induced by oral immunization of pigs without maternal antibodies and by intramuscular immunization of pigs with maternal antibodies, no such response was seen in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Since maternal antibodies can mask an antibody response, we also looked by ELIspot assays for circulating F4-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs). Enumerating the F4-specific ASCs within the circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the number of F4-specific IgA ASCs within the circulating IgA(+) B-cells revealed an F4-specific immune response in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Interestingly, results suggest a more robust IgA booster response by oral immunization of pigs with than without maternal antibodies. These results demonstrate that oral immunization of piglets with F4-specific maternal antibodies is feasible and that these maternal antibodies seem to enhance the secondary systemic immune response. Furthermore, our ELIspot assay on enriched IgA(+) B-cells could be used as a screening procedure to optimize mucosal immunization protocols in pigs with maternal immunity.

  10. Antigen-Specific lgA B Memory Cell Responses to Shigella Antigens Elicited in Volunteers Immunized with Live Attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a Oral Vaccine Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    167. [10] E.V. Oaks, T.L. Hale, S.B. Formal, Serum immune response to Shigella protein antigens in rhesus monkeys and humans infected with Shigella ...cell responses to Shigella antigens elicited in volunteers immunized with live attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a oral vaccine candidates J.K. Simona,b... Shigella ;. B cell memory; Immunoglobulin lgA; Mucosal immunity Abstract We studied the induction of antigen-specific lgA memory B cells (BM) in

  11. Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum induces immune responses to cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 and maturation of dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobergslien, Anne; Vasovic, Vlada; Mathiesen, Geir; Fredriksen, Lasse; Westby, Phuong; Eijsink, Vincent GH; Peng, Qian; Sioud, Mouldy

    2015-01-01

    Given their safe use in humans and inherent adjuvanticity, Lactic Acid Bacteria may offer several advantages over other mucosal delivery strategies for cancer vaccines. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immune responses in mice after oral immunization with Lactobacillus (L) plantarum WCFS1 expressing a cell-wall anchored tumor antigen NY-ESO-1. And to investigate the immunostimulatory potency of this new candidate vaccine on human dendritic cells (DCs). L. plantarum displaying NY-ESO-1 induced NY-ESO-1 specific antibodies and T-cell responses in mice. By contrast, L. plantarum displaying conserved proteins such as heat shock protein-27 and galectin-1, did not induce immunity, suggesting that immune tolerance to self-proteins cannot be broken by oral administration of L. plantarum. With respect to immunomodulation, immature DCs incubated with wild type or L. plantarum-NY-ESO-1 upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and secreted a large amount of interleukin (IL)-12, TNF-α, but not IL-4. Moreover, they upregulated the expression of immunosuppressive factors such as IL-10 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Although L. plantarum-matured DCs expressed inhibitory molecules, they stimulated allogeneic T cells in-vitro. Collectively, the data indicate that L. plantarum-NY-ESO-1 can evoke antigen-specific immunity upon oral administration and induce DC maturation, raising the potential of its use in cancer immunotherapies. PMID:26185907

  12. Vaccination targeting human HER3 alters the phenotype of infiltrating T cells and responses to immune checkpoint inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Morse, Michael A; Hobeika, Amy; Diniz, Marcio A; Gwin, William R; Hartman, Zachary; Wei, Junping; Guo, Hongtao; Yang, Xiao-Yi; Liu, Cong-Xiao; Kaneko, Kensuke; Broadwater, Gloria; Lyerly, H Kim

    2017-01-01

    Expression of human epidermal growth factor family member 3 (HER3), a critical heterodimerization partner with EGFR and HER2, promotes more aggressive biology in breast and other epithelial malignancies. As such, inhibiting HER3 could have broad applicability to the treatment of EGFR- and HER2-driven tumors. Although lack of a functional kinase domain limits the use of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, HER3 contains antigenic targets for T cells and antibodies. Using novel human HER3 transgenic mouse models of breast cancer, we demonstrate that immunization with recombinant adenoviral vectors encoding full length human HER3 (Ad-HER3-FL) induces HER3-specific T cells and antibodies, alters the T cell infiltrate in tumors, and influences responses to immune checkpoint inhibitions. Both preventative and therapeutic Ad-HER3-FL immunization delayed tumor growth but were associated with both intratumoral PD-1 expressing CD8 + T cells and regulatory CD4 + T cell infiltrates. Immune checkpoint inhibition with either anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies increased intratumoral CD8 + T cell infiltration and eliminated tumor following preventive vaccination with Ad-HER3-FL vaccine. The combination of dual PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA4 blockade slowed the growth of tumor in response to Ad-HER3-FL in the therapeutic model. We conclude that HER3-targeting vaccines activate HER3-specific T cells and induce anti-HER3 specific antibodies, which alters the intratumoral T cell infiltrate and responses to immune checkpoint inhibition.

  13. Extracellular cell stress (heat shock) proteins-immune responses and disease: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pockley, A Graham; Henderson, Brian

    2018-01-19

    Extracellular cell stress proteins are highly conserved phylogenetically and have been shown to act as powerful signalling agonists and receptors for selected ligands in several different settings. They also act as immunostimulatory 'danger signals' for the innate and adaptive immune systems. Other studies have shown that cell stress proteins and the induction of immune reactivity to self-cell stress proteins can attenuate disease processes. Some proteins (e.g. Hsp60, Hsp70, gp96) exhibit both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties, depending on the context in which they encounter responding immune cells. The burgeoning literature reporting the presence of stress proteins in a range of biological fluids in healthy individuals/non-diseased settings, the association of extracellular stress protein levels with a plethora of clinical and pathological conditions and the selective expression of a membrane form of Hsp70 on cancer cells now supports the concept that extracellular cell stress proteins are involved in maintaining/regulating organismal homeostasis and in disease processes and phenotype. Cell stress proteins, therefore, form a biologically complex extracellular cell stress protein network having diverse biological, homeostatic and immunomodulatory properties, the understanding of which offers exciting opportunities for delivering novel approaches to predict, identify, diagnose, manage and treat disease.This article is part of the theme issue 'Heat shock proteins as modulators and therapeutic targets of chronic disease: an integrated perspective'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Metabolic Symbiosis and Immunomodulation: How Tumor Cell-Derived Lactate May Disturb Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Morrot

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The tumor microenvironment (TME is composed by cellular and non-cellular components. Examples include the following: (i bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, (ii fibroblasts, (iii blood vessels, (iv immune cells, and (v extracellular matrix components. In most cases, this combination of components may result in an inhospitable environment, in which a significant retrenchment in nutrients and oxygen considerably disturbs cell metabolism. Cancer cells are characterized by an enhanced uptake and utilization of glucose, a phenomenon described by Otto Warburg over 90 years ago. One of the main products of this reprogrammed cell metabolism is lactate. “Lactagenic” or lactate-producing cancer cells are characterized by their immunomodulatory properties, since lactate, the end product of the aerobic glycolysis, besides acting as an inducer of cellular signaling phenomena to influence cellular fate, might also play a role as an immunosuppressive metabolite. Over the last 10 years, it has been well accepted that in the TME, the lactate secreted by transformed cells is able to compromise the function and/or assembly of an effective immune response against tumors. Herein, we will discuss recent advances regarding the deleterious effect of high concentrations of lactate on the tumor-infiltrating immune cells, which might characterize an innovative way of understanding the tumor-immune privilege.

  15. Overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme in myelomonocytic cells enhances the immune response [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E. Bernstein

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE converts angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and thereby plays an important role in blood pressure control. However, ACE is relatively non-specific in its substrate specificity and cleaves many other peptides. Recent analysis of mice overexpressing ACE in monocytes, macrophages, and other myelomonocytic cells shows that these animals have a marked increase in resistance to experimental melanoma and to infection by Listeria monocytogenes or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Several other measures of immune responsiveness, including antibody production, are enhanced in these animals. These studies complement a variety of studies indicating an important role of ACE in the immune response.

  16. Modelling the Immune Response to Cancer: An Individual-Based Approach Accounting for the Difference in Movement Between Inactive and Activated T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Fiona R; Lorenzi, Tommaso; Chaplain, Mark A J

    2018-06-01

    A growing body of experimental evidence indicates that immune cells move in an unrestricted search pattern if they are in the pre-activated state, whilst they tend to stay within a more restricted area upon activation induced by the presence of tumour antigens. This change in movement is not often considered in the existing mathematical models of the interactions between immune cells and cancer cells. With the aim to fill such a gap in the existing literature, in this work we present a spatially structured individual-based model of tumour-immune competition that takes explicitly into account the difference in movement between inactive and activated immune cells. In our model, a Lévy walk is used to capture the movement of inactive immune cells, whereas Brownian motion is used to describe the movement of antigen-activated immune cells. The effects of activation of immune cells, the proliferation of cancer cells and the immune destruction of cancer cells are also modelled. We illustrate the ability of our model to reproduce qualitatively the spatial trajectories of immune cells observed in experimental data of single-cell tracking. Computational simulations of our model further clarify the conditions for the onset of a successful immune action against cancer cells and may suggest possible targets to improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Overall, our theoretical work highlights the importance of taking into account spatial interactions when modelling the immune response to cancer cells.

  17. Interactions between epithelial cells and dendritic cells in airway immune responses: lessons from allergic airway disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, J.; Reinartz, S. M.; Fokkens, W. J.; de Jong, E. C.; van Drunen, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Micro-organisms constantly invade the human body and may form a threat to our health. Traditionally, concepts of defence mechanisms have included a protective outer layer of epithelia and a vigilant immune system searching for areas where the integrity of the outer layer may be compromised. Instead

  18. Complement modulation of T cell immune responses during homeostasis and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Elizabeth V; Tenner, Andrea J

    2014-11-01

    The complement system is an ancient and critical effector mechanism of the innate immune system as it senses, kills, and clears infectious and/or dangerous particles and alerts the immune system to the presence of the infection and/or danger. Interestingly, an increasing number of reports have demonstrated a clear role for complement in the adaptive immune system as well. Of note, a number of recent studies have identified previously unknown roles for complement proteins, receptors, and regulators in T cell function. Here, we will review recent data demonstrating the influence of complement proteins C1q, C3b/iC3b, C3a (and C3aR), and C5a (and C5aR) and complement regulators DAF (CD55) and CD46 (MCP) on T cell function during homeostasis and disease. Although new concepts are beginning to emerge in the field of complement regulation of T cell function, future experiments should focus on whether complement is interacting directly with the T cell or is having an indirect effect on T cell function via APCs, the cytokine milieu, or downstream complement activation products. Importantly, the identification of the pivotal molecular pathways in the human systems will be beneficial in the translation of concepts derived from model systems to therapeutic targeting for treatment of human disorders. © 2014 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  19. Multifunctional Analysis of CD4+ T-Cell Response as Immune-Based Model for Tuberculosis Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Lichtner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mono- and multifunctional specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were evaluated to improve the immune-based detection of active tuberculosis (TB and latent infection (LTBI. We applied flow cytometry to investigate cytokines profile (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 of T cells after stimulation with TB antigens in 28 TB-infected subjects (18 active TB and 10 LTBI and 10 uninfected controls. Cytokines production by CD4+ T cells at single-cell levels was higher in TB-infected subjects than uninfected controls P0.45%, it was possible to differentiate TB-infected (>0.45% by uninfected subjects (0.182%. The magnitude of CD8+ T-cell responses showed no differences between active TB and LTBI. Multifunctional CD4+ T-cell responses could have the potential to identify at single time point subjects without TB infection and patients having active or latent TB.

  20. Pre-existing vector immunity does not prevent replication deficient adenovirus from inducing efficient CD8 T-cell memory and recall responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2012-01-01

    directed against epitopes in the adenoviral vector seemed to correlate with repression of the induced response in re-vaccinated B-cell deficient mice. More importantly, despite a repressed primary effector CD8 T-cell response in Ad5-immune animals subjected to vaccination, memory T cells were generated...... that provided the foundation for an efficient recall response and protection upon subsequent viral challenge. Furthermore, the transgene specific response could be efficiently boosted by homologous re-immunization. Taken together, these studies indicate that adenoviral vectors can be used to induce efficient CD......8 T-cell memory even in individuals with pre-existing vector immunity....

  1. Cell-mediated immune responses differentiate infections with Brucella suis from Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 9 in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Jungersen, Gregers

    2007-01-01

    Due to almost identical lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigens, infections with Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:9 (YeO:9) cause false positive serological reactions (FPSR) in tests for Brucella and thus cause problems in National Brucella surveillance programs. As LPS are strong inducers...... of antibody responses it was hypothesized that cell-mediated immune responses to non-LPS antigens of the two bacteria can be used to separate immune responses to these two biologically very different infections. Following subclinical experimental infections with Brucella suis biovar 2, high interferon......-gamma (IFN-gamma) assay responses with a commercial Brucella melitensis antigen preparation (Brucellergene OCB) preceded the development of antibodies. High IFN-gamma responses in the seven B. suis inoculated pigs with serological evidence of infection were consistent throughout a 20-week postinoculation...

  2. Role of pathogen-derived cell wall carbohydrates and prostaglandin E2 in immune response and suppression of fish immunity by the oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Rodrigo; Wang, Tiehui; Duncan, Gary J; Skaar, Ida; Mélida, Hugo; Bulone, Vincent; van West, Pieter; Secombes, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Saprolegnia parasitica is a freshwater oomycete that is capable of infecting several species of fin fish. Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by this microbe, has a substantial impact on Atlantic salmon aquaculture. No sustainable treatment against saprolegniosis is available, and little is known regarding the host response. In this study, we examined the immune response of Atlantic salmon to S. parasitica infection and to its cell wall carbohydrates. Saprolegnia triggers a strong inflammatory response in its host (i.e., induction of interleukin-1β1 [IL-1β1], IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), while severely suppressing the expression of genes associated with adaptive immunity in fish, through downregulation of T-helper cell cytokines, antigen presentation machinery, and immunoglobulins. Oomycete cell wall carbohydrates were recognized by fish leukocytes, triggering upregulation of genes involved in the inflammatory response, similar to what is observed during infection. Our data suggest that S. parasitica is capable of producing prostaglandin [corrected] E2 (PGE2) in vitro, a metabolite not previously shown to be produced by oomycetes, and two proteins with homology to vertebrate enzymes known to play a role in prostaglandin biosynthesis have been identified in the oomycete genome. Exogenous PGE2 was shown to increase the inflammatory response in fish leukocytes incubated with cell wall carbohydrates while suppressing genes involved in cellular immunity (gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and the IFN-γ-inducible protein [γ-IP]). Inhibition of S. parasitica zoospore germination and mycelial growth by two cyclooxygenase inhibitors (aspirin and indomethacin) also suggests that prostaglandins may be involved in oomycete development. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. The effect of Beauveria bassiana infection on cell mediated and humoral immune response in house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2015-10-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi that manifest infections by overcoming insect's immune response could be a successful control agent for the house fly, Musca domestica L. which is a major domestic, medical, and veterinary pest. In this study, the immune response of house fly to Beauveria bassiana infection was investigated to reveal fundamental aspects of house fly hemocyte biology, such as hemocyte numbers and size, which is poorly understood. The total hemocyte counts (THCs) in B. bassiana-infected house fly showed an initial increase (from 6 to 9 h), followed by subsequent decrease (9 to 12 h) with increase in time of infection. The THCs was slightly greater in infected flies than the non-infected ones. Insight into relative hemocyte counts depicted a significant increase in prohemocyte (PR) and decrease in granulocyte (GR) in infected house flies compared to non-infected ones. The relative cell area of hemocyte cells showed a noticeable increase in PR and intermediate cells (ICs), while a considerable reduction was observed for plasmatocyte (PL) and GR. The considerable variation in relative cell number and cell area in the B. bassiana-infected house flies indicated stress development during infection. The present study highlights changes occurring during B. bassiana invasion to house fly leading to establishment of infection along with facilitation in understanding of basic hemocyte biology. The results of the study is expected to help in better understanding of house fly immune response during fungal infection, so as to assist production of more efficient mycoinsecticides for house fly control using B. bassiana.

  4. Peripheral dendritic cells are essential for both the innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, Christina D.; Hahto, Suzanne M.; Ciavarra, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Intranasal application of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes acute infection of the central nervous system (CNS). However, VSV encephalitis is not invariably fatal, suggesting that the CNS may contain a professional antigen-presenting cell (APC) capable of inducing or propagating a protective antiviral immune response. To examine this possibility, we first characterized the cellular elements that infiltrate the brain as well as the activation status of resident microglia in the brains of normal and transgenic mice acutely ablated of peripheral dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo. VSV encephalitis was characterized by a pronounced infiltrate of myeloid cells (CD45 high CD11b + ) and CD8 + T cells containing a subset that was specific for the immunodominant VSV nuclear protein epitope. This T cell response correlated temporally with a rapid and sustained upregulation of MHC class I expression on microglia, whereas class II expression was markedly delayed. Ablation of peripheral DCs profoundly inhibited the inflammatory response as well as infiltration of virus-specific CD8 + T cells. Unexpectedly, the VSV-induced interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) response in the CNS remained intact in DC-deficient mice. Thus, both the inflammatory and certain components of the adaptive primary antiviral immune response in the CNS are dependent on peripheral DCs in vivo.

  5. Major Histocompatibilty Complex-Restricted Adaptive Immune Responses to CT26 Colon Cancer Cell Line in Mixed Allogeneic Chimera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K W; Choi, B; Kim, Y M; Cho, C W; Park, H; Moon, J I; Choi, G-S; Park, J B; Kim, S J

    2017-06-01

    Although the induction of mixed allogeneic chimera shows promising clinical tolerance results in organ transplantation, its clinical relevance as an anti-cancer therapy is yet unknown. We introduced a mixed allogenic chimera setting with the use of a murine colon cancer cell line, CT26, by performing double bone marrow transplantation. We analyzed donor- and recipient-restricted anti-cancer T-cell responses, and phenotypes of subpopulations of T cells. The protocol involves challenging 1 × 10 5 cells of CT26 cells intra-hepatically on day 50 after bone marrow transplantation, and, by use of CT26 lysates and an H-2L d -restricted AH1 pentamer, flow cytometric analysis was performed to detect the generation of cancer-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells at various time points. We found that immunocompetence against tumors depends heavily on cancer-specific CD8 + T-cell responses in a major histocompatibility complex-restricted manner; the evidence was further supported by the increase of interferon-γ-secreting CD4 + T cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that during the effector immune response to CT26 cancer challenge, there was a presence of central memory cells (CD62L hi CCR7 + ) as well as effector memory cells (CD62L lo CCR7 - ). Moreover, mixed allogeneic chimeras (BALB/c to C56BL/6 or vice versa) showed similar or heightened immune responses to CT26 cells compared with that of wild-type mice. Our results suggest that the responses of primary immunocompetency and of pre-existing memory T cells against allogeneic cancer are sustained and preserved long-term in a mixed allogeneic chimeric environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Hanson, Miranda L.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental contaminant. Adult exposure to Cd alters the immune system, however, there are limited studies on the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl 2 (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at 20 weeks of age. Prenatal Cd exposure caused an increase in the percent of CD4 − CD8 − CD44 + CD25 − (DN1) thymocytes in both sexes and a decrease in the percent of CD4 − CD8 − CD44 − CD25 + (DN3) thymocytes in females. Females had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, and CD45R/B220 + B cells and a decrease in the percent of NK cells and granulocytes (Gr-1 + ). Males had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4 + T cells and CD45R/B220 + B cells and a decrease in the percent of CD8 + T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. The percentage of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were reduced in both sexes. The percent of splenic nTreg cells was decreased in all Cd-exposed offspring. Cd-exposed offspring were immunized with a streptococcal vaccine and the antibody response was determined. PC-specific serum antibody titers were decreased in Cd exposed female offspring but increased in the males. PspA-specific serum IgG titers were increased in both females and males compared to control animals. Females had a decrease in PspA-specific serum IgM antibody titers. Females and males had a decrease in the number of splenic anti-PspA antibody-secreting cells when standardized to the number of B cells. These findings demonstrate that very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term sex-specific alterations on the immune system of the offspring. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal exposure to cadmium alters the immune system of 20 week old offspring. ► The percentage of DN1 and DN3 thymocytes was changed. ► Males and females had changed percentages of numerous splenic cell

  7. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Hanson, Miranda L.; Schafer, Rosana [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental contaminant. Adult exposure to Cd alters the immune system, however, there are limited studies on the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at 20 weeks of age. Prenatal Cd exposure caused an increase in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup +}CD25{sup −} (DN1) thymocytes in both sexes and a decrease in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup −}CD25{sup +} (DN3) thymocytes in females. Females had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells, CD8{sup +} T cells, and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of NK cells and granulocytes (Gr-1{sup +}). Males had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of CD8{sup +} T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. The percentage of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were reduced in both sexes. The percent of splenic nTreg cells was decreased in all Cd-exposed offspring. Cd-exposed offspring were immunized with a streptococcal vaccine and the antibody response was determined. PC-specific serum antibody titers were decreased in Cd exposed female offspring but increased in the males. PspA-specific serum IgG titers were increased in both females and males compared to control animals. Females had a decrease in PspA-specific serum IgM antibody titers. Females and males had a decrease in the number of splenic anti-PspA antibody-secreting cells when standardized to the number of B cells. These findings demonstrate that very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term sex-specific alterations on the immune system of the offspring. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal exposure to cadmium alters the immune system of 20 week old offspring. ► The percentage of DN1 and DN3 thymocytes was changed

  8. Eosinophils in mucosal immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, J; Rothenberg, M E

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils, multifunctional cells that contribute to both innate and adaptive immunity, are involved in the initiation, propagation and resolution of immune responses, including tissue repair. They achieve this multifunctionality by expression of a diverse set of activation receptors, including those that directly recognize pathogens and opsonized targets, and by their ability to store and release preformed cytotoxic mediators that participate in host defense, to produce a variety of de novo pleotropic mediators and cytokines and to interact directly and indirectly with diverse cell types, including adaptive and innate immunocytes and structural cells. Herein, we review the basic biology of eosinophils and then focus on new emerging concepts about their role in mucosal immune homeostasis, particularly maintenance of intestinal IgA. We review emerging data about their development and regulation and describe new concepts concerning mucosal eosinophilic diseases. We describe recently developed therapeutic strategies to modify eosinophil levels and function and provide collective insight about the beneficial and detrimental functions of these enigmatic cells. PMID:25807184

  9. Transcriptome profiling reveals the immune response of goose T cells under selenium stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Li, Wanyan; Li, Bingxin; Tian, Yunbo; Xu, Danning

    2017-12-01

    The goose is an economically important poultry species and a principal natural host of avian viruses. This study aimed to determine the effects of selenium on the immune response of geese. Under selenium stimulation, gene expression profiling was investigated using transcriptome sequencing. The selenoproteins were promoted by selenium stimulation, while the heat shock proteins, interleukin and interferons were mainly down-regulated. After comparison, 2228 differentially expressed genes were primarily involved in immune and environmental response, and infectious disease and genetic information processing related pathways were identified. Specifically, the enzymes of the lysosomes which acted as a safeguard in preventing pathogens were mostly up-regulated and six randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the most proportional increased transcription factor family basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) located in the 5' flank of selenoprotein P-like protein for selenium metabolism was identified by response to the selenium stimulation in this study. These analyses show that selenium can promote immune function by activating selenoproteins, transcript factors and lysosome pathway related genes, while weakening cytokine content genes in geese. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Innate immune responses induced by lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid in primary goat mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Omar; Dong, Xianwen; Roca, Alfred L; Caroli, Anna M; Loor, Juan J

    2017-01-01

    Innate immune responses induced by in vitro stimulation of primary mammary epithelial cells (MEC) using Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Gram-positive lipoteichoic acid (LTA) bacterial cell wall components are well- characterized in bovine species. The objective of the current study was to characterize the downstream regulation of the inflammatory response induced by Toll-like receptors in primary goat MEC (pgMEC). We performed quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) to measure mRNA levels of 9 genes involved in transcriptional regulation or antibacterial activity: Toll-like receptor 2 ( TLR2 ), Toll-like receptor 4 ( TLR4 ), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 ( PTGS2 ), interferon induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 ( IFIT3 ), interferon regulatory factor 3 ( IRF3 ), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 ( MYD88 ), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 ( NFKB1 ), Toll interacting protein ( TOLLIP ), and lactoferrin ( LTF ). Furthermore, we analyzed 7 cytokines involved in Toll-like receptor signaling pathways: C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ( CCL2 ), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 ( CCL5 ), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 6 ( CXCL6 ), interleukin 8 ( CXCL8 ), interleukin 1 beta ( IL1B ), interleukin 6 ( IL6 ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha ( TNF ). Stimulation of pgMEC with LPS for 3 h led to an increase in expression of CCL2 , CXCL6 , IL6 , CXCL8 , PTGS2 , IFIT3 , MYD88 , NFKB1 , and TLR4 ( P  < 0.05). Except for IL6 , and PTGS2 , the same genes had greater expression than controls at 6 h post-LPS ( P  < 0.05). Expression of CCL5 , PTGS2 , IFIT3 , NFKB1 , TLR4 , and TOLLIP was greater than controls after 3 h of incubation with LTA ( P  < 0.05). Compared to controls, stimulation with LTA for 6 h led to greater expression of PTGS2 , IFIT3 , NFKB1 , and TOLLIP ( P  < 0.05) whereas the expression of CXCL6 , CXCL8 , and TLR4 was lower ( P  < 0.05). At 3 h incubation with both toxins

  11. Immunocyto-adherence test for the detection of cell mediated immune response in lambs vaccinated with irradiated amphistome metacercariae (Cercariae indicae XXVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, Md.; Rao, B.V.; Krishnaswamy, S.

    1985-01-01

    Adherence of lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages on amphistome metacercariae (Cercaries indicae XXVI) and Paramphistomum epiclitum adult flukes was observed with cells obtained from lambs immunized with either normal or irradiated amphistome metacercariae (Cercariae indicae XXVI). The cell adherence reaction around metacercariae and adult flukes was comparatively more pronounced with cells obtained from lambs immunized with 2.5 or 3 krad irradiated metacercariae in comparison to cells obtained from lambs immunized with normal of 2 krad irradiated metacercariae. Possibly better CMI response was involved in the operation of immunity against the amphistome in the former two groups of lambs. (author)

  12. Histological Architecture Underlying Brain-Immune Cell-Cell Interactions and the Cerebral Response to Systemic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Atsuyoshi; Hasegawa-Ishii, Sanae

    2017-01-01

    Although the brain is now known to actively interact with the immune system under non-inflammatory conditions, the site of cell-cell interactions between brain parenchymal cells and immune cells has been an open question until recently. Studies by our and other groups have indicated that brain structures such as the leptomeninges, choroid plexus stroma and epithelium, attachments of choroid plexus, vascular endothelial cells, cells of the perivascular space, circumventricular organs, and astrocytic endfeet construct the histological architecture that provides a location for intercellular interactions between bone marrow-derived myeloid lineage cells and brain parenchymal cells under non-inflammatory conditions. This architecture also functions as the interface between the brain and the immune system, through which systemic inflammation-induced molecular events can be relayed to the brain parenchyma at early stages of systemic inflammation during which the blood-brain barrier is relatively preserved. Although brain microglia are well known to be activated by systemic inflammation, the mechanism by which systemic inflammatory challenge and microglial activation are connected has not been well documented. Perturbed brain-immune interaction underlies a wide variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including ischemic brain injury, status epilepticus, repeated social defeat, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Proinflammatory status associated with cytokine imbalance is involved in autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and depression. In this article, we propose a mechanism connecting systemic inflammation, brain-immune interface cells, and brain parenchymal cells and discuss the relevance of basic studies of the mechanism to neurological disorders with a special emphasis on sepsis-associated encephalopathy and preterm brain injury.

  13. CD4 T-helper cell cytokine phenotypes and antibody response following tetanus toxoid booster immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routine methods for enumerating antigen-specific T-helper cells may not identify low-frequency phenotypes such as Th2 cells. We compared methods of evaluating such responses to identify tetanus toxoid- (TT) specific Th1, Th2, Th17 and IL10+ cells. Eight healthy subjects were given a TT booster vacci...

  14. Trans-sialidase-based vaccine candidate protects against Trypanosoma cruzi infection, not only inducing an effector immune response but also affecting cells with regulatory/suppressor phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochetto, Estefanía; Roldán, Carolina; Bontempi, Iván A.; Bertona, Daiana; Peverengo, Luz; Vicco, Miguel H.; Rodeles, Luz M.; Pérez, Ana R.; Marcipar, Iván S.; Cabrera, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccines have an important potential to control Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi)infection. The involvement of regulatory/suppressor immune cells after an immunization treatment and T. cruzi infection has never been addressed. Here we show that a new trans-sialidase-based immunogen (TSf) was able to confer protection, correlating not only with beneficial changes in effector immune parameters, but also influencing populations of cells related to immune control. Regarding the effector response, mice immunized with TSf showed a TS-specific antibody response, significant delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactivity and increased production of IFN-γ by CD8+ splenocytes. After a challenge with T. cruzi, TSf-immunized mice showed 90% survival and low parasitemia as compared with 40% survival and high parasitemia in PBS-immunized mice. In relation to the regulatory/suppressor arm of the immune system, after T. cruzi infection TSf-immunized mice showed an increase in spleen CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) as compared to PBS-inoculated and infected mice. Moreover, although T. cruzi infection elicited a notable increase in myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in the spleen of PBS-inoculated mice, TSf-immunized mice showed a significantly lower increase of MDSC. Results presented herein highlight the need of studying the immune response as a whole when a vaccine candidate is rationally tested. PMID:28938533

  15. Exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus delbrueckii OLL1073R-1 modulate innate antiviral immune response in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Albarracin, Leonardo; Kobayashi, Hisakazu; Iida, Hikaru; Komatsu, Ryoya; Humayun Kober, A K M; Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Wakako; Suda, Yoshihito; Aso, Hisashi; Makino, Seiya; Kano, Hiroshi; Saito, Tadao; Villena, Julio; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii OLL1073R-1 (LDR-1) improve antiviral immunity, especially in the systemic and respiratory compartments. However, it was not studied before whether those EPSs are able to beneficially modulate intestinal antiviral immunity. In addition, LDR-1-host interaction has been evaluated mainly with immune cells while its interaction with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was not addressed before. In this work, we investigated the capacity of EPSs from LDR-1 to modulate the response of porcine IECs (PIE cells) to the stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 agonist poly(I:C) and the role of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR negative regulators in the immunoregulatory effect. We showed that innate immune response triggered by TLR3 activation in porcine IECs was differentially modulated by EPS from LDR-1. EPSs treatment induced an increment in the expression of interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-β in PIE cells after the stimulation with poly(I:C) as well as the expression of the antiviral factors MxA and RNase L. Those effects were related to the reduced expression of A20 in EPS-treated PIE cells. EPS from LDR-1 was also able to reduce the expression of IL-6 and proinflammatory chemokines. Although further in vivo studies are needed, our results suggest that these EPSs or a yogurt fermented with LDR-1 have potential to improve intestinal innate antiviral response and protect against intestinal viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Suppression of in vitro primary immune response by L1210 cells and their culture supernatant: evidence for cytotoxic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huget, R.P.; Flad, H.D.; Opitz, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    L1210 cells and their culture supernatants were found to inhibit the generation of PFC in the in vitro primary immune response of spleen cells to SRBC. As few as 1 percent of L1210 cells and 1 percent of culture fluid were inhibitory. Inhibition of DNA or protein synthesis of L1210 cells did not abolish their immunosuppressive activity, excluding exhaustion of culture medium as a possible mechanism of inhibition of PFC. Heating of the supernatant completely abrogated the suppressive effect and resulted in a marked increase of PFC. Daily evaluation of cell viability in the cultures revealed that, in the presence of L1210 and supernatants, the fraction of surviving cells is markedly reduced. We conclude that a direct cytotoxic effect on splenic lymphocytes and macrophages is the predominant immunosuppressive mechanism of L1210 cells and their culture supernatants

  17. Ganoderma lucidum extracts inhibited leukemia WEHI-3 cells in BALB/c mice and promoted an immune response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Hsien; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yang, Jiun-Long; Wu, Chang-Lin; Chang, Shu-Jen; Lu, Kung-Wen; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Hsia, Te-Chun; Lin, Yi-Ting; Ho, Chin-Chih; Wood, W Gibson; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2009-12-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a medicinal mushroom having biological effects such as immunomodulation and anti-tumor actions. In China and many other Asian countries, G. lucidum is used as a folk remedy to promote health and longevity. Although many studies have shown that G. lucidum modulates the immune system, including, for example, antigen-presenting cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and the T and B lymphocytes, the effects of G. lucidum on the WEHI-3 leukemic BALB/c mice are unclear. We attempted to determine whether G. lucidum would promote immune responses in BALB/c mice injected with WEHI-3 leukemia cells. The effects of G. lucidum on the survival rate of WEHI-3 leukemia cells injected into BALB/c mice were examined. It increased the percentages of CD3 and CD19, but decreased the percentages of Mac-3 and CD11b markers, suggesting that differentiation of the precursor of T and B cells was promoted but macrophages were inhibited. It decreased the weight of spleens as compared with control mice. It also promoted phagocytosis by macrophage from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and it also promoted natural killer cell activity. It decreased the percentage of leukemia cells in the spleens of mice before they were injected with WEHI-3 cells. Apparently, G. lucidum affects murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vivo.

  18. Role and contribution of pulmonary CD103+ dendritic cells in the adaptive immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Vanessa Hui Qi; Ng, See Liang; Ang, Michelle Lay Teng; Lin, Wenwei; Ruedl, Christiane; Alonso, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Despite international control programmes, the global burden of tuberculosis remains enormous. Efforts to discover novel drugs have largely focused on targeting the bacterium directly. Alternatively, manipulating the host immune response may represent a valuable approach to enhance immunological clearance of the bacilli, but necessitates a deeper understanding of the immune mechanisms associated with protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Here, we examined the various dendritic cells (DC) subsets present in the lung and draining lymph nodes (LN) from mice intra-tracheally infected with M. tuberculosis. We showed that although limited in number, pulmonary CD103 + DCs appeared to be involved in the initial transport of mycobacteria to the draining mediastinal LN and subsequent activation of T cells. Using CLEC9A-DTR transgenic mice enabling the inducible depletion of CD103 + DCs, we established that this DC subset contributes to the control of mycobacterial burden and plays a role in the early activation of T cells, in particular CD8 + T cells. Our findings thus support a previously unidentified role for pulmonary CD103 + DCs in the rapid mobilization of mycobacteria from the lungs to the draining LN soon after exposure to M. tuberculosis, which is a critical step for the development of the host adaptive immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Involvement of CD8+ T cell-mediated immune responses in LcrV DNA vaccine induced protection against lethal Yersinia pestis challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shixia; Goguen, Jon D; Li, Fusheng; Lu, Shan

    2011-09-09

    Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) is the causative pathogen of plague, a highly fatal disease for which an effective vaccine, especially against mucosal transmission, is still not available. Like many bacterial infections, antigen-specific antibody responses have been traditionally considered critical, if not solely responsible, for vaccine-induced protection against Y. pestis. Studies in recent years have suggested the importance of T cell immune responses against Y. pestis infection but information is still limited about the details of Y. pestis antigen-specific T cell immune responses. In current report, studies are conducted to identify the presence of CD8+ T cell epitopes in LcrV protein, the leading antigen of plague vaccine development. Furthermore, depletion of CD8+ T cells in LcrV DNA vaccinated Balb/C mice led to reduced protection against lethal intranasal challenge of Y. pestis. These findings establish that an LcrV DNA vaccine is able to elicit CD8+ T cell immune responses against specific epitopes of this key plague antigen and that a CD8+ T cell immune response is involved in LcrV DNA vaccine-elicited protection. Future studies in plague vaccine development will need to examine if the presence of detectable T cell immune responses, in particular CD8+ T-cell immune responses, will enhance the protection against Y. pestis in higher animal species or humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Defective pulmonary innate immune responses post-stem cell transplantation; review and results from one model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racquel eDomingo-Gonzalez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Infectious pulmonary complications limit the success of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT as a therapy for malignant and nonmalignant disorders. Susceptibility to pathogens in both autologous and allogeneic HSCT recipients persists despite successful immune reconstitution. As studying the causal effects of these immune defects in the human population can be limiting, a bone marrow transplant (BMT mouse model can be used to understand the defect in mounting a productive innate immune response post-transplantation. When syngeneic BMT is performed, this system allows the study of BMT-induced alterations in innate immune cell function that are independent of the confounding effects of immunosuppressive therapy and graft-versus-host disease. Studies from several laboratories, including our own show that pulmonary susceptibility to bacterial infections post-BMT are largely due to alterations in the lung alveolar macrophages. Changes in these cells post-BMT include cytokine and eicosanoid dysregulations, scavenger receptor alterations, changes in micro RNA profiles, and alterations in intracellular signaling molecules that limit bacterial phagocytosis and killing. The changes that occur highlight mechanisms that promote susceptibility to infections commonly afflicting HSCT recipients and provide insight into therapeutic targets that may improve patient outcomes post-HSCT.

  1. B-cell depletion is protective against anti-AAV capsid immune response: a human subject case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Corti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy strategies for congenital myopathies may require repeat administration of adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors due to aspects of the clinical application, such as: (i administration of doses below therapeutic efficacy in patients enrolled in early phase clinical trials; (ii progressive reduction of the therapeutic gene expression over time as a result of increasing muscle mass in patients treated at a young age; and (iii a possibly faster depletion of pathogenic myofibers in this patient population. Immune response triggered by the first vector administration, and to subsequent doses, represents a major obstacle for successful gene transfer in young patients. Anti-capsid and anti-transgene product related humoral and cell-mediated responses have been previously observed in all preclinical models and human subjects who received gene therapy or enzyme replacement therapy (ERT for congenital myopathies. Immune responses may result in reduced efficacy of the gene transfer over time and/or may preclude for the possibility of re-administration of the same vector. In this study, we evaluated the immune response of a Pompe patient dosed with an AAV1-GAA vector after receiving Rituximab and Sirolimus to modulate reactions against ERT. A key finding of this single subject case report is the observation that B-cell ablation with rituximab prior to AAV vector exposure results in non-responsiveness to both capsid and transgene, therefore allowing the possibility of repeat administration in the future. This observation is significant for future gene therapy studies and establishes a clinically relevant approach to blocking immune responses to AAV vectors.

  2. Activated human T cells secrete exosomes that participate in IL-2 mediated immune response signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Wahlgren

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that nano-meter sized vesicles (30-100 nm, exosomes, secreted by antigen presenting cells can induce T cell responses thus showing the potential of exosomes to be used as immunological tools. Additionally, activated CD3⁺ T cells can secrete exosomes that have the ability to modulate different immunological responses. Here, we investigated what effects exosomes originating from activated CD3⁺ T cells have on resting CD3⁺ T cells by studying T cell proliferation, cytokine production and by performing T cell and exosome phenotype characterization. Human exosomes were generated in vitro following CD3⁺ T cell stimulation with anti-CD28, anti-CD3 and IL-2. Our results show that exosomes purified from stimulated CD3⁺ T cells together with IL-2 were able to generate proliferation in autologous resting CD3⁺ T cells. The CD3⁺ T cells stimulated with exosomes together with IL-2 had a higher proportion of CD8⁺ T cells and had a different cytokine profile compared to controls. These results indicate that activated CD3⁺ T cells communicate with resting autologous T cells via exosomes.

  3. HPV-E7 Delivered by Engineered Exosomes Elicits a Protective CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bonito, Paola; Ridolfi, Barbara; Columba-Cabezas, Sandra; Giovannelli, Andrea; Chiozzini, Chiara; Manfredi, Francesco; Anticoli, Simona; Arenaccio, Claudia; Federico, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    We developed an innovative strategy to induce a cytotoxic T cell (CTL) immune response against protein antigens of choice. It relies on the production of exosomes, i.e., nanovesicles spontaneously released by all cell types. We engineered the upload of huge amounts of protein antigens upon fusion with an anchoring protein (i.e., HIV-1 Nefmut), which is an inactive protein incorporating in exosomes at high levels also when fused with foreign proteins. We compared the immunogenicity of engineered exosomes uploading human papillomavirus (HPV)-E7 with that of lentiviral virus-like particles (VLPs) incorporating equivalent amounts of the same antigen. These exosomes, whose limiting membrane was decorated with VSV-G, i.e., an envelope protein inducing pH-dependent endosomal fusion, proved to be as immunogenic as the cognate VLPs. It is noteworthy that the immunogenicity of the engineered exosomes remained unaltered in the absence of VSV-G. Most important, we provide evidence that the inoculation in mouse of exosomes uploading HPV-E7 induces production of anti-HPV E7 CTLs, blocks the growth of syngeneic tumor cells inoculated after immunization, and controls the development of tumor cells inoculated before the exosome challenge. These results represent the proof-of-concept about both feasibility and efficacy of the Nefmut-based exosome platform for the induction of CD8+ T cell immunity. PMID:25760140

  4. HPV-E7 Delivered by Engineered Exosomes Elicits a Protective CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Bonito

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed an innovative strategy to induce a cytotoxic T cell (CTL immune response against protein antigens of choice. It relies on the production of exosomes, i.e., nanovesicles spontaneously released by all cell types. We engineered the upload of huge amounts of protein antigens upon fusion with an anchoring protein (i.e., HIV-1 Nefmut, which is an inactive protein incorporating in exosomes at high levels also when fused with foreign proteins. We compared the immunogenicity of engineered exosomes uploading human papillomavirus (HPV-E7 with that of lentiviral virus-like particles (VLPs incorporating equivalent amounts of the same antigen. These exosomes, whose limiting membrane was decorated with VSV-G, i.e., an envelope protein inducing pH-dependent endosomal fusion, proved to be as immunogenic as the cognate VLPs. It is noteworthy that the immunogenicity of the engineered exosomes remained unaltered in the absence of VSV-G. Most important, we provide evidence that the inoculation in mouse of exosomes uploading HPV-E7 induces production of anti-HPV E7 CTLs, blocks the growth of syngeneic tumor cells inoculated after immunization, and controls the development of tumor cells inoculated before the exosome challenge. These results represent the proof-of-concept about both feasibility and efficacy of the Nefmut-based exosome platform for the induction of CD8+ T cell immunity.

  5. A rare subset of skin-tropic regulatory T cells expressing Il10/Gzmb inhibits the cutaneous immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Teraguchi, Shunsuke; Vandenbon, Alexis; Honda, Tetsuya; Shand, Francis H W; Nakanishi, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Takeshi; Tomura, Michio

    2016-10-19

    Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) migrating from the skin to the draining lymph node (dLN) have a strong immunosuppressive effect on the cutaneous immune response. However, the subpopulations responsible for their inhibitory function remain unclear. We investigated single-cell gene expression heterogeneity in Tregs from the dLN of inflamed skin in a contact hypersensitivity model. The immunosuppressive genes Ctla4 and Tgfb1 were expressed in the majority of Tregs. Although Il10-expressing Tregs were rare, unexpectedly, the majority of Il10-expressing Tregs co-expressed Gzmb and displayed Th1-skewing. Single-cell profiling revealed that CD43 + CCR5 + Tregs represented the main subset within the Il10/Gzmb-expressing cell population in the dLN. Moreover, CD43 + CCR5 + CXCR3 - Tregs expressed skin-tropic chemokine receptors, were preferentially retained in inflamed skin and downregulated the cutaneous immune response. The identification of a rare Treg subset co-expressing multiple immunosuppressive molecules and having tissue-remaining capacity offers a novel strategy for the control of skin inflammatory responses.

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of tritiated thymidine incorporation and ELISPOT assays in identifying antigen specific T cell immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLeod Beth

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standardization of cell-based immunologic monitoring is becoming increasingly important as methods for measuring cellular immunity become more complex. We assessed the ability of two commonly used cell-based assays, tritiated thymidine incorporation (proliferation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT, to predict T cell responses to HER-2/neu, tetanus toxoid (tt, and cytomegalovirus (CMV antigens. These antigens were determined to be low (HER-2/neu, moderate (tt, and robustly (CMV immunogenic proteins. Samples from 27 Stage II, III, and IV HER-2/neu positive breast cancer patients, vaccinated against the HER-2/neu protein and tt, were analyzed by tritiated thymidine incorporation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT for T cell response. Results Linear regression analysis indicates that both stimulation index (SI (p = 0.011 and IFN-gamma secreting precursor frequency (p Conclusion These data underscore the importance of taking into consideration the performance characteristics of assays used to measure T cell immunity. This consideration is particularly necessary when determining which method to utilize for assessing responses to immunotherapeutic manipulations in cancer patients.

  7. Effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis extract on weight, hematology and cell-mediated immune response of newborn goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Shokrollahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of different levels of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis extract on growth rate, hematology and cell-mediated immune response in Markhoz newborn goat kids. Twenty four goat kids (aged 7±3 days were randomly allotted to four groups with six replicates. The groups included: control, T1, T2 and T3 groups which received supplemented-milk with 0, 100, 200 and 400mg aqueous rosemary extract per kg of live body weight per day for 42 days. Body weights of kids were measured weekly until the end of the experiment. On day 42, 10 ml blood samples were collected from each kid through the jugular vein. Cell-mediated immune response was assessed through the double skin thickness after intradermal injection of phyto-hematoglutinin (PHA at day 21 and 42. No significant differences were seen in initial body weight, average daily gain (ADG and total gain. However, significant differences in globulin (P<0.05, and white blood cells (WBC (P<0.001 were observed. There were no significant differences in haemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBC, lymphocytes and neutrophils between the treatments. Skin thickness in response to intra dermal injection of PHA significantly increased in the treated groups as compared to the control group at day 42 (P<0.01 with the T3 group showing the highest response to PHA injection. In conclusion, the results indicated that aqueous rosemary extract supplemented-milk had a positive effect on immunity and skin thickness of newborn goat kids.

  8. Comparison of immune responses to a killed bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine between endemic and less endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachin N; Akalu, Zenebe; Teferi, Mekonnen; Manna, Byomkesh; Teshome, Samuel; Park, Ju Yeon; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Deok Ryun; Kanungo, Suman; Digilio, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Studies on safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the killed, bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) have been conducted in historically endemic settings of Asia. Recent cholera vaccination campaigns in Haiti and Guinea have also demonstrated favourable immunogenicity and effectiveness in nonendemic outbreak settings. We performed a secondary analysis, comparing immune responses of Shanchol from two randomised controlled trials performed in an endemic and a less endemic area (Addis Ababa) during a nonoutbreak setting. While Shanchol may offer some degree of immediate protection in primed populations living in cholera endemic areas, as well as being highly immunogenic in less endemic settings, understanding the characteristics of immune responses in each of these areas is vital in determining ideal dosing strategies that offer the greatest public health impact to populations from areas with varying degrees of cholera endemicity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Role of indirect radiation effects on cell membranes in the immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternglass, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work by Petkau indicates that, in sharp contrast to the case of damage to the genes, the doubling dose for indirect radiation damage to cell membranes decreases as the dose rate declines, apparently as the result of a free-radical-mediated oxidative reaction involving O 2 - . These findings explain the earlier results of Stokke, who observed significant declines in bone-marrow cellularity of the hematopoietic stem cells involved in the immune processes at dose rates below 10 -4 rad/min for total doses of only 0.1 to 2000 mrads, the doubling dose declining with total dose administered over periods of 6 to 18 weeks in a manner similar to that observed by Petkau. These observations, furthermore, explain the fact that erythrocyte permeability to monovalent cations can be significantly increased in occupationally exposed individuals at total doses of only 10 to 30 mR in 1 month, whereas thousands of rads are required at therapeutic dose rates. Evidence is presented suggesting the dominance of indirect, free-radical-mediated radiation effects over direct somatic mutation effects at background radiation rates on the development of cancer, leukemia, and infectious diseases from small radiation exposures encountered in the environment. The implications or the relative biological effect on the immune system of radiation at high and low dose rates are discussed

  10. Foxp3(+) T cells regulate immunoglobulin a selection and facilitate diversification of bacterial species responsible for immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Shimpei; Maruya, Mikako; Kato, Lucia M; Suda, Wataru; Atarashi, Koji; Doi, Yasuko; Tsutsui, Yumi; Qin, Hongyan; Honda, Kenya; Okada, Takaharu; Hattori, Masahira; Fagarasan, Sidonia

    2014-07-17

    Foxp3(+) T cells play a critical role for the maintenance of immune tolerance. Here we show that in mice, Foxp3(+) T cells contributed to diversification of gut microbiota, particularly of species belonging to Firmicutes. The control of indigenous bacteria by Foxp3(+) T cells involved regulatory functions both outside and inside germinal centers (GCs), consisting of suppression of inflammation and regulation of immunoglobulin A (IgA) selection in Peyer's patches, respectively. Diversified and selected IgAs contributed to maintenance of diversified and balanced microbiota, which in turn facilitated the expansion of Foxp3(+) T cells, induction of GCs, and IgA responses in the gut through a symbiotic regulatory loop. Thus, the adaptive immune system, through cellular and molecular components that are required for immune tolerance and through the diversification as well as selection of antibody repertoire, mediates host-microbial symbiosis by controlling the richness and balance of bacterial communities required for homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MiR-155-regulated molecular network orchestrates cell fate in the innate and adaptive immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothchild, Alissa C; Sissons, James R; Shafiani, Shahin; Plaisier, Christopher; Min, Deborah; Mai, Dat; Gilchrist, Mark; Peschon, Jacques; Larson, Ryan P; Bergthaler, Andreas; Baliga, Nitin S; Urdahl, Kevin B; Aderem, Alan

    2016-10-11

    The regulation of host-pathogen interactions during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection remains unresolved. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of the immune system, and so we used a systems biology approach to construct an miRNA regulatory network activated in macrophages during Mtb infection. Our network comprises 77 putative miRNAs that are associated with temporal gene expression signatures in macrophages early after Mtb infection. In this study, we demonstrate a dual role for one of these regulators, miR-155. On the one hand, miR-155 maintains the survival of Mtb-infected macrophages, thereby providing a niche favoring bacterial replication; on the other hand, miR-155 promotes the survival and function of Mtb-specific T cells, enabling an effective adaptive immune response. MiR-155-induced cell survival is mediated through the SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway. Thus, dual regulation of the same cell survival pathway in innate and adaptive immune cells leads to vastly different outcomes with respect to bacterial containment.

  12. Mast cell activators as novel immune regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Weaver, Brandi; Choi, Hae Woong; Abraham, Soman N; Staats, Herman F

    2018-05-26

    Mast cells are an important cell type of the innate immune system that when activated, play a crucial role in generating protective innate host responses after bacterial and viral infection. Additionally, activated mast cells influence lymph node composition to regulate the induction of adaptive immune responses. The recognition that mast cells play a beneficial role in host responses to microbial infection and induction of adaptive immunity has provided the rationale to evaluate mast cell activators for use as antimicrobials or vaccine adjuvants. This review summarizes the role of mast cell activators in antimicrobial responses while also discussing the use of different classes of mast cell activators as potent vaccine adjuvants that enhance the induction of protective immune responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. β-Glucan Size Controls Dectin-1-Mediated Immune Responses in Human Dendritic Cells by Regulating IL-1β Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Elder

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dectin-1/CLEC7A is a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes β-1,3 glucans, and its stimulation initiates signaling events characterized by the production of inflammatory cytokines from human dendritic cells (DCs required for antifungal immunity. β-glucans differ greatly in size, structure, and ability to activate effector immune responses from DC; as such, small particulate β-glucans are thought to be poor activators of innate immunity. We show that β-glucan particle size is a critical factor contributing to the secretion of cytokines from human DC; large β-glucan-stimulated DC generate significantly more IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 compared to those stimulated with the smaller β-glucans. In marked contrast, the secretion of TSLP and CCL22 were found to be insensitive to β-glucan particle size. Furthermore, we show that the capacity to induce phagocytosis, and the relative IL-1β production determined by β-glucan size, regulates the composition of the cytokine milieu generated from DC. This suggests that β-glucan particle size is critically important in orchestrating the nature of the immune response to fungi.

  14. Immune oncology, immune responsiveness and the theory of everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Tolga; Kannan, Deepti; Patel, Maulik; Matthew Barnes, J; Tanlimco, Sonia G; Lu, Rongze; Halliwill, Kyle; Kongpachith, Sarah; Kline, Douglas E; Hendrickx, Wouter; Cesano, Alessandra; Butterfield, Lisa H; Kaufman, Howard L; Hudson, Thomas J; Bedognetti, Davide; Marincola, Francesco; Samayoa, Josue

    2018-06-05

    Anti-cancer immunotherapy is encountering its own checkpoint. Responses are dramatic and long lasting but occur in a subset of tumors and are largely dependent upon the pre-existing immune contexture of individual cancers. Available data suggest that three landscapes best define the cancer microenvironment: immune-active, immune-deserted and immune-excluded. This trichotomy is observable across most solid tumors (although the frequency of each landscape varies depending on tumor tissue of origin) and is associated with cancer prognosis and response to checkpoint inhibitor therapy (CIT). Various gene signatures (e.g. Immunological Constant of Rejection - ICR and Tumor Inflammation Signature - TIS) that delineate these landscapes have been described by different groups. In an effort to explain the mechanisms of cancer immune responsiveness or resistance to CIT, several models have been proposed that are loosely associated with the three landscapes. Here, we propose a strategy to integrate compelling data from various paradigms into a "Theory of Everything". Founded upon this unified theory, we also propose the creation of a task force led by the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) aimed at systematically addressing salient questions relevant to cancer immune responsiveness and immune evasion. This multidisciplinary effort will encompass aspects of genetics, tumor cell biology, and immunology that are pertinent to the understanding of this multifaceted problem.

  15. Identification of genetic loci in Lactobacillus plantarum that modulate the immune response of dendritic cells using comparative genome hybridization.

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    Marjolein Meijerink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotics can be used to stimulate or regulate epithelial and immune cells of the intestinal mucosa and generate beneficial mucosal immunomodulatory effects. Beneficial effects of specific strains of probiotics have been established in the treatment and prevention of various intestinal disorders, including allergic diseases and diarrhea. However, the precise molecular mechanisms and the strain-dependent factors involved are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we aimed to identify gene loci in the model probiotic organism Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 that modulate the immune response of host dendritic cells. The amounts of IL-10 and IL-12 secreted by dendritic cells (DCs after stimulation with 42 individual L. plantarum strains were measured and correlated with the strain-specific genomic composition using comparative genome hybridisation and the Random Forest algorithm. This in silico "gene-trait matching" approach led to the identification of eight candidate genes in the L. plantarum genome that might modulate the DC cytokine response to L. plantarum. Six of these genes were involved in bacteriocin production or secretion, one encoded a bile salt hydrolase and one encoded a transcription regulator of which the exact function is unknown. Subsequently, gene deletions mutants were constructed in L. plantarum WCFS1 and compared to the wild-type strain in DC stimulation assays. All three bacteriocin mutants as well as the transcription regulator (lp_2991 had the predicted effect on cytokine production confirming their immunomodulatory effect on the DC response to L. plantarum. Transcriptome analysis and qPCR data showed that transcript level of gtcA3, which is predicted to be involved in glycosylation of cell wall teichoic acids, was substantially increased in the lp_2991 deletion mutant (44 and 29 fold respectively. CONCLUSION: Comparative genome hybridization led to the identification of gene loci in L

  16. A robust response to combination immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in HPV-related small cell cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Won Jin; Rooper, Lisa; Sagorsky, Sarah; Kang, Hyunseok

    2018-05-09

    Human papillomavirus-related small cell carcinoma of the head and neck is an extremely rare, aggressive subtype with poor outcomes. Therapeutic options are limited and are largely adopted from small cell lung cancer treatment paradigms. This report describes a 69-year old male who was diagnosed of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer with mixed small cell and squamous cell pathology which was clinically aggressive and progressed through multimodal platinum-based therapies. Upon manifestation of worsening metastatic disease, the patient was initiated on a combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab. Within 2 months of starting immunotherapy, a robust partial response was observed. During the treatment course, the patient developed immune-related adverse effects including new diabetes mellitus, colitis, and hypothyroidism. The disease-specific survival was 26 months. Combination immunotherapy may be an attractive option for HPV-related small cell head and neck cancers resistant to other treatment modalities and thus warrants further evaluation.

  17. The Bacterial Species Campylobacter jejuni Induce Diverse Innate Immune Responses in Human and Avian Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. John

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter remain the major cause of human gastroenteritis in the Developed World causing a significant burden to health services. Campylobacter are pathogens in humans and chickens, although differences in mechanistic understanding are incomplete, in part because phenotypic strain diversity creates inconsistent findings. Here, we took Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 100 from multi-locus sequence typed collections to assess their pathogenic diversity, through their inflammatory, cytotoxicity, adhesion, invasion and signaling responses in a high-throughput model using avian and human intestinal epithelial cells. C. jejuni induced IL-8 and CXCLi1/2 in human and avian epithelial cells, respectively, in a MAP kinase-dependent manner. In contrast, IL-10 responses in both cell types were PI 3-kinase/Akt-dependent. C. jejuni strains showed diverse levels of invasion with high invasion dependent on MAP kinase signaling in both cell lines. C. jejuni induced diverse cytotoxic responses in both cell lines with cdt-positive isolates showing significantly higher toxicity. Blockade of endocytic pathways suggested that invasion by C. jejuni was clathrin- and dynamin-dependent but caveolae- independent in both cells. In contrast, IL-8 (and CXCLi1/2 production was dependent on clathrin, dynamin, and caveolae. This study is important because of its scale, and the data produced, suggesting that avian and human epithelial cells use similar innate immune pathways where the magnitude of the response is determined by the phenotypic diversity of the Campylobacter species.

  18. Trichomonas vaginalis α-Actinin 2 Modulates Host Immune Responses by Inducing Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells via IL-10 Production from Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Juri; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Park, Soon-Jung

    2017-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a pathogen that triggers severe immune responses in hosts. T. vaginalis α-actinin 2, Tvα-actinin 2, has been used to diagnose trichomoniasis. This study was undertaken to examine the role of Tvα-actinin 2 as an antigenic molecule to induce immune responses from humans. Western blot analysis using anti-Tvα-actinin 2 antibodies indicated its presence in the secreted proteins of T. vaginalis. ELISA was employed to measure cytokine production by vaginal epithelial cells, prostate cells, mouse dendritic cells (DCs), or T cells stimulated with T. vaginalis or Tvα-actinin 2 protein. Both T. vaginalis and rTvα-actinin 2 induced cytokine production from epithelial cell lines, including IL-10. Moreover, CD4+CD25- regulatory T cells (Treg cells) incubated with rTvα-actinin 2-treated DCs produced high levels of IL-10. These data indicate that Tvα-actinin 2 modulates immune responses via IL-10 production by Treg cells.

  19. Tracking targeted bimodal nanovaccines: immune responses and routing in cells, tissue, and whole organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Luis J; Tacken, Paul J; Zeelenberg, Ingrid S; Srinivas, Mangala; Bonetto, Fernando; Weigelin, Bettina; Eich, Christina; de Vries, I Jolanda; Figdor, Carl G

    2014-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs), involved in the induction of immunity and currently exploited for antitumor immunotherapies. An optimized noninvasive imaging modality capable of determining and quantifying DC-targeted nanoparticle (NP) trajectories could provide valuable information regarding therapeutic vaccine outcome. Here, targeted poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) recognizing DC receptors were equipped with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) or gold nanoparticles with fluorescently labeled antigen. The fluorescent label allowed for rapid analysis and quantification of DC-specific uptake of targeted PLGA NPs in comparison to uptake by other cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that a fraction of the encapsulated antigen reached the lysosomal compartment of DCs, where SPIO and gold were already partially released. However, part of the PLGA NPs localized within the cytoplasm, as confirmed by confocal microscopy. DCs targeted with NPs carrying SPIO or fluorescent antigen were detected within lymph nodes as early as 1 h after injection by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Despite the fact that targeting did not markedly affect PLGA NP biodistribution on organism and tissue level, it increased delivery of NPs to DCs residing in peripheral lymph nodes and resulted in enhanced T cell proliferation. In conclusion, two imaging agents within a single carrier allows tracking of targeted PLGA NPs at the subcellular, cellular, and organismal levels, thereby facilitating the rational design of in vivo targeted vaccination strategies.

  20. Manipulations of the immune response in the chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixler, G.S. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The chicken with its dissociation of immune responses in cell-mediated immunity, dependent on the thymus, and humoral immunity, dependent on the bursa of Fabricius, provides a unique model for studying the two components of the immune system. While there are methods of obtaining selective, profound deficiency of humoral immunity, in this species, methods for obtaining a consistent, profound selective deficiency of cell-mediated immunity have been lacking. Oxisuran, 2[(methylsulfinyl)acetal] pyridine, has been reported to have the unique ability to differentially suppress cell-mediated immunity in several species of mammals without a concomitant reduction in antibody forming capacity. The effect of this compound on two parameters of cell-mediated immune responses in chickens was investigated. In further attempts to create a deficiency of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity, the effects of a combination of cyclophosphamide treatment and x-irradiation early in life on immune responses were studied

  1. Characterization of cellular immune response and innate immune signaling in human and nonhuman primate primary mononuclear cells exposed to Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shahabuddin; Amemiya, Kei; Bernhards, Robert C; Ulrich, Robert G; Waag, David M; Saikh, Kamal U

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei infection causes melioidosis and is often characterized by severe sepsis. Although rare in humans, Burkholderia mallei has caused infections in laboratory workers, and the early innate cellular response to B. mallei in human and nonhuman primates has not been characterized. In this study, we examined the primary cellular immune response to B. mallei in PBMC cultures of non-human primates (NHPs), Chlorocebus aethiops (African Green Monkeys), Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque), and Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque) and humans. Our results demonstrated that B. mallei elicited strong primary pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) equivalent to the levels of B. pseudomallei in primary PBMC cultures of NHPs and humans. When we examined IL-1β and other cytokine responses by comparison to Escherichia coli LPS, African Green Monkeys appears to be most responsive to B. mallei than Cynomolgus or Rhesus. Characterization of the immune signaling mechanism for cellular response was conducted by using a ligand induced cell-based reporter assay, and our results demonstrated that MyD88 mediated signaling contributed to the B. mallei and B. pseudomallei induced pro-inflammatory responses. Notably, the induced reporter activity with B. mallei, B. pseudomallei, or purified LPS from these pathogens was inhibited and cytokine production was attenuated by a MyD88 inhibitor. Together, these results show that in the scenario of severe hyper-inflammatory responses to B. mallei infection, MyD88 targeted therapeutic intervention may be a successful strategy for therapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Dendritic cells loaded with HeLa-derived exosomes simulate an antitumor immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guoping; Wang, Yanhong; Yuan, Shexia; Wang, Baolian

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of loading dendritic cells (DCs) with HeLa-derived exosomes on cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, and the cytotoxic effects of CTL responses on the HeLa cell line. Ultrafiltration centrifugation combined with sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation was applied to isolate exosomes (HeLa-exo) from the supernatant of HeLa cells. Morphological features of HeLa-exo were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)63 was detected by western blotting. Next, monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood and cultured with the removal of adherent cells to induce DC proliferation. DCs were then phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry. Finally, MTT assays were performed to analyze the effects of DCs loaded with HeLa-exo on T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assays to evaluate the effect of CTL responses on HeLa cells. TEM revealed that HeLa-exo exhibit typical cup-shaped morphology with a diameter range of 30-100 nm. It was also identified that the CD63 surface antigen is expressed on HeLa-exo. Furthermore, monocyte-derived DCs were able to express CD1a, suggesting that DC induction was a success. DCs exhibited hair-like protrusions and other typical dendritic cell morphology. Furthermore, DCs loaded with HeLa-exo could enhance CTL proliferation and the cytotoxic activity of CTLs compared with DCs without HeLa-exo (PHeLa-exo may promote T cell proliferation and induce CTL responses to inhibit the growth of cervical cancer cells in vitro .

  3. Immune responses of mature chicken bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells infected with Newcastle disease virus strains with differing pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bin; Zhu, Wenxian; Li, Yaling; Gao, Pei; Liang, Jianpeng; Liu, Di; Ding, Chan; Liao, Ming; Kang, Yinfeng; Ren, Tao

    2018-06-01

    Infection of chickens with virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is associated with severe pathology and increased morbidity and mortality. The innate immune response contributes to the pathogenicity of NDV. As professional antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) play a unique role in innate immunity. However, the contribution of DCs to NDV infection has not been investigated in chickens. In this study, we selected two representative NDV strains, i.e., the velogenic NDV strain Chicken/Guangdong/GM/2014 (GM) and the lentogenic NDV strain La Sota, to investigate whether NDVs could infect LPS-activated chicken bone-derived marrow DCs (mature chicken BM-DCs). We compared the viral titres and innate immune responses in mature chicken BM-DCs following infection with those strains. Both NDV strains could infect mature chicken BM-DC, but the GM strain showed stronger replication capacity than the La Sota strain in mature chicken BM-DCs. Gene expression profiling showed that MDA5, LGP2, TLR3, TLR7, IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, IL-8, CCL5, IL-10, IL-12, MHC-I, and MHC-II levels were altered in mature DCs after infection with NDVs at all evaluated times postinfection. Notably, the GM strain triggered stronger innate immune responses than the La Sota strain in chicken BM-DCs. However, both strains were able to suppress the expression of some cytokines, such as IL-6 and IFN-α, in mature chicken DCs at 24 hpi. These data provide a foundation for further investigation of the role of chicken DCs in NDV infection.

  4. Regulation of immune responses in SJL and F1 hybrid mice by gamma-irradiated syngeneic lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, I.R.; Nagase, F.; Bell, M.K.; Ponzio, N.M.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Syngeneic mixed lymphocyte-stimulating la+ lymphomas of SJL mice [reticulum cell sarcoma(s) (RCS)] were found to modulate immune responses in vivo. Simultaneous injection of 2 X 10(7) gamma-irradiated or glutaraldehyde-fixed RCS cells with the antigen sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP)-Ficoll markedly suppressed the subsequent plaque-forming cell response in the spleen. The suppression of the anti-SRBC response was prevented by pretreatment of the mice with cyclophosphamide, whereas the suppression of the anti-TNP-Ficoll response was not affected. RCS injection induced high interferon serum titers within 24 hours after injection, which were not prevented by pretreatment with cyclophosphamide. Injection of gamma-irradiated RCS cells (gamma-RCS) or RCS cell extract 2 days prior to antigen enhanced the anti-SRBC but markedly suppressed the anti- TNP-Ficoll response. Injection of RCS both on day -2 and day 0 enhanced the anti-SRBC response. SJL mice 8-9 months of age showed much less or no suppression when gamma-RCS cells were injected on day 0. Certain F1 hybrids of SJL also showed the gamma-RCS-induced suppression of the anti-SRBC response. Suppression was seen in SJL X BALB.B but not in SJL X BALB/c mice and in SJL X A.TH but not in SJL X A.TL mice, suggesting an I-region effect. F1 hybrids of SJL by B10 background mice showed no significant suppression. Enhancement of the anti-SRBC response by prior injection of gamma-RCS was seen in all F1 hybrid mice examined

  5. Forced expression of stabilized c-Fos in dendritic cells reduces cytokine production and immune responses in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Ryoko; Suzuki, Mayu; Sakaguchi, Ryota; Hasegawa, Eiichi; Kimura, Akihiro; Shichita, Takashi; Sekiya, Takashi [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda-ku 102-0075 (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroshi [Division of Medical Biochemistry, Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Saga Medical School, Saga (Japan); Shimoda, Kouji [Department of Laboratory Animal Center, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshimura, Akihiko, E-mail: yoshimura@a6.keio.jp [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda-ku 102-0075 (Japan)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic cells expressing stabilized c-Fos produced less inflammatory cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic cells expressing stabilized c-Fos activated T cells less efficiently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transgenic mice expressing stabilized c-Fos were resistant to EAE model. -- Abstract: Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) suppresses innate immunity by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytic cells. We have shown that the transcription factor c-Fos is responsible for cAMP-mediated suppression of inflammatory cytokine production, and that c-Fos protein is stabilized by IKK{beta}-mediated phosphorylation. We found that S308 is one of the major phosphorylation sites, and that the S308D mutation prolongs c-Fos halflife. To investigate the role of stabilized c-Fos protein in dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo, we generated CD11c-promoter-deriven c-FosS308D transgenic mice. As expected, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from these Tg mice produced smaller amounts of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-{alpha}, IL-12, and IL-23, but higher levels of IL-10, in response to LPS, than those from wild-type (Wt) mice. When T cells were co-cultured with BMDCs from Tg mice, production of Th1 and Th17 cytokines was reduced, although T cell proliferation was not affected. Tg mice demonstrated more resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) than did Wt mice. These data suggest that c-Fos in DCs plays a suppressive role in certain innate and adaptive immune responses.

  6. Effect of Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae aqueous extract on antibody response to Bothrops asper venom and immune cell response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Chaves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea roots on the murine antibody response to Bothrops asper snake venom in vivo was studied. Three groups were used. Group #1, baseline control, was treated with snake venom plus PBS. Group #2 was treated with snake venom plus sodium alginate as adjuvant (routine method used at Instituto Clodomiro Picado, and group #3 or experimental group, was treated with snake venom plus aqueous extract of E. purpurea root as adjuvant. In all groups, the first inoculation was done with Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA. By the time of the second bleeding, mice in group #3 showed a remarkable increment in the level of anti-venom antibodies compared with those in groups #1 or #2. In vitro immune cell proliferation as a response to aqueous extract of E. purpurea root was studied using human lymphocytes activated with different lectins (Con A, PHA and PWM. In all cases, increase in percentage of lymphoproliferation was greater when E. purpurea root extract was used in addition to individual lectins. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 113-119. Epub 2007 March. 31.Se estudió in vivo, el efecto del extracto acuoso de las raíces de Echinacea purpurea en la respuesta de los anticuerpos murinos al veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper. El grupo 1 control, fue tratado con el veneno y PBS. El grupo 2 con veneno y alginato de sodio (método utilizado en el Instituto Clodomiro Picado, y el grupo 3 o experimental, con veneno y extracto acuoso de las raíces de E. purpurea. En todos los grupos, la primera inmunización fue hecha con FCA (Freund’s Complete Adjuvant. En las muestras correspondientes a la segunda sangría, los ratones del grupo 3 mostraron un marcado incremento en el nivel de anticuerpos, en comparación con los ratones de los otros grupos. También se determinó la proliferación de células inmunes in vitro, como respuesta al extracto acuoso de la raíz de E. purpurea, utilizando linfocitos humanos activados con

  7. Adaptive and innate immune reactions regulating mast cell activation: from receptor-mediated signaling to responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tkaczyk, Christine; Jensen, Bettina M; Iwaki, Shoko

    2006-01-01

    differentially activate multiple signaling pathways within the mast cells required for the generation and/or release of inflammatory mediators. Thus, the composition of the suite of mediators released and the physiologic ramifications of these responses are dependent on the stimuli and the microenvironment...

  8. Acyclovir Therapy Reduces the CD4+ T Cell Response against the Immunodominant pp65 Protein from Cytomegalovirus in Immune Competent Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Pachnio

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV infects the majority of the global population and leads to the development of a strong virus-specific immune response. The CMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune response can comprise between 10 and 50% of the T cell pool within peripheral blood and there is concern that this may impair immunity to other pathogens. Elderly individuals with the highest magnitude of CMV-specific immune response have been demonstrated to be at increased risk of mortality and there is increasing interest in interventions that may serve to moderate this. Acyclovir is an anti-viral drug with activity against a range of herpes viruses and is used as long term treatment to suppress reactivation of herpes simplex virus. We studied the immune response to CMV in patients who were taking acyclovir to assess if therapy could be used to suppress the CMV-specific immune response. The T cell reactivity against the immunodominant late viral protein pp65 was reduced by 53% in people who were taking acyclovir. This effect was seen within one year of therapy and was observed primarily within the CD4+ response. Acyclovir treatment only modestly influenced the immune response to the IE-1 target protein. These data show that low dose acyclovir treatment has the potential to modulate components of the T cell response to CMV antigen proteins and indicate that anti-viral drugs should be further investigated as a means to reduce the magnitude of CMV-specific immune response and potentially improve overall immune function.

  9. NKG2H-Expressing T Cells Negatively Regulate Immune Responses

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    Daniela Dukovska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The biology and function of NKG2H receptor, unlike the better characterized members of the NKG2 family NKG2A, NKG2C, and NKG2D, remains largely unclear. Here, we show that NKG2H is able to associate with the signaling adapter molecules DAP12 and DAP10 suggesting that this receptor can signal for cell activation. Using a recently described NKG2H-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb, we have characterized the expression and function of lymphocytes that express this receptor. NKG2H is expressed at the cell surface of a small percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC and is found more frequently on T cells, rather than NK cells. Moreover, although NKG2H is likely to trigger activation, co-cross-linking of this receptor with an NKG2H-specific mAb led to decreased T cell activation and proliferation in polyclonal PBMC cultures stimulated by anti-CD3 mAbs. This negative regulatory activity was seen only after cross-linking with NKG2H, but not NKG2A- or NKG2C-specific monoclonal antibodies. The mechanism underlying this negative effect is as yet unclear, but did not depend on the release of soluble factors or recognition of MHC class I molecules. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that NKG2H may be a novel marker for T cells able to negatively regulate T cell responses.

  10. Age related changes in T cell mediated immune response and effector memory to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV in healthy subjects

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    Campoccia Giuseppe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the major pathogen causing respiratory disease in young infants and it is an important cause of serious illness in the elderly since the infection provides limited immune protection against reinfection. In order to explain this phenomenon, we investigated whether healthy adults of different age (20-40; 41-60 and > 60 years, have differences in central and effector memory, RSV-specific CD8+ T cell memory immune response and regulatory T cell expression status. In the peripheral blood of these donors, we were unable to detect any age related difference in term of central (CD45RA-CCR7+ and effector (CD45RA-CCR7- memory T cell frequency. On the contrary, we found a significant increase in immunosuppressive regulatory (CD4+25+FoxP3+ T cells (Treg in the elderly. An immunocytofluorimetric RSV pentamer analysis performed on these donors' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, in vitro sensitized against RSV antigen, revealed a marked decline in long-lasting RSV specific CD8+ memory T cell precursors expressing interleukin 7 receptor α (IL-7Rα, in the elderly. This effect was paralleled by a progressive switch from a Th1 (IFN-γ and TNF-α to a Th2 (IL-10 functional phenotype. On the contrary, an increase in Treg was observed with aging. The finding of Treg over-expression status, a prominent Th2 response and an inefficient RSV-specific effector memory CD8+ T cell expansion in older donors could explain the poor protection against RSV reinfection and the increased risk to develop an RSV-related severe illness in this population. Our finding also lays the basis for new therapeutic perspectives that could limit or prevent severe RSV infection in elderly.

  11. Cholinergic Modulation of Type 2 Immune Responses

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    Goele Bosmans

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the bidirectional relationship between the nervous and immune system has become increasingly clear, and its role in both homeostasis and inflammation has been well documented over the years. Since the introduction of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, there has been an increased interest in parasympathetic regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses, including T helper 2 responses. Increasing evidence has been emerging suggesting a role for the parasympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis. In this review, we will highlight the role of cholinergic modulation by both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in several key aspects of the allergic inflammatory response, including barrier function, innate and adaptive immune responses, and effector cells responses. A better understanding of these cholinergic processes mediating key aspects of type 2 immune disorders might lead to novel therapeutic approaches to treat allergic diseases.

  12. Immune responses of dendritic cells after acquiring antigen from apoptotic hepatocholangioma cells caused by γ-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gang; Gu Hongguang; Han Benli; Pei Xuetao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in antitumor responsiveness and therapeutic effects after dendritic cells (DCs) acquired antigen from apoptotic hepatocholangioma cells. Methods: DCs from blood mononuclear cells that maintain the characteristics of immaturity-anti-gen-capturing and-processing capacity were established in vitro by using granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4. Then, apoptosis in hepatocholangioma cells was induced with γ-radiation. The experimental groups included (1) co-culture of DCs, and apoptotic cancer cells and T cells; (2) co-culture of DCs necrotic cancer cells and T cells; (3) co-culture of DCs-cultured cancer cell and T cells. These cells were co-cultured for 7 days. DCs and T cell were enriched separately. Finally, antitumor response test was carried out. Results: These cells had typical dendritic morphology, expressed high levels of CD1a, B7 and acquired antigen from apoptotic cells caused by γ-rays and induced an increased T cell-stimulatory capacity in MLR. Conclusions: DCs obtained from blood mononuclear cells using GM-CSF and IL-4 and DCs can efficiently present antigen driven from apoptotic cells caused by γ-rays and induce T cells increasing obviously. It can probably become an effective approach of DC transduction with antigen

  13. The immune receptor Trem1 cooperates with diminished DNA damage response to induce preleukemic stem cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W; Amarachintha, S; Wilson, A; Pang, Q

    2017-02-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome with extremely high risk of leukemic transformation. Here we investigate the relationship between DNA damage response (DDR) and leukemogenesis using the Fanca knockout mouse model. We found that chronic exposure of the Fanca -/- hematopoietic stem cells to DNA crosslinking agent mitomycin C in vivo leads to diminished DDR, and the emergence/expansion of pre-leukemia stem cells (pre-LSCs). Surprisingly, although genetic correction of Fanca deficiency in the pre-LSCs restores DDR and reduces genomic instability, but fails to prevent pre-LSC expansion or delay leukemia development in irradiated recipients. Furthermore, we identified transcription program underlying dysregulated DDR and cell migration, myeloid proliferation, and immune response in the Fanca -/- pre-LSCs. Forced expression of the downregulated DNA repair genes, Rad51c or Trp53i13, in the Fanca -/- pre-LSCs partially rescues DDR but has no effect on leukemia, whereas shRNA knockdown of the upregulated immune receptor genes Trem1 or Pilrb improves leukemia-related survival, but not DDR or genomic instability. Furthermore, Trem1 cooperates with diminished DDR in vivo to promote Fanca -/- pre-LSC expansion and leukemia development. Our study implicates diminishing DDR as a root cause of FA leukemogenesis, which subsequently collaborates with other signaling pathways for leukemogenic transformation.

  14. A cell wall protein-based vaccine candidate induce protective immune response against Sporothrix schenckii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portuondo, Deivys Leandro; Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Martínez, Damiana Téllez; Polesi, Marisa Campos; Duarte, Roberta Aparecida; de Paula E Silva, Ana Carolina Alves; Marcos, Caroline Maria; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco de; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2016-02-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by several closely related thermo-dimorphic fungi of the Sporothrix schenckii species complex, affecting humans and other mammals. In the last few years, new strategies have been proposed for controlling sporotrichosis owning to concerns about its growing incidence in humans, cats, and dogs in Brazil, as well as the toxicity and limited efficacy of conventional antifungal drugs. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity and protective properties of two aluminum hydroxide (AH)-adsorbed S. schenckii cell wall protein (ssCWP)-based vaccine formulations in a mouse model of systemic S. schenckii infection. Fractioning by SDS-PAGE revealed nine protein bands, two of which were functionally characterized: a 44kDa peptide hydrolase and a 47kDa enolase, which was predicted to be an adhesin. Sera from immunized mice recognized the 47kDa enolase and another unidentified 71kDa protein, whereas serum from S. schenckii-infected mice recognized both these proteins plus another unidentified 9.4kDa protein. Furthermore, opsonization with the anti-ssCWP sera led to markedly increased phagocytosis and was able to strongly inhibit the fungus' adhesion to fibroblasts. Immunization with the higher-dose AH-adjuvanted formulation led to increased ex vivo release of IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17, whereas only IL-12 and IFN-γ were induced by the higher-dose non-adjuvanted formulation. Lastly, passive transference of the higher-dose AH-adjuvanted formulation's anti-ssCWP serum was able to afford in vivo protection in a subsequent challenge with S. schenckii, becoming a viable vaccine candidate for further testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Oct2 and Obf1 as facilitators of B:T cell collaboration during a humoral immune response

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    Lynn M Corcoran

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Oct2 protein, encoded by the Pou2f2 gene, was originally predicted to act as a DNA binding transcriptional activator of immunoglobulin (Ig in B lineage cells. This prediction flowed from the earlier observation that an 8 bp sequence, the octamer motif, was a highly conserved component of most Ig gene promoters and enhancers, and evidence from over-expression and reporter assays confirmed Oct2-mediated, octamer-dependent gene expression. Complexity was added to the story when Oct1, an independently encoded protein, ubiquitously expressed from the Pou2f 1 gene, was characterised and found to bind to the octamer motif with almost identical specificity, and later, when the co-activator Obf1 (OCA-B, Bob.1, encoded by the Pou2af1 gene, was cloned. Obf1 joins Oct2 (and Oct1 on the DNA of a subset of octamer motifs to enhance their transactivation strength. While these proteins variously carried the mantle of determinants of Ig gene expression in B cells for many years, such a role has not been borne out for them by characterisation of mice lacking functional copies of the genes, either as single or as compound mutants. Instead, we and others have shown that Oct2 and Obf1 are required for B cells to mature fully in vivo, for B cells to respond to the T cell cytokines IL5 and IL4, and for B cells to produce IL6 normally during a T cell dependent immune response. We show here that Oct2 affects Syk gene expression, thus influencing B cell receptor signalling, and that Oct2 loss blocks Slamf1 expression in vivo as a result of incomplete B cell maturation. Upon IL4 signalling, Stat6 up-regulates Obf1, indirectly via Xbp1, to enable plasma cell differentiation. Thus, Oct2 and Obf1 enable B cells to respond normally to antigen receptor signals, to express surface receptors that mediate physical interaction with T cells, or to produce and respond to cytokines that are critical drivers of B cell and T cell differentiation during a humoral immune response.

  16. Carbon anhydrase IX specific immune responses in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma potentially cured by interleukin-2 based immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Donskov, Frede; Pedersen, Johannes W

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The majority of clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) show high and homogeneous expression levels of the tumor associated antigen (TAA) carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), and treatment with interleukin-2 (IL-2) based immunotherapy can lead to cure in patients with metastatic renal cell...... of disease (NED) following treatment with IL-2 based immunotherapy, and thus potentially cured. Immune reactivity in these patients was compared with samples from patients with dramatic tumor response obtained immediately at the cessation of therapy, samples from patients that experienced progressive disease...... interest in future cancer vaccines, but more studies are needed to elucidate the immunological mechanisms of action in potentially cured patients treated with an immunotherapeutic agent....

  17. Immune response to snake envenoming and treatment with antivenom; complement activation, cytokine production and mast cell degranulation.

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    Shelley F Stone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake bite is one of the most neglected public health issues in poor rural communities worldwide. In addition to the clinical effects of envenoming, treatment with antivenom frequently causes serious adverse reactions, including hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylaxis and pyrogenic reactions. We aimed to investigate the immune responses to Sri Lankan snake envenoming (predominantly by Russell's viper and antivenom treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma concentrations of Interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI, anaphylatoxins (C3a, C4a, C5a; markers of complement activation, mast cell tryptase (MCT, and histamine were measured in 120 Sri Lankan snakebite victims, both before and after treatment with antivenom. Immune mediator concentrations were correlated with envenoming features and the severity of antivenom-induced reactions including anaphylaxis. Envenoming was associated with complement activation and increased cytokine concentrations prior to antivenom administration, which correlated with non-specific systemic symptoms of envenoming but not with coagulopathy or neurotoxicity. Typical hypersensitivity reactions to antivenom occurred in 77/120 patients (64%, satisfying criteria for a diagnosis of anaphylaxis in 57/120 (48%. Pyrogenic reactions were observed in 32/120 patients (27%. All patients had further elevations in cytokine concentrations, but not complement activation, after the administration of antivenom, whether a reaction was noted to occur or not. Patients with anaphylaxis had significantly elevated concentrations of MCT and histamine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have demonstrated that Sri Lankan snake envenoming is characterized by significant complement activation and release of inflammatory mediators. Antivenom treatment further enhances the release of inflammatory mediators in all patients, with anaphylactic reactions characterised by high

  18. Immune cells in term and preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm. PMID:24954221

  19. Identification of bovine leukemia virus tax function associated with host cell transcription, signaling, stress response and immune response pathway by microarray-based gene expression analysis

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    Arainga Mariluz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus type I. The Tax protein of BLV is a transcriptional activator of viral replication and a key contributor to oncogenic potential. We previously identified interesting mutant forms of Tax with elevated (TaxD247G or reduced (TaxS240P transactivation effects on BLV replication and propagation. However, the effects of these mutations on functions other than transcriptional activation are unknown. In this study, to identify genes that play a role in the cascade of signal events regulated by wild-type and mutant Tax proteins, we used a large-scale host cell gene-profiling approach. Results Using a microarray containing approximately 18,400 human mRNA transcripts, we found several alterations after the expression of Tax proteins in genes involved in many cellular functions such as transcription, signal transduction, cell growth, apoptosis, stress response, and immune response, indicating that Tax protein has multiple biological effects on various cellular environments. We also found that TaxD247G strongly regulated more genes involved in transcription, signal transduction, and cell growth functions, contrary to TaxS240P, which regulated fewer genes. In addition, the expression of genes related to stress response significantly increased in the presence of TaxS240P as compared to wild-type Tax and TaxD247G. By contrast, the largest group of downregulated genes was related to immune response, and the majority of these genes belonged to the interferon family. However, no significant difference in the expression level of downregulated genes was observed among the Tax proteins. Finally, the expression of important cellular factors obtained from the human microarray results were validated at the RNA and protein levels by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting

  20. Antigen-Experienced CD4lo T Cells Are Linked to Deficient Contraction of the Immune Response in Autoimmune Diabetes

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    Sean Linkes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following proper activation, naïve “CD4lo” T cells differentiate into effector T cells with enhanced expression of CD4 -“CD4hi” effectors. Autoimmune diabetes-prone NOD mice display a unique set of antigen-experienced “CD4lo” T cells that persist after primary stimulation. Here, we report that a population of such cells remained after secondary and tertiary TCR stimulation and produced cytokines upon antigenic challenge. However, when NOD blasts were induced in the presence of rIL-15, the number of antigen-experienced “CD4lo” T cells was significantly reduced. Clonal contraction, mediated in part by CD95-dependent activation-induced cell death (AICD, normally regulates the accumulation of “CD4hi” effectors. Interestingly, CD95 expression was dramatically reduced on the AICD-resistant NOD “CD4lo” T cells. Thus, while autoimmune disease has often been attributed to the engagement of robust autoimmunity, we suggest that the inability to effectively contract the immune response distinguishes benign autoimmunity from progressive autoimmune diseases that are characterized by chronic T cell-mediated inflammation.

  1. Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Could It Be Related to Cell-Mediated Immunity Defect in Response to Candida Antigen?

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    Zahra Talaei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC is a common cause of morbidity affecting millions of women worldwide. Patients with RVVC are thought to have an underlying immunologic defect. This study has been established to evaluate cell-mediated immunity defect in response to candida antigen in RVVC cases. Materials and Methods Our cross-sectional study was performed in 3 groups of RVVC patients (cases, healthy individuals (control I and known cases of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC (control II. Patients who met the inclusion criteria of RVVC were selected consecutively and were allocated in the case group. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and labeled with CFSE and proliferation rate was measured in exposure to candida antigen via flow cytometry. Results T lymphocyte proliferation in response to candida was significantly lower in RVVC cases (n=24 and CMC patients (n=7 compared to healthy individuals (n=20, P0.05. Family history of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID differed significantly among groups (P=0.01, RVVC patients has family history of PID more than control I (29.2 vs. 0%, P=0.008 but not statistically different from CMC patients (29.2 vs. 42.9%, P>0.05. Prevalence of atopy was greater in RVVC cases compared to healthy individuals (41.3 vs. 15%, P=0.054. Lymphoproliferative activity and vaginal symptoms were significantly different among RVVC cases with and without allergy (P=0.01, P=0.02. Conclusion Our findings revealed that T cells do not actively proliferate in response to Candida antigen in some RVVC cases. So it is concluded that patients with cell-mediated immunity defect are more susceptible to recurrent fungal infections of vulva and vagina. Nonetheless, some other cases of RVVC showed normal function of T cells. Further evaluations showed that these patients suffer from atopy. It is hypothesized that higher frequency of VVC in patients with history of atopy might be due to allergic response

  2. Cell-Mediated and Humoral Immune Responses after Immunization of Calves with a Recombinant Multiantigenic Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Subunit Vaccine at Different Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Stockmarr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    and 12 relative to the first vaccination. Vaccine-induced immune responses, the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) cytokine secretion and antibody responses, were followed for 20 weeks. In general, the specific responses were significantly elevated in all three vaccination groups after the first booster...

  3. Phleum pratense pollen starch granules induce humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in a rat model of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, A; Peltre, G; Dormans, J A M A; Withagen, C E T; Lacroix, G; Bois, F; Steerenberg, P A

    2004-02-01

    Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen allergens are an important cause of allergic symptoms. However, pollen grains are too large to penetrate the deeper airways. Grass pollen is known to release allergen-bearing starch granules (SG) upon contact with water. These granules can create an inhalable allergenic aerosol capable of triggering an early asthmatic response and are implicated in thunderstorm-associated asthma. We studied the humoral (IgE) and bronchial lymph node cells reactivities to SG from timothy grass pollen in pollen-sensitized rats. Brown-Norway rats were sensitized (day 0) and challenged (day 21) intratracheally with intact pollen and kept immunized by pollen intranasal instillation by 4 weeks intervals during 3 months. Blood and bronchial lymph nodes were collected 7 days after the last intranasal challenge. SG were purified from fresh timothy grass pollen using 5 microm mesh filters. To determine the humoral response (IgE) to SG, we developed an original ELISA inhibition test, based on competition between pollen allergens and purified SG. The cell-mediated response to SG in the bronchial lymph node cells was determined by measuring the uptake of [3H]thymidine in a proliferation assay. An antibody response to SG was induced, and purified SG were able to inhibit the IgE ELISA absorbance by 45%. Pollen extract and intact pollen gave inhibitions of 55% and 52%, respectively. A cell-mediated response was also found, as pollen extract, intact pollen and SG triggered proliferation of bronchial lymph node cells. It was confirmed that timothy grass pollen contains allergen-loaded SG, which are released upon contact with water. These granules were shown to be recognized by pollen-sensitized rats sera and to trigger lymph node cell proliferation in these rats. These data provide new arguments supporting the implication of grass pollen SG in allergic asthma.

  4. In situ immune response and mechanisms of cell damage in central nervous system of fatal cases microcephaly by Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Raimunda S S; de Sousa, Jorge R; Araujo, Marialva T F; Martins Filho, Arnaldo J; de Alcantara, Bianca N; Araujo, Fernanda M C; Queiroz, Maria G L; Cruz, Ana C R; Vasconcelos, Beatriz H Baldez; Chiang, Jannifer O; Martins, Lívia C; Casseb, Livia M N; da Silva, Eliana V; Carvalho, Valéria L; Vasconcelos, Barbara C Baldez; Rodrigues, Sueli G; Oliveira, Consuelo S; Quaresma, Juarez A S; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2018-01-08

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently caused a pandemic disease, and many cases of ZIKV infection in pregnant women resulted in abortion, stillbirth, deaths and congenital defects including microcephaly, which now has been proposed as ZIKV congenital syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the in situ immune response profile and mechanisms of neuronal cell damage in fatal Zika microcephaly cases. Brain tissue samples were collected from 15 cases, including 10 microcephalic ZIKV-positive neonates with fatal outcome and five neonatal control flavivirus-negative neonates that died due to other causes, but with preserved central nervous system (CNS) architecture. In microcephaly cases, the histopathological features of the tissue samples were characterized in three CNS areas (meninges, perivascular space, and parenchyma). The changes found were mainly calcification, necrosis, neuronophagy, gliosis, microglial nodules, and inflammatory infiltration of mononuclear cells. The in situ immune response against ZIKV in the CNS of newborns is complex. Despite the predominant expression of Th2 cytokines, other cytokines such as Th1, Th17, Treg, Th9, and Th22 are involved to a lesser extent, but are still likely to participate in the immunopathogenic mechanisms of neural disease in fatal cases of microcephaly caused by ZIKV.

  5. Monomethylarsonous Acid (MMAIII Has an Adverse Effect on the Innate Immune Response of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G Notch

    Full Text Available Arsenic is the number one contaminant of concern with regard to human health according to the World Health Organization. Epidemiological studies on Asian and South American populations have linked arsenic exposure with an increased incidence of lung disease, including pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, both of which are associated with bacterial infection. However, little is known about the effects of low dose arsenic exposure, or the contributions of organic arsenic to the innate immune response to bacterial infection. This study examined the effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa induced cytokine secretion by human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC by inorganic sodium arsenite (iAsIII and two major metabolites, monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII and dimethylarsenic acid (DMAV, at concentrations relevant to the U.S.Neither iAsIII nor DMAV altered P. aeruginosa induced cytokine secretion. By contrast, MMAIII increased P. aeruginosa induced secretion of IL-8, IL-6 and CXCL2. A combination of iAsIII, MMAIII and DMAV (10 pbb total reduced IL-8 and CXCL1 secretion. These data demonstrate for the first time that exposure to MMAIII alone, and a combination of iAsIII, MMAIII and DMAV at levels relevant to the U.S. may have negative effects on the innate immune response of human bronchial epithelial cells to P. aeruginosa.

  6. Novel thermal-sensitive hydrogel enhances both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses by intranasal vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Youbin; Wu, Shipo; Hou, Lihua; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Meng; Su, Zhiguo; Wu, Jie; Chen, Wei; Ma, Guanghui

    2012-08-01

    A novel thermal sensitive hydrogel was formulated with N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl] chitosan chloride (HTCC) and α, β-glycerophosphate (α, β-GP). A serial of hydrogels containing different amount of GP and HTCC with diverse quarternize degree (QD, 41%, 59%, 79.5%, and 99%) were prepared and characterized by rheological method. The hydrogel was subsequently evaluated for intranasal vaccine delivery with adenovirus based Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein antigen (Ad-GPZ). Results showed that moderate quarternized HTCC (60% and 79.5%) hydrogel/antigen formulations induced highest IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a antibody titers in serum, as well as mucosal IgA responses in lung wash, which may attributed to the prolonged antigen residence time due to the thermal-sensitivity of this hydrogel. Furthermore, CD8(+) splenocytes for IFN-γ positive cell assay and the release profile of Th1/Th2 type cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-10, and IL-4) showed that hydrogel/Ad-GPZ generated an overwhelmingly enhanced Th1 biased cellular immune response. In addition, this hydrogel displayed low toxicity to nasal tissue and epithelial cells even by frequently intranasal dosing of hydrogel. All these results strongly supported this hydrogel as a safe and effective delivery system for nasal immunization. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Helicobacter pylori cholesteryl α-glucosides contribute to its pathogenicity and immune response by natural killer T cells.

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    Yuki Ito

    Full Text Available Approximately 10-15% of individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori will develop ulcer disease (gastric or duodenal ulcer, while most people infected with H. pylori will be asymptomatic. The majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic partly due to the inhibition of synthesis of cholesteryl α-glucosides in H. pylori cell wall by α1,4-GlcNAc-capped mucin O-glycans, which are expressed in the deeper portion of gastric mucosa. However, it has not been determined how cholesteryl α-glucosyltransferase (αCgT, which forms cholesteryl α-glucosides, functions in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. Here, we show that the activity of αCgT from H. pylori clinical isolates is highly correlated with the degree of gastric atrophy. We investigated the role of cholesteryl α-glucosides in various aspects of the immune response. Phagocytosis and activation of dendritic cells were observed at similar degrees in the presence of wild-type H. pylori or variants harboring mutant forms of αCgT showing a range of enzymatic activity. However, cholesteryl α-glucosides were recognized by invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells, eliciting an immune response in vitro and in vivo. Following inoculation of H. pylori harboring highly active αCgT into iNKT cell-deficient (Jα18(-/- or wild-type mice, bacterial recovery significantly increased in Jα18(-/- compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, cytokine production characteristic of Th1 and Th2 cells dramatically decreased in Jα18(-/- compared to wild-type mice. These findings demonstrate that cholesteryl α-glucosides play critical roles in H. pylori-mediated gastric inflammation and precancerous atrophic gastritis.

  8. Follicular helper T cells poise immune responses to the development of autoimmune pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, Diana; Díaz-Zamudio, Mariana; Romo-Tena, Jorge; Ibarra-Sánchez, María J; Alcocer-Varela, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    Follicular helper T cells (T(FH)) have been implicated as a lineage that provides sufficient help to B cells in order to become professional antibody producers. This T helper subset is characterized by a distinctive cell-surface phenotype (CD4(+)CD57(+)CXCR5(+)) and cytokine profile (IL-21, IL-6, and IL-27) as well as transcriptional program (BCL-6, ICOS, and PD-1). Evidence supports the concept that T(FH) subset development, as well as for other lineages, is dependent on microenvironment cues that modulate a particular transcriptional program, susceptible to plasticity. Recently, it has been shown that BCL-6 and IL-21 act as master regulators for the development and function of T(FH) cells. Moreover, costimulation via ICOS, as well as signaling proteins such as SAP constitute required elements of the regulatory network that modulates T(FH) functions. T(FH) dysregulation has been implicated in the development of autoimmune pathology, such as SLE. Indeed, the Sanroque mice associated to the mutation of Roquin, a ubiquitin ligase, essential for the regulation of ICOS and germinal center responses, constitutes a model that shares features with human SLE. Recently, the expansion of "circulating T(FH) cells" (CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(high)PD1(high)) has been described for a subset of SLE patients that share T(FH) dependent features of disease with Sanroque mice, such as glomerulonephritis and cytopenias. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular Interactions between NR4A Orphan Nuclear Receptors and NF-κB Are Required for Appropriate Inflammatory Responses and Immune Cell Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Evelyn P; Crean, Daniel

    2015-06-29

    Appropriate innate and adaptive immune responses are essential for protection and resolution against chemical, physical or biological insults. Immune cell polarization is fundamental in orchestrating distinct phases of inflammation, specifically acute phase responses followed by resolution and tissue repair. Dysregulation of immune cell and inflammatory responses is a hallmark of multiple diseases encompassing atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and metabolic syndromes. A master transcriptional mediator of diverse inflammatory signaling and immune cell function is NF-κB, and altered control of this key regulator can lead to an effective switch from acute to chronic inflammatory responses. Members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors crosstalk with NF-κB to regulate immune cell function(s). Within the NR superfamily the NR4A1-3 orphan receptors have emerged as important regulators of immune cell polarization and NF-κB signaling. NR4A receptors modulate NF-κB activity in a dynamic fashion, either repressing or enhancing target gene expression leading to altered inflammatory outcome. Here we will discuss the pivotal role NR4A's receptors play in orchestrating immune cell homeostasis through molecular crosstalk with NF-κB. Specifically, we will examine such NR4A/NF-κB interactions within the context of distinct cell phenotypes, including monocyte, macrophage, T cells, endothelial, and mesenchymal cells, which play a role in inflammation-associated disease. Finally, we review the therapeutic potential of altering NR4A/NF-κB interactions to limit hyper-inflammatory responses in vivo.

  10. 1α-hydroxylase and innate immune responses to 25-hydroxyvitamin D in colonic cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagishetty, Venu; Chun, Rene F.; Liu, Nancy Q.; Lisse, Thomas S.; Adams, John S.; Hewison, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D-insufficiency is a prevalent condition in populations throughout the world, with low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) linked to a variety of human health concerns including cancer, autoimmune disease and infection. Current data suggest that 25OHD action involves localized extra-renal conversion to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) via tissue-specific expression of the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase (1α-hydroxylase). In cells such as macrophages, expression of 1α-hydroxylase is intimately associated with toll-like receptor (TLR) recognition of pathogens. However, this mechanism may not be exclusive to extra-renal generation of 1,25(OH)2D. To investigate the relationship between TLR-mediated pathogen recognition and vitamin D-induced antibacterial activity, intracrine responses to 25OHD metabolism were explored in vitro using the established colonic cell lines Caco-2 and Caco-2 clone BBe. Analysis of antibacterial factors such as cathelicidin (LL37) and β-defensin-4 (DEFB4) was carried out following co-treatment with TLR ligands. Data indicate that, unlike macrophages, Caco-2 and BBe colonic cell lines are unresponsive to TLR-induced 1α-hydroxylase. Alternative activators of 1α-hydroxylase such as transforming growth factor β were also ineffective at priming intracrine responses to 25OHD. Thus, in common with other barrier sites such as the skin or placenta, colonic epithelial cells may require specific factors to initiate intracrine responses to vitamin D. PMID:20152900

  11. 1alpha-hydroxylase and innate immune responses to 25-hydroxyvitamin D in colonic cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagishetty, Venu; Chun, Rene F; Liu, Nancy Q; Lisse, Thomas S; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Vitamin D-insufficiency is a prevalent condition in populations throughout the world, with low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) linked to a variety of human health concerns including cancer, autoimmune disease and infection. Current data suggest that 25OHD action involves localized extra-renal conversion to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) via tissue-specific expression of the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase). In cells such as macrophages, expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase is intimately associated with toll-like receptor (TLR) recognition of pathogens. However, this mechanism may not be exclusive to extra-renal generation of 1,25(OH)2D. To investigate the relationship between TLR-mediated pathogen recognition and vitamin D-induced antibacterial activity, intracrine responses to 25OHD metabolism were explored in vitro using the established colonic cell lines Caco-2 and Caco-2 clone BBe. Analysis of antibacterial factors such as cathelicidin (LL37) and beta-defensin-4 (DEFB4) was carried out following co-treatment with TLR ligands. Data indicate that, unlike macrophages, Caco-2 and BBe colonic cell lines are unresponsive to TLR-induced 1alpha-hydroxylase. Alternative activators of 1alpha-hydroxylase such as transforming growth factor beta were also ineffective at priming intracrine responses to 25OHD. Thus, in common with other barrier sites such as the skin or placenta, colonic epithelial cells may require specific factors to initiate intracrine responses to vitamin D. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. OX62+OX6+OX35+ rat dendritic cells are unable to prime CD4+ T cells for an effective immune response following acute burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Co-stimulatory molecules expressed on Dendritic Cells (DCs) function to coordinate an efficient immune response by T cells in the peripheral lymph nodes. We hypothesized that CD4+ T cell-mediated immune suppression following burn injury may be related to dysfunctional DCs residing in gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), such as Mesenteric Lymph Nodes (MLN). Therefore, we studied co-stimulatory molecules expressed on burn rat MLN DCs as an index of functional DCs that would mount an effective normal CD4+ T cell immune response. In a rat model of 30% Total Body Surface Area (TBSA) scald burn, OX62+OX6+OX35+ DCs and CD4+ T cells were isolated from MLN of day 3 post-burn and sham control rats. DCs were tested for their expression of co-stimulatory molecules, and prime CD4+ T cell (DC:CD4+T cell co-culture assays) to determine an effector immune response such as CD4+ T cell proliferation. The surface receptor expressions of MLN DCs co-stimulatory molecules, i.e., MHC-II, CD40, CD80 (B7-1), and CD86 (B7-2) were determined by Flow cytometry (quantitatively) and confocal microscopy (qualitatively). Tritiated thymidine and CFDA-SE determined CD4+ T cell proliferation following co-incubation with DCs. Cytokine milieu of MLN (IL-12 and IL-10) was assessed by mRNA determination by RT-PCR. The results showed down-regulated expressions of co-stimulatory markers (CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHC-II) of MLN DCs obtained from burn-injured rats, as well as lack of ability of these burn-induced DCs to stimulate CD4+ T cell proliferation in co-culture assays, as compared to the sham rats. Moreover, anti-CD40 stimulation of affected burn MLN DCs did not reverse this alteration. Furthermore, a marked up-regulation of mRNA IL-10 and down-regulation of mRNA IL-12 in burn MLN as compared to sham animals was also observed. To surmise, the data indicated that dysfunctional OX62+OX6+OX35+ rat MLN DCs may contribute to CD4+ T-cell-mediated immune suppression observed following acute burn injury.

  13. OX62+OX6+OX35+ rat dendritic cells are unable to prime CD4+ T cells for an effective immune response following acute burn injury☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Co-stimulatory molecules expressed on Dendritic Cells (DCs) function to coordinate an efficient immune response by T cells in the peripheral lymph nodes. We hypothesized that CD4+ T cell-mediated immune suppression following burn injury may be related to dysfunctional DCs residing in gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), such as Mesenteric Lymph Nodes (MLN). Therefore, we studied co-stimulatory molecules expressed on burn rat MLN DCs as an index of functional DCs that would mount an effective normal CD4+ T cell immune response. In a rat model of 30% Total Body Surface Area (TBSA) scald burn, OX62+OX6+OX35+ DCs and CD4+ T cells were isolated from MLN of day 3 post-burn and sham control rats. DCs were tested for their expression of co-stimulatory molecules, and prime CD4+ T cell (DC:CD4+T cell co-culture assays) to determine an effector immune response such as CD4+ T cell proliferation. The surface receptor expressions of MLN DCs co-stimulatory molecules, i.e., MHC-II, CD40, CD80 (B7-1), and CD86 (B7-2) were determined by Flow cytometry (quantitatively) and confocal microscopy (qualitatively). Tritiated thymidine and CFDA-SE determined CD4+ T cell proliferation following co-incubation with DCs. Cytokine milieu of MLN (IL-12 and IL-10) was assessed by mRNA determination by RT-PCR. The results showed down-regulated expressions of co-stimulatory markers (CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHC-II) of MLN DCs obtained from burn-injured rats, as well as lack of ability of these burn-induced DCs to stimulate CD4+ T cell proliferation in co-culture assays, as compared to the sham rats. Moreover, anti-CD40 stimulation of affected burn MLN DCs did not reverse this alteration. Furthermore, a marked up-regulation of mRNA IL-10 and down-regulation of mRNA IL-12 in burn MLN as compared to sham animals was also observed. To surmise, the data indicated that dysfunctional OX62+OX6+OX35+ rat MLN DCs may contribute to CD4+ T-cell-mediated immune suppression observed following acute burn injury

  14. Id1 suppresses anti-tumour immune responses and promotes tumour progression by impairing myeloid cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaspyridonos, Marianna; Matei, Irina; Huang, Yujie; do Rosario Andre, Maria; Brazier-Mitouart, Helene; Waite, Janelle C; Chan, April S; Kalter, Julie; Ramos, Ilyssa; Wu, Qi; Williams, Caitlin; Wolchok, Jedd D; Chapman, Paul B; Peinado, Hector; Anandasabapathy, Niroshana; Ocean, Allyson J; Kaplan, Rosandra N; Greenfield, Jeffrey P; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Skokos, Dimitris; Lyden, David

    2015-04-29

    A central mechanism of tumour progression and metastasis involves the generation of an immunosuppressive 'macroenvironment' mediated in part through tumour-secreted factors. Here we demonstrate that upregulation of the Inhibitor of Differentiation 1 (Id1), in response to tumour-derived factors, such as TGFβ, is responsible for the switch from dendritic cell (DC) differentiation to myeloid-derived suppressor cell expansion during tumour progression. Genetic inactivation of Id1 largely corrects the myeloid imbalance, whereas Id1 overexpression in the absence of tumour-derived factors re-creates it. Id1 overexpression leads to systemic immunosuppression by downregulation of key molecules involved in DC differentiation and suppression of CD8 T-cell proliferation, thus promoting primary tumour growth and metastatic progression. Furthermore, advanced melanoma patients have increased plasma TGFβ levels and express higher levels of ID1 in myeloid peripheral blood cells. This study reveals a critical role for Id1 in suppressing the anti-tumour immune response during tumour progression and metastasis.

  15. Outer Membrane Vesicles From Probiotic and Commensal Escherichia coli Activate NOD1-Mediated Immune Responses in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Alexandra Cañas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining human intestinal homeostasis and host health. Bacterial extracellular vesicles are key players in bacteria–host communication, as they allow delivery of effector molecules into the host cells. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs released by Gram-negative bacteria carry many ligands of pattern recognition receptors that are key components of innate immunity. NOD1 and NOD2 cytosolic receptors specifically recognize peptidoglycans present within the bacterial cell wall. These intracellular immune receptors are essential in host defense against bacterial infections and in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Recent contributions show that NODs are also fundamental to maintain intestinal homeostasis and microbiota balance. Peptidoglycan from non-invasive pathogens is delivered to cytosolic NODs through OMVs, which are internalized via endocytosis. Whether this pathway could be used by microbiota to activate NOD receptors remains unexplored. Here, we report that OMVs isolated from the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and the commensal ECOR12 activate NOD1 signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. NOD1 silencing and RIP2 inhibition significantly abolished OMV-mediated activation of NF-κB and subsequent IL-6 and IL-8 expression. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis confirmed that endocytosed OMVs colocalize with NOD1, trigger the formation of NOD1 aggregates, and promote NOD1 association with early endosomes. This study shows for the first time the activation of NOD1-signaling pathways by extracellular vesicles released by gut microbiota.

  16. Effect of metformin combined with clomiphene on insulin resistance, oxidative stress response and T cell immune response in patients with PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lian Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of metformin combined with clomiphene on insulin resistance, oxidative stress response and T cell immune response in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Methods: A total of 94 patients who were diagnosed with PCOS in Jingzhou Second People’s Hospital between September 2014 and October 2016 were selected and randomly divided into the combined group who received the metformin combined with clomiphene therapy and the control group who received clomiphene therapy. The insulin resistance, oxidative stress response and T cell immune response were evaluated before treatment and 3 menstrual cycles after treatment. Results: 3 menstrual cycles after treatment, HOMA-IR level, serum F-Ins, F-CP, TOS, MDA, AOPP and IL-17 contents as well as peripheral blood RORγt mRNA expression of combined group were significantly lower than those before treatment while HOMA-β level, serum TAS, SOD, GSH-Px, VitC, VitE, IL-10 and TGF-β1 contents as well as peripheral blood Foxp3 mRNA expression were significantly higher than those before treatment; HOMA-IR and HOMA-β levels, serum F-Ins, F-CP, TOS, MDA, AOPP, IL-17, TAS, SOD, GSH-Px, VitC, VitE, IL-10 and TGF-β1 contents as well as peripheral blood Foxp3 and RORγt mRNA expression of control group were not different from those before treatment. Conclusion: Metformin combined with clomiphene can significantly improve the insulin resistance, oxidative stress response and T cell immune response in patients with PCOS.

  17. Long term protection after immunization with P. berghei sporozoites correlates with sustained IFNγ responses of hepatic CD8+ memory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystelle Nganou-Makamdop

    Full Text Available Protection against P. berghei malaria can successfully be induced in mice by immunization with both radiation attenuated sporozoites (RAS arresting early during liver stage development, or sporozoites combined with chloroquine chemoprophylaxis (CPS, resulting in complete intra-hepatic parasite development before killing of blood-stages by chloroquine takes place. We assessed the longevity of protective cellular immune responses by RAS and CPS P. berghei immunization of C57BL/6j mice. Strong effector and memory (T(EM CD8+ T cell responses were induced predominantly in the liver of both RAS and CPS immunized mice while CD4+ T cells with memory phenotype remained at base line levels. Compared to unprotected naïve mice, we found high sporozoite-specific IFNγ ex vivo responses that associated with induced levels of in vivo CD8+ T(EM cells in the liver but not spleen. Long term evaluation over a period of 9 months showed a decline of malaria-specific IFNγ responses in RAS and CPS mice that significantly correlated with loss of protection (r(2 = 0.60, p<0.0001. The reducing IFNγ response by hepatic memory CD8+ T cells could be boosted by re-exposure to wild-type sporozoites. Our data show that sustainable protection against malaria associates with distinct intra-hepatic immune responses characterized by strong IFNγ producing CD8+ memory T cells.

  18. NYVAC vector modified by C7L viral gene insertion improves T cell immune responses and effectiveness against leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sampedro, L; Mejías-Pérez, E; S Sorzano, Carlos Óscar; Nájera, J L; Esteban, M

    2016-07-15

    The NYVAC poxvirus vector is used as vaccine candidate for HIV and other diseases, although there is only limited experimental information on its immunogenicity and effectiveness for use against human pathogens. Here we defined the selective advantage of NYVAC vectors in a mouse model by comparing the immune responses and protection induced by vectors that express the LACK (Leishmania-activated C-kinase antigen), alone or with insertion of the viral host range gene C7L that allows the virus to replicate in human cells. Using DNA prime/virus boost protocols, we show that replication-competent NYVAC-LACK that expresses C7L (NYVAC-LACK-C7L) induced higher-magnitude polyfunctional CD8(+) and CD4(+) primary adaptive and effector memory T cell responses (IFNγ, TNFα, IL-2, CD107a) to LACK antigen than non-replicating NYVAC-LACK. Compared to NYVAC-LACK, the NYVAC-LACK-C7L-induced CD8(+) T cell population also showed higher proliferation when stimulated with LACK antigen. After a challenge by subcutaneous Leishmania major metacyclic promastigotes, NYVAC-LACK-C7L-vaccinated mouse groups showed greater protection than the NYVAC-LACK-vaccinated group. Our results indicate that the type and potency of immune responses induced by LACK-expressing NYVAC vectors is improved by insertion of the C7L gene, and that a replication-competent vector as a vaccine renders greater protection against a human pathogen than a non-replicating vector. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential Impact of LPG-and PG-Deficient Leishmania major Mutants on the Immune Response of Human Dendritic Cells.

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    Michelle A Favila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania major infection induces robust interleukin-12 (IL12 production in human dendritic cells (hDC, ultimately resulting in Th1-mediated immunity and clinical resolution. The surface of Leishmania parasites is covered in a dense glycocalyx consisting of primarily lipophosphoglycan (LPG and other phosphoglycan-containing molecules (PGs, making these glycoconjugates the likely pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS responsible for IL12 induction.Here we explored the role of parasite glycoconjugates on the hDC IL12 response by generating L. major Friedlin V1 mutants defective in LPG alone, (FV1 lpg1-, or generally deficient for all PGs, (FV1 lpg2-. Infection with metacyclic, infective stage, L. major or purified LPG induced high levels of IL12B subunit gene transcripts in hDCs, which was abrogated with FV1 lpg1- infections. In contrast, hDC infections with FV1 lpg2- displayed increased IL12B expression, suggesting other PG-related/LPG2 dependent molecules may act to dampen the immune response. Global transcriptional profiling comparing WT, FV1 lpg1-, FV1 lpg2- infections revealed that FV1 lpg1- mutants entered hDCs in a silent fashion as indicated by repression of gene expression. Transcription factor binding site analysis suggests that LPG recognition by hDCs induces IL-12 in a signaling cascade resulting in Nuclear Factor κ B (NFκB and Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF mediated transcription.These data suggest that L. major LPG is a major PAMP recognized by hDC to induce IL12-mediated protective immunity and that there is a complex interplay between PG-baring Leishmania surface glycoconjugates that result in modulation of host cellular IL12.

  20. Efficacy of genital T cell responses to herpes simplex virus type 2 resulting from immunization of the nasal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, Gregg N.; Dudley-McClain, Kristen L.; Chu Chinfun; Young, Christal G.

    2004-01-01

    Intravaginal (ivag) or intranasal (i.n.) immunization of C57BL/6J (B6) mice with a thymidine kinase-deficient strain (tk-) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) resulted in comparable protection of the genital epithelium and sensory ganglia against HSV-2 challenge. In contrast, protection of these sites was much reduced in i.n.-immunized compared to ivag-immunized B cell-deficient μMT mice. Fewer HSV-specific T cells were detected in the genital epithelium of i.n.-immunized compared to ivag-immunized μMT mice after HSV-2 challenge. Passive transfer of HSV-specific serum to immune μMT mice restored protection of these sites against HSV-2 challenge. These results suggest that protection of genital and neuronal sites may be conferred by i.n. immunization but may be more dependent on antibody-dependent mechanisms than the protection resulting from genital immunization. These results have implications for immunization strategies to elicit high levels of cell-mediated protection of the genital tract and sensory ganglia

  1. Waddlia chondrophila infects and multiplies in ovine trophoblast cells stimulating an inflammatory immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wheelhouse

    Full Text Available Waddlia chondrophila (W. chondrophila is an emerging abortifacient organism which has been identified in the placentae of humans and cattle. The organism is a member of the order Chlamydiales, and shares many similarities at the genome level and in growth studies with other well-characterised zoonotic chlamydial abortifacients, such as Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus. This study investigates the growth of the organism and its effects upon pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a ruminant placental cell line which we have previously utilised in a model of C. abortus pathogenicity.Using qPCR, fluorescent immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, we characterised the infection and growth of W. chondrophila within the ovine trophoblast AH-1 cell line. Inclusions were visible from 6 h post-infection (p.i. and exponential growth of the organism could be observed over a 60 h time-course, with significant levels of host cell lysis being observed only after 36 h p.i. Expression of CXCL8, TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-1β were determined 24 h p.i. A statistically significant response in the expression of CXCL8, TNF-α and IL-1β could be observed following active infection with W. chondrophila. However a significant increase in IL-1β expression was also observed following the exposure of cells to UV-killed organisms, indicating the stimulation of multiple innate recognition pathways.W. chondrophila infects and grows in the ruminant trophoblast AH-1 cell line exhibiting a complete chlamydial replicative cycle. Infection of the trophoblasts resulted in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner similar to that observed with C. abortus in previous studies, suggesting similarities in the pathogenesis of infection between the two organisms.

  2. Waddlia chondrophila infects and multiplies in ovine trophoblast cells stimulating an inflammatory immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelhouse, Nick; Coyle, Christopher; Barlow, Peter G; Mitchell, Stephen; Greub, Gilbert; Baszler, Tim; Rae, Mick T; Longbottom, David

    2014-01-01

    Waddlia chondrophila (W. chondrophila) is an emerging abortifacient organism which has been identified in the placentae of humans and cattle. The organism is a member of the order Chlamydiales, and shares many similarities at the genome level and in growth studies with other well-characterised zoonotic chlamydial abortifacients, such as Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus). This study investigates the growth of the organism and its effects upon pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a ruminant placental cell line which we have previously utilised in a model of C. abortus pathogenicity. Using qPCR, fluorescent immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, we characterised the infection and growth of W. chondrophila within the ovine trophoblast AH-1 cell line. Inclusions were visible from 6 h post-infection (p.i.) and exponential growth of the organism could be observed over a 60 h time-course, with significant levels of host cell lysis being observed only after 36 h p.i. Expression of CXCL8, TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-1β were determined 24 h p.i. A statistically significant response in the expression of CXCL8, TNF-α and IL-1β could be observed following active infection with W. chondrophila. However a significant increase in IL-1β expression was also observed following the exposure of cells to UV-killed organisms, indicating the stimulation of multiple innate recognition pathways. W. chondrophila infects and grows in the ruminant trophoblast AH-1 cell line exhibiting a complete chlamydial replicative cycle. Infection of the trophoblasts resulted in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner similar to that observed with C. abortus in previous studies, suggesting similarities in the pathogenesis of infection between the two organisms.

  3. Dynamic innate immune responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Yoshikawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human lung epithelial cells are likely among the first targets to encounter invading severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV. Not only can these cells support the growth of SARS-CoV infection, but they are also capable of secreting inflammatory cytokines to initiate and, eventually, aggravate host innate inflammatory responses, causing detrimental immune-mediated pathology within the lungs. Thus, a comprehensive evaluation of the complex epithelial signaling to SARS-CoV is crucial for paving the way to better understand SARS pathogenesis. Based on microarray-based functional genomics, we report here the global gene response of 2B4 cells, a cloned bronchial epithelial cell line derived from Calu-3 cells. Specifically, we found a temporal and spatial activation of nuclear factor (NFkappaB, activator protein (AP-1, and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3/7 in infected 2B4 cells at 12-, 24-, and 48-hrs post infection (p.i., resulting in the activation of many antiviral genes, including interferon (IFN-beta, -lambdas, inflammatory mediators, and many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs. We also showed, for the first time, that IFN-beta and IFN-lambdas were capable of exerting previously unrecognized, non-redundant, and complementary abilities to limit SARS-CoV replication, even though their expression could not be detected in infected 2B4 bronchial epithelial cells until 48 hrs p.i. Collectively, our results highlight the mechanics of the sequential events of antiviral signaling pathway/s triggered by SARS-CoV in bronchial epithelial cells and identify novel cellular targets for future studies, aiming at advancing strategies against SARS.

  4. T-Cell Mediated Immune Responses Induced in ret Transgenic Mouse Model of Malignant Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abschuetz, Oliver [Skin Cancer Unit, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg and Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karl University of Heidelberg, Mannheim , Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Osen, Wolfram [Division of Translational Immunology, German Cancer Center, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Frank, Kathrin [Skin Cancer Unit, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg and Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karl University of Heidelberg, Mannheim , Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Kato, Masashi [Unit of Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan); Schadendorf, Dirk [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Essen, Essen 45122 (Germany); Umansky, Viktor, E-mail: v.umansky@dkfz.de [Skin Cancer Unit, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg and Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karl University of Heidelberg, Mannheim , Heidelberg 69120 (Germany)

    2012-04-26

    Poor response of human malignant melanoma to currently available treatments requires a development of innovative therapeutic strategies. Their evaluation should be based on animal models that resemble human melanoma with respect to genetics, histopathology and clinical features. Here we used a transgenic mouse model of spontaneous skin melanoma, in which the ret transgene is expressed in melanocytes under the control of metallothionein-I promoter. After a short latency, around 25% mice develop macroscopic skin melanoma metastasizing to lymph nodes, bone marrow, lungs and brain, whereas other transgenic mice showed only metastatic lesions without visible skin tumors. We found that tumor lesions expressed melanoma associated antigens (MAA) tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein (TRP)-1, TRP-2 and gp100, which could be applied as targets for the immunotherapy. Upon peptide vaccination, ret transgenic mice without macroscopic melanomas were able to generate T cell responses not only against a strong model antigen ovalbumin but also against typical MAA TRP-2. Although mice bearing macroscopic primary tumors could also display an antigen-specific T cell reactivity, it was significantly down-regulated as compared to tumor-free transgenic mice or non-transgenic littermates. We suggest that ret transgenic mice could be used as a pre-clinical model for the evaluation of novel strategies of melanoma immunotherapy.

  5. Long term protection after immunization with P. berghei sporozoites correlates with sustained IFNγ responses of hepatic CD8+ memory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganou-Makamdop, Krystelle; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Arens, Theo; Hermsen, Cornelus C; Sauerwein, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Protection against P. berghei malaria can successfully be induced in mice by immunization with both radiation attenuated sporozoites (RAS) arresting early during liver stage development, or sporozoites combined with chloroquine chemoprophylaxis (CPS), resulting in complete intra-hepatic parasite development before killing of blood-stages by chloroquine takes place. We assessed the longevity of protective cellular immune responses by RAS and CPS P. berghei immunization of C57BL/6j mice. Strong effector and memory (T(EM)) CD8+ T cell responses were induced predominantly in the liver of both RAS and CPS immunized mice while CD4+ T cells with memory phenotype remained at base line levels. Compared to unprotected naïve mice, we found high sporozoite-specific IFNγ ex vivo responses that associated with induced levels of in vivo CD8+ T(EM) cells in the liver but not spleen. Long term evaluation over a period of 9 months showed a decline of malaria-specific IFNγ responses in RAS and CPS mice that significantly correlated with loss of protection (r(2) = 0.60, pmemory CD8+ T cells could be boosted by re-exposure to wild-type sporozoites. Our data show that sustainable protection against malaria associates with distinct intra-hepatic immune responses characterized by strong IFNγ producing CD8+ memory T cells.

  6. T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses in Patients with Cutaneous or Mucosal Leishmaniasis: Long-Term Evaluation after Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Bittar, Rita; Mattos, Marise; Oliveira-Neto, Manuel P.; Nogueira, Ricardo; Pinho-Ribeiro, Vanessa; Azeredo-Coutinho, Rilza Beatriz; Coutinho, Sergio G.

    2002-01-01

    T-cell immune responses in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) were studied during the active disease, at the end of therapy, and 1 to 17 years posttherapy (long-term follow-up). Lymphocyte proliferative responses, phenotypic characterization of CD4+ and CD8+ Leishmania-reactive T cells, and cytokine production were assayed. Patients with active ML and CL showed higher proportions of CD4+ than CD8+ T cells. In CL, the healing process was associated with a decrease of CD4+ and an increase of CD8+, leading to similar CD4+ and CD8+ proportions. This pattern was only seen in ML after long-term therapy. Long-term follow-up of patients with CL showed a positive CD4+/CD8+ ratio as observed during the active disease, although the percentages of these T cell subsets were significantly lower. Patients with CL did not show significant differences between gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) production during the period of study. Patients with active ML presented higher IFN-γ and IL-5 levels compared to patients with active CL. IL-4 was only detected during active disease. Patients long term after cure from ML showed increasing production of IFN-γ, significant decrease of IL-5, and no IL-4 production. Two apparently beneficial immunological parameters were detected in tegumentary leishmaniasis: (i) decreasing proportions of CD4+ Leishmania-reactive T cells in the absence of IL-4 production associated with cure of CL and ML and (ii) decreasing levels of IL-5 long after cure, better detected in patients with ML. The observed T-cell responses maintained for a long period in healed patients could be relevant for immunoprotection against reinfection and used as a parameter for determining the prognosis of patients and selecting future vaccine preparations. PMID:11874860

  7. Effect of vaccination schedule on immune response of Macaca mulatta to cell culture-grown Rocky Mountain spotted fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, L S; Kenyon, R H; Pedersen, C E

    1976-01-01

    The effect of vaccination schedule on the immune response of Macaca mulatta to formalin-inactivated chicken embryo cell culture (CEC)-grown Rickettsia rickettsii vaccine was studied. Schedules consisted of inoculation on day 1 only, on days 1 and 15, on days 1 and 30, on days 1, 8, and 15, or on days 1, 15, and 45. Humoral antibody measured by microagglutination and indirect immunofluorescence and resistance to challenge with 10(4) plaque-forming units of yolk sac-grown R. rickettsii were assessed. Seroconversion was noted in all monkeys after the first dose of vaccine. A second dose administered 8 or 15 days after the primary infection, or a third given 7 or 30 days after the second, produced no long-term effect on antibody titer. Only monkeys given two doses of vaccine at a 30-day interval showed an increase in antibody titer during the period before challenge. Vaccination with one, two, or three doses of CEC vaccine prevented development of rash and rickettsemia after challenge. The two-dose schedules appeared to induce the highest degree of resistance to challenge, as indicated by unaltered hematological parameters and body temperature in monkeys. The one- and three-dose schedules were somewhat less effective, in that some challenged monkeys within each group displayed febrile and leukocyte responses associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection. Our data suggest that administration of two doses of CEC vaccine at 15- or 30-day intervals is the immunization schedule of choice. PMID:823173

  8. Stress proteins and the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, P

    2000-07-25

    The heat shock or stress response is one of the most highly conserved adaptive responses in nature. In single cell organisms, the stress response confers tolerance to a variety of stresses including hyperthermia, hyperoxia, hypoxia, and other perturbations, which alter protein synthesis. This tolerance phenomenon is also extremely important in the multicellular organism, resulting in not only thermal tolerance, but also resistance to stresses of the whole organism such as ischemia-reperfusion injury. Moreover, recent data indicates that these stress proteins have the ability to modulate the cellular immune response. Although the terms heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress proteins are often used interchangeably, the term stress proteins includes the HSPs, the glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) and ubiquitin. The stress proteins may be grouped by molecular weight ranging from the large 110 kDa HSP110 to ubiquitin at 8 kDa. These proteins serve as cellular chaperones, participating in protein synthesis and transport through the various cellular compartments. Because these proteins have unique cellular localizations, the chaperone function of the stress proteins often involves a transfer of peptides between stress proteins as the peptide is moved between cellular compartments. For example, HSP70 is a cytosolic and nuclear chaperone, which is critical for the transfer of cellular peptides in the mitochondrion through a hand-off that involves mitochondrial HSP60 at the inner mitochondrial membrane. Similarly, cytosolic proteins are transferred from HSP70 to gp96 as they move into the endoplasmic reticulum. The central role of the stress proteins in the transfer of peptides through the cell may be responsible for the recently recognized importance of the stress proteins in the modulation of the immune system [Feder, M.E., Hofmann, G.E., 1999. Heat-shock proteins, molecular chaperones, and the stress response: evolutionary and ecological physiology. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 61

  9. FOXP1 suppresses immune response signatures and MHC class II expression in activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, P J; Wong, K K; Felce, S L

    2016-01-01

    The FOXP1 (forkhead box P1) transcription factor is a marker of poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here microarray analysis of FOXP1-silenced DLBCL cell lines identified differential regulation of immune response signatures and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II......) genes as some of the most significant differences between germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like DLBCL with full-length FOXP1 protein expression versus activated B-cell (ABC)-like DLBCL expressing predominantly short FOXP1 isoforms. In an independent primary DLBCL microarray data set, multiple MHC II genes......, including human leukocyte antigen DR alpha chain (HLA-DRA), were inversely correlated with FOXP1 transcript expression (PABC-DLBCL cells led to increased cell-surface expression of HLA-DRA and CD74. In R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone...

  10. Nano-Pulse Stimulation induces immunogenic cell death in human papillomavirus-transformed tumors and initiates an adaptive immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G Skeate

    Full Text Available Nano-Pulse Stimulation (NPS is a non-thermal pulsed electric field modality that has been shown to have cancer therapeutic effects. Here we applied NPS treatment to the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16-transformed C3.43 mouse tumor cell model and showed that it is effective at eliminating primary tumors through the induction of immunogenic cell death while subsequently increasing the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes within the tumor microenvironment. In vitro NPS treatment of C3.43 cells resulted in a doubling of activated caspase 3/7 along with the translocation of phosphatidylserine (PS to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, indicating programmed cell death activity. Tumor-bearing mice receiving standard NPS treatment showed an initial decrease in tumor volume followed by clearing of tumors in most mice, and a significant increase in overall survival. Intra-tumor analysis of mice that were unable to clear tumors showed an inverse correlation between the number of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and the size of the tumor. Approximately half of the mice that cleared established tumors were protected against tumor re-challenge on the opposite flank. Selective depletion of CD8+ T cells eliminated this protection, suggesting that NPS treatment induces an adaptive immune response generating CD8+ T cells that recognize tumor antigen(s associated with the C3.43 tumor model. This method may be utilized in the future to not only ablate primary tumors, but also to induce an anti-tumor response driven by effector CD8+ T cells capable of protecting individuals from disease recurrence.

  11. Nano-Pulse Stimulation induces immunogenic cell death in human papillomavirus-transformed tumors and initiates an adaptive immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeate, Joseph G; Da Silva, Diane M; Chavez-Juan, Elena; Anand, Snjezana; Nuccitelli, Richard; Kast, W Martin

    2018-01-01

    Nano-Pulse Stimulation (NPS) is a non-thermal pulsed electric field modality that has been shown to have cancer therapeutic effects. Here we applied NPS treatment to the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16)-transformed C3.43 mouse tumor cell model and showed that it is effective at eliminating primary tumors through the induction of immunogenic cell death while subsequently increasing the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes within the tumor microenvironment. In vitro NPS treatment of C3.43 cells resulted in a doubling of activated caspase 3/7 along with the translocation of phosphatidylserine (PS) to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, indicating programmed cell death activity. Tumor-bearing mice receiving standard NPS treatment showed an initial decrease in tumor volume followed by clearing of tumors in most mice, and a significant increase in overall survival. Intra-tumor analysis of mice that were unable to clear tumors showed an inverse correlation between the number of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and the size of the tumor. Approximately half of the mice that cleared established tumors were protected against tumor re-challenge on the opposite flank. Selective depletion of CD8+ T cells eliminated this protection, suggesting that NPS treatment induces an adaptive immune response generating CD8+ T cells that recognize tumor antigen(s) associated with the C3.43 tumor model. This method may be utilized in the future to not only ablate primary tumors, but also to induce an anti-tumor response driven by effector CD8+ T cells capable of protecting individuals from disease recurrence.

  12. Clonorchis sinensis adult-derived proteins elicit Th2 immune responses by regulating dendritic cells via mannose receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis is the most widespread human liver fluke in East Asia including China and Korea. Clonorchiasis as a neglected tropical zoonosis, leads to serious economic and public health burden in China. There are considerable evidences for an etiological relation between chronic clonorchiasis and liver fibrosis in human beings. Liver fibrosis is a highly conserved and over-protected response to hepatic tissue injury. Immune cells including CD4+ T cell as well as dendritic cell (DC, and pro-fibrogenic cytokines like interleukin 4 (IL-4, IL-13 have been identified as vital manipulators in liver fibrogenesis. Our previous studies had a mere glimpse of T helper type 2 (Th2 dominant immune responses as key players in liver fibrosis induced by C. sinensis infection, but little is known about the involved mechanisms in this pathological process.By flow cytometry (FACS, adult-derived total proteins of C. sinensis (CsTPs down-regulated the expression of surface markers CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II on lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced DC. ELISA results demonstrated that CsTPs inhibited IL-12p70 release from LPS-treated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC. IL-10 level increased in a time-dependent manner in LPS-treated BMDCs after incubation with CsTPs. CD4+ T cells incubated with LPS-treated BMDCs plus CsTPs could significantly elevate IL-4 level by ELISA. Meanwhile, elevated expression of pro-fibrogenic mediators including IL-13 and IL-4 were detected in a co-culture system of LPS-activated BMDCs and naive T cells containing CsTPs. In vivo, CsTPs-immunized mice enhanced expression of type 2 cytokines IL-13, IL-10 and IL-4 in both splenocytes and hepatic tissue. Exposure of BMDCs to CsTPs activated expression of mannose receptor (MR but not toll like receptor 2 (TLR2, TLR4, C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN and Dectin-2 on the cell surface by RT-PCR and FACS. Blockade of MR almost completely

  13. Antibody responses to vaccination and immune function in patients with haematological malignancies - studies in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia autologous stem cell recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, A.M.T. van der

    2007-01-01

    This thesis concerns the antibody responses to vaccination and immune function of patients with several forms of haematological diseases. Antibody responses in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and in autologous stem cell transplant recipients were studied. In the autologous stem

  14. Trappin-2/elafin modulate innate immune responses of human endometrial epithelial cells to PolyI:C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G Drannik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Upon viral recognition, innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses are initiated by genital epithelial cells (ECs to eradicate or contain viral infection. Such responses, however, are often accompanied by inflammation that contributes to acquisition and progression of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Hence, interventions/factors enhancing antiviral protection while reducing inflammation may prove beneficial in controlling the spread of STIs. Serine antiprotease trappin-2 (Tr and its cleaved form, elafin (E, are alarm antimicrobials secreted by multiple cells, including genital epithelia. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated whether and how each Tr and E (Tr/E contribute to antiviral defenses against a synthetic mimic of viral dsRNA, polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C and vesicular stomatitis virus. We show that delivery of a replication-deficient adenovector expressing Tr gene (Ad/Tr to human endometrial epithelial cells, HEC-1A, resulted in secretion of functional Tr, whereas both Tr/E were detected in response to polyI:C. Moreover, Tr/E were found to significantly reduce viral replication by either acting directly on virus or through enhancing polyI:C-driven antiviral protection. The latter was associated with reduced levels of pro-inflammatory factors IL-8, IL-6, TNFα, lowered expression of RIG-I, MDA5 and attenuated NF-κB activation. Interestingly, enhanced polyI:C-driven antiviral protection of HEC-Ad/Tr cells was partially mediated through IRF3 activation, but not associated with higher induction of IFNβ, suggesting multiple antiviral mechanisms of Tr/E and the involvement of alternative factors or pathways. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first evidence of both Tr/E altering viral binding/entry, innate recognition and mounting of antiviral and inflammatory responses in genital ECs that could have significant implications for homeostasis of the female genital tract.

  15. Immune responses to transgene and retroviral vector in patients treated with ex vivo-engineered T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, C.H.; Willemsen, R.; Elzakker, P. van; Steenbergen-Langeveld, S. van; Broertjes, M.; Oosterwijk-Wakka, J.C.; Oosterwijk, E.; Sleijfer, S.; Debets, R.; Gratama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of immune effector cells that are gene modified by retroviral transduction to express tumor-specific receptors constitutes an attractive approach to treat cancer. In patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, we performed a study with autologous T cells genetically retargeted

  16. Enhanced mucosal and systemic immune response with intranasal immunization of mice with HIV peptides entrapped in PLG microparticles in combination with Ulex Europaeus-I lectin as M cell target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, Monika; Pal, Pramod Chandra; Chitralekha, K T; Thomas, Beena Elizabeth; Tripathi, Vinita; Gupta, Siddhartha Dutta; Paranjape, Ramesh; Kulkarni, Smita; Rao, D Nageswara

    2005-12-01

    The predominant route of HIV infection is through the sexual transmission via M cells. Most of the peptide and protein vaccines show poor transport across the epithelial barrier and are commonly administered by parenteral route. In the present study four HIV peptides from envelope (gp 41-LZ (leucine zipper), gp 41-FD (fusion domain) and gp120-C2) and regulatory (Nef) region in poly lactic-co-glycolide (PLG) micro-particle delivery were evaluated in mice of outbred and with different genetic background to compare immune response versus MHC restriction. Out of the combinational and single routes of immunization attempted, the single route maintained the IgG, IgA and sIgA in sera and washes for longer duration as compared to combinational routes in which the response was declined. The study demonstrated that single intranasal immunization offered significantly higher immune response (pPP>or=SP. The cytokine measurement profile of IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-6 and low levels of IL-4 in the cultural supernatants of SP, PP and LP showed mixed CD4(+) Th1 and Th2 immune response. The p24 assay showed high percent inhibition of HIV-IIIB virus with sera and washes obtained from intranasal route. Thus, overall the study highlighted the combination of UEA-1 lectin with HIV peptides in micro-particles through intranasal immunization generated systemic as well as mucosal immune response.

  17. In vivo functional requirement of the mouse Ifitm1 gene for germ cell development, interferon mediated immune response and somitogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Klymiuk

    Full Text Available The mammalian Interferon induced transmembrane protein 1 (Ifitm1 gene was originally identified as a member of a gene family highly inducible by type I and type II interferons. Based on expression analyses, it was suggested to be required for normal primordial germ cell migration. The knockdown of Ifitm1 in mouse embryos provided evidence for a role in somitogenesis. We generated the first targeted knockin allele of the Ifitm1 gene to systematically reassess all inferred functions. Sperm motility and the fertility of male and female mutant mice are as in wild type littermates. Embryonic somites and the adult vertebral column appear normal in homozygous Ifitm1 knockout mice, demonstrating that Ifitm1 is not essential for normal segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm. Proportions of leucocyte subsets, including granulocytes, monocytes, B-cells, T-cells, NK-cells, and NKT-cells, are unchanged in mutant mice. Based on a normal immune response to Listeria monocytogenes infection, there is no evidence for a dysfunction in downstream IFNγ signaling in Ifitm1 mutant mice. Expression from the Ifitm1 locus from E8.5 to E14.5 is highly dynamic. In contrast, in adult mice, Ifitm1 expression is highly restricted and strong in the bronchial epithelium. Intriguingly, IFITM1 is highly overexpressed in tumor epithelia cells of human squamous cell carcinomas and in adenocarcinomas of NSCLC patients. These analyses underline the general importance of targeted in vivo studies for the functional annotation of the mammalian genome. The first comprehensive description of the Ifitm1 expression pattern provides a rational basis for the further examination of Ifitm1 gene functions. Based on our data, the fact that IFITM1 can function as a negative regulator of cell proliferation, and because the gene maps to chromosome band 11p15.5, previously associated with NSCLC, it is likely that IFITM1 in man has a key role in tumor formation.

  18. Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response and represses transplanted H22 hepatic ascitic tumor cell growth: Involvement of NF-κB signaling activation in CD4 + T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Tianming [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Wang, Chaoyuan [College of Life Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Su, Hanwen, E-mail: suhanwen-1@163.com [Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Xiang, Meixian, E-mail: xiangmeixian99@163.com [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China)

    2013-06-15

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a famous restorative food in East Asia. It can be used as an auxiliary reagent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previous studies unveiled that G. elata exhibited immunomodulatory activities. To explore the active ingredients contributing to its immunomodulatory activities, gastrodin, vanillin, and parishin B were purified from G. elata and their anti-HCC effects were assessed in vivo. Among these compounds, only gastrodin was capable of repressing transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo with low toxicity. Further investigations were designed to explore the effects of gastrodin on the immune system of tumor-bearing mice and potential molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data showed that gastrodin ameliorated tumor cell transplantation-induced activation of endogenous pro-apoptotic pathway in CD4 + T cells and abnormalities in serum cytokine profiles in host animals. These events enhanced cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8 + T cells against H22 hepatic cancer cells. Gastrodin administration specifically upregulated mRNA levels of several nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) responsive genes in CD4 + T cells but not in CD8 + T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that gastrodin increased the association of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter regions of IL-2 and Bcl-2 encoding genes in CD4 + T cells. Our investigations demonstrated that gastrodin is the main active ingredient contributing to the anticancer immunomodulatory properties of G. elata. Promoting NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in CD4 + T cells is implicated in its immunomodulatory activity. - Highlights: • Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response. • Gastrodin represses tumor transplantation-induced CD4 + T cell apoptosis. • Gastrodin activates NF-κB activity in CD4 + T cells.

  19. Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response and represses transplanted H22 hepatic ascitic tumor cell growth: Involvement of NF-κB signaling activation in CD4 + T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Tianming; Wang, Chaoyuan; Su, Hanwen; Xiang, Meixian

    2013-01-01

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a famous restorative food in East Asia. It can be used as an auxiliary reagent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previous studies unveiled that G. elata exhibited immunomodulatory activities. To explore the active ingredients contributing to its immunomodulatory activities, gastrodin, vanillin, and parishin B were purified from G. elata and their anti-HCC effects were assessed in vivo. Among these compounds, only gastrodin was capable of repressing transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo with low toxicity. Further investigations were designed to explore the effects of gastrodin on the immune system of tumor-bearing mice and potential molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data showed that gastrodin ameliorated tumor cell transplantation-induced activation of endogenous pro-apoptotic pathway in CD4 + T cells and abnormalities in serum cytokine profiles in host animals. These events enhanced cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8 + T cells against H22 hepatic cancer cells. Gastrodin administration specifically upregulated mRNA levels of several nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) responsive genes in CD4 + T cells but not in CD8 + T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that gastrodin increased the association of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter regions of IL-2 and Bcl-2 encoding genes in CD4 + T cells. Our investigations demonstrated that gastrodin is the main active ingredient contributing to the anticancer immunomodulatory properties of G. elata. Promoting NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in CD4 + T cells is implicated in its immunomodulatory activity. - Highlights: • Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response. • Gastrodin represses tumor transplantation-induced CD4 + T cell apoptosis. • Gastrodin activates NF-κB activity in CD4 + T cells

  20. Adrenaline influence on the immune response. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depelchin, A.; Letesson, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The intervention of adrenaline in the immunoregulation was investigated through the modification of the anti-SRBC PFC response of mice after its i.p. administration (4 μg) at various intervals before SRBC antigen. When the interval was less than 24 h, adrenaline accelerated the immune kinetics. This modification was apparent on both direct and indirect PFC, as well as on naive and immune mice. However, mice treated from 2 days showed a suppression of the response. The adrenaline affect subsisted on the adoptive response of spleen cells drug-treated either in vivo or in vitro. The mitogenic response after in vitro PHA or LPS stimulation of spleen cells from adrenaline-treated mice indicated that the T-cells were the drug target. The physiological role of the adrenaline and immunological influences of acute stress are discussed in the paper. The stress was provided by gamma irradiation. (Auth.)

  1. Pregnancy immunology: decidual immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguansermsri, Donruedee; Pongcharoen, Sutatip

    2008-01-01

    Human pregnancy is a complex process. Placental development depends on the function of secretory molecules produced by placental trophoblast cells as well as by maternal uterine immune cells within the decidua. These decidual immune cells are T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. The interactions between the trophoblast cells and the maternal immune cells have an impact on the outcome of the pregnancy. Knowledge about the phenotypes and functions of the maternal immune cells in normal and pathological pregnancies including recurrent spontaneous abortions, preeclampsia and hydatidiform moles may improve our understanding of the immunobiology of the normal pregnancy as a whole and may provide approaches for improving the treatment of pathological pregnancies.

  2. Association of immune response to endothelial cell growth factor with early disseminated and late manifestations of Lyme disease but not posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kevin S; Klempner, Mark S; Wormser, Gary P; Marques, Adriana R; Alaedini, Armin

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial cell growth factor has been recently proposed as a potential autoantigen in manifestations of Lyme disease that are thought to involve immune-mediated mechanisms. Our findings indicate that a humoral immune response to this protein is not associated with posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Immune Responses Involved in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Teimourpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB. Approximately one-third of the world's population is infected with M. tuberculosis. Despite the availability of drug and vaccine, it remains one of the leading causes of death in humans especially in developing countries. Epidemiological studies have indicated that only 10-30% of people exposed to tubercle bacillus are infected with M. tuberculosis, and at least 90% of the infected people finally do not acquire TB. The studies have indicated that the host efficient immune system has essential roles in the control of TB infection such that the highest rate of mortality and morbidity is seen in immunocompromised patients such as people infected with HIV. M. tuberculosis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium. It enters the body mainly through the respiratory tract and alveolar macrophages combat this pathogen most commonly. In addition to alveolar macrophages, various T-cell subpopulations need to be activated to overcome this bacterium's resistance to the host defense systems. CD4+ T cells, through production of several cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, and CD8+ T cells, through cytotoxic activities and induction of apoptosis in infected cells, play critical roles in inducing appropriate immune responses against M. tuberculosis. Although cell-mediated immunity is the cornerstone of host responses against TB and the recent studies have provided evidence for the importance of humoral and innate immune system in the control of TB, a profound understanding of the immune responses would provide a basis for development of new generations of vaccines and drugs. The present study addresses immune responses involved in M. tuberculosis infection.

  4. Prevalence of abnormal radiological findings in health care workers with latent tuberculosis infection and correlations with T cell immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Joshi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available More than half of all health care workers (HCWs in high TB-incidence, low and middle income countries are latently infected with tuberculosis (TB. We determined radiological lesions in a cohort of HCWs with latent TB infection (LTBI in India, and determined their association with demographic, occupational and T-cell immune response variables.We obtained chest radiographs of HCWs who had undergone tuberculin skin test (TST and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (QFT, an interferon-gamma release assay, in a previous cross-sectional study, and were diagnosed to have LTBI because they were positive by either TST or QFT, but had no evidence of clinical disease. Two observers independently interpreted these radiographs using a standardized data form and any discordance between them resolved by a third observer. The radiological diagnostic categories (normal, suggestive of inactive TB, and suggestive of active TB were compared with results of TST, QFT assay, demographic, and occupational covariates.A total of 330 HCWs with positive TST or QFT underwent standard chest radiography. Of these 330, 113 radiographs (34.2% were finally classified as normal, 206 (62.4% had lesions suggestive of inactive TB, and 11 (3.4% had features suggestive of active TB. The mean TST indurations and interferon-gamma levels in the HCWs in these three categories were not significantly different. None of the demographic or occupational covariates was associated with prevalence of inactive TB lesions on chest radiography.In a high TB incidence setting, nearly two-thirds of HCWs with latent TB infection had abnormal radiographic findings, and these findings had no clear correlation with T cell immune responses. Further studies are needed to verify these findings and to identify the causes and prognosis of radiologic abnormalities in health care workers.

  5. Multiple myeloma patients in long-term complete response after autologous stem cell transplantation express a particular immune signature with potential prognostic implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteche-López, A; Kreutzman, A; Alegre, A; Sanz Martín, P; Aguado, B; González-Pardo, M; Espiño, M; Villar, L M; García Belmonte, D; de la Cámara, R; Muñoz-Calleja, C

    2017-06-01

    The proportion of multiple myeloma patients in long-term complete response (LTCR-MM) for more than 6 years after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is small. To evaluate whether this LTCR is associated with a particular immune signature, peripheral blood samples from 13 LTCR-MM after ASCT and healthy blood donors (HBD) were analysed. Subpopulations of T-cells (naïve, effector, central memory and regulatory), B-cells (naïve, marginal zone-like, class-switched memory, transitional and plasmablasts) and NK-cells expressing inhibitory and activating receptors were quantified by multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC). Heavy/light chains (HLC) were quantified by nephelometry. The percentage of CD4 + T-cells was lower in patients, whereas an increment in the percentage of CD4 + and CD8 + effector memory T-cells was associated with the LTCR. Regulatory T-cells and NK-cells were similar in both groups but a particular redistribution of inhibitory and activating receptors in NK-cells were found in patients. Regarding B-cells, an increase in naïve cells and a corresponding reduction in marginal zone-like and class-switched memory B-cells was observed. The HLC values were normal. Our results suggest that LTCR-MM patients express a particular immune signature, which probably reflects a 'high quality' immune reconstitution that could exert a competent anti-tumor immunological surveillance along with a recovery of the humoral immunity.

  6. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits rheumatoid arthritis by modulating T cell immune responses and matrix-degrading enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Molecular Immunology Section, Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Duk-Sil [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, CHA Gumi Medical Center, CHA University, Gumi 730-040 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Yeong [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soyoung [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hyun-Mee [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Yeong Su; Yoo, Jeongsoo [Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Pil-Hoon [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Tae-Yong [College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Jeonju 565-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Taeg Kyu [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Mun-Chual, E-mail: rho-m@kribb.re.kr [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease associated with a combination of synovium joint inflammation, synovium hyperplasia, and destruction of cartilage and bone. Oleanolic acid acetate (OAA), a compound isolated from Vigna angularis, has been known to possess pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation and anti-bone destruction. In this study, we investigated the effects of OAA on RA and the underlying mechanisms of action by using a type-II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated RA synovial fibroblasts. Oral administration of OAA decreased the clinical arthritis symptoms, paw thickness, histologic and radiologic changes, and serum total and anti-type II collagen IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a levels. OAA administration reduced Th1/Th17 phenotype CD4{sup +} T lymphocyte expansions and inflammatory cytokine productions in T cell activated draining lymph nodes and spleen. OAA reduced the expression and production of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1/3, in the ankle joint tissue and RA synovial fibroblasts by down-regulating Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and nuclear factor-κB. Our results clearly support that OAA plays a therapeutic role in RA pathogenesis by modulating helper T cell immune responses and matrix-degrading enzymes. The immunosuppressive effects of OAA were comparable to dexamethasone and ketoprofen. We provide evidences that OAA could be a potential therapeutic candidate for RA. - Highlights: • OAA attenuated chronic CIA symptoms. • OAA had a regulating effect on the T helper cell immune reaction for CIA. • The effect of OAA on the RA was comparable to the dexamethasone or ketoprofen. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of arthritic diseases.

  7. Innate-like CD4 T cells selected by thymocytes suppress adaptive immune responses against bacterial infections

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Yu; Gray, Brian M.; Sofi, Mohammed H.; Bauler, Laura D.; Eaton, Kathryn A.; O'Riordan, Mary X. D.; Chang, Cheong-Hee

    2011-01-01

    We have reported a new innate-like CD4 T cell population that expresses cell surface makers of effector/memory cells and produce Th1 and Th2 cytokines immediately upon activation. Unlike conventional CD4 T cells that are selected by thymic epithelial cells, these CD4 T cells, named T-CD4 T cells, are selected by MHC class II expressing thymocytes. Previously, we showed that the presence of T-CD4 T cells protected mice from airway inflammation suggesting an immune regulatory role of T-CD4 T ce...

  8. Dendritic-cell-based immunotherapy evokes potent anti-tumor immune responses in CD105+ human renal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Weng, De-Sheng; Pan, Ke; Zhou, Zi-Qi; Pan, Qiu-Zhong; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Tang, Yan; Jiang, Shan-Shan; Chen, Chang-Long; Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Chang, Alfred E; Wicha, Max S; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Li, Qiao; Xia, Jian-Chuan

    2017-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation, progression, and resistance to therapeutic agents; they are usually less sensitive to conventional cancer therapies, and could cause tumor relapse. An ideal therapeutic strategy would therefore be to selectively target and destroy CSCs, thereby preventing tumor relapse. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with antigen derived from CD105+ human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) CSCs against renal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We identified "stem-like" characteristics of CD105+ cells in two human RCC cell lines: A498 and SK-RC-39. Loading with cell lysates did not change the characteristics of the DCs. However, DCs loaded with lysates derived from CD105+ CSCs induced more functionally specific active T cells and specific antibodies against CSCs, and clearly depressed the tumor growth in mice. Our results could form the basis for a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy for human RCC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Pre-existing vector immunity does not prevent replication deficient adenovirus from inducing efficient CD8 T-cell memory and recall responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Abildgaard Steffensen

    Full Text Available Adenoviral vectors have shown a great potential for vaccine development due to their inherent ability to induce potent and protective CD8 T-cell responses. However, a critical issue regarding the use of these vectors is the existence of inhibitory immunity against the most commonly used Ad5 vector in a large part of the human population. We have recently developed an improved adenoviral vaccine vector system in which the vector expresses the transgene tethered to the MHC class II associated invariant chain (Ii. To further evaluate the potential of this system, the concept of pre-existing inhibitory immunity to adenoviral vectors was revisited to investigate whether the inhibition previously seen with the Ad5 vector also applied to the optimized vector system. We found this to be the case, and antibodies dominated as the mechanism underlying inhibitory vector immunity. However, presence of CD8 T cells directed against epitopes in the adenoviral vector seemed to correlate with repression of the induced response in re-vaccinated B-cell deficient mice. More importantly, despite a repressed primary effector CD8 T-cell response in Ad5-immune animals subjected to vaccination, memory T cells were generated that provided the foundation for an efficient recall response and protection upon subsequent viral challenge. Furthermore, the transgene specific response could be efficiently boosted by homologous re-immunization. Taken together, these studies indicate that adenoviral vectors can be used to induce efficient CD8 T-cell memory even in individuals with pre-existing vector immunity.

  10. Identification of cell proliferation, immune response and cell migration as critical pathways in a prognostic signature for HER2+:ERα- breast cancer.

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    Jeffrey C Liu

    Full Text Available Multi-gene prognostic signatures derived from primary tumor biopsies can guide clinicians in designing an appropriate course of treatment. Identifying genes and pathways most essential to a signature performance may facilitate clinical application, provide insights into cancer progression, and uncover potentially new therapeutic targets. We previously developed a 17-gene prognostic signature (HTICS for HER2+:ERα- breast cancer patients, using genes that are differentially expressed in tumor initiating cells (TICs versus non-TICs from MMTV-Her2/neu mammary tumors. Here we probed the pathways and genes that underlie the prognostic power of HTICS.We used Leave-One Out, Data Combination Test, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA, Correlation and Substitution analyses together with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to identify critical biological pathways within HTICS. Publically available cohorts with gene expression and clinical outcome were used to assess prognosis. NanoString technology was used to detect gene expression in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissues.We show that three major biological pathways: cell proliferation, immune response, and cell migration, drive the prognostic power of HTICS, which is further tuned by Homeostatic and Glycan metabolic signalling. A 6-gene minimal Core that retained a significant prognostic power, albeit less than HTICS, also comprised the proliferation/immune/migration pathways. Finally, we developed NanoString probes that could detect expression of HTICS genes and their substitutions in FFPE samples.Our results demonstrate that the prognostic power of a signature is driven by the biological processes it monitors, identify cell proliferation, immune response and cell migration as critical pathways for HER2+:ERα- cancer progression, and defines substitutes and Core genes that should facilitate clinical application of HTICS.

  11. Low antigen dose formulated in CAF09 adjuvant Favours a cytotoxic T-cell response following intraperitoneal immunization in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Nana Haahr; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Jakobsen, Jeanne Toft

    2017-01-01

    in order to generate a certain type of immune response. To investigate this area further, we used Göttingen minipigs asan animal model especially due to the similar body size and high degree of immunome similarity between humans and pigs. In this study, we show that both a humoral and a cell......-dose immunization. Independent of antigen dose, intraperitoneal administration of antigen increased the amount of TT-specific cytotoxic CD8β+ T cells within the cytokine-producing T-cell pool when compared to the non-cytokine producing T-cell compartment. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a full...... protein formulated in the CAF09 adjuvant and administered to pigs via the intraperitoneal route effectively generates a cytotoxic T-cell response. Moreover, we confirm the inverse relationship between the antigen dose and the induction of polyfunctional T cells in a large animal model. These finding can...

  12. Immune Response Generated With the Administration of Autologous Dendritic Cells Pulsed With an Allogenic Tumoral Cell-Lines Lysate in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

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    Daniel Benitez-Ribas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectiveDiffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG is a lethal brainstem tumor in children. Dendritic cells (DCs have T-cell stimulatory capacity and, therefore, potential antitumor activity for disease control. DCs vaccines have been shown to reactivate tumor-specific T cells in both clinical and preclinical settings. We designed a phase Ib immunotherapy (IT clinical trial with the use of autologous dendritic cells (ADCs pulsed with an allogeneic tumors cell-lines lysate in patients with newly diagnosed DIPG after irradiation (radiation therapy.MethodsNine patients with newly diagnosed DIPG met enrollment criteria. Autologous dendritic cell vaccines (ADCV were prepared from monocytes obtained by leukapheresis. Five ADCV doses were administered intradermally during induction phase. In the absence of tumor progression, patients received three boosts of tumor lysate every 3 months during the maintenance phase.ResultsVaccine fabrication was feasible in all patients included in the study. Non-specific KLH (9/9 patients and specific (8/9 patients antitumor response was identified by immunologic studies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Immunological responses were also confirmed in the T lymphocytes isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of two patients. Vaccine administration resulted safe in all patients treated with this schema.ConclusionThese preliminary results demonstrate that ADCV preparation is feasible, safe, and generate a DIPG-specific immune response detected in PBMC and CSF. This strategy shows a promising backbone for future schemas of combination IT.

  13. Antibody response against Betaferon® in immune tolerant mice: involvement of marginal zone B-cells and CD4+ T-cells and apparent lack of immunological memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerborn, Melody; van Beers, Miranda M C; Jiskoot, Wim; Kijanka, Grzegorz M; Boon, Louis; Schellekens, Huub; Brinks, Vera

    2013-01-01

    The immunological processes underlying immunogenicity of recombinant human therapeutics are poorly understood. Using an immune tolerant mouse model we previously demonstrated that aggregates are a major trigger of the antidrug antibody (ADA) response against recombinant human interferon beta (rhIFNβ) products including Betaferon®, and that immunological memory seems to be lacking after a rechallenge with non-aggregated rhIFNβ. The apparent absence of immunological memory indicates a CD4+ T-cell independent (Tind) immune response underlying ADA formation against Betaferon®. This hypothesis was tested. Using the immune tolerant mouse model we first validated that rechallenge with highly aggregated rhIFNβ (Betaferon®) does not lead to a subsequent fast increase in ADA titers, suggesting a lack of immunological memory. Next we assessed whether Betaferon® could act as Tind antigen by inactivation of marginal zone (MZ) B-cells during treatment. MZ B-cells are major effector cells involved in a Tind immune response. In a following experiment we depleted the mice from CD4+ T-cells to test their involvement in the ADA response against Betaferon®. Inactivation of MZ B-cells at the start of Betaferon® treatment drastically lowered ADA levels, suggesting a Tind immune response. However, persistent depletion of CD4+ T-cells before and during Betaferon® treatment abolished the ADA response in almost all mice. The immune response against rhIFNβ in immune tolerant mice is neither a T-cell independent nor a classical T-cell dependent immune response. Further studies are needed to confirm absence of immunological memory (cells).

  14. Unexpected Modulation of Recall B and T Cell Responses after Immunization with Rotavirus-like Particles in the Presence of LT-R192G

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    Christelle Basset

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available LT-R192G, a mutant of the thermolabile enterotoxin of E. coli, is a potent adjuvant of immunization. Immune responses are generally analyzed at the end of protocols including at least 2 administrations, but rarely after a prime. To investigate this point, we compared B and T cell responses in mice after one and two intrarectal immunizations with 2/6 rotavirus-like particles (2/6-VLP and LT-R192G. After a boost, we found, an unexpected lower B cell expansion measured by flow cytometry, despite a secondary antibody response. We then analyzed CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs and CD4+CD25+Foxp3− helper T cells after in vitro (restimulation of mesenteric lymph node cells with the antigen (2/6-VLP, the adjuvant (LT-R192G or both. 2/6-VLP did not activate CD4+CD25+Foxp3− nor Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice, whereas they did activate both subsets from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP in the presence of adjuvant. LT-R192G dramatically decreased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice but not from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP and adjuvant. Moreover, in this case, LT-R192G increased Foxp3 expression on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells, suggesting specific Treg activation during the recall. Finally, when both 2/6-VLP and LT-R192G were used for restimulation, LT-R192G clearly suppressed both 2/6-VLP-specific CD4+CD25+Foxp3− and Foxp3+ T cells. All together, these results suggest that LT-R192G exerts different effects on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, depending on a first or a second contact. The unexpected immunomodulation observed during the recall should be considered in designing vaccination protocols.

  15. Cellular Immune Responses for Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen Recognized by T Cells 3 in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

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    Kiichiro Kaji

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma antigen recognized by T cells 3 (SART3, a tumor-associated antigen expressed in many cancers, functions in tumor rejection. In this study, we investigated its usefulness as an immunotherapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC.The expression of SART3 in hepatoma cell lines and HCC tissues was investigated by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analyses. Two peptides derived from SART3 (SART3109 and SART3315 were used for immunological analysis. T-cell responses were investigated by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in 47 patients, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in 8 of 47 patients with HCC. The safety of immunotherapy using a SART3-derived peptide was investigated by vaccinations of SART3109 in 12 patients with HCC (trial registration: UMIN000005677.The immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analyses showed that SART3 was expressed in six HCC cell lines, and in HCC tissues including of alpha-fetoprotein-negative individuals. SART3-specific CTLs were generated by stimulating PBMCs with the peptides, and they showed cytotoxicity against HCC cells expressing the protein. Of the 47 HCC patients, 25.5% and 10.6% showed significant responses to SART3109 and SART3315, respectively. The infiltration of SART3109-specific IFN-γ-producing CTLs into the tumor site was confirmed. In the vaccination study, no severe adverse events were observed, and the peptide-specific CTLs were newly induced in four of five patients tested.SART3 is an immunotherapeutic candidate, and peptides from this antigen may be applied in HCC immunotherapy.UMIN000005677.

  16. Mansonella perstans microfilaremic individuals are characterized by enhanced type 2 helper T and regulatory T and B cell subsets and dampened systemic innate and adaptive immune responses.

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    Manuel Ritter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The filarial nematode Mansonella perstans is endemic throughout Africa, northern South America and the Caribbean. Interestingly, M. perstans-infected individuals present no distinct clinical picture associated with certain pathology. Due to its relatively silent nature, research on this tropical disease has been neglected, especially M. perstans-driven immune responses. A hindrance in obtaining data on M. perstans-specific responses has been the inability to obtain adult worms since their habitats in serous cavities are difficult to access. Thus, in this study, for the first time, we used Mansonella perstans worm antigen extract as stimulant to obtain filarial-specific recall and immunoglobulin responses from M. perstans microfilaremic individuals (Mp MF+ from Cameroon. Moreover, systemic immune profiles in sera and immune cell composition in peripheral blood from Mp MF+ and amicrofilaremic individuals (Mp MF- were obtained. Our data reveal that Mp MF+ individuals showed significantly reduced cytokine (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-12p70 and chemokine levels (IL-8 and RANTES, but significantly higher MIP-1β as well as increased M. perstans-specific IgG4 levels compared to Mp MF- individuals. In contrast, upon re-stimulation with worm antigen extract, IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-10 and IL-17A secretion was enhanced in cell cultures from Mp MF+ individuals when compared to those from cultures of healthy European individuals. Moreover, analysis of immune cell composition in peripheral blood from Mp MF+ individuals revealed increased type 2 helper T (Th2, natural killer (NK, regulatory B and T cell (Breg and Treg subsets but decreased type 1 regulatory T (Tr1 cells. In summary, this study deciphers for the first time, M. perstans-specific immune responses using worm antigen extract and shows that patent M. perstans infections have distinct Th2, Breg and Treg subsets accompanied with reduced systemic innate and adaptive immune responses and dominant filarial-specific Ig

  17. Pathogen recognition in the innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Himanshu; Kawai, Taro; Akira, Shizuo

    2009-04-28

    Immunity against microbial pathogens primarily depends on the recognition of pathogen components by innate receptors expressed on immune and non-immune cells. Innate receptors are evolutionarily conserved germ-line-encoded proteins and include TLRs (Toll-like receptors), RLRs [RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I)-like receptors] and NLRs (Nod-like receptors). These receptors recognize pathogens or pathogen-derived products in different cellular compartments, such as the plasma membrane, the endosomes or the cytoplasm, and induce the expression of cytokines, chemokines and co-stimulatory molecules to eliminate pathogens and instruct pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses. In the present review, we will discuss the recent progress in the study of pathogen recognition by TLRs, RLRs and NLRs and their signalling pathways.

  18. Tumour cell lysate-loaded dendritic cell vaccine induces biochemical and memory immune response in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, D; Salazar, L; Espinoza, E; Pereda, C; Castellón, E; Valdevenito, R; Huidobro, C; Inés Becker, M; Lladser, A; López, M N; Salazar-Onfray, F

    2013-09-17

    Recently, we produced a tumour antigen-presenting cells (TAPCells) vaccine using a melanoma cell lysate, called TRIMEL, as an antigen source and an activation factor. Tumour antigen-presenting cells induced immunological responses and increased melanoma patient survival. Herein, we investigated the effect of TAPCells loaded with prostate cancer cell lysates (PCCL) as an antigen source, and TRIMEL as a dendritic cell (DC) activation factor; which were co-injected with the Concholepas concholepas haemocyanin (CCH) as an adjuvant on castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. The lysate mix capacity, for inducing T-cell activation, was analysed by flow cytometry and Elispot. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction against PCCL, frequency of CD8(+) memory T cells (Tm) in blood and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in serum were measured in treated patients. The lysate mix induced functional mature DCs that were capable of activating PCCL-specific T cells. No relevant adverse reactions were observed. Six out of 14 patients showed a significant decrease in levels of PSA. DTH(+) patients showed a prolonged PSA doubling-time after treatment. Expansion of functional central and effector CD8(+) Tm were detected. Treatment of CRPC patients with lysate-loaded TAPCells and CCH as an adjuvant is safe: generating biochemical and memory immune responses. However, the limited number of cases requires confirmation in a phase II clinical trial.

  19. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T cell differentiation and tissue level cell-cell interactions was developed to illustrate the capabilities, power and scope of ENISI MSM. Background Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Implementation Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. Conclusion We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut

  20. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yongguo; Abedi, Vida; Carbo, Adria; Zhang, Xiaoying; Lu, Pinyi; Philipson, Casandra; Hontecillas, Raquel; Hoops, Stefan; Liles, Nathan; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut inflammation. Our modeling predictions dissect the mechanisms by which effector CD4+ T cell responses contribute to tissue damage in the gut mucosa following immune dysregulation.Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T

  1. Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0360 TITLE: Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORs: Dr Min Chen PhD...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0360 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...entitled “ENHANCEMENT OF IMMUNE MEMORY RESPONSES TO RESPIRATORY INFECTION: AUTOPHAGY IN MEMORY B-CELLS RESPONSE TO INFLUENZA VACCINE (AMBRIV

  2. SjCRT, a recombinant Schistosoma japonicum calreticulin, induces maturation of dendritic cells and a Th1-polarized immune response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that immunization of radiation-attenuated (RA schistosoma cercariae or schistosomula can induce high levels of protective immunity against schistosoma cercariae reinfection in many animals. Many studies have shown that the Th1 cellular immune response is crucial for the protective effect elicited by RA schistosomula. However, the molecular mechanism of this strong protective immunity remains unclear. Methods The expression profiles of Schistosoma japonicum calreticulin (SjCRT in RA and normal schistosoma-derived cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The effect of recombinant SjCRT (rSjCRT on mouse dendritic cells (DCs was determined by FACS, ELISA and RT-PCR analysis. We also analyzed the effects of SjCRT on the activation of spleen cells from mice immunized with rSjCRT by detecting lymphocyte proliferation and the cytokine profiles of splenocytes. Results We found that the expression level of SjCRT in the cells from RA larvae was significantly higher than that in cells from normal schistosomula at early stages of development (day 4. The results of effect of rSjCRT on mouse DCs showed that rSjCRT could induce phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs, and SjCRT bound to the surface of DCs through the CD91 receptor and could be engulfed by DCs. The results of activation of splenocytes from mice immunized with rSjCRT also demonstrate that rSjCRT can effectively stimulate the proliferative response of splenic lymphocytes, elicit splenocytes from immunized mice to secrete high levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-4, and activate CD4+ T cells to produce high levels of IFN-γ. Conclusion SjCRT is one of the immunostimulatory molecules released from RA schistosomula cells, might play a crucial role in conferring a Th1-polarized immune response induced by RA cercariae/schistosomula in mice, and is a candidate molecule responsible for the high levels of protective immunity induced by RA schistosomula.

  3. Immune Response to Dengue and Zika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngono, Annie Elong; Shresta, Sujan

    2018-04-26

    Flaviviruses such as dengue (DENV), yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), and Zika (ZIKV) are human pathogens of global significance. In particular, DENV causes the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral diseases in humans, and ZIKV emerged from obscurity into the spotlight in 2016 as the etiologic agent of congenital Zika syndrome. Owing to the recent emergence of ZIKV as a global pandemic threat, the roles of the immune system during ZIKV infections are as yet unclear. In contrast, decades of DENV research implicate a dual role for the immune system in protection against and pathogenesis of DENV infection. As DENV and ZIKV are closely related, knowledge based on DENV studies has been used to prioritize investigation of ZIKV immunity and pathogenesis, and to accelerate ZIKV diagnostic, therapeutic, and vaccine design. This review discusses the following topics related to innate and adaptive immune responses to DENV and ZIKV: the interferon system as the key mechanism of host defense and viral target for immune evasion, antibody-mediated protection versus antibody-dependent enhancement, and T cell-mediated protection versus original T cell antigenic sin. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate the balance between immune-mediated protection and pathogenesis during DENV and ZIKV infections is critical toward development of safe and effective DENV and ZIKV therapeutics and vaccines.

  4. Endothelial cells: From innocent bystanders to active participants in immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Soudi, A.; Kaaij, M. H.; Tas, S. W.

    2017-01-01

    The endothelium is crucially important for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients throughout the body under homeostatic conditions. However, it also contributes to pathology, including the initiation and perpetuation of inflammation. Understanding the function of endothelial cells (ECs) in

  5. The immunoglobulin superfamily member CD200R identifies cells involved in type 2 immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Lars H; Martel, Britta C; Larsen, Lau F

    2017-01-01

    of this investigation was to identify surface markers associated with type 2 inflammation. METHODS: Naïve human CD4(+) T-cells were short-term activated in the presence or absence of IL-4, and analysed for expression of >300 cell-surface proteins. Ex vivo isolated PBMCs from peanut and non-allergic allergic subjects......, were stimulated (14-16h) with peanut extract to detect peanut-specific CD4(+) CD154(+) T-cells. Biopsies were obtained for transcriptomic analysis from healthy controls and patients with extrinsic or intrinsic atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. RESULTS: Expression analysis of >300 surface proteins...... and ILC2 cells and basophils. In peanut-allergic subjects the peanut-specific Th2 (CD154(+) CRTh2(+) ) cells expressed more CD200R than the non-allergen specific Th2 (CD154(-) CRTh2(+) ) cells. Moreover, co-staining of CD161 and CD200R identified peanut-specific highly differentiated IL-4(+) IL-5(+) Th2...

  6. Primary Human Blood Dendritic Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy—Tailoring the Immune Response by Dendritic Cell Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone P. Sittig

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC-based cancer vaccines hold the great promise of tipping the balance from tolerance of the tumor to rejection. In the last two decades, we have gained tremendous knowledge about DC-based cancer vaccines. The maturation of DCs has proven indispensable to induce immunogenic T cell responses. We review the insights gained from the development of maturation cocktails in monocyte derived DC-based trials. More recently, we have also gained insights into the functional specialization of primary human blood DC subsets. In peripheral human blood, we can distinguish at least three primary DC subsets, namely CD1c+ and CD141+ myeloid DCs and plasmacytoid DCs. We reflect the current knowledge on maturation and T helper polarization by these blood DC subsets in the context of DC-based cancer vaccines. The maturation stimulus in combination with the DC subset will determine the type of T cell response that is induced. First trials with these natural DCs underline their excellent in vivo functioning and mark them as promising tools for future vaccination strategies.

  7. Humoral and cell-mediated immune response against human retinal antigens in relation to ocular onchocerciasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lelij, A.; Rothova, A.; Stilma, J. S.; Vetter, J. C.; Hoekzema, R.; Kijlstra, A.

    1990-01-01

    Autoimmune mechanisms are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of the chorioretinal changes in ocular onchocerciasis. The humoral autoimmune response was determined by measuring serum levels of autoantibodies, directed against human S-antigen and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein

  8. Quantitating cellular immune responses to cancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, H Kim

    2003-06-01

    While the future of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer is promising, it is difficult to compare the various approaches because monitoring assays have not been standardized in approach or technique. Common assays for measuring the immune response need to be established so that these assays can one day serve as surrogate markers for clinical response. Assays that accurately detect and quantitate T-cell-mediated, antigen-specific immune responses are particularly desired. However, to date, increases in the number of cytotoxic T cells through immunization have not been correlated with clinical tumor regression. Ideally, then, a T-cell assay not only needs to be sensitive, specific, reliable, reproducible, simple, and quick to perform, it must also demonstrate close correlation with clinical outcome. Assays currently used to measure T-cell response are delayed-type hypersensitivity testing, flow cytometry using peptide major histocompatibility complex tetramers, lymphoproliferation assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, enzyme-linked immunospot assay, cytokine flow cytometry, direct cytotoxicity assay, measurement of cytokine mRNA by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and limiting dilution analysis. The purpose of this review is to describe the attributes of each test and compare their advantages and disadvantages.

  9. Regulation of immune responsiveness in vivo by disrupting an early T-cell signaling event using a cell-permeable peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Guimond

    Full Text Available The inducible T cell kinase (ITK regulates type 2 (Th2 cytokines that provide defense against certain parasitic and bacterial infections and are involved in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation such as allergic asthma. Activation of ITK requires the interaction of its SH3 domain with the poly-proline region of its signaling partner, the SH2 domain containing leukocyte phosphoprotein of 76 kilodaltons (SLP-76. The specific disruption of the ITK-SH3/SLP-76 poly-proline interaction in vitro by a cell-permeable competitive inhibitor peptide (R9-QQP interferes with the activation of ITK and the transduction of its cellular functions in T lymphocytes. In the present investigation, we assessed the effects of R9-QQP treatment on the induction of an in vivo immune response as represented by lung inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma. We found that mice treated with R9-QQP and sensitized and challenged with the surrogate allergen ovalbumin (OVA display significant inhibition of lung inflammation in a peptide-specific manner. Thus, parameters of the allergic response, such as airway hyper-responsiveness, suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration, reduction of bronchial mucus accumulation, and production of relevant cytokines from draining lymph nodes were significantly suppressed. These findings represent the first demonstration of the biological significance of the interaction between ITK and SLP-76 in the induction of an immune response in a whole animal model and specifically underscore the significance of the ITK-SH3 domain interaction with the poly-proline region of SLP-76 in the development of an inflammatory response. Furthermore, the experimental approach of intracellular peptide-mediated inhibition might be applicable to the study of other important intracellular interactions thus providing a paradigm for dissecting signal transduction pathways.

  10. Strategy for eliciting antigen-specific CD8+ T cell-mediated immune response against a cryptic CTL epitope of merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez Bianca P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is a relatively new addition to the expanding category of oncovirus-induced cancers. Although still comparably rare, the number of cases has risen dramatically in recent years. Further complicating this trend is that MCC is an extremely aggressive neoplasm with poor patient prognosis and limited treatment options for advanced disease. The causative agent of MCC has been identified as the merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV. The MCPyV-encoded large T (LT antigen is an oncoprotein that is theorized to be essential for virus-mediated tumorigenesis and is therefore, an excellent MCC antigen for the generation of antitumor immune responses. As a foreign antigen, the LT oncoprotein avoids the obstacle of immune tolerance, which normally impedes the development of antitumor immunity. Ergo, it is an excellent target for anti-MCC immunotherapy. Since tumor-specific CD8+ T cells lead to better prognosis for MCC and numerous other cancers, we have generated a DNA vaccine that is capable of eliciting LT-specific CD8+ T cells. The DNA vaccine (pcDNA3-CRT/LT encodes the LT antigen linked to a damage-associated molecular pattern, calreticulin (CRT, as it has been demonstrated that the linkage of CRT to antigens promotes the induction of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Results The present study shows that DNA vaccine-induced generation of LT-specific CD8+ T cells is augmented by linking CRT to the LT antigen. This is relevant since the therapeutic effects of the pcDNA3-CRT/LT DNA vaccine is mediated by LT-specific CD8+ T cells. Mice vaccinated with the DNA vaccine produced demonstrably more LT-specific CD8+ T cells. The DNA vaccine was also able to confer LT-specific CD8+ T cell-mediated protective and therapeutic effects to prolong the survival of mice with LT-expressing tumors. In the interest of determining the LT epitope which most MCC-specific CD8+ T cells recognize, we identified the amino acid sequence of the

  11. Induction of novel CD8+ T-cell responses during chronic untreated HIV-1 infection by immunization with subdominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloverpris, Henrik; Karlsson, Ingrid; Bonde, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To investigate the potential to induce additional cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immunity during chronic HIV-1 infection. DESIGN:: We selected infrequently targeted or subdominant but conserved HLA-A*0201-binding epitopes in Gag, Pol, Env, Vpu and Vif. These relatively immune silent...... epitopes were modified as anchor-optimized peptides to improve immunogenicity and delivered on autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). METHODS:: Twelve treatment-naïve HLA-A*0201 HIV-1-infected Danish individuals received 1 x 10 MDDCs subcutaneously (s.c.) (weeks 0, 2, 4 and 8), pulsed......-cell counts was observed. CONCLUSION:: These data show that it is possible to generate new T-cell responses in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected individuals despite high viral loads, and thereby redirect immunity to target new multiple and rationally selected subdominant CTL epitopes. Further optimization could...

  12. Indian Hedgehog Suppresses a Stromal Cell-Driven Intestinal Immune Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, B. Florien; Büller, Nikè V. J. A.; Karpus, Olga N.; van Dop, Willemijn A.; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Koelink, Pim J.; Snel, Clinton Y.; Meisner, Sander; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Uhmann, Anja; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Heijmans, Jarom; Hahn, Heidi; Muncan, Vanesa; Wildenberg, Manon E.; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2018-01-01

    Upon intestinal epithelial damage a complex wound healing response is initiated to restore epithelial integrity and defend against pathogenic invasion. Epithelium-derived Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) functions as a critical sensor in this process. Signaling occurs in a paracrine manner because the receptor

  13. CD27 instructs CD4+ T cells to provide help for the memory CD8+ T cell response after protein immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Yanling; Peperzak, Victor; Keller, Anna M.; Borst, Jannie

    2008-01-01

    For optimal quality, memory CD8(+) T cells require CD4(+) T cell help. We have examined whether CD4(+) T cells require CD27 to deliver this help, in a model of intranasal OVA protein immunization. CD27 deficiency reduced the capacity of CD4(+) T cells to support Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell

  14. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing leukemic dendritic cells impair a leukemia-specific immune response by inducing potent T regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Antonio; Trabanelli, Sara; Onofri, Chiara; Aluigi, Michela; Salvestrini, Valentina; Ocadlikova, Darina; Evangelisti, Cecilia; Rutella, Sergio; De Cristofaro, Raimondo; Ottaviani, Emanuela; Baccarani, Michele; Lemoli, Roberto M

    2010-12-01

    The immunoregulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan into kynurenine, is expressed in a significant subset of patients with acute myeloid leukemia, resulting in the inhibition of T-cell proliferation and the induction of regulatory T cells. Acute myeloid leukemia cells can be differentiated into dendritic cells, which have increased immunogenicity and have been proposed as vaccines against leukemia. Leukemic dendritic cells were generated from acute myeloid leukemia cells and used as stimulators in functional assays, including the induction of regulatory T cells. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in leukemic dendritic cells was evaluated at molecular, protein and enzymatic levels. We demonstrate that, after differentiation into dendritic cells, both indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-negative and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-positive acute myeloid leukemia samples show induction and up-regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase gene and protein, respectively. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-positive acute myeloid leukemia dendritic cells catabolize tryptophan into kynurenine metabolite and inhibit T-cell proliferation through an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-dependent mechanism. Moreover, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-positive leukemic dendritic cells increase the number of allogeneic and autologous CD4(+)CD25(+) Foxp3(+) T cells and this effect is completely abrogated by the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-inhibitor, 1-methyl tryptophan. Purified CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells obtained from co-culture with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-positive leukemic dendritic cells act as regulatory T cells as they inhibit naive T-cell proliferation and impair the complete maturation of normal dendritic cells. Importantly, leukemic dendritic cell-induced regulatory T cells are capable of in vitro suppression of a leukemia-specific T cell-mediated immune response, directed against the leukemia-associated antigen, Wilms' tumor protein. These data identify

  15. Cell-mediated immune response to Leishmania chagasi experimental infection of BALB/c immunosuppressed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, presents a significant impact on immunosupressed patients. This study aimed to evaluate Leishmania chagasi infection in BALB/c mice immunosuppressed with dexamethasone. Spleen cells stimulated or not with L. chagasi were cultured for cytokine quantification (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 by sandwich ELISA. Parasite loads in the spleen and liver were determined by means of culture microtitration. Immunosuppressed groups showed statistically lower spleen weight and CD4-cell percentage in blood on the day of infection and produced Th1 and Th2 cytokines on other days of the study. The other infected groups, weather immunosupressed or not, also produced Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Parasite loads in the spleen and liver were not statistically different among the groups. It was concluded that L. chagasi infection was not affected by dexamethasone-induced immunosuppression, probably due the reversible effect of the treatment.

  16. Apoptotic-cell-derived membrane microparticles and IFN-α induce an inflammatory immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Anna; Heyder, Petra; Krienke, Stefan; Blank, Norbert; Tykocinski, Lars-Oliver; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Schiller, Martin

    2015-07-15

    A dysregulation in the clearance of apoptotic material is considered a major pathogenetic factor for the emergence of autoimmune diseases. Apoptotic-cell-derived membrane microparticles (AdMPs), which are released from the cell surface during apoptosis, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. Also of importance are cytokines, such as interferon-α (IFN-α), which is known to be a major player in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study investigates the combined effect of AdMPs and IFN-α on professional phagocytes. In the presence of IFN-α, phagocytosis of AdMPs by human monocytes was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. The combination of AdMPs and raised IFN-α concentrations resulted in an increase in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an upregulation of surface molecule expression involved in antigen uptake. In addition, macrophage polarisation was shifted towards a more inflammatory type of cell. The synergism between IFN-α and AdMPs seemed to be mediated by an upregulation of phosphorylated STAT1. Our results indicate that IFN-α, together with AdMPs, amplify the initiation and maintenance of inflammation. This mechanism might especially play a crucial role in disorders with a defective clearance of apoptotic material. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Splenectomy inhibits non-small cell lung cancer growth by modulating anti-tumor adaptive and innate immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Liran; Mishalian, Inbal; Bayuch, Rachel; Zolotarov, Lida; Michaeli, Janna; Fridlender, Zvi G

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that inhibitors of the immune system reside in the spleen and inhibit the endogenous antitumor effects of the immune system. We hypothesized that splenectomy would inhibit the growth of relatively large non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors by modulating the systemic inhibition of the immune system, and in particular Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC). The effect of splenectomy was evaluated in several murine lung cancer models. We found that splenectomy reduces tumor growth and the development of lung metastases, but only in advanced tumors. In immune-deficient NOD-SCID mice the effect of splenectomy on tumor growth and metastatic spread disappeared. Splenectomy significantly reduced the presence of MDSC, and especially monocytic-MDSC in the circulation and inside the tumor. Specific reduction of the CCR2+ subset of monocytic MDSC was demonstrated, and the importance of the CCL2-CCR2 axis was further shown by a marked reduction in CCL2 following splenectomy. These changes were followed by changes in the macrophages contents of the tumors to become more antitumorigenic, and by increased activation of CD8+ Cytotoxic T-cells (CTL). By MDSC depletion, and adoptive transfer of MDSCs, we demonstrated that the effect of splenectomy on tumor growth was substantially mediated by MDSC cells. We conclude that the spleen is an important contributor to tumor growth and metastases, and that splenectomy can blunt this effect by depletion of MDSC, changing the amount and characteristics of myeloid cells and enhancing activation of CTL. PMID:26137413

  18. Regulatory T cells: immune suppression and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Yisong Y

    2010-01-01

    Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) were originally identified as critical in maintaining self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. The immunosuppressive functions of Tregs are widely acknowledged and have been extensively studied. Recent studies have revealed many diverse roles of Tregs in shaping the immune system and the inflammatory response. This review will discuss our efforts as well as the efforts of others towards understanding the multifaceted function of Treg...

  19. Persistent Low-Level Replication of SIVΔnef Drives Maturation of Antibody and CD8 T Cell Responses to Induce Protective Immunity against Vaginal SIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Adnan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining the correlates of immune protection conferred by SIVΔnef, the most effective vaccine against SIV challenge, could enable the design of a protective vaccine against HIV infection. Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of immune responses that protect against SIV infection through detailed analyses of cellular and humoral immune responses in the blood and tissues of rhesus macaques vaccinated with SIVΔnef and then vaginally challenged with wild-type SIV. Despite the presence of robust cellular immune responses, animals at 5 weeks after vaccination displayed only transient viral suppression of challenge virus, whereas all macaques challenged at weeks 20 and 40 post-SIVΔnef vaccination were protected, as defined by either apparent sterile protection or significant suppression of viremia in infected animals. Multiple parameters of CD8 T cell function temporally correlated with maturation of protection, including polyfunctionality, phenotypic differentiation, and redistribution to gut and lymphoid tissues. Importantly, we also demonstrate the induction of a tissue-resident memory population of SIV-specific CD8 T cells in the vaginal mucosa, which was dependent on ongoing low-level antigenic stimulation. Moreover, we show that vaginal and serum antibody titers inversely correlated with post-challenge peak viral load, and we correlate the accumulation and affinity maturation of the antibody response to the duration of the vaccination period as well as to the SIVΔnef antigenic load. In conclusion, maturation of SIVΔnef-induced CD8 T cell and antibody responses, both propelled by viral persistence in the gut mucosa and secondary lymphoid tissues, results in protective immune responses that are able to interrupt viral transmission at mucosal portals of entry as well as potential sites of viral dissemination.

  20. Persistent Low-Level Replication of SIVΔnef Drives Maturation of Antibody and CD8 T Cell Responses to Induce Protective Immunity against Vaginal SIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Sama; Reeves, R Keith; Gillis, Jacqueline; Wong, Fay E; Yu, Yi; Camp, Jeremy V; Li, Qingsheng; Connole, Michelle; Li, Yuan; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Li, Wenjun; Keele, Brandon F; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Haase, Ashley T; Johnson, R Paul

    2016-12-01

    Defining the correlates of immune protection conferred by SIVΔnef, the most effective vaccine against SIV challenge, could enable the design of a protective vaccine against HIV infection. Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of immune responses that protect against SIV infection through detailed analyses of cellular and humoral immune responses in the blood and tissues of rhesus macaques vaccinated with SIVΔnef and then vaginally challenged with wild-type SIV. Despite the presence of robust cellular immune responses, animals at 5 weeks after vaccination displayed only transient viral suppression of challenge virus, whereas all macaques challenged at weeks 20 and 40 post-SIVΔnef vaccination were protected, as defined by either apparent sterile protection or significant suppression of viremia in infected animals. Multiple parameters of CD8 T cell function temporally correlated with maturation of protection, including polyfunctionality, phenotypic differentiation, and redistribution to gut and lymphoid tissues. Importantly, we also demonstrate the induction of a tissue-resident memory population of SIV-specific CD8 T cells in the vaginal mucosa, which was dependent on ongoing low-level antigenic stimulation. Moreover, we show that vaginal and serum antibody titers inversely correlated with post-challenge peak viral load, and we correlate the accumulation and affinity maturation of the antibody response to the duration of the vaccination period as well as to the SIVΔnef antigenic load. In conclusion, maturation of SIVΔnef-induced CD8 T cell and antibody responses, both propelled by viral persistence in the gut mucosa and secondary lymphoid tissues, results in protective immune responses that are able to interrupt viral transmission at mucosal portals of entry as well as potential sites of viral dissemination.

  1. Role of Polyamines in Immune Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. Hesterberg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is remarkably responsive to a myriad of invading microorganisms and provides continuous surveillance against tissue damage and developing tumor cells. To achieve these diverse functions, multiple soluble and cellular components must react in an orchestrated cascade of events to control the specificity, magnitude and persistence of the immune response. Numerous catabolic and anabolic processes are involved in this process, and prominent roles for l-arginine and l-glutamine catabolism have been described, as these amino acids serve as precursors of nitric oxide, creatine, agmatine, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, nucleotides and other amino acids, as well as for ornithine, which is used to synthesize putrescine and the polyamines spermidine and spermine. Polyamines have several purported roles and high levels of polyamines are manifest in tumor cells as well in autoreactive B- and T-cells in autoimmune diseases. In the tumor microenvironment, l-arginine catabolism by both tumor cells and suppressive myeloid cells is known to dampen cytotoxic T-cell functions suggesting there might be links between polyamines and T-cell suppression. Here, we review studies suggesting roles of polyamines in normal immune cell function and highlight their connections to autoimmunity and anti-tumor immune cell function.

  2. Frequent adaptive immune responses against arginase-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Mortensen, Rasmus Erik Johansson; Hansen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    The enzyme arginase-1 reduces the availability of arginine to tumor-infiltrating immune cells, thus reducing T-cell functionality in the tumor milieu. Arginase-1 is expressed by some cancer cells and by immune inhibitory cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated...

  3. Maternal allergic disease does not affect the phenotype of T and B cells or the immune response to allergens in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindsjö, E; Joerink, M; Johansson, C; Bremme, K; Malmström, V; Scheynius, A

    2010-07-01

    It is hypothesized that the in utero environment in allergic mothers can affect the neonatal immune responses. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of maternal allergic disease on cord blood mononuclear cell (CBMC) phenotype and proliferative responses upon allergen stimulation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 12 allergic and 14 nonallergic mothers and CBMC from their children were analysed. In the mothers, we determined cell proliferation, production of IL-4 and expression of FOXP3 in response to allergen stimulation. In the children, we evaluated cell proliferation and FOXP3 expression following allergen stimulation. Furthermore, expression of different homing markers on T cells and regulatory T cells and maturity of the T cells and B cell subsets were evaluated directly ex vivo. The timothy- and birch-allergic mothers responded with increased proliferation and/or IL-4 production towards timothy and birch extract, respectively, when compared to nonallergic mothers. This could not be explained by impairment of FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells in the allergic mothers. CBMC proliferation and FOXP3 expression in response to allergens were not affected by the allergic status of the mother. Also, phenotype of T cells, FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells and B cells was not affected by the allergic status of the mother. Our results suggest that maternal allergic disease has no effect on the neonatal response to allergens or the phenotype of neonatal lymphocytes. The factors studied here could, however, still affect later development of allergy.

  4. Exopolysaccharide-producing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains and their polymers elicit different responses on immune cells from blood and gut associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Nikolic, Milica; López, Patricia; Suárez, Ana; Miljkovic, Marija; Kojic, Milan; Margolles, Abelardo; Golic, Natasa; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    The effect of exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing bifidobacteria, and the EPS derived thereof, on the modulation of immune response was evaluated. Cells isolated from gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of naïve rats were used. The proliferation and cytokine production of these immune cells in the presence of the three isogenic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains (A1, A1dOx and A1dOxR), as well as their purified polymers, were in vitro analysed. The cytokine pattern produced by immune cells isolated from GALT showed that most levels remained stable in the presence of the three strains or their corresponding polymers. However, in PBMC the UV-inactivated bacteria induced higher levels of the ratios IFNγ/IL-17, TNFα/IL-10 and TNFα/TGFβ, and no variation in the ratio IFNγ/IL-4. Thus, B. animalis subsp. lactis strains were able to activate blood monocytes as well as T lymphocytes towards a mild inflammatory Th1 response. Furthermore, only the EPS-A1dOxR was able to stimulate a response in a similar way than its EPS-producing bacterium. Our work supports the notion that some bifidobacterial EPS could play a role in mediating the dialog of these microorganisms with the immune system. In addition, this study emphasizes the effect that the origin of the immune cells has in results obtained; this could explain the great amount of contradiction found in literature about the immunomodulation capability of EPS from probiotic bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Immune activation and HIV-specific T cell responses are modulated by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor in untreated HIV-infected individuals: An exploratory clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Prebensen

    Full Text Available Pathologically elevated immune activation and inflammation contribute to HIV disease progression and immunodeficiency, potentially mediated by elevated levels of prostaglandin E2, which suppress HIV-specific T cell responses. We have previously shown that a high dose of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib can reduce HIV-associated immune activation and improve IgG responses to T cell-dependent vaccines. In this follow-up study, we included 56 HIV-infected adults, 28 antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve and 28 on ART with undetectable plasma viremia but CD4 counts below 500 cells/μL. Patients in each of the two study groups were randomized to receive 90 mg qd of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor etoricoxib for six months, two weeks or to a control arm, respectively. T cell activation status, HIV Gag-specific T cell responses and plasma inflammatory markers, tryptophan metabolism and thrombin generation were analyzed at baseline and after four months. In addition, patients received tetanus toxoid, conjugated pneumococcal and seasonal influenza vaccines, to which IgG responses were determined after four weeks. In ART-naïve patients, etoricoxib reduced the density of the activation marker CD38 in multiple CD8+ T cell subsets, improved Gag-specific T cell responses, and reduced in vitro plasma thrombin generation, while no effects were seen on plasma markers of inflammation or tryptophan metabolism. No significant immunological effects of etoricoxib were observed in ART-treated patients. Patients receiving long-term etoricoxib treatment had poorer tetanus toxoid and conjugated pneumococcal vaccine responses than those receiving short-course etoricoxib. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors may attenuate harmful immune activation in HIV-infected patients without access to ART.

  6. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) -specific cell-mediated immune responses in guinea pigs during latent HSV-2 genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clarice L; Banasik, Brianne N; Gorder, Summer R; Xia, Jingya; Auclair, Sarah; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N

    2016-12-01

    Genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are a source of considerable morbidity and are a health concern for newborns exposed to virus during vaginal delivery. Additionally, HSV-2 infection diminishes the integrity of the vaginal epithelium resulting in increased susceptibility of individuals to infection with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Understanding immune protection against HSV-2 primary infection and immune modulation of virus shedding events following reactivation of the virus from latency is important for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. Although the murine model of HSV-2 infection is useful for understanding immunity following immunization, it is limited by the lack of spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency. Genital infection of guinea pigs with HSV-2 accurately models the disease of humans including the spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency and provides a unique opportunity to examine virus-host interactions during latency. Although the guinea pig represents an accurate model of many human infections, relatively few reagents are available to study the immunological response to infection. To analyze the cell-mediated immune response of guinea pigs at extended periods of time after establishment of HSV-2 latency, we have modified flow-cytometry based proliferation assays and IFN-γ ELISPOT assays to detect and quantify HSV-specific cell-mediated responses during latent infection of guinea pigs. Here we demonstrate that a combination of proliferation and ELISPOT assays can be used to quantify and characterize effecter function of virus-specific immune memory responses during HSV-latency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vaccination with lipid core peptides fails to induce epitope-specific T cell responses but confers non-specific protective immunity in a malaria model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon H Apte

    Full Text Available Vaccines against many pathogens for which conventional approaches have failed remain an unmet public health priority. Synthetic peptide-based vaccines offer an attractive alternative to whole protein and whole organism vaccines, particularly for complex pathogens that cause chronic infection. Previously, we have reported a promising lipid core peptide (LCP vaccine delivery system that incorporates the antigen, carrier, and adjuvant in a single molecular entity. LCP vaccines have been used to deliver several peptide subunit-based vaccine candidates and induced high titre functional antibodies and protected against Group A streptococcus in mice. Herein, we have evaluated whether LCP constructs incorporating defined CD4(+ and/or CD8(+ T cell epitopes could induce epitope-specific T cell responses and protect against pathogen challenge in a rodent malaria model. We show that LCP vaccines failed to induce an expansion of antigen-specific CD8(+ T cells following primary immunization or by boosting. We further demonstrated that the LCP vaccines induced a non-specific type 2 polarized cytokine response, rather than an epitope-specific canonical CD8(+ T cell type 1 response. Cytotoxic responses of unknown specificity were also induced. These non-specific responses were able to protect against parasite challenge. These data demonstrate that vaccination with lipid core peptides fails to induce canonical epitope-specific T cell responses, at least in our rodent model, but can nonetheless confer non-specific protective immunity against Plasmodium parasite challenge.

  8. Ovine model for studying pulmonary immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    Anatomical features of the sheep lung make it an excellent model for studying pulmonary immunity. Four specific lung segments were identified which drain exclusively to three separate lymph nodes. One of these segments, the dorsal basal segment of the right lung, is drained by the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMLN). Cannulation of the efferent lymph duct of the CMLN along with highly localized intrabronchial instillation of antigen provides a functional unit with which to study factors involved in development of pulmonary immune responses. Following intrabronchial immunization there was an increased output of lymphoblasts and specific antibody-forming cells in efferent CMLN lymph. Continuous divergence of efferent lymph eliminated the serum antibody response but did not totally eliminate the appearance of specific antibody in fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. In these studies localized immunization of the right cranial lobe served as a control. Efferent lymphoblasts produced in response to intrabronchial antigen were labeled with 125 I-iododeoxyuridine and their migrational patterns and tissue distribution compared to lymphoblasts obtained from the thoracic duct. The results indicated that pulmonary immunoblasts tend to relocate in lung tissue and reappear with a higher specific activity in pulmonary lymph than in thoracic duct lymph. The reverse was observed with labeled intestinal lymphoblasts. 35 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  9. Ovine model for studying pulmonary immune responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

    1984-11-25

    Anatomical features of the sheep lung make it an excellent model for studying pulmonary immunity. Four specific lung segments were identified which drain exclusively to three separate lymph nodes. One of these segments, the dorsal basal segment of the right lung, is drained by the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMLN). Cannulation of the efferent lymph duct of the CMLN along with highly localized intrabronchial instillation of antigen provides a functional unit with which to study factors involved in development of pulmonary immune responses. Following intrabronchial immunization there was an increased output of lymphoblasts and specific antibody-forming cells in efferent CMLN lymph. Continuous divergence of efferent lymph eliminated the serum antibody response but did not totally eliminate the appearance of specific antibody in fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. In these studies localized immunization of the right cranial lobe served as a control. Efferent lymphoblasts produced in response to intrabronchial antigen were labeled with /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine and their migrational patterns and tissue distribution compared to lymphoblasts obtained from the thoracic duct. The results indicated that pulmonary immunoblasts tend to relocate in lung tissue and reappear with a higher specific activity in pulmonary lymph than in thoracic duct lymph. The reverse was observed with labeled intestinal lymphoblasts. 35 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Immune markers and correlates of protection for vaccine induced immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers

    2012-01-01

    of an appropriate humoral response currently remain the best validated correlates of protective immunity after vaccination. Despite advancements in the field of immunology over the past few decades currently there are, however, no sufficiently validated immune correlates of vaccine induced protection against......-specific production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) has been promoted as a quantitative marker of protective cell-mediated immune responses over the past couple of decades. More recently, however, evidence from several infections has pointed towards the quality of the immune response, measured through increased levels...... of antigen-specific polyfunctional T cells capable of producing a triad of relevant cytokines, as a better correlate of sustained protective immunity against this type of infections. Also the possibilities to measure antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) during infection or in response to vaccination...

  11. Seasonal changes in cell mediated immune responses to soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens in children with haemoglobin AA and haemoglobin AS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y A; Abdulhadi, N H; Theander, T G

    1992-01-01

    of tuberculin (PPD). The lymphoproliferative responses to SPAg of the paired PBMC samples showed 2 distinct seasonal changes in relation to the haemoglobin phenotype. In HbAA children, the lymphoproliferative responses to SPAg were suppressed during the malaria season. In contrast, they were enhanced in Hb......AS children during the malaria season. No distinct seasonal change in the response to PPD was found in relation to the haemoglobin phenotype. The study points to the role of the sickle cell trait in modulating the cellular immune responses to falciparum malaria....

  12. Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-specific proliferative and cytotoxic T-cell responses in humans immunized with an HSF type 2 glycoprotein subunit vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarling, J.M.; Moran, P.A.; Brewer, L.; Ashley, R.; Corey, L.

    1988-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether immunization of humans with a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein-subunit vaccine would result in the priming of both HSV-specific proliferating cells and cytotoxic T cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from all eight vaccinees studied responded by proliferating after stimulation with HSV-2, HSV-1, and glycoprotein gB-1. The PBL of five of these eight vaccinees proliferated following stimulation with gD-2, whereas stimulation with Gd-1 resulted in relatively low or no proliferative responses. T-cell clones were generated from HSV-2-stimulated PBL of three vaccinees who demonstrated strong proliferative responses to HSV-1 and HSV-2. Of 12 clones studied in lymphoproliferative assays, 9 were found to be cross-reactive for HSV-1 and HSV-2. Of the approximately 90 T-cell clones isolated, 14 demonstrated HSV-specific cytotoxic activity. Radioimmunoprecipitation-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses confirmed that the vaccinees had antibodies only to HSV glycoproteins, not to proteins which are absent in the subunit vaccine, indicating that these vaccinees had not become infected with HSV. Immunization of humans with an HSV-2 glycoprotein-subunit vaccine thus results in the priming of T cells that proliferate in response to stimulation with HSV and its glycoproteins and T cells that have cytotoxic activity against HSV-infected cells. Such HSV-specific memory T cells were detected as late as 2 years following the last boost with the subunit vaccine.

  13. M cell-targeting strategy facilitates mucosal immune response and enhances protection against CVB3-induced viral myocarditis elicited by chitosan-DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ting; Yue, Yan; Fan, Xiangmei; Dong, Chunsheng; Xu, Wei; Xiong, Sidong

    2014-07-31

    Efficient delivery of antigen to mucosal associated lymphoid tissue is a first and critical step for successful induction of mucosal immunity by vaccines. Considering its potential transcytotic capability, M cell has become a more and more attractive target for mucosal vaccines. In this research, we designed an M cell-targeting strategy by which mucosal delivery system chitosan (CS) was endowed with M cell-targeting ability via conjugating with a CPE30 peptide, C terminal 30 amino acids of clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), and then evaluated its immune-enhancing ability in the context of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-specific mucosal vaccine consisting of CS and a plasmid encoding CVB3 predominant antigen VP1. It had shown that similar to CS-pVP1, M cell-targeting CPE30-CS-pVP1 vaccine appeared a uniform spherical shape with about 300 nm diameter and +22 mV zeta potential, and could efficiently protect DNA from DNase I digestion. Mice were orally immunized with 4 doses of CPE30-CS-pVP1 containing 50 μg pVP1 at 2-week intervals and challenged with CVB3 4 weeks after the last immunization. Compared with CS-pVP1 vaccine, CPE30-CS-pVP1 vaccine had no obvious impact on CVB3-specific serum IgG level and splenic T cell immune responses, but significantly increased specific fecal SIgA level and augmented mucosal T cell immune responses. Consequently, much milder myocarditis and lower viral load were witnessed in CPE30-CS-pVP1 immunized group. The enhanced immunogenicity and immunoprotection were associated with the M cell-targeting ability of CPE30-CS-pVP1 which improved its mucosal uptake and transcytosis. Our findings indicated that CPE30-CS-pVP1 may represent a novel prophylactic vaccine against CVB3-induced myocarditis, and this M cell-targeting strategy indeed could be applied as a promising and universal platform for mucosal vaccine development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional characterization of Foxp3-specific spontaneous immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Susanne Købke; Munir, S; Andersen, Anders Woetmann

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are associated with an impaired prognosis in several cancers. The transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) is generally expressed in Tregs. Here, we identify and characterize spontaneous cytotoxic immune responses to Foxp3-expressing cel....... Consequently, induction of Foxp3-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses appears as an attractive tool to boost spontaneous or therapeutically provoked immune responses, for example, for the therapy of cancer....

  15. The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis LL5 embryonic cell line has active Toll and Imd pathways and shows immune responses to bacteria, yeast and Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco-Nunes, Bruno; Telleria, Erich Loza; da Silva-Neves, Monique; Marques, Christiane; Azevedo-Brito, Daisy Aline; Pitaluga, André Nóbrega; Traub-Csekö, Yara Maria

    2016-04-20

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America. Sandfly immune responses are poorly understood. In previous work we showed that these vector insects respond to bacterial infections by modulating a defensin gene expression and activate the Imd pathway in response to Leishmania infection. Aspects of innate immune pathways in insects (including mosquito vectors of human diseases) have been revealed by studying insect cell lines, and we have previously demonstrated antiviral responses in the L. longipalpis embryonic cell line LL5. The expression patterns of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and transcription factors were evaluated after silencing the repressors of the Toll pathway (cactus) and Imd pathway (caspar). AMPs and transcription factor expression patterns were also evaluated after challenge with heat-killed bacteria, heat-killed yeast, or live Leishmania. These studies showed that LL5 cells have active Toll and Imd pathways, since they displayed an increased expression of AMP genes following silencing of the repressors cactus and caspar, respectively. These pathways were also activated by challenges with bacteria, yeast and Leishmania infantum chagasi. We demonstrated that L. longipalpis LL5 embryonic cells respond to immune stimuli and are therefore a good model to study the immunological pathways of this important vector of leishmaniasis.

  16. Cellular immune responses to respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, M.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    When a respiratory virus successfully infects the lungs, cascades of immune responses are initiated aimed to remove the pathogen. Immediate non-specific protection is provided by the innate immune system and this reduces the viral load during the first days of infection. The adaptive immune response

  17. The cell-mediated immunity of Drosophila melanogaster: hemocyte lineages, immune compartments, microanatomy and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honti, Viktor; Csordás, Gábor; Kurucz, Éva; Márkus, Róbert; Andó, István

    2014-01-01

    In the animal kingdom, innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. The dangers of microbial and parasitic attacks are countered by similar mechanisms, involving the prototypes of the cell-mediated immune responses, the phagocytosis and encapsulation. Work on Drosophila has played an important role in promoting an understanding of the basic mechanisms of phylogenetically conserved modules of innate immunity. The aim of this review is to survey the developments in the identification and functional definition of immune cell types and the immunological compartments of Drosophila melanogaster. We focus on the molecular and developmental aspects of the blood cell types and compartments, as well as the dynamics of blood cell development and the immune response. Further advances in the characterization of the innate immune mechanisms in Drosophila will provide basic clues to the understanding of the importance of the evolutionary conserved mechanisms of innate immune defenses in the animal kingdom. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stimulatory effect of Eucalyptus essential oil on innate cell-mediated immune response

    OpenAIRE

    Rasi Guido; Federici Memmo; Mercuri Luana; Zonfrillo Manuela; Andreola Federica; Vallebona Paola; Serafino Annalucia; Garaci Enrico; Pierimarchi Pasquale

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Besides few data concerning the antiseptic properties against a range of microbial agents and the anti-inflammatory potential both in vitro and in vivo, little is known about the influence of Eucalyptus oil (EO) extract on the monocytic/macrophagic system, one of the primary cellular effectors of the immune response against pathogen attacks. The activities of this natural extract have mainly been recognized through clinical experience, but there have been relatively little...

  19. Antibody and T cell responses induced in chickens immunized with avian influenza virus N1 and NP DNA vaccine with chicken IL-15 and IL-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kian-Lam; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2013-12-01

    We had examined the immunogenicity of a series of plasmid DNAs which include neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from avian influenza virus (AIV). The interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) as genetic adjuvants were used for immunization in combination with the N1 and NP AIV genes. In the first trial, 8 groups of chickens were established with 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens per group while, in the second trial 7 SPF chickens per group were used. The overall N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer in chickens immunized with the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to the chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 and this suggesting that chicken IL-15 could play a role in enhancing the humoral immune response. Besides that, the chickens that were immunized at 14-day-old (Trial 2) showed a higher N1 antibody titer compared to the chickens that were immunized at 1-day-old (Trial 1). Despite the delayed in NP antibody responses, the chickens co-administrated with IL-15 were able to induce earlier and higher antibody response compared to the pDis/NP and pDis/NP+pDis/IL-18 inoculated groups. The pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 inoculated chickens also induced higher CD8+ T cells increase than the pDis/N1 group in both trials (P0.05) in inducing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when co-administered with the pDis/IL-18 in both trials in comparison to the pDis/NP. Our data suggest that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 combination has the potential to be used as a DNA vaccine against AIV in chickens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genome-wide analysis of autophagy-related genes in banana highlights MaATG8s in cell death and autophagy in immune response to Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Wen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Guoyin; Wu, Chunjie; Liu, Wei; Zeng, Hongqiu; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2017-08-01

    MaATG8s play important roles in hypersensitive-like cell death and immune response, and autophagy is essential for disease resistance against Foc in banana. Autophagy is responsible for the degradation of damaged cytoplasmic constituents in the lysosomes or vacuoles. Although the effects of autophagy have been extensively revealed in model plants, the possible roles of autophagy-related gene in banana remain unknown. In this study, 32 MaATGs were identified in the draft genome, and the profiles of several MaATGs in response to fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) were also revealled. We found that seven MaATG8s were commonly regulated by Foc. Through transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, we highlight the novel roles of MaATG8s in conferring hypersensitive-like cell death, and MaATG8s-mediated hypersensitive response-like cell death is dependent on autophagy. Notablly, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) treatment resulted in decreased disease resistance in response to Foc4, and the effect of 3-MA treatment could be rescued by exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene, indicating the involvement of autophagy-mediated plant hormones in banana resistance to Fusarium wilt. Taken together, this study may extend our understanding the putative role of MaATG8s in hypersensitive-like cell death and the essential role of autophagy in immune response against Foc in banana.

  1. Pilot Study on the Use of DNA Priming Immunization to Enhance Y. pestis LcrV-Specific B Cell Responses Elicited by a Recombinant LcrV Protein Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that DNA immunization is powerful in eliciting antigen-specific antibody responses in both animal and human studies. However, there is limited information on the mechanism of this effect. In particular, it is not known whether DNA immunization can also enhance the development of antigen-specific B cell development. In this report, a pilot study was conducted using plague LcrV immunogen as a model system to determine whether DNA immunization is able to enhance LcrV-specific B cell development in mice. Plague is an acute and often fatal infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis. Humoral immune responses provide critical protective immunity against plague. Previously, we demonstrated that a DNA vaccine expressing LcrV antigen can protect mice from lethal mucosal challenge. In the current study, we further evaluated whether the use of a DNA priming immunization is able to enhance the immunogenicity of a recombinant LcrV protein vaccine, and in particular, the development of LcrV-specific B cells. Our data indicate that DNA immunization was able to elicit high-level LcrV antibody responses when used alone or as part of a prime-boost immunization approach. Most significantly, DNA immunization was also able to increase the levels of LcrV-specific B cell development. The finding that DNA immunization can enhance antigen-specific B cell responses is highly significant and will help guide similar studies in other model antigen systems.

  2. Targeting the Immune System’s Natural Response to Cell Death to Improve Therapeutic Response in Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    pharmacological MerTK inhibition, measuring intra-tumoral leukocytes and tumor epithelial cell signaling in the post-therapeutic setting using flow...7Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado, USA. 8Departments of Pharmacology and Medicine and UNC Lineberger Comprehensive...tail vein injection into lethally irradiated 6-week-old female MMTV-PyVmT recipients. (B) Average tumor volume ± SEM measured in live mice by MRI at

  3. Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeleton promotes CD4+ T cell activation and drives Th1 immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangchuan; Wu, Jie; Miao, Miao; Dou, Heng; Nan, Ning; Shi, Mingsheng; Yu, Guang; Shan, Fengping

    2017-08-01

    Several lines of evidences have shown that Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton (Nr-CWS) has immunoregulatory and anti-tumor activities. However, there is no information about the effect of Nr-CWS on CD4 + T cells. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Nr-CWS on the phenotype and function of CD4 + T cells. Our results of in vitro experiments showed that Nr-CWS could significantly up-regulate the expression of CD69 and CD25 on CD4 + T cells, promote the proliferation of CD4 + T cells, increase the production of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in the supernatants, but has no significant effect on the apoptosis and death of CD4 + T cells. Results of in vivo experiments showed that Nr-CWS could promote the proliferation of CD4 + T cells, and increase the production of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α (Th1 type cytokines). These data suggest that Nr-CWS can enhance the activation of CD4 + T cells, promote the proliferation of CD4 + T cells and the differentiation of CD4 + T cells to Th1 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Intestinal dendritic cells in the regulation of mucosal immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekiaris, Vasileios; Persson, Emma K.; Agace, William Winston

    2014-01-01

    immune cells within the mucosa must suitably respond to maintain intestinal integrity, while also providing the ability to mount effective immune responses to potential pathogens. Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinel immune cells that play a central role in the initiation and differentiation of adaptive....... The recognition that dietary nutrients and microbial communities in the intestine influence both mucosal and systemic immune cell development and function as well as immune-mediated disease has led to an explosion of literature in mucosal immunology in recent years and a growing interest in the functionality...

  5. Lead effects on development and function of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells promote Th2 immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Donghong; Mondal, Tapan K.; Lawrence, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Although lead (Pb) has significant effects on the development and function of macrophages, B cells, and T cells and has been suggested to promote allergic asthma in mice and humans, Pb modulation of bone marrow (BM)-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and the resultant DC effects on Th1 and Th2 development have not been examined. Accordingly, we cultured BM cells with murine granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) ± PbCl 2 . At day 10, culture supernatant (SN) and non-adherent cells were harvested for analysis. Additionally, day 10 non-adherent BM-DCs were harvested and recultured with mGM-CSF + LPS ± Pb for 2 days. The day 10 Pb exposure significantly inhibited BM-DC generation, based on CD11c expression. Although fewer DCs were generated with Pb, the existing Pb-exposed DCs had significantly greater MHC-II expression than did the non-Pb-exposed DCs. However, these differences diminished upon LPS stimulation. After LPS stimulation, CD80, CD86, CD40, CD54, and MHC-II were all up-regulated on both Pb-DCs and DCs, but Pb-DCs expressed significantly less CD80 than did DCs. The CD86:CD80 ratio suggests a Pb-DC potential for Th2 cell development. After LPS stimulation, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), and TNF-α levels significantly increased with both Pb-DCs and DCs, but Pb-DCs produced significantly less cytokines than did DCs, except for IL-10, which further supports Pb-DC preferential skewing toward type-2 immunity. In vitro studies confirm that Pb-DCs have the ability to polarize antigen-specific T cells to Th2 cells. Pb-DCs also enhanced allogeneic and autologous T cell proliferation in vitro, and in vivo studies suggested that Pb-DCs inhibited Th1 effects on humoral and cell-mediated immunity. The Pb effect was mainly on DCs, rather than on T cells, and Pb's modification of DC function appears to be the main cause of Pb's promotion of type-2-related immunity, which may relate to Pb's enhanced activation of the Erk/MAP kinase pathway

  6. Dual microRNA Screens Reveal That the Immune-Responsive miR-181 Promotes Henipavirus Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwan Hong Foo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hendra and Nipah viruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus are bat-borne viruses that cause fatal disease in humans and a range of other mammalian species. Gaining a deeper understanding of host pathways exploited by henipaviruses for infection may identify targets for new anti-viral therapies. Here we have performed genome-wide high-throughput agonist and antagonist screens at biosafety level 4 to identify host-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs impacting henipavirus infection in human cells. Members of the miR-181 and miR-17~93 families strongly promoted Hendra virus infection. miR-181 also promoted Nipah virus infection, but did not affect infection by paramyxoviruses from other genera, indicating specificity in the virus-host interaction. Infection promotion was primarily mediated via the ability of miR-181 to significantly enhance henipavirus-induced membrane fusion. Cell signalling receptors of ephrins, namely EphA5 and EphA7, were identified as novel negative regulators of henipavirus fusion. The expression of these receptors, as well as EphB4, were suppressed by miR-181 overexpression, suggesting that simultaneous inhibition of several Ephs by the miRNA contributes to enhanced infection and fusion. Immune-responsive miR-181 levels was also up-regulated in the biofluids of ferrets and horses infected with Hendra virus, suggesting that the host innate immune response may promote henipavirus spread and exacerbate disease severity. This study is the first genome-wide screen of miRNAs influencing infection by a clinically significant mononegavirus and nominates select miRNAs as targets for future anti-viral therapy development.

  7. Natural functional SNPs in miR-155 alter its expression level, blood cell counts and immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available miR-155 has been confirmed to be a key factor in immune responses in humans and other mammals. Therefore, investigation of variations in miR-155 could be useful for understanding the differences in immunity between individuals. In this study, four SNPs in miR-155 were identified in mice (Mus musculus and humans (Homo sapiens. In mice, the four SNPs were closely linked and formed two miR-155 haplotypes (A and B. Ten distinct types of blood parameters were associated with miR-155 expression under normal conditions. Additionally, 4 and 14 blood parameters were significantly different between these two genotypes under normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation conditions, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-155, the inflammatory response to LPS stimulation and the lethal ratio following Salmonella typhimurium infection were significantly increased in mice harboring the AA genotype. Further, two SNPs, one in the loop region and the other near the 3' terminal of pre-miR-155, were confirmed to be responsible for the differential expression of miR-155 in mice. Interestingly, two additional SNPs, one in the loop region and the other in the middle of miR-155*, modulated the function of miR-155 in humans. Predictions of secondary RNA structure using RNAfold showed that these SNPs affected the structure of miR-155 in both mice and humans. Our results provide novel evidence of the natural functional SNPs of miR-155 in both mice and humans, which may affect the expression levels of mature miR-155 by modulating its secondary structure. The SNPs of human miR-155 may be considered as causal mutations for some immune-related diseases in the clinic. The two genotypes of mice could be used as natural models for studying the mechanisms of immune diseases caused by abnormal expression of miR-155 in humans.

  8. Retinoic Acid Signaling in B Cells Is Required for the Generation of an Effective T-Independent Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ellen; Ortiz, Carla; Pantazi, Eirini; Bailey, Charlotte S; Lord, Graham M; Waldschmidt, Thomas J; Noelle, Randolph J; Elgueta, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in the balance of inflammation and tolerance in T cells. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that RA facilitates IgA isotype switching in B cells in vivo . However, it is unclear whether RA has a direct effect on T-independent B cell responses in vivo . To address this question, we generated a mouse model where RA signaling is specifically silenced in the B cell lineage. This was achieved through the overexpression of a dominant negative receptor α for RA (dnRARα) in the B cell lineage. In this model, we found a dramatic reduction in marginal zone (MZ) B cells and accumulation of transitional 2 B cells in the spleen. We also observed a reduction in B1 B cells in the peritoneum with a defect in the T-independent B cell response against 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl. This was not a result of inhibited development of B cells in the bone marrow, but likely the result of both defective expression of S1P 1 in MZ B cells and a defect in the development of MZ and B1 B cells. This suggests that RARα expression in B cells is important for B cell frequency in the MZ and peritoneum, which is crucial for the generation of T-independent humoral responses.

  9. Retinoic Acid Signaling in B Cells Is Required for the Generation of an Effective T-Independent Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ellen; Ortiz, Carla; Pantazi, Eirini; Bailey, Charlotte S.; Lord, Graham M.; Waldschmidt, Thomas J.; Noelle, Randolph J.; Elgueta, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in the balance of inflammation and tolerance in T cells. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that RA facilitates IgA isotype switching in B cells in vivo. However, it is unclear whether RA has a direct effect on T-independent B cell responses in vivo. To address this question, we generated a mouse model where RA signaling is specifically silenced in the B cell lineage. This was achieved through the overexpression of a dominant negative receptor α for RA (dnRARα) in the B cell lineage. In this model, we found a dramatic reduction in marginal zone (MZ) B cells and accumulation of transitional 2 B cells in the spleen. We also observed a reduction in B1 B cells in the peritoneum with a defect in the T-independent B cell response against 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl. This was not a result of inhibited development of B cells in the bone marrow, but likely the result of both defective expression of S1P1 in MZ B cells and a defect in the development of MZ and B1 B cells. This suggests that RARα expression in B cells is important for B cell frequency in the MZ and peritoneum, which is crucial for the generation of T-independent humoral responses. PMID:28066447

  10. Immune Control of Burkholderia pseudomallei––Common, High-Frequency T-Cell Responses to a Broad Repertoire of Immunoprevalent Epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnone Nithichanon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp is an environmental bacterial pathogen that causes potentially lethal sepsis in susceptible individuals and is considered a Category B, Tier-1 biothreat agent. As such, it is crucial to gain an improved understanding of protective immunity and potential vaccine candidates. The nature of immune correlates dictating why most exposed individuals in endemic regions undergo asymptomatic seroconversion while others succumb to life-threatening sepsis is largely uncharted. Bp seroreactive, immunogenic proteins have previously been identified by antigen microarray. We here set out to conduct an analysis of T-cell recognition of the Bp immunome using serodominant antigens represented in the original antigen microarray, examining immune correlates of disease in healthy seropositive individuals and those with acute disease or in convalescence. By screening a library of 739 overlapping peptides representing the sequences of 20 different Bp antigens, we aimed to define immune correlates of protection at the level of immunoprevalent T-cell epitopes. Responses to a large number of epitopes were common in healthy seropositive individuals: we found remarkably broad responsiveness to Bp epitopes, with 235 of 739 peptides recognized by ≥80% of all tested donors. The cumulative response to Bp epitopes in healthy, seropositive, donors from this endemic region were of the order of thousands of spot forming cells per million cells, making Bp recognition a significant component of the T-cell repertoire. Noteworthy among our findings, analysis revealed 10 highly immunoprevalent T-cell epitopes, able to induce Bp-specific IFNγ responses that were high in responding T-cell frequency within the repertoire, and also common across individuals with different human leukocyte antigen types. Acute melioidosis patients showed poor T-cell responses to the immunoprevalent epitopes, but acquired responsiveness following recovery from infection. Our

  11. Co-incubation with IL-18 potentiates antigen-specific IFN-γ response in a whole-blood stimulation assay for measurement of cell-mediated immune responses in pigs experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Boesen, Henriette Toft; Jakobsen, Jeanne Toft

    2011-01-01

    The whole-blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay is a quantitative in-vitro assay for a direct read out of Ag-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to infectious diseases. The IFN-γ assay is robust in severe intracellular infections like Brucella or mycobacteria, but more difficult to evalu......The whole-blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay is a quantitative in-vitro assay for a direct read out of Ag-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to infectious diseases. The IFN-γ assay is robust in severe intracellular infections like Brucella or mycobacteria, but more difficult...

  12. Regulation of intestinal homeostasis by innate immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, Hisako; Nishimura, Junichi; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2013-12-01

    The intestinal immune system has an ability to distinguish between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria, and then activate pro-inflammatory pathways against pathogens for host defense while remaining unresponsive to the microbiota and dietary antigens. In the intestine, abnormal activation of innate immunity causes development of several inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Thus, activity of innate immunity is finely regulated in the intestine. To date, multiple innate immune cells have been shown to maintain gut homeostasis by preventing inadequate adaptive immune responses in the murine intestine. Additionally, several innate immune subsets, which promote Th1 and Th17 responses and are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD, have recently been identified in the human intestinal mucosa. The demonstration of both murine and human intestinal innate immune subsets contributing to regulation of adaptive immunity emphasizes the conserved innate immune functions across species and might promote development of the intestinal innate immunity-based clinical therapy.

  13. The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination with Newcastle Disease Virus. ... G A El-Tayeb, M Y El-Ttegani, I E Hajer, M A Mohammed ... This study was conducted to determine the persistence of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in newly hatched chicks and the ...

  14. Spontaneous regression of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type with significant T-cell immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Graham, DO

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of histologically confirmed primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCDLBCL-LT that subsequently underwent spontaneous regression in the absence of systemic treatment. The case showed an atypical lymphoid infiltrate that was CD20+ and MUM-1+ and CD10–. A subsequent biopsy of the spontaneously regressed lesion showed fibrosis associated with a lymphocytic infiltrate comprising reactive T cells. PCDLBCL-LT is a cutaneous B-cell lymphoma with a poor prognosis, which is usually treated with chemotherapy. We describe a case of clinical and histologic spontaneous regression in a patient with PCDLBCL-LT who had a negative systemic workup but a recurrence over a year after his initial presentation. Key words: B cell, lymphoma, primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type, regression

  15. A novel dendritic cell-based immunization approach for the induction of durable Th1-polarized anti-HER-2/neu responses in women with early breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Gary K.; Koldovsky, Ursula; Xu, Shuwen; Mick, Rosemarie; Sharma, Anupama; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Weinstein, Susan; Nisenbaum, Harvey; Levine, Bruce L; Fox, Kevin; Zhang, Paul; Czerniecki, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-seven subjects with HER-2/neu over-expressing ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast were enrolled in a neoadjuvant immunization trial for safety and immunogenicity of DC1-polarized dendritic cells (DC1) pulsed with six HER-2/neu promiscuous MHC class II-binding peptides, plus two additional HLA-A2.1 class I-binding peptides. DC1 were generated with IFN-γ plus a special clinical-grade bacterial endotoxin (LPS) and administered directly into groin lymph nodes four times at weekly intervals prior to scheduled surgical resection of DCIS. Subjects were monitored for the induction of new or enhanced anti-peptide reactivity by IFN-γ ELIspot and ELISA assays performed on Th cells obtained from peripheral blood or excised sentinel lymph nodes. Responses by CTL against HLA-A2.1-binding peptides were measured using peptide-pulsed T2 target cells or HER-2/neu-expressing or non-expressing tumor cell lines. DC1 showed surface phenotype indistinct from “gold standard” inflammatory cocktail-activated DC, but displayed a number of distinguishing functional characteristics including the secretion of soluble factors and enhanced “killer DC” capacity against tumor cells in vitro. Post-immunization, we observed sensitization of Th cells to at least 1 class II peptide in 22 of 25 (88%, 95% exact CI 68.8 – 97.5%) evaluable subjects, while eleven of 13 (84.6%, 95% exact CI 64 – 99.8%) HLA-A2.1 subjects were successfully sensitized to class I peptides. Perhaps most importantly, anti-HER-2/neu peptide responses were observed up to 52 months post-immunization. These data show even in the presence of early breast cancer such DC1 are potent inducers of durable type I-polarized immunity, suggesting potential clinical value for development of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:22130160

  16. Memory T-cell immune response in healthy young adults vaccinated with live attenuated influenza A (H5N2) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkova, T V; Naykhin, A N; Petukhova, G D; Korenkov, D A; Donina, S A; Mironov, A N; Rudenko, L G

    2011-10-01

    Cellular immune responses of both CD4 and CD8 memory/effector T cells were evaluated in healthy young adults who received two doses of live attenuated influenza A (H5N2) vaccine. The vaccine was developed by reassortment of nonpathogenic avian A/Duck/Potsdam/1402-6/68 (H5N2) and cold-adapted A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) viruses. T-cell responses were measured by standard methods of intracellular cytokine staining of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing cells and a novel T-cell recognition of antigen-presenting cells by protein capture (TRAP) assay based on the trogocytosis phenomenon, namely, plasma membrane exchange between interacting immune cells. TRAP enables the detection of activated trogocytosis-positive T cells after virus stimulation. We showed that two doses of live attenuated influenza A (H5N2) vaccine promoted both CD4 and CD8 T-memory-cell responses in peripheral blood of healthy young subjects in the clinical study. Significant differences in geometric mean titers (GMTs) of influenza A (H5N2)-specific IFN-γ(+) cells were observed at day 42 following the second vaccination, while peak levels of trogocytosis(+) T cells were detected earlier, on the 21st day after the second vaccination. The inverse correlation of baseline levels compared to postvaccine fold changes in GMTs of influenza-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells demonstrated that baseline levels of these specific cells could be considered a predictive factor of vaccine immunogenicity.

  17. Differential miRNA expression in B cells is associated with inter-individual differences in humoral immune response to measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambieva, Iana H; Kennedy, Richard B; Simon, Whitney L; Goergen, Krista M; Grill, Diane E; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Poland, Gregory A

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs are important mediators of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression through RNA degradation and translational repression, and are emerging biomarkers of immune system activation/response after vaccination. We performed Next Generation Sequencing (mRNA-Seq) of intracellular miRNAs in measles virus-stimulated B and CD4+ T cells from high and low antibody responders to measles vaccine. Negative binomial generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used for miRNA assessment and the DIANA tool was used for gene/target prediction and pathway enrichment analysis. We identified a set of B cell-specific miRNAs (e.g., miR-151a-5p, miR-223, miR-29, miR-15a-5p, miR-199a-3p, miR-103a, and miR-15a/16 cluster) and biological processes/pathways, including regulation of adherens junction proteins, Fc-receptor signaling pathway, phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling pathway, growth factor signaling pathway/pathways, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis and virus-related processes, significantly associated with neutralizing antibody titers after measles vaccination. No CD4+ T cell-specific miRNA expression differences between high and low antibody responders were found. Our study demonstrates that miRNA expression directly or indirectly influences humoral immunity to measles vaccination and suggests that B cell-specific miRNAs may serve as useful predictive biomarkers of vaccine humoral immune response.

  18. Regulatory T cells and immunity to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Barry T; Suvas, Susmit

    2007-09-01

    Immune responses to pathogens are modulated by one or more types of cells that perform a regulatory function. Some cells with this function, such as CD4+ Foxp3+ natural regulatory T cells (nTreg), pre-exist prior to infections whereas others may be induced as a consequence of infection (adaptive Treg). With pathogens that have a complex pathogenesis, multiple types of regulatory cells could influence the outcome. One major property of Treg is to help minimize collateral tissue damage that can occur during immune reactions to a chronic infection. The consequence is less damage to the host but in such situations the pathogen is likely to establish persistence. In some cases, a fine balance is established between Treg responses, effector components of immunity and the pathogen. Treg responses to pathogens may also act to hamper the efficacy of immune control. This review discusses these issues as well as the likely mechanisms by which various pathogens can signal the participation of Treg during infection.

  19. In Situ Microscopy Analysis Reveals Local Innate Immune Response Developed around Brucella Infected Cells in Resistant and Susceptible Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copin, Richard; Vitry, Marie-Alice; Hanot Mambres, Delphine; Machelart, Arnaud; De Trez, Carl; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Magez, Stefan; Akira, Shizuo; Ryffel, Bernhard; Carlier, Yves; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Muraille, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Brucella are facultative intracellular bacteria that chronically infect humans and animals causing brucellosis. Brucella are able to invade and replicate in a broad range of cell lines in vitro, however the cells supporting bacterial growth in vivo are largely unknown. In order to identify these, we used a Brucella melitensis strain stably expressing mCherry fluorescent protein to determine the phenotype of infected cells in spleen and liver, two major sites of B. melitensis growth in mice. In both tissues, the majority of primary infected cells expressed the F4/80 myeloid marker. The peak of infection correlated with granuloma development. These structures were mainly composed of CD11b+ F4/80+ MHC-II+ cells expressing iNOS/NOS2 enzyme. A fraction of these cells also expressed CD11c marker and appeared similar to inflammatory dendritic cells (DCs). Analysis of genetically deficient mice revealed that differentiation of iNOS+ inflammatory DC, granuloma formation and control of bacterial growth were deeply affected by the absence of MyD88, IL-12p35 and IFN-γ molecules. During chronic phase of infection in susceptible mice, we identified a particular subset of DC expressing both CD11c and CD205, serving as a reservoir for the bacteria. Taken together, our results describe the cellular nature of immune effectors involved during Brucella infection and reveal a previously unappreciated role for DC subsets, both as effectors and reservoir cells, in the pathogenesis of brucellosis. PMID:22479178

  20. Immune response in the lungs following oral immunization with bacterial lysates of respiratory pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruedl, C; Frühwirth, M; Wick, G; Wolf, H

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the local immune response of the BALB/c mouse respiratory tract after oral immunization with a bacterial lysate of seven common respiratory pathogens. After two immunization on five consecutive days, we examined the immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA) secretion rates of cells isolated from the lungs and compared them with those of spleen cells of orally immunized and nonimmunized animals by using a new test system based on time-resolved fluorescence. The...

  1. Chondroitin sulfate activates B cells in vitro, expands CD138(+) cells in vivo, and interferes with established humoral immune responses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruhl, H.; Cihak, J.; Goebel, N.; Talke, Y.; Renner, K.; Hermann, F.; Rodriguez-Gomez, M.; Reich, B.; Plachý, Jiří; Stangassinger, M.; Mack, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 1 (2014), 65-72 ISSN 0741-5400 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : glycosaminoglycans * plasma cells * collagen-induced arthritis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.289, year: 2014

  2. Restimulation-induced T-cell death through NTB-A/SAP signaling pathway is impaired in tuberculosis patients with depressed immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Del Pino, Rodrigo E; Pellegrini, Joaquín M; Rovetta, Ana I; Peña, Delfina; Álvarez, Guadalupe I; Rolandelli, Agustín; Musella, Rosa M; Palmero, Domingo J; Malbran, Alejandro; Pasquinelli, Virginia; García, Verónica E

    2017-09-01

    Production of IFN-γ contributes to host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. We previously demonstrated that Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) expression on cells from tuberculosis (TB) patients was inversely correlated with IFN-γ production. Here we first investigated the role of NK, T- and B-cell antigen (NTB-A)/SAP pathway in the regulation of Th1 response against Mtb. Upon antigen stimulation, NTB-A phosphorylation rapidly increases and afterwards modulates IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion. To sustain a healthy immune system, controlled expansion and contraction of lymphocytes, both during and after an adaptive immune response, is essential. Besides, restimulation-induced cell death (RICD) results in an essential homeostatic mechanism for precluding excess T-cell accumulation and associated immunopathology during the course of certain infections. Accordingly, we found that the NTB-A/SAP pathway was required for RICD during active tuberculosis. In low responder (LR) TB patients, impaired RICD was associated with diminished FASL levels, IL-2 production and CD25 high expression after cell-restimulation. Interestingly, we next observed that SAP mediated the recruitment of the Src-related kinase FYNT, only in T cells from LR TB patients that were resistant to RICD. Together, we showed that the NTB-A/SAP pathway regulates T-cell activation and RICD during human TB. Moreover, the NTB-A/SAP/FYNT axis promotes polarization to an unfavorable Th2-phenotype.

  3. HPV-E7 delivered by engineered exosomes elicits a protective CD8⁺ T cell-mediated immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bonito, Paola; Ridolfi, Barbara; Columba-Cabezas, Sandra; Giovannelli, Andrea; Chiozzini, Chiara; Manfredi, Francesco; Anticoli, Simona; Arenaccio, Claudia; Federico, Maurizio

    2015-03-09

    We developed an innovative strategy to induce a cytotoxic T cell (CTL) immune response against protein antigens of choice. It relies on the production of exosomes, i.e., nanovesicles spontaneously released by all cell types. We engineered the upload of huge amounts of protein antigens upon fusion with an anchoring protein (i.e., HIV-1 Nefmut), which is an inactive protein incorporating in exosomes at high levels also when fused with foreign proteins. We compared the immunogenicity of engineered exosomes uploading human papillomavirus (HPV)-E7 with that of lentiviral virus-like particles (VLPs) incorporating equivalent amounts of the same antigen. These exosomes, whose limiting membrane was decorated with VSV-G, i.e., an envelope protein inducing pH-dependent endosomal fusion, proved to be as immunogenic as the cognate VLPs. It is noteworthy that the immunogenicity of the engineered exosomes remained unaltered in the absence of VSV-G. Most important, we provide evidence that the inoculation in mouse of exosomes uploading HPV-E7 induces production of anti-HPV E7 CTLs, blocks the growth of syngeneic tumor cells inoculated after immunization, and controls the development of tumor cells inoculated before the exosome challenge. These results represent the proof-of-concept about both feasibility and efficacy of the Nefmut-based exosome platform for the induction of CD8+ T cell immunity.

  4. Analysis of protective and cytotoxic immune responses in vivo against metabolically inactivated and untreated cells of a mutagenized tumor line (requirements for tumor immunogenicity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrmaker, A.; Lehmann, V.; Droege, W.

    1986-01-01

    The immunogenicity of a mutagenized subline (ESb-D) of the weakly immunogenic T-cell lymphoma L 5178 Y ESb has been characterized. The injection of 10(6) ESb-D cells ip did not establish lethal tumors in untreated DBA/2 mice but established tumors in sublethally irradiated mice. Injection of ESb-D cells into otherwise untreated DBA/2 mice established also a state of protective immunity against the subsequent injection of otherwise lethal doses of ESb tumor cells. Protection was only obtained after injection of intact but not UV-irradiated or mitomycin-C-treated ESb-D cells. A direct T-cell-mediated cytotoxic activity was also demonstrable in the spleen cells of DBA/2 mice after injection of ESb-D cells but not ESb cells. The cytotoxic activity was variant specific for ESb-D target cells, and it was induced only with intact but not UV-irradiated or mitomycin C-treated ESb-D cells. This suggested that the induction of protective and cytotoxic immunity may require the persistence of the antigen or unusually high antigen doses. The in vivo priming for a secondary in vitro cytotoxic response, in contrast, was achieved with intact and also with mitomycin C-treated ESb-D cells but again not with UV-irradiated ESb-D cells. This indicated that the metabolic activity was a minimal requirement for the in vivo immunogenicity of the ESb-D tumor line. The secondary cytotoxic activity was demonstrable on ESb-D and ESb target cells and could be restimulated in vitro about equally well with ESb-D and ESb cells. But the in vivo priming was again only obtained with ESb-D cells and not with ESb cells. These experiments thus demonstrated that the requirements for immunogenicity are more stringent in vivo than in vitro, and more stringent for the induction of direct cytotoxic and protective immunity in vivo than for the in vivo priming for secondary in vitro responses

  5. Thiol dependent NF-κB suppression and inhibition of T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses by a naturally occurring steroidal lactone Withaferin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Lokesh; Checker, Rahul; Sharma, Deepak; Thoh, M. [Radiation Biology & Health Sciences Division, Bio-science Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Patil, Anand [Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai (India); Degani, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai (India); Gota, Vikram [Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai (India); Sandur, Santosh K., E-mail: sskumar@barc.gov.in [Radiation Biology & Health Sciences Division, Bio-science Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2015-12-01

    Withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone isolated from ayurvedic medicinal plant Withania somnifera, was shown to inhibit tumor growth by inducing oxidative stress and suppressing NF-κB pathway. However, its effect on T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses and the underlying mechanism has not been investigated. Since both T-cell responses and NF-κB pathway are known to be redox sensitive, the present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of WA on adaptive immune responses in vitro and in vivo. WA inhibited mitogen induced T-cell and B-cell proliferation in vitro without inducing any cell death. It inhibited upregulation of T-cell (CD25, CD69, CD71 and CD54) and B-cell (CD80, CD86 and MHC-II) activation markers and secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. WA induced oxidative stress by increasing the basal ROS levels and the immunosuppressive effects of WA were abrogated only by thiol anti-oxidants. The redox modulatory effects of WA in T-cells were attributed to its ability to directly interact with free thiols. WA inhibited NF-κB nuclear translocation in lymphocytes and prevented the direct binding of nuclear NF-κB to its consensus sequence. MALDI-TOF analysis using a synthetic NF-κB-p50 peptide containing Cys-62 residue suggested that WA can modify the cysteine residue of NF-κB. The pharmacokinetic studies for WA were also carried out and in vivo efficacy of WA was studied using mouse model of Graft-versus-host disease. In conclusion, WA is a potent inhibitor of T-cell responses and acts via a novel thiol dependent mechanism and inhibition of NF-κB pathway. - Highlights:: • Withaferin A (WA) inhibited T-cell and B-cell mediated immune responses. • WA increased basal ROS levels in lymphocytes. • WA directly interacted with GSH as studied using spectrophotometry and HPLC. • WA inhibited NF-κB nuclear translocation and binding of nuclear NF-κB to DNA. • WA inhibited induction of the graft-versus-host disease in mice.

  6. Hepatitis C Virus Sensing by Human Trophoblasts Induces Innate Immune Responses and Recruitment of Maternal NK Cells: Potential Implications for Limiting Vertical Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliano, Silvia; Petroff, Margaret G; Warren, Bryce D; Jasti, Susmita; Linscheid, Caitlin; Ward, Ashley; Kramer, Anita; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Sheiko, Melissa A; Gale, Michael; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Winn, Virginia D; Rosen, Hugo R

    2015-10-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the world's most common blood-borne viral infection for which there is no vaccine. The rates of vertical transmission range between 3 and 6% with odds 90% higher in the presence of HIV coinfection. Prevention of vertical transmission is not possible because of lack of an approved therapy for use in pregnancy or an effective vaccine. Recently, HCV has been identified as an independent risk factor for preterm delivery, perinatal mortality, and other complications. In this study, we characterized the immune responses that contribute to the control of viral infection at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI) in the early gestational stages. In this study, we show that primary human trophoblast cells and an extravillous trophoblast cell line (HTR8), from first and second trimester of pregnancy, express receptors relevant for HCV binding/entry and are permissive for HCV uptake. We found that HCV-RNA sensing by human trophoblast cells induces robust upregulation of type I/III IFNs and secretion of multiple chemokines that elicit recruitment and activation of decidual NK cells. Furthermore, we observed that HCV-RNA transfection induces a proapoptotic response within HTR8 that could affect the morphology of the placenta. To our knowledge, for the first time, we demonstrate that HCV-RNA sensing by human trophoblast cells elicits a strong antiviral response that alters the recruitment and activation of innate immune cells at the MFI. This work provides a paradigm shift in our understanding of HCV-specific immunity at the MFI as well as novel insights into mechanisms that limit vertical transmission but may paradoxically lead to virus-related pregnancy complications. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan N. Fink

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.

  8. Gastrointestinal immune responses in HIV infected subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LRR Castello-Branco

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The gut associated lymphoid tissue is responsible for specific responses to intestinal antigens. During HIV infection, mucosal immune deficiency may account for the gastrointestinal infections. In this review we describe the humoral and cellular mucosal immune responses in normal and HIV-infected subjects.

  9. Association of serum Clara cell protein CC16 with respiratory infections and immune response to respiratory pathogens in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowski, Marcin; Jurczyk, Janusz; Jarzębska, Marzanna; Moskwa, Sylwia; Makowska, Joanna S; Krysztofiak, Hubert; Kowalski, Marek L

    2014-04-15

    Respiratory epithelium integrity impairment caused by intensive exercise may lead to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Clara cell protein (CC16) has anti-inflammatory properties and its serum level reflects changes in epithelium integrity and airway inflammation. This study aimed to investigate serum CC16 in elite athletes and to seek associations of CC16 with asthma or allergy, respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and immune response to respiratory pathogens. The study was performed in 203 Olympic athletes. Control groups comprised 53 healthy subjects and 49 mild allergic asthmatics. Serum levels of CC16 and IgG against respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were assessed. Allergy questionnaire for athletes was used to determine symptoms and exercise pattern. Current versions of ARIA and GINA guidelines were used when diagnosing allergic rhinitis and asthma, respectively. Asthma was diagnosed in 13.3% athletes, of whom 55.6% had concomitant allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis without asthma was diagnosed in 14.8% of athletes. Mean CC16 concentration was significantly lower in athletes versus healthy controls and mild asthmatics. Athletes reporting frequent RTIs had significantly lower serum CC16 and the risk of frequent RTIs was more than 2-fold higher in athletes with low serum CC16 (defined as equal to or less than 4.99 ng/ml). Athletes had significantly higher anti-adenovirus IgG than healthy controls while only non-atopic athletes had anti-parainfluenza virus IgG significantly lower than controls. In all athletes weak correlation of serum CC16 and anti-parainfluenza virus IgG was present (R = 0.20, p athletes a weak positive correlations of CC16 with IgG specific for respiratory syncytial virus (R = 0.29, p = 0.009), parainfluenza virus (R = 0.31, p = 0.01) and adenovirus (R = 0.27, p = 0.02) were seen as well. Regular high-load exercise is associated with decrease in serum CC16 levels. Athletes with decreased CC16 are

  10. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...

  11. The sterile immune response during hepatic ischemia/reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Golen, Rowan F.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Heger, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion elicits an immune response that lacks a microbial constituent yet poses a potentially lethal threat to the host. In this sterile setting, the immune system is alarmed by endogenous danger signals that are release by stressed and dying liver cells. The detection of

  12. Evaluation of mucosal and systemic immune responses elicited by GPI-0100- adjuvanted influenza vaccine delivered by different immunization strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Liu

    Full Text Available Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN or the intrapulmonary (IPL route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses.

  13. Evaluation of Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses Elicited by GPI-0100- Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccine Delivered by Different Immunization Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Patil, Harshad P.; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN) or the intrapulmonary (IPL) route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses. PMID:23936066

  14. Long-term persistence of immunity and B-cell memory following Haemophilus influenzae type B conjugate vaccination in early childhood and response to booster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrett, K P; John, T M; Jin, C; Kibwana, E; Yu, L-M; Curtis, N; Pollard, A J

    2014-04-01

    Protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a rapidly invading encapsulated bacteria, is dependent on maintenance of an adequate level of serum antibody through early childhood. In many countries, Hib vaccine booster doses have been implemented after infant immunization to sustain immunity. We investigated the long-term persistence of antibody and immunological memory in primary-school children following infant (with or without booster) Hib vaccination. Anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and the frequency of circulating Hib-specific memory B cells were measured before a booster of a Hib-serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) conjugate vaccine and again 1 week, 1 month, and 1 year after the booster in 250 healthy children aged 6-12 years in an open-label phase 4 clinical study. Six to 12 years following infant priming with 3 doses of Hib conjugate vaccine, anti-PRP IgG geometric mean concentrations were 3.11 µg/mL and 0.71 µg/mL and proportions with anti-PRP IgG ≥1.0 µg/mL were 79% and 43% in children who had or had not, respectively, received a fourth Hib conjugate vaccine dose (mean age, 3.9 years). Higher baseline and post-Hib-MenC booster responses (anti-PRP IgG and memory B cells) were found in younger children and in those who had received a fourth Hib dose. Sustained Hib conjugate vaccine-induced immunity in children is dependent on time since infant priming and receipt of a booster. Understanding the relationship between humoral and cellular immunity following immunization with conjugate vaccines may direct vaccine design and boosting strategies to sustain individual and population immunity against encapsulated bacteria in early childhood. Clinical Trials Registration ISRCTN728588998.

  15. Autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease promote immune complex formation with self antigens and increase B cell and CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to self antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton

    2004-01-01

    B cells are centrally involved as antigen-presenting cells in certain autoimmune diseases. To establish whether autoantibodies form immune complexes (IC) with self-antigens in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and promote B cell uptake of self-antigen, sera from patients with Hashimoto......'s thyroiditis (HT), Graves' disease (GD) and healthy controls were incubated with human thyroglobulin (Tg) before adding normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The deposition of immunoglobulins and C3 fragments on B cells was then assessed. Inclusion of Tg in serum from HT patients promoted B cell capture...

  16. Autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease promote immune complex formation with self antigens and increase B cell and CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to self antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton

    2004-01-01

    's thyroiditis (HT), Graves' disease (GD) and healthy controls were incubated with human thyroglobulin (Tg) before adding normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The deposition of immunoglobulins and C3 fragments on B cells was then assessed. Inclusion of Tg in serum from HT patients promoted B cell capture......B cells are centrally involved as antigen-presenting cells in certain autoimmune diseases. To establish whether autoantibodies form immune complexes (IC) with self-antigens in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and promote B cell uptake of self-antigen, sera from patients with Hashimoto...

  17. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses induced by scarification vaccination of human volunteers with a new lot of the live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, D M; Galloway, A; Sandstrom, G; Bolt, C R; England, M J; Nelson, G O; Williams, J C

    1992-01-01

    Tularemia is a disease caused by the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis. We evaluated a new lot of live F. tularensis vaccine for its immunogenicity in human volunteers. Scarification vaccination induced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Indications of a positive immune response after vaccination included an increase in specific antibody levels, which were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and immunoblot assays, and the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to respond to whole F. tularensis bacteria as recall antigens. Vaccination caused a significant rise (P less than 0.05) in immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, and IgM titers. Lymphocyte stimulation indices were significantly increased (P less than 0.01) in vaccinees 14 days after vaccination. These data verify that this new lot of live F. tularensis vaccine is immunogenic. Images PMID:1400988

  18. In vitro senescence of immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effros, Rita B; Dagarag, Mirabelle; Valenzuela, Hector F

    2003-01-01

    Immune cells are eminently suitable model systems in which to address the possible role of replicative senescence during in vivo aging. Since there are more than 10(8) unique antigen specificities present within the total T lymphocyte population of each individual, the immune response to any single antigen requires massive clonal expansion of the small proportion of T cells whose receptors recognize that antigen. The Hayflick Limit may, therefore, constitute a barrier to effective immune function, at least for those T cells that encounter their specific antigen more than once over the life course. Application of the fibroblast replicative senescence model to the so-called cytotoxic or CD8 T cell, the class of T cells that controls viral infection and cancer, has revealed certain features in common with other cell types as well as several characteristics that are unique to T cells. One senescence-associated change that is T cell-specific is the complete loss of expression of the activation signaling surface molecule, CD28, an alteration that enabled the documentation of high proportions of senescent T cells in vivo. The T cell model has also provided the unique opportunity to analyze telomere dynamics in a cell type that has the ability to upregulate telomerase yet nevertheless undergoes senescence. The intimate involvement of the immune system in the control of pathogens and cancer as well as in modulation of bone homeostasis suggests that more extensive analysis of the full range of characteristics of senescent T cells may help elucidate a broad spectrum of age-associated physiological changes.

  19. Regulation of TGFβ in the immune system: An emerging role for integrins and dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Worthington, John J.; Fenton, Thomas M.; Czajkowska, Beata I.; Klementowicz, Joanna E.; Travis, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of an immune response requires complex crosstalk between cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, via both cell?cell contact and secretion of cytokines. An important cytokine with a broad regulatory role in the immune system is transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). TGF-? is produced by and has effects on many different cells of the immune system, and plays fundamental roles in the regulation of immune responses during homeostasis, infection and disease. Although many cells ...

  20. MiR-155–regulated molecular network orchestrates cell fate in the innate and adaptive immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothchild, Alissa C.; Sissons, James R.; Shafiani, Shahin; Plaisier, Christopher; Min, Deborah; Mai, Dat; Gilchrist, Mark; Peschon, Jacques; Larson, Ryan P.; Bergthaler, Andreas; Baliga, Nitin S.; Urdahl, Kevin B.; Aderem, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of host–pathogen interactions during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection remains unresolved. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of the immune system, and so we used a systems biology approach to construct an miRNA regulatory network activated in macrophages during Mtb infection. Our network comprises 77 putative miRNAs that are associated with temporal gene expression signatures in macrophages early after Mtb infection. In this study, we demonstrate a dual role for one of these regulators, miR-155. On the one hand, miR-155 maintains the survival of Mtb-infected macrophages, thereby providing a niche favoring bacterial replication; on the other hand, miR-155 promotes the survival and function of Mtb-specific T cells, enabling an effective adaptive immune response. MiR-155–induced cell survival is mediated through the SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway. Thus, dual regulation of the same cell survival pathway in innate and adaptive immune cells leads to vastly different outcomes with respect to bacterial containment. PMID:27681624

  1. Flow cytometric assessment of chicken T cell-mediated immune responses after Newcastle disease virus vaccination and challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, T. S.; Norup, L. R.; Pedersen, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    . Despite a delayed NDV-specific antibody response to vaccination, L133 appeared to be better protected than L130 in the subsequent infection challenge as determined by the presence of viral genomes. Peripheral blood was analyzed by flow cytometry and responses in vaccinated/challenged birds were studied...... by 5-color immunophenotyping as well as by measuring the proliferative capacity of NDV-specific T cells after recall stimulation. Immunophenotyping identified L133 as having a significantly lower CD4/CD8 ratio and a lower frequency of γδ T cells than L130 in the peripheral T cell compartment...

  2. Breadth of T cell responses after immunization with adenovirus vectors encoding ancestral antigens or polyvalent papillomavirus antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragonnaud, Emeline; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2017-01-01

    to the other PV proteins. The PV sequences were fused to a T cell adjuvant, the murine invariant chain and encoded in a recombinant adenoviral vector which was administered to naïve outbred mice. By measuring T cell responses induced by these different vaccines and towards peptide pools representing 3...... circulating strains and a putative ancestor of oncogenic HPVs, we showed that the ancestral vaccine antigen has to be approximately 90% identical to the circulating PVs before a marked drop of ~90% mean CD8+ T cell responses ensues. Interestingly, the combination of two or three type-specific PV vaccines did...

  3. Synthetic Immunology: Hacking Immune Cells to Expand Their Therapeutic Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal, Kole T; Lim, Wendell A

    2017-04-26

    The ability of immune cells to survey tissues and sense pathologic insults and deviations makes them a unique platform for interfacing with the body and disease. With the rapid advancement of synthetic biology, we can now engineer and equip immune cells with new sensors and controllable therapeutic response programs to sense and treat diseases that our natural immune system cannot normally handle. Here we review the current state of engineered immune cell therapeutics and their unique capabilities compared to small molecules and biologics. We then discuss how engineered immune cells are being designed to combat cancer, focusing on how new synthetic biology tools are providing potential ways to overcome the major roadblocks for treatment. Finally, we give a long-term vision for the use of synthetic biology to engineer immune cells as a general sensor-response platform to precisely detect disease, to remodel disease microenvironments, and to treat a potentially wide range of challenging diseases.

  4. AMP-activated protein kinase regulates lymphocyte responses to metabolic stress but is largely dispensable for immune cell development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alice; Denanglaire, Sébastien; Viollet, Benoit; Leo, Oberdan; Andris, Fabienne

    2008-04-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a phylogenetically conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, represents an energy sensor able to adapt cellular metabolism in response to nutritional environmental variations. TCR stimulation activates AMPK, a regulatory event that is known to stimulate ATP-producing processes, possibly in anticipation of the increased energetic needs associated with cell division and expression of effector function. Taking advantage of the selective expression of the AMPKalpha1 catalytic subunit in lymphoid cells, we have analyzed the in vitro and in vivo capacity of lymphocytes lacking AMPK activity (AMPKalpha1-KO cells) to respond to metabolic stress and to initiate and sustain an immune response. AMPKalpha1-KO cells displayed increasing sensitivity to energetic stress in vitro, and were found unable to maintain adequate ATP levels in response to ATP synthase inhibition. These cells were, however, able to respond to antigen stimulation in vitro, as shown by optimal proliferation and cytokine production. Similarly, AMPKalpha1-KO mice were fully immunocompetent in vivo and displayed normal cell proliferation, humoral, cytotoxic and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses following antigen injection. In conclusion, AMPK represents an important enzyme allowing lymphocytes to resist a mild energy crisis in vitro, but is largely dispensable for activation and expression of effector function in response to antigen stimulation.

  5. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  6. CD4 T cells mediate both positive and negative regulation of the immune response to HIV infection: complex role of T follicular helper cells and Regulatory T cells in pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chansavath ePhetsouphanh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection results in chronic activation of cells in lymphoid tissue, including T cells, B cells and myeloid lineage cells. The resulting characteristic hyperplasia is an amalgam of proliferating host immune cells in the adaptive response, increased concentrations of innate response mediators due to viral and bacterial products, and homeostatic responses to inflammation. While it is generally thought that CD4 T cells are greatly depleted, in fact, two types of CD4 T cells appear to be increased, namely regulatory T cells (Tregs and T follicular helper cells (Tfh. These cells have opposing roles, but may both be important in the pathogenic process. Whether Tregs are failing in their role to limit lymphocyte activation is unclear, but there is no doubt now that Tfh are associated with B cell hyperplasia and increased germinal centre activity. Antiretroviral therapy (ART may reduce the lymphocyte activation, but not completely, and therefore there is a need for interventions that selectively enhance normal CD4 function without exacerbating Tfh, B cell or Treg dysfunction.

  7. Systemic immune cell response in rats after pulmonary exposure to manganese-containing particles collected from welding aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, James M; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Young, Shih-Houng; Roberts, Jenny R; Erdely, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Welding fume inhalation affects the immune system of exposed workers. Manganese (Mn) in welding fume may induce immunosuppressive effects. The goal was to determine if Mn in welding fume alters immunity by reducing the number of circulating total leukocytes and specific leukocyte sub-populations. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated by intratracheal instillation (ITI) with either a single dose (2.00 mg/rat) or repeated doses (0.125 or 2.00 mg/rat for 7 weeks) with welding fumes that contained different levels of Mn. Additional rats were treated by ITI once a week for 7 weeks with the two doses of manganese chloride (MnCl₂). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed to assess lung inflammation. Also, whole blood was recovered, and the number of circulating total leukocytes, as well as specific lymphocyte subsets, was determined by flow cytometry. The welding fume highest in Mn content significantly increased lung inflammation, injury, and production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines compared to all other treatment groups. In addition, the same group expressed significant decreases in the number of circulating CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-lymphocytes after a single exposure, and significant reductions in the number of circulating total lymphocytes, primarily CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-lymphocytes, after repeated exposures (compared to control values). Repeated MnCl₂ exposure led to a trend of a reduction (but not statistically significant) in circulating total lymphocytes, attributable to the changes in the CD4⁺ T-lymphocyte population levels. The welding fume with the lower concentration of Mn had no significant effect on the numbers of blood lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets compared to control values. Evidence from this study indicates that pulmonary exposure to certain welding fumes cause decrements in systemic immune cell populations, specifically circulating T-lymphocytes, and these alterations in immune cell number are not dependent exclusively on Mn, but likely a

  8. The cryo-thermal therapy eradicated melanoma in mice by eliciting CD4+ T-cell-mediated antitumor memory immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kun; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X

    2017-03-23

    Tumor metastasis is a major concern in tumor therapy. In our previous studies, a novel tumor therapeutic modality of the cryo-thermal therapy has been presented, highlighting its effect on the suppression of distal metastasis and leading to long-term survival in 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model. To demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy in other aggressive tumor models and further investigate the mechanism of long-term survival induced, in this study, spontaneous metastatic murine B16F10 melanoma model was used. The cryo-thermal therapy induced regression of implanted melanoma and prolonged long-term survival while inhibiting lung metastasis. It also promoted the activation of CD4 + CD25 - conventional T cells, while reduced the percentage of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the spleen, lung and blood. Furthermore, the cryo-thermal therapy enhanced the cytolytic function of CD8 + T cells and induced differentiation of CD8 + T cells into memory stem T cell (T SCM ), and differentiation of CD4 + T cells into dominant CD4-CTL, Th1 and Tfh subsets in the spleen for 90 days after the treatment. It was found that good therapeutic effect was mainly dependent on CD4 + T cells providing a durable memory antitumor immune response. At the same time, significant increase of serum IFN-γ was also observed to provide an ideal microenvironment of antitumor immunity. Further study showed that the rejection of re-challenge of B16F10 but not GL261 tumor in the treated mice in 45 or 60 days after the treatment, implied a strong systemic and melanoma-specific memory antitumor immunity induced by the treatment. Thus the cryo-thermal therapy would be considered as a new therapeutic strategy to prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis with potential clinical applications in the near future.

  9. Adrenaline influence on the immune response. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depelchin, A.; Letesson, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to specify the adrenaline target among the immunocompetent cells. Adrenaline administered for some hours exerted opposite effects on the natural PFC and RFC: the first were enhanced and the second significantly reduced. These paradoxical results were interpreted as a consequence of the inhibition of the suppressor T-cells in the resting status. Adrenaline appeared to act on the sensitive cells through beta- rather than through alpha-receptors. Further experiments on the adrenaline influence on the syngeneic barrier phenomenon and on the cellular balance at its termination seemed to indicate that adrenaline was directly inhibitory for the Ts but not for their precursors. These results are discussed in the light of the cellular networks regulating the immune response. Irradiated mice were compared with non-irradiated mice as described in the previous article. (Auth.)

  10. Adjuvant therapeutic vaccination in patients with non-small cell lung cancer made lymphopenic and reconstituted with autologous PBMC: first clinical experience and evidence of an immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schendel Dolores J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the considerable toxicity and modest benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, there is clearly a need for new treatment modalities in the adjuvant setting. Active specific immunotherapy may represent such an option. However, clinical responses have been rare so far. Manipulating the host by inducing lymphopenia before vaccination resulted in a magnification of the immune response in the preclinical setting. To evaluate feasibility and safety of an irradiated, autologous tumor cell vaccine given following induction of lymphopenia by chemotherapy and reinfusion of autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, we are currently conducting a pilot-phase I clinical trial in patients with NSCLC following surgical resection. This paper reports on the first clinical experience and evidence of an immune response in patients suffering from NSCLC. Methods NSCLC patients stages I-IIIA are recruited. Vaccines are generated from their resected lung specimens. Patients undergo leukapheresis to harvest their PBMC prior to or following the surgical procedure. Furthermore, patients receive preparative chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide 350 mg/m2 and fludarabine 20 mg/m2 on 3 consecutive days for induction of lymphopenia followed by reconstitution with their autologous PBMC. Vaccines are administered intradermally on day 1 following reconstitution and every two weeks for a total of up to five vaccinations. Granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor (GM-CSF is given continuously (at a rate of 50 μg/24 h at the site of vaccination via minipump for six consecutive days after each vaccination. Results To date, vaccines were successfully manufactured for 4 of 4 patients. The most common toxicities were local injection-site reactions and mild constitutional symptoms. Immune responses to chemotherapy, reconstitution and vaccination are measured by vaccine site and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH skin

  11. Effect of partially purified fumonisins on cellular immune response in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After 7 days, cellular immune response was evaluated by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and lymphoproliferative assays (LA) using spleen cells. Nitric oxide (NO) production by spleen cells was also evaluated. The specific LA response to Pb antigen was higher in group PB than in FB and CTR groups (p< 0.05) but not ...

  12. Population-expression models of immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, Sean P; Antia, Rustom; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    The immune response to a pathogen has two basic features. The first is the expansion of a few pathogen-specific cells to form a population large enough to control the pathogen. The second is the process of differentiation of cells from an initial naive phenotype to an effector phenotype which controls the pathogen, and subsequently to a memory phenotype that is maintained and responsible for long-term protection. The expansion and the differentiation have been considered largely independently. Changes in cell populations are typically described using ecologically based ordinary differential equation models. In contrast, differentiation of single cells is studied within systems biology and is frequently modeled by considering changes in gene and protein expression in individual cells. Recent advances in experimental systems biology make available for the first time data to allow the coupling of population and high dimensional expression data of immune cells during infections. Here we describe and develop population-expression models which integrate these two processes into systems biology on the multicellular level. When translated into mathematical equations, these models result in non-conservative, non-local advection-diffusion equations. We describe situations where the population-expression approach can make correct inference from data while previous modeling approaches based on common simplifying assumptions would fail. We also explore how model reduction techniques can be used to build population-expression models, minimizing the complexity of the model while keeping the essential features of the system. While we consider problems in immunology in this paper, we expect population-expression models to be more broadly applicable. (paper)

  13. Substance P reduces apoptotic cell death possibly by modulating the immune response at the early stage after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei Hua; Lim, Ji Eun; Chi, Guang Fan; Ahn, Woosung; Zhang, Mingzi; Chung, Eunkyung; Son, Youngsook

    2013-10-23

    Previously, we have reported that substance P (SP) enhanced functional recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI) possibly by the anti-inflammatory modulation associated with the induction of M2-type macrophages at the injured lesion. In this study, we explored the cytokine expression profiles and apoptotic cell death in the lesion site of the SCI after an immediate intravenous injection of SP. SP injection increased the levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, and IL-10 at day 1 after the SCI approximately by 2-, 9-, and 10-folds when compared with the control SCI, respectively. On the basis of double immunofluorescence staining with IL-10 and CD11b, activated macrophages or microglia expressing IL-10 appeared in the margin of the lesion site at day 1 only after the SP injection. This SP-mediated alteration in the lesion microenvironment was shown to be associated with the lower cell death of neuronal cells at day 1 and oligodendrocytes at day 5 by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, which was also accompanied by a decrease in caspase-3 activation. These findings suggest that SP may reduce the inflammation-induced secondary cell death, possibly through immune modulation at an early stage after the SCI.

  14. Targeted Delivery of GP5 Antigen of PRRSV to M Cells Enhances the Antigen-Specific Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient delivery of antigens through oral immunization is a first and critical step for successful induction of mucosal immunity, which can provide protection against pathogens invading the mucosa. Membranous/microfold cells (M cells within the mucosa can transcytose internalized antigen without degradation and thus play an important role in initiating antigen-specific mucosal immune responses through inducing secretory IgA production. In this research, we modified poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanoparticles (NPs with Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1 and successfully prepared an oral vaccine delivery system, UEA-1/PLGA NPs. PLGA NPs were prepared using a standard double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, which can protect the entrapped PRRSV DNA vaccine [pcDNA3.1-SynORF5 (synthetic ORF5] or subunit vaccine ORF5-encoded glycoprotein (GP5 from exposure to the gastrointestinal (GI tract and release the plasmids in a controlled manner. With UEA-1 modification, the UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be effectively transported by M-cells. We investigated immune response induced by UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5 or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 following inoculation in mice and piglets. Compared with PLGA-SynORF5 or PLGA-GP5 NPs, UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5, or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 NPs stimulated significantly increased serum IgG levels and augmented intestinal IgA levels in mice and piglets (P < 0.05. Our findings indicate UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be applied as a promising and universally robust oral vaccine delivery system.

  15. Targeted Delivery of GP5 Antigen of PRRSV to M Cells Enhances the Antigen-Specific Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Luping; Yu, Zhengyu; Pang, Fengjiao; Xu, Xiangwei; Mao, Aihua; Yuan, Wanzhe; He, Kongwang; Li, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Efficient delivery of antigens through oral immunization is a first and critical step for successful induction of mucosal immunity, which can provide protection against pathogens invading the mucosa. Membranous/microfold cells (M cells) within the mucosa can transcytose internalized antigen without degradation and thus play an important role in initiating antigen-specific mucosal immune responses through inducing secretory IgA production. In this research, we modified poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1) and successfully prepared an oral vaccine delivery system, UEA-1/PLGA NPs. PLGA NPs were prepared using a standard double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, which can protect the entrapped PRRSV DNA vaccine [pcDNA3.1-SynORF5 (synthetic ORF5)] or subunit vaccine ORF5-encoded glycoprotein (GP5) from exposure to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and release the plasmids in a controlled manner. With UEA-1 modification, the UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be effectively transported by M-cells. We investigated immune response induced by UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5 or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 following inoculation in mice and piglets. Compared with PLGA-SynORF5 or PLGA-GP5 NPs, UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5, or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 NPs stimulated significantly increased serum IgG levels and augmented intestinal IgA levels in mice and piglets (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be applied as a promising and universally robust oral vaccine delivery system. PMID:29423381

  16. Administration of HPV DNA vaccine via electroporation elicits the strongest CD8+ T cell immune responses compared to intramuscular injection and intradermal gene gun delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Simon R.; Peng, Shiwen; Juang, Chi-Mou; Hung, Chien-Fu; Hannaman, Drew; Saunders, John R.; Wu, T.-C.; Pai, Sara I.

    2009-01-01

    DNA vaccines are an attractive approach to eliciting antigen-specific immunity. Intracellular targeting of tumor antigens through its linkage to immunostimulatory molecules such as calreticulin (CRT) can improve antigen processing and presentation through the MHC Class I pathway and increase cytotoxic CD8+ T cell production. However, even with these enhancements, the efficacy of such immunotherapeutic strategies is dependent on the identification of an effective route and method of DNA administration. Electroporation and gene gun-mediated particle delivery are leading methods of DNA vaccine delivery that can generate protective and therapeutic levels of immune responses in experimental models. In this study, we perform a head-to-head comparison of three methods of vaccination – conventional intramuscular injection, electroporation mediated intramuscular delivery, and epidermal gene gun-mediated particle delivery - in the ability to generate antigen specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses as well as anti-tumor immune responses against an HPV-16 E7 expressing tumor cell line using the pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) DNA vaccine. Vaccination via electroporation generated the highest number of E7-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, which correlated to improved outcomes in the treatment of growing tumors. In addition, we demonstrate that electroporation results in significantly higher levels of circulating protein compared to gene gun or intramuscular vaccination, which likely enhances calreticulin’s role as a local tumor anti-angiogenesis agent. We conclude that electroporation is a promising method for delivery of HPV DNA vaccines and should be considered for DNA vaccine delivery in human clinical trials. PMID:19622402

  17. MHC class II expression through a hitherto unknown pathway supports T helper cell-dependent immune responses: implications for MHC class II deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Thorsten; Polic, Bojan; Clausen, Björn E; Weiss, Susanne; Akilli-Ozturk, Ozlem; Chang, Cheong-Hee; Flavell, Richard; Schulz, Ansgar; Jonjic, Stipan; Waisman, Ari; Förster, Irmgard

    2006-02-15

    MHC class II (MHCII) deficiency or bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) is a severe immunodeficiency characterized by deficient T helper (Th)-cell-dependent immunity. The disease is caused by defects of the MHCII promoter complex resulting in low or absent MHCII expression. We demonstrate in a murine model of MHCII deficiency (RFX5- or CIITA-deficient mice) that residual MHCII expression by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is sufficient to support activation of adoptively transferred Th cells. Furthermore, upon transplantation of WT thymic epithelium, we observed development of endogenous Th cells with restoration of Th-cell-dependent antibody responses and immunity to cytomegalovirus infection, thus opening the possibility of an alternative treatment regimen for BLS. Residual MHCII expression was further induced by the presence of Th cells and also other stimuli. Analysis of CIITA/RFX5 double-deficient animals revealed that this inducible MHCII expression is genetically independent of the known promoter complex and thus constitutes an alternative MHCII expression pathway. In these experiments, we also detected a novel repressive function of the RFX complex in the absence of CIITA.

  18. Subnormal expression of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in progeny disposed toward a high incidence of tumors after in utero exposure to benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urso, P.; Gengozian, N.

    1984-01-01

    Pregnant mice were exposed to 150 μg benzol[a]pyrene (BaP) per gram of body weight during fetogenesis (d 11-17 of gestation) and the progeny were assayed for humoral and cell mediated immune responses at different time intervals after birth. Immature offspring (1-4 wk) were severely suppressed in their ability to produce antibody (plaque-) forming cells (PFC) against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and in the ability of their lymphocytes to undergo a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). Lymphocytes from these progeny showed a moderate to weak capacity to inhabit production of colony-forming units (CFU) in host spleens following transfer with semiallogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells into lethally x-irradiated recipients syngeneic to the BM (in vivo graft-versus-host response, GVHR). A severe and sustained suppression in the MLR and the PFC response occurred from the fifth month up to 18 mo. The in vivo GVHR, also subnormal later in life, was not as severely suppressed as the other two parameters. Tumor incidence in the BP-exposed progeny was 8- to 10-fold higher than in those encountering corn oil alone from 18 to 24 mo of age. These data show that in utero exposure to the chemical carcinogen BaP alters development of components needed for establishing competent hemoral and cell-mediated functions of the immune apparatus and leads to severe and sustained postnatal suppression of the defense mechanism. The immunodeficiency exhibited, particularly in the T-cell compartment (MLR, GVHR), before and during the increase in tumor frequency, may provide a favorable environment for the growth of nascent neoplasms induced by BaP. 30 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  19. Gut Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Messina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, first found in bone marrow (BM, are the structural architects of all organs, participating in most biological functions. MSCs possess tissue-specific signatures that allow their discrimination according to their origin and location. Among their multiple functions, MSCs closely interact with immune cells, orchestrating their activity to maintain overall homeostasis. The phenotype of tissue MSCs residing in the bowel overlaps with myofibroblasts, lining the bottom walls of intestinal crypts (pericryptal or interspersed within intestinal submucosa (intercryptal. In Crohn’s disease, intestinal MSCs are tightly stacked in a chronic inflammatory milieu, which causes their enforced expression of Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC. The absence of Class II MHC is a hallmark for immune-modulator and tolerogenic properties of normal MSCs and, vice versa, the expression of HLA-DR is peculiar to antigen presenting cells, that is, immune-activator cells. Interferon gamma (IFNγ is responsible for induction of Class II MHC expression on intestinal MSCs. The reversal of myofibroblasts/MSCs from an immune-modulator to an activator phenotype in Crohn’s disease results in the formation of a fibrotic tube subverting the intestinal structure. Epithelial metaplastic areas in this context can progress to dysplasia and cancer.

  20. Evaluation of Immune Responses Mediated by Listeria-Stimulated Human Dendritic Cells: Implications for Cancer Vaccine Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    transfected with RNA. NatBiotech. 1998;16:364-369. 20. Heiser A, Dahm P, Yancey DR, et al. Human dendritic cells transfected with RNA encoding prostate...specific antigen stimulate prostate-specific CTL responses in vitro. J Immunol. 2000;164(10):5508-5514. 21. Heiser A, Maurice MA, Yancey DR...primary and metastatic tumors. Cancer Res. 2001;61(8):3388-3393. 22. Heiser A, Coleman D, Dannull J, et al. Autologous dendritic cells transfected

  1. DMPD: Heterogeneity of TLR-induced responses in dendritic cells: from innate toadaptive immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available daptive immunity. Re F, Strominger JL. Immunobiology. 2004;209(1-2):191-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Sho...toadaptive immunity. Authors Re F, Strominger JL. Publication Immunobiology. 2004;209(1-2):191-8. Pathway -

  2. The role of complement in the acquired immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Fischer, E M; Leslie, R G

    2000-01-01

    Studies over the past three decades have clearly established a central role for complement in the promotion of a humoral immune response. The primary function of complement, in this regard, is to opsonize antigen or immune complexes for uptake by complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21) expressed...... on B cells, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and some T cells. A variety of mechanisms appear to be involved in complement-mediated promotion of the humoral response. These include: enhancement of antigen (Ag) uptake and processing by both Ag-specific and non-specific B cells for presentation...

  3. Stress effect on humoral and cell mediated immune response: Indispensable part of corticosterone and cytokine in neutrophil function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This result further concludes that prior immunization of SRBC in animal’s act as a vaccination, which helps to prevent noise stress induced impairment in immune system. Orally administered I. tinctoria prevented noise altered immune system. These results also concluded that I. tinctoria supplementation could act as an immunomodulators and suggesting its therapeutic efficacy as an antistressor.

  4. Bacteria modulate the CD8+ T cell epitope repertoire of host cytosol-exposed proteins to manipulate the host immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakov Maman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main adaptive immune response to bacteria is mediated by B cells and CD4+ T-cells. However, some bacterial proteins reach the cytosol of host cells and are exposed to the host CD8+ T-cells response. Both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria can translocate proteins to the cytosol through type III and IV secretion and ESX-1 systems, respectively. The translocated proteins are often essential for the bacterium survival. Once injected, these proteins can be degraded and presented on MHC-I molecules to CD8+ T-cells. The CD8+ T-cells, in turn, can induce cell death and destroy the bacteria's habitat. In viruses, escape mutations arise to avoid this detection. The accumulation of escape mutations in bacteria has never been systematically studied. We show for the first time that such mutations are systematically present in most bacteria tested. We combine multiple bioinformatic algorithms to compute CD8+ T-cell epitope libraries of bacteria with secretion systems that translocate proteins to the host cytosol. In all bacteria tested, proteins not translocated to the cytosol show no escape mutations in their CD8+ T-cell epitopes. However, proteins translocated to the cytosol show clear escape mutations and have low epitope densities for most tested HLA alleles. The low epitope densities suggest that bacteria, like viruses, are evolutionarily selected to ensure their survival in the presence of CD8+ T-cells. In contrast with most other translocated proteins examined, Pseudomonas aeruginosa's ExoU, which ultimately induces host cell death, was found to have high epitope density. This finding suggests a novel mechanism for the manipulation of CD8+ T-cells by pathogens. The ExoU effector may have evolved to maintain high epitope density enabling it to efficiently induce CD8+ T-cell mediated cell death. These results were tested using multiple epitope prediction algorithms, and were found to be consistent for most proteins tested.

  5. Participation of 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ζ proteins in the phagocytosis, component of cellular immune response, in Aedes mosquito cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Ocampo, Abel; Cázares-Raga, Febe Elena; Del Angel, Rosa María; Medina-Ramírez, Fernando; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo; Rodríguez, Mario H; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Better knowledge of the innate immune system of insects will improve our understanding of mosquitoes as potential vectors of diverse pathogens. The ubiquitously expressed 14-3-3 protein family is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals, and at least two isoforms of 14-3-3, the ε and ζ, have been identified in insects. These proteins have been shown to participate in both humoral and cellular immune responses in Drosophila. As mosquitoes of the genus Aedes are the primary vectors for arboviruses, causing several diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika and chikungunya fevers, cell lines derived from these mosquitoes, Aag-2 from Aedes aegypti and C6/36 HT from Aedes albopictus, are currently used to study the insect immune system. Here, we investigated the role of 14-3-3 proteins (ε and ζ isoform) in phagocytosis, the main cellular immune responses executed by the insects, using Aedes spp. cell lines. We evaluated the mRNA and protein expression of 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ζ in C6/36 HT and Aag-2 cells, and demonstrated that both proteins were localised in the cytoplasm. Further, in C6/36 HT cells treated with a 14-3-3 specific inhibitor we observed a notable modification of cell morphology with filopodia-like structure caused through cytoskeleton reorganisation (co-localization of 14-3-3 proteins with F-actin), more importantly the decrease in Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli phagocytosis and reduction in phagolysosome formation. Additionally, silencing of 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ζ expression by mean of specific DsiRNA confirmed the decreased phagocytosis and phagolysosome formation of pHrodo labelled E. coli and S. aureus bacteria by Aag-2 cells. The 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ζ proteins modulate cytoskeletal remodelling, and are essential for phagocytosis of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in Aedes spp. cell lines.

  6. A novel immune-to-CNS communication pathway: cells of the meninges surrounding the spinal cord CSF space produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to an inflammatory stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieseler-Frank, Julie; Jekich, Brian M; Mahoney, John H; Bland, Sondra T; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2007-07-01

    Pain is enhanced in response to elevations of proinflammatory cytokines in spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), following either intrathecal injection of these cytokines or intrathecal immune challenge with HIV-1 gp120 that induces cytokine release. Spinal cord glia have been assumed to be the source of endogenous proinflammatory cytokines that enhance pain. However, assuming that spinal cord glia are the sole source of CSF cytokines may be an underestimate, as the cellular composition of the meninges surrounding the spinal cord CSF space includes several cell types known to produce proinflammatory cytokines. The present experiments provide the first investigation of the immunocompetent nature of the spinal cord meninges. Here, we explore whether rat meninges are responsive to intrathecal gp120. These studies demonstrate that: (a) intrathecal gp120 upregulates meningeal gene expression of proinflammatory signals, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and (b) intrathecal gp120 induces meningeal release of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6. In addition, stimulation of isolated meninges in vitro with gp120 induced the release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, indicating that the resident cells of the meninges are able to respond without immune cell recruitment. Taken together, these data document that the meninges are responsive to immunogenic stimuli in the CSF and that the meninges may be a source of immune products detected in CSF. The ability of the meninges to release to proinflammatory signals suggests a potential role in the modulation of pain.

  7. Predictors of responses to immune checkpoint blockade in advanced melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquelot, N; Roberti, M P; Enot, D P

    2017-01-01

    Immune checkpoint blockers (ICB) have become pivotal therapies in the clinical armamentarium against metastatic melanoma (MMel). Given the frequency of immune related adverse events and increasing use of ICB, predictors of response to CTLA-4 and/or PD-1 blockade represent unmet clinical needs....... Using a systems biology-based approach to an assessment of 779 paired blood and tumor markers in 37 stage III MMel patients, we analyzed association between blood immune parameters and the functional immune reactivity of tumor-infiltrating cells after ex vivo exposure to ICB. Based on this assay, we...

  8. Intestinal stromal cells in mucosal immunity and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, B M J; Simmons, A

    2013-03-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that non-hematopoietic stromal cells of the intestine have multiple roles in immune responses and inflammation at this mucosal site. Despite this, many still consider gut stromal cells as passive structural entities, with past research focused heavily on their roles in fibrosis, tumor progression, and wound healing, rather than their contributions to immune function. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of stromal cells in intestinal immunity, highlighting the many immunological axes in which stromal cells have a functional role. We also consider emerging data that broaden the potential scope of their contribution to immunity in the gut and argue that these so-called "non-immune" cells are reclassified in light of their diverse contributions to intestinal innate immunity and the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis.

  9. Assessment of serum tumor markers, tumor cell apoptosis and immune response in patients with advanced colon cancer after DC-CIK combined with intravenous chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei-Fan Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of DC-CIK combined with intravenous chemotherapy on serum tumor markers, tumor cell apoptosis and immune response in patients with advanced colon cancer. Methods: A total of 79 patients with advanced colon cancer conservatively treated in our hospital between May 2012 and October 2015 were retrospectively studied and divided into DC-CIK group and intravenous chemotherapy group according to different therapeutic regimens, DC-CIK group received DC-CIK combined with intravenous chemotherapy and intravenous chemotherapy group received conventional intravenous chemotherapy. After three cycles of chemotherapy, the content of tumor markers in serum, expression levels of apoptotic molecules in tumor lesions as well as immune function indexes were determined. Results: After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, CEA, CA199, CA242, HIF-1α, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 content in serum of DC-CIK group were significantly lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group; p53, FAM96B, PTEN, PHLPP, ASPP2 and RASSF10 mRNA content in tumor lesions of DC-CIK group were significantly higher than those of intravenous chemotherapy group; the fluorescence intensity of CD3, CD4 and CD56 on peripheral blood mononuclear cell surface of DC-CIK group were significantly higher than those of intravenous chemotherapy group while the fluorescence intensity of CD8 and CD25 were significantly lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group; IL-2 and IFN-γ content in serum of DC-CIK group were significantly higher than those of intravenous chemotherapy group while IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 content were significantly lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group. Conclusions: DC-CIK combined with intravenous chemotherapy has better effect on killing colon cancer cells and inducing colon cancer cell apoptosis than conventional intravenous chemotherapy, and can also improve the body's anti-tumor immune response.

  10. IL-18 potentiated whole blood IFN-γ assay can identify cell-mediated immune responses towards Lawsonia intracellularis in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Jakobsen, Jeanne Toft; Hvass, Henriette Cordes

    Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacteria causing proliferative enteropathy (PE) in pigs. The infection causes diarrhoea, retarded growth and sudden death in pigs and is one of the most economically important diseases in the swine industry worldwide. The infection is one...... indications that cell-mediated immune responses (CMI) are important for the protection against infections with L. intracellularis and in mice models IFN-γ has been shown to play a key role in the host defence against experimental infections . In L. intracellularis infected pigs, IFN-γ is only sparsely...

  11. Influenza H5N1 and H1N1 virus replication and innate immune responses in bronchial epithelial cells are influenced by the state of differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee W Y Chan

    Full Text Available Influenza H5N1 virus continues to be enzootic in poultry and transmits zoonotically to humans. Although a swine-origin H1N1 virus has emerged to become pandemic, its virulence for humans remains modest in comparison to that seen in zoonotic H5N1 disease. As human respiratory epithelium is the primary target cells for influenza viruses, elucidating the viral tropism and host innate immune responses of influenza H5N1 virus in human bronchial epithelium may help to understand the pathogenesis. Here we established primary culture of undifferentiated and well differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells and infected with highly pathogenic influenza H5N1 virus (A/Vietnam/3046/2004 and a seasonal influenza H1N1 virus (A/Hong Kong/54/1998, the viral replication kinetics and cytokine and chemokine responses were compared by qPCR and ELISA. We found that the in vitro culture of the well differentiated NHBE cells acquired the physiological properties of normal human bronchi tissue which express high level of alpha2-6-linked sialic acid receptors and human airway trypsin-like (HAT protease, in contrast to the low expression in the non-differentiated NHBE cells. When compared to H1N1 virus, the H5N1 virus replicated more efficiently and induced a stronger type I interferon response in the undifferentiated NHBE cells. In contrast, in well differentiated cultures, H5N1 virus replication was less efficient and elicited a lower interferon-beta response in comparison with H1N1 virus. Our data suggest that the differentiation of bronchial epithelial cells has a major influence in cells' permissiveness to human H1N1 and avian H5N1 viruses and the host innate immune responses. The reduced virus replication efficiency partially accounts for the lower interferon-beta responses in influenza H5N1 virus infected well differentiated NHBE cells. Since influenza infection in the bronchial epithelium will lead to tissue damage and associate with the

  12. Plant-based oral tolerance to hemophilia therapy employs a complex immune regulatory response including LAP+CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Su, Jin; Sherman, Alexandra; Rogers, Geoffrey L; Liao, Gongxian; Hoffman, Brad E; Leong, Kam W; Terhorst, Cox; Daniell, Henry; Herzog, Roland W

    2015-04-09

    Coagulation factor replacement therapy for the X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia is severely complicated by antibody ("inhibitor") formation. We previously found that oral delivery to hemophilic mice of cholera toxin B subunit-coagulation factor fusion proteins expressed in chloroplasts of transgenic plants suppressed inhibitor formation directed against factors VIII and IX and anaphylaxis against factor IX (FIX). This observation and the relatively high concentration of antigen in the chloroplasts prompted us to evaluate the underlying tolerance mechanisms. The combination of oral delivery of bioencapsulated FIX and intravenous replacement therapy induced a complex, interleukin-10 (IL-10)-dependent, antigen-specific systemic immune suppression of pathogenic antibody formation (immunoglobulin [Ig] 1/inhibitors, IgE) in hemophilia B mice. Tolerance induction was also successful in preimmune mice but required prolonged oral delivery once replacement therapy was resumed. Orally delivered antigen, initially targeted to epithelial cells, was taken up by dendritic cells throughout the small intestine and additionally by F4/80(+) cells in the duodenum. Consistent with the immunomodulatory responses, frequencies of tolerogenic CD103(+) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were increased. Ultimately, latency-associated peptide expressing CD4(+) regulatory T cells (CD4(+)CD25(-)LAP(+) cells with upregulated IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) expression) as well as conventional CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells systemically suppressed anti-FIX responses. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. The Metalloporphyrin Antioxidant, MnTE-2-PyP, Inhibits Th2 Cell Immune Responses in an Asthma Model

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    Paiboon Jungsuwadee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available MnTE-2-PyP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, inhibited OVA-induced airway inflammation in mice suggesting an effect on Th2 responsiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that MnTE-2-PyP may alter dendritic cell-Th2 interactions. Bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DC and OVA323-339-specific Th2 cells were cultured separately in the presence or absence of MnTE-2-PyP for 3 days prior to the co-culturing of the two cell types in the presence of an OVA323-339 peptide and in some cases stimulated with CD3/CD28. MnTE-2-PyP-pretreated DC inhibited IL-4, IL-5 and IFNγ production and inhibited Th2 cell proliferation in the DC-Th2 co-culturing system in the presence of the OVA323-339 peptide. Similar results were obtained using the CD3/CD28 cell-activation system; the addition of MnTE-2-PyP inhibited Th2 cell proliferation. MnTE-2-PyP suppressed CD25 expression on OVA-specific Th2 cells, which implied that MnTE-2-PyP can inhibit the activation of Th2 cells. MnTE-2-PyP also down-regulated co-stimulatory molecules: CD40, CD80 and CD86 on immature DC. Our studies suggest that the major mechanism by which MnTE-2-PyP inhibits airway inflammation is by acting on the DC and suppressing Th2 cell proliferation and activation.

  14. Tetraspanins in the immune response against cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenbergen, S.; van Spriel, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    The role of the immune system in the defense against cancer, a process termed tumor immunosurveillance, has been extensively studied. Evidence is accumulating that the molecular organization of proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane of immune cells is of critical importance. Tetraspanin proteins

  15. Cathepsin B in antigen-presenting cells controls mediators of the Th1 immune response during Leishmania major infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris J Gonzalez-Leal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania major infection in the murine model is determined by the capacity of the host to mount either a protective Th1 response or a Th2 response associated with disease progression. Previous reports involving the use of cysteine cathepsin inhibitors indicated that cathepsins B (Ctsb and L (Ctsl play important roles in Th1/Th2 polarization during L. major infection in both susceptible and resistant mouse strains. Although it was hypothesized that these effects are a consequence of differential patterns of antigen processing, the mechanisms underlying these differences were not further investigated. Given the pivotal roles that dendritic cells and macrophages play during Leishmania infection, we generated bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC and macrophages (BMM from Ctsb-/- and Ctsl-/- mice, and studied the effects of Ctsb and Ctsl deficiency on the survival of L. major in infected cells. Furthermore, the signals used by dendritic cells to instruct Th cell polarization were addressed: the expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, and cytokine production. We found that Ctsb-/- BMDC express higher levels of MHC class II molecules than wild-type (WT and Ctsl-/- BMDC, while there were no significant differences in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules between cathepsin-deficient and WT cells. Moreover, both BMDC and BMM from Ctsb-/- mice significantly up-regulated the levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12 expression, a key Th1-inducing cytokine. These findings indicate that Ctsb-/- BMDC display more pro-Th1 properties than their WT and Ctsl-/- counterparts, and therefore suggest that Ctsb down-regulates the Th1 response to L. major. Moreover, they propose a novel role for Ctsb as a regulator of cytokine expression.

  16. MECHANISMS OF IMMUNE RESPONSES IN CNIDARIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Darío Ocampo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune system maintains the integrity of the organisms through a complex network of molecules, cells, and tissues that recognize internal or external antigenic substances to neutralized and eliminate them. The mechanisms of immune response have evolved in a modular fashion, where members of a given module interact strongly among them, but weakly with members of other modules, providing robustness and evolvability to the immune system. Ancestral modules are the raw material for the generation of new modules through evolution. Thus, the study of immune systems in basal metazoans such as cnidarians seeks to determine the basic tool kit from which the metazoans started to construct their immune systems. In addition, understanding the immune mechanisms in cnidarians contributes to decipher the etiopathology of coral diseases of infectious nature that are affecting coral reefs worldwide. RESUMEN El sistema inmune mantiene la integridad de los organismos vivos por medio de una red compleja de moléculas, células y tejidos que reconocen sustancias antigénicas internas o externas para neutralizarlas y eliminarlas. Los mecanismos de respuesta inmune han evolucionado de una manera modular, en donde miembros de un módulo dado interactúan fuertemente entre sí, pero débilmente con componentes de otros módulos, otorgando así robustez y potencial evolutivo al sistema inmune. Módulos ancestrales representan el material básico para la generación de nuevos módulos durante el proceso evolutivo. Así, el estudio de sistemas inmunes en metazoarios basales como los cnidarios busca determinar cuales son los módulos ancestrales a partir de los cuales se constituyen los sistemas inmunes de animales derivados. Adicionalmente, el entendimiento de los mecanismos de respuesta inmune en cnidarios eventualmente contribuirá a descifrar la etiopatología de las enfermedades de corales de carácter infeccioso que está afectando los corales en el mundo.

  17. OXIDATIVE STRESS-DEPENDENT ALTERED IMMUNE RESPONSES AND CELL DEATH IN SUBSTANTIA NIGRA AFTER OZONE EXPOSURE IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selva eRivas - Arancibia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease has been associated with the selective loss of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role. The resulting increase in reactive oxygen species triggers a sequence of events that leads to cell damage, activation of microglia cells and neuroinflammatory responses. Our objective was to study whether chronic exposure to low doses of ozone, which produces oxidative stress itself, induces progressive cell death in conjunction with glial alterations in the substantia nigra. Animals were exposed to an ozone-free air stream (control or to low doses of ozone for 7, 15, 30, 60, or 90 days. Each group underwent 1 spectrophotometric analysis for protein oxidation; 2 western blot testing for microglia reactivity and nuclear factor kappa B expression levels; and 3 immunohistochemistry for cytochrome c, GFAP, Iba-1, NFkB and COX-2. Our results indicate that ozone induces an increase in protein oxidation levels, changes in activated astrocytes and microglia, and cell death. NFkB and cytochrome c showed an increase until 30 days of exposure, while cyclooxygenase 2 in the substantia nigra increased from 7 days up to 90 days of repetitive ozone exposure. These results suggest that oxidative stress caused by ozone exposure induces changes in inflammatory responses and progressive cell death in the substantia nigra in rats, which could also be occurring in Parkinson’s disease.

  18. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity-Cell-mediated Immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 6. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity - Cell-mediated Immunity. Asma Ahmed Banishree Saha Anand Patwardhan Shwetha Shivaprasad Dipankar Nandi. General Article Volume 14 Issue 6 June 2009 pp 610-621 ...

  19. Are Platelets Cells? And if Yes, Are They Immune Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice eCOGNASSE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Small fragments circulating in the blood were formally identified by the end of the 19th century, and it was suggested that they assisted coagulation via interactions with vessel endothelia. Wright, at the beginning of the 20th century, identified their bone-marrow origin. For long, platelets have been considered sticky assistants of hemostasis and pollutants of blood or tissue samples; they were just cell fragments. As such however, they were acknowledged as immunizing (to specific HPA and HLA markers: the platelet’s dark face. The enlightened face showed that besides hemostasis, platelets contained factors involved in healing. As early as the 1930s, platelets entered the arsenal of medicines; were transfused, and were soon manipulated to become a kind of glue to repair damaged tissues. Some gladly categorized platelets as cells but they were certainly not fully licensed as such for cell physiologists. Actually, platelets possess almost every characteristic of cells, apart from being capable of organizing their genes: they have neither a nucleus nor genes. This view prevailed until it became evident that platelets play a role in homeostasis and interact with cells other than with vascular endothelial cells; then began the era of physiological and also pathological inflammation. Platelets have now entered the field of immunity as inflammatory cells. Does assistance to immune cells itself suffice to license a cell as an immune cell? Platelets prove capable of sensing different types of signals and organizing an appropriate response. Many cells can do that. However, platelets can use a complete signalosome (apart from the last transcription step, though it is likely that this step can be circumvented by retrotranscribing RNA messages. The question has also arisen as to whether platelets can present antigen via their abundantly expressed MHC class I molecules. In combination, these properties argue in favor of allowing platelets the title of

  20. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas, E-mail: tke@uams.edu [Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute and Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

  1. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses

  2. Antimicrobial peptides in innate immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, O.E.; Borregaard, N.; Cole, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ancient effector molecules in the innate immune response of eukaryotes. These peptides are important for the antimicrobial efficacy of phagocytes and for the innate immune response mounted by epithelia of humans and other mammals. AMPs are generated either by de...... novo synthesis or by proteolytic cleavage from antimicrobially inactive proproteins. Studies of human diseases and animal studies have given important clues to the in vivo role of AMPs. It is now evident that dysregulation of the generation of AMPs in innate immune responses plays a role in certain...

  3. Administration of sulfosuccinimidyl-4-[N-maleimidomethyl] cyclohexane-1-carboxylate conjugated GP10025–33 peptide-coupled spleen cells effectively mounts antigen-specific immune response against mouse melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Xiaoli; Xia, Chang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    It remains a top research priority to develop immunotherapeutic approaches to induce potent antigen-specific immune responses against tumors. However, in spite of some promising results, most strategies are ineffective because they generate low numbers of tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Here we designed a strategy to enhance antigen-specific immune response via administering sulfosuccinimidyl-4-[N-maleimidomethyl] cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo-SMCC)-conjugated melanoma tumor antigen GP100 25–33 peptide-coupled syngeneic spleen cells in a mouse model of melanoma. We found that infusion of GP100 25–33 peptide-coupled spleen cells significantly attenuated the growth of melanoma in prophylactic and therapeutic immunizations. Consistent with these findings, the adoptive transfer of spleen cells from immunized mice to naïve syngeneic mice was able to transfer anti-tumor effect, suggesting that GP100 25–33 peptide-specific immune response was induced. Further studies showed that, CD8+ T cell proliferation and the frequency of interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD8+ T cells upon ex vivo stimulation by GP100 25–33 were significantly increased compared to control groups. Tumor antigen, GP100 25–23 specific immune response was also confirmed by ELISpot and GP100-tetramer assays. This approach is simple, easy-handled, and efficiently delivering antigens to lymphoid tissues. Our study offers an opportunity for clinically translating this approach into tumor immunotherapy. - Highlights: • Infusion of GP100 25–33 -coupled spleen cells leads to potent anti-melanoma immunity. • GP100 25–33 -coupled spleen cell treatment induces antigen-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells. • This approach takes advantage of homing nature of immune cells.

  4. Administration of sulfosuccinimidyl-4-[N-maleimidomethyl] cyclohexane-1-carboxylate conjugated GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-coupled spleen cells effectively mounts antigen-specific immune response against mouse melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Xiaoli [Department of Hematology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Xia, Chang-Qing, E-mail: cqx65@yahoo.com [Department of Hematology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL32610 (United States)

    2015-12-04

    It remains a top research priority to develop immunotherapeutic approaches to induce potent antigen-specific immune responses against tumors. However, in spite of some promising results, most strategies are ineffective because they generate low numbers of tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Here we designed a strategy to enhance antigen-specific immune response via administering sulfosuccinimidyl-4-[N-maleimidomethyl] cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo-SMCC)-conjugated melanoma tumor antigen GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-coupled syngeneic spleen cells in a mouse model of melanoma. We found that infusion of GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-coupled spleen cells significantly attenuated the growth of melanoma in prophylactic and therapeutic immunizations. Consistent with these findings, the adoptive transfer of spleen cells from immunized mice to naïve syngeneic mice was able to transfer anti-tumor effect, suggesting that GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-specific immune response was induced. Further studies showed that, CD8+ T cell proliferation and the frequency of interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD8+ T cells upon ex vivo stimulation by GP100{sub 25–33} were significantly increased compared to control groups. Tumor antigen, GP100{sub 25–23} specific immune response was also confirmed by ELISpot and GP100-tetramer assays. This approach is simple, easy-handled, and efficiently delivering antigens to lymphoid tissues. Our study offers an opportunity for clinically translating this approach into tumor immunotherapy. - Highlights: • Infusion of GP100{sub 25–33}-coupled spleen cells leads to potent anti-melanoma immunity. • GP100{sub 25–33}-coupled spleen cell treatment induces antigen-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells. • This approach takes advantage of homing nature of immune cells.

  5. The Impact of Ultraviolet Radiation on Immune Responses (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norval, M.

    2000-01-01

    In addition to its genotoxic and mutagenic effects, UV has the capacity to suppress immune responses. The mechanism involved is complex, beginning with chromophores located in the skin which absorb UV, this leading in turn to changes in the production of a range of immune mediators locally and systemically which then induce phenotypic and functional alterations in antigen presentation. The cascade ends with the promotion of a subset of T-cells downregulating cell-mediated immunity. The possible consequences of this immunomodulation for the control of tumours and infectious diseases require careful evaluation from laboratory and human studies. (author)

  6. An immune-modulating diet increases the regulatory T cells and reduces T helper 1 inflammatory response in Leishmaniosis affected dogs treated with standard therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Laura; Annunziatella, Mariangela; Palatucci, Anna Teresa; Lanzilli, Sarah; Rubino, Valentina; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Centenaro, Sara; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Canello, Sergio; Terrazzano, Giuseppe

    2015-12-03

    Clinical appearance and evolution of Canine Leishmaniosis (CL) are the consequence of complex interactions between the parasite and the genetic and immunological backgrounds. We investigated the effect of an immune-modulating diet in CL. Dogs were treated with anti- Leishmania pharmacological therapy combined with standard diet (SD Group) or with the immune-modulating diet (IMMD Group). CD3+ CD4+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T cells (Treg) and CD3+ CD4+ IFN-γ + T helper 1 (Th1) were analyzed by flow cytometry. All sick dogs showed low platelet number at diagnosis (T0). A platelet increase was observed after six months (T6) SD Group, with still remaining in the normal range at twelve months (T12). IMMD Group showed an increase in platelet number becoming similar to healthy dogs at T6 and T12. An increase of CD4/CD8 ratio was revealed in SD Group after three months (T3), while at T6 and at T12 the values resembled to T0. The increase in CD4/CD8 ratio at T3 was maintained at T6 and T12 in IMMD Group. A reduction in the percentage of Treg of all sick dogs was observed at T0. A recovery of Treg percentage was observed only at T3 in SD Group, while this effect disappeared at T6 and T12. In contrast, Treg percentage became similar to healthy animals in IMDD Group at T3, T6 and T12. Sick dogs showed an increase of Th1 cells at T0 as compared with healthy dogs. We observed the occurrence of a decrease of Th1 cells from T3 to T12 in SD Group, although a trend of increase was observed at T6 and T12. At variance, IMMD Group dogs showed a progressive decrease of Th1 cells, whose levels became similar to healthy controls at T6 and T12. The immune-modulating diet appears to regulate the immune response in CL during the standard pharmacological treatment. The presence of nutraceuticals in the diet correlates with the decrease of Th1 cells and with the increase of Treg in sick dogs. Therefore, the administration of the specific dietary supplement improved the clinical response to the

  7. Allergen-induced activation of natural killer cells represents an early-life immune response in the development of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Matthew C; Whalen, Elizabeth; Togias, Alkis; O'Connor, George T; Bacharier, Leonard B; Bloomberg, Gordon R; Kattan, Meyer; Wood, Robert A; Presnell, Scott; LeBeau, Petra; Jaffee, Katy; Visness, Cynthia M; Busse, William W; Gern, James E

    2018-03-05

    Childhood asthma in inner-city populations is a major public health burden, and understanding early-life immune mechanisms that promote asthma onset is key to disease prevention. Children with asthma demonstrate a high prevalence of aeroallergen sensitization and T H 2-type inflammation; however, the early-life immune events that lead to T H 2 skewing and disease development are unknown. We sought to use RNA sequencing of PBMCs collected at age 2 years to determine networks of immune responses that occur in children with allergy and asthma. In an inner-city birth cohort with high asthma risk, we compared gene expression using RNA sequencing in PBMCs collected at age 2 years between children with 2 or more aeroallergen sensitizations, including dust mite, cockroach, or both, by age 3 years and asthma by age 7 years (cases) and matched control subjects who did not have any aeroallergen sensitization or asthma by age 7 years. PBMCs from the cases showed higher levels of expression of natural killer (NK) cell-related genes. After cockroach or dust mite allergen but not tetanus antigen stimulation, PBMCs from the cases compared with the control subjects showed differential expression of 244 genes. This gene set included upregulation of a densely interconnected NK cell-like gene network reflecting a pattern of cell activation and induction of inflammatory signaling molecules, including the key T H 2-type cytokines IL9, IL13, and CCL17, as well as a dendritic cell-like gene network, including upregulation of CD1 lipid antigen presentation molecules. The NK cell-like response was reproducible in an independent group of children with later-onset allergic sensitization and asthma and was found to be specific to only those children with both aeroallergen sensitization and asthma. These findings provide important mechanistic insight into an early-life immune pathway involved in T H 2 polarization, leading to the development of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2018 American

  8. Immune Response Induced by an Immunodominant 60 kDa Glycoprotein of the Cell Wall of Sporothrix schenckii in Two Mice Strains with Experimental Sporotrichosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Alba-Fierro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell wall (CW components of fungus Sporothrix schenckii are the major inductors antigens of immune responses. The immunodominant 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60 has been shown to be associated with the virulence of this fungus but its role in experimental sporotrichosis is unknown. In this work, the immunological effects of CW-purified gp60 were investigated in a model of experimental subcutaneous sporotrichosis in normal and gp60-preimmunized C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice strains which were then infected with S. schenckii conidia. Results showed that both mice strains use different cytokine profiles in order to fight S. schenckii infection; C57BL/6 mice seem to use a Th17 response while BALB/c mice tend to depend on a Th1 profile. Preimmunization with gp60 showed a downregulatory effect on the immune response since cytokines levels were diminished in both strains. There were no significant differences in the magnitude of dorsoplantar inflammation between gp60-preimmunized and nonimmunized mice of both strains. However, skin lesions due to the infection in gp60-preimmunized mice were more severe in BALB/c than in C57BL/6 mice, suggesting that the antigen exerts a higher downregulatory effect on the Th1 response.

  9. Immune Response Induced by an Immunodominant 60 kDa Glycoprotein of the Cell Wall of Sporothrix schenckii in Two Mice Strains with Experimental Sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Fierro, Carlos A; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Toriello, Conchita; Pulido-Camarillo, Evelyn; López-Romero, Everardo; Romo-Lozano, Yolanda; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Gerardo; Ruiz-Baca, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Cell wall (CW) components of fungus Sporothrix schenckii are the major inductors antigens of immune responses. The immunodominant 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) has been shown to be associated with the virulence of this fungus but its role in experimental sporotrichosis is unknown. In this work, the immunological effects of CW-purified gp60 were investigated in a model of experimental subcutaneous sporotrichosis in normal and gp60-preimmunized C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice strains which were then infected with S. schenckii conidia. Results showed that both mice strains use different cytokine profiles in order to fight S. schenckii infection; C57BL/6 mice seem to use a Th17 response while BALB/c mice tend to depend on a Th1 profile. Preimmunization with gp60 showed a downregulatory effect on the immune response since cytokines levels were diminished in both strains. There were no significant differences in the magnitude of dorsoplantar inflammation between gp60-preimmunized and nonimmunized mice of both strains. However, skin lesions due to the infection in gp60-preimmunized mice were more severe in BALB/c than in C57BL/6 mice, suggesting that the antigen exerts a higher downregulatory effect on the Th1 response.

  10. Innate Immune Responses of Drosophila melanogaster Are Altered by Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Oana; Lera, Matthew P.; Sanchez, Max E.; Levic, Edina; Higgins, Laura A.; Shmygelska, Alena; Fahlen, Thomas F.; Nichol, Helen; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2011-01-01

    Alterations and impairment of immune responses in humans present a health risk for space exploration missions. The molecular mechanisms underpinning innate immune defense can be confounded by the complexity of the acquired immune system of humans. Drosophila (fruit fly) innate immunity is simpler, and shares many similarities with human innate immunity at the level of molecular and genetic pathways. The goals of this study were to elucidate fundamental immune processes in Drosophila affected by spaceflight and to measure host-pathogen responses post-flight. Five containers, each containing ten female and five male fruit flies, were housed and bred on the space shuttle (average orbit altitude of 330.35 km) for 12 days and 18.5 hours. A new generation of flies was reared in microgravity. In larvae, the immune system was examined by analyzing plasmatocyte number and activity in culture. In adults, the induced immune responses were analyzed by bacterial clearance and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of selected genes following infection with E. coli. The RNA levels of relevant immune pathway genes were determined in both larvae and adults by microarray analysis. The ability of larval plasmatocytes to phagocytose E. coli in culture was attenuated following spaceflight, and in parallel, the expression of genes involved in cell maturation was downregulated. In addition, the level of constitutive expression of pattern recognition receptors and opsonins that specifically recognize bacteria, and of lysozymes, antimicrobial peptide (AMP) pathway and immune stress genes, hallmarks of humoral immunity, were also reduced in larvae. In adults, the efficiency of bacterial clearance measured in vivo following a systemic infection with E. coli post-flight, remained robust. We show that spaceflight altered both cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila and that the disruption occurs at multiple interacting pathways. PMID:21264297

  11. Innate immune responses of Drosophila melanogaster are altered by spaceflight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Marcu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations and impairment of immune responses in humans present a health risk for space exploration missions. The molecular mechanisms underpinning innate immune defense can be confounded by the complexity of the acquired immune system of humans. Drosophila (fruit fly innate immunity is simpler, and shares many similarities with human innate immunity at the level of molecular and genetic pathways. The goals of this study were to elucidate fundamental immune processes in Drosophila affected by spaceflight and to measure host-pathogen responses post-flight. Five containers, each containing ten female and five male fruit flies, were housed and bred on the space shuttle (average orbit altitude of 330.35 km for 12 days and 18.5 hours. A new generation of flies was reared in microgravity. In larvae, the immune system was examined by analyzing plasmatocyte number and activity in culture. In adults, the induced immune responses were analyzed by bacterial clearance and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR of selected genes following infection with E. coli. The RNA levels of relevant immune pathway genes were determined in both larvae and adults by microarray analysis. The ability of larval plasmatocytes to phagocytose E. coli in culture was attenuated following spaceflight, and in parallel, the expression of genes involved in cell maturation was downregulated. In addition, the level of constitutive expression of pattern recognition receptors and opsonins that specifically recognize bacteria, and of lysozymes, antimicrobial peptide (AMP pathway and immune stress genes, hallmarks of humoral immunity, were also reduced in larvae. In adults, the efficiency of bacterial clearance measured in vivo following a systemic infection with E. coli post-flight, remained robust. We show that spaceflight altered both cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila and that the disruption occurs at multiple interacting pathways.

  12. Role of Oxidative Stress in the Suppression of Immune Responses in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Exposed to Combustible Tobacco Product Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimilli, Subhashini; Schmidt, Eckhardt; Damratoski, Brad E; Prasad, G L

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for several human diseases. Chronic inflammation, resulting from increased oxidative stress, has been suggested as a mechanism that contributes to the increased susceptibility of smokers to cancer and microbial infections. We have previously shown that whole-smoke conditioned medium (WS-CM) and total particulate matter (TPM) prepared from Kentucky 3R4F reference cigarettes [collectively called as combustible tobacco product preparations (TPPs)] potently suppressed agonist-stimulated cytokine secretion and target cell killing in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Here we have investigated the role of oxidative stress from TPPs, which alters inflammatory responses in vitro. Particularly, we investigated the mechanisms of WS-CM-induced suppression of select cytokine secretions in Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist-stimulated cells and target cell killing by effector cells in PBMCs. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a precursor of reduced glutathione and an established anti-oxidant, protected against DNA damage and cytotoxicity caused by exposure to WS-CM. Similarly, secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 in response to TLR-4 stimulation was restored by pretreatment with NAC. Target cell killing, a functional measure of cytolytic cells in PBMCs, is suppressed by WS-CM. Pretreatment with NAC restored the target cell killing in WS-CM treated PBMCs. This was accompanied by higher perforin levels in the effector cell populations. Collectively, these data suggest that reducing oxidative stress caused by cigarette smoke components restores select immune responses in this ex vivo model.

  13. [Effect of vitamine A on mice immune response induced by specific periodontal pathogenic bacteria-immunization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Xiao-Jia; Liu, Hong-Li; DU, Li-Li; Toshihisa, Kawai

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamine-A deficiency on the induction of specific periodontal pathogenic bacteria A. actinomycetetemcomitans(Aa) immunization. BALB/c mice were fed with vitamine A-depleted diet or control regular diet throughout the whole experiment period. After 2 weeks, immunized formalin-killed Aa to build immunized models, 6 weeks later, sacrificed to determine specific antibody-IgG, IgM and sub-class IgG antibody titers in serum, and concentration of IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α and RANKL in T cell supernatant were measured by ELISA and T cell proliferation was measured by cintilography. SPSS 11.5 software package was used for statistical analysis. The levels of whole IgG and IgM antibody which were immunized by Aa significantly elevated, non-immune group was unable to produce any antibody. Compared with Aa immunized+RD group, the level of whole IgG in Aa immunized+VAD group was significantly higher (Pvitamin-A diet can increase the immunized mice's susceptibility to periodontal pathogenic bacteria and trigger or aggravate immune inflammatory response. Adequate vitamin A is an important factor in maintaining body health. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (Grant No.20092139) and Science and Technology Program of Shenyang Municipality (Grant No.F10-149-9-32).

  14. microRNA 125a Regulates MHC-I Expression on Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells, Associated With Suppression of Anti-tumor Immune Response and Poor Outcomes of Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Luigi; Hoefnagel, Sanne J M; Zito, Domenico; van de Meent, Marian; van Endert, Peter; Calpe, Silvia; Sancho Serra, Maria Del Carmen; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Gisbertz, Susanne S; Medema, Jan Paul; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; Meijer, Sybren L; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; Milano, Francesca; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

    2018-06-07

    Immune checkpoint inhibition may affect growth or progression of highly aggressive cancers, such as esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We investigated the regulation of expression of major histocompatibility complex, class 1 (MHC-I) proteins (encoded by HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) and the immune response to EACs in patient samples. We performed quantitative PCR array analyses of OE33 cells and OE19 cells, which express different levels of the ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (TAP1) and TAP2, required for antigen presentation by MHC-I, to identify microRNAs that regulate their expression. We performed luciferase assays to validate interactions between microRNAs and potential targets. We overexpressed candidate microRNAs in OE33, FLO-1, and OACP4 C cell lines and performed quantitative PCR, immunoblot, and flow cytometry analyses to identify changes in mRNA and protein expression; we studied the effects of cytotoxic T cells. We performed microRNA in situ hybridization, RNA-sequencing, and immunohistochemical analyses of tumor tissues from 51 untreated patients with EAC in the Netherlands. Clinical and survival data were collected for patients, and EACs subtypes were determined. We found OE19 cells to have increased levels of 7 microRNAs. Of these, we found binding sites for microRNA 125a (MIR125a)-5p in the 3'UTR of the TAP2 mRNA and binding sites for MIR148a-3p in 3'UTRs of HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C mRNAs. Overexpression of these microRNAs reduced expression of TAP2 in OE33, FLO-1, and OACP4 C cells, and reduced cell-surface levels of MHC-I. OE33 cells that expressed the viral peptide BZLF1 were killed by cytotoxic T cells, whereas OE33 that overexpressed MIR125a-5p or MIR 148a along with BZLF1 were not. In EAC and non-tumor tissues, levels of MIR125a-5p correlated inversely with levels of TAP2 protein. High expression of TAP1 by EAC correlated with significantly shorter overall survival times of patients. EACs that expressed high levels of TAP1 and genes involved

  15. Glycan-mediated modification of the immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Caroline B; Pedersen, Anders E; Wandall, Hans H

    2013-01-01

    Aberrantly glycosylated tumor antigens represent promising targets for the development of anti-cancer vaccines, yet how glycans influence immune responses is poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that GalNAc-glycosylation enhances antigen uptake by dendritic cells as well as CD4(+) T......-cell and humoral responses, but prevents CD8(+) T-cell activation. Here, we briefly discuss the relevance of glycans as candidate targets for anti-cancer vaccines....

  16. Microneedle arrays coated with charge reversal pH-sensitive copolymers improve antigen presenting cells-homing DNA vaccine delivery and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Huu Thuy Trang; Kim, Nak Won; Thambi, Thavasyappan; Giang Phan, V H; Lee, Min Sang; Yin, Yue; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Doo Sung

    2018-01-10

    Successful delivery of a DNA vaccine to antigen-presenting cells and their subsequent stimulation of CD4 + and CD8 + T cell immunity remains an inefficient process. In general, the delivery of prophylactic vaccines is mainly mired by low transfection efficacy, poor immunogenicity, and safety issues from the materials employed. Currently, several strategies have been exploited to improve immunogenicity, but an effective strategy for safe and pain-free delivery of DNA vaccines is complicated. Herein, we report the rapid delivery of polyplex-based DNA vaccines using microneedle arrays coated with a polyelectrolyte multilayer assembly of charge reversal pH-responsive copolymer and heparin. The charge reversal pH-responsive copolymer, composed of oligo(sulfamethazine)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(amino urethane) (OSM-b-PEG-b-PAEU), was used as a triggering layer in the polyelectrolyte multilayer assembly on microneedles. Charge reversal characteristics of this copolymer, that is, the OSM-b-PEG-b-PAEU copolymer exhibit, positive charge at low pH (pH4.03) and becoming negative charge when exposed to physiological pH conditions (pH7.4), allowing the facile assembly and disassembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers. The electrostatic repulsion between heparin and OSM-b-PEG-b-PAEU charge reversal copolymer triggered the release of DNA vaccines. DNA vaccines laden on microneedles are effectively transfected into RAW 264.7 macrophage cells in vitro. Vaccination of BALB/c mice by DNA vaccine-loaded microneedle arrays coated with a polyelectrolyte multilayer generated antigen-specific robust immune responses. These findings provide potential strategy of charge reversal pH-responsive copolymers coated microneedles for DNA vaccine delivery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Human intestinal dendritic cells as controllers of mucosal immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bernardo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are the most potent, professional antigen-presenting cells in the body; following antigen presentation they control the type (proinflammatory/regulatory of immune response that will take place, as well as its location. Given their high plasticity and maturation ability in response to local danger signals derived from innate immunity, dendritic cells are key actors in the connection between innate immunity and adaptive immunity responses. In the gut dendritic cells control immune tolerance mechanisms against food and/or commensal flora antigens, and are also capable of initiating an active immune response in the presence of invading pathogens. Dendritic cells are thus highly efficient in controlling the delicate balance between tolerance and immunity in an environment so rich in antigens as the gut, and any factor involving these cells may impact their function, ultimately leading to the development of bowel conditions such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease. In this review we shall summarize our understanding of human intestinal dendritic cells, their ability to express and induce migration markers, the various environmental factors modulating their properties, their subsets in the gut, and the problems entailed by their study, including identification strategies, differences between humans and murine models, and phenotypical variations along the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Effects of yeast cell wall on growth performance, immune responses and intestinal short chain fatty acid concentrations of broilers in an experimental necrotic enteritis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Da Xue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE causes devastating economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised free of in-feed antibiotics. Prebiotics are potential alternatives to in-feed antibiotics. Yeast cell wall extract (YCW derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a prebiotic with known immune modulating effects. This study examined the effects of YCW and antibiotics (AB during subclinical NE on broiler growth performance, intestinal lesions, humoral immune response and gut microflora metabolites. The study employed a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were: NE challenge (yes or no and feed additive (control, AB, or YCW. Each treatment was replicated in 8 floor pens with 15 birds per pen. Challenged birds had higher feed conversion ratio (FCR than unchallenged birds on d 35 (P < 0.05. Dietary inclusion of AB decreased FCR regardless of challenge (P < 0.05 on d 24 and 35. Inclusion of YCW reduced serum interleukin-1 (IL-1 concentration in NE challenged birds (P < 0.01 and increased immunoglobulin (Ig G (P < 0.05 and Ig M (P < 0.05 levels compared to other dietary treatments regardless of challenge. Yeast cell wall extract increased formic acid concentration in cecal contents during challenge and increased butyric acid concentration in unchallenged birds on d 16. This study indicates YCW suppressed inflammatory response, promoted generation of immunoglobulin and increased short chain fatty acid production suggesting potential benefits to bird health.

  19. NKT Cell Networks in the Regulation of Tumor Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Faith C.; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Terabe, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells lie at the interface between the innate and adaptive immune systems and are important mediators of immune responses and tumor immunosurveillance. These NKT cells uniquely recognize lipid antigens, and their rapid yet specific reactions influence both innate and adaptive immunity. In tumor immunity, two NKT subsets (type I and type II) have contrasting roles in which they not only cross-regulate one another, but also impact innate immune cell populations, including natural killer, dendritic, and myeloid lineage cells, as well as adaptive populations, especially CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. The extent to which NKT cells promote or suppress surrounding cells affects the host’s ability to prevent neoplasia and is consequently of great interest for therapeutic development. Data have shown the potential for therapeutic use of NKT cell agonists and synergy with immune response modifiers in both pre-clinical studies and preliminary clinical studies. However, there is room to improve treatment efficacy by further elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying NKT cell networks. Here, we discuss the progress made in understanding NKT cell networks, their consequent role in the regulation of tumor immunity, and the potential to exploit that knowledge in a clinical setting. PMID:25389427

  20. NKT cell networks in the regulation of tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Faith C; Berzofsky, Jay A; Terabe, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells lie at the interface between the innate and adaptive immune systems and are important mediators of immune responses and tumor immunosurveillance. These NKT cells uniquely recognize lipid antigens, and their rapid yet specific reactions influence both innate and adaptive immunity. In tumor immunity, two NKT subsets (type I and type II) have contrasting roles in which they not only cross-regulate one another, but also impact innate immune cell populations, including natural killer, dendritic, and myeloid lineage cells, as well as adaptive populations, especially CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. The extent to which NKT cells promote or suppress surrounding cells affects the host's ability to prevent neoplasia and is consequently of great interest for therapeutic development. Data have shown the potential for therapeutic use of NKT cell agonists and synergy with immune response modifiers in both pre-clinical studies and preliminary clinical studies. However, there is room to improve treatment efficacy by further elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying NKT cell networks. Here, we discuss the progress made in understanding NKT cell networks, their consequent role in the regulation of tumor immunity, and the potential to exploit that knowledge in a clinical setting.

  1. NKT cell networks in the regulation of tumor immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith C Robertson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT cells lie at the interface between the innate and adaptive immune systems and are important mediators of immune responses and tumor immunosurveillance. These NKT cells uniquely recognize lipid antigens, and their rapid yet specific reactions influence both innate and adaptive immunity. In tumor immunity, two NKT subsets (type I and type II have contrasting roles in which they not only cross-regulate one another, but also impact innate immune cell populations, including natural killer, dendritic and myeloid lineage cells, as well as adaptive populations, especially CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. The extent to which NKT cells promote or suppress surrounding cells affects the host’s ability to prevent neoplasia and is consequently of great interest for therapeutic development. Data have shown the potential for therapeutic use of NKT cell agonists and synergy with immune response modifiers in both pre-clinical studies and preliminary clinical studies. However, there is room to improve treatment efficacy by further elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying NKT cell networks. Here, we discuss the progress made in understanding NKT cell networks, their consequent role in the regulation of tumor immunity, and the potential to exploit that knowledge in a clinical setting.

  2. DNA Damage Response and Immune Defence: Links and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Schumacher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage plays a causal role in numerous human pathologies including cancer, premature aging and chronic inflammatory conditions. In response to genotoxic insults, the DNA damage response (DDR orchestrates DNA damage checkpoint activation and facilitates the removal of DNA lesions. The DDR can also arouse the immune system by for example inducing the expression of antimicrobial peptides as well as ligands for receptors found on immune cells. The activation of immune signalling is triggered by different components of the DDR including DNA damage sensors, transducer kinases, and effectors. In this review, we describe recent advances on the understanding of the role of DDR in activating immune signalling. We highlight evidence gained into (i which molecular and cellular pathways of DDR activate immune signalling, (ii how DNA damage drives chronic inflammation, and (iii how chronic inflammation causes DNA damage and pathology in humans.

  3. Signalling through C-type lectin receptors: shaping immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Gringhuis, Sonja I.

    2009-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) expressed by dendritic cells are crucial for tailoring immune responses to pathogens. Following pathogen binding, CLRs trigger distinct signalling pathways that induce the expression of specific cytokines which determine T cell polarization fates. Some CLRs can induce

  4. Immune Reconstitution after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonek, Justyna; Kralj Juric, Mateja; Ghimire, Sakhila; Varanasi, Pavankumar Reddy; Holler, Ernst; Greinix, Hildegard; Weissinger, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The timely reconstitution and regain of function of a donor-derived immune system is of utmost importance for the recovery and long-term survival of patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of note, new developments such as umbilical cord blood or haploidentical grafts were associated with prolonged immunodeficiency due to delayed immune reconstitution, raising the need for better understanding and enhancing the process of immune reconstitution and finding strategies to further optimize these transplant procedures. Immune reconstitution post-HSCT occurs in several phases, innate immunity being the first to regain function. The slow T cell reconstitution is regarded as primarily responsible for deleterious infections with latent viruses or fungi, occurrence of graft-versus-host disease, and relapse. Here we aim to summarize the major steps of the adaptive immune reconstitution and will discuss the importance of immune balance in patients after HSCT. PMID:27909435

  5. Anion exchanger 2 is critical for CD8(+) T cells to maintain pHi homeostasis and modulate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, Axel R; Salas, January T; Sarvide, Sarai; Sáez, Elena; Ferrer, Alex; López, María; Portu, Ainhoa; Banales, Jesús M; Hervás-Stubbs, Sandra; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Prieto, Jesús; Medina, Juan F

    2014-05-01

    Mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes involves alkalinization of intracellular pH (pHi ). Subsequent pHi regulation may involve HCO3 (-) extrusion through Cl(-) /HCO3 (-) exchangers and/or Na(+) -HCO3 (-) co-transporters with acid-loading capability. Abnormalities in these mechanisms could result in immune dysfunctions, as suggested by the CD8(+) T-cell expansion encountered in mice lacking Ae2 (a widely expressed acid loader with electroneutral and Na(+) -independent Cl(-) /HCO3 (-) anion-exchange activity). Here we report that CD8(+) T cells but not CD4(+) T cells or other lymphocyte populations, are crucially dependent on Ae2 for pHi regulation. While total lymphocytes (including isolated CD4(+) T cells) exhibit Ae1 expression and Na(+) -HCO3 (-) co-transport with acidifying potential, CD8(+) T cells lack these acid-loading mechanisms. In Ae2-KO mice, CD4(+) but not CD8(+) T cells upregulate these potential Ae2 surrogates. As a consequence, Ae2-KO CD8(+) T cells exhibit alkalinized pHi , and dramatically increase their pHi upon CD3 stimulation. Moreover, stimulated Ae2-deficient CD8(+) T cells show enhanced intracellular production of IL-2 and membrane expression of its receptor IL-2Rα, together with increased cell proliferation and activation. These findings demonstrate that CD8(+) T cells are critically dependent on Ae2 for pHi homeostasis and tuning of cell proliferation and activation. Ae2 thus constitutes a novel target to modulate CD8(+) T-cell responses. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Multiple linear B-cell epitopes of classical swine fever virus glycoprotein E2 expressed in E.coli as multiple epitope vaccine induces a protective immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jian-Chao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Classical swine fever is a highly contagious disease of swine caused by classical swine fever virus, an OIE list A pathogen. Epitope-based vaccines is one of the current focuses in the development of new vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV. Two B-cell linear epitopes rE2-ba from the E2 glycoprotein of CSFV, rE2-a (CFRREKPFPHRMDCVTTTVENED, aa844-865 and rE2-b (CKEDYRYAISSTNEIGLLGAGGLT, aa693-716, were constructed and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as multiple epitope vaccine. Fifteen 6-week-old specified-pathogen-free (SPF piglets were intramuscularly immunized with epitopes twice at 2-week intervals. All epitope-vaccinated pigs could mount an anamnestic response after booster vaccination with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:256. At this time, the pigs were subjected to challenge infection with a dose of 1 × 106 TCID50 virulent CSFV strain. After challenge infection, all of the rE2-ba-immunized pigs were alive and without symptoms or signs of CSF. In contrast, the control pigs continuously exhibited signs of CSF and had to be euthanized because of severe clinical symptoms at 5 days post challenge infection. The data from in vivo experiments shown that the multiple epitope rE2-ba shown a greater protection (similar to that of HCLV vaccine than that of mono-epitope peptide(rE2-a or rE2-b. Therefore, The results demonstrated that this multiple epitope peptide expressed in a prokaryotic system can be used as a potential DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals vaccine. The E.coli-expressed E2 multiple B-cell linear epitopes retains correct immunogenicity and is able to induce a protective immune response against CSFV infection.

  7. Homing of immune cells: role in homeostasis and intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Ailsa L; Ng, Siew C; Mann, Elizabeth; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar; Bernardo, David; Knight, Stella C

    2010-11-01

    Rather like a satellite navigation system directing a vehicle to a particular destination defined by post-code, immune cells have homing molecules or "immune post-codes" enabling them to be recruited to specific organs, such as the intestine or skin. An efficient system would be designed such that the site of entry of an antigen influences the homing of effector T cells back to the appropriate organ. For example, to mount an immune response against an intestinal pathogen, T cells with a propensity to home to the gut to clear the infection would be induced. In health, there is such a sophisticated and finely tuned system in operation, enabling an appropriate balance of immune activity in different anatomical compartments. In disease states such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is characterized by intestinal inflammation and often an inflammatory process involving other organs such as skin, joints, liver, and eye, there is accumulating evidence that there is malfunction of this immune cell trafficking system. The clinical importance of dysregulated immune cell trafficking in IBD is reflected in recently proven efficacious therapies that target trafficking pathways such as natalizumab, an α4 integrin antibody, and Traficet-EN, a chemokine receptor-9 (CCR9) antagonist. Here we review the mechanisms involved in the homing of immune cells to different tissues, in particular the intestine, and focus on alterations in immune cell homing pathways in IBD. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying the immune post-code system would assist in achieving the goal of tissue-specific immunotherapy.

  8. Immune responses of pigs inoculated with a recombinant fowlpox ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... Key words: PCV2, rFPV, FMDV, immune response, prime-boost. .... After 10 min in the dark at room temperature, the color reaction was terminated with 50 µl of ..... ponses and improve memory and/or effector cell responses ...

  9. Genomic Programming of Human Neonatal Dendritic Cells in Congenital Systemic and In Vitro Cytomegalovirus Infection Reveal Plastic and Robust Immune Pathway Biology Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widad Dantoft

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonates and especially premature infants are highly susceptible to infection but still can have a remarkable resilience that is poorly understood. The view that neonates have an incomplete or deficient immune system is changing. Human neonatal studies are challenging, and elucidating host protective responses and underlying cognate pathway biology, in the context of viral infection in early life, remains to be fully explored. In both resource rich and poor settings, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is the most common cause of congenital infection. By using unbiased systems analyses of transcriptomic resources for HCMV neonatal infection, we find the systemic response of a preterm congenital HCMV infection, involves a focused IFN regulatory response associated with dendritic cells. Further analysis of transcriptional-programming of neonatal dendritic cells in response to HCMV infection in culture revealed an early dominant IFN-chemokine regulatory subnetworks, and at later times the plasticity of pathways implicated in cell-cycle control and lipid metabolism. Further, we identify previously unknown suppressed networks associated with infection, including a select group of GPCRs. Functional siRNA viral growth screen targeting 516-GPCRs and subsequent validation identified novel GPCR-dependent antiviral (ADORA1 and proviral (GPR146, RGS16, PTAFR, SCTR, GPR84, GPR85, NMUR2, FZ10, RDS, CCL17, and SORT1 roles. By contrast a gene family cluster of protocadherins is significantly differentially induced in neonatal cells, suggestive of possible immunomodulatory roles. Unexpectedly, programming responses of adult and neonatal dendritic cells, upon HCMV infection, demonstrated comparable quantitative and qualitative responses showing that functionally, neonatal dendritic cell are not overly compromised. However, a delay in responses of neonatal cells for IFN subnetworks in comparison with adult-derived cells are notable, suggestive of subtle plasticity

  10. Genomic Programming of Human Neonatal Dendritic Cells in Congenital Systemic and In Vitro Cytomegalovirus Infection Reveal Plastic and Robust Immune Pathway Biology Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantoft, Widad; Martínez-Vicente, Pablo; Jafali, James; Pérez-Martínez, Lara; Martin, Kim; Kotzamanis, Konstantinos; Craigon, Marie; Auer, Manfred; Young, Neil T; Walsh, Paul; Marchant, Arnaud; Angulo, Ana; Forster, Thorsten; Ghazal, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Neonates and especially premature infants are highly susceptible to infection but still can have a remarkable resilience that is poorly understood. The view that neonates have an incomplete or deficient immune system is changing. Human neonatal studies are challenging, and elucidating host protective responses and underlying cognate pathway biology, in the context of viral infection in early life, remains to be fully explored. In both resource rich and poor settings, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection. By using unbiased systems analyses of transcriptomic resources for HCMV neonatal infection, we find the systemic response of a preterm congenital HCMV infection, involves a focused IFN regulatory response associated with dendritic cells. Further analysis of transcriptional-programming of neonatal dendritic cells in response to HCMV infection in culture revealed an early dominant IFN-chemokine regulatory subnetworks, and at later times the plasticity of pathways implicated in cell-cycle control and lipid metabolism. Further, we identify previously unknown suppressed networks associated with infection, including a select group of GPCRs. Functional siRNA viral growth screen targeting 516-GPCRs and subsequent validation identified novel GPCR-dependent antiviral (ADORA1) and proviral (GPR146, RGS16, PTAFR, SCTR, GPR84, GPR85, NMUR2, FZ10, RDS, CCL17, and SORT1) roles. By contrast a gene family cluster of protocadherins is significantly differentially induced in neonatal cells, suggestive of possible immunomodulatory roles. Unexpectedly, programming responses of adult and neonatal dendritic cells, upon HCMV infection, demonstrated comparable quantitative and qualitative responses showing that functionally, neonatal dendritic cell are not overly compromised. However, a delay in responses of neonatal cells for IFN subnetworks in comparison with adult-derived cells are notable, suggestive of subtle plasticity differences. These

  11. E6D25E, HPV16 Asian variant shows specific proteomic pattern correlating in cells transformation and suppressive innate immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopjitt, Peechanika; Pientong, Chamsai; Sunthamala, Nuchsupha; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Haonon, Ornuma; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kikawa, Satomi; Nakahara, Tomomi; Kiyono, Tohru; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya

    2016-01-01

    HPV16 Asian variant (HPV16As) containing E6D25E oncogene, is commonly associated with cervical cancers of Asian populations. To explore a mechanism of E6D25E oncoprotein in carcinogenesis, we compared protein profiles in human keratinocytes expressing E6D25E with E6 of HPV16 prototype (E6Pro). A human cervical keratinocyte cell line, HCK1T, was transduced with retroviruses containing E6D25E or E6Pro genes. Biological properties of E6D25E or E6Pro transduced HCK1T cells were characterized. Protein profiles of the transduced HCK1T cells were analyzed using 2D-PAGE and characterized by mass spectrometry and western blotting. Reactomes of modulated proteins were analyzed by using the Reactome Knowledgebase. The E6D25E and E6Pro oncoproteins were comparable for their abilities to degrade p53 and suppress the induction of p21, and induce cell proliferation. Interestingly, the protein profiles of the HCK1T cells transduced with E6D25E showed specific proteomic patterns different from those with E6Pro. Among altered proteins, more than 1.5-fold up- or down- regulation was observed in E6D25E-expressing cells for gp96 and keratin7 which involved in activation of TLR signaling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells, respectively. This report describes new cellular proteins specifically targeted by E6D25E oncoprotein that may contribute to impair immune response against viral infection and cell transformation associated with oncogenic property of HPV16As variant. - Highlights: • E6D25E HPV16 specifically modulates protein profile of human keratinocytes. • E6D25E HPV16 modulates protein profile which involves in TLR signalling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells. • E6D25E oncoprotein may correlate to impair of immune response against viral infection and cells transformation.

  12. E6D25E, HPV16 Asian variant shows specific proteomic pattern correlating in cells transformation and suppressive innate immune response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopjitt, Peechanika; Pientong, Chamsai; Sunthamala, Nuchsupha [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); HPV & EBV and Carcinogenesis Research Group, Khon Kaen University (Thailand); Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); Haonon, Ornuma; Boonmars, Thidarut [Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); Kikawa, Satomi; Nakahara, Tomomi [Division of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045 (Japan); Kiyono, Tohru, E-mail: tkiyono@ncc.go.jp [Division of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045 (Japan); Ekalaksananan, Tipaya, E-mail: tipeka@kku.ac.th [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); HPV & EBV and Carcinogenesis Research Group, Khon Kaen University (Thailand)

    2016-09-09

    HPV16 Asian variant (HPV16As) containing E6D25E oncogene, is commonly associated with cervical cancers of Asian populations. To explore a mechanism of E6D25E oncoprotein in carcinogenesis, we compared protein profiles in human keratinocytes expressing E6D25E with E6 of HPV16 prototype (E6Pro). A human cervical keratinocyte cell line, HCK1T, was transduced with retroviruses containing E6D25E or E6Pro genes. Biological properties of E6D25E or E6Pro transduced HCK1T cells were characterized. Protein profiles of the transduced HCK1T cells were analyzed using 2D-PAGE and characterized by mass spectrometry and western blotting. Reactomes of modulated proteins were analyzed by using the Reactome Knowledgebase. The E6D25E and E6Pro oncoproteins were comparable for their abilities to degrade p53 and suppress the induction of p21, and induce cell proliferation. Interestingly, the protein profiles of the HCK1T cells transduced with E6D25E showed specific proteomic patterns different from those with E6Pro. Among altered proteins, more than 1.5-fold up- or down- regulation was observed in E6D25E-expressing cells for gp96 and keratin7 which involved in activation of TLR signaling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells, respectively. This report describes new cellular proteins specifically targeted by E6D25E oncoprotein that may contribute to impair immune response against viral infection and cell transformation associated with oncogenic property of HPV16As variant. - Highlights: • E6D25E HPV16 specifically modulates protein profile of human keratinocytes. • E6D25E HPV16 modulates protein profile which involves in TLR signalling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells. • E6D25E oncoprotein may correlate to impair of immune response against viral infection and cells transformation.

  13. [Bone marrow stromal damage mediated by immune response activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojinović, J; Kamenov, B; Najman, S; Branković, Lj; Dimitrijević, H

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate influence of activated immune response on hematopoiesis in vitro, using the experimental model of BCG immunized BALB/c mice and in patients with chronic immunoactivation: long-lasting infections, autoimmunity or malignancy. We correlated changes in long term bone marrow cultures (Dexter) and NBT reduction with appearance of anemia in patients and experimental model of immunization by BCG. Increased spontaneous NBT reduction pointed out role of macrophage activation in bone marrow stroma damage. Long-term bone marrow cultures showed reduced number of hematopoietic cells, with predomination of fibroblasts and loss of fat cells. This results correlated with anemia and leucocytosis with stimulated myelopoiesis in peripheral blood. Activation of immune response, or acting of any agent that directly changes extracellular matrix and cellularity of bone marrow, may result in microenviroment bone marrow damage that modify hematopoiesis.

  14. Humoral immune response to AAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eCalcedo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV is a member of the family parvoviridae that has been widely used as a vector for gene therapy because of its safety profile, its ability to transduce both dividing and non-dividing cells, and its low immunogenicity. AAV has been detected in many different tissues of several animal species but has not been associated with any disease. As a result of natural infections, antibodies to AAV can be found in many animals including humans. It has been shown that pre-existing AAV antibodies can modulate the safety and efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy by blocking vector transduction or by redirecting distribution of AAV vectors to tissues other than the target organ. This review will summarize antibody responses against natural AAV infections, as well as AAV gene therapy vectors and their impact in the clinical development of AAV vectors for gene therapy. We will also review and discuss the various methods used for AAV antibody detection and strategies to overcome neutralizing antibodies in AAV-mediated gene therapy.

  15. A simple non-linear model of immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutnikov, Sergei; Melnikov, Yuri

    2003-01-01

    It is still unknown why the adaptive immune response in the natural immune system based on clonal proliferation of lymphocytes requires interaction of at least two different cell types with the same antigen. We present a simple mathematical model illustrating that the system with separate types of cells for antigen recognition and patogen destruction provides more robust adaptive immunity than the system where just one cell type is responsible for both recognition and destruction. The model is over-simplified as we did not have an intention of describing the natural immune system. However, our model provides a tool for testing the proposed approach through qualitative analysis of the immune system dynamics in order to construct more sophisticated models of the immune systems that exist in the living nature. It also opens a possibility to explore specific features of highly non-linear dynamics in nature-inspired computational paradigms like artificial immune systems and immunocomputing . We expect this paper to be of interest not only for mathematicians but also for biologists; therefore we made effort to explain mathematics in sufficient detail for readers without professional mathematical background

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Porcine PBMCs Reveals the Immune Cascade Response and Gene Ontology Terms Related to Cell Death and Fibrosis in the Progression of Liver Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YiMin Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The key gene sets involved in the progression of acute liver failure (ALF, which has a high mortality rate, remain unclear. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of the transcriptional response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs following ALF. Methods. ALF was induced by D-galactosamine (D-gal in a porcine model. PBMCs were separated at time zero (baseline group, 36 h (failure group, and 60 h (dying group after D-gal injection. Transcriptional profiling was performed using RNA sequencing and analysed using DAVID bioinformatics resources. Results. Compared with the baseline group, 816 and 1,845 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in the failure and dying groups, respectively. A total of five and two gene ontology (GO term clusters were enriched in 107 GO terms in the failure group and 154 GO terms in the dying group. These GO clusters were primarily immune-related, including genes regulating the inflammasome complex and toll-like receptor signalling pathways. Specifically, GO terms related to cell death, including apoptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagy, and those related to fibrosis, coagulation dysfunction, and hepatic encephalopathy were enriched. Seven Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, hematopoietic cell lineage, lysosome, rheumatoid arthritis, malaria, and phagosome and pertussis pathways were mapped for DEGs in the failure group. All of these seven KEGG pathways were involved in the 19 KEGG pathways mapped in the dying group. Conclusion. We found that the dramatic PBMC transcriptome changes triggered by ALF progression was predominantly related to immune responses. The enriched GO terms related to cell death, fibrosis, and so on, as indicated by PBMC transcriptome analysis, seem to be useful in elucidating potential key gene sets in the progression of ALF. A better understanding of these gene sets might be of preventive or

  17. Inorganic zinc supplementation modulates heat shock and immune response in heat stressed peripheral blood mononuclear cells of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Aasif Ahmad; Aggarwal, Anjali; B, Indu; Aarif, Ovais

    2017-06-01

    Thermal stress in India is one of the major constraints affecting dairy cattle productivity. Every attempt should be made to ameliorate the heat and calving related stress in high producing dairy cows for higher economic returns. In the current study, inorganic zinc was tried to alleviate the adverse effects of thermal stress in periparturient cows. Twelve cows, six each of Sahiwal and Karan Fries (KF) in their second parity with confirmed pregnancy were chosen for the experiment. The blood samples were collected periparturiently on three occasions viz. -21, 0 and +21 days relative to calving. The in vitro study was conducted after isolating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from whole blood. The cultured PBMC were subjected to three different levels of exposures viz. 37°C as control, 42°C to induce thermal stress and 42°C + zinc to ameliorate the adverse effects of high temperature. Heat shock lead to a significant (Pheat shock proteins (HSP). HSP was more on the day of calving as well. KF showed more HSP concentration than Sahiwal breed indicating the heat bearing capacity of later. Zinc treatment to thermally stressed PBMC caused a fall in the HSP concentration in both the breeds during periparturient period. Moreover, heat stress increased significantly (PHeat and calving related stress caused a fall in the IL-12 levels which increased significantly (Pcows. The study could help to alleviate the heat stress and potentiate immunity by providing mineral supplements in periparturient dairy cattle habituating tropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dendritic cells in peripheral tolerance and immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Monika; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Pedersen, Anders Elm

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells capable of influencing immunity exist as functionally distinct subsets, T cell-tolerizing and T cell-immunizing subsets. The present paper reviews how these subsets of DCs develop, differentiate and function in vivo and in vitro at the cellular and molecular level. In particular...

  19. Ageing and the humoral immune response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankwater, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The study presented in this thesis is concerned with changes in the humoral immune system as a function of age in different inbred mouse strains. Their capacity to develop humoral immune responses to experimentally given thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens under various conditions is compared. Furthermore, experiments employing thymus transplantation and thymic humoral factors which are directed at the restoration of the diminished T cell functions in old age are reported. (Auth.)

  20. Bovine anaplasmosis with emphasis on immune responses and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, M.

    1980-01-01

    Anaplasmosis is an infectious and transmissible disease manifested by progressive anaemia and the appearance of other characteristic disease symptoms. It is a world-wide tick-borne disease of cattle and some wild ruminants caused by the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale. By drawing on information obtained from studies of plasmodial cell cultures, a method has recently been developed for short-term in vitro cultivation of A. marginale. An attenuated Anaplasma organism capable of growth in both ovine and bovine erythrocytes was used to demonstrate that the in vitro system provided the necessary requirements for active transfer of the organism from cell to cell. Organismal antigens are found in the erythrocytes of infected animals, whereas soluble antigens are derived from their erythrocytes and serum. Serums from convalescing animals interact with these antigens in agglutination, complement fixation, fluorescent antibody and precipitation tests. Passive transfer of sera from immune to susceptible cattle, however, does not seem to confer protection against the infection and development of the disease. Studies that employed various tests for measuring cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses (leukocyte migration inhibition, blast transformation and cytotoxicity), in association with information collected simultaneously on antibody activity, have shown that both humoral and cellular immune responses are needed for the development of protective immunity in anaplasmosis. It was further shown that an active replication of Anaplasma is essential for induction of these two types of immune responses. Consequently, live virulent and attenuated immunogens fulfil requirements for induction of protective immunity. With the virulent agent, however, development of protective immunity is preceded by induction of auto-immune responses apparently associated with pathogenesis of anaemia in anaplasmosis. Inactivated immunogens derived from blood of infected cattle and used in combination with

  1. Immune Modulation in Normal Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) (Lymphocytes) in Response to Benzofuran-2-Carboxylic Acid Derivative KMEG during Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Elvis; Mann, Vivek; Ellis, Ivory; Mansoor, Elvedina; Olamigoke, Loretta; Marriott, Karla Sue; Denkins, Pamela; Williams, Willie; Sundaresan, Alamelu

    2017-08-01

    Microgravity and radiation exposure during space flight have been widely reported to induce the suppression of normal immune system function, and increase the risk of cancer development in humans. These findings pose a serious risk to manned space missions. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that benzofuran-2-carboxylic acid derivatives can inhibit the progression of some of these devastating effects on earth and in modeled microgravity. However, these studies had not assessed the impacts of benzofuran-2- carboxylic acid and its derivatives on global gene expression under spaceflight conditions. In this study, the ability of a specific benzofuran-2-carboxylic acid derivative (KMEG) to confer protection from radiation and restore normal immune function was investigated following exposure to space flight conditions on the ISS. Normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (lymphocytes) treated with 10 µ g/ml of KMEG together with untreated control samples were flown on Nanoracks hardware on Spacex-3 flight. The Samples were returned one month later and gene expression was analyzed. A 1g-ground control experiment was performed in parallel at the Kennedy spaceflight center. The first overall subtractive unrestricted analysis revealed 78 genes, which were differentially expressed in space flight KMEG, untreated lymphocytes as compared to the corresponding ground controls. However, in KMEG-treated space flight lymphocytes, there was an increased expression of a group of genes that mediate increased transcription, translation and innate immune system mediating functions of lymphocytes as compared to KMEG-untreated samples. Analysis of genes related to T cell proliferation in spaceflight KMEG-treated lymphocytes compared to 1g-ground KMEG- treated lymphocytes revealed six T cell proliferation and signaling genes to be significantly upregulated (p trafficking, promote early response, mediating C-myc related proliferation, promote antiapoptotic activity and protects

  2. Th1/2 Immune Response Signature Predicts Outcome after Dose-Dense Immunochemotherapy in Patients with High Risk Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma – Results from Nordic Lymphoma Group Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M, Autio; Jørgensen, Judit Meszaros; SK, Leivonen

    treatment-specific roles in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. For the high risk DLBCL patients treated with dose-dense immunochemotherapy, high expression of type 1/2 immune response signature genes predicts a poor outcome. A detailed characterization of immune cell composition in the tumor microenvironment......Introduction: Despite better therapeutic options and improved survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 30-40% of the patients still relapse and have dismal prognosis. Recently, the impact of genomic aberrations, allowing lymphoma cells to escape immune recognition on DLBCL pathogenesis...... has been recognized. However, whether immune related signatures could be used as determinants for treatment outcome has not been rigorously evaluated. Here, our aim was to elucidate the immunologic characteristics of the tumor microenvironment, and associate the findings with outcome in patients...

  3. New Players in Immunity to Tuberculosis: The Host Microbiome, Lung Epithelium, and Innate Immune