WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell imaging videos

  1. Video Toroid Cavity Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald, Rex E. II; Sanchez, Jairo; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2004-08-10

    A video toroid cavity imager for in situ measurement of electrochemical properties of an electrolytic material sample includes a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator containing the sample and employs NMR and video imaging for providing high-resolution spectral and visual information of molecular characteristics of the sample on a real-time basis. A large magnetic field is applied to the sample under controlled temperature and pressure conditions to simultaneously provide NMR spectroscopy and video imaging capabilities for investigating electrochemical transformations of materials or the evolution of long-range molecular aggregation during cooling of hydrocarbon melts. The video toroid cavity imager includes a miniature commercial video camera with an adjustable lens, a modified compression coin cell imager with a fiat circular principal detector element, and a sample mounted on a transparent circular glass disk, and provides NMR information as well as a video image of a sample, such as a polymer film, with micrometer resolution.

  2. High-speed video capillaroscopy method for imaging and evaluation of moving red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, Igor; Volkov, Mikhail; Margaryants, Nikita; Pimenov, Aleksei; Potemkin, Andrey

    2018-05-01

    The video capillaroscopy system with high image recording rate to resolve moving red blood cells with velocity up to 5 mm/s into a capillary is considered. Proposed procedures of the recorded video sequence processing allow evaluating spatial capillary area, capillary diameter and central line with high accuracy and reliability independently on properties of individual capillary. Two-dimensional inter frame procedure is applied to find lateral shift of neighbor images in the blood flow area with moving red blood cells and to measure directly the blood flow velocity along a capillary central line. The developed method opens new opportunities for biomedical diagnostics, particularly, due to long-time continuous monitoring of red blood cells velocity into capillary. Spatio-temporal representation of capillary blood flow is considered. Experimental results of direct measurement of blood flow velocity into separate capillary as well as capillary net are presented and discussed.

  3. Video library for video imaging detection at intersection stop lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this activity was to record video that could be used for controlled : evaluation of video image vehicle detection system (VIVDS) products and software upgrades to : existing products based on a list of conditions that might be diffic...

  4. Video-rate confocal microscopy for single-molecule imaging in live cells and superresolution fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwoo; Miyanaga, Yukihiro; Ueda, Masahiro; Hohng, Sungchul

    2012-10-17

    There is no confocal microscope optimized for single-molecule imaging in live cells and superresolution fluorescence imaging. By combining the swiftness of the line-scanning method and the high sensitivity of wide-field detection, we have developed a, to our knowledge, novel confocal fluorescence microscope with a good optical-sectioning capability (1.0 μm), fast frame rates (fluorescence detection efficiency. Full compatibility of the microscope with conventional cell-imaging techniques allowed us to do single-molecule imaging with a great ease at arbitrary depths of live cells. With the new microscope, we monitored diffusion motion of fluorescently labeled cAMP receptors of Dictyostelium discoideum at both the basal and apical surfaces and obtained superresolution fluorescence images of microtubules of COS-7 cells at depths in the range 0-85 μm from the surface of a coverglass. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Image processing of integrated video image obtained with a charged-particle imaging video monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Takao; Nakajima, Takehiro

    1988-01-01

    A new type of charged-particle imaging video monitor system was constructed for video imaging of the distributions of alpha-emitting and low-energy beta-emitting nuclides. The system can display not only the scintillation image due to radiation on the video monitor but also the integrated video image becoming gradually clearer on another video monitor. The distortion of the image is about 5% and the spatial resolution is about 2 line pairs (lp)mm -1 . The integrated image is transferred to a personal computer and image processing is performed qualitatively and quantitatively. (author)

  6. Radiation effects on video imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, G.J.; Bujnosek, J.J.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Walton, R.B.; Martinez, T.M.; Black, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of several photoconductive, photoemissive, and solid state silicon-based video imagers was measured by analyzing stored photocharge induced by irradiation with continuous and pulsed sources of high energy photons and neutrons. Transient effects as functions of absorbed dose, dose rate, fluences, and ionizing particle energy are presented

  7. Multimedia image and video processing

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Ling

    2012-01-01

    As multimedia applications have become part of contemporary daily life, numerous paradigm-shifting technologies in multimedia processing have emerged over the last decade. Substantially updated with 21 new chapters, Multimedia Image and Video Processing, Second Edition explores the most recent advances in multimedia research and applications. This edition presents a comprehensive treatment of multimedia information mining, security, systems, coding, search, hardware, and communications as well as multimodal information fusion and interaction. Clearly divided into seven parts, the book begins w

  8. Computational multispectral video imaging [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Menon, Rajesh

    2018-01-01

    Multispectral imagers reveal information unperceivable to humans and conventional cameras. Here, we demonstrate a compact single-shot multispectral video-imaging camera by placing a micro-structured diffractive filter in close proximity to the image sensor. The diffractive filter converts spectral information to a spatial code on the sensor pixels. Following a calibration step, this code can be inverted via regularization-based linear algebra to compute the multispectral image. We experimentally demonstrated spectral resolution of 9.6 nm within the visible band (430-718 nm). We further show that the spatial resolution is enhanced by over 30% compared with the case without the diffractive filter. We also demonstrate Vis-IR imaging with the same sensor. Because no absorptive color filters are utilized, sensitivity is preserved as well. Finally, the diffractive filters can be easily manufactured using optical lithography and replication techniques.

  9. Enhancement system of nighttime infrared video image and visible video image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Piao, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Visibility of Nighttime video image has a great significance for military and medicine areas, but nighttime video image has so poor quality that we can't recognize the target and background. Thus we enhance the nighttime video image by fuse infrared video image and visible video image. According to the characteristics of infrared and visible images, we proposed improved sift algorithm andαβ weighted algorithm to fuse heterologous nighttime images. We would deduced a transfer matrix from improved sift algorithm. The transfer matrix would rapid register heterologous nighttime images. And theαβ weighted algorithm can be applied in any scene. In the video image fusion system, we used the transfer matrix to register every frame and then used αβ weighted method to fuse every frame, which reached the time requirement soft video. The fused video image not only retains the clear target information of infrared video image, but also retains the detail and color information of visible video image and the fused video image can fluency play.

  10. Video Bioinformatics Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Colony Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sabrina; Fonteno, Shawn; Satish, Shruthi; Bhanu, Bir; Talbot, Prue

    2010-01-01

    Because video data are complex and are comprised of many images, mining information from video material is difficult to do without the aid of computer software. Video bioinformatics is a powerful quantitative approach for extracting spatio-temporal data from video images using computer software to perform dating mining and analysis. In this article, we introduce a video bioinformatics method for quantifying the growth of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by analyzing time-lapse videos collected in a Nikon BioStation CT incubator equipped with a camera for video imaging. In our experiments, hESC colonies that were attached to Matrigel were filmed for 48 hours in the BioStation CT. To determine the rate of growth of these colonies, recipes were developed using CL-Quant software which enables users to extract various types of data from video images. To accurately evaluate colony growth, three recipes were created. The first segmented the image into the colony and background, the second enhanced the image to define colonies throughout the video sequence accurately, and the third measured the number of pixels in the colony over time. The three recipes were run in sequence on video data collected in a BioStation CT to analyze the rate of growth of individual hESC colonies over 48 hours. To verify the truthfulness of the CL-Quant recipes, the same data were analyzed manually using Adobe Photoshop software. When the data obtained using the CL-Quant recipes and Photoshop were compared, results were virtually identical, indicating the CL-Quant recipes were truthful. The method described here could be applied to any video data to measure growth rates of hESC or other cells that grow in colonies. In addition, other video bioinformatics recipes can be developed in the future for other cell processes such as migration, apoptosis, and cell adhesion. PMID:20495527

  11. Progress in video immersion using Panospheric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Stephen L.; Southwell, David T.; Penzes, Steven G.; Brosinsky, Chris A.; Anderson, Ron; Hanna, Doug M.

    1998-09-01

    Having demonstrated significant technical and marketplace advantages over other modalities for video immersion, PanosphericTM Imaging (PI) continues to evolve rapidly. This paper reports on progress achieved since AeroSense 97. The first practical field deployment of the technology occurred in June-August 1997 during the NASA-CMU 'Atacama Desert Trek' activity, where the Nomad mobile robot was teleoperated via immersive PanosphericTM imagery from a distance of several thousand kilometers. Research using teleoperated vehicles at DRES has also verified the exceptional utility of the PI technology for achieving high levels of situational awareness, operator confidence, and mission effectiveness. Important performance enhancements have been achieved with the completion of the 4th Generation PI DSP-based array processor system. The system is now able to provide dynamic full video-rate generation of spatial and computational transformations, resulting in a programmable and fully interactive immersive video telepresence. A new multi- CCD camera architecture has been created to exploit the bandwidth of this processor, yielding a well-matched PI system with greatly improved resolution. While the initial commercial application for this technology is expected to be video tele- conferencing, it also appears to have excellent potential for application in the 'Immersive Cockpit' concept. Additional progress is reported in the areas of Long Wave Infrared PI Imaging, Stereo PI concepts, PI based Video-Servoing concepts, PI based Video Navigation concepts, and Foveation concepts (to merge localized high-resolution views with immersive views).

  12. Video stereopsis of cardiac MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.F. Jr.; Norman, C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes MR images of the heart acquired using a spin-echo technique synchronized to the electrocardiogram. Sixteen 0.5-cm-thick sections with a 0.1-cm gap between each section were acquired in the coronal view to cover all the cardiac anatomy including vasculature. Two sets of images were obtained with a subject rotation corresponding to the stereoscopic viewing angle of the eyes. The images were digitized, spatially registered, and processed by a three-dimensional graphics work station for stereoscopic viewing. Video recordings were made of each set of images and then temporally synchronized to produce a single video image corresponding to the appropriate eye view

  13. Structural image and video understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we have discussed how to exploit the structures in several computer vision topics. The five chapters addressed five computer vision topics using the image structures. In chapter 2, we proposed a structural model to jointly predict the age, expression and gender of a face. By modeling

  14. Video-based noncooperative iris image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingzi; Arslanturk, Emrah; Zhou, Zhi; Belcher, Craig

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a video-based noncooperative iris image segmentation scheme that incorporates a quality filter to quickly eliminate images without an eye, employs a coarse-to-fine segmentation scheme to improve the overall efficiency, uses a direct least squares fitting of ellipses method to model the deformed pupil and limbic boundaries, and develops a window gradient-based method to remove noise in the iris region. A remote iris acquisition system is set up to collect noncooperative iris video images. An objective method is used to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the segmentation results. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. The proposed method would make noncooperative iris recognition or iris surveillance possible.

  15. Image and Video for Hearing Impaired People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran Oya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a global overview of image- and video-processing-based methods to help the communication of hearing impaired people. Two directions of communication have to be considered: from a hearing person to a hearing impaired person and vice versa. In this paper, firstly, we describe sign language (SL and the cued speech (CS language which are two different languages used by the deaf community. Secondly, we present existing tools which employ SL and CS video processing and recognition for the automatic communication between deaf people and hearing people. Thirdly, we present the existing tools for reverse communication, from hearing people to deaf people that involve SL and CS video synthesis.

  16. Video dosimetry: evaluation of X-radiation dose by video fluoroscopic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nova, Joao Luiz Leocadio da; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu

    1996-01-01

    A new methodology to evaluate the entrance surface dose on patients under radiodiagnosis is presented. A phantom is used in video fluoroscopic procedures in on line video signal system. The images are obtained from a Siemens Polymat 50 and are digitalized. The results show that the entrance surface dose can be obtained in real time from video imaging

  17. GPM GROUND VALIDATION PRECIPITATION VIDEO IMAGER (PVI) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Precipitation Video Imager (PVI) GCPEx dataset collected precipitation particle images and drop size distribution data from November 2011...

  18. Practical image and video processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, Oge

    2011-01-01

    "The book provides a practical introduction to the most important topics in image and video processing using MATLAB (and its Image Processing Toolbox) as a tool to demonstrate the most important techniques and algorithms. The contents are presented in a clear, technically accurate, objective way, with just enough mathematical detail. Most of the chapters are supported by figures, examples, illustrative problems, MATLAB scripts, suggestions for further reading, bibliographical references, useful Web sites, and exercises and computer projects to extend the understanding of their contents"--

  19. Multimodal location estimation of videos and images

    CERN Document Server

    Friedland, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the field of multimodal location estimation, i.e. using acoustic, visual, and/or textual cues to estimate the shown location of a video recording. The authors' sample research results in this field in a unified way integrating research work on this topic that focuses on different modalities, viewpoints, and applications. The book describes fundamental methods of acoustic, visual, textual, social graph, and metadata processing as well as multimodal integration methods used for location estimation. In addition, the text covers benchmark metrics and explores the limits of the technology based on a human baseline. ·         Discusses localization of multimedia data; ·         Examines fundamental methods of establishing location metadata for images and videos (other than GPS tagging); ·         Covers Data-Driven as well as Semantic Location Estimation.

  20. Objective analysis of image quality of video image capture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowberg, Alan H.

    1990-07-01

    As Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) technology has matured, video image capture has become a common way of capturing digital images from many modalities. While digital interfaces, such as those which use the ACR/NEMA standard, will become more common in the future, and are preferred because of the accuracy of image transfer, video image capture will be the dominant method in the short term, and may continue to be used for some time because of the low cost and high speed often associated with such devices. Currently, virtually all installed systems use methods of digitizing the video signal that is produced for display on the scanner viewing console itself. A series of digital test images have been developed for display on either a GE CT9800 or a GE Signa MRI scanner. These images have been captured with each of five commercially available image capture systems, and the resultant images digitally transferred on floppy disk to a PC1286 computer containing Optimast' image analysis software. Here the images can be displayed in a comparative manner for visual evaluation, in addition to being analyzed statistically. Each of the images have been designed to support certain tests, including noise, accuracy, linearity, gray scale range, stability, slew rate, and pixel alignment. These image capture systems vary widely in these characteristics, in addition to the presence or absence of other artifacts, such as shading and moire pattern. Other accessories such as video distribution amplifiers and noise filters can also add or modify artifacts seen in the captured images, often giving unusual results. Each image is described, together with the tests which were performed using them. One image contains alternating black and white lines, each one pixel wide, after equilibration strips ten pixels wide. While some systems have a slew rate fast enough to track this correctly, others blur it to an average shade of gray, and do not resolve the lines, or give

  1. Grid Portal for Image and Video Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinitrovski, I.; Kakasevski, G.; Buckovska, A.; Loskovska, S.

    2007-01-01

    Users are typically best served by G rid Portals . G rid Portals a re web servers that allow the user to configure or run a class of applications. The server is then given the task of authentication of the user with the Grid and invocation of the required grid services to launch the user's application. PHP is a widely-used general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited for Web development and can be embedded into HTML. PHP is powerful and modern server-side scripting language producing HTML or XML output which easily can be accessed by everyone via web interface (with the browser of your choice) and can execute shell scripts on the server side. The aim of our work is development of Grid portal for image and video processing. The shell scripts contains gLite and globus commands for obtaining proxy certificate, job submission, data management etc. Using this technique we can easily create web interface to the Grid infrastructure. The image and video processing algorithms are implemented in C++ language using various image processing libraries. (Author)

  2. Dynamic Image Stitching for Panoramic Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Yu Shieh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of this paper is based on the Dynamic image titching for panoramic video. By utilizing OpenCV visual function data library and SIFT algorithm as the basis for presentation, this article brings forward Gaussian second differenced MoG which is processed basing on DoG Gaussian Difference Map to reduce order in synthesizing dynamic images and simplify the algorithm of the Gaussian pyramid structure. MSIFT matches with overlapping segmentation method to simplify the scope of feature extraction in order to enhance speed. And through this method traditional image synthesis can be improved without having to take lots of time in calculation and being limited by space and angle. This research uses four normal Webcams and two IPCAM coupled with several-wide angle lenses. By using wide-angle lenses to monitor over a wide range of an area and then by using image stitching panoramic effect is achieved. In terms of overall image application and control interface, Microsoft Visual Studio C# is adopted to a construct software interface. On a personal computer with 2.4-GHz CPU and 2-GB RAM and with the cameras fixed to it, the execution speed is three images per second, which reduces calculation time of the traditional algorithm.

  3. Multimodal interaction in image and video applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sappa, Angel D

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Pattern Recognition (PR) and Computer Vision (CV) technologies have mainly focused on full automation, even though full automation often proves elusive or unnatural in many applications, where the technology is expected to assist rather than replace the human agents. However, not all the problems can be automatically solved being the human interaction the only way to tackle those applications. Recently, multimodal human interaction has become an important field of increasing interest in the research community. Advanced man-machine interfaces with high cognitive capabilities are a hot research topic that aims at solving challenging problems in image and video applications. Actually, the idea of computer interactive systems was already proposed on the early stages of computer science. Nowadays, the ubiquity of image sensors together with the ever-increasing computing performance has open new and challenging opportunities for research in multimodal human interaction. This book aims to show how existi...

  4. Video Vortex reader II: moving images beyond YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, G.; Somers Miles, R.

    2011-01-01

    Video Vortex Reader II is the Institute of Network Cultures' second collection of texts that critically explore the rapidly changing landscape of online video and its use. With the success of YouTube ('2 billion views per day') and the rise of other online video sharing platforms, the moving image

  5. Snapshot spectral and polarimetric imaging; target identification with multispectral video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Brent D.; Rodriguez, Mikel D.

    2013-05-01

    As the number of pixels continue to grow in consumer and scientific imaging devices, it has become feasible to collect the incident light field. In this paper, an imaging device developed around light field imaging is used to collect multispectral and polarimetric imagery in a snapshot fashion. The sensor is described and a video data set is shown highlighting the advantage of snapshot spectral imaging. Several novel computer vision approaches are applied to the video cubes to perform scene characterization and target identification. It is shown how the addition of spectral and polarimetric data to the video stream allows for multi-target identification and tracking not possible with traditional RGB video collection.

  6. Despeckle filtering for ultrasound imaging and video II selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loizou, Christos P

    2015-01-01

    In ultrasound imaging and video visual perception is hindered by speckle multiplicative noise that degrades the quality. Noise reduction is therefore essential for improving the visual observation quality or as a pre-processing step for further automated analysis, such as image/video segmentation, texture analysis and encoding in ultrasound imaging and video. The goal of the first book (book 1 of 2 books) was to introduce the problem of speckle in ultrasound image and video as well as the theoretical background, algorithmic steps, and the MatlabTM for the following group of despeckle filters:

  7. Diagnostic image quality of video-digitized chest images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, L.H.; Butler, R.B.; Becking, W.B.; Warnars, G.A.O.; Haar Romeny, B. ter; Ottes, F.P.; Valk, J.-P.J. de

    1989-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy obtained with the Philips picture archiving and communications subsystem was investigated by means of an observer performance study using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The image qualities of conventional films and video digitized images were compared. The scanner had a 1024 x 1024 x 8 bit memory. The digitized images were displayed on a 60 Hz interlaced display monitor 1024 lines. Posteroanterior (AP) roetgenograms of a chest phantom with superimposed simulated interstitial pattern disease (IPD) were produced; there were 28 normal and 40 abnormal films. Normal films were produced by the chest phantom alone. Abnormal films were taken of the chest phantom with varying degrees of superimposed simulated intersitial disease (PND) for an observer performance study, because the results of a simulated interstitial pattern disease study are less likely to be influenced by perceptual capabilities. The conventional films and the video digitized images were viewed by five experienced observers during four separate sessions. Conventional films were presented on a viewing box, the digital images were displayed on the monitor described above. The presence of simulated intersitial disease was indicated on a 5-point ROC certainty scale by each observer. We analyzed the differences between ROC curves derived from correlated data statistically. The mean time required to evaluate 68 digitized images is approximately four times the mean time needed to read the convential films. The diagnostic quality of the video digitized images was significantly lower (at the 5% level) than that of the conventional films (median area under the curve (AUC) of 0.71 and 0.94, respectively). (author). 25 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  8. VLSI-based video event triggering for image data compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1994-02-01

    Long-duration, on-orbit microgravity experiments require a combination of high resolution and high frame rate video data acquisition. The digitized high-rate video stream presents a difficult data storage problem. Data produced at rates of several hundred million bytes per second may require a total mission video data storage requirement exceeding one terabyte. A NASA-designed, VLSI-based, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term (DC-like) or short term (AC-like) changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pre-trigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable to archiving only the significant video images.

  9. Markerless registration for image guided surgery. Preoperative image, intraoperative video image, and patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihara, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Yuko

    1998-01-01

    Real-time and volumetric acquisition of X-ray CT, MR, and SPECT is the latest trend of the medical imaging devices. A clinical challenge is to use these multi-modality volumetric information complementary on patient in the entire diagnostic and surgical processes. The intraoperative image and patient integration intents to establish a common reference frame by image in diagnostic and surgical processes. This provides a quantitative measure during surgery, for which we have been relied mostly on doctors' skills and experiences. The intraoperative image and patient integration involves various technologies, however, we think one of the most important elements is the development of markerless registration, which should be efficient and applicable to the preoperative multi-modality data sets, intraoperative image, and patient. We developed a registration system which integrates preoperative multi-modality images, intraoperative video image, and patient. It consists of a real-time registration of video camera for intraoperative use, a markerless surface sampling matching of patient and image, our previous works of markerless multi-modality image registration of X-ray CT, MR, and SPECT, and an image synthesis on video image. We think these techniques can be used in many applications which involve video camera like devices such as video camera, microscope, and image Intensifier. (author)

  10. VICAR - VIDEO IMAGE COMMUNICATION AND RETRIEVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    VICAR (Video Image Communication and Retrieval) is a general purpose image processing software system that has been under continuous development since the late 1960's. Originally intended for data from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's unmanned planetary spacecraft, VICAR is now used for a variety of other applications including biomedical image processing, cartography, earth resources, and geological exploration. The development of this newest version of VICAR emphasized a standardized, easily-understood user interface, a shield between the user and the host operating system, and a comprehensive array of image processing capabilities. Structurally, VICAR can be divided into roughly two parts; a suite of applications programs and an executive which serves as the interfaces between the applications, the operating system, and the user. There are several hundred applications programs ranging in function from interactive image editing, data compression/decompression, and map projection, to blemish, noise, and artifact removal, mosaic generation, and pattern recognition and location. An information management system designed specifically for handling image related data can merge image data with other types of data files. The user accesses these programs through the VICAR executive, which consists of a supervisor and a run-time library. From the viewpoint of the user and the applications programs, the executive is an environment that is independent of the operating system. VICAR does not replace the host computer's operating system; instead, it overlays the host resources. The core of the executive is the VICAR Supervisor, which is based on NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). Various modifications and extensions have been made to optimize TAE for image processing applications, resulting in a user friendly environment. The rest of the executive consists of the VICAR Run-Time Library, which provides a set of subroutines (image

  11. Extended image differencing for change detection in UAV video mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, Günter; Krüger, Wolfgang; Schumann, Arne

    2014-03-01

    Change detection is one of the most important tasks when using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for video reconnaissance and surveillance. We address changes of short time scale, i.e. the observations are taken in time distances from several minutes up to a few hours. Each observation is a short video sequence acquired by the UAV in near-nadir view and the relevant changes are, e.g., recently parked or moved vehicles. In this paper we extend our previous approach of image differencing for single video frames to video mosaics. A precise image-to-image registration combined with a robust matching approach is needed to stitch the video frames to a mosaic. Additionally, this matching algorithm is applied to mosaic pairs in order to align them to a common geometry. The resulting registered video mosaic pairs are the input of the change detection procedure based on extended image differencing. A change mask is generated by an adaptive threshold applied to a linear combination of difference images of intensity and gradient magnitude. The change detection algorithm has to distinguish between relevant and non-relevant changes. Examples for non-relevant changes are stereo disparity at 3D structures of the scene, changed size of shadows, and compression or transmission artifacts. The special effects of video mosaicking such as geometric distortions and artifacts at moving objects have to be considered, too. In our experiments we analyze the influence of these effects on the change detection results by considering several scenes. The results show that for video mosaics this task is more difficult than for single video frames. Therefore, we extended the image registration by estimating an elastic transformation using a thin plate spline approach. The results for mosaics are comparable to that of single video frames and are useful for interactive image exploitation due to a larger scene coverage.

  12. Mass-storage management for distributed image/video archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Santina; Guarda, Roberto; Prampolini, Franco

    1993-04-01

    The realization of image/video database requires a specific design for both database structures and mass storage management. This issue has addressed the project of the digital image/video database system that has been designed at IBM SEMEA Scientific & Technical Solution Center. Proper database structures have been defined to catalog image/video coding technique with the related parameters, and the description of image/video contents. User workstations and servers are distributed along a local area network. Image/video files are not managed directly by the DBMS server. Because of their wide size, they are stored outside the database on network devices. The database contains the pointers to the image/video files and the description of the storage devices. The system can use different kinds of storage media, organized in a hierarchical structure. Three levels of functions are available to manage the storage resources. The functions of the lower level provide media management. They allow it to catalog devices and to modify device status and device network location. The medium level manages image/video files on a physical basis. It manages file migration between high capacity media and low access time media. The functions of the upper level work on image/video file on a logical basis, as they archive, move and copy image/video data selected by user defined queries. These functions are used to support the implementation of a storage management strategy. The database information about characteristics of both storage devices and coding techniques are used by the third level functions to fit delivery/visualization requirements and to reduce archiving costs.

  13. Rapid, low-cost, image analysis through video processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, R.A.; Marrs, R.W.; Grantham, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    Remote Sensing now provides the data necessary to solve many resource problems. However, many of the complex image processing and analysis functions used in analysis of remotely-sensed data are accomplished using sophisticated image analysis equipment. High cost of this equipment places many of these techniques beyond the means of most users. A new, more economical, video system capable of performing complex image analysis has now been developed. This report describes the functions, components, and operation of that system. Processing capability of the new video image analysis system includes many of the tasks previously accomplished with optical projectors and digital computers. Video capabilities include: color separation, color addition/subtraction, contrast stretch, dark level adjustment, density analysis, edge enhancement, scale matching, image mixing (addition and subtraction), image ratioing, and construction of false-color composite images. Rapid input of non-digital image data, instantaneous processing and display, relatively low initial cost, and low operating cost gives the video system a competitive advantage over digital equipment. Complex pre-processing, pattern recognition, and statistical analyses must still be handled through digital computer systems. The video system at the University of Wyoming has undergone extensive testing, comparison to other systems, and has been used successfully in practical applications ranging from analysis of x-rays and thin sections to production of color composite ratios of multispectral imagery. Potential applications are discussed including uranium exploration, petroleum exploration, tectonic studies, geologic mapping, hydrology sedimentology and petrography, anthropology, and studies on vegetation and wildlife habitat

  14. Communicating pictures a course in image and video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bull, David R

    2014-01-01

    Communicating Pictures starts with a unique historical perspective of the role of images in communications and then builds on this to explain the applications and requirements of a modern video coding system. It draws on the author's extensive academic and professional experience of signal processing and video coding to deliver a text that is algorithmically rigorous, yet accessible, relevant to modern standards, and practical. It offers a thorough grounding in visual perception, and demonstrates how modern image and video compression methods can be designed in order to meet the rate-quality performance levels demanded by today's applications, networks and users. With this book you will learn: Practical issues when implementing a codec, such as picture boundary extension and complexity reduction, with particular emphasis on efficient algorithms for transforms, motion estimators and error resilience Conflicts between conventional video compression, based on variable length coding and spatiotemporal prediction,...

  15. On-board processing of video image sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Forchhammer, Søren

    2008-01-01

    and evaluated. On-board there are six video cameras each capturing images of 1024times1024 pixels of 12 bpp at a frame rate of 15 fps, thus totalling 1080 Mbits/s. In comparison the average downlink data rate for these images is projected to be 50 kbit/s. This calls for efficient on-board processing to select...

  16. Video-rate optical flow corrected intraoperative functional fluorescence imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Maximilian; Glatz, Juergen; Ermolayev, Vladimir; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    Intraoperative fluorescence molecular imaging based on targeted fluorescence agents is an emerging approach to improve surgical and endoscopic imaging and guidance. Short exposure times per frame and implementation at video rates are necessary to provide continuous feedback to the physician and

  17. The art of assessing quality for images and video

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deriche, M.

    2011-01-01

    The early years of this century have witnessed a tremendous growth in the use of digital multimedia data for di?erent communication applications. Researchers from around the world are spending substantial research efforts in developing techniques for improving the appearance of images/video. However, as we know, preserving high quality is a challenging task. Images are subject to distortions during acquisition, compression, transmission, analysis, and reconstruction. For this reason, the research area focusing on image and video quality assessment has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. In particular, compression applications and other multimedia applications need powerful techniques for evaluating quality objectively without human interference. This tutorial will cover the di?erent faces of image quality assessment. We will motivate the need for robust image quality assessment techniques, then discuss the main algorithms found in the literature with a critical perspective. We will present the di?erent metrics used for full reference, reduced reference and no reference applications. We will then discuss the difference between image and video quality assessment. In all of the above, we will take a critical approach to explain which metric can be used for which application. Finally we will discuss the different approaches to analyze the performance of image/video quality metrics, and end the tutorial with some perspectives on newly introduced metrics and their potential applications.

  18. Image ranking in video sequences using pairwise image comparisons and temporal smoothing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict the importance of an image is highly desirable in computer vision. This work introduces an image ranking scheme suitable for use in video or image sequences. Pairwise image comparisons are used to determine image ‘interest...

  19. Recent advances in intelligent image search and video retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book initially reviews the major feature representation and extraction methods and effective learning and recognition approaches, which have broad applications in the context of intelligent image search and video retrieval. It subsequently presents novel methods, such as improved soft assignment coding, Inheritable Color Space (InCS) and the Generalized InCS framework, the sparse kernel manifold learner method, the efficient Support Vector Machine (eSVM), and the Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features in multiple color spaces. Lastly, the book presents clothing analysis for subject identification and retrieval, and performance evaluation methods of video analytics for traffic monitoring. Digital images and videos are proliferating at an amazing speed in the fields of science, engineering and technology, media and entertainment. With the huge accumulation of such data, keyword searches and manual annotation schemes may no longer be able to meet the practical demand for retrieving relevant conte...

  20. Image processor for high resolution video

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, P.P.; Assis, J.T.; Cardoso, S.B.; Lopes, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss an image presentation and processing system developed in Turbo Pascal 5.0 Language. Our system allows the visualization and processing of images in 16 different colors, taken at a time from a set of 64 possible ones. Digital filters of the mean, mediam Laplacian, gradient and histograms equalization type have been implemented, so as to allow a better image quality. Possible applications of our system are also discussed e.g., satellites, computerized tomography, medicine, microscopes. (author) [pt

  1. American video peak store gives fuel a better image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    A new American image enhancement system using a video peak frame store aims to overcome the common problems of viewing serial numbers on irradiated fuel assemblies within the reactor core whilst reducing operator exposure at the same time. Other nuclear plant inspection applications are envisaged. (author)

  2. The advantages of using photographs and video images in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the advantages of a telephone consultation with a specialist in paediatric surgery after taking photographs and video images by a general practitioner for the diagnosis of some diseases. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of the reliability of paediatric ...

  3. Can social tagged images aid concept-based video search?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setz, A.T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to unravel whether commonly available social tagged images can be exploited as a training resource for concept-based video search. Since social tags are known to be ambiguous, overly personalized, and often error prone, we place special emphasis on the role of disambiguation. We

  4. Applying Image Matching to Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    image groups, classified by the background scene, are the flag, the kitchen, the telephone, the bookshelf , the title screen, the...Kitchen 136 Telephone 3 Bookshelf 81 Title Screen 10 Map 1 24 Map 2 16 command line. This implementation of a Bloom filter uses two arbitrary...with the Bookshelf images. This scene is a much closer shot than the Kitchen scene so the host occupies much of the background. Algorithms for face

  5. Thermal imagers: from ancient analog video output to state-of-the-art video streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haan, Hubertus; Feuchter, Timo; Münzberg, Mario; Fritze, Jörg; Schlemmer, Harry

    2013-06-01

    The video output of thermal imagers stayed constant over almost two decades. When the famous Common Modules were employed a thermal image at first was presented to the observer in the eye piece only. In the early 1990s TV cameras were attached and the standard output was CCIR. In the civil camera market output standards changed to digital formats a decade ago with digital video streaming being nowadays state-of-the-art. The reasons why the output technique in the thermal world stayed unchanged over such a long time are: the very conservative view of the military community, long planning and turn-around times of programs and a slower growth of pixel number of TIs in comparison to consumer cameras. With megapixel detectors the CCIR output format is not sufficient any longer. The paper discusses the state-of-the-art compression and streaming solutions for TIs.

  6. Guided filtering for solar image/video processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new image enhancement algorithm employing guided filtering is proposed in this work for enhancement of solar images and videos, so that users can easily figure out important fine structures imbedded in the recorded images/movies for solar observation. The proposed algorithm can efficiently remove image noises, including Gaussian and impulse noises. Meanwhile, it can further highlight fibrous structures on/beyond the solar disk. These fibrous structures can clearly demonstrate the progress of solar flare, prominence coronal mass emission, magnetic field, and so on. The experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm gives significant enhancement of visual quality of solar images beyond original input and several classical image enhancement algorithms, thus facilitating easier determination of interesting solar burst activities from recorded images/movies.

  7. Sub-component modeling for face image reconstruction in video communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiell, Derek J.; Xiao, Jing; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.

    2008-08-01

    Emerging communications trends point to streaming video as a new form of content delivery. These systems are implemented over wired systems, such as cable or ethernet, and wireless networks, cell phones, and portable game systems. These communications systems require sophisticated methods of compression and error-resilience encoding to enable communications across band-limited and noisy delivery channels. Additionally, the transmitted video data must be of high enough quality to ensure a satisfactory end-user experience. Traditionally, video compression makes use of temporal and spatial coherence to reduce the information required to represent an image. In many communications systems, the communications channel is characterized by a probabilistic model which describes the capacity or fidelity of the channel. The implication is that information is lost or distorted in the channel, and requires concealment on the receiving end. We demonstrate a generative model based transmission scheme to compress human face images in video, which has the advantages of a potentially higher compression ratio, while maintaining robustness to errors and data corruption. This is accomplished by training an offline face model and using the model to reconstruct face images on the receiving end. We propose a sub-component AAM modeling the appearance of sub-facial components individually, and show face reconstruction results under different types of video degradation using a weighted and non-weighted version of the sub-component AAM.

  8. Dynamic quantitative analysis of adherent cell cultures by means of lens-free video microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allier, C.; Vincent, R.; Navarro, F.; Menneteau, M.; Ghenim, L.; Gidrol, X.; Bordy, T.; Hervé, L.; Cioni, O.; Bardin, S.; Bornens, M.; Usson, Y.; Morales, S.

    2018-02-01

    We present our implementation of lens-free video microscopy setup for the monitoring of adherent cell cultures. We use a multi-wavelength LED illumination together with a dedicated holographic reconstruction algorithm that allows for an efficient removal of twin images from the reconstructed phase image for densities up to those of confluent cell cultures (>500 cells/mm2). We thereby demonstrate that lens-free video microscopy, with a large field of view ( 30 mm2) can enable us to capture the images of thousands of cells simultaneously and directly inside the incubator. It is then possible to trace and quantify single cells along several cell cycles. We thus prove that lens-free microscopy is a quantitative phase imaging technique enabling estimation of several metrics at the single cell level as a function of time, for example the area, dry mass, maximum thickness, major axis length and aspect ratio of each cell. Combined with cell tracking, it is then possible to extract important parameters such as the initial cell dry mass (just after cell division), the final cell dry mass (just before cell division), the average cell growth rate, and the cell cycle duration. As an example, we discuss the monitoring of a HeLa cell cultures which provided us with a data-set featuring more than 10 000 cell cycle tracks and more than 2x106 cell morphological measurements in a single time-lapse.

  9. Video Field Studies with your Cell Phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Fraser, Euan

    2010-01-01

    Pod? Or with the GoPRO sports camera? Our approach has a strong focus on how to use video in design, rather than on the technical side. The goal is to engage design teams in meaningful discussions based on user empathy, rather than to produce beautiful videos. Basically it is a search for a minimalist way...

  10. Video retrieval by still-image analysis with ImageMiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyss, Jutta; Roeper, M.; Alshuth, Peter; Hermes, Thorsten; Herzog, Otthein

    1997-01-01

    The large amount of available multimedia information (e.g. videos, audio, images) requires efficient and effective annotation and retrieval methods. As videos start playing a more important role in the frame of multimedia, we want to make these available for content-based retrieval. The ImageMiner-System, which was developed at the University of Bremen in the AI group, is designed for content-based retrieval of single images by a new combination of techniques and methods from computer vision and artificial intelligence. In our approach to make videos available for retrieval in a large database of videos and images there are two necessary steps: First, the detection and extraction of shots from a video, which is done by a histogram based method and second, the construction of the separate frames in a shot to one still single images. This is performed by a mosaicing-technique. The resulting mosaiced image gives a one image visualization of the shot and can be analyzed by the ImageMiner-System. ImageMiner has been tested on several domains, (e.g. landscape images, technical drawings), which cover a wide range of applications.

  11. Biased lineup instructions and face identification from video images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W Burt; Johnson, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Previous eyewitness memory research has shown that biased lineup instructions reduce identification accuracy, primarily by increasing false-positive identifications in target-absent lineups. Because some attempts at identification do not rely on a witness's memory of the perpetrator but instead involve matching photos to images on surveillance video, the authors investigated the effects of biased instructions on identification accuracy in a matching task. In Experiment 1, biased instructions did not affect the overall accuracy of participants who used video images as an identification aid, but nearly all correct decisions occurred with target-present photo spreads. Both biased and unbiased instructions resulted in high false-positive rates. In Experiment 2, which focused on video-photo matching accuracy with target-absent photo spreads, unbiased instructions led to more correct responses (i.e., fewer false positives). These findings suggest that investigators should not relax precautions against biased instructions when people attempt to match photos to an unfamiliar person recorded on video.

  12. Turbulent structure of concentration plumes through application of video imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabberdt, W.F.; Martin, C. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Hoydysh, W.G.; Holynskyj, O. [Environmental Science & Services Corp., Long Island City, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Turbulent flows and dispersion in the presence of building wakes and terrain-induced local circulations are particularly difficult to simulate with numerical models or measure with conventional fluid modeling and ambient measurement techniques. The problem stems from the complexity of the kinematics and the difficulty in making representative concentration measurements. New laboratory video imaging techniques are able to overcome many of these limitations and are being applied to study a range of difficult problems. Here the authors apply {open_quotes}tomographic{close_quotes} video imaging techniques to the study of the turbulent structure of an ideal elevated plume and the relationship of short-period peak concentrations to long-period average values. A companion paper extends application of the technique to characterization of turbulent plume-concentration fields in the wake of a complex building configuration.

  13. Registration and recognition in images and videos

    CERN Document Server

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Farinella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Computer vision is the science and technology of making machines that see. It is concerned with the theory, design and implementation of algorithms that can automatically process visual data to recognize objects, track and recover their shape and spatial layout. The International Computer Vision Summer School - ICVSS was established in 2007 to provide both an objective and clear overview and an in-depth analysis of the state-of-the-art  research in Computer Vision. The courses are delivered by world renowned experts in the field, from both academia and industry, and cover both theoretical and practical aspects of real Computer Vision problems.  The school is organized every year by University of Cambridge (Computer Vision and Robotics Group) and University of Catania (Image Processing Lab). Different topics are covered each year.This edited volume contains a selection of articles covering some of the talks and tutorials held during the last editions of the school. The chapters provide an in-depth overview o...

  14. A kind of video image digitizing circuit based on computer parallel port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yi; Tang Le; Cheng Jianping; Li Yuanjing; Zhang Binquan

    2003-01-01

    A kind of video images digitizing circuit based on parallel port was developed to digitize the flash x ray images in our Multi-Channel Digital Flash X ray Imaging System. The circuit can digitize the video images and store in static memory. The digital images can be transferred to computer through parallel port and can be displayed, processed and stored. (authors)

  15. Computer simulation of orthognathic surgery with video imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Robert; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian U.; Horch, Hans-Henning

    1994-04-01

    Patients with extreme jaw imbalance must often undergo operative corrections. The goal of therapy is to harmonize the stomatognathic system and an aesthetical correction of the face profile. A new procedure will be presented which supports the maxillo-facial surgeon in planning the operation and which also presents the patient the result of the treatment by video images. Once an x-ray has been digitized it is possible to produce individualized cephalometric analyses. Using a ceph on screen, all current orthognathic operations can be simulated, whereby the bony segments are moved according to given parameters, and a new soft tissue profile can be calculated. The profile of the patient is fed into the computer by way of a video system and correlated to the ceph. Using the simulated operation the computer calculates a new video image of the patient which presents the expected postoperative appearance. In studies of patients treated between 1987-91, 76 out of 121 patients were able to be evaluated. The deviation in profile change varied between .0 and 1.6mm. A side effect of the practical applications was an increase in patient compliance.

  16. Advanced methods for image registration applied to JET videos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciunescu, Teddy, E-mail: teddy.craciunescu@jet.uk [EURATOM-MEdC Association, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Murari, Andrea [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Padova (Italy); Gelfusa, Michela [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA – University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Roma (Italy); Tiseanu, Ion; Zoita, Vasile [EURATOM-MEdC Association, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Arnoux, Gilles [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Development of an image registration method for JET IR and fast visible cameras. • Method based on SIFT descriptors and coherent point drift points set registration technique. • Method able to deal with extremely noisy images and very low luminosity images. • Computation time compatible with the inter-shot analysis. - Abstract: The last years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital cameras on JET. They are routinely applied for imaging in the IR and visible spectral regions. One of the main technical difficulties in interpreting the data of camera based diagnostics is the presence of movements of the field of view. Small movements occur due to machine shaking during normal pulses while large ones may arise during disruptions. Some cameras show a correlation of image movement with change of magnetic field strength. For deriving unaltered information from the videos and for allowing correct interpretation an image registration method, based on highly distinctive scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) descriptors and on the coherent point drift (CPD) points set registration technique, has been developed. The algorithm incorporates a complex procedure for rejecting outliers. The method has been applied for vibrations correction to videos collected by the JET wide angle infrared camera and for the correction of spurious rotations in the case of the JET fast visible camera (which is equipped with an image intensifier). The method has proved to be able to deal with the images provided by this camera frequently characterized by low contrast and a high level of blurring and noise.

  17. Video Multiple Watermarking Technique Based on Image Interlacing Using DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  18. Video multiple watermarking technique based on image interlacing using DWT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel Kader, Neamat S; Zorkany, M

    2014-01-01

    Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  19. Large-Scale Query-by-Image Video Retrieval Using Bloom Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Andre; Chaves, Jason; Lakshman, Haricharan; Angst, Roland; Girod, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of using image queries to retrieve videos from a database. Our focus is on large-scale applications, where it is infeasible to index each database video frame independently. Our main contribution is a framework based on Bloom filters, which can be used to index long video segments, enabling efficient image-to-video comparisons. Using this framework, we investigate several retrieval architectures, by considering different types of aggregation and different functions to ...

  20. Videos and images from 25 years of teaching compressible flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Gary

    2008-11-01

    Compressible flow is a very visual topic due to refractive optical flow visualization and the public fascination with high-speed flight. Films, video clips, and many images are available to convey this in the classroom. An overview of this material is given and selected examples are shown, drawn from educational films, the movies, television, etc., and accumulated over 25 years of teaching basic and advanced compressible-flow courses. The impact of copyright protection and the doctrine of fair use is also discussed.

  1. Evaluation of video-printer images as secondary CT images for clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, K.; Rubin, J.

    1983-01-01

    Video-printer (VP) images of 24 abnormal views from a body CT scanner were made. Although the physical quality of printer images was poor, a group of radiologists and clinicians found that VP images are adequate to confirm the lesion described in the radiology report. The VP images can be used as secondary images, and they can be attached to a report as a part of the radiology service to increase communication between radiologists and clinicians and to prevent the loss of primary images from the radiology file

  2. Efficient image or video encryption based on spatiotemporal chaos system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Shiguo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient image/video encryption scheme is constructed based on spatiotemporal chaos system. The chaotic lattices are used to generate pseudorandom sequences and then encrypt image blocks one by one. By iterating chaotic maps for certain times, the generated pseudorandom sequences obtain high initial-value sensitivity and good randomness. The pseudorandom-bits in each lattice are used to encrypt the Direct Current coefficient (DC) and the signs of the Alternating Current coefficients (ACs). Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the scheme has good cryptographic security and perceptual security, and it does not affect the compression efficiency apparently. These properties make the scheme a suitable choice for practical applications.

  3. Quantification of video-taped images in microcirculation research using inexpensive imaging software (Adobe Photoshop).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J; Krummenauer, F; Lehr, H A

    2000-04-01

    Study end-points in microcirculation research are usually video-taped images rather than numeric computer print-outs. Analysis of these video-taped images for the quantification of microcirculatory parameters usually requires computer-based image analysis systems. Most software programs for image analysis are custom-made, expensive, and limited in their applicability to selected parameters and study end-points. We demonstrate herein that an inexpensive, commercially available computer software (Adobe Photoshop), run on a Macintosh G3 computer with inbuilt graphic capture board provides versatile, easy to use tools for the quantification of digitized video images. Using images obtained by intravital fluorescence microscopy from the pre- and postischemic muscle microcirculation in the skinfold chamber model in hamsters, Photoshop allows simple and rapid quantification (i) of microvessel diameters, (ii) of the functional capillary density and (iii) of postischemic leakage of FITC-labeled high molecular weight dextran from postcapillary venules. We present evidence of the technical accuracy of the software tools and of a high degree of interobserver reliability. Inexpensive commercially available imaging programs (i.e., Adobe Photoshop) provide versatile tools for image analysis with a wide range of potential applications in microcirculation research.

  4. Feature Extraction in Sequential Multimedia Images: with Applications in Satellite Images and On-line Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Li

    Multimedia data is increasingly important in scientific discovery and people's daily lives. Content of massive multimedia is often diverse and noisy, and motion between frames is sometimes crucial in analyzing those data. Among all, still images and videos are commonly used formats. Images are compact in size but do not contain motion information. Videos record motion but are sometimes too big to be analyzed. Sequential images, which are a set of continuous images with low frame rate, stand out because they are smaller than videos and still maintain motion information. This thesis investigates features in different types of noisy sequential images, and the proposed solutions that intelligently combined multiple features to successfully retrieve visual information from on-line videos and cloudy satellite images. The first task is detecting supraglacial lakes above ice sheet in sequential satellite images. The dynamics of supraglacial lakes on the Greenland ice sheet deeply affect glacier movement, which is directly related to sea level rise and global environment change. Detecting lakes above ice is suffering from diverse image qualities and unexpected clouds. A new method is proposed to efficiently extract prominent lake candidates with irregular shapes, heterogeneous backgrounds, and in cloudy images. The proposed system fully automatize the procedure that track lakes with high accuracy. We further cooperated with geoscientists to examine the tracked lakes and found new scientific findings. The second one is detecting obscene content in on-line video chat services, such as Chatroulette, that randomly match pairs of users in video chat sessions. A big problem encountered in such systems is the presence of flashers and obscene content. Because of various obscene content and unstable qualities of videos capture by home web-camera, detecting misbehaving users is a highly challenging task. We propose SafeVchat, which is the first solution that achieves satisfactory

  5. Live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Richard

    2014-01-01

    It would be hard to argue that live-cell imaging has not changed our view of biology. The past 10 years have seen an explosion of interest in imaging cellular processes, down to the molecular level. There are now many advanced techniques being applied to live cell imaging. However, cellular health is often under appreciated. For many researchers, if the cell at the end of the experiment has not gone into apoptosis or is blebbed beyond recognition, than all is well. This is simply incorrect. There are many factors that need to be considered when performing live-cell imaging in order to maintain cellular health such as: imaging modality, media, temperature, humidity, PH, osmolality, and photon dose. The wavelength of illuminating light, and the total photon dose that the cells are exposed to, comprise two of the most important and controllable parameters of live-cell imaging. The lowest photon dose that achieves a measureable metric for the experimental question should be used, not the dose that produces cover photo quality images. This is paramount to ensure that the cellular processes being investigated are in their in vitro state and not shifted to an alternate pathway due to environmental stress. The timing of the mitosis is an ideal canary in the gold mine, in that any stress induced from the imaging will result in the increased length of mitosis, thus providing a control model for the current imagining conditions.

  6. EBLAST: an efficient high-compression image transformation 3. application to Internet image and video transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.; Caimi, Frank M.

    2001-12-01

    A wide variety of digital image compression transforms developed for still imaging and broadcast video transmission are unsuitable for Internet video applications due to insufficient compression ratio, poor reconstruction fidelity, or excessive computational requirements. Examples include hierarchical transforms that require all, or large portion of, a source image to reside in memory at one time, transforms that induce significant locking effect at operationally salient compression ratios, and algorithms that require large amounts of floating-point computation. The latter constraint holds especially for video compression by small mobile imaging devices for transmission to, and compression on, platforms such as palmtop computers or personal digital assistants (PDAs). As Internet video requirements for frame rate and resolution increase to produce more detailed, less discontinuous motion sequences, a new class of compression transforms will be needed, especially for small memory models and displays such as those found on PDAs. In this, the third series of papers, we discuss the EBLAST compression transform and its application to Internet communication. Leading transforms for compression of Internet video and still imagery are reviewed and analyzed, including GIF, JPEG, AWIC (wavelet-based), wavelet packets, and SPIHT, whose performance is compared with EBLAST. Performance analysis criteria include time and space complexity and quality of the decompressed image. The latter is determined by rate-distortion data obtained from a database of realistic test images. Discussion also includes issues such as robustness of the compressed format to channel noise. EBLAST has been shown to perform superiorly to JPEG and, unlike current wavelet compression transforms, supports fast implementation on embedded processors with small memory models.

  7. Neutron imaging system based on a video camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, M.

    2004-01-01

    The non-destructive testing with cold, thermal, epithermal or fast neutrons is nowadays more and more useful because the world-wide level of industrial development requires considerably higher standards of quality of manufactured products and reliability of technological processes especially where any deviation from standards could result in large-scale catastrophic consequences or human loses. Thanks to their properties, easily obtained and very good discrimination of the materials that penetrate, the thermal neutrons are the most used probe. The methods involved for this technique have advanced from neutron radiography based on converter screens and radiological films to neutron radioscopy based on video cameras, that is, from static images to dynamic images. Many neutron radioscopy systems have been used in the past with various levels of success. The quality of an image depends on the quality of the neutron beam and the type of the neutron imaging system. For real time investigations there are involved tube type cameras, CCD cameras and recently CID cameras that capture the image from an appropriate scintillator through the agency of a mirror. The analog signal of the camera is then converted into digital signal by the signal processing technology included into the camera. The image acquisition card or frame grabber from a PC converts the digital signal into an image. The image is formatted and processed by image analysis software. The scanning position of the object is controlled by the computer that commands the electrical motors that move horizontally, vertically and rotate the table of the object. Based on this system, a lot of static image acquisitions, real time non-destructive investigations of dynamic processes and finally, tomographic investigations of the small objects are done in a short time. A system based on a CID camera is presented. Fundamental differences between CCD and CID cameras lie in their pixel readout structure and technique. CIDs

  8. An introduction to video image compression and authentication technology for safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Verification of a video image has been a major problem for safeguards for several years. Various verification schemes have been tried on analog video signals ever since the mid-1970's. These schemes have provided a measure of protection but have never been widely adopted. The development of reasonably priced complex video processing integrated circuits makes it possible to digitize a video image and then compress the resulting digital file into a smaller file without noticeable loss of resolution. Authentication and/or encryption algorithms can be more easily applied to digital video files that have been compressed. The compressed video files require less time for algorithm processing and image transmission. An important safeguards application for authenticated, compressed, digital video images is in unattended video surveillance systems and remote monitoring systems. The use of digital images in the surveillance system makes it possible to develop remote monitoring systems that send images over narrow bandwidth channels such as the common telephone line. This paper discusses the video compression process, authentication algorithm, and data format selected to transmit and store the authenticated images

  9. Cryptanalysis of a spatiotemporal chaotic image/video cryptosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhouma, Rhouma; Belghith, Safya

    2008-01-01

    This Letter proposes two different attacks on a recently proposed chaotic cryptosystem for images and videos in [S. Lian, Chaos Solitons Fractals (2007), (doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2007.10.054)]. The cryptosystem under study displays weakness in the generation of the keystream. The encryption is made by generating a keystream mixed with blocks generated from the plaintext and the ciphertext in a CBC mode design. The so obtained keystream remains unchanged for every encryption procedure. Guessing the keystream leads to guessing the key. Two possible attacks are then able to break the whole cryptosystem based on this drawback in generating the keystream. We propose also to change the description of the cryptosystem to be robust against the described attacks by making it in a PCBC mode design

  10. Degraded visual environment image/video quality metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Dustin D.; Brown, Jeremy B.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    A number of image quality metrics (IQMs) and video quality metrics (VQMs) have been proposed in the literature for evaluating techniques and systems for mitigating degraded visual environments. Some require both pristine and corrupted imagery. Others require patterned target boards in the scene. None of these metrics relates well to the task of landing a helicopter in conditions such as a brownout dust cloud. We have developed and used a variety of IQMs and VQMs related to the pilot's ability to detect hazards in the scene and to maintain situational awareness. Some of these metrics can be made agnostic to sensor type. Not only are the metrics suitable for evaluating algorithm and sensor variation, they are also suitable for choosing the most cost effective solution to improve operating conditions in degraded visual environments.

  11. Digital Path Approach Despeckle Filter for Ultrasound Imaging and Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Szczepański

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel filtering technique capable of reducing the multiplicative noise in ultrasound images that is an extension of the denoising algorithms based on the concept of digital paths. In this approach, the filter weights are calculated taking into account the similarity between pixel intensities that belongs to the local neighborhood of the processed pixel, which is called a path. The output of the filter is estimated as the weighted average of pixels connected by the paths. The way of creating paths is pivotal and determines the effectiveness and computational complexity of the proposed filtering design. Such procedure can be effective for different types of noise but fail in the presence of multiplicative noise. To increase the filtering efficiency for this type of disturbances, we introduce some improvements of the basic concept and new classes of similarity functions and finally extend our techniques to a spatiotemporal domain. The experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm provides the comparable results with the state-of-the-art techniques for multiplicative noise removal in ultrasound images and it can be applied for real-time image enhancement of video streams.

  12. Image quality assessment for video stream recognition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Timofey S.; Razumnuy, Nikita P.; Kozharinov, Alexander S.; Nikolaev, Dmitry P.; Arlazarov, Vladimir V.

    2018-04-01

    Recognition and machine vision systems have long been widely used in many disciplines to automate various processes of life and industry. Input images of optical recognition systems can be subjected to a large number of different distortions, especially in uncontrolled or natural shooting conditions, which leads to unpredictable results of recognition systems, making it impossible to assess their reliability. For this reason, it is necessary to perform quality control of the input data of recognition systems, which is facilitated by modern progress in the field of image quality evaluation. In this paper, we investigate the approach to designing optical recognition systems with built-in input image quality estimation modules and feedback, for which the necessary definitions are introduced and a model for describing such systems is constructed. The efficiency of this approach is illustrated by the example of solving the problem of selecting the best frames for recognition in a video stream for a system with limited resources. Experimental results are presented for the system for identity documents recognition, showing a significant increase in the accuracy and speed of the system under simulated conditions of automatic camera focusing, leading to blurring of frames.

  13. ATR/OTR-SY Tank Camera Purge System and in Tank Color Video Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werry, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    This procedure will document the satisfactory operation of the 101-SY tank Camera Purge System (CPS) and 101-SY in tank Color Camera Video Imaging System (CCVIS). Included in the CPRS is the nitrogen purging system safety interlock which shuts down all the color video imaging system electronics within the 101-SY tank vapor space during loss of nitrogen purge pressure

  14. Real-time UAV trajectory generation using feature points matching between video image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Younggi; Song, Jeongheon; Han, Dongyeob

    2017-09-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), equipped with navigation systems and video capability, are currently being deployed for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance mission. In this paper, we present a systematic approach for the generation of UAV trajectory using a video image matching system based on SURF (Speeded up Robust Feature) and Preemptive RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus). Video image matching to find matching points is one of the most important steps for the accurate generation of UAV trajectory (sequence of poses in 3D space). We used the SURF algorithm to find the matching points between video image sequences, and removed mismatching by using the Preemptive RANSAC which divides all matching points to outliers and inliers. The inliers are only used to determine the epipolar geometry for estimating the relative pose (rotation and translation) between image sequences. Experimental results from simulated video image sequences showed that our approach has a good potential to be applied to the automatic geo-localization of the UAVs system

  15. Cell Phone Video Recording Feature as a Language Learning Tool: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromik, Nicolas A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study conducted at a Japanese national university. Nine participants used the video recording feature on their cell phones to produce weekly video productions. The task required that participants produce one 30-second video on a teacher-selected topic. Observations revealed the process of video creation with a cell…

  16. Blur Quantification of Medical Images: Dicom Media, Whole Slide Images, Generic Images and Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ameisen

    2016-10-01

    platform. The focus map may be displayed on the web interface next to the thumbnail link to the WSI, or in the viewer as a semi-transparent layer over the WSI, or over the WSI map. During the test phase and first integrations in laboratories and hospitals as well as in the FlexMIm project, more than 5000 whole slide images of multiple formats (Hamamatsu NDPI, Aperio SVS, Mirax MRXS, JPEG2000 … as well as hundreds of thousands of images of various formats (DICOM, TIFF, PNG, JPEG ... and videos (H264 have been analyzed using our standalone software or our C, C++, Java and Python libraries. Using default or customizable thresholds’ profiles, WSI are sorted as “accepted”, “to review”, “to rescan”. In order to target the samples contained inside each WSI, special attention was paid to detecting blank tiles. Dynamic blank tile detection based on statistical analysis of each WSI was built and successfully validated for all our samples. Results More than 20 trillion pixels have been analyzed at a 3.5 billion pixels per quad-core processor per minute speed rate. Quantified results can be stored in JSON formatted logs or inside a MySQL or MongoDB database or converted to any chosen data structure to be interoperable with existing software, each tile’s result being accessible in addition to the quality map and the global quality results. This solution is easily scalable as images can be stored at different locations, analysis can be distributed amongst local or remote servers, and quantified results can be stored in remote databases.

  17. Microbial Cell Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Sullivan, Claretta [Eastern Virginia Medical School; Mortensen, Ninell P [ORNL; Allison, David P [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is finding increasing application in a variety of fields including microbiology. Until the emergence of AFM, techniques for ivnestigating processes in single microbes were limited. From a biologist's perspective, the fact that AFM can be used to generate high-resolution images in buffers or media is its most appealing feature as live-cell imaging can be pursued. Imaging living cells by AFM allows dynamic biological events to be studied, at the nanoscale, in real time. Few areas of biological research have as much to gain as microbiology from the application of AFM. Whereas the scale of microbes places them near the limit of resolution for light microscopy. AFM is well suited for the study of structures on the order of a micron or less. Although electron microscopy techniques have been the standard for high-resolution imaging of microbes, AFM is quickly gaining favor for several reasons. First, fixatives that impair biological activity are not required. Second, AFM is capable of detecting forces in the pN range, and precise control of the force applied to the cantilever can be maintained. This combination facilitates the evaluation of physical characteristics of microbes. Third, rather than yielding the composite, statistical average of cell populations, as is the case with many biochemical assays, the behavior of single cells can be monitored. Despite the potential of AFM in microbiology, there are several limitations that must be considered. For example, the time required to record an image allows for the study of gross events such as cell division or membrane degradation from an antibiotic but precludes the evaluation of biological reactions and events that happen in just fractions of a second. Additionally, the AFM is a topographical tool and is restricted to imaging surfaces. Therefore, it cannot be used to look inside cells as with opticla and transmission electron microscopes. other practical considerations are the

  18. Heterogeneity image patch index and its application to consumer video summarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Chinh T; Radha, Hayder

    2014-06-01

    Automatic video summarization is indispensable for fast browsing and efficient management of large video libraries. In this paper, we introduce an image feature that we refer to as heterogeneity image patch (HIP) index. The proposed HIP index provides a new entropy-based measure of the heterogeneity of patches within any picture. By evaluating this index for every frame in a video sequence, we generate a HIP curve for that sequence. We exploit the HIP curve in solving two categories of video summarization applications: key frame extraction and dynamic video skimming. Under the key frame extraction frame-work, a set of candidate key frames is selected from abundant video frames based on the HIP curve. Then, a proposed patch-based image dissimilarity measure is used to create affinity matrix of these candidates. Finally, a set of key frames is extracted from the affinity matrix using a min–max based algorithm. Under video skimming, we propose a method to measure the distance between a video and its skimmed representation. The video skimming problem is then mapped into an optimization framework and solved by minimizing a HIP-based distance for a set of extracted excerpts. The HIP framework is pixel-based and does not require semantic information or complex camera motion estimation. Our simulation results are based on experiments performed on consumer videos and are compared with state-of-the-art methods. It is shown that the HIP approach outperforms other leading methods, while maintaining low complexity.

  19. Frequency identification of vibration signals using video camera image data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yih-Nen; Wu, Chia-Hung

    2012-10-16

    This study showed that an image data acquisition system connecting a high-speed camera or webcam to a notebook or personal computer (PC) can precisely capture most dominant modes of vibration signal, but may involve the non-physical modes induced by the insufficient frame rates. Using a simple model, frequencies of these modes are properly predicted and excluded. Two experimental designs, which involve using an LED light source and a vibration exciter, are proposed to demonstrate the performance. First, the original gray-level resolution of a video camera from, for instance, 0 to 256 levels, was enhanced by summing gray-level data of all pixels in a small region around the point of interest. The image signal was further enhanced by attaching a white paper sheet marked with a black line on the surface of the vibration system in operation to increase the gray-level resolution. Experimental results showed that the Prosilica CV640C CMOS high-speed camera has the critical frequency of inducing the false mode at 60 Hz, whereas that of the webcam is 7.8 Hz. Several factors were proven to have the effect of partially suppressing the non-physical modes, but they cannot eliminate them completely. Two examples, the prominent vibration modes of which are less than the associated critical frequencies, are examined to demonstrate the performances of the proposed systems. In general, the experimental data show that the non-contact type image data acquisition systems are potential tools for collecting the low-frequency vibration signal of a system.

  20. Frequency Identification of Vibration Signals Using Video Camera Image Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study showed that an image data acquisition system connecting a high-speed camera or webcam to a notebook or personal computer (PC can precisely capture most dominant modes of vibration signal, but may involve the non-physical modes induced by the insufficient frame rates. Using a simple model, frequencies of these modes are properly predicted and excluded. Two experimental designs, which involve using an LED light source and a vibration exciter, are proposed to demonstrate the performance. First, the original gray-level resolution of a video camera from, for instance, 0 to 256 levels, was enhanced by summing gray-level data of all pixels in a small region around the point of interest. The image signal was further enhanced by attaching a white paper sheet marked with a black line on the surface of the vibration system in operation to increase the gray-level resolution. Experimental results showed that the Prosilica CV640C CMOS high-speed camera has the critical frequency of inducing the false mode at 60 Hz, whereas that of the webcam is 7.8 Hz. Several factors were proven to have the effect of partially suppressing the non-physical modes, but they cannot eliminate them completely. Two examples, the prominent vibration modes of which are less than the associated critical frequencies, are examined to demonstrate the performances of the proposed systems. In general, the experimental data show that the non-contact type image data acquisition systems are potential tools for collecting the low-frequency vibration signal of a system.

  1. Video-assisted thoracic surgery mediastinal germ cell metastasis resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Marco; Jayakumar, Shruti; Migliore, Marcello; Dunning, Joel

    2017-07-01

    Thoracoscopy can be safely used for dissection of masses in the visceral mediastinum. We report the case of a 31-year-old man affected by metastatic germ cell tumour and successfully treated with a 3-port posterior approach video-assisted thoracic surgery. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality Assessment of Adaptive Bitrate Videos using Image Metrics and Machine Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Brunnström, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive bitrate (ABR) streaming is widely used for distribution of videos over the internet. In this work, we investigate how well we can predict the quality of such videos using well-known image metrics, information about the bitrate levels, and a relatively simple machine learning method...

  3. Enhancing Perceived Quality of Compressed Images and Video with Anisotropic Diffusion and Fuzzy Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    and subjective results on JPEG compressed images, as well as MJPEG and H.264/AVC compressed video, indicate that the proposed algorithms employing directional and spatial fuzzy filters achieve better artifact reduction than other methods. In particular, robust improvements with H.264/AVC video have been gained...

  4. Potential usefulness of a video printer for producing secondary images from digitized chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Robert M.; MacMahon, Heber; Doi, Kunio; Bosworth, Eric

    1991-05-01

    Communication between radiologists and clinicians could be improved if a secondary image (copy of the original image) accompanied the radiologic report. In addition, the number of lost original radiographs could be decreased, since clinicians would have less need to borrow films. The secondary image should be simple and inexpensive to produce, while providing sufficient image quality for verification of the diagnosis. We are investigating the potential usefulness of a video printer for producing copies of radiographs, i.e. images printed on thermal paper. The video printer we examined (Seikosha model VP-3500) can provide 64 shades of gray. It is capable of recording images up to 1,280 pixels by 1,240 lines and can accept any raster-type video signal. The video printer was characterized in terms of its linearity, contrast, latitude, resolution, and noise properties. The quality of video-printer images was also evaluated in an observer study using portable chest radiographs. We found that observers could confirm up to 90 of the reported findings in the thorax using video- printer images, when the original radiographs were of high quality. The number of verified findings was diminished when high spatial resolution was required (e.g. detection of a subtle pneumothorax) or when a low-contrast finding was located in the mediastinal area or below the diaphragm (e.g. nasogastric tubes).

  5. What do we do with all this video? Better understanding public engagement for image and video annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, C.; Miller, A.; Zykov, V.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced robotic vehicles are increasingly being used by oceanographic research vessels to enable more efficient and widespread exploration of the ocean, particularly the deep ocean. With cutting-edge capabilities mounted onto robotic vehicles, data at high resolutions is being generated more than ever before, enabling enhanced data collection and the potential for broader participation. For example, high resolution camera technology not only improves visualization of the ocean environment, but also expands the capacity to engage participants remotely through increased use of telepresence and virtual reality techniques. Schmidt Ocean Institute is a private, non-profit operating foundation established to advance the understanding of the world's oceans through technological advancement, intelligent observation and analysis, and open sharing of information. Telepresence-enabled research is an important component of Schmidt Ocean Institute's science research cruises, which this presentation will highlight. Schmidt Ocean Institute is one of the only research programs that make their entire underwater vehicle dive series available online, creating a collection of video that enables anyone to follow deep sea research in real time. We encourage students, educators and the general public to take advantage of freely available dive videos. Additionally, other SOI-supported internet platforms, have engaged the public in image and video annotation activities. Examples of these new online platforms, which utilize citizen scientists to annotate scientific image and video data will be provided. This presentation will include an introduction to SOI-supported video and image tagging citizen science projects, real-time robot tracking, live ship-to-shore communications, and an array of outreach activities that enable scientists to interact with the public and explore the ocean in fascinating detail.

  6. Do Stereotypic Images in Video Games Affect Attitudes and Behavior? Adolescents' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Alexandra; Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie; O'Connor, Alexander; Collins, Michael J

    This study examined adolescents' attitudes about video games along with their self-reported play frequency. Ninth and eleventh grade students (N = 361), approximately evenly divided by grade and gender, were surveyed about whether video games have stereotypic images, involve harmful consequences or affect one's attitudes, whether game playing should be regulated by parents or the government, and whether game playing is a personal choice. Adolescents who played video games frequently showed decreased concern about the effects that games with negatively stereotyped images may have on the players' attitudes compared to adolescents who played games infrequently or not at all. With age, adolescents were more likely to view images as negative, but were also less likely to recognize stereotypic images of females as harmful and more likely to judge video-game playing as a personal choice. The paper discusses other findings in relation to research on adolescents' social cognitive judgments.

  7. A video-image study of electrolytic flow structure in parallel electric-magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Z.H.; Fahidy, T.Z.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of free convective flow propagating from a vertical cathode into the electrolyte bulk has been studied via video-imaging. The enhancing effect of imposed horizontal uniform magnetic fields is manifest by vortex propagation and bifurcating flow

  8. Moving object detection in top-view aerial videos improved by image stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, Michael; Krüger, Wolfgang; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2017-08-01

    Image stacking is a well-known method that is used to improve the quality of images in video data. A set of consecutive images is aligned by applying image registration and warping. In the resulting image stack, each pixel has redundant information about its intensity value. This redundant information can be used to suppress image noise, resharpen blurry images, or even enhance the spatial image resolution as done in super-resolution. Small moving objects in the videos usually get blurred or distorted by image stacking and thus need to be handled explicitly. We use image stacking in an innovative way: image registration is applied to small moving objects only, and image warping blurs the stationary background that surrounds the moving objects. Our video data are coming from a small fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that acquires top-view gray-value images of urban scenes. Moving objects are mainly cars but also other vehicles such as motorcycles. The resulting images, after applying our proposed image stacking approach, are used to improve baseline algorithms for vehicle detection and segmentation. We improve precision and recall by up to 0.011, which corresponds to a reduction of the number of false positive and false negative detections by more than 3 per second. Furthermore, we show how our proposed image stacking approach can be implemented efficiently.

  9. Inexpensive remote video surveillance system with microcomputer and solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara Betancourt, Edder

    2013-01-01

    A low-cost prototype is developed with a RPI plate for remote video surveillance. Additionally, the theoretical basis to provide energy independence have developed through solar cells and a battery bank. Some existing commercial monitoring systems are studied and analyzed, components such as: cameras, communication devices (WiFi and 3G), free software packages for video surveillance, control mechanisms and theory remote photovoltaic systems. A number of steps are developed to implement the module and install, configure and test each of the elements of hardware and software that make up the module, exploring the feasibility of providing intelligence to the system using the software chosen. Events that have been generated by motion detection have been simple, intuitive way to view, archive and extract. The implementation of the module by a microcomputer video surveillance and motion detection software (Zoneminder) has been an option for a lot of potential; as the platform for monitoring and recording data has provided all the tools to make a robust and secure surveillance. (author) [es

  10. Comparative study of image registration techniques for bladder video-endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamadou, Achraf; Soussen, Charles; Blondel, Walter; Daul, Christian; Wolf, Didier

    2009-07-01

    Bladder cancer is widely spread in the world. Many adequate diagnosis techniques exist. Video-endoscopy remains the standard clinical procedure for visual exploration of the bladder internal surface. However, video-endoscopy presents the limit that the imaged area for each image is about nearly 1 cm2. And, lesions are, typically, spread over several images. The aim of this contribution is to assess the performance of two mosaicing algorithms leading to the construction of panoramic maps (one unique image) of bladder walls. The quantitative comparison study is performed on a set of real endoscopic exam data and on simulated data relative to bladder phantom.

  11. Effects of hyperthermia on intracellular CA/sup 2+/ monitored by digitized video image fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, C.R.; Mikkelsen, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    With digitized video image fluorescence microscopy and the fluorescent Ca/sup 2+/ dye, fuca-2, the authors examined heat effects on intracellular free Ca/sup 2+/, [Ca/sup 2/]/sub f/. HT-29 human colon cancer cells grown on coverslip were equilibrated with 2.0 μM fura-2 in RPMI 1540 (20 0 , 15 min), washed three times and incubated at 20 0 for 1 h. Coverslips were mounted in a Dvorok perfusion chamber sitting within a temperature controlled microscope stage. Fluorescence was monitored at 500 nm by epi-illumination at 385 nm, excitation maximum for free dye, and 340 nm, maximum for Ca/sup 2+/ complexed dye, with a computer controlled filter wheel. The emission intensity ratio, I/sub 340//I/sub 385/, which corrects for dye leakage, photo-bleaching and cell thickness was used to calculate [Ca/sup 2+/]/sub f/. Measurements of 200 cells at 37 0 using a bit pad and mouse to select 0.6 x 0.6 μ cytoplasmi areas indicated 3 populations of cells in terms of [Ca/sup 2+/]/sub f/ (70%, 40-60nM; 15% 70-110nM; 15%, 120-200 nM). Heating to 43 0 for 1 h resulted in an overall decrease in [Ca/sup 2+/]/sub f/ with greater than 90% cells within 30-50 nM. Not all cells responded to heat. Post-incubation for 3 h at 37 0 showed the identical cell distribution; at 24 h, cell distribution was that of non-heated cells. The relationship of these results to cell killing and thermotolerance are not understood, but these results indicated the importance of cell heterogeneity in response to heat

  12. Image and video compression for multimedia engineering fundamentals, algorithms, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yun Q

    2008-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals Introduction Quantization Differential Coding Transform Coding Variable-Length Coding: Information Theory Results (II) Run-Length and Dictionary Coding: Information Theory Results (III) Part II: Still Image Compression Still Image Coding: Standard JPEG Wavelet Transform for Image Coding: JPEG2000 Nonstandard Still Image Coding Part III: Motion Estimation and Compensation Motion Analysis and Motion Compensation Block Matching Pel-Recursive Technique Optical Flow Further Discussion and Summary on 2-D Motion Estimation Part IV: Video Compression Fundam

  13. Video Surveillance of Epilepsy Patients using Color Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Gitte; Vilic, Kenan; Alving, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    This report introduces a method for tracking of patients under video surveillance based on a marker system. The patients are not restricted in their movements, which requires a tracking system that can overcome non-ideal scenes e.g. occlusions, very fast movements, lightning issues and other movi...

  14. Video surveillance of epilepsy patients using color image processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Gitte; Vilic, Kenan; Vilic, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for tracking patients under video surveillance based on a color marker system. The patients are not restricted in their movements, which requires a tracking system that can overcome non-ideal scenes e.g. occlusions, very fast movements, lighting issues and other mov...

  15. Thinking Images: Doing Philosophy in Film and Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several decades film and video have been steadily infiltrating the philosophy curriculum at colleges and universities. Traditionally, teachers of philosophy have not made much use of "audiovisual aids" in the classroom beyond the chalk board or overhead projector, with only the more adventurous playing audiotapes, for example, or…

  16. Video image processor on the Spacelab 2 Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter /SL2 SOUP/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, R. W.; Tarbell, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    The SOUP instrument is designed to obtain diffraction-limited digital images of the sun with high photometric accuracy. The Video Processor originated from the requirement to provide onboard real-time image processing, both to reduce the telemetry rate and to provide meaningful video displays of scientific data to the payload crew. This original concept has evolved into a versatile digital processing system with a multitude of other uses in the SOUP program. The central element in the Video Processor design is a 16-bit central processing unit based on 2900 family bipolar bit-slice devices. All arithmetic, logical and I/O operations are under control of microprograms, stored in programmable read-only memory and initiated by commands from the LSI-11. Several functions of the Video Processor are described, including interface to the High Rate Multiplexer downlink, cosmetic and scientific data processing, scan conversion for crew displays, focus and exposure testing, and use as ground support equipment.

  17. Application of video imaging for improvement of patient set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploeger, Lennert S.; Frenay, Michel; Betgen, Anja; Bois, Josien A. de; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A.; Herk, Marcel van

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: For radiotherapy of prostate cancer, the patient is usually positioned in the left-right (LR) direction by aligning a single marker on the skin with the projection of a room laser. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a room-mounted video camera in combination with previously acquired CT data to improve patient set-up along the LR axis. Material and methods: The camera was mounted in the treatment room at the caudal side of the patient. For 22 patients with prostate cancer 127 video and portal images were acquired. The set-up error determined by video imaging was found by matching video images with rendered CT images using various techniques. This set-up error was retrospectively compared with the set-up error derived from portal images. It was investigated whether the number of corrections based on portal imaging would decrease if the information obtained from the video images had been used prior to irradiation. Movement of the skin with respect to bone was quantified using an analysis of variance method. Results: The measurement of the set-up error was most accurate for a technique where outlines and groins on the left and right side of the patient were delineated and aligned individually to the corresponding features extracted from the rendered CT image. The standard deviations (SD) of the systematic and random components of the set-up errors derived from the portal images in the LR direction were 1.5 and 2.1 mm, respectively. When the set-up of the patients was retrospectively adjusted based on the video images, the SD of the systematic and random errors decreased to 1.1 and 1.3 mm, respectively. From retrospective analysis, a reduction of the number of set-up corrections (from nine to six corrections) is expected when the set-up would have been adjusted using the video images. The SD of the magnitude of motion of the skin of the patient with respect to the bony anatomy was estimated to be 1.1 mm. Conclusion: Video

  18. Image processing and computer controls for video profile diagnostic system in the ground test accelerator (GTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.; Zander, M.; Brown, S.; Sandoval, D.; Gilpatrick, D.; Gibson, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the application of video image processing to beam profile measurements on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). A diagnostic was needed to measure beam profiles in the intermediate matching section (IMS) between the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and the drift tube linac (DTL). Beam profiles are measured by injecting puffs of gas into the beam. The light emitted from the beam-gas interaction is captured and processed by a video image processing system, generating the beam profile data. A general purpose, modular and flexible video image processing system, imagetool, was used for the GTA image profile measurement. The development of both software and hardware for imagetool and its integration with the GTA control system (GTACS) is discussed. The software includes specialized algorithms for analyzing data and calibrating the system. The underlying design philosophy of imagetool was tested by the experience of building and using the system, pointing the way for future improvements. (Author) (3 figs., 4 refs.)

  19. Evaluation of video capture equipment for secondary image acquisition in the PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukenobu, Yoshiharu; Sasagaki, Michihiro; Hirabuki, Norio; Naito, Hiroaki; Narumi, Yoshifumi; Inamura, Kiyonari

    2002-01-01

    There are many cases in which picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are built with old-type existing modalities with no DICOM output. One of the methods for interfacing them to the PACS is to implement video capture (/ frame grabber) equipment. This equipment takes analog video signal output from medical imaging modalities, and amplitude of the video signal is A/D converted and supplied to the PACS. In this report, we measured and evaluated the accuracy at which this video capture equipment could capture the image. From the physical evaluation, we found the pixel values of an original image and its captured image were almost equal in gray level from 20%-90%. The change in the pixel values of a captured image was +/-3 on average. The change of gray level concentration was acceptable and had an average standard deviation of around 0.63. As for resolution, the degradation was observed at the highest physical level. In a subjective evaluation, the evaluation value of the CT image had a grade of 2.81 on the average (the same quality for a reference image was set to a grade of 3.0). Abnormalities in heads, chests, and abdomens were judged not to influence diagnostic accuracy. Some small differences were seen when comparing captured and reference images, but they are recognized as having no influence on the diagnoses.

  20. Analysis of two dimensional charged particle scintillation using video image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, A.; Bhave, B.D.; Singh, B.; Panchal, C.G.; Joshi, V.M.; Shyam, A.; Srinivasan, M.

    1993-01-01

    A novel method for video recording of individual charged particle scintillation images and their offline analysis using digital image processing techniques for obtaining position, time and energy information is presented . Results of an exploratory experiment conducted using 241 Am and 239 Pu alpha sources are presented. (author). 3 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Moving object detection in video satellite image based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyang; Xiang, Junhua

    2017-11-01

    Moving object detection in video satellite image is studied. A detection algorithm based on deep learning is proposed. The small scale characteristics of remote sensing video objects are analyzed. Firstly, background subtraction algorithm of adaptive Gauss mixture model is used to generate region proposals. Then the objects in region proposals are classified via the deep convolutional neural network. Thus moving objects of interest are detected combined with prior information of sub-satellite point. The deep convolution neural network employs a 21-layer residual convolutional neural network, and trains the network parameters by transfer learning. Experimental results about video from Tiantuo-2 satellite demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  2. Music video shot segmentation using independent component analysis and keyframe extraction based on image complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Wenjun; Shi, Yunyu; Li, Jun

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, Music video data is increasing at an astonishing speed. Shot segmentation and keyframe extraction constitute a fundamental unit in organizing, indexing, retrieving video content. In this paper a unified framework is proposed to detect the shot boundaries and extract the keyframe of a shot. Music video is first segmented to shots by illumination-invariant chromaticity histogram in independent component (IC) analysis feature space .Then we presents a new metric, image complexity, to extract keyframe in a shot which is computed by ICs. Experimental results show the framework is effective and has a good performance.

  3. Digital video image processing applications to two phase flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscos, Y.; Bismes, F.; Hebrard, P.; Lavergne, G.

    1987-01-01

    Liquid spraying is common in various fields (combustion, cooling of hot surfaces, spray drying,...). For two phase flows modeling, it is necessary to test elementary laws (vaporizing drops, equation of motion of drops or bubbles, heat transfer..). For example, the knowledge of the laws related to the behavior of vaporizing liquid drop in a hot airstream and impinging drops on a hot surface is important for two phase flow modeling. In order to test these different laws in elementary cases, the authors developed different measurement techniques, associating video and microcomputers. The test section (built in perpex or glass) is illuminated with a thin sheet of light generated by a 15mW He-Ne laser and appropriate optical arrangement. Drops, bubbles or liquid film are observed at right angle by a video camera synchronised with a microcomputer either directly or with an optical device (lens, telescope, microscope) providing sufficient magnification. Digitizing the video picture in real time associated with an appropriate numerical treatment allows to obtain, in a non interfering way, a lot of informations relative to the pulverisation and the vaporization as function of space and time (drop size distribution; Sauter mean diameter as function of main flow parameters: air velocity, surface tension, temperature; isoconcentration curves, size evolution relative to vaporizing drops, film thickness evolution spreading on a hot surface...)

  4. Assessing the Content of YouTube Videos in Educating Patients Regarding Common Imaging Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Won, Eugene; Doshi, Ankur M

    2016-12-01

    To assess the content of currently available YouTube videos seeking to educate patients regarding commonly performed imaging examinations. After initial testing of possible search terms, the first two pages of YouTube search results for "CT scan," "MRI," "ultrasound patient," "PET scan," and "mammogram" were reviewed to identify educational patient videos created by health organizations. Sixty-three included videos were viewed and assessed for a range of features. Average views per video were highest for MRI (293,362) and mammography (151,664). Twenty-seven percent of videos used a nontraditional format (eg, animation, song, humor). All videos (100.0%) depicted a patient undergoing the examination, 84.1% a technologist, and 20.6% a radiologist; 69.8% mentioned examination lengths, 65.1% potential pain/discomfort, 41.3% potential radiation, 36.5% a radiology report/results, 27.0% the radiologist's role in interpretation, and 13.3% laboratory work. For CT, 68.8% mentioned intravenous contrast and 37.5% mentioned contrast safety. For MRI, 93.8% mentioned claustrophobia, 87.5% noise, 75.0% need to sit still, 68.8% metal safety, 50.0% intravenous contrast, and 0.0% contrast safety. For ultrasound, 85.7% mentioned use of gel. For PET, 92.3% mentioned radiotracer injection, 61.5% fasting, and 46.2% diabetic precautions. For mammography, unrobing, avoiding deodorant, and possible additional images were all mentioned by 63.6%; dense breasts were mentioned by 0.0%. Educational patient videos on YouTube regarding common imaging examinations received high public interest and may provide a valuable patient resource. Videos most consistently provided information detailing the examination experience and less consistently provided safety information or described the presence and role of the radiologist. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. VQone MATLAB toolbox: A graphical experiment builder for image and video quality evaluations: VQone MATLAB toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuutinen, Mikko; Virtanen, Toni; Rummukainen, Olli; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2016-03-01

    This article presents VQone, a graphical experiment builder, written as a MATLAB toolbox, developed for image and video quality ratings. VQone contains the main elements needed for the subjective image and video quality rating process. This includes building and conducting experiments and data analysis. All functions can be controlled through graphical user interfaces. The experiment builder includes many standardized image and video quality rating methods. Moreover, it enables the creation of new methods or modified versions from standard methods. VQone is distributed free of charge under the terms of the GNU general public license and allows code modifications to be made so that the program's functions can be adjusted according to a user's requirements. VQone is available for download from the project page (http://www.helsinki.fi/psychology/groups/visualcognition/).

  6. PIZZARO: Forensic analysis and restoration of image and video data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamenický, Jan; Bartoš, Michal; Flusser, Jan; Mahdian, Babak; Kotera, Jan; Novozámský, Adam; Saic, Stanislav; Šroubek, Filip; Šorel, Michal; Zita, Aleš; Zitová, Barbara; Šíma, Z.; Švarc, P.; Hořínek, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 264, č. 1 (2016), s. 153-166 ISSN 0379-0738 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102013064; GA ČR GA13-29225S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Image forensic analysis * Image restoration * Image tampering detection * Image source identification Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.989, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/kamenicky-0459504.pdf

  7. From image captioning to video summary using deep recurrent networks and unsupervised segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosanu, Bogdan-Andrei; Lemnaru, Camelia

    2018-04-01

    Automatic captioning systems based on recurrent neural networks have been tremendously successful at providing realistic natural language captions for complex and varied image data. We explore methods for adapting existing models trained on large image caption data sets to a similar problem, that of summarising videos using natural language descriptions and frame selection. These architectures create internal high level representations of the input image that can be used to define probability distributions and distance metrics on these distributions. Specifically, we interpret each hidden unit inside a layer of the caption model as representing the un-normalised log probability of some unknown image feature of interest for the caption generation process. We can then apply well understood statistical divergence measures to express the difference between images and create an unsupervised segmentation of video frames, classifying consecutive images of low divergence as belonging to the same context, and those of high divergence as belonging to different contexts. To provide a final summary of the video, we provide a group of selected frames and a text description accompanying them, allowing a user to perform a quick exploration of large unlabeled video databases.

  8. On-line video image processing system for real-time neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujine, S; Yoneda, K; Kanda, K [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1983-09-15

    The neutron radiography system installed at the E-2 experimental hole of the KUR (Kyoto University Reactor) has been used for some NDT applications in the nuclear field. The on-line video image processing system of this facility is introduced in this paper. A 0.5 mm resolution in images was obtained by using a super high quality TV camera developed for X-radiography viewing a NE-426 neutron-sensitive scintillator. The image of the NE-426 on a CRT can be observed directly and visually, thus many test samples can be sequentially observed when necessary for industrial purposes. The video image signals from the TV camera are digitized, with a 33 ms delay, through a video A/D converter (ADC) and can be stored in the image buffer (32 KB DRAM) of a microcomputer (Z-80) system. The digitized pictures are taken with 16 levels of gray scale and resolved to 240 x 256 picture elements (pixels) on a monochrome CRT, with the capability also to display 16 distinct colors on a RGB video display. The direct image of this system could be satisfactory for penetrating the side plates to test MTR type reactor fuels and for the investigation of moving objects.

  9. Learning Computational Models of Video Memorability from fMRI Brain Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junwei; Chen, Changyuan; Shao, Ling; Hu, Xintao; Han, Jungong; Liu, Tianming

    2015-08-01

    Generally, various visual media are unequally memorable by the human brain. This paper looks into a new direction of modeling the memorability of video clips and automatically predicting how memorable they are by learning from brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We propose a novel computational framework by integrating the power of low-level audiovisual features and brain activity decoding via fMRI. Initially, a user study experiment is performed to create a ground truth database for measuring video memorability and a set of effective low-level audiovisual features is examined in this database. Then, human subjects' brain fMRI data are obtained when they are watching the video clips. The fMRI-derived features that convey the brain activity of memorizing videos are extracted using a universal brain reference system. Finally, due to the fact that fMRI scanning is expensive and time-consuming, a computational model is learned on our benchmark dataset with the objective of maximizing the correlation between the low-level audiovisual features and the fMRI-derived features using joint subspace learning. The learned model can then automatically predict the memorability of videos without fMRI scans. Evaluations on publically available image and video databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  10. Capturing and displaying microscopic images used in medical diagnostics and forensic science using 4K video resolution - an application in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Hans; de Heer, Gert; Ortac, Ajda; Kuijten, Jan

    2015-11-01

    To analyze, interpret and evaluate microscopic images, used in medical diagnostics and forensic science, video images for educational purposes were made with a very high resolution of 4096 × 2160 pixels (4K), which is four times as many pixels as High-Definition Video (1920 × 1080 pixels). The unprecedented high resolution makes it possible to see details that remain invisible to any other video format. The images of the specimens (blood cells, tissue sections, hair, fibre, etc.) are recorded using a 4K video camera which is attached to a light microscope. After processing, this resulted in very sharp and highly detailed images. This material was then used in education for classroom discussion. Spoken explanation by experts in the field of medical diagnostics and forensic science was also added to the high-resolution video images to make it suitable for self-study. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Microscopy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Artifact reduction of compressed images and video combining adaptive fuzzy filtering and directional anisotropic diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2011-01-01

    and ringing artifacts, we have applied directional anisotropic diffusion. Besides that, the selection of the adaptive threshold parameter for the diffusion coefficient has also improved the performance of the algorithm. Experimental results on JPEG compressed images as well as MJPEG and H.264 compressed......Fuzzy filtering is one of the recently developed methods for reducing distortion in compressed images and video. In this paper, we combine the powerful anisotropic diffusion equations with fuzzy filtering in order to reduce the impact of artifacts. Based on the directional nature of the blocking...... videos show improvement in artifact reduction of the proposed algorithm over other directional and spatial fuzzy filters....

  12. Progress in passive submillimeter-wave video imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Erik; May, Torsten; Born, Detlef; Zieger, Gabriel; Peiselt, Katja; Zakosarenko, Vyacheslav; Krause, Torsten; Krüger, André; Schulz, Marco; Bauer, Frank; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2014-06-01

    Since 2007 we are developing passive submillimeter-wave video cameras for personal security screening. In contradiction to established portal-based millimeter-wave scanning techniques, these are suitable for stand-off or stealth operation. The cameras operate in the 350GHz band and use arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES), reflector optics, and opto-mechanical scanners. Whereas the basic principle of these devices remains unchanged, there has been a continuous development of the technical details, as the detector array, the scanning scheme, and the readout, as well as system integration and performance. The latest prototype of this camera development features a linear array of 128 detectors and a linear scanner capable of 25Hz frame rate. Using different types of reflector optics, a field of view of 1×2m2 and a spatial resolution of 1-2 cm is provided at object distances of about 5-25m. We present the concept of this camera and give details on system design and performance. Demonstration videos show its capability for hidden threat detection and illustrate possible application scenarios.

  13. Collaborative real-time motion video analysis by human observer and image exploitation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Brüstle, Stefan; Trantelle, Patrick; Unmüßig, Gabriel; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    Motion video analysis is a challenging task, especially in real-time applications. In most safety and security critical applications, a human observer is an obligatory part of the overall analysis system. Over the last years, substantial progress has been made in the development of automated image exploitation algorithms. Hence, we investigate how the benefits of automated video analysis can be integrated suitably into the current video exploitation systems. In this paper, a system design is introduced which strives to combine both the qualities of the human observer's perception and the automated algorithms, thus aiming to improve the overall performance of a real-time video analysis system. The system design builds on prior work where we showed the benefits for the human observer by means of a user interface which utilizes the human visual focus of attention revealed by the eye gaze direction for interaction with the image exploitation system; eye tracker-based interaction allows much faster, more convenient, and equally precise moving target acquisition in video images than traditional computer mouse selection. The system design also builds on prior work we did on automated target detection, segmentation, and tracking algorithms. Beside the system design, a first pilot study is presented, where we investigated how the participants (all non-experts in video analysis) performed in initializing an object tracking subsystem by selecting a target for tracking. Preliminary results show that the gaze + key press technique is an effective, efficient, and easy to use interaction technique when performing selection operations on moving targets in videos in order to initialize an object tracking function.

  14. Evaluation of a HDR image sensor with logarithmic response for mobile video-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tektonidis, Marco; Pietrzak, Mateusz; Monnin, David

    2017-10-01

    The performance of mobile video-based applications using conventional LDR (Low Dynamic Range) image sensors highly depends on the illumination conditions. As an alternative, HDR (High Dynamic Range) image sensors with logarithmic response are capable to acquire illumination-invariant HDR images in a single shot. We have implemented a complete image processing framework for a HDR sensor, including preprocessing methods (nonuniformity correction (NUC), cross-talk correction (CTC), and demosaicing) as well as tone mapping (TM). We have evaluated the HDR sensor for video-based applications w.r.t. the display of images and w.r.t. image analysis techniques. Regarding the display we have investigated the image intensity statistics over time, and regarding image analysis we assessed the number of feature correspondences between consecutive frames of temporal image sequences. For the evaluation we used HDR image data recorded from a vehicle on outdoor or combined outdoor/indoor itineraries, and we performed a comparison with corresponding conventional LDR image data.

  15. Squamous cell cancer (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squamous cell cancer involves cancerous changes to the cells of the middle portion of the epidermal skin layer. It is ... malignant tumor, and is more aggressive than basal cell cancer, but still may be relatively slow-growing. It ...

  16. The next generation borescope -- Video imaging measurement systems as portable as a fiberscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Today, Remote Visual Inspection (RVI) techniques routinely save industry the significant costs associated with unscheduled shutdowns and equipment disassembly by enabling visual inspection of otherwise inaccessible equipment surfaces with instruments called borescopes. Specific applications in the nuclear industry include heat exchangers, condensers, boiler tubes, steam generators, headers, and other general interior surface inspections. While borescope inspections have achieved widespread utility, their potential applicability and value have been limited by their inability to provide dimensional information about the objects seen. This paper presents a simple, but very accurate measurement technique that enables the inspector to make measurements of objects directly from the borescope image. While used effectively since 1990, the technique is designed for a video imaging borescope and has, therefore, not been available for the shorter length fiberscope applications--until now. On June 6, 1993 Welch Allyn introduced the VideoProbe XL, a video imaging borescope that is as portable and affordable as a one meter fiberscope. This breakthrough not only extends video imaging into the rest of the fiberscope world, but opens the door for them to this measurement capability as well

  17. Sequential error concealment for video/images by weighted template matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koloda, Jan; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel spatial error concealment algorithm for video and images based on convex optimization. Block-based coding schemes in packet loss environment are considered. Missing macro blocks are sequentially reconstructed by filling them with a weighted set of templates...

  18. Computerized video interaction self-instruction of MR imaging fundamentals utilizing laser disk technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genberg, R.W.; Javitt, M.C.; Popky, G.L.; Parker, J.A.; Pinkney, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    Interactive computer-assisted self-instruction is emerging as a recognized didactic modality and is now being introduced to teach physicians the physics of MR imaging. The interactive system consists of a PC-compatible computer, a 12-inch laser disk drive, and a high-resolution monitor. The laser disk, capable of storing 54,000 images, is pressed from a previously edited video tape of MR and video images. The interactive approach is achieved through the use of the computer and appropriate software. The software is written to include computer graphics overlays of the laser disk images, to select interactive branching paths (depending on the user's response to directives or questions), and to provide feedback to the user so that he can assess his performance. One of their systems is available for use in the scientific exhibit area

  19. Class Energy Image Analysis for Video Sensor-Based Gait Recognition: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuowen Lv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gait is a unique perceptible biometric feature at larger distances, and the gait representation approach plays a key role in a video sensor-based gait recognition system. Class Energy Image is one of the most important gait representation methods based on appearance, which has received lots of attentions. In this paper, we reviewed the expressions and meanings of various Class Energy Image approaches, and analyzed the information in the Class Energy Images. Furthermore, the effectiveness and robustness of these approaches were compared on the benchmark gait databases. We outlined the research challenges and provided promising future directions for the field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review that focuses on Class Energy Image. It can provide a useful reference in the literature of video sensor-based gait representation approach.

  20. Development of a Video Network for Efficient Dissemination of the Graphical Images in a Collaborative Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Gordonov

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Video distribution inside a local area network can impede or even paralyze normal data transmission activities. The problem can be solved, at least for a while, by compression and by increasing bandwidth, but that solution can become excessively costly or otherwise impractical. Moreover, experience indicates that usage quickly expands to test the limits of bandwidth. In this paper we introduce and analyze the architecture of a Hybrid AnalogDigital Video Network (ADViNet which separates video distribution from standard data handling functions. The network preserves the features of a standard digital network and, in addition, provides efficient real-time full-screen video transmission through a separate analog communication medium. A specially developed control and management protocol is discussed. For all practical purposes ADViNet may be used when graphical images have to be distributed among many nodes of a local area network. It relieves the burden of video distribution and allows users to combine efficient video data transmission with normal regular network activities.

  1. Video-rate resonant scanning multiphoton microscopy: An emerging technique for intravital imaging of the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D; Chung, Euiheon; Cook, Daniel C; Han, Xiaoxing; Gruionu, Gabriel; Liao, Shan; Munn, Lance L; Padera, Timothy P; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K

    2012-01-01

    The abnormal tumor microenvironment fuels tumor progression, metastasis, immune suppression, and treatment resistance. Over last several decades, developments in and applications of intravital microscopy have provided unprecedented insights into the dynamics of the tumor microenvironment. In particular, intravital multiphoton microscopy has revealed the abnormal structure and function of tumor-associated blood and lymphatic vessels, the role of aberrant tumor matrix in drug delivery, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, the dynamics of immune cell trafficking to and within tumors, and gene expression in tumors. However, traditional multiphoton microscopy suffers from inherently slow imaging rates-only a few frames per second, thus unable to capture more rapid events such as blood flow, lymphatic flow, and cell movement within vessels. Here, we report the development and implementation of a video-rate multiphoton microscope (VR-MPLSM) based on resonant galvanometer mirror scanning that is capable of recording at 30 frames per second and acquiring intravital multispectral images. We show that the design of the system can be readily implemented and is adaptable to various experimental models. As examples, we demonstrate the utility of the system to directly measure flow within tumors, capture metastatic cancer cells moving within the brain vasculature and cells in lymphatic vessels, and image acute responses to changes in a vascular network. VR-MPLSM thus has the potential to further advance intravital imaging and provide new insight into the biology of the tumor microenvironment.

  2. System and method for image registration of multiple video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillavou, Marcus W.; Shum, Phillip Corey; Guthrie, Baron L.; Shenai, Mahesh B.; Deaton, Drew Steven; May, Matthew Benton

    2018-02-06

    Provided herein are methods and systems for image registration from multiple sources. A method for image registration includes rendering a common field of interest that reflects a presence of a plurality of elements, wherein at least one of the elements is a remote element located remotely from another of the elements and updating the common field of interest such that the presence of the at least one of the elements is registered relative to another of the elements.

  3. Laser Imaging Video Camera Sees Through Fire, Fog, Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Under a series of SBIR contracts with Langley Research Center, inventor Richard Billmers refined a prototype for a laser imaging camera capable of seeing through fire, fog, smoke, and other obscurants. Now, Canton, Ohio-based Laser Imaging through Obscurants (LITO) Technologies Inc. is demonstrating the technology as a perimeter security system at Glenn Research Center and planning its future use in aviation, shipping, emergency response, and other fields.

  4. Automatic tracking of cells for video microscopy in patch clamp experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Helton M; Munguba, Hermany; Cruz, Rossana M S; Guerreiro, Ana M G; Leao, Richardson N

    2014-06-20

    Visualisation of neurons labeled with fluorescent proteins or compounds generally require exposure to intense light for a relatively long period of time, often leading to bleaching of the fluorescent probe and photodamage of the tissue. Here we created a technique to drastically shorten light exposure and improve the targeting of fluorescent labeled cells that is specially useful for patch-clamp recordings. We applied image tracking and mask overlay to reduce the time of fluorescence exposure and minimise mistakes when identifying neurons. Neurons are first identified according to visual criteria (e.g. fluorescence protein expression, shape, viability etc.) and a transmission microscopy image Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) or Dodt contrast containing the cell used as a reference for the tracking algorithm. A fluorescence image can also be acquired later to be used as a mask (that can be overlaid on the target during live transmission video). As patch-clamp experiments require translating the microscope stage, we used pattern matching to track reference neurons in order to move the fluorescence mask to match the new position of the objective in relation to the sample. For the image processing we used the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV) library, including the Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) for tracking cells. The dataset of images (n = 720) was analyzed under normal conditions of acquisition and with influence of noise (defocusing and brightness). We validated the method in dissociated neuronal cultures and fresh brain slices expressing Enhanced Yellow Fluorescent Protein (eYFP) or Tandem Dimer Tomato (tdTomato) proteins, which considerably decreased the exposure to fluorescence excitation, thereby minimising photodamage. We also show that the neuron tracking can be used in differential interference contrast or Dodt contrast microscopy. The techniques of digital image processing used in this work are an important addition to the set of microscopy

  5. LIDAR-INCORPORATED TRAFFIC SIGN DETECTION FROM VIDEO LOG IMAGES OF MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Mapping System (MMS simultaneously collects the Lidar points and video log images in a scenario with the laser profiler and digital camera. Besides the textural details of video log images, it also captures the 3D geometric shape of point cloud. It is widely used to survey the street view and roadside transportation infrastructure, such as traffic sign, guardrail, etc., in many transportation agencies. Although many literature on traffic sign detection are available, they only focus on either Lidar or imagery data of traffic sign. Based on the well-calibrated extrinsic parameters of MMS, 3D Lidar points are, the first time, incorporated into 2D video log images to enhance the detection of traffic sign both physically and visually. Based on the local elevation, the 3D pavement area is first located. Within a certain distance and height of the pavement, points of the overhead and roadside traffic signs can be obtained according to the setup specification of traffic signs in different transportation agencies. The 3D candidate planes of traffic signs are then fitted using the RANSAC plane-fitting of those points. By projecting the candidate planes onto the image, Regions of Interest (ROIs of traffic signs are found physically with the geometric constraints between laser profiling and camera imaging. The Random forest learning of the visual color and shape features of traffic signs is adopted to validate the sign ROIs from the video log images. The sequential occurrence of a traffic sign among consecutive video log images are defined by the geometric constraint of the imaging geometry and GPS movement. Candidate ROIs are predicted in this temporal context to double-check the salient traffic sign among video log images. The proposed algorithm is tested on a diverse set of scenarios on the interstate highway G-4 near Beijing, China under varying lighting conditions and occlusions. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm enhances the

  6. Disembodied perspective: third-person images in GoPro videos

    OpenAIRE

    Bédard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Used as much in extreme-sports videos and professional productions as in amateur and home videos, GoPro wearable cameras have become ubiquitous in contemporary moving image culture. During its swift and ongoing rise in popularity, GoPro has also enabled the creation of new and unusual points of view, among which are “third-person images”. This article introduces and defines this particular phenomenon through an approach that deals with both the aesthetic and technical characteristics of the i...

  7. Low-complexity video encoding method for wireless image transmission in capsule endoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenichi; Hamaguchi, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a low-complexity video encoding method applicable for wireless image transmission in capsule endoscopes. This encoding method is based on Wyner-Ziv theory, in which side information available at a transmitter is treated as side information at its receiver. Therefore complex processes in video encoding, such as estimation of the motion vector, are moved to the receiver side, which has a larger-capacity battery. As a result, the encoding process is only to decimate coded original data through channel coding. We provide a performance evaluation for a low-density parity check (LDPC) coding method in the AWGN channel.

  8. Preliminary study on effects of 60Co γ-irradiation on video quality and the image de-noising methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Mei; Zhao Jianbin; Cui Lei

    2011-01-01

    There will be variable noises appear on images in video once the play device irradiated by γ-rays, so as to affect the image clarity. In order to eliminate the image noising, the affection mechanism of γ-irradiation on video-play device was studied in this paper and the methods to improve the image quality with both hardware and software were proposed by use of protection program and de-noising algorithm. The experimental results show that the scheme of video de-noising based on hardware and software can improve effectively the PSNR by 87.5 dB. (authors)

  9. Color in Image and Video Processing: Most Recent Trends and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tominaga Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The motivation of this paper is to provide an overview of the most recent trends and of the future research directions in color image and video processing. Rather than covering all aspects of the domain this survey covers issues related to the most active research areas in the last two years. It presents the most recent trends as well as the state-of-the-art, with a broad survey of the relevant literature, in the main active research areas in color imaging. It also focuses on the most promising research areas in color imaging science. This survey gives an overview about the issues, controversies, and problems of color image science. It focuses on human color vision, perception, and interpretation. It focuses also on acquisition systems, consumer imaging applications, and medical imaging applications. Next it gives a brief overview about the solutions, recommendations, most recent trends, and future trends of color image science. It focuses on color space, appearance models, color difference metrics, and color saliency. It focuses also on color features, color-based object tracking, scene illuminant estimation and color constancy, quality assessment and fidelity assessment, color characterization and calibration of a display device. It focuses on quantization, filtering and enhancement, segmentation, coding and compression, watermarking, and lastly on multispectral color image processing. Lastly, it addresses the research areas which still need addressing and which are the next and future perspectives of color in image and video processing.

  10. Color in Image and Video Processing: Most Recent Trends and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos N. Plataniotis

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of this paper is to provide an overview of the most recent trends and of the future research directions in color image and video processing. Rather than covering all aspects of the domain this survey covers issues related to the most active research areas in the last two years. It presents the most recent trends as well as the state-of-the-art, with a broad survey of the relevant literature, in the main active research areas in color imaging. It also focuses on the most promising research areas in color imaging science. This survey gives an overview about the issues, controversies, and problems of color image science. It focuses on human color vision, perception, and interpretation. It focuses also on acquisition systems, consumer imaging applications, and medical imaging applications. Next it gives a brief overview about the solutions, recommendations, most recent trends, and future trends of color image science. It focuses on color space, appearance models, color difference metrics, and color saliency. It focuses also on color features, color-based object tracking, scene illuminant estimation and color constancy, quality assessment and fidelity assessment, color characterization and calibration of a display device. It focuses on quantization, filtering and enhancement, segmentation, coding and compression, watermarking, and lastly on multispectral color image processing. Lastly, it addresses the research areas which still need addressing and which are the next and future perspectives of color in image and video processing.

  11. Video outside versus video inside the web: do media setting and image size have an impact on the emotion-evoking potential of video?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verleur, R.; Verhagen, Pleunes Willem; Crawford, Margaret; Simonson, Michael; Lamboy, Carmen

    2001-01-01

    To explore the educational potential of video-evoked affective responses in a Web-based environment, the question was raised whether video in a Web-based environment is experienced differently from video in a traditional context. An experiment was conducted that studied the affect-evoking power of

  12. Comparison of Image Transform-Based Features for Visual Speech Recognition in Clean and Corrupted Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seymour Rowan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present results of a study into the performance of a variety of different image transform-based feature types for speaker-independent visual speech recognition of isolated digits. This includes the first reported use of features extracted using a discrete curvelet transform. The study will show a comparison of some methods for selecting features of each feature type and show the relative benefits of both static and dynamic visual features. The performance of the features will be tested on both clean video data and also video data corrupted in a variety of ways to assess each feature type's robustness to potential real-world conditions. One of the test conditions involves a novel form of video corruption we call jitter which simulates camera and/or head movement during recording.

  13. Comparison of Image Transform-Based Features for Visual Speech Recognition in Clean and Corrupted Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Ming

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We present results of a study into the performance of a variety of different image transform-based feature types for speaker-independent visual speech recognition of isolated digits. This includes the first reported use of features extracted using a discrete curvelet transform. The study will show a comparison of some methods for selecting features of each feature type and show the relative benefits of both static and dynamic visual features. The performance of the features will be tested on both clean video data and also video data corrupted in a variety of ways to assess each feature type's robustness to potential real-world conditions. One of the test conditions involves a novel form of video corruption we call jitter which simulates camera and/or head movement during recording.

  14. Bit Plane Coding based Steganography Technique for JPEG2000 Images and Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Kasana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Bit Plane Coding (BPC based steganography technique for JPEG2000 images and Motion JPEG2000 video is proposed. Embedding in this technique is performed in the lowest significant bit planes of the wavelet coefficients of a cover image. In JPEG2000 standard, the number of bit planes of wavelet coefficients to be used in encoding is dependent on the compression rate and are used in Tier-2 process of JPEG2000. In the proposed technique, Tier-1 and Tier-2 processes of JPEG2000 and Motion JPEG2000 are executed twice on the encoder side to collect the information about the lowest bit planes of all code blocks of a cover image, which is utilized in embedding and transmitted to the decoder. After embedding secret data, Optimal Pixel Adjustment Process (OPAP is applied on stego images to enhance its visual quality. Experimental results show that proposed technique provides large embedding capacity and better visual quality of stego images than existing steganography techniques for JPEG2000 compressed images and videos. Extracted secret image is similar to the original secret image.

  15. Data and videos for ultrafast synchrotron X-ray imaging studies of metal solidification under ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the paper entitled ‘Ultrafast synchrotron X-ray imaging studies of microstructure fragmentation in solidification under ultrasound’ [Wang et al., Acta Mater. 144 (2018 505-515]. This data article provides further supporting information and analytical methods, including the data from both experimental and numerical simulation, as well as the Matlab code for processing the X-ray images. Six videos constructed from the processed synchrotron X-ray images are also provided.

  16. Modeling the Color Image and Video Quality on Liquid Crystal Displays with Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Objective image and video quality metrics focus mostly on the digital representation of the signal. However, the display characteristics are also essential for the overall Quality of Experience (QoE). In this paper, we use a model of a backlight dimming system for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD......) and show how the modeled image can be used as an input to quality assessment algorithms. For quality assessment, we propose an image quality metric, based on Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) computation in the CIE L*a*b* color space. The metric takes luminance reduction, color distortion and loss...

  17. Bollywood Movie Corpus for Text, Images and Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Madaan, Nishtha; Mehta, Sameep; Saxena, Mayank; Aggarwal, Aditi; Agrawaal, Taneea S; Malhotra, Vrinda

    2017-01-01

    In past few years, several data-sets have been released for text and images. We present an approach to create the data-set for use in detecting and removing gender bias from text. We also include a set of challenges we have faced while creating this corpora. In this work, we have worked with movie data from Wikipedia plots and movie trailers from YouTube. Our Bollywood Movie corpus contains 4000 movies extracted from Wikipedia and 880 trailers extracted from YouTube which were released from 1...

  18. Analysis of physiological responses associated with emotional changes induced by viewing video images of dental treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Taki; Miwa, Zenzo; Tsuchihashi, Natsumi; Uehara, Naoko; Sugimoto, Kumiko

    2015-03-30

    Since the understanding of emotional changes induced by dental treatments is important for dentists to provide a safe and comfortable dental treatment, we analyzed physiological responses during watching video images of dental treatments to search for the appropriate objective indices reflecting emotional changes. Fifteen healthy young adult subjects voluntarily participated in the present study. Electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG) and corrugator muscle electromyogram (EMG) were recorded and changes of them by viewing videos of dental treatments were analyzed. The subjective discomfort level was acquired by Visual Analog Scale method. Analyses of autonomic nervous activities from ECG and four emotional factors (anger/stress, joy/satisfaction, sadness/depression and relaxation) from EEG demonstrated that increases in sympathetic nervous activity reflecting stress increase and decreases in relaxation level were induced by the videos of infiltration anesthesia and cavity excavation, but not intraoral examination. The corrugator muscle activity was increased by all three images regardless of video contents. The subjective discomfort during watching infiltration anesthesia and cavity excavation was higher than intraoral examination, showing that sympathetic activities and relaxation factor of emotion changed in a manner consistent with subjective emotional changes. These results suggest that measurement of autonomic nervous activities estimated from ECG and emotional factors analyzed from EEG is useful for objective evaluation of subjective emotion.

  19. Performance of a video-image-subtraction-based patient positioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliken, Barrett D.; Rubin, Steven J.; Hamilton, Russell J.; Johnson, L. Scott; Chen, George T.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: We have developed and tested an interactive video system that utilizes image subtraction techniques to enable high precision patient repositioning using surface features. We report quantitative measurements of system performance characteristics. Methods and Materials: Video images can provide a high precision, low cost measure of patient position. Image subtraction techniques enable one to incorporate detailed information contained in the image of a carefully verified reference position into real-time images. We have developed a system using video cameras providing orthogonal images of the treatment setup. The images are acquired, processed and viewed using an inexpensive frame grabber and a PC. The subtraction images provide the interactive guidance needed to quickly and accurately place a patient in the same position for each treatment session. We describe the design and implementation of our system, and its quantitative performance, using images both to measure changes in position, and to achieve accurate setup reproducibility. Results: Under clinical conditions (60 cm field of view, 3.6 m object distance), the position of static, high contrast objects could be measured with a resolution of 0.04 mm (rms) in each of two dimensions. The two-dimensional position could be reproduced using the real-time image display with a resolution of 0.15 mm (rms). Two-dimensional measurement resolution of the head of a patient undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer was 0.1 mm (rms), using a lateral view, measuring the variation in position of the nose and the ear over the course of a single radiation treatment. Three-dimensional repositioning accuracy of the head of a healthy volunteer using orthogonal camera views was less than 0.7 mm (systematic error) with an rms variation of 1.2 mm. Setup adjustments based on the video images were typically performed within a few minutes. The higher precision achieved using the system to measure objects than to reposition

  20. MO-A-BRD-06: In Vivo Cherenkov Video Imaging to Verify Whole Breast Irradiation Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R; Glaser, A [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH - New Hampshire (United States); Jarvis, L [Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, City Of Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Gladstone, D [Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Hanover, City of Lebanon (Lebanon); Andreozzi, J; Hitchcock, W; Pogue, B [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To show in vivo video imaging of Cherenkov emission (Cherenkoscopy) can be acquired in the clinical treatment room without affecting the normal process of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Applications of Cherenkoscopy, such as patient positioning, movement tracking, treatment monitoring and superficial dose estimation, were examined. Methods: In a phase 1 clinical trial, including 12 patients undergoing post-lumpectomy whole breast irradiation, Cherenkov emission was imaged with a time-gated ICCD camera synchronized to the radiation pulses, during 10 fractions of the treatment. Images from different treatment days were compared by calculating the 2-D correlations corresponding to the averaged image. An edge detection algorithm was utilized to highlight biological features, such as the blood vessels. Superficial dose deposited at the sampling depth were derived from the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and compared with the Cherenkov images. Skin reactions were graded weekly according to the Common Toxicity Criteria and digital photographs were obtained for comparison. Results: Real time (fps = 4.8) imaging of Cherenkov emission was feasible and feasibility tests indicated that it could be improved to video rate (fps = 30) with system improvements. Dynamic field changes due to fast MLC motion were imaged in real time. The average 2-D correlation was about 0.99, suggesting the stability of this imaging technique and repeatability of patient positioning was outstanding. Edge enhanced images of blood vessels were observed, and could serve as unique biological markers for patient positioning and movement tracking (breathing). Small discrepancies exists between the Cherenkov images and the superficial dose predicted from the TPS but the former agreed better with actual skin reactions than did the latter. Conclusion: Real time Cherenkoscopy imaging during EBRT is a novel imaging tool that could be utilized for patient positioning, movement tracking

  1. Image-scanning measurement using video dissection cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    A high speed dimensional measuring system capable of scanning a thin film network, and determining if there are conductor widths, resistor widths, or spaces not typical of the design for this product is described. The eye of the system is a conventional TV camera, although such devices as image dissector cameras or solid-state scanners may be used more often in the future. The analog signal from the TV camera is digitized for processing by the computer and is presented to the TV monitor to assist the operator in monitoring the system's operation. Movable stages are required when the field of view of the scanner is less than the size of the object. A minicomputer controls the movement of the stage, and communicates with the digitizer to select picture points that are to be processed. Communications with the system are maintained through a teletype or CRT terminal

  2. Applying GA for Optimizing the User Query in Image and Video Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    In an information retrieval system, the query can be made by user sketch. The new method presented here, optimizes the user sketch and applies the optimized query to retrieval the information. This optimization may be used in Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) and Content-Based Video Retrieval (CBVR) which is based on trajectory extraction. To optimize the retrieval process, one stage of retrieval is performed by the user sketch. The retrieval criterion is based on the proposed distance met...

  3. Exploring Multi-Modal and Structured Representation Learning for Visual Image and Video Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    As the explosive growth of the visual data, it is particularly important to develop intelligent visual understanding techniques for dealing with a large amount of data. Many efforts have been made in recent years to build highly effective and large-scale visual processing algorithms and systems. One of the core aspects in the research line is how to learn robust representations to better describe the data. In this thesis we study the problem of visual image and video understanding and specifi...

  4. A low-cost, high-resolution, video-rate imaging optical radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackos, J.T.; Nellums, R.O.; Lebien, S.M.; Diegert, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grantham, J.W.; Monson, T. [Air Force Research Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a unique type of portable low-cost range imaging optical radar (laser radar or LADAR). This innovative sensor is comprised of an active floodlight scene illuminator and an image intensified CCD camera receiver. It is a solid-state device (no moving parts) that offers significant size, performance, reliability, and simplicity advantages over other types of 3-D imaging sensors. This unique flash LADAR is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is well suited for many government and commercial uses. This paper presents an update of Sandia`s development of the Scannerless Range Imager technology and applications, and discusses the progress that has been made in evolving the sensor into a compact, low, cost, high-resolution, video rate Laser Dynamic Range Imager.

  5. The effect of music video clips on adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Volcevski-Kostas, Diana; Rendell, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    There is limited research that has examined experimentally the effects of muscular images on adolescent boys' body image, with no research specifically examining the effects of music television. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of viewing muscular and attractive singers in music video clips on early, mid, and late adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation. Participants were 180 boys in grade 7 (mean age = 12.73 years), grade 9 (mean age = 14.40 years) or grade 11 (mean age = 16.15 years) who completed pre- and post-test measures of mood and body satisfaction after viewing music videos containing male singers of muscular or average appearance. They also completed measures of schema activation and social comparison after viewing the clips. The results showed that the boys who viewed the muscular clips reported poorer upper body satisfaction, lower appearance satisfaction, lower happiness, and more depressive feelings compared to boys who viewed the clips depicting singers of average appearance. There was no evidence of increased appearance schema activation but the boys who viewed the muscular clips did report higher levels of social comparison to the singers. The results suggest that music video clips are a powerful form of media in conveying information about the male ideal body shape and that negative effects are found in boys as young as 12 years.

  6. Video on the Internet: An introduction to the digital encoding, compression, and transmission of moving image data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudier, T; Shotton, D M

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we seek to provide an introduction to the fast-moving field of digital video on the Internet, from the viewpoint of the biological microscopist who might wish to store or access videos, for instance in image databases such as the BioImage Database (http://www.bioimage.org). We describe and evaluate the principal methods used for encoding and compressing moving image data for digital storage and transmission over the Internet, which involve compromises between compression efficiency and retention of image fidelity, and describe the existing alternate software technologies for downloading or streaming compressed digitized videos using a Web browser. We report the results of experiments on video microscopy recordings and three-dimensional confocal animations of biological specimens to evaluate the compression efficiencies of the principal video compression-decompression algorithms (codecs) and to document the artefacts associated with each of them. Because MPEG-1 gives very high compression while yet retaining reasonable image quality, these studies lead us to recommend that video databases should store both a high-resolution original version of each video, ideally either uncompressed or losslessly compressed, and a separate edited and highly compressed MPEG-1 preview version that can be rapidly downloaded for interactive viewing by the database user. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. Video transect images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): data from 2002 (NODC Accession 0000961)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2002 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  8. Video transect images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): data from year 1999 (NODC Accession 0000671)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (JPEG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 1999 at 26 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  9. Video Transect Images (1999) from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) (NODC Accession 0000671)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (JPEG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 1999 at 26 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  10. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP):Data from 2003 (NODC Accession 0001732)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2003 at 15 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  11. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2003 (NODC Accession 0001732)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2003 at 15 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  12. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2000 (NODC Accession 0000728)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2000 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  13. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2002 (NODC Accession 0000961)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2002 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  14. Color in Image and Video Processing: Most Recent Trends and Future Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Tominaga Shoji; Plataniotis KonstantinosN; Trémeau Alain

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The motivation of this paper is to provide an overview of the most recent trends and of the future research directions in color image and video processing. Rather than covering all aspects of the domain this survey covers issues related to the most active research areas in the last two years. It presents the most recent trends as well as the state-of-the-art, with a broad survey of the relevant literature, in the main active research areas in color imaging. It also focuses on the mos...

  15. Shifting Weights: Adapting Object Detectors from Image to Video (Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-08

    Skateboard Sewing Machine Sandwich Figure 1: Images of the “ Skateboard ”, “Sewing machine”, and “Sandwich” classes taken from (top row) ImageNet [7...InitialBL VideoPosBL Our method(nt) Our method(full) Gopalan et al. [18] (PLS) Gopalan et al. [18] (SVM) Skateboard 4.29% 2.89% 10.44% 10.44% 0.04% 0.94...belongs to no event class. We select 6 object classes to learn object detectors for because they are commonly present in selected events: “ Skateboard

  16. A real-time remote video streaming platform for ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Gross, Warren J; Kadoury, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is a viable imaging technology in remote and resources-limited areas. Ultrasonography is a user-dependent skill which depends on a high degree of training and hands-on experience. However, there is a limited number of skillful sonographers located in remote areas. In this work, we aim to develop a real-time video streaming platform which allows specialist physicians to remotely monitor ultrasound exams. To this end, an ultrasound stream is captured and transmitted through a wireless network into remote computers, smart-phones and tablets. In addition, the system is equipped with a camera to track the position of the ultrasound probe. The main advantage of our work is using an open source platform for video streaming which gives us more control over streaming parameters than the available commercial products. The transmission delays of the system are evaluated for several ultrasound video resolutions and the results show that ultrasound videos close to the high-definition (HD) resolution can be received and displayed on an Android tablet with the delay of 0.5 seconds which is acceptable for accurate real-time diagnosis.

  17. High-Performance Motion Estimation for Image Sensors with Video Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhi Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is important to reduce the time cost of video compression for image sensors in video sensor network. Motion estimation (ME is the most time-consuming part in video compression. Previous work on ME exploited intra-frame data reuse in a reference frame to improve the time efficiency but neglected inter-frame data reuse. We propose a novel inter-frame data reuse scheme which can exploit both intra-frame and inter-frame data reuse for ME in video compression (VC-ME. Pixels of reconstructed frames are kept on-chip until they are used by the next current frame to avoid off-chip memory access. On-chip buffers with smart schedules of data access are designed to perform the new data reuse scheme. Three levels of the proposed inter-frame data reuse scheme are presented and analyzed. They give different choices with tradeoff between off-chip bandwidth requirement and on-chip memory size. All three levels have better data reuse efficiency than their intra-frame counterparts, so off-chip memory traffic is reduced effectively. Comparing the new inter-frame data reuse scheme with the traditional intra-frame data reuse scheme, the memory traffic can be reduced by 50% for VC-ME.

  18. Visualization of glucagon secretion from pancreatic α cells by bioluminescence video microscopy: Identification of secretion sites in the intercellular contact regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokawa, Satoru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Inouye, Satoshi; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Ryo; Kanamori, Takao; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide

    2017-01-01

    We have firstly visualized glucagon secretion using a method of video-rate bioluminescence imaging. The fusion protein of proglucagon and Gaussia luciferase (PGCG-GLase) was used as a reporter to detect glucagon secretion and was efficiently expressed in mouse pancreatic α cells (αTC1.6) using a preferred human codon-optimized gene. In the culture medium of the cells expressing PGCG-GLase, luminescence activity determined with a luminometer was increased with low glucose stimulation and KCl-induced depolarization, as observed for glucagon secretion. From immunochemical analyses, PGCG-GLase stably expressed in clonal αTC1.6 cells was correctly processed and released by secretory granules. Luminescence signals of the secreted PGCG-GLase from the stable cells were visualized by video-rate bioluminescence microscopy. The video images showed an increase in glucagon secretion from clustered cells in response to stimulation by KCl. The secretory events were observed frequently at the intercellular contact regions. Thus, the localization and frequency of glucagon secretion might be regulated by cell-cell adhesion. - Highlights: • The fused protein of proglucagon to Gaussia luciferase was used as a reporter. • The fusion protein was highly expressed using a preferred human-codon optimized gene. • Glucagon secretion stimulated by depolarization was determined by luminescence. • Glucagon secretion in α cells was visualized by bioluminescence imaging. • Glucagon secretion sites were localized in the intercellular contact regions.

  19. Superimpose of images by appending two simple video amplifier circuits to color television

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Kazuhiko; Hiraki, Tatsunosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Maekawa, Ryuichi; Hisada, Kinichi.

    1979-01-01

    Images are very useful to obtain diagnostic informations in medical fields. Also by superimposing two or three images obtained from the same patient, various informations, for example a degree of overlapping and anatomical land mark, which can not be found in only one image, can be often found. In this paper characteristics of our trial color television system for the purpose of superimposing x-ray images and/or radionuclide images are described. This color television system superimposing two images in each different color consists of two monochromatic vidicon cameras and 20 inches conventional color television in which only two simple video amplifier circuits are added. Signals from vidicon cameras are amplified about 40 dB and are directly applied to cathode terminals of color CRT in the television. This system is very simple and economical color displays, and enhance a degree of overlapping and displacement between images. As one of typical clinical applications, pancreas images were superimposed in color by this method. As a result, size and position of pancreas was enhanced. Also x-ray image and radionuclide image were superimposed to find exactly the position of tumors. Furthermore this system was very useful for color display of multinuclides scintigraphy. (author)

  20. Superimpose of images by appending two simple video amplifier circuits to color television

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, K; Hiraki, T; Koshida, K; Maekawa, R [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Hisada, K

    1979-09-01

    Images are very useful to obtain diagnostic informations in medical fields. Also by superimposing two or three images obtained from the same patient, various informations, for example a degree of overlapping and anatomical land mark, which can not be found in only one image, can be often found. In this paper characteristics of our trial color television system for the purpose of superimposing x-ray images and/or radionuclide images are described. This color television system superimposing two images in each different color consists of two monochromatic vidicon cameras and 20 inches conventional color television in which only two simple video amplifier circuits are added. Signals from vidicon cameras are amplified about 40 dB and are directly applied to cathode terminals of color CRT in the television. This system is very simple and economical color displays, and enhance a degree of overlapping and displacement between images. As one of typical clinical applications, pancreas images were superimposed in color by this method. As a result, size and position of pancreas was enhanced. Also x-ray image and radionuclide image were superimposed to find exactly the position of tumors. Furthermore this system was very useful for color display of multinuclides scintigraphy.

  1. Availability and performance of image/video-based vital signs monitoring methods: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Mirae; Catherall, Jacqueline; Gerry, Stephen; Young, Duncan; Watkinson, Peter

    2017-10-25

    For many vital signs, monitoring methods require contact with the patient and/or are invasive in nature. There is increasing interest in developing still and video image-guided monitoring methods that are non-contact and non-invasive. We will undertake a systematic review of still and video image-based monitoring methods. We will perform searches in multiple databases which include MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane library, IEEE Xplore and ACM Digital Library. We will use OpenGrey and Google searches to access unpublished or commercial data. We will not use language or publication date restrictions. The primary goal is to summarise current image-based vital signs monitoring methods, limited to heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturations and blood pressure. Of particular interest will be the effectiveness of image-based methods compared to reference devices. Other outcomes of interest include the quality of the method comparison studies with respect to published reporting guidelines, any limitations of non-contact non-invasive technology and application in different populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of image-based non-contact methods of vital signs monitoring. Synthesis of currently available technology will facilitate future research in this highly topical area. PROSPERO CRD42016029167.

  2. Availability and performance of image/video-based vital signs monitoring methods: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirae Harford

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many vital signs, monitoring methods require contact with the patient and/or are invasive in nature. There is increasing interest in developing still and video image-guided monitoring methods that are non-contact and non-invasive. We will undertake a systematic review of still and video image-based monitoring methods. Methods We will perform searches in multiple databases which include MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane library, IEEE Xplore and ACM Digital Library. We will use OpenGrey and Google searches to access unpublished or commercial data. We will not use language or publication date restrictions. The primary goal is to summarise current image-based vital signs monitoring methods, limited to heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturations and blood pressure. Of particular interest will be the effectiveness of image-based methods compared to reference devices. Other outcomes of interest include the quality of the method comparison studies with respect to published reporting guidelines, any limitations of non-contact non-invasive technology and application in different populations. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of image-based non-contact methods of vital signs monitoring. Synthesis of currently available technology will facilitate future research in this highly topical area. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42016029167

  3. INTEGRATION OF VIDEO IMAGES AND CAD WIREFRAMES FOR 3D OBJECT LOCALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Persad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of moving objects from single images has received widespread attention in photogrammetric computer vision and considered to be at a state of maturity. This paper presents a model-driven solution for localizing moving objects detected from monocular, rotating and zooming video images in a 3D reference frame. To realize such a system, the recovery of 2D to 3D projection parameters is essential. Automatic estimation of these parameters is critical, particularly for pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ surveillance cameras where parameters change spontaneously upon camera motion. In this work, an algorithm for automated parameter retrieval is proposed. This is achieved by matching linear features between incoming images from video sequences and simple geometric 3D CAD wireframe models of man-made structures. The feature matching schema uses a hypothesis-verify optimization framework referred to as LR-RANSAC. This novel method improves the computational efficiency of the matching process in comparison to the standard RANSAC robust estimator. To demonstrate the applicability and performance of the method, experiments have been performed on indoor and outdoor image sequences under varying conditions with lighting changes and occlusions. Reliability of the matching algorithm has been analyzed by comparing the automatically determined camera parameters with ground truth (GT. Dependability of the retrieved parameters for 3D localization has also been assessed by comparing the difference between 3D positions of moving image objects estimated using the LR-RANSAC-derived parameters and those computed using GT parameters.

  4. A video authentication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Unattended video surveillance systems are particularly vulnerable to the substitution of false video images into the cable that connects the camera to the video recorder. New technology has made it practical to insert a solid state video memory into the video cable, freeze a video image from the camera, and hold this image as long as desired. Various techniques, such as line supervision and sync detection, have been used to detect video cable tampering. The video authentication technique described in this paper uses the actual video image from the camera as the basis for detecting any image substitution made during the transmission of the video image to the recorder. The technique, designed for unattended video systems, can be used for any video transmission system where a two-way digital data link can be established. The technique uses similar microprocessor circuitry at the video camera and at the video recorder to select sample points in the video image for comparison. The gray scale value of these points is compared at the recorder controller and if the values agree within limits, the image is authenticated. If a significantly different image was substituted, the comparison would fail at a number of points and the video image would not be authenticated. The video authentication system can run as a stand-alone system or at the request of another system

  5. Usefulness of video images from a X-ray simulator in recordings of the treatment portal of pulmonary lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Masayuki; Sakurai, Makoto; Fujioka, Tomio; Fukuoka, Masahiro; Kusunoki, Yoko; Nakajima, Toshifumi; Onoyama, Yasuto.

    1992-01-01

    Movement of the target volume should be taken into consideration in treatment planning. Respiratory movement is the greatest motion in radiotherapy for the pulmonary lesion. We combined video with a X-ray simulator to record movement. Of 50 patients whose images were recorded, respiratory movements of 0 to 4 mm, of 5 to 9 mm, and of more than 10 mm were observed in 13, 21, and 16 patients, respectively. Discrepancies of 5 to 9 mm and of more than 10 mm between simulator films and video images were observed in 14 and 13 patients, respectively. These results show that video images are useful in recording the movement while considering respiratory motion. We recommend that video system added to a X-ray simulator is used for treatment planning, especially in radiotherapy for the pulmonary lesion. (author)

  6. A flexible software architecture for scalable real-time image and video processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Molleda, Julio; García, Daniel F.; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2012-06-01

    Real-time image and video processing applications require skilled architects, and recent trends in the hardware platform make the design and implementation of these applications increasingly complex. Many frameworks and libraries have been proposed or commercialized to simplify the design and tuning of real-time image processing applications. However, they tend to lack flexibility because they are normally oriented towards particular types of applications, or they impose specific data processing models such as the pipeline. Other issues include large memory footprints, difficulty for reuse and inefficient execution on multicore processors. This paper presents a novel software architecture for real-time image and video processing applications which addresses these issues. The architecture is divided into three layers: the platform abstraction layer, the messaging layer, and the application layer. The platform abstraction layer provides a high level application programming interface for the rest of the architecture. The messaging layer provides a message passing interface based on a dynamic publish/subscribe pattern. A topic-based filtering in which messages are published to topics is used to route the messages from the publishers to the subscribers interested in a particular type of messages. The application layer provides a repository for reusable application modules designed for real-time image and video processing applications. These modules, which include acquisition, visualization, communication, user interface and data processing modules, take advantage of the power of other well-known libraries such as OpenCV, Intel IPP, or CUDA. Finally, we present different prototypes and applications to show the possibilities of the proposed architecture.

  7. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Tsuji, Osahiko [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Hanyu, Aki [Division of Biochemistry, The Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Okada, Seiji [Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yasuda, Akimasa [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Fukano, Takashi [Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Akazawa, Chihiro [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Nakamura, Masaya [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Imamura, Takeshi [Department of Molecular Medicine for Pathogenesis, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, The Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Yumi [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Okano, Hirotaka James, E-mail: hjokano@jikei.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Division of Regenerative Medicine Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo 150-8461 (Japan); and others

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  8. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako; Tsuji, Osahiko; Hanyu, Aki; Okada, Seiji; Yasuda, Akimasa; Fukano, Takashi; Akazawa, Chihiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Imamura, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Okano, Hirotaka James

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. ► ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. ► ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. ► ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  9. Extracting a Good Quality Frontal Face Image from a Low-Resolution Video Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    Feeding low-resolution and low-quality images, from inexpensive surveillance cameras, to systems like, e.g., face recognition, produces erroneous and unstable results. Therefore, there is a need for a mechanism to bridge the gap between on one hand low-resolution and low-quality images......, we use a learning-based super-resolution algorithm applied to the result of the reconstruction-based part to improve the quality by another factor of two. This results in an improvement factor of four for the entire system. The proposed system has been tested on 122 low-resolution sequences from two...... different databases. The experimental results show that the proposed system can indeed produce a high-resolution and good quality frontal face image from low-resolution video sequences....

  10. Integration of prior knowledge into dense image matching for video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menze, M.; Heipke, C.

    2014-08-01

    Three-dimensional information from dense image matching is a valuable input for a broad range of vision applications. While reliable approaches exist for dedicated stereo setups they do not easily generalize to more challenging camera configurations. In the context of video surveillance the typically large spatial extent of the region of interest and repetitive structures in the scene render the application of dense image matching a challenging task. In this paper we present an approach that derives strong prior knowledge from a planar approximation of the scene. This information is integrated into a graph-cut based image matching framework that treats the assignment of optimal disparity values as a labelling task. Introducing the planar prior heavily reduces ambiguities together with the search space and increases computational efficiency. The results provide a proof of concept of the proposed approach. It allows the reconstruction of dense point clouds in more general surveillance camera setups with wider stereo baselines.

  11. Video and thermal imaging system for monitoring interiors of high temperature reaction vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Alexei V [Chicago, IL; Zelepouga, Serguei A [Hoffman Estates, IL; Rue, David M [Chicago, IL

    2012-01-10

    A system and method for real-time monitoring of the interior of a combustor or gasifier wherein light emitted by the interior surface of a refractory wall of the combustor or gasifier is collected using an imaging fiber optic bundle having a light receiving end and a light output end. Color information in the light is captured with primary color (RGB) filters or complimentary color (GMCY) filters placed over individual pixels of color sensors disposed within a digital color camera in a BAYER mosaic layout, producing RGB signal outputs or GMCY signal outputs. The signal outputs are processed using intensity ratios of the primary color filters or the complimentary color filters, producing video images and/or thermal images of the interior of the combustor or gasifier.

  12. Video-rate or high-precision: a flexible range imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, Adrian A.; Cree, Michael J.; Carnegie, Dale A.; Payne, Andrew D.; Conroy, Richard M.; Godbaz, John P.; Jongenelen, Adrian P. P.

    2008-02-01

    A range imaging camera produces an output similar to a digital photograph, but every pixel in the image contains distance information as well as intensity. This is useful for measuring the shape, size and location of objects in a scene, hence is well suited to certain machine vision applications. Previously we demonstrated a heterodyne range imaging system operating in a relatively high resolution (512-by-512) pixels and high precision (0.4 mm best case) configuration, but with a slow measurement rate (one every 10 s). Although this high precision range imaging is useful for some applications, the low acquisition speed is limiting in many situations. The system's frame rate and length of acquisition is fully configurable in software, which means the measurement rate can be increased by compromising precision and image resolution. In this paper we demonstrate the flexibility of our range imaging system by showing examples of high precision ranging at slow acquisition speeds and video-rate ranging with reduced ranging precision and image resolution. We also show that the heterodyne approach and the use of more than four samples per beat cycle provides better linearity than the traditional homodyne quadrature detection approach. Finally, we comment on practical issues of frame rate and beat signal frequency selection.

  13. Deep linear autoencoder and patch clustering-based unified one-dimensional coding of image and video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honggui

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a unified one-dimensional (1-D) coding framework of image and video, which depends on deep learning neural network and image patch clustering. First, an improved K-means clustering algorithm for image patches is employed to obtain the compact inputs of deep artificial neural network. Second, for the purpose of best reconstructing original image patches, deep linear autoencoder (DLA), a linear version of the classical deep nonlinear autoencoder, is introduced to achieve the 1-D representation of image blocks. Under the circumstances of 1-D representation, DLA is capable of attaining zero reconstruction error, which is impossible for the classical nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods. Third, a unified 1-D coding infrastructure for image, intraframe, interframe, multiview video, three-dimensional (3-D) video, and multiview 3-D video is built by incorporating different categories of videos into the inputs of patch clustering algorithm. Finally, it is shown in the results of simulation experiments that the proposed methods can simultaneously gain higher compression ratio and peak signal-to-noise ratio than those of the state-of-the-art methods in the situation of low bitrate transmission.

  14. Real-time strategy video game experience and structural connectivity - A diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Natalia; Shi, Feng; Magnuski, Mikolaj; Skorko, Maciek; Dobrowolski, Pawel; Kossowski, Bartosz; Marchewka, Artur; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Kossut, Malgorzata; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2018-06-20

    Experienced video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognition when compared to non-players. However, very little is known about the relation between video game experience and structural brain plasticity. To address this issue, a direct comparison of the white matter brain structure in RTS (real time strategy) video game players (VGPs) and non-players (NVGPs) was performed. We hypothesized that RTS experience can enhance connectivity within and between occipital and parietal regions, as these regions are likely to be involved in the spatial and visual abilities that are trained while playing RTS games. The possible influence of long-term RTS game play experience on brain structural connections was investigated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a region of interest (ROI) approach in order to describe the experience-related plasticity of white matter. Our results revealed significantly more total white matter connections between occipital and parietal areas and within occipital areas in RTS players compared to NVGPs. Additionally, the RTS group had an altered topological organization of their structural network, expressed in local efficiency within the occipito-parietal subnetwork. Furthermore, the positive association between network metrics and time spent playing RTS games suggests a close relationship between extensive, long-term RTS game play and neuroplastic changes. These results indicate that long-term and extensive RTS game experience induces alterations along axons that link structures of the occipito-parietal loop involved in spatial and visual processing. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The architecture of a video image processor for the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalamanchili, S.; Lee, D.; Fritze, K.; Carpenter, T.; Hoyme, K.; Murray, N.

    1987-01-01

    The architecture of a video image processor for space station applications is described. The architecture was derived from a study of the requirements of algorithms that are necessary to produce the desired functionality of many of these applications. Architectural options were selected based on a simulation of the execution of these algorithms on various architectural organizations. A great deal of emphasis was placed on the ability of the system to evolve and grow over the lifetime of the space station. The result is a hierarchical parallel architecture that is characterized by high level language programmability, modularity, extensibility and can meet the required performance goals.

  16. Overview of image processing tools to extract physical information from JET videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, T.; Murari, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Tiseanu, I.; Zoita, V.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-11-01

    In magnetic confinement nuclear fusion devices such as JET, the last few years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital imagery, not only for the surveying and control of experiments, but also for the physical interpretation of results. More than 25 cameras are routinely used for imaging on JET in the infrared (IR) and visible spectral regions. These cameras can produce up to tens of Gbytes per shot and their information content can be very different, depending on the experimental conditions. However, the relevant information about the underlying physical processes is generally of much reduced dimensionality compared to the recorded data. The extraction of this information, which allows full exploitation of these diagnostics, is a challenging task. The image analysis consists, in most cases, of inverse problems which are typically ill-posed mathematically. The typology of objects to be analysed is very wide, and usually the images are affected by noise, low levels of contrast, low grey-level in-depth resolution, reshaping of moving objects, etc. Moreover, the plasma events have time constants of ms or tens of ms, which imposes tough conditions for real-time applications. On JET, in the last few years new tools and methods have been developed for physical information retrieval. The methodology of optical flow has allowed, under certain assumptions, the derivation of information about the dynamics of video objects associated with different physical phenomena, such as instabilities, pellets and filaments. The approach has been extended in order to approximate the optical flow within the MPEG compressed domain, allowing the manipulation of the large JET video databases and, in specific cases, even real-time data processing. The fast visible camera may provide new information that is potentially useful for disruption prediction. A set of methods, based on the extraction of structural information from the visual scene, have been developed for the

  17. Overview of image processing tools to extract physical information from JET videos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciunescu, T; Tiseanu, I; Zoita, V; Murari, A; Gelfusa, M

    2014-01-01

    In magnetic confinement nuclear fusion devices such as JET, the last few years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital imagery, not only for the surveying and control of experiments, but also for the physical interpretation of results. More than 25 cameras are routinely used for imaging on JET in the infrared (IR) and visible spectral regions. These cameras can produce up to tens of Gbytes per shot and their information content can be very different, depending on the experimental conditions. However, the relevant information about the underlying physical processes is generally of much reduced dimensionality compared to the recorded data. The extraction of this information, which allows full exploitation of these diagnostics, is a challenging task. The image analysis consists, in most cases, of inverse problems which are typically ill-posed mathematically. The typology of objects to be analysed is very wide, and usually the images are affected by noise, low levels of contrast, low grey-level in-depth resolution, reshaping of moving objects, etc. Moreover, the plasma events have time constants of ms or tens of ms, which imposes tough conditions for real-time applications. On JET, in the last few years new tools and methods have been developed for physical information retrieval. The methodology of optical flow has allowed, under certain assumptions, the derivation of information about the dynamics of video objects associated with different physical phenomena, such as instabilities, pellets and filaments. The approach has been extended in order to approximate the optical flow within the MPEG compressed domain, allowing the manipulation of the large JET video databases and, in specific cases, even real-time data processing. The fast visible camera may provide new information that is potentially useful for disruption prediction. A set of methods, based on the extraction of structural information from the visual scene, have been developed for the

  18. An automated form of video image analysis applied to classification of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R; Guan, L; Burne, J A

    Video image analysis is able to provide quantitative data on postural and movement abnormalities and thus has an important application in neurological diagnosis and management. The conventional techniques require patients to be videotaped while wearing markers in a highly structured laboratory environment. This restricts the utility of video in routine clinical practise. We have begun development of intelligent software which aims to provide a more flexible system able to quantify human posture and movement directly from whole-body images without markers and in an unstructured environment. The steps involved are to extract complete human profiles from video frames, to fit skeletal frameworks to the profiles and derive joint angles and swing distances. By this means a given posture is reduced to a set of basic parameters that can provide input to a neural network classifier. To test the system's performance we videotaped patients with dopa-responsive Parkinsonism and age-matched normals during several gait cycles, to yield 61 patient and 49 normal postures. These postures were reduced to their basic parameters and fed to the neural network classifier in various combinations. The optimal parameter sets (consisting of both swing distances and joint angles) yielded successful classification of normals and patients with an accuracy above 90%. This result demonstrated the feasibility of the approach. The technique has the potential to guide clinicians on the relative sensitivity of specific postural/gait features in diagnosis. Future studies will aim to improve the robustness of the system in providing accurate parameter estimates from subjects wearing a range of clothing, and to further improve discrimination by incorporating more stages of the gait cycle into the analysis.

  19. Effective deep learning training for single-image super-resolution in endomicroscopy exploiting video-registration-based reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravì, Daniele; Szczotka, Agnieszka Barbara; Shakir, Dzhoshkun Ismail; Pereira, Stephen P; Vercauteren, Tom

    2018-06-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is a recent imaging modality that allows performing in vivo optical biopsies. The design of pCLE hardware, and its reliance on an optical fibre bundle, fundamentally limits the image quality with a few tens of thousands fibres, each acting as the equivalent of a single-pixel detector, assembled into a single fibre bundle. Video registration techniques can be used to estimate high-resolution (HR) images by exploiting the temporal information contained in a sequence of low-resolution (LR) images. However, the alignment of LR frames, required for the fusion, is computationally demanding and prone to artefacts. In this work, we propose a novel synthetic data generation approach to train exemplar-based Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). HR pCLE images with enhanced quality are recovered by the models trained on pairs of estimated HR images (generated by the video registration algorithm) and realistic synthetic LR images. Performance of three different state-of-the-art DNNs techniques were analysed on a Smart Atlas database of 8806 images from 238 pCLE video sequences. The results were validated through an extensive image quality assessment that takes into account different quality scores, including a Mean Opinion Score (MOS). Results indicate that the proposed solution produces an effective improvement in the quality of the obtained reconstructed image. The proposed training strategy and associated DNNs allows us to perform convincing super-resolution of pCLE images.

  20. Video event classification and image segmentation based on noncausal multidimensional hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiang; Schonfeld, Dan; Khokhar, Ashfaq A

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel solution to an arbitrary noncausal, multidimensional hidden Markov model (HMM) for image and video classification. First, we show that the noncausal model can be solved by splitting it into multiple causal HMMs and simultaneously solving each causal HMM using a fully synchronous distributed computing framework, therefore referred to as distributed HMMs. Next we present an approximate solution to the multiple causal HMMs that is based on an alternating updating scheme and assumes a realistic sequential computing framework. The parameters of the distributed causal HMMs are estimated by extending the classical 1-D training and classification algorithms to multiple dimensions. The proposed extension to arbitrary causal, multidimensional HMMs allows state transitions that are dependent on all causal neighbors. We, thus, extend three fundamental algorithms to multidimensional causal systems, i.e., 1) expectation-maximization (EM), 2) general forward-backward (GFB), and 3) Viterbi algorithms. In the simulations, we choose to limit ourselves to a noncausal 2-D model whose noncausality is along a single dimension, in order to significantly reduce the computational complexity. Simulation results demonstrate the superior performance, higher accuracy rate, and applicability of the proposed noncausal HMM framework to image and video classification.

  1. The use of digital imaging, video conferencing, and telepathology in histopathology: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, T; Start, R D; Cross, S S

    2005-03-01

    To undertake a large scale survey of histopathologists in the UK to determine the current infrastructure, training, and attitudes to digital pathology. A postal questionnaire was sent to 500 consultant histopathologists randomly selected from the membership of the Royal College of Pathologists in the UK. There was a response rate of 47%. Sixty four per cent of respondents had a digital camera mounted on their microscope, but only 12% had any sort of telepathology equipment. Thirty per cent used digital images in electronic presentations at meetings at least once a year and only 24% had ever used telepathology in a diagnostic situation. Fifty nine per cent had received no training in digital imaging. Fifty eight per cent felt that the medicolegal implications of duty of care were a barrier to its use. A large proportion of pathologists (69%) were interested in using video conferencing for remote attendance at multidisciplinary team meetings. There is a reasonable level of equipment and communications infrastructure among histopathologists in the UK but a very low level of training. There is resistance to the use of telepathology in the diagnostic context but enthusiasm for the use of video conferencing in multidisciplinary team meetings.

  2. Low-complexity camera digital signal imaging for video document projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Shih-Chang; Tsai, Po-Shien

    2011-04-01

    We present high-performance and low-complexity algorithms for real-time camera imaging applications. The main functions of the proposed camera digital signal processing (DSP) involve color interpolation, white balance, adaptive binary processing, auto gain control, and edge and color enhancement for video projection systems. A series of simulations demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve good image quality while keeping computation cost and memory requirements low. On the basis of the proposed algorithms, the cost-effective hardware core is developed using Verilog HDL. The prototype chip has been verified with one low-cost programmable device. The real-time camera system can achieve 1270 × 792 resolution with the combination of extra components and can demonstrate each DSP function.

  3. Live cell imaging of in vitro human trophoblast syncytialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Dang, Yan-Li; Zheng, Ru; Li, Yue; Li, Weiwei; Lu, Xiaoyin; Wang, Li-Juan; Zhu, Cheng; Lin, Hai-Yan; Wang, Hongmei

    2014-06-01

    Human trophoblast syncytialization, a process of cell-cell fusion, is one of the most important yet least understood events during placental development. Investigating the fusion process in a placenta in vivo is very challenging given the complexity of this process. Application of primary cultured cytotrophoblast cells isolated from term placentas and BeWo cells derived from human choriocarcinoma formulates a biphasic strategy to achieve the mechanism of trophoblast cell fusion, as the former can spontaneously fuse to form the multinucleated syncytium and the latter is capable of fusing under the treatment of forskolin (FSK). Live-cell imaging is a powerful tool that is widely used to investigate many physiological or pathological processes in various animal models or humans; however, to our knowledge, the mechanism of trophoblast cell fusion has not been reported using a live- cell imaging manner. In this study, a live-cell imaging system was used to delineate the fusion process of primary term cytotrophoblast cells and BeWo cells. By using live staining with Hoechst 33342 or cytoplasmic dyes or by stably transfecting enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and DsRed2-Nuc reporter plasmids, we observed finger-like protrusions on the cell membranes of fusion partners before fusion and the exchange of cytoplasmic contents during fusion. In summary, this study provides the first video recording of the process of trophoblast syncytialization. Furthermore, the various live-cell imaging systems used in this study will help to yield molecular insights into the syncytialization process during placental development. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  4. High-quality and small-capacity e-learning video featuring lecturer-superimposing PC screen images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoshihiko; Murakami, Michinobu; Sakamoto, Ryota; Sugiura, Tokuhiro; Matsui, Hirokazu; Kato, Norihiko

    2006-10-01

    Information processing and communication technology are progressing quickly, and are prevailing throughout various technological fields. Therefore, the development of such technology should respond to the needs for improvement of quality in the e-learning education system. The authors propose a new video-image compression processing system that ingeniously employs the features of the lecturing scene. While dynamic lecturing scene is shot by a digital video camera, screen images are electronically stored by a PC screen image capturing software in relatively long period at a practical class. Then, a lecturer and a lecture stick are extracted from the digital video images by pattern recognition techniques, and the extracted images are superimposed on the appropriate PC screen images by off-line processing. Thus, we have succeeded to create a high-quality and small-capacity (HQ/SC) video-on-demand educational content featuring the advantages: the high quality of image sharpness, the small electronic file capacity, and the realistic lecturer motion.

  5. VISDTA: A video imaging system for detection, tracking, and assessment: Prototype development and concept demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.A.

    1987-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that thermal imagers are an effective surveillance and assessment tool for security applications because: (1) they work day or night due to their sensitivity to thermal signatures; (2) penetrability through fog, rain, dust, etc., is better than human eyes; (3) short or long range operation is possible with various optics; and (4) they are strictly passive devices providing visible imagery which is readily interpreted by the operator with little training. Unfortunately, most thermal imagers also require the setup of a tripod, connection of batteries, cables, display, etc. When this is accomplished, the operator must manually move the camera back and forth searching for signs of aggressor activity. VISDTA is designed to provide automatic panning, and in a sense, ''watch'' the imagery in place of the operator. The idea behind the development of VISDTA is to provide a small, portable, rugged system to automatically scan areas and detect targets by computer processing of images. It would use a thermal imager and possibly an intensified day/night TV camera, a pan/ tilt mount, and a computer for system control. If mounted on a dedicated vehicle or on a tower, VISDTA will perform video motion detection functions on incoming video imagery, and automatically scan predefined patterns in search of abnormal conditions which may indicate attempted intrusions into the field-of-regard. In that respect, VISDTA is capable of improving the ability of security forces to maintain security of a given area of interest by augmenting present techniques and reducing operator fatigue.

  6. Method for operating video game with back-feeding a video image of a player, and a video game arranged for practicing the method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    In a video gaming environment, a player is enabled to interact with the environment. Further, a score and/or performance of the player in a particular session is machine detected and fed fed back into the gaming environment and a representation of said score and/or performance is displayed in visual

  7. Cherenkov Video Imaging Allows for the First Visualization of Radiation Therapy in Real Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, Lesley A.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Gladstone, David J.; Jiang, Shudong; Hitchcock, Whitney; Friedman, Oscar D.; Glaser, Adam K.; Jermyn, Michael; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether Cherenkov light imaging can visualize radiation therapy in real time during breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: An intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was synchronized to the 3.25-μs radiation pulses of the clinical linear accelerator with the intensifier set × 100. Cherenkov images were acquired continuously (2.8 frames/s) during fractionated whole breast irradiation with each frame an accumulation of 100 radiation pulses (approximately 5 monitor units). Results: The first patient images ever created are used to illustrate that Cherenkov emission can be visualized as a video during conditions typical for breast radiation therapy, even with complex treatment plans, mixed energies, and modulated treatment fields. Images were generated correlating to the superficial dose received by the patient and potentially the location of the resulting skin reactions. Major blood vessels are visible in the image, providing the potential to use these as biological landmarks for improved geometric accuracy. The potential for this system to detect radiation therapy misadministrations, which can result from hardware malfunction or patient positioning setup errors during individual fractions, is shown. Conclusions: Cherenkoscopy is a unique method for visualizing surface dose resulting in real-time quality control. We propose that this system could detect radiation therapy errors in everyday clinical practice at a time when these errors can be corrected to result in improved safety and quality of radiation therapy

  8. Realization of a video-rate distributed aperture millimeter-wave imaging system using optical upconversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Christopher; Martin, Richard; Dillon, Thomas; Yao, Peng; Mackrides, Daniel; Harrity, Charles; Zablocki, Alicia; Shreve, Kevin; Bonnett, James; Curt, Petersen; Prather, Dennis

    2013-05-01

    Passive imaging using millimeter waves (mmWs) has many advantages and applications in the defense and security markets. All terrestrial bodies emit mmW radiation and these wavelengths are able to penetrate smoke, fog/clouds/marine layers, and even clothing. One primary obstacle to imaging in this spectrum is that longer wavelengths require larger apertures to achieve the resolutions desired for many applications. Accordingly, lens-based focal plane systems and scanning systems tend to require large aperture optics, which increase the achievable size and weight of such systems to beyond what can be supported by many applications. To overcome this limitation, a distributed aperture detection scheme is used in which the effective aperture size can be increased without the associated volumetric increase in imager size. This distributed aperture system is realized through conversion of the received mmW energy into sidebands on an optical carrier. This conversion serves, in essence, to scale the mmW sparse aperture array signals onto a complementary optical array. The side bands are subsequently stripped from the optical carrier and recombined to provide a real time snapshot of the mmW signal. Using this technique, we have constructed a real-time, video-rate imager operating at 75 GHz. A distributed aperture consisting of 220 upconversion channels is used to realize 2.5k pixels with passive sensitivity. Details of the construction and operation of this imager as well as field testing results will be presented herein.

  9. A bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature on Internet, video games, and cell phone addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Xavier; Guardiola, Elena; Beranuy, Marta; Bellés, Ana

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to locate the scientific literature dealing with addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to characterize the pattern of publications in these areas. One hundred seventy-nine valid articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycINFO between 1996 and 2005 related to pathological Internet, cell phone, or video game use. The years with the highest numbers of articles published were 2004 (n = 42) and 2005 (n = 40). The most productive countries, in terms of number of articles published, were the United States (n = 52), China (n = 23), the United Kingdom (n = 17), Taiwan (n = 13), and South Korea (n = 9). The most commonly used language was English (65.4%), followed by Chinese (12.8%) and Spanish (4.5%). Articles were published in 96 different journals, of which 22 published 2 or more articles. The journal that published the most articles was Cyberpsychology & Behavior (n = 41). Addiction to the Internet was the most intensely studied (85.3%), followed by addiction to video games (13.6%) and cell phones (2.1%). The number of publications in this area is growing, but it is difficult to conduct precise searches due to a lack of clear terminology. To facilitate retrieval, bibliographic databases should include descriptor terms referring specifically to Internet, video games, and cell phone addiction as well as to more general addictions involving communications and information technologies and other behavioral addictions.

  10. Interaction between High-Level and Low-Level Image Analysis for Semantic Video Object Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cavallaro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The task of extracting a semantic video object is split into two subproblems, namely, object segmentation and region segmentation. Object segmentation relies on a priori assumptions, whereas region segmentation is data-driven and can be solved in an automatic manner. These two subproblems are not mutually independent, and they can benefit from interactions with each other. In this paper, a framework for such interaction is formulated. This representation scheme based on region segmentation and semantic segmentation is compatible with the view that image analysis and scene understanding problems can be decomposed into low-level and high-level tasks. Low-level tasks pertain to region-oriented processing, whereas the high-level tasks are closely related to object-level processing. This approach emulates the human visual system: what one “sees” in a scene depends on the scene itself (region segmentation as well as on the cognitive task (semantic segmentation at hand. The higher-level segmentation results in a partition corresponding to semantic video objects. Semantic video objects do not usually have invariant physical properties and the definition depends on the application. Hence, the definition incorporates complex domain-specific knowledge and is not easy to generalize. For the specific implementation used in this paper, motion is used as a clue to semantic information. In this framework, an automatic algorithm is presented for computing the semantic partition based on color change detection. The change detection strategy is designed to be immune to the sensor noise and local illumination variations. The lower-level segmentation identifies the partition corresponding to perceptually uniform regions. These regions are derived by clustering in an N-dimensional feature space, composed of static as well as dynamic image attributes. We propose an interaction mechanism between the semantic and the region partitions which allows to

  11. Imaging of sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.J.; Sarnaik, S.

    1999-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is an important health care issue in the United States and in certain areas in Africa, the Middle East and India. Although a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the disease at the molecular and pathophysiologic level, specific treatment which is safe and accessible for most patients is still elusive. Going into the next millennium, the management of this disease is still largely dependent on early diagnosis and the treatment of complications with supportive care. Thus, diagnosis and evaluation of the complications of the disease are crucial in directing clinical care at the bedside. Modern imaging modalities have greatly improved, and their application in the patient with the sickling disorders has enhanced the decision - making process. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical aspects of common complications of the disease and to discuss imaging approaches which are useful in their evaluation. (orig.)

  12. Image/video understanding systems based on network-symbolic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2004-03-01

    Vision is a part of a larger information system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive vision process, resolve ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback projections, and provide image understanding that is an interpretation of visual information in terms of such knowledge models. Computer simulation models are built on the basis of graphs/networks. The ability of human brain to emulate similar graph/network models is found. Symbols, predicates and grammars naturally emerge in such networks, and logic is simply a way of restructuring such models. Brain analyzes an image as a graph-type relational structure created via multilevel hierarchical compression of visual information. Primary areas provide active fusion of image features on a spatial grid-like structure, where nodes are cortical columns. Spatial logic and topology naturally present in such structures. Mid-level vision processes like perceptual grouping, separation of figure from ground, are special kinds of network transformations. They convert primary image structure into the set of more abstract ones, which represent objects and visual scene, making them easy for analysis by higher-level knowledge structures. Higher-level vision phenomena are results of such analysis. Composition of network-symbolic models combines learning, classification, and analogy together with higher-level model-based reasoning into a single framework, and it works similar to frames and agents. Computational intelligence methods transform images into model-based knowledge representation. Based on such principles, an Image/Video Understanding system can convert images into the knowledge models, and resolve uncertainty and ambiguity. This allows creating intelligent computer vision systems for design and manufacturing.

  13. Novel aspects of live intestinal epithelial cell function revealed using a custom time-lapse video microscopy apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papetti, Michael; Kozlowski, Piotr

    2018-04-01

    Many aspects of cell physiology, including migration, membrane function, and cell division, are best understood by observing live cell dynamics over time using video microscopy. To probe these phenomena in colon epithelial cells using simple components with a limited budget, we have constructed an inexpensive (PID (proportional-integrative-derivative) controller contained within a 0.077 m 3 insulated acrylic box. Temperature, humidity, pH, and proliferative capacity of colon epithelial cells in this system mimic those in a standard tissue culture incubator for over four days. Our system offers significant advantages over existing cost-prohibitive commercially available and custom-made devices because of its very low cost, use of PID temperature control, lack of reliance on constant infusion of external humidified, heated air or carbon dioxide, ability to directly measure cell culture medium temperature, and combination of exquisite cellular detail with minimal focus drift under physiological conditions for extended periods of time. Using this apparatus, coupled with an inverted microscope equipped with phase contrast optics and a programmable digital camera, we have observed many events in colon epithelial cells not visible by static imaging, including kinetics of normal and abnormal mitoses, dynamic membrane structures, intracellular vesicle movements, and cell migration. © 2018 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2018 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  14. Dynamic imaging of cell-free and cell-associated viral capture in mature dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Esteban, Olga; Rodriguez-Plata, Maria T; Erkizia, Itziar; Prado, Julia G; Blanco, Julià; García-Parajo, Maria F; Martinez-Picado, Javier

    2011-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) capture human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through a non-fusogenic mechanism that enables viral transmission to CD4(+) T cells, contributing to in vivo viral dissemination. Although previous studies have provided important clues to cell-free viral capture by mature DCs (mDCs), dynamic and kinetic insight on this process is still missing. Here, we used three-dimensional video microscopy and single-particle tracking approaches to dynamically dissect both cell-free and cell-associated viral capture by living mDCs. We show that cell-free virus capture by mDCs operates through three sequential phases: virus binding through specific determinants expressed in the viral particle, polarized or directional movements toward concrete regions of the cell membrane and virus accumulation in a sac-like structure where trapped viral particles display a hindered diffusive behavior. Moreover, real-time imaging of cell-associated viral transfer to mDCs showed a similar dynamics to that exhibited by cell-free virus endocytosis leading to viral accumulation in compartments. However, cell-associated HIV type 1 transfer to mDCs was the most effective pathway, boosted throughout enhanced cellular contacts with infected CD4(+) T cells. Our results suggest that in lymphoid tissues, mDC viral uptake could occur either by encountering cell-free or cell-associated virus produced by infected cells generating the perfect scenario to promote HIV pathogenesis and impact disease progression. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Modeling of video traffic in packet networks, low rate video compression, and the development of a lossy+lossless image compression algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayood, K.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, X.

    1992-01-01

    During this reporting period we have worked on three somewhat different problems. These are modeling of video traffic in packet networks, low rate video compression, and the development of a lossy + lossless image compression algorithm, which might have some application in browsing algorithms. The lossy + lossless scheme is an extension of work previously done under this grant. It provides a simple technique for incorporating browsing capability. The low rate coding scheme is also a simple variation on the standard discrete cosine transform (DCT) coding approach. In spite of its simplicity, the approach provides surprisingly high quality reconstructions. The modeling approach is borrowed from the speech recognition literature, and seems to be promising in that it provides a simple way of obtaining an idea about the second order behavior of a particular coding scheme. Details about these are presented.

  16. On use of image quality metrics for perceptual blur modeling: image/video compression case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae H.; Olson, Jeffrey T.; Preece, Bradley L.; Espinola, Richard L.; Abbott, A. Lynn

    2018-02-01

    Linear system theory is employed to make target acquisition performance predictions for electro-optical/infrared imaging systems where the modulation transfer function (MTF) may be imposed from a nonlinear degradation process. Previous research relying on image quality metrics (IQM) methods, which heuristically estimate perceived MTF has supported that an average perceived MTF can be used to model some types of degradation such as image compression. Here, we discuss the validity of the IQM approach by mathematically analyzing the associated heuristics from the perspective of reliability, robustness, and tractability. Experiments with standard images compressed by x.264 encoding suggest that the compression degradation can be estimated by a perceived MTF within boundaries defined by well-behaved curves with marginal error. Our results confirm that the IQM linearizer methodology provides a credible tool for sensor performance modeling.

  17. Towards an automated analysis of video-microscopy images of fungal morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal morphogenesis is an exciting field of cell biology and several mathematical models have been developed to describe it. These models require experimental evidences to be corroborated and, therefore, there is a continuous search for new microscopy and image analysis techniques. In this work, we have used a Canny-edge-detector based technique to automate the generation of hyphal profiles and calculation of morphogenetic parameters such as diameter, elongation rates and hyphoid fitness. The results show that the data obtained with this technique are similar to published data generated with manualbased tracing techniques and that have been carried out on the same species or genus. Thus, we show that application of edge detector-based technique to hyphal growth represents an efficient and accurate method to study hyphal morphogenesis. This represents the first step towards an automated analysis of videomicroscopy images of fungal morphogenesis.La morfogénesis de los hongos es un área de estudio de gran relevancia en la biología celular y en la que se han desarrollado varios modelos matemáticos. Los modelos matemáticos de procesos biológicos precisan de pruebas experimentales que apoyen y corroboren las predicciones teóricas y, por este motivo, existe una búsqueda continua de nuevas técnicas de microscopía y análisis de imágenes para su aplicación en el estudio del crecimiento celular. En este trabajo hemos utilizado una técnica basada en un detector de contornos llamado “Canny-edge-detectorâ€� con el objetivo de automatizar la generación de perfiles de hifas y el cálculo de parámetros morfogenéticos, tales como: el diámetro, la velocidad de elongación y el ajuste con el perfil hifoide, es decir, el perfil teórico de las hifas de los hongos. Los resultados obtenidos son similares a los datos publicados a partir de técnicas manuales de trazado de contornos, generados en la misma especie y género. De esta manera

  18. Analyzing Structure and Function of Vascularization in Engineered Bone Tissue by Video-Rate Intravital Microscopy and 3D Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yonggang; Tsigkou, Olga; Spencer, Joel A; Lin, Charles P; Neville, Craig; Grottkau, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Vascularization is a key challenge in tissue engineering. Three-dimensional structure and microcirculation are two fundamental parameters for evaluating vascularization. Microscopic techniques with cellular level resolution, fast continuous observation, and robust 3D postimage processing are essential for evaluation, but have not been applied previously because of technical difficulties. In this study, we report novel video-rate confocal microscopy and 3D postimage processing techniques to accomplish this goal. In an immune-deficient mouse model, vascularized bone tissue was successfully engineered using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffold. Video-rate (30 FPS) intravital confocal microscopy was applied in vitro and in vivo to visualize the vascular structure in the engineered bone and the microcirculation of the blood cells. Postimage processing was applied to perform 3D image reconstruction, by analyzing microvascular networks and calculating blood cell viscosity. The 3D volume reconstructed images show that the hMSCs served as pericytes stabilizing the microvascular network formed by HUVECs. Using orthogonal imaging reconstruction and transparency adjustment, both the vessel structure and blood cells within the vessel lumen were visualized. Network length, network intersections, and intersection densities were successfully computed using our custom-developed software. Viscosity analysis of the blood cells provided functional evaluation of the microcirculation. These results show that by 8 weeks, the blood vessels in peripheral areas function quite similarly to the host vessels. However, the viscosity drops about fourfold where it is only 0.8 mm away from the host. In summary, we developed novel techniques combining intravital microscopy and 3D image processing to analyze the vascularization in engineered bone. These techniques have broad

  19. Image and video based remote target localization and tracking on smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qia; Lobzhanidze, Alex; Jang, Hyun; Zeng, Wenjun; Shang, Yi; Yang, Jingyu

    2012-06-01

    Smartphones are becoming popular nowadays not only because of its communication functionality but also, more importantly, its powerful sensing and computing capability. In this paper, we describe a novel and accurate image and video based remote target localization and tracking system using the Android smartphones, by leveraging its built-in sensors such as camera, digital compass, GPS, etc. Even though many other distance estimation or localization devices are available, our all-in-one, easy-to-use localization and tracking system on low cost and commodity smartphones is first of its kind. Furthermore, smartphones' exclusive user-friendly interface has been effectively taken advantage of by our system to facilitate low complexity and high accuracy. Our experimental results show that our system works accurately and efficiently.

  20. Fast Orientation of Video Images of Buildings Acquired from a UAV without Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, Michal; Delis, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the possibility of conducting an absolute orientation procedure for video imagery, in which the external orientation for the first image was typical for aerial photogrammetry whereas the external orientation of the second was typical for terrestrial photogrammetry. Starting from the collinearity equations, assuming that the camera tilt angle is equal to 90°, a simplified mathematical model is proposed. The proposed method can be used to determine the X, Y, Z coordinates of points based on a set of collinearity equations of a pair of images. The use of simplified collinearity equations can considerably shorten the processing tine of image data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), especially in low cost systems. The conducted experiments have shown that it is possible to carry out a complete photogrammetric project of an architectural structure using a camera tilted 85°–90° (φ or ω) and simplified collinearity equations. It is also concluded that there is a correlation between the speed of the UAV and the discrepancy between the established and actual camera tilt angles. PMID:27347954

  1. Fast Orientation of Video Images of Buildings Acquired from a UAV without Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kedzierski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the possibility of conducting an absolute orientation procedure for video imagery, in which the external orientation for the first image was typical for aerial photogrammetry whereas the external orientation of the second was typical for terrestrial photogrammetry. Starting from the collinearity equations, assuming that the camera tilt angle is equal to 90°, a simplified mathematical model is proposed. The proposed method can be used to determine the X, Y, Z coordinates of points based on a set of collinearity equations of a pair of images. The use of simplified collinearity equations can considerably shorten the processing tine of image data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, especially in low cost systems. The conducted experiments have shown that it is possible to carry out a complete photogrammetric project of an architectural structure using a camera tilted 85°–90° ( φ or ω and simplified collinearity equations. It is also concluded that there is a correlation between the speed of the UAV and the discrepancy between the established and actual camera tilt angles.

  2. Capturing and displaying microscopic images used in medical diagnostics and forensic science using 4K video resolution – an application in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan Kuijten; Ajda Ortac; Hans Maier; Gert de Heer

    2015-01-01

    To analyze, interpret and evaluate microscopic images, used in medical diagnostics and forensic science, video images for educational purposes were made with a very high resolution of 4096 × 2160 pixels (4K), which is four times as many pixels as High-Definition Video (1920 × 1080 pixels).

  3. Video Comparator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    The Video Comparator is a comparative gage that uses electronic images from two sources, a standard and an unknown. Two matched video cameras are used to obtain the electronic images. The video signals are mixed and displayed on a single video receiver (CRT). The video system is manufactured by ITP of Chatsworth, CA and is a Tele-Microscope II, Model 148. One of the cameras is mounted on a toolmaker's microscope stand and produces a 250X image of a cast. The other camera is mounted on a stand and produces an image of a 250X template. The two video images are mixed in a control box provided by ITP and displayed on a CRT. The template or the cast can be moved to align the desired features. Vertical reference lines are provided on the CRT, and a feature on the cast can be aligned with a line on the CRT screen. The stage containing the casts can be moved using a Boeckleler micrometer equipped with a digital readout, and a second feature aligned with the reference line and the distance moved obtained from the digital display

  4. Review of passive-blind detection in digital video forgery based on sensing and imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Junjie; Jia, Lili; You, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Advances in digital video compression and IP communication technologies raised new issues and challenges concerning the integrity and authenticity of surveillance videos. It is so important that the system should ensure that once recorded, the video cannot be altered; ensuring the audit trail is intact for evidential purposes. This paper gives an overview of passive techniques of Digital Video Forensics which are based on intrinsic fingerprints inherent in digital surveillance videos. In this paper, we performed a thorough research of literatures relevant to video manipulation detection methods which accomplish blind authentications without referring to any auxiliary information. We presents review of various existing methods in literature, and much more work is needed to be done in this field of video forensics based on video data analysis and observation of the surveillance systems.

  5. Optical cell sorting with multiple imaging modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Andrew; Carrissemoux, Caro; Palima, Darwin

    2017-01-01

    healthy cells. With the richness of visual information, a lot of microscopy techniques have been developed and have been crucial in biological studies. To utilize their complementary advantages we adopt both fluorescence and brightfield imaging in our optical cell sorter. Brightfield imaging has...... the advantage of being non-invasive, thus maintaining cell viability. Fluorescence imaging, on the other hand, takes advantages of the chemical specificity of fluorescence markers and can validate machine vision results from brightfield images. Visually identified cells are sorted using optical manipulation...

  6. The MIVS [Modular Integrated Video System] Image Processing System (MIPS) for assisting in the optical surveillance data review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The MIVS (Modular Integrated Video System) Image Processing System (MIPS) is designed to review MIVS surveillance data automatically and identify IAEA defined objects of safeguards interest. To achieve this, MIPS uses both digital image processing and neural network techniques to detect objects of safeguards interest in an image and assist an inspector in the review of the MIVS video tapes. MIPS must be ''trained'' i.e., given example images showing the objects that it must recognize, for each different facility. Image processing techniques are used to first identify significantly changed areas of the image. A neural network is then used to determine if the image contains the important object(s). The MIPS algorithms have demonstrated the capability to detect when a spent fuel shipping cask is present in an image after MIPS is properly trained to detect the cask. The algorithms have also demonstrated the ability to reject uninteresting background activities such as people and crane movement. When MIPS detects an important object, the corresponding image is stored to another media and later replayed for the inspector to review. The MIPS algorithms are being implemented in commercially available hardware: an image processing subsystem and an 80386 Personal Computer. MIPS will have a high-level easy-to-use system interface to allow inspectors to train MIPS on MIVS data from different facilities and on various safeguards significant objects. This paper describes the MIPS algorithms, hardware implementation, and system configuration. 3 refs., 10 figs

  7. Video imaging measurement of interfacial wave velocity in air-water flow through a horizontal elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wazzan, Amir; Than, Cheok F.; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Yew, Chia W.

    2001-10-01

    Two-phase flow in pipelines containing elbows represents a common situation in the oil and gas industries. This study deals with the stratified flow regime between the gas and liquid phase through an elbow. It is of interest to study the change in wave characteristics by measuring the wave velocity and wavelength at the inlet and outlet of the elbow. The experiments were performed under concurrent air-water stratified flow in a horizontal transparent polycarbonate pipe of 0.05m diameter and superficial air and water velocities up to 8.97 and 0.0778 m/s respectively. A non-intrusive video imaging technique was applied to capture the waves. For image analysis, a frame by frame direct overlapping method was used to detect for pulsating flow and a pixel shifting method based on the detection of minimum values in the overlap function was used to determine wave velocity and wavelength. Under superficial gas velocity of less than 4.44 m/s, the results suggest a regular pulsating outflow produced by the elbow. At higher gas velocities, more random pulsation was found and the emergence of localized interfacial waves was detected. Wave velocities measured by this technique were found to produce satisfactory agreement with direct measurements.

  8. Thermal image analysis of plastic deformation and fracture behavior by a thermo-video measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohbuchi, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Nagatomo, Nobuaki

    2016-01-01

    The visualization of the plastic region and the measurement of its size are necessary and indispensable to evaluate the deformation and fracture behavior of a material. In order to evaluate the plastic deformation and fracture behavior in a structural member with some flaws, the authors paid attention to the surface temperature which is generated by plastic strain energy. The visualization of the plastic deformation was developed by analyzing the relationship between the extension of the plastic deformation range and the surface temperature distribution, which was obtained by an infrared thermo-video system. Furthermore, FEM elasto-plastic analysis was carried out with the experiment, and the effectiveness of this non-contact measurement system of the plastic deformation and fracture process by a thermography system was discussed. The evaluation method using an infrared imaging device proposed in this research has a feature which does not exist in the current evaluation method, i.e. the heat distribution on the surface of the material has been measured widely by noncontact at 2D at high speed. The new measuring technique proposed here can measure the macroscopic plastic deformation distribution on the material surface widely and precisely as a 2D image, and at high speed, by calculation from the heat generation and the heat propagation distribution. (paper)

  9. Color, Scale, and Rotation Independent Multiple License Plates Detection in Videos and Still Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha Reddy Soora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing license plate (LP detection systems have shown significant development in the processing of the images, with restrictions related to environmental conditions and plate variations. With increased mobility and internationalization, there is a need to develop a universal LP detection system, which can handle multiple LPs of many countries and any vehicle, in an open environment and all weather conditions, having different plate variations. This paper presents a novel LP detection method using different clustering techniques based on geometrical properties of the LP characters and proposed a new character extraction method, for noisy/missed character components of the LP due to the presence of noise between LP characters and LP border. The proposed method detects multiple LPs from an input image or video, having different plate variations, under different environmental and weather conditions because of the geometrical properties of the set of characters in the LP. The proposed method is tested using standard media-lab and Application Oriented License Plate (AOLP benchmark LP recognition databases and achieved the success rates of 97.3% and 93.7%, respectively. Results clearly indicate that the proposed approach is comparable to the previously published papers, which evaluated their performance on publicly available benchmark LP databases.

  10. Fast automatic quantitative cell replication with fluorescent live cell imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ching-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background live cell imaging is a useful tool to monitor cellular activities in living systems. It is often necessary in cancer research or experimental research to quantify the dividing capabilities of cells or the cell proliferation level when investigating manipulations of the cells or their environment. Manual quantification of fluorescence microscopic image is difficult because human is neither sensitive to fine differences in color intensity nor effective to count and average fluorescence level among cells. However, auto-quantification is not a straightforward problem to solve. As the sampling location of the microscopy changes, the amount of cells in individual microscopic images varies, which makes simple measurement methods such as the sum of stain intensity values or the total number of positive stain within each image inapplicable. Thus, automated quantification with robust cell segmentation techniques is required. Results An automated quantification system with robust cell segmentation technique are presented. The experimental results in application to monitor cellular replication activities show that the quantitative score is promising to represent the cell replication level, and scores for images from different cell replication groups are demonstrated to be statistically significantly different using ANOVA, LSD and Tukey HSD tests (p-value Conclusion A robust automated quantification method of live cell imaging is built to measure the cell replication level, providing a robust quantitative analysis system in fluorescent live cell imaging. In addition, the presented unsupervised entropy based cell segmentation for live cell images is demonstrated to be also applicable for nuclear segmentation of IHC tissue images.

  11. A clinical pilot study of a modular video-CT augmentation system for image-guided skull base surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen P.; Mirota, Daniel J.; Uneri, Ali; Otake, Yoshito; Hager, Gregory; Reh, Douglas D.; Ishii, Masaru; Gallia, Gary L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2012-02-01

    Augmentation of endoscopic video with preoperative or intraoperative image data [e.g., planning data and/or anatomical segmentations defined in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR)], can improve navigation, spatial orientation, confidence, and tissue resection in skull base surgery, especially with respect to critical neurovascular structures that may be difficult to visualize in the video scene. This paper presents the engineering and evaluation of a video augmentation system for endoscopic skull base surgery translated to use in a clinical study. Extension of previous research yielded a practical system with a modular design that can be applied to other endoscopic surgeries, including orthopedic, abdominal, and thoracic procedures. A clinical pilot study is underway to assess feasibility and benefit to surgical performance by overlaying CT or MR planning data in realtime, high-definition endoscopic video. Preoperative planning included segmentation of the carotid arteries, optic nerves, and surgical target volume (e.g., tumor). An automated camera calibration process was developed that demonstrates mean re-projection accuracy (0.7+/-0.3) pixels and mean target registration error of (2.3+/-1.5) mm. An IRB-approved clinical study involving fifteen patients undergoing skull base tumor surgery is underway in which each surgery includes the experimental video-CT system deployed in parallel to the standard-of-care (unaugmented) video display. Questionnaires distributed to one neurosurgeon and two otolaryngologists are used to assess primary outcome measures regarding the benefit to surgical confidence in localizing critical structures and targets by means of video overlay during surgical approach, resection, and reconstruction.

  12. In vivo cell tracking with bioluminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar; Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine and Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Molecular imaging is a fast growing biomedical research that allows the visual representation, characterization and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living organisms. In vivo tracking of cells is an indispensable technology for development and optimization of cell therapy for replacement or renewal of damaged or diseased tissue using transplanted cells, often autologous cells. With outstanding advantages of bioluminescence imaging, the imaging approach is most commonly applied for in vivo monitoring of transplanted stem cells or immune cells in order to assess viability of administered cells with therapeutic efficacy in preclinical small animal models. In this review, a general overview of bioluminescence is provided and recent updates of in vivo cell tracking using the bioluminescence signal are discussed.

  13. Revolutionize Propulsion Test Facility High-Speed Video Imaging with Disruptive Computational Photography Enabling Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced rocket propulsion testing requires high-speed video recording that can capture essential information for NASA during rocket engine flight certification...

  14. A video imaging system and related control hardware for nuclear safeguards surveillance applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whichello, J.V.

    1987-03-01

    A novel video surveillance system has been developed for safeguards applications in nuclear installations. The hardware was tested at a small experimental enrichment facility located at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The system uses digital video techniques to store, encode and transmit still television pictures over the public telephone network to a receiver located in the Australian Safeguards Office at Kings Cross, Sydney. A decoded, reconstructed picture is then obtained using a second video frame store. A computer-controlled video cassette recorder is used automatically to archive the surveillance pictures. The design of the surveillance system is described with examples of its operation

  15. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division ... Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video ...

  16. Multimodal Translation System Using Texture-Mapped Lip-Sync Images for Video Mail and Automatic Dubbing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a multimodal English-to-Japanese and Japanese-to-English translation system that also translates the speaker's speech motion by synchronizing it to the translated speech. This system also introduces both a face synthesis technique that can generate any viseme lip shape and a face tracking technique that can estimate the original position and rotation of a speaker's face in an image sequence. To retain the speaker's facial expression, we substitute only the speech organ's image with the synthesized one, which is made by a 3D wire-frame model that is adaptable to any speaker. Our approach provides translated image synthesis with an extremely small database. The tracking motion of the face from a video image is performed by template matching. In this system, the translation and rotation of the face are detected by using a 3D personal face model whose texture is captured from a video frame. We also propose a method to customize the personal face model by using our GUI tool. By combining these techniques and the translated voice synthesis technique, an automatic multimodal translation can be achieved that is suitable for video mail or automatic dubbing systems into other languages.

  17. Multimodal Translation System Using Texture-Mapped Lip-Sync Images for Video Mail and Automatic Dubbing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Shigeo; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2004-12-01

    We introduce a multimodal English-to-Japanese and Japanese-to-English translation system that also translates the speaker's speech motion by synchronizing it to the translated speech. This system also introduces both a face synthesis technique that can generate any viseme lip shape and a face tracking technique that can estimate the original position and rotation of a speaker's face in an image sequence. To retain the speaker's facial expression, we substitute only the speech organ's image with the synthesized one, which is made by a 3D wire-frame model that is adaptable to any speaker. Our approach provides translated image synthesis with an extremely small database. The tracking motion of the face from a video image is performed by template matching. In this system, the translation and rotation of the face are detected by using a 3D personal face model whose texture is captured from a video frame. We also propose a method to customize the personal face model by using our GUI tool. By combining these techniques and the translated voice synthesis technique, an automatic multimodal translation can be achieved that is suitable for video mail or automatic dubbing systems into other languages.

  18. NK cells and T cells: mirror images?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, R.

    1992-01-01

    The expression of MHC class I molecules protects cells against lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. It is possible that NK cells are 'educated' to recognize self MHC class I molecules and that the combination of self peptide and MHC class I molecule blocks NK-mediated lysis. Here, Rogier Versteeg

  19. Efficient Tensor Completion for Color Image and Video Recovery: Low-Rank Tensor Train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengua, Johann A; Phien, Ho N; Tuan, Hoang Duong; Do, Minh N

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to tensor completion, which recovers missing entries of data represented by tensors. The approach is based on the tensor train (TT) rank, which is able to capture hidden information from tensors thanks to its definition from a well-balanced matricization scheme. Accordingly, new optimization formulations for tensor completion are proposed as well as two new algorithms for their solution. The first one called simple low-rank tensor completion via TT (SiLRTC-TT) is intimately related to minimizing a nuclear norm based on TT rank. The second one is from a multilinear matrix factorization model to approximate the TT rank of a tensor, and is called tensor completion by parallel matrix factorization via TT (TMac-TT). A tensor augmentation scheme of transforming a low-order tensor to higher orders is also proposed to enhance the effectiveness of SiLRTC-TT and TMac-TT. Simulation results for color image and video recovery show the clear advantage of our method over all other methods.

  20. Meeting report--Imaging the Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Violaine; Cordelières, Fabrice P; Poujol, Christel; Sagot, Isabelle; Saltel, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Every two years, the French Society for Cell Biology (SBCF) organises an international meeting called 'Imaging the Cell'. This year, the 8th edition was held on 24-26 June 2015 at University of Bordeaux Campus Victoire in the city of Bordeaux, France, a UNESCO World Heritage site. Over the course of three days, the meeting provided a forum for experts in different areas of cell imaging. Its unique approach was to combine conventional oral presentations during morning sessions with practical workshops at hosting institutes and the Bordeaux Imaging Center during the afternoons. The meeting, co-organised by Violaine Moreau and Frédéric Saltel (both INSERM U1053, Bordeaux, France), Christel Poujol and Fabrice Cordelières (both Bordeaux Imaging Center, Bordeaux, France) and Isabelle Sagot (Institut de Biochimie et Génétique Cellulaires, Bordeaux, France), brought together about 120 scientists including 16 outstanding speakers to discuss the latest advances in cell imaging. Thanks to recent progress in imaging technologies, cell biologists are now able to visualise, follow and manipulate cellular processes with unprecedented accuracy. The meeting sessions and workshops highlighted some of the most exciting developments in the field, with sessions dedicated to optogenetics, high-content screening, in vivo and live-cell imaging, correlative light and electron microscopy, as well as super-resolution imaging. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Effect and Analysis of Sustainable Cell Rate using MPEG video Traffic in ATM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Kaushal

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The broadband networks inhibit the capability to carry multiple types of traffic – voice, video and data, but these services need to be controlled according to the traffic contract negotiated at the time of the connection to maintain desired Quality of service. Such control techniques use traffic descriptors to evaluate its performance and effectiveness. In case of Variable Bit Rate (VBR services, Peak Cell Rate (PCR and its Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (CDVTPCR are mandatory descriptors. In addition to these, ATM Forum proposed Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR and its Cell delay variation tolerance (CDVTSCR. In this paper, we evaluated the impact of specific SCR and CDVTSCR values on the Usage Parameter Control (UPC performance in case of measured MPEG traffic for improving the efficiency

  2. EXTRACTION OF BENTHIC COVER INFORMATION FROM VIDEO TOWS AND PHOTOGRAPHS USING OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. L. Estomata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mapping benthic cover in deep waters comprises a very small proportion of studies in the field of research. Majority of benthic cover mapping makes use of satellite images and usually, classification is carried out only for shallow waters. To map the seafloor in optically deep waters, underwater videos and photos are needed. Some researchers have applied this method on underwater photos, but made use of different classification methods such as: Neural Networks, and rapid classification via down sampling. In this study, accurate bathymetric data obtained using a multi-beam echo sounder (MBES was attempted to be used as complementary data with the underwater photographs. Due to the absence of a motion reference unit (MRU, which applies correction to the data gathered by the MBES, accuracy of the said depth data was compromised. Nevertheless, even with the absence of accurate bathymetric data, object-based image analysis (OBIA, which used rule sets based on information such as shape, size, area, relative distance, and spectral information, was still applied. Compared to pixel-based classifications, OBIA was able to classify more specific benthic cover types other than coral and sand, such as rubble and fish. Through the use of rule sets on area, less than or equal to 700 pixels for fish and between 700 to 10,000 pixels for rubble, as well as standard deviation values to distinguish texture, fish and rubble were identified. OBIA produced benthic cover maps that had higher overall accuracy, 93.78±0.85%, as compared to pixel-based methods that had an average accuracy of only 87.30±6.11% (p-value = 0.0001, α = 0.05.

  3. Prediction of foal carcass composition and wholesale cut yields by using video image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, J M; Guedes, C M; Agregán, R; Sarriés, M V; Franco, D; Silva, S R

    2018-01-01

    This work represents the first contribution for the application of the video image analysis (VIA) technology in predicting lean meat and fat composition in the equine species. Images of left sides of the carcass (n=42) were captured from the dorsal, lateral and medial views using a high-resolution digital camera. A total of 41 measurements (angles, lengths, widths and areas) were obtained by VIA. The variation of percentage of lean meat obtained from the forequarter (FQ) and hindquarter (HQ) carcass ranged between 5.86% and 7.83%. However, the percentage of fat (FAT) obtained from the FQ and HQ carcass presented a higher variation (CV between 41.34% and 44.58%). By combining different measurements and using prediction models with cold carcass weight (CCW) and VIA measurement the coefficient of determination (k-fold-R 2) were 0.458 and 0.532 for FQ and HQ, respectively. On the other hand, employing the most comprehensive model (CCW plus all VIA measurements), the k-fold-R 2 increased from 0.494 to 0.887 and 0.513 to 0.878 with respect to the simplest model (only with CCW), while precision increased with the reduction in the root mean square error (2.958 to 0.947 and 1.841 to 0.787) for the hindquarter fat and lean percentage, respectively. With CCW plus VIA measurements is possible to explain the wholesale value cuts yield variation (k-fold-R 2 between 0.533 and 0.889). Overall, the VIA technology performed in the present study could be considered as an accurate method to assess the horse carcass composition which could have a role in breeding programmes and research studies to assist in the development of a value-based marketing system for horse carcass.

  4. Integrated homeland security system with passive thermal imaging and advanced video analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Glen; Tillman, Jennifer; Hanna, Keith; Heubusch, Jeff; Ayers, Robert

    2007-04-01

    A complete detection, management, and control security system is absolutely essential to preempting criminal and terrorist assaults on key assets and critical infrastructure. According to Tom Ridge, former Secretary of the US Department of Homeland Security, "Voluntary efforts alone are not sufficient to provide the level of assurance Americans deserve and they must take steps to improve security." Further, it is expected that Congress will mandate private sector investment of over $20 billion in infrastructure protection between 2007 and 2015, which is incremental to funds currently being allocated to key sites by the department of Homeland Security. Nearly 500,000 individual sites have been identified by the US Department of Homeland Security as critical infrastructure sites that would suffer severe and extensive damage if a security breach should occur. In fact, one major breach in any of 7,000 critical infrastructure facilities threatens more than 10,000 people. And one major breach in any of 123 facilities-identified as "most critical" among the 500,000-threatens more than 1,000,000 people. Current visible, nightvision or near infrared imaging technology alone has limited foul-weather viewing capability, poor nighttime performance, and limited nighttime range. And many systems today yield excessive false alarms, are managed by fatigued operators, are unable to manage the voluminous data captured, or lack the ability to pinpoint where an intrusion occurred. In our 2006 paper, "Critical Infrastructure Security Confidence Through Automated Thermal Imaging", we showed how a highly effective security solution can be developed by integrating what are now available "next-generation technologies" which include: Thermal imaging for the highly effective detection of intruders in the dark of night and in challenging weather conditions at the sensor imaging level - we refer to this as the passive thermal sensor level detection building block Automated software detection

  5. Video as a Metaphorical Eye: Images of Positionality, Pedagogy, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erica R.

    2012-01-01

    Considered by many to be cost-effective and user-friendly, video technology is utilized in a multitude of contexts, including the university classroom. One purpose, although not often used, involves recording oneself teaching. This autoethnographic study focuses on the author's use of video and reflective practice in order to capture and examine…

  6. Video encoder/decoder for encoding/decoding motion compensated images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    Video encoder and decoder, provided with a motion compensator for motion-compensated video coding or decoding in which a picture is coded or decoded in blocks in alternately horizontal and vertical steps. The motion compensator is provided with addressing means (160) and controlled multiplexers

  7. High-speed three-frame image recording system using colored flash units and low-cost video equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Roberto G.; Scotten, Larry N.

    1995-05-01

    This article describes a method that allows the digital recording of sequences of three black and white images at rates of several thousand frames per second using a system consisting of an ordinary CCD camcorder, three flash units with color filters, a PC-based frame grabber board and some additional electronics. The maximum framing rate is determined by the duration of the flashtube emission, and for common photographic flash units lasting about 20 microsecond(s) it can exceed 10,000 frames per second in actual use. The subject under study is strobe- illuminated using a red, a green and a blue flash unit controlled by a special sequencer, and the three images are captured by a color CCD camera on a single video field. Color is used as the distinguishing parameter that allows the overlaid exposures to be resolved. The video output for that particular field will contain three individual scenes, one for each primary color component, which potentially can be resolved with no crosstalk between them. The output is electronically decoded into the primary color channels, frame grabbed and stored into digital memory, yielding three time-resolved images of the subject. A synchronization pulse provided by the flash sequencer triggers the frame grabbing so that the correct video field is acquired. A scheme involving the use of videotape as intermediate storage allows the frame grabbing to be performed using a monochrome video digitizer. Ideally each flash- illuminated scene would be confined to one color channel, but in practice various factors, both optical and electronic, affect color separation. Correction equations have been derived that counteract these effects in the digitized images and minimize 'ghosting' between frames. Once the appropriate coefficients have been established through a calibration procedure that needs to be performed only once for a given configuration of the equipment, the correction process is carried out transparently in software every time a

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  9. A review of techniques for the identification and measurement of fish in underwater stereo-video image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortis, Mark R.; Ravanbakskh, Mehdi; Shaifat, Faisal; Harvey, Euan S.; Mian, Ajmal; Seager, James W.; Culverhouse, Philip F.; Cline, Danelle E.; Edgington, Duane R.

    2013-04-01

    Underwater stereo-video measurement systems are used widely for counting and measuring fish in aquaculture, fisheries and conservation management. To determine population counts, spatial or temporal frequencies, and age or weight distributions, snout to fork length measurements are captured from the video sequences, most commonly using a point and click process by a human operator. Current research aims to automate the measurement and counting task in order to improve the efficiency of the process and expand the use of stereo-video systems within marine science. A fully automated process will require the detection and identification of candidates for measurement, followed by the snout to fork length measurement, as well as the counting and tracking of fish. This paper presents a review of the techniques used for the detection, identification, measurement, counting and tracking of fish in underwater stereo-video image sequences, including consideration of the changing body shape. The review will analyse the most commonly used approaches, leading to an evaluation of the techniques most likely to be a general solution to the complete process of detection, identification, measurement, counting and tracking.

  10. [Microcytomorphometric video-image detection of nuclear chromatin in ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzonka, Dariusz; Kamiński, Kazimierz; Kaźmierczak, Wojciech

    2003-09-01

    Technology of detection of tissue preparates precisious evaluates contents of nuclear chromatine, largeness and shape of cellular nucleus, indicators of mitosis, DNA index, ploidy, phase-S fraction and other parameters. Methods of detection of picture are: microcytomorphometry video-image (MCMM-VI), flow, double flow and activated by fluorescence. Diagnostic methods of malignant neoplasm of ovary are still nonspecific and not precise, that is a reason of unsatisfied results of treatment. Evaluation of microcytomorphometric measurements of nuclear chromatine histopathologic tissue preparates (HP) of ovarian cancer and comparison to normal ovarian tissue. Estimated 10 paraffin embedded tissue preparates of serous ovarian cancer, 4 preparates mucinous cancer and 2 cases of tumor Kruckenberg patients operated in Clinic of Perinatology and Gynaecology Silesian Medical Academy in Zabrze in period 2001-2002, MCMM-VI estimation based on computer aided analysis system: microscope Axioscop 20, camera tv JVCTK-C 1380, CarlZeiss KS Vision 400 rel.3.0 software. Following MCMM-VI parameters assessed: count of pathologic nucleus, diameter of nucleus, area, min/max diameter ratio, equivalent circle diameter (Dcircle), mean of brightness (mean D), integrated optical density (IOD = area x mean D), DNA index and 2.5 c exceeding rate percentage (2.5 c ER%). MCMM-VI performed on the 160 areas of 16 preparates of cancer and 100 areas of normal ovarian tissue. Statistical analysis was performed by used t-Student test. We obtained stastistically significant higher values parameters of nuclear chromatine, DI, 2.5 c ER of mucinous cancer and tumor Kruckenberg comparison to serous cancer. MCMM-VI parameters of chromatine malignant ovarian neoplasm were statistically significantly higher than normal ovarian tissue. Cytometric and karyometric parametres of nuclear chromatine estimated MCMM-VI are useful in the diagnostics and prognosis of ovarian cancer.

  11. Imaging cell competition in Drosophila imaginal discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Shizue; Sugimura, Kaoru; Takino, Kyoko; Igaki, Tatsushi

    2012-01-01

    Cell competition is a process in which cells with higher fitness ("winners") survive and proliferate at the expense of less fit neighbors ("losers"). It has been suggested that cell competition is involved in a variety of biological processes such as organ size control, tissue homeostasis, cancer progression, and the maintenance of stem cell population. By advent of a genetic mosaic technique, which enables to generate fluorescently marked somatic clones in Drosophila imaginal discs, recent studies have presented some aspects of molecular mechanisms underlying cell competition. Now, with a live-imaging technique using ex vivo-cultured imaginal discs, we can dissect the spatiotemporal nature of competitive cell behaviors within multicellular communities. Here, we describe procedures and tips for live imaging of cell competition in Drosophila imaginal discs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. New robust algorithm for tracking cells in videos of Drosophila morphogenesis based on finding an ideal path in segmented spatio-temporal cellular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaïche, Yohanns; Bosveld, Floris; Graner, François; Mikula, Karol; Remesíková, Mariana; Smísek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel algorithm for tracking cells in time lapse confocal microscopy movie of a Drosophila epithelial tissue during pupal morphogenesis. We consider a 2D + time video as a 3D static image, where frames are stacked atop each other, and using a spatio-temporal segmentation algorithm we obtain information about spatio-temporal 3D tubes representing evolutions of cells. The main idea for tracking is the usage of two distance functions--first one from the cells in the initial frame and second one from segmented boundaries. We track the cells backwards in time. The first distance function attracts the subsequently constructed cell trajectories to the cells in the initial frame and the second one forces them to be close to centerlines of the segmented tubular structures. This makes our tracking algorithm robust against noise and missing spatio-temporal boundaries. This approach can be generalized to a 3D + time video analysis, where spatio-temporal tubes are 4D objects.

  13. A no-reference image and video visual quality metric based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantc, Vladimir; Voronin, Viacheslav; Semenishchev, Evgenii; Minkin, Maxim; Delov, Aliy

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents a novel visual quality metric for lossy compressed video quality assessment. High degree of correlation with subjective estimations of quality is due to using of a convolutional neural network trained on a large amount of pairs video sequence-subjective quality score. We demonstrate how our predicted no-reference quality metric correlates with qualitative opinion in a human observer study. Results are shown on the EVVQ dataset with comparison existing approaches.

  14. Estimating age ratios and size of pacific walrus herds on coastal haulouts using video imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Monson

    Full Text Available During Arctic summers, sea ice provides resting habitat for Pacific walruses as it drifts over foraging areas in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Climate-driven reductions in sea ice have recently created ice-free conditions in the Chukchi Sea by late summer causing walruses to rest at coastal haulouts along the Chukotka and Alaska coasts, which provides an opportunity to study walruses at relatively accessible locations. Walrus age can be determined from the ratio of tusk length to snout dimensions. We evaluated use of images obtained from a gyro-stabilized video system mounted on a helicopter flying at high altitudes (to avoid disturbance to classify the sex and age of walruses hauled out on Alaska beaches in 2010-2011. We were able to classify 95% of randomly selected individuals to either an 8- or 3-category age class, and we found measurement-based age classifications were more repeatable than visual classifications when using images presenting the correct head profile. Herd density at coastal haulouts averaged 0.88 walruses/m(2 (std. err. = 0.02, herd size ranged from 8,300 to 19,400 (CV 0.03-0.06 and we documented ∼30,000 animals along ∼1 km of beach in 2011. Within the herds, dependent walruses (0-2 yr-olds tended to be located closer to water, and this tendency became more pronounced as the herd spent more time on the beach. Therefore, unbiased estimation of herd age-ratios will require a sampling design that allows for spatial and temporal structuring. In addition, randomly sampling walruses available at the edge of the herd for other purposes (e.g., tagging, biopsying will not sample walruses with an age structure representative of the herd. Sea ice losses are projected to continue, and population age structure data collected with aerial videography at coastal haulouts may provide demographic information vital to ongoing efforts to understand effects of climate change on this species.

  15. Skeletal MR imaging in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effmann, E.L.; Kinney, T.R.; Utz, J.A.; Merten, D.F.; Herfkens, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors evaluated eight patients with sickle cell disease (mean age, 15.75 years; range 5-19 years) using MR imaging performed 24-72 hours after hospital admission for crisis. Coronal images of the lower extremities were obtained with a General Electric 1.5-T system and pulse sequences of TR/TE = 500/25 msec and 2,000/40, 80 msec. In three patients a mild decrease in signal intensity was seen on both T1- and T2-weighted images, probably secondary to marrow hyperplasia. In two patients a marked decrease in signal intensity was seen on both T1- and T2-weighted images, probably secondary to the diamagnetic effects of marrow iron. Six patients had bone infarct(s) which appeared as well-defined areas with prolonged T2 relaxation times. MR imaging appears promising for the evaluation of bone marrow in sickle cell anemia

  16. PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelovani, Juri G.

    2008-01-01

    The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive 'tracking' of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to stem cell imaging

  17. PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelovani, Juri G.

    2008-05-13

    Objectives. The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive “tracking” of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to

  18. Cell phones as imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Nina; Baker, Harlyn; Marguier, Joanna; Berclaz, Jérôme; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2010-04-01

    Camera phones are ubiquitous, and consumers have been adopting them faster than any other technology in modern history. When connected to a network, though, they are capable of more than just picture taking: Suddenly, they gain access to the power of the cloud. We exploit this capability by providing a series of image-based personal advisory services. These are designed to work with any handset over any cellular carrier using commonly available Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) and Short Message Service (SMS) features. Targeted at the unsophisticated consumer, these applications must be quick and easy to use, not requiring download capabilities or preplanning. Thus, all application processing occurs in the back-end system (i.e., as a cloud service) and not on the handset itself. Presenting an image to an advisory service in the cloud, a user receives information that can be acted upon immediately. Two of our examples involve color assessment - selecting cosmetics and home décor paint palettes; the third provides the ability to extract text from a scene. In the case of the color imaging applications, we have shown that our service rivals the advice quality of experts. The result of this capability is a new paradigm for mobile interactions - image-based information services exploiting the ubiquity of camera phones.

  19. Dynamic measurements of flowing cells labeled by gold nanoparticles using full-field photothermal interferometric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, Nir A.; Roitshtain, Darina; Blum, Omry; Kemper, Björn; Shaked, Natan T.

    2017-06-01

    We present highly dynamic photothermal interferometric phase microscopy for quantitative, selective contrast imaging of live cells during flow. Gold nanoparticles can be biofunctionalized to bind to specific cells, and stimulated for local temperature increase due to plasmon resonance, causing a rapid change of the optical phase. These phase changes can be recorded by interferometric phase microscopy and analyzed to form an image of the binding sites of the nanoparticles in the cells, gaining molecular specificity. Since the nanoparticle excitation frequency might overlap with the sample dynamics frequencies, photothermal phase imaging was performed on stationary or slowly dynamic samples. Furthermore, the computational analysis of the photothermal signals is time consuming. This makes photothermal imaging unsuitable for applications requiring dynamic imaging or real-time analysis, such as analyzing and sorting cells during fast flow. To overcome these drawbacks, we utilized an external interferometric module and developed new algorithms, based on discrete Fourier transform variants, enabling fast analysis of photothermal signals in highly dynamic live cells. Due to the self-interference module, the cells are imaged with and without excitation in video-rate, effectively increasing signal-to-noise ratio. Our approach holds potential for using photothermal cell imaging and depletion in flow cytometry.

  20. Video-assisted Thoracoscope versus Video-assisted Mini-thoracotomy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing WANG

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The aim of this study is to assess the effect of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS and video-assisted mini-thoracotomy (VAMT in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods We searched PubMed, EMbase, CNKI, VIP and ISI Web of Science to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs of VATS versus VAMT for NSCLC. Each database was searched from May 2006 to May 2016. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the included studies and extracted relevant data, using RevMan 5.3 meta-analysis software. Results We finally identified 13 RCTs involving 1,605 patients. There were 815 patients in the VATS group and 790 patients in the VAMT group. The results of meta-analysis were as follows: statistically significant difference was found in the harvested lymph nodes (SMD=-0.48, 95%CI: -0.80--0.17, operating time (SMD=13.56, 95%CI: 4.96-22.16, operation bleeding volume (SMD=-33.68, 95%CI: -45.70--21.66, chest tube placement time (SMD=-1.05, 95%CI: -1.48--0.62, chest tube drainage flow (SMD=-83.69, 95%CI: -143.33--24.05, postoperative pain scores (SMD=-1.68, 95%CI: -1.98--1.38 and postoperative hospital stay (SMD=-2.27, 95%CI: -3.23--1.31. No statistically significant difference was found in postoperative complications (SMD=0.83, 95%CI: 0.54-1.29 and postoperative mortality (SMD=0.95, 95%CI: 0.55-1.63 between videoassisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy and video-assisted mini-thoracotomy lobectomy in the treatment of NSCLC. Conclusion Compared with video-assisted mini-thoracotomy lobectomy in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, the amount of postoperative complications and postoperative mortality were almost the same in video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy, but the amount of harvested lymph nodes, operating time, blood loss, chest tube drainage flow, and postoperative hospital stay were different. VATS is safe and effective in the treatment of NSCLC.

  1. Video image analysis as a potential grading system for Uruguayan beef carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vote, D J; Bowling, M B; Cunha, B C N; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Montossi, F; Smith, G C

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted in 2 phases to evaluate the effectiveness of 1) the VIAscan Beef Carcass System (BCSys; hot carcass system) and the CVS BeefCam (chilled carcass system), used independently or in combination, to predict Uruguayan beef carcass fabrication yields; and 2) the CVS BeefCam to segregate Uruguayan beef carcasses into groups that differ in the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values of their LM steaks. The results from the meat yield phase of the present study indicated that the prediction of saleable meat yield percentages from Uruguayan beef carcasses by use of the BCSys or CVS BeefCam is similar to, or slightly better than, the use of USDA yield grade calculated to the nearest 0.1 and was much more effective than prediction based on Uruguay National Institute of Meat (INAC) grades. A further improvement in fabrication yield prediction could be obtained by use of a dual-component video image analysis (VIA) system. Whichever method of VIA prediction of fabrication yield is used, a single predicted value of fabrication yield for every carcass removes an impediment to the implementation of a value-based pricing system. Additionally, a VIA method of predicting carcass yield has the advantage over the current INAC classification system in that estimates would be produced by an instrument rather than by packing plant personnel, which would appeal to cattle producers. Results from the tenderness phase of the study indicated that the CVS BeefCam output variable for marbling was not (P > 0.05) able to segregate steer and heifer carcasses into groups that differed in WBSF values. In addition, the results of segregating steer and heifer carcasses according to muscle color output variables indicate that muscle maturity and skeletal maturity were useful for segregating carcasses according to differences in WBSF values of their steaks (P > 0.05). Use of VIA to predict beef carcass fabrication yields could improve accuracy and reduce subjectivity in comparison

  2. Gender Recognition from Human-Body Images Using Visible-Light and Thermal Camera Videos Based on a Convolutional Neural Network for Image Feature Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Kim, Ki Wan; Hong, Hyung Gil; Koo, Ja Hyung; Kim, Min Cheol; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-01-01

    Extracting powerful image features plays an important role in computer vision systems. Many methods have previously been proposed to extract image features for various computer vision applications, such as the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), speed-up robust feature (SURF), local binary patterns (LBP), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and weighted HOG. Recently, the convolutional neural network (CNN) method for image feature extraction and classification in computer vision has been used in various applications. In this research, we propose a new gender recognition method for recognizing males and females in observation scenes of surveillance systems based on feature extraction from visible-light and thermal camera videos through CNN. Experimental results confirm the superiority of our proposed method over state-of-the-art recognition methods for the gender recognition problem using human body images. PMID:28335510

  3. Gender Recognition from Human-Body Images Using Visible-Light and Thermal Camera Videos Based on a Convolutional Neural Network for Image Feature Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Kim, Ki Wan; Hong, Hyung Gil; Koo, Ja Hyung; Kim, Min Cheol; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-03-20

    Extracting powerful image features plays an important role in computer vision systems. Many methods have previously been proposed to extract image features for various computer vision applications, such as the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), speed-up robust feature (SURF), local binary patterns (LBP), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and weighted HOG. Recently, the convolutional neural network (CNN) method for image feature extraction and classification in computer vision has been used in various applications. In this research, we propose a new gender recognition method for recognizing males and females in observation scenes of surveillance systems based on feature extraction from visible-light and thermal camera videos through CNN. Experimental results confirm the superiority of our proposed method over state-of-the-art recognition methods for the gender recognition problem using human body images.

  4. Gender Recognition from Human-Body Images Using Visible-Light and Thermal Camera Videos Based on a Convolutional Neural Network for Image Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracting powerful image features plays an important role in computer vision systems. Many methods have previously been proposed to extract image features for various computer vision applications, such as the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT, speed-up robust feature (SURF, local binary patterns (LBP, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG, and weighted HOG. Recently, the convolutional neural network (CNN method for image feature extraction and classification in computer vision has been used in various applications. In this research, we propose a new gender recognition method for recognizing males and females in observation scenes of surveillance systems based on feature extraction from visible-light and thermal camera videos through CNN. Experimental results confirm the superiority of our proposed method over state-of-the-art recognition methods for the gender recognition problem using human body images.

  5. Video Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    George Nauck of ENCORE!!! invented and markets the Advanced Range Performance (ARPM) Video Golf System for measuring the result of a golf swing. After Nauck requested their assistance, Marshall Space Flight Center scientists suggested video and image processing/computing technology, and provided leads on commercial companies that dealt with the pertinent technologies. Nauck contracted with Applied Research Inc. to develop a prototype. The system employs an elevated camera, which sits behind the tee and follows the flight of the ball down range, catching the point of impact and subsequent roll. Instant replay of the video on a PC monitor at the tee allows measurement of the carry and roll. The unit measures distance and deviation from the target line, as well as distance from the target when one is selected. The information serves as an immediate basis for making adjustments or as a record of skill level progress for golfers.

  6. Multichannel Image Mosaicing of Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Bevilacqua; Alessandro Gherardi; Filippo Piccinini

    2010-01-01

    Image mosaicing techniques are usually employed to offer researchers a wider field of view of microscopic image of biological samples. a mosaic is commonly achieved using automated microscopes and often with one “color" channel, whether it refers to natural or fluorescent analysis. In this work we present a method to achieve three subsequent mosaics of the same part of a stem cell culture analyzed in phase contrast and in fluorescence, with a common non-automated inverted microscope. The mosa...

  7. Real time three-dimensional space video rate sensors for millimeter waves imaging based very inexpensive plasma LED lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanon, Assaf; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Kopeika, Natan S.; Rozban, Daniel; Abramovich, Amir

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, much effort has been invested to develop inexpensive but sensitive Millimeter Wave (MMW) detectors that can be used in focal plane arrays (FPAs), in order to implement real time MMW imaging. Real time MMW imaging systems are required for many varied applications in many fields as homeland security, medicine, communications, military products and space technology. It is mainly because this radiation has high penetration and good navigability through dust storm, fog, heavy rain, dielectric materials, biological tissue, and diverse materials. Moreover, the atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is relatively low and the scattering is also low compared to NIR and VIS. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging systems makes it difficult to provide a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. In last few years we advanced in research and development of sensors using very inexpensive (30-50 cents) Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) plasma indicator lamps as MMW detectors. This paper presents three kinds of GDD sensor based lamp Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). Those three kinds of cameras are different in the number of detectors, scanning operation, and detection method. The 1st and 2nd generations are 8 × 8 pixel array and an 18 × 2 mono-rail scanner array respectively, both of them for direct detection and limited to fixed imaging. The last designed sensor is a multiplexing frame rate of 16x16 GDD FPA. It permits real time video rate imaging of 30 frames/ sec and comprehensive 3D MMW imaging. The principle of detection in this sensor is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system while each of the 16 GDD pixel lines is sampled simultaneously. Direct detection is also possible and can be done with a friendly user interface. This FPA sensor is built over 256 commercial GDD lamps with 3 mm diameter International Light, Inc., Peabody, MA model 527 Ne indicator lamps as pixel detectors. All three sensors are fully supported

  8. Dependency of human target detection performance on clutter and quality of supporting image analysis algorithms in a video surveillance task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Samuel; Dunau, Patrick; Wellig, Peter; Stein, Karin

    2017-10-01

    Background: In target detection, the success rates depend strongly on human observer performances. Two prior studies tested the contributions of target detection algorithms and prior training sessions. The aim of this Swiss-German cooperation study was to evaluate the dependency of human observer performance on the quality of supporting image analysis algorithms. Methods: The participants were presented 15 different video sequences. Their task was to detect all targets in the shortest possible time. Each video sequence showed a heavily cluttered simulated public area from a different viewing angle. In each video sequence, the number of avatars in the area was altered to 100, 150 and 200 subjects. The number of targets appearing was kept at 10%. The number of marked targets varied from 0, 5, 10, 20 up to 40 marked subjects while keeping the positive predictive value of the detection algorithm at 20%. During the task, workload level was assessed by applying an acoustic secondary task. Detection rates and detection times for the targets were analyzed using inferential statistics. Results: The study found Target Detection Time to increase and Target Detection Rates to decrease with increasing numbers of avatars. The same is true for the Secondary Task Reaction Time while there was no effect on Secondary Task Hit Rate. Furthermore, we found a trend for a u-shaped correlation between the numbers of markings and RTST indicating increased workload. Conclusion: The trial results may indicate useful criteria for the design of training and support of observers in observational tasks.

  9. Optimal JPWL Forward Error Correction Rate Allocation for Robust JPEG 2000 Images and Video Streaming over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Macq

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of real mobile ad hoc network (MANET traces, we derive in this paper an optimal wireless JPEG 2000 compliant forward error correction (FEC rate allocation scheme for a robust streaming of images and videos over MANET. The packet-based proposed scheme has a low complexity and is compliant to JPWL, the 11th part of the JPEG 2000 standard. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated using a wireless Motion JPEG 2000 client/server application; and the ability of the optimal scheme to guarantee quality of service (QoS to wireless clients is demonstrated.

  10. Social Evaluations of Stereotypic Images in Video Games: Unfair, Legitimate, or "Just Entertainment"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenick, Alaina; Henning, Alexandra; Killen, Melanie; O'Connor, Alexander; Collins, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess late adolescents' evaluations of and reasoning about gender stereotypes in video games. Female (n = 46) and male (n = 41) students, predominantly European American, with a mean age 19 years, are interviewed about their knowledge of game usage, awareness and evaluation of stereotypes, beliefs about the influences…

  11. DHM (Digital Holography Microscope) for imaging cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, Yves; Cuche, Etienne; Colomb, Tristan; Depeursinge, Christian; Rappaz, Benjamin; Marquet, Pierre; Magistretti, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Light interaction with a sample modifies both intensity and phase of the illuminating wave. Any available supports for image recording are only sensitive to intensity, but Denis Gabor [P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, P. Magistretti, et. al. Digital Holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging, Optics Letters, 30, 5, pp 291-93 (2005)] invented in 1948 a way to encode the phase as an intensity variation: the h ologram . Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) [D. Gabor, A new microscopic principle, Nature, 1948] implements digitally this powerful hologram. Characterization of various pollen grains and of morphology changes of neurones associated with hypotonic shock demonstrates the potential of DHM for imaging cells

  12. Nonlinear analysis and synthesis of video images using deep dynamic bottleneck neural networks for face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Saeed Montazeri; Seyyedsalehi, Seyyed Ali

    2018-05-31

    Nonlinear components extracted from deep structures of bottleneck neural networks exhibit a great ability to express input space in a low-dimensional manifold. Sharing and combining the components boost the capability of the neural networks to synthesize and interpolate new and imaginary data. This synthesis is possibly a simple model of imaginations in human brain where the components are expressed in a nonlinear low dimensional manifold. The current paper introduces a novel Dynamic Deep Bottleneck Neural Network to analyze and extract three main features of videos regarding the expression of emotions on the face. These main features are identity, emotion and expression intensity that are laid in three different sub-manifolds of one nonlinear general manifold. The proposed model enjoying the advantages of recurrent networks was used to analyze the sequence and dynamics of information in videos. It is noteworthy to mention that this model also has also the potential to synthesize new videos showing variations of one specific emotion on the face of unknown subjects. Experiments on discrimination and recognition ability of extracted components showed that the proposed model has an average of 97.77% accuracy in recognition of six prominent emotions (Fear, Surprise, Sadness, Anger, Disgust, and Happiness), and 78.17% accuracy in the recognition of intensity. The produced videos revealed variations from neutral to the apex of an emotion on the face of the unfamiliar test subject which is on average 0.8 similar to reference videos in the scale of the SSIM method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Video x-ray progressive scanning: new technique for decreasing x-ray exposure without decreasing image quality during cardiac catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.R. Jr.; Bove, A.A.; Wondrow, M.A.; Gray, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    A newly developed video x-ray progressive scanning system improves image quality, decreases radiation exposure, and can be added to any pulsed fluoroscopic x-ray system using a video display without major system modifications. With use of progressive video scanning, the radiation entrance exposure rate measured with a vascular phantom was decreased by 32 to 53% in comparison with a conventional fluoroscopic x-ray system. In addition to this substantial decrease in radiation exposure, the quality of the image was improved because of less motion blur and artifact. Progressive video scanning has the potential for widespread application to all pulsed fluoroscopic x-ray systems. Use of this technique should make cardiac catheterization procedures and all other fluoroscopic procedures safer for the patient and the involved medical and paramedical staff

  14. Virtually transparent epidermal imagery (VTEI): on new approaches to in vivo wireless high-definition video and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Adam L; Lin, Bingxiong; Sun, Yu

    2013-12-01

    This work first overviews a novel design, and prototype implementation, of a virtually transparent epidermal imagery (VTEI) system for laparo-endoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery. The system uses a network of multiple, micro-cameras and multiview mosaicking to obtain a panoramic view of the surgery area. The prototype VTEI system also projects the generated panoramic view on the abdomen area to create a transparent display effect that mimics equivalent, but higher risk, open-cavity surgeries. The specific research focus of this paper is on two important aspects of a VTEI system: 1) in vivo wireless high-definition (HD) video transmission and 2) multi-image processing-both of which play key roles in next-generation systems. For transmission and reception, this paper proposes a theoretical wireless communication scheme for high-definition video in situations that require extremely small-footprint image sensors and in zero-latency applications. In such situations the typical optimized metrics in communication schemes, such as power and data rate, are far less important than latency and hardware footprint that absolutely preclude their use if not satisfied. This work proposes the use of a novel Frequency-Modulated Voltage-Division Multiplexing (FM-VDM) scheme where sensor data is kept analog and transmitted via "voltage-multiplexed" signals that are also frequency-modulated. Once images are received, a novel Homographic Image Mosaicking and Morphing (HIMM) algorithm is proposed to stitch images from respective cameras, that also compensates for irregular surfaces in real-time, into a single cohesive view of the surgical area. In VTEI, this view is then visible to the surgeon directly on the patient to give an "open cavity" feel to laparoscopic procedures.

  15. An efficient HW and SW design of H.264 video compression, storage and playback on FPGA devices for handheld thermal imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Omer; Ozsarac, Ismail; Kamisli, Fatih

    2017-05-01

    Video recording is an essential property of new generation military imaging systems. Playback of the stored video on the same device is also desirable as it provides several operational benefits to end users. Two very important constraints for many military imaging systems, especially for hand-held devices and thermal weapon sights, are power consumption and size. To meet these constraints, it is essential to perform most of the processing applied to the video signal, such as preprocessing, compression, storing, decoding, playback and other system functions on a single programmable chip, such as FPGA, DSP, GPU or ASIC. In this work, H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) compatible video compression, storage, decoding and playback blocks are efficiently designed and implemented on FPGA platforms using FPGA fabric and Altera NIOS II soft processor. Many subblocks that are used in video encoding are also used during video decoding in order to save FPGA resources and power. Computationally complex blocks are designed using FPGA fabric, while blocks such as SD card write/read, H.264 syntax decoding and CAVLC decoding are done using NIOS processor to benefit from software flexibility. In addition, to keep power consumption low, the system was designed to require limited external memory access. The design was tested using 640x480 25 fps thermal camera on CYCLONE V FPGA, which is the ALTERA's lowest power FPGA family, and consumes lower than 40% of CYCLONE V 5CEFA7 FPGA resources on average.

  16. Recent advances in live cell imaging of hepatoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Live cell imaging enables the study of dynamic processes of living cells in real time by use of suitable reporter proteins and the staining of specific cellular structures and/or organelles. With the availability of advanced optical devices and improved cell culture protocols it has become a rapidly growing research methodology. The success of this technique relies mainly on the selection of suitable reporter proteins, construction of recombinant plasmids possessing cell type specific promoters as well as reliable methods of gene transfer. This review aims to provide an overview of the recent developments in the field of marker proteins (bioluminescence and fluorescent) and methodologies (fluorescent resonance energy transfer, fluorescent recovery after photobleaching and proximity ligation assay) employed as to achieve an improved imaging of biological processes in hepatoma cells. Moreover, different expression systems of marker proteins and the modes of gene transfer are discussed with emphasis on the study of lipid droplet formation in hepatocytes as an example. PMID:25005127

  17. Wavelength-Dependent Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy: Selectively Imaging Nanoparticle Probes in Live Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Gufeng; Fang, Ning; and Yeung, Edward S.

    2009-11-15

    Gold and silver nanoparticles display extraordinarily large apparent refractive indices near their plasmon resonance (PR) wavelengths. These nanoparticles show good contrast in a narrow spectral band but are poorly resolved at other wavelengths in differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The wavelength dependence of DIC contrast of gold/silver nanoparticles is interpreted in terms of Mie's theory and DIC working principles. We further exploit this wavelength dependence by modifying a DIC microscope to enable simultaneous imaging at two wavelengths. We demonstrate that gold/silver nanoparticles immobilized on the same glass slides through hybridization can be differentiated and imaged separately. High-contrast, video-rate images of living cells can be recorded both with and without illuminating the gold nanoparticle probes, providing definitive probe identification. Dual-wavelength DIC microscopy thus presents a new approach to the simultaneous detection of multiple probes of interest for high-speed live-cell imaging.

  18. Video frame processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, V.M.; Agashe, Alok; Bairi, B.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides technical description regarding the Video Frame Processor (VFP) developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The instrument provides capture of video images available in CCIR format. Two memory planes each with a capacity of 512 x 512 x 8 bit data enable storage of two video image frames. The stored image can be processed on-line and on-line image subtraction can also be carried out for image comparisons. The VFP is a PC Add-on board and is I/O mapped within the host IBM PC/AT compatible computer. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 19 photographs

  19. Social Evaluations of Stereotypic Images in Video Games: Unfair, Legitimate, or "Just Entertainment"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenick, Alaina; Henning, Alexandra; Killen, Melanie; O'Connor, Alexander; Collins, Michael

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess adolescents' evaluations of, and reasoning about, gender stereotypes in video games. Female ( N = 46) and male ( N = 41), predominantly European-American, mean age = 19 years, were interviewed about their knowledge of game usage, awareness and evaluation of stereotypes, beliefs about the influences of games on the players, and authority jurisdiction over 3 different types of games: games with negative male stereotypes, and games with negative female stereotypes, and gender-neutral games. Gender differences were found for how participants evaluated these games. Males were more likely than females to find stereotypes acceptable. Results are discussed in terms of social reasoning, video game playing, and gender differences.

  20. Demonstrations of video processing of image data for uranium resource assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrs, R.W.; King, J.K.

    1978-01-01

    Video processing of LANDSAT imagery was performed for nine areas in the western United States to demonstrate the applicability of such analyses for regional uranium resource assessment. The results of these tests, in areas of diverse geology, topography, and vegetation, were mixed. The best success was achieved in arid areas because vegetation cover is extremely limiting in any analysis dealing primarily with rocks and soils. Surface alteration patterns of large areal extent, involving transformation or redistribution of iron oxides, and reflectance contrasts were the only type of alteration consistently detected by video processing of LANDSAT imagery. Alteration often provided the only direct indication of mineralization. Other exploration guides, such as lithologic changes, can often be detected, even in heavily vegetated regions. Structural interpretation of the imagery proved far more successful than spectral analyses as an indicator of regions of possible uranium enrichment

  1. Concurrent Calculations on Reconfigurable Logic Devices Applied to the Analysis of Video Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. Geninatti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation on FPGA devices of an algorithm for computing similarities between neighboring frames in a video sequence using luminance information. By taking advantage of the well-known flexibility of Reconfigurable Logic Devices, we have designed a hardware implementation of the algorithm used in video segmentation and indexing. The experimental results show the tradeoff between concurrent sequential resources and the functional blocks needed to achieve maximum operational speed while achieving minimum silicon area usage. To evaluate system efficiency, we compare the performance of the hardware solution to that of calculations done via software using general-purpose processors with and without an SIMD instruction set.

  2. Social Evaluations of Stereotypic Images in Video Games: Unfair, Legitimate, or “Just Entertainment”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenick, Alaina; Henning, Alexandra; Killen, Melanie; O'Connor, Alexander; Collins, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess adolescents' evaluations of, and reasoning about, gender stereotypes in video games. Female (N = 46) and male (N = 41), predominantly European-American, mean age = 19 years, were interviewed about their knowledge of game usage, awareness and evaluation of stereotypes, beliefs about the influences of games on the players, and authority jurisdiction over 3 different types of games: games with negative male stereotypes, and games with negative female stereotypes, and gender-neutral games. Gender differences were found for how participants evaluated these games. Males were more likely than females to find stereotypes acceptable. Results are discussed in terms of social reasoning, video game playing, and gender differences. PMID:25722501

  3. Social Evaluations of Stereotypic Images in Video Games: Unfair, Legitimate, or “Just Entertainment”?

    OpenAIRE

    Brenick, Alaina; Henning, Alexandra; Killen, Melanie; O'Connor, Alexander; Collins, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess adolescents' evaluations of, and reasoning about, gender stereotypes in video games. Female (N = 46) and male (N = 41), predominantly European-American, mean age = 19 years, were interviewed about their knowledge of game usage, awareness and evaluation of stereotypes, beliefs about the influences of games on the players, and authority jurisdiction over 3 different types of games: games with negative male stereotypes, and games with negative female stereotyp...

  4. Monitoring stem cells in phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K. P.; Dempsey, K. P.; Collins, D. J.; Richardson, J. B.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms behind the proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem cells (MSCs) can offer a greater insight into the behaviour of these cells throughout their life cycles. Traditional methods of determining the rate of MSC differentiation rely on population based studies over an extended time period. However, such methods can be inadequate as they are unable to track cells as they interact; for example, in autologous cell therapies for osteoarthritis, the development of biological assays that could predict in vivo functional activity and biological action are particularly challenging. Here further research is required to determine non-histochemical biomarkers which provide correlations between cell survival and predictive functional outcome. This paper proposes using a (previously developed) advanced texture-based analysis algorithm to facilitate in vitro cells tracking using time-lapsed microscopy. The technique was adopted to monitor stem cells in the context of unlabelled, phase contrast imaging, with the goal of examining the cell to cell interactions in both monoculture and co-culture systems. The results obtained are analysed using established exploratory procedures developed for time series data and compared with the typical fluorescent-based approach of cell labelling. A review of the progress and the lessons learned are also presented.

  5. Pre- and postmortem imaging of transplanted cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewska A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anna Andrzejewska,1 Adam Nowakowski,1 Miroslaw Janowski,1–4 Jeff WM Bulte,3–7 Assaf A Gilad,3,4 Piotr Walczak,3,4,8 Barbara Lukomska11NeuroRepair Department, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 3Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of MR Research, 4Cellular Imaging Section and Vascular Biology Program, Institute for Cell Engineering, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, 6Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, 7Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 8Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, PolandAbstract: Therapeutic interventions based on the transplantation of stem and progenitor cells have garnered increasing interest. This interest is fueled by successful preclinical studies for indications in many diseases, including the cardiovascular, central nervous, and musculoskeletal system. Further progress in this field is contingent upon access to techniques that facilitate an unambiguous identification and characterization of grafted cells. Such methods are invaluable for optimization of cell delivery, improvement of cell survival, and assessment of the functional integration of grafted cells. Following is a focused overview of the currently available cell detection and tracking methodologies that covers the entire spectrum from pre- to postmortem cell identification.Keywords: stem cells, transplantation, SPECT, MRI, bioluminescence, cell labeling

  6. Trends in Scientific Literature on Addiction to the Internet, Video Games, and Cell Phones from 2006 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell, Xavier; Guardiola, Elena; Fuster, Héctor; Gil, Frederic; Panova, Tayana

    2016-01-01

    Background: The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and...

  7. Video compression and DICOM proxies for remote viewing of DICOM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Elahe; Sheinin, Vadim; Paulovicks, Brent; Jagmohan, Ashish

    2009-02-01

    Digital medical images are rapidly growing in size and volume. A typical study includes multiple image "slices." These images have a special format and a communication protocol referred to as DICOM (Digital Imaging Communications in Medicine). Storing, retrieving, and viewing these images are handled by DICOM-enabled systems. DICOM images are stored in central repository servers called PACS (Picture Archival and Communication Systems). Remote viewing stations are DICOM-enabled applications that can query the PACS servers and retrieve the DICOM images for viewing. Modern medical images are quite large, reaching as much as 1 GB per file. When the viewing station is connected to the PACS server via a high-bandwidth local LAN, downloading of the images is relatively efficient and does not cause significant wasted time for physicians. Problems arise when the viewing station is located in a remote facility that has a low-bandwidth link to the PACS server. If the link between the PACS and remote facility is in the range of 1 Mbit/sec, downloading medical images is very slow. To overcome this problem, medical images are compressed to reduce the size for transmission. This paper describes a method of compression that maintains diagnostic quality of images while significantly reducing the volume to be transmitted, without any change to the existing PACS servers and viewer software, and without requiring any change in the way doctors retrieve and view images today.

  8. Head-motion-controlled video goggles: preliminary concept for an interactive laparoscopic image display (i-LID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidlen, Jeremy T; Glick, Sara; Silverman, Kenneth; Silverman, Harvey F; Luks, Francois I

    2009-08-01

    Light-weight, low-profile, and high-resolution head-mounted displays (HMDs) now allow personalized viewing, of a laparoscopic image. The advantages include unobstructed viewing, regardless of position at the operating table, and the possibility to customize the image (i.e., enhanced reality, picture-in-picture, etc.). The bright image display allows use in daylight surroundings and the low profile of the HMD provides adequate peripheral vision. Theoretic disadvantages include reliance for all on the same image capture and anticues (i.e., reality disconnect) when the projected image remains static, despite changes in head position. This can lead to discomfort and even nausea. We have developed a prototype of interactive laparoscopic image display that allows hands-free control of the displayed image by changes in spatial orientation of the operator's head. The prototype consists of an HMD, a spatial orientation device, and computer software to enable hands-free panning and zooming of a video-endoscopic image display. The spatial orientation device uses magnetic fields created by a transmitter and receiver, each containing three orthogonal coils. The transmitter coils are efficiently driven, using USB power only, by a newly developed circuit, each at a unique frequency. The HMD-mounted receiver system links to a commercially available PC-interface PCI-bus sound card (M-Audiocard Delta 44; Avid Technology, Tewksbury, MA). Analog signals at the receiver are filtered, amplified, and converted to digital signals, which are processed to control the image display. The prototype uses a proprietary static fish-eye lens and software for the distortion-free reconstitution of any portion of the captured image. Left-right and up-down motions of the head (and HMD) produce real-time panning of the displayed image. Motion of the head toward, or away from, the transmitter causes real-time zooming in or out, respectively, of the displayed image. This prototype of the interactive HMD

  9. Imaging in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.; Steward, C.G.; Lyburn, I.D.; Grier, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is used to treat a wide range of malignant and non-malignant haematological conditions, solid malignancies, and metabolic and autoimmune diseases. Although imaging has a limited role before SCT, it is important after transplantation when it may support the clinical diagnosis of a variety of complications. It may also be used to monitor the effect of therapy and to detect recurrence of the underlying disease if the transplant is unsuccessful. We present a pictorial review of the imaging of patients who have undergone SCT, based upon 15 years experience in a large unit performing both adult and paediatric transplants

  10. STEM CELL IMAGING: FROM BENCH TO BEDSIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Patricia K.; Riegler, Johannes; Wu, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Although cellular therapies hold great promise for the treatment of human disease, results from several initial clinical trials have not shown a level of efficacy required for their use as a first line therapy. Here we discuss how in vivo molecular imaging has helped identify barriers to clinical translation and potential strategies that may contribute to successful transplantation and improved outcomes, with a focus on cardiovascular and neurological diseases. We conclude with a perspective on the future role of molecular imaging in defining safety and efficacy for stem cell clinical implementation. PMID:24702995

  11. Imaging in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.; Steward, C.G.; Lyburn, I.D.; Grier, D.J

    2003-03-01

    Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is used to treat a wide range of malignant and non-malignant haematological conditions, solid malignancies, and metabolic and autoimmune diseases. Although imaging has a limited role before SCT, it is important after transplantation when it may support the clinical diagnosis of a variety of complications. It may also be used to monitor the effect of therapy and to detect recurrence of the underlying disease if the transplant is unsuccessful. We present a pictorial review of the imaging of patients who have undergone SCT, based upon 15 years experience in a large unit performing both adult and paediatric transplants.

  12. New method for identifying features of an image on a digital video display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael D.

    1991-04-01

    The MetaMap process extends the concept of direct manipulation human-computer interfaces to new limits. Its specific capabilities include the correlation of discrete image elements to relevant text information and the correlation of these image features to other images as well as to program control mechanisms. The correlation is accomplished through reprogramming of both the color map and the image so that discrete image elements comprise unique sets of color indices. This process allows the correlation to be accomplished with very efficient data storage and program execution times. Image databases adapted to this process become object-oriented as a result. Very sophisticated interrelationships can be set up between images text and program control mechanisms using this process. An application of this interfacing process to the design of an interactive atlas of medical histology as well as other possible applications are described. The MetaMap process is protected by U. S. patent #4

  13. Imaging of ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toshihiko; Sawano, Seishi; Yamada, Keiko [Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the appearance of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) on MR, CT, US. In 39 cases with OCCA, the imaging characteristics of OCCA were evaluated morphologically and classified into three groups, that was, monomural nodule type, multi-mural nodule type and predominantly solid type. Forty-three percent of the patients had endometriosis. Contrast material-enhanced MRI was the most useful method for diagnosis of OCCA. (author)

  14. A new level set model for cell image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing-Feng; Hou, Kai; Bao, Shang-Lian; Chen, Chun

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we first determine three phases of cell images: background, cytoplasm and nucleolus according to the general physical characteristics of cell images, and then develop a variational model, based on these characteristics, to segment nucleolus and cytoplasm from their relatively complicated backgrounds. In the meantime, the preprocessing obtained information of cell images using the OTSU algorithm is used to initialize the level set function in the model, which can speed up the segmentation and present satisfactory results in cell image processing.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization of a waterproof, high-definition video camera case for intraoperative imaging in veterinary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adin, Christopher A; Royal, Kenneth D; Moore, Brandon; Jacob, Megan

    2018-06-13

    To evaluate the safety and usability of a wearable, waterproof high-definition camera/case for acquisition of surgical images by sterile personnel. An in vitro study to test the efficacy of biodecontamination of camera cases. Usability for intraoperative image acquisition was assessed in clinical procedures. Two waterproof GoPro Hero4 Silver camera cases were inoculated by immersion in media containing Staphylococcus pseudointermedius or Escherichia coli at ≥5.50E+07 colony forming units/mL. Cases were biodecontaminated by manual washing and hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization. Cultures were obtained by swab and by immersion in enrichment broth before and after each contamination/decontamination cycle (n = 4). The cameras were then applied by a surgeon in clinical procedures by using either a headband or handheld mode and were assessed for usability according to 5 user characteristics. Cultures of all poststerilization swabs were negative. One of 8 cultures was positive in enrichment broth, consistent with a low level of contamination in 1 sample. Usability of the camera was considered poor in headband mode, with limited battery life, inability to control camera functions, and lack of zoom function affecting image quality. Handheld operation of the camera by the primary surgeon improved usability, allowing close-up still and video intraoperative image acquisition. Vaporized hydrogen peroxide sterilization of this camera case was considered effective for biodecontamination. Handheld operation improved usability for intraoperative image acquisition. Vaporized hydrogen peroxide sterilization and thorough manual washing of a waterproof camera may provide cost effective intraoperative image acquisition for documentation purposes. © 2018 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Human Brain Tumor Cells: A Time-Lapse Video Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Study background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common subtype of primary brain tumor in adults. The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment potential on human GBM and non-GBM brain cells using two time-lapse video microscopy technique. Methods: The human brain tumor, GBM cultured cells were divided into two groups viz. GBM control and GBM treatment. Similarly, human normal brain cultured cells (non-GBM) were taken and divided into two groups viz. non- GBM control and non-GB...

  17. Using neutrosophic graph cut segmentation algorithm for qualified rendering image selection in thyroid elastography video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanhui; Jiang, Shuang-Quan; Sun, Baiqing; Siuly, Siuly; Şengür, Abdulkadir; Tian, Jia-Wei

    2017-12-01

    Recently, elastography has become very popular in clinical investigation for thyroid cancer detection and diagnosis. In elastogram, the stress results of the thyroid are displayed using pseudo colors. Due to variation of the rendering results in different frames, it is difficult for radiologists to manually select the qualified frame image quickly and efficiently. The purpose of this study is to find the qualified rendering result in the thyroid elastogram. This paper employs an efficient thyroid ultrasound image segmentation algorithm based on neutrosophic graph cut to find the qualified rendering images. Firstly, a thyroid ultrasound image is mapped into neutrosophic set, and an indeterminacy filter is constructed to reduce the indeterminacy of the spatial and intensity information in the image. A graph is defined on the image and the weight for each pixel is represented using the value after indeterminacy filtering. The segmentation results are obtained using a maximum-flow algorithm on the graph. Then the anatomic structure is identified in thyroid ultrasound image. Finally the rendering colors on these anatomic regions are extracted and validated to find the frames which satisfy the selection criteria. To test the performance of the proposed method, a thyroid elastogram dataset is built and totally 33 cases were collected. An experienced radiologist manually evaluates the selection results of the proposed method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method finds the qualified rendering frame with 100% accuracy. The proposed scheme assists the radiologists to diagnose the thyroid diseases using the qualified rendering images.

  18. Unattended video surveillance systems for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    The use of unattended video surveillance systems places some unique requirements on the systems and their hardware. The systems have the traditional requirements of video imaging, video storage, and video playback but also have some special requirements such as tamper safing. The technology available to meet these requirements and how it is being applied to unattended video surveillance systems are discussed in this paper

  19. An alternative effective method for verifying the multileaf collimator leaves speed by using a digital-video imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ing-Ming; Wu, Jay; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Ding, Hueisch-Jy

    2010-01-01

    We present an alternative effective method for verifying the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves speed using a digital-video imaging system in daily dynamic conformal radiation therapy (DCRT) and intensity-modulation radiation therapy (IMRT) in achieving increased convenience and shorter treatment times. The horizontal leaves speed measured was within 1.76-2.08 cm/s. The mean full range of traveling time was 20 s. The initial speed-up time was within 1.5-2.0 s, and the slowing-down time was within 2.0-2.5 s. Due to gravity the maximum speed-up effect in the X1 bank was +0.10 cm/s, but the lagging effect in the X2 bank was -0.20 cm/s. This technique offered an alternative method with electronic portal imaging device (EPID), charged coupled device (CCD) or a light field for the measurement of MLC leaves speed. When time taken on the linac was kept to a minimum, the image could be processed off-line.

  20. Target recognition and scene interpretation in image/video understanding systems based on network-symbolic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2004-08-01

    Vision is only a part of a system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive the vision process, resolving ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback, and provide image understanding, which is an interpretation of visual information in terms of these knowledge models. These mechanisms provide a reliable recognition if the object is occluded or cannot be recognized as a whole. It is hard to split the entire system apart, and reliable solutions to the target recognition problems are possible only within the solution of a more generic Image Understanding Problem. Brain reduces informational and computational complexities, using implicit symbolic coding of features, hierarchical compression, and selective processing of visual information. Biologically inspired Network-Symbolic representation, where both systematic structural/logical methods and neural/statistical methods are parts of a single mechanism, is the most feasible for such models. It converts visual information into relational Network-Symbolic structures, avoiding artificial precise computations of 3-dimensional models. Network-Symbolic Transformations derive abstract structures, which allows for invariant recognition of an object as exemplar of a class. Active vision helps creating consistent models. Attention, separation of figure from ground and perceptual grouping are special kinds of network-symbolic transformations. Such Image/Video Understanding Systems will be reliably recognizing targets.

  1. Functional imaging of microdomains in cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, James; Jamal, Ghadir; Tilley, Mark; Davis, Ben; McKenzie, Graeme; Vere, Kelly; Somekh, Michael G; O'Shea, Paul; Harris, Helen

    2008-10-01

    The presence of microdomains or rafts within cell membranes is a topic of intense study and debate. The role of these structures in cell physiology, however, is also not yet fully understood with many outstanding problems. This problem is partly based on the small size of raft structures that presents significant problems to their in vivo study, i.e., within live cell membranes. But the structure and dynamics as well as the factors that control the assembly and disassembly of rafts are also of major interest. In this review we outline some of the problems that the study of rafts in cell membranes present as well as describing some views of what are considered the generalised functions of membrane rafts. We point to the possibility that there may be several different 'types' of membrane raft in cell membranes and consider the factors that affect raft assembly and disassembly, particularly, as some researchers suggest that the lifetimes of rafts in cell membranes may be sub-second. We attempt to review some of the methods that offer the ability to interrogate rafts directly as well as describing factors that appear to affect their functionality. The former include both near-field and far-field optical approaches as well as scanning probe techniques. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are outlined. Finally, we describe our own views of raft functionality and properties, particularly, concerning the membrane dipole potential, and describe briefly some of the imaging strategies we have developed for their study.

  2. SU-C-18A-02: Image-Based Camera Tracking: Towards Registration of Endoscopic Video to CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingram, S; Rao, A; Wendt, R; Castillo, R; Court, L; Yang, J; Beadle, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Endoscopic examinations are routinely performed on head and neck and esophageal cancer patients. However, these images are underutilized for radiation therapy because there is currently no way to register them to a CT of the patient. The purpose of this work is to develop a method to track the motion of an endoscope within a structure using images from standard clinical equipment. This method will be incorporated into a broader endoscopy/CT registration framework. Methods: We developed a software algorithm to track the motion of an endoscope within an arbitrary structure. We computed frame-to-frame rotation and translation of the camera by tracking surface points across the video sequence and utilizing two-camera epipolar geometry. The resulting 3D camera path was used to recover the surrounding structure via triangulation methods. We tested this algorithm on a rigid cylindrical phantom with a pattern spray-painted on the inside. We did not constrain the motion of the endoscope while recording, and we did not constrain our measurements using the known structure of the phantom. Results: Our software algorithm can successfully track the general motion of the endoscope as it moves through the phantom. However, our preliminary data do not show a high degree of accuracy in the triangulation of 3D point locations. More rigorous data will be presented at the annual meeting. Conclusion: Image-based camera tracking is a promising method for endoscopy/CT image registration, and it requires only standard clinical equipment. It is one of two major components needed to achieve endoscopy/CT registration, the second of which is tying the camera path to absolute patient geometry. In addition to this second component, future work will focus on validating our camera tracking algorithm in the presence of clinical imaging features such as patient motion, erratic camera motion, and dynamic scene illumination

  3. Fast mega pixels video imaging of a toroidal plasma in KT5D device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Min; Wang Zhijiang; Lu Ronghua; Sun Xiang; Wen Yizhi; Yu Changxuan; Wan Shude; Liu Wandong; Wang Jun; Xiao Delong; Yu Yi; Zhu Zhenghua; Hu Linyin

    2005-01-01

    A direct imaging system, viewing visible light emission from plasmas tangentially or perpendicularly, has been set up on the KT5D toroidal device to monitor the real two-dimensional profiles of purely ECR generated plasmas. This system has a typical spatial resolution of 0.2 mm (1280x1024 pixels) when imaging the whole cross section. Interesting features of ECR plasmas have been found. Different from what classical theories have expected, a resonance layer with two or three bright spots, rather than an even vertical band, has been observed. In addition, images also indicate an intermittent splitting and drifting character of the plasmas

  4. Learning Trajectory for Transforming Teachers' Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics and Science with Digital Image and Video Technologies in an Online Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niess, Margaret L.; Gillow-Wiles, Henry

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative cross-case study explores the influence of a designed learning trajectory on transforming teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) for teaching with digital image and video technologies. The TPACK Learning Trajectory embeds tasks with specific instructional strategies within a social metacognitive…

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF EVALUATION OF A QUANTITATIVE VIDEO-FLUORESCENCE IMAGING SYSTEM AND FLUORESCENT TRACER FOR MEASURING TRANSFER OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES FROM SURFACES TO HANDS WITH REPEATED CONTACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A video imaging system and the associated quantification methods have been developed for measurement of the transfers of a fluorescent tracer from surfaces to hands. The highly fluorescent compound riboflavin (Vitamin B2), which is also water soluble and non-toxic, was chosen as...

  6. Global adjustment for creating extended panoramic images in video-dermoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraz, Khuram; Blondel, Walter; Daul, Christian

    2017-07-01

    This contribution presents a fast global adjustment scheme exploiting SURF descriptor locations for constructing large skin mosaics. Precision in pairwise image registration is well-preserved while significantly reducing the global mosaicing error.

  7. High Dynamic Range Video

    CERN Document Server

    Myszkowski, Karol

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a complete pipeline forHDR image and video processing fromacquisition, through compression and quality evaluation, to display. At the HDR image and video acquisition stage specialized HDR sensors or multi-exposure techniques suitable for traditional cameras are discussed. Then, we present a practical solution for pixel values calibration in terms of photometric or radiometric quantities, which are required in some technically oriented applications. Also, we cover the problem of efficient image and video compression and encoding either for storage or transmission purposes, in

  8. Preparation of photo an video images during foot diagnostics in stress condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsarov, V; Stoyanov, K.; Panchev, P.; Belcheva, J.; Atanasov, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present some practical issues concerning image scanning, processing and software application in orthopedics and traumatology for foot diagnostic purposes. Basic concepts in optical scanning, multi-position photography and technology with high informational value have been discussed. The use of Slide show, Clip and Mpeg graphic formats during preparation for capture and image processing has been also demonstrated

  9. Remote visual inspection of nuclear fuel pellets with fiber optics and video image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has designed and is constructing a nuclear fuel fabrication process line for the Department of Energy. This process line includes a pellet surface inspection system that remotely inspects the cylindrical surface of nuclear fuel pellets for surface spots, flaws, or discoloration. The pellets are inspected on a 100% basis after pellet sintering. A feeder will deliver the pellets directly to fiber optic inspection head. The inspection head will view one pellet surface at a time. The surface image of the pellet will be imaged to a closed-circuit color television camera (CCTV). The output signal of the CCTV will be input to a digital imaging processor that stores approximately 25 pellet images at a time. A human operator will visually examine the images of the pellet surfaces on a high resolution monitor and accept or reject the pellets based on visual standards. The operator will use a digitizing tablet to record the location of rejected pellets, which will then be automatically removed from the product stream. The system is expandable to automated disposition of the pellet surface image

  10. Remote visual inspection of nuclear fuel pellets with fiber optics and video image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has designed and is constructing a nuclear fuel fabrication process line for the Department of Energy. This process line includes a pellet surface inspection system that remotely inspects the cylindrical surface of nuclear fuel pellets for surface spots, flaws, or discoloration. The pellets are inspected on a 100 percent basis after pellet sintering. A feeder will deliver the pellets directly to a fiber optic inspection head. The inspection head will view one pellet surface at a time. The surface image of the pellet will be imaged to a closed-circuit color television camera (CCTV). The output signal of the CCTV will be input to a digital imaging processor that stores approximately 25 pellet images at a time. A human operator will visually examine the images of the pellet surfaces on a high resolution monitor and accept or reject the pellets based on visual standards. The operator will use a digitizing tablet to record the location of rejected pellets, which will then be automatically removed from the product stream. The system is expandable to automated disposition of the pellet surface image

  11. Imaging in Patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzenhofer, E.; Ubl, P.; Czerny, C.; Erovic, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin with a mortality rate of approximately 25% (Peloschek et al., 2010). Accurate assessment of nodal involvement in patients with MCC predicts significantly overall outcome (Smith et al., 2012 and Ortin-Perez et al., 2007). Due to the rarity of this highly aggressive disease, only a few imaging reports on MCC were published, and subsequently still to date no accepted imaging algorithm for MCC is available. For primary staging of MCC, general recommendations have included ultrasonography, chest X-ray CT, and MRI, but recent articles show that the use of sentinel node and FDG-PET/PET-CT is gaining more and more importance

  12. SECRETS OF SONG VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the origins of the song videos as TV and Internet-genre. In addition, it considers problems of screen images creation depending on the musical form and the text of a songs in connection with relevant principles of accent and phraseological video editing and filming techniques as well as with additional frames and sound elements.

  13. Remote visual inspection of nuclear fuel pellets with fiber optics and video image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has designed and constructed a nuclear fuel fabrication process line for the U.S. Department of Energy. This process line includes a system that remotely inspects the cylindrical surface of nuclear fuel pellets for surface spots, flaws, or discoloration. The pellets are inspected on a 100% basis after pellet sintering. A feeder delivers the pellets directly to a fiber optic inspection head, which views one pellet surface at a time and images it to a closed-circuit color television camera (CCTV). The output signal of the CCTV is input to a digital imaging processor that stores approximately 25 pellet images at a time. A human operator visually examines the images of the pellet surfaces on a high resolution monitor and accepts or rejects the pellets based on visual standards. The operator uses a digitizing tablet to record the location of rejected pellets, which are then automatically removed from the product stream. The system is expandable to automated disposition of the pellet surface image

  14. Short Project-Based Learning with MATLAB Applications to Support the Learning of Video-Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Pablo

    2017-10-01

    University courses concerning Computer Vision and Image Processing are generally taught using a traditional methodology that is focused on the teacher rather than on the students. This approach is consequently not effective when teachers seek to attain cognitive objectives involving their students' critical thinking. This manuscript covers the development, implementation and assessment of a short project-based engineering course with MATLAB applications Multimedia Engineering being taken by Bachelor's degree students. The principal goal of all course lectures and hands-on laboratory activities was for the students to not only acquire image-specific technical skills but also a general knowledge of data analysis so as to locate phenomena in pixel regions of images and video frames. This would hopefully enable the students to develop skills regarding the implementation of the filters, operators, methods and techniques used for image processing and computer vision software libraries. Our teaching-learning process thus permits the accomplishment of knowledge assimilation, student motivation and skill development through the use of a continuous evaluation strategy to solve practical and real problems by means of short projects designed using MATLAB applications. Project-based learning is not new. This approach has been used in STEM learning in recent decades. But there are many types of projects. The aim of the current study is to analyse the efficacy of short projects as a learning tool when compared to long projects during which the students work with more independence. This work additionally presents the impact of different types of activities, and not only short projects, on students' overall results in this subject. Moreover, a statistical study has allowed the author to suggest a link between the students' success ratio and the type of content covered and activities completed on the course. The results described in this paper show that those students who took part

  15. Profiling pleural effusion cells by a diffraction imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qaysi, Safaa; Hong, Heng; Wen, Yuhua; Lu, Jun Q.; Feng, Yuanming; Hu, Xin-Hua

    2018-02-01

    Assay of cells in pleural effusion (PE) is an important means of disease diagnosis. Conventional cytology of effusion samples, however, has low sensitivity and depends heavily on the expertise of cytopathologists. We applied a polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry method on effusion cells to investigate their features. Diffraction imaging of the PE cell samples has been performed on 6000 to 12000 cells for each effusion cell sample of three patients. After prescreening to remove images by cellular debris and aggregated non-cellular particles, the image textures were extracted with a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm. The distribution of the imaged cells in the GLCM parameters space was analyzed by a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to determine the number of clusters among the effusion cells. These results yield insight on textural features of diffraction images and related cellular morphology in effusion samples and can be used toward the development of a label-free method for effusion cells assay.

  16. Fuzzy-Based Segmentation for Variable Font-Sized Text Extraction from Images/Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samabia Tehsin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Textual information embedded in multimedia can provide a vital tool for indexing and retrieval. A lot of work is done in the field of text localization and detection because of its very fundamental importance. One of the biggest challenges of text detection is to deal with variation in font sizes and image resolution. This problem gets elevated due to the undersegmentation or oversegmentation of the regions in an image. The paper addresses this problem by proposing a solution using novel fuzzy-based method. This paper advocates postprocessing segmentation method that can solve the problem of variation in text sizes and image resolution. The methodology is tested on ICDAR 2011 Robust Reading Challenge dataset which amply proves the strength of the recommended method.

  17. Enlargement device of an image part contained in a video signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossaert, J.; Bodelet, P.; Tomietto, T.

    1994-01-01

    To filter a signal delivered in an interlaced manner, it is foreseen to introduce in series one filter on half frame having a pass-band transfer function in the horizontal plane and a pass-high transfer function in the vertical plane. This filter carries out on the global image signal a general pass-band transfer function. All is managed so that the central frequency of this pass-band filter fits with an elaborate image resolution. By acting so the contours of structures can be enhanced. The method applies particularly to medical radiography. 3 refs., 5 figs

  18. Sensor Fusion of a Mobile Device to Control and Acquire Videos or Images of Coffee Branches and for Georeferencing Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Jimena Ramos Giraldo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones show potential for controlling and monitoring variables in agriculture. Their processing capacity, instrumentation, connectivity, low cost, and accessibility allow farmers (among other users in rural areas to operate them easily with applications adjusted to their specific needs. In this investigation, the integration of inertial sensors, a GPS, and a camera are presented for the monitoring of a coffee crop. An Android-based application was developed with two operating modes: (i Navigation: for georeferencing trees, which can be as close as 0.5 m from each other; and (ii Acquisition: control of video acquisition, based on the movement of the mobile device over a branch, and measurement of image quality, using clarity indexes to select the most appropriate frames for application in future processes. The integration of inertial sensors in navigation mode, shows a mean relative error of ±0.15 m, and total error ±5.15 m. In acquisition mode, the system correctly identifies the beginning and end of mobile phone movement in 99% of cases, and image quality is determined by means of a sharpness factor which measures blurriness. With the developed system, it will be possible to obtain georeferenced information about coffee trees, such as their production, nutritional state, and presence of plagues or diseases.

  19. Sensor Fusion of a Mobile Device to Control and Acquire Videos or Images of Coffee Branches and for Georeferencing Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Paula Jimena Ramos; Aguirre, Álvaro Guerrero; Muñoz, Carlos Mario; Prieto, Flavio Augusto; Oliveros, Carlos Eugenio

    2017-04-06

    Smartphones show potential for controlling and monitoring variables in agriculture. Their processing capacity, instrumentation, connectivity, low cost, and accessibility allow farmers (among other users in rural areas) to operate them easily with applications adjusted to their specific needs. In this investigation, the integration of inertial sensors, a GPS, and a camera are presented for the monitoring of a coffee crop. An Android-based application was developed with two operating modes: ( i ) Navigation: for georeferencing trees, which can be as close as 0.5 m from each other; and ( ii ) Acquisition: control of video acquisition, based on the movement of the mobile device over a branch, and measurement of image quality, using clarity indexes to select the most appropriate frames for application in future processes. The integration of inertial sensors in navigation mode, shows a mean relative error of ±0.15 m, and total error ±5.15 m. In acquisition mode, the system correctly identifies the beginning and end of mobile phone movement in 99% of cases, and image quality is determined by means of a sharpness factor which measures blurriness. With the developed system, it will be possible to obtain georeferenced information about coffee trees, such as their production, nutritional state, and presence of plagues or diseases.

  20. Single-cell magnetic imaging using a quantum diamond microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, D R; Lee, K; Park, H; Weissleder, R; Yacoby, A; Lukin, M D; Lee, H; Walsworth, R L; Connolly, C B

    2015-08-01

    We apply a quantum diamond microscope for detection and imaging of immunomagnetically labeled cells. This instrument uses nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond for correlated magnetic and fluorescence imaging. Our device provides single-cell resolution and a field of view (∼1 mm(2)) two orders of magnitude larger than that of previous NV imaging technologies, enabling practical applications. To illustrate, we quantified cancer biomarkers expressed by rare tumor cells in a large population of healthy cells.

  1. Subjective evaluation of the accuracy of video imaging prediction following orthognathic surgery in Chinese patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, Ming Tak; Koh, Chay Hui; Sandham, John; Wong, Hwee Bee

    Purpose: The aims of this retrospective study were to assess the subjective accuracy of predictions generated by a computer imaging software in Chinese patients who had undergone orthognathic surgery and to determine the influence of initial dysgnathia and complexity of the surgical procedure on

  2. Innovative Solution to Video Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Through a licensing agreement, Intergraph Government Solutions adapted a technology originally developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for enhanced video imaging by developing its Video Analyst(TM) System. Marshall's scientists developed the Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR) technology to help FBI agents analyze video footage of the deadly 1996 Olympic Summer Games bombing in Atlanta, Georgia. VISAR technology enhanced nighttime videotapes made with hand-held camcorders, revealing important details about the explosion. Intergraph's Video Analyst System is a simple, effective, and affordable tool for video enhancement and analysis. The benefits associated with the Video Analyst System include support of full-resolution digital video, frame-by-frame analysis, and the ability to store analog video in digital format. Up to 12 hours of digital video can be stored and maintained for reliable footage analysis. The system also includes state-of-the-art features such as stabilization, image enhancement, and convolution to help improve the visibility of subjects in the video without altering underlying footage. Adaptable to many uses, Intergraph#s Video Analyst System meets the stringent demands of the law enforcement industry in the areas of surveillance, crime scene footage, sting operations, and dash-mounted video cameras.

  3. Quantitative imaging of epithelial cell scattering identifies specific inhibitors of cell motility and cell-cell dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerke, D.; le Duc, Q.; Blonk, I.; Kerstens, A.; Spanjaard, E.; Machacek, M.; Danuser, G.; de Rooij, J.

    2012-01-01

    The scattering of cultured epithelial cells in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a model system that recapitulates key features of metastatic cell behavior in vitro, including disruption of cell-cell adhesions and induction of cell migration. We have developed image analysis tools that

  4. Cardiac Sarcoidosis or Giant Cell Myocarditis? On Treatment Improvement of Fulminant Myocarditis as Demonstrated by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Bogabathina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell myocarditis, but not cardiac sarcoidosis, is known to cause fulminant myocarditis resulting in severe heart failure. However, giant cell myocarditis and cardiac sarcoidosis are pathologically similar, and attempts at pathological differentiation between the two remain difficult. We are presenting a case of fulminant myocarditis that has pathological features suggestive of cardiac sarcoidosis, but clinically mimicking giant cell myocarditis. This patient was treated with cyclosporine and prednisone and recovered well. This case we believe challenges our current understanding of these intertwined conditions. By obtaining a sense of severity of cardiac involvement via delayed hyperenhancement of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, we were more inclined to treat this patient as giant cell myocarditis with cyclosporine. This resulted in excellent improvement of patient’s cardiac function as shown by delayed hyperenhancement images, early perfusion images, and SSFP videos.

  5. A standardized imaging protocol for the endoscopic prediction of dysplasia within sessile serrated polyps (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, David J; Jayanna, Mahesh; Awadie, Halim; Desomer, Lobke; Lee, Ralph; Heitman, Steven J; Sidhu, Mayenaaz; Goodrick, Kathleen; Burgess, Nicholas G; Mahajan, Hema; McLeod, Duncan; Bourke, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Dysplasia within sessile serrated polyps (SSPs) is difficult to detect and may be mistaken for an adenoma, risking incomplete resection of the background serrated tissue, and is strongly implicated in interval cancer after colonoscopy. The use of endoscopic imaging to detect dysplasia within SSPs has not been systematically studied. Consecutively detected SSPs ≥8 mm in size were evaluated by using a standardized imaging protocol at a tertiary-care endoscopy center over 3 years. Lesions suspected as SSPs were analyzed with high-definition white light then narrow-band imaging. A demarcated area with a neoplastic pit pattern (Kudo type III/IV, NICE type II) was sought among the serrated tissue. If this was detected, the lesion was labeled dysplastic (sessile serrated polyp with dysplasia); if not, it was labeled non-dysplastic (sessile serrated polyp without dysplasia). Histopathology was reviewed by 2 blinded specialist GI pathologists. A total of 141 SSPs were assessed in 83 patients. Median lesion size was 15.0 mm (interquartile range 10-20), and 54.6% were in the right side of the colon. Endoscopic evidence of dysplasia was detected in 36 of 141 (25.5%) SSPs; of these, 5 of 36 (13.9%) lacked dysplasia at histopathology. Two of 105 (1.9%) endoscopically designated non-dysplastic SSPs had dysplasia at histopathology. Endoscopic imaging, therefore, had an accuracy of 95.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.1%-97.6%) and a negative predictive value of 98.1% (95% CI, 92.6%-99.7%) for detection of dysplasia within SSPs. Dysplasia within SSPs can be detected accurately by using a simple, broadly applicable endoscopic imaging protocol that allows complete resection. Independent validation of this protocol and its dissemination to the wider endoscopic community may have a significant impact on rates of interval cancer. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT03100552.). Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Multisensor fusion in gastroenterology domain through video and echo endoscopic image combination: a challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debon, Renaud; Le Guillou, Clara; Cauvin, Jean-Michel; Solaiman, Basel; Roux, Christian

    2001-08-01

    Medical domain makes intensive use of information fusion. In particular, the gastro-enterology is a discipline where physicians have the choice between several imagery modalities that offer complementary advantages. Among all existing systems, videoendoscopy (based on a CCD sensor) and echoendoscopy (based on an ultrasound sensor) are the most efficient. The use of each system corresponds to a given step in the physician diagnostic elaboration. Nowadays, several works aim to achieve automatic interpretation of videoendoscopic sequences. These systems can quantify color and superficial textures of the digestive tube. Unfortunately the relief information, which is important for the diagnostic, is very difficult to retrieve. On the other hand, some studies have proved that 3D information can be easily quantified using echoendoscopy image sequences. That is why the idea to combine these information, acquired from two very different points of view, can be considered as a real challenge for the medical image fusion topic. In this paper, after a review of actual works concerning numerical exploitation of videoendoscopy and echoendoscopy, the following question will be discussed: how can the use of complementary aspects of the different systems ease the automatic exploitation of videoendoscopy ? In a second time, we will evaluate the feasibility of the achievement of a realistic 3D reconstruction based both on information given by echoendoscopy (relief) and videoendoscopy (texture). Enumeration of potential applications of such a fusion system will then follow. Further discussions and perspectives will conclude this first study.

  7. Dashboard Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleue, Alan D.; Depcik, Chris; Peltier, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Last school year, I had a web link emailed to me entitled "A Dashboard Physics Lesson." The link, created and posted by Dale Basier on his "Lab Out Loud" blog, illustrates video of a car's speedometer synchronized with video of the road. These two separate video streams are compiled into one video that students can watch and analyze. After seeing…

  8. Video Browsing on Handheld Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürst, Wolfgang

    Recent improvements in processing power, storage space, and video codec development enable users now to playback video on their handheld devices in a reasonable quality. However, given the form factor restrictions of such a mobile device, screen size still remains a natural limit and - as the term "handheld" implies - always will be a critical resource. This is not only true for video but any data that is processed on such devices. For this reason, developers have come up with new and innovative ways to deal with large documents in such limited scenarios. For example, if you look at the iPhone, innovative techniques such as flicking have been introduced to skim large lists of text (e.g. hundreds of entries in your music collection). Automatically adapting the zoom level to, for example, the width of table cells when double tapping on the screen enables reasonable browsing of web pages that have originally been designed for large, desktop PC sized screens. A multi touch interface allows you to easily zoom in and out of large text documents and images using two fingers. In the next section, we will illustrate that advanced techniques to browse large video files have been developed in the past years, as well. However, if you look at state-of-the-art video players on mobile devices, normally just simple, VCR like controls are supported (at least at the time of this writing) that only allow users to just start, stop, and pause video playback. If supported at all, browsing and navigation functionality is often restricted to simple skipping of chapters via two single buttons for backward and forward navigation and a small and thus not very sensitive timeline slider.

  9. In vitro motility evaluation of aggregated cancer cells by means of automatic image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hauwer, C; Darro, F; Camby, I; Kiss, R; Van Ham, P; Decaesteker, C

    1999-05-01

    Set up of an automatic image processing based method that enables the motility of in vitro aggregated cells to be evaluated for a number of hours. Our biological model included the PC-3 human prostate cancer cell line growing as a monolayer on the bottom of Falcon plastic dishes containing conventional culture media. Our equipment consisted of an incubator, an inverted phase contrast microscope, a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) video camera, and a computer equipped with an image processing software developed in our laboratory. This computer-assisted microscope analysis of aggregated cells enables global cluster motility to be evaluated. This analysis also enables the trajectory of each cell to be isolated and parametrized within a given cluster or, indeed, the trajectories of individual cells outside a cluster. The results show that motility inside a PC-3 cluster is not restricted to slight motion due to cluster expansion, but rather consists of a marked cell movement within the cluster. The proposed equipment enables in vitro aggregated cell motility to be studied. This method can, therefore, be used in pharmacological studies in order to select anti-motility related compounds. The compounds selected by the equipment described could then be tested in vivo as potential anti-metastatic.

  10. Quantifying fish swimming behavior in response to acute exposure of aqueous copper using computer assisted video and digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to environmental contaminants can be precursors of other effects such as survival, growth, or reproduction. However, these responses may be subtle, and measurement can be challenging. Using juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) with copper exposures, this paper illustrates techniques used for quantifying behavioral responses using computer assisted video and digital image analysis. In previous studies severe impairments in swimming behavior were observed among early life stage white sturgeon during acute and chronic exposures to copper. Sturgeon behavior was rapidly impaired and to the extent that survival in the field would be jeopardized, as fish would be swept downstream, or readily captured by predators. The objectives of this investigation were to illustrate protocols to quantify swimming activity during a series of acute copper exposures to determine time to effect during early lifestage development, and to understand the significance of these responses relative to survival of these vulnerable early lifestage fish. With mortality being on a time continuum, determining when copper first affects swimming ability helps us to understand the implications for population level effects. The techniques used are readily adaptable to experimental designs with other organisms and stressors.

  11. A new level set model for cell image segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jing-Feng; Chen Chun; Hou Kai; Bao Shang-Lian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we first determine three phases of cell images: background, cytoplasm and nucleolus according to the general physical characteristics of cell images, and then develop a variational model, based on these characteristics, to segment nucleolus and cytoplasm from their relatively complicated backgrounds. In the meantime, the preprocessing obtained information of cell images using the OTSU algorithm is used to initialize the level set function in the model, which can speed up the segmentation and present satisfactory results in cell image processing. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  12. A New Learning Control System for Basketball Free Throws Based on Real Time Video Image Processing and Biofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sarang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Shooting free throws plays an important role in basketball. The major problem in performing a correct free throw seems to be inappropriate training. Training is performed offline and it is often not that persistent. The aim of this paper is to consciously modify and control the free throw using biofeedback. Elbow and shoulder dynamics are calculated by an image processing technique equipped with a video image acquisition system. The proposed setup in this paper, named learning control system, is able to quantify and provide feedback of the above parameters in real time as audio signals. Therefore, it yielded to performing a correct learning and conscious control of shooting. Experimental results showed improvements in the free throw shooting style including shot pocket and locked position. The mean values of elbow and shoulder angles were controlled approximately on 89o and 26o, for shot pocket and also these angles were tuned approximately on 180o and 47o respectively for the locked position (closed to the desired pattern of the free throw based on valid FIBA references. Not only the mean values enhanced but also the standard deviations of these angles decreased meaningfully, which shows shooting style convergence and uniformity. Also, in training conditions, the average percentage of making successful free throws increased from about 64% to even 87% after using this setup and in competition conditions the average percentage of successful free throws enhanced about 20%, although using the learning control system may not be the only reason for these outcomes. The proposed system is easy to use, inexpensive, portable and real time applicable.

  13. Imaging of Human Hepatic Stem Cells In Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Report on progress in MRI and PET of stem cell tracking. Human hepatic stem cell imaging for both MRI and PET have been accomplished within SCID/nod mice, and succeeded in cell specificity labeling with in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo image tracking. For MRI, stem cell labeling was accomplished by two methods: (1) in vitro labeling the stem cells just prior to in vivo transplantation, and/or (2) transplanting the stem cells into SCID/nod mice and in vivo specificity labeling the cells just prior to MRI. For labeling techniques 1 and 2, multiple image controls were utilized and include: (A) stem cells(-) and contrast label(-), (B) stem cells(+) and contrast label(-), and (C) stem cells(-) and contrast label(+) help to confirm signal noise background interference, which is a result of slight nonspecific cell labeling. Contrast labeled stem cells are directly transplanted into liver tissues, the tissues excised, and immediately MR imaged to determine cell dispersion dynamics. In this method, the contrast labeled cells appear as void foci throughout the organs. The images are imported into Metamorph imaging software and analyzed for foci radii, diameter, and to discern spheroid volumes. Then, cell numbers are extrapolated to understand ''imaged'' cell aggregate requirements using this technique. For this ex vivo method, a cell aggregate of ∼100 stem cells is required to MRI monitor signal activities. For in vivo imaging, contrast labeled human stem cells within SCID/nod mice are also confirmed as small foci voids and are evident within liver tissues. Initially, these short-term studies where accomplished by in vitro labeling stem cells, transplanting the cells, then in vivo imaging the tissues between days 3-15. Next and to avoid imaged time limitations of detaching contrast agents, the proliferative stem cells were labeled after transplantation, and before MR imaging. This was accomplished to confirm the ability to specifically label unique cell subsets after the

  14. Automated in-core image generation from video to aid visual inspection of nuclear power plant cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Paul, E-mail: paul.murray@strath.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Technology and Innovation Centre, 99 George Street, Glasgow, G1 1RD (United Kingdom); West, Graeme; Marshall, Stephen; McArthur, Stephen [Dept. Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Royal College Building, 204 George Street, Glasgow G1 1XW (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • A method is presented which improves visual inspection of reactor cores. • Significant time savings are made to activities on the critical outage path. • New information is extracted from existing data sources without additional overhead. • Examples from industrial case studies across the UK fleet of AGR stations. - Abstract: Inspection and monitoring of key components of nuclear power plant reactors is an essential activity for understanding the current health of the power plant and ensuring that they continue to remain safe to operate. As the power plants age, and the components degrade from their initial start-of-life conditions, the requirement for more and more detailed inspection and monitoring information increases. Deployment of new monitoring and inspection equipment on existing operational plant is complex and expensive, as the effect of introducing new sensing and imaging equipment to the existing operational functions needs to be fully understood. Where existing sources of data can be leveraged, the need for new equipment development and installation can be offset by the development of advanced data processing techniques. This paper introduces a novel technique for creating full 360° panoramic images of the inside surface of fuel channels from in-core inspection footage. Through the development of this technique, a number of technical challenges associated with the constraints of using existing equipment have been addressed. These include: the inability to calibrate the camera specifically for image stitching; dealing with additional data not relevant to the panorama construction; dealing with noisy images; and generalising the approach to work with two different capture devices deployed at seven different Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor nuclear power plants. The resulting data processing system is currently under formal assessment with a view to replacing the existing manual assembly of in-core defect montages. Deployment of the

  15. Video microblogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Microblogging is a recently popular phenomenon and with the increasing trend for video cameras to be built into mobile phones, a new type of microblogging has entered the arena of electronic communication: video microblogging. In this study we examine video microblogging, which is the broadcasting...... of short videos. A series of semi-structured interviews offers an understanding of why and how video microblogging is used and what the users post and broadcast....

  16. Trends in Scientific Literature on Addiction to the Internet, Video Games, and Cell Phones from 2006 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Xavier; Guardiola, Elena; Fuster, Héctor; Gil, Frederic; Panova, Tayana

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and video games. Articles indexed in PubMed and PsycINFO between 2006 and 2010 related to the pathological use of Internet, cell phones, and video games were retrieved. Search results were reviewed to eliminate articles that were not relevant or were duplicates. Three hundred and thirty valid articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycINFO from 2006 to 2010. Results were compared with those of 1996-2005. The year with the highest number of articles published was 2008 (n = 96). The most productive countries, in terms of number of articles published, were China (n = 67), the United States (n = 56), the United Kingdom (n = 47), and Taiwan (n = 33). The most commonly used language was English (70.3%), followed by Chinese (15.4%). Articles were published in 153 different journals. The journal that published the most articles was Cyberpsychology and Behavior (n = 73), followed by Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology (n = 27) and International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (n = 16). Internet was the area most frequently studied, with an increasing interest in other areas such as online video games and cell phones. The number of publications on technological addictions reached a peak in 2008. The scientific contributions of China, Taiwan, and Korea are overrepresented compared to other scientific fields such as drug addiction. The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5(th) Edition could change the publication trends in the

  17. Analysis of live cell images: Methods, tools and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nketia, Thomas A; Sailem, Heba; Rohde, Gustavo; Machiraju, Raghu; Rittscher, Jens

    2017-02-15

    Advances in optical microscopy, biosensors and cell culturing technologies have transformed live cell imaging. Thanks to these advances live cell imaging plays an increasingly important role in basic biology research as well as at all stages of drug development. Image analysis methods are needed to extract quantitative information from these vast and complex data sets. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of available image analysis methods for live cell imaging, in particular required preprocessing image segmentation, cell tracking and data visualisation methods. The potential opportunities recent advances in machine learning, especially deep learning, and computer vision provide are being discussed. This review includes overview of the different available software packages and toolkits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Advances of reporter gene imaging monitoring stem cell therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Zhijun; Zhang Yongxue

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation in the treatment of various tissue damage or degenerative diseases are research hotspots both at home and abroad. However, ignorance of the homing, differentiation and functional expression of the stem cell in vivo influence the further development of stem cell therapy. As an important component of molecular imaging technology, reporter gene imaging dynamically monitors the change of stem cell in vivo via monitoring the expression of transfected reporter gene. This paper briefly describes the latest research progress and the future development trend of the monitoring of reporter gene imaging in stem cell therapy in vivo. (authors)

  19. The use of computerized video time lapse to study cell death in rat embryo cells transfected with c-ha-ras or c-myc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, H.B.; Vidair, C.A.; Dewey, W.C.; Ling, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Individual rat embryo fibroblasts that had been transfected with the c-myc (REC:myc) or c-Ha ras (REC:ras) oncogene were followed after irradiation using a computer video time lapse (CVTL) system in order to quantify the lethal events that resulted in loss of clonogenic survival after irradiation. By followed the cells for 2 to 3 generations before irradiation we were able to determine where they were in the cell cycle at the time of irradiation for cell cycle analysis. After irradiation, the individual cells and their progeny were followed in multiple fields for 5-6 days Then, pedigrees for individual irradiated cells were determined by noting the times of divisions fusions, and cell death. After X-irradiation, the clonogenic survival values for these two cell lines are similar. However, by using computerized video time lapse (CVTL) to follow individual cells we found that the loss of clonogenic survival was due to two different processes, cell death and a senescent-like process. The loss of clonogenic survival of x-irradiated (9.5 and 4 Gy) REC:myc cells was attributed almost entirely to the cells dying by apoptosis (∼99 and 90%). In contrast, approximately 60% of the x-irradiated (9.5 Gy) non-clonogenic REC:ras cells died by apoptosis (with a very small amount of necrosis), and the other 40% underwent a senescent-type process in which some of the cells and their progeny stopped dividing but remained as viable cells throughout 140 hours of observation. Both processes usually occurred after the cells had divided and continued to occur in the cells' progeny for up to five divisions after irradiation. The mode of cell death in the progeny of a non-clonogenic cell can be determined only by using CVTL and can not be determined by conventional clonogenic survival experiments. Also, only by following the individual cells and their progeny can the true amount of apoptosis be determined. The cumulative percentage of apoptosis scored in whole populations

  20. Video demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Jack, Keith

    2004-01-01

    This international bestseller and essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide. This is by far the most informative analog and digital video reference available, includes the hottest new trends and cutting-edge developments in the field. Video Demystified, Fourth Edition is a "one stop" reference guide for the various digital video technologies. The fourth edition is completely updated with all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video (Video over DSL, Ethernet, etc.), as well as discussions of the latest standards throughout. The accompanying CD-ROM is updated to include a unique set of video test files in the newest formats. *This essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide *Contains all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video *Completely revised with all the latest and most up-to-date industry standards.

  1. Multimodal quantitative phase and fluorescence imaging of cell apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xinye; Zuo, Chao; Yan, Hao

    2017-06-01

    Fluorescence microscopy, utilizing fluorescence labeling, has the capability to observe intercellular changes which transmitted and reflected light microscopy techniques cannot resolve. However, the parts without fluorescence labeling are not imaged. Hence, the processes simultaneously happen in these parts cannot be revealed. Meanwhile, fluorescence imaging is 2D imaging where information in the depth is missing. Therefore the information in labeling parts is also not complete. On the other hand, quantitative phase imaging is capable to image cells in 3D in real time through phase calculation. However, its resolution is limited by the optical diffraction and cannot observe intercellular changes below 200 nanometers. In this work, fluorescence imaging and quantitative phase imaging are combined to build a multimodal imaging system. Such system has the capability to simultaneously observe the detailed intercellular phenomenon and 3D cell morphology. In this study the proposed multimodal imaging system is used to observe the cell behavior in the cell apoptosis. The aim is to highlight the limitations of fluorescence microscopy and to point out the advantages of multimodal quantitative phase and fluorescence imaging. The proposed multimodal quantitative phase imaging could be further applied in cell related biomedical research, such as tumor.

  2. Video pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Länsitie, Janne; Stevenson, Blair; Männistö, Riku; Karjalainen, Tommi; Karjalainen, Asko

    2016-01-01

    The short film is an introduction to the concept of video pedagogy. The five categories of video pedagogy further elaborate how videos can be used as a part of instruction and learning process. Most pedagogical videos represent more than one category. A video itself doesn’t necessarily define the category – the ways in which the video is used as a part of pedagogical script are more defining factors. What five categories did you find? Did you agree with the categories, or are more...

  3. Exploring the feasibility of a therapeutic music video intervention in adolescents and young adults during stem-cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Debra S; Robb, Sheri L; Haase, Joan E

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a therapeutic music video (TMV) intervention for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) undergoing stem-cell transplantation (SCT). Twelve AYAs (aged 11-24 years) were randomized to the TMV or an audio-book protocol. The TMV was designed to diminish symptom distress and improve coping, derived meaning, resilience, and quality of life by supporting AYAs in exploring thoughts and feelings. Six sessions with a board-certified music therapist were held twice a week for 3 weeks. The Adolescent Resilience Model guided the selection of a large, comprehensive battery of outcome measures. Major data collections occurred before admission, after intervention, and at 100 days after transplantation. Participants completed a brief set of measures at presession/postsessions 2, 4, and 6. Rates of consent, session completion, and questionnaire completion supported feasibility. Immediate follow-up measures suggest positive trends in the TMV group for hope, spirituality, confidence/mastery, and self-transcendence. Positive trends at 100 days include MOS, symptoms distress, defensive coping, spirituality, and self-transcendence. Therapeutic music video participants also demonstrated gains in quality of life. The TMV intervention may buffer the immediate after-effects of the stem-cell transplantation experience, and a larger study is warranted.

  4. Hybrid video-assisted thoracic surgery with segmental-main bronchial sleeve resection for non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuben; Chai, Huiping; Huang, Jun; Zeng, Guangqiao; Shao, Wenlong; He, Jianxing

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the current study is to present the clinical and surgical results in patients who underwent hybrid video-assisted thoracic surgery with segmental-main bronchial sleeve resection. Thirty-one patients, 27 men and 4 women, underwent segmental-main bronchial sleeve anastomoses for non-small cell lung cancer between May 2004 and May 2011. Twenty-six (83.9%) patients had squamous cell carcinoma, and 5 patients had adenocarcinoma. Six patients were at stage IIB, 24 patients at stage IIIA, and 1 patient at stage IIIB. Secondary sleeve anastomosis was performed in 18 patients, and Y-shaped multiple sleeve anastomosis was performed in 8 patients. Single segmental bronchiole anastomosis was performed in 5 cases. The average time for chest tube removal was 5.6 days. The average length of hospital stay was 11.8 days. No anastomosis fistula developed in any of the patients. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 83.9%, 71.0%, and 41.9%, respectively. Hybrid video-assisted thoracic surgery with segmental-main bronchial sleeve resection is a complex technique that requires training and experience, but it is an effective and safe operation for selected patients.

  5. MR imaging features of spindle cell lipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirwadi, Anand; Abdul-Halim, Rehan; Highland, Adrian; Kotnis, Nikhil [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Radiology Department, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Fernando, Malee [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Histopathology Department, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    To assess the MR imaging features of spindle cell lipomas (SCL) and to compare these appearances directly with the histopathological findings. A retrospective review of our soft tissue tumor database was performed. This yielded 1,327 histologically proven lipomas, of which 25 were confirmed as being SCLs. Fourteen of the 25 patients had MR examinations available for review and only these patients were included in our study. Lesions were assessed at MR examination for the degree of internal fat signal content with grade 0 representing 0 % fat signal and grade 4 100 % fat signal. The degree of fat suppression and contrast-enhancement pattern were also recorded. The excision specimens were independently reviewed by a consultant histopathologist. The histology specimens were assessed for the amount of internal fat and non-adipose tissue and graded using the same scale applied for the imaging. Where core needle biopsy (CNB) was performed, the CNB specimens were also examined for positive features of SCL. In our study, 93 % (13/14) of our patients were male and the average age was 58 years. 65 % (9/14) of the lesions presented in the upper back, shoulder, or neck. All lesions were subcutaneous. 35 % (5/14) of the SCLs demonstrated grade 3 (>75 %) or grade 4 (100 %) fat signal on MR examination. 35 % (5/14) of the lesions had grade 2 (25-75 %) fat signal and 29 % (4/14) of the lesions demonstrated grade 0 (0 %) or grade 1 (<25 %) fat signal. 43 % (6/14) of lesions demonstrated homogenous fat suppression, 28 % (4/14) showed focal areas of high internal signal, and 28 % (4/14) had diffuse internal high signal on fluid-sensitive fat-saturated sequences. 86 % (6/7) of the cases demonstrated septal/nodular enhancement. The diagnosis was evident on the CNB specimen in 100 % (9/9) cases. The histopathology fat content grade was in agreement with the imaging grade in 86 % (12/14) cases. The internal signal pattern of SCL can range broadly, with low fat content lesions seen almost

  6. Molecular Imaging in Stem Cell Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahuan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a serious disease of the center nervous system (CNS. It is a devastating injury with sudden loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic function distal to the level of trauma and produces great personal and societal costs. Currently, there are no remarkable effective therapies for the treatment of SCI. Compared to traditional treatment methods, stem cell transplantation therapy holds potential for repair and functional plasticity after SCI. However, the mechanism of stem cell therapy for SCI remains largely unknown and obscure partly due to the lack of efficient stem cell trafficking methods. Molecular imaging technology including positron emission tomography (PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, optical imaging (i.e., bioluminescence imaging (BLI gives the hope to complete the knowledge concerning basic stem cell biology survival, migration, differentiation, and integration in real time when transplanted into damaged spinal cord. In this paper, we mainly review the molecular imaging technology in stem cell therapy for SCI.

  7. AUTOMATED CELL SEGMENTATION WITH 3D FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY IMAGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jun; Wang, Fusheng; Teodoro, George; Liang, Yanhui; Zhu, Yangyang; Tucker-Burden, Carol; Brat, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    A large number of cell-oriented cancer investigations require an effective and reliable cell segmentation method on three dimensional (3D) fluorescence microscopic images for quantitative analysis of cell biological properties. In this paper, we present a fully automated cell segmentation method that can detect cells from 3D fluorescence microscopic images. Enlightened by fluorescence imaging techniques, we regulated the image gradient field by gradient vector flow (GVF) with interpolated and smoothed data volume, and grouped voxels based on gradient modes identified by tracking GVF field. Adaptive thresholding was then applied to voxels associated with the same gradient mode where voxel intensities were enhanced by a multiscale cell filter. We applied the method to a large volume of 3D fluorescence imaging data of human brain tumor cells with (1) small cell false detection and missing rates for individual cells; and (2) trivial over and under segmentation incidences for clustered cells. Additionally, the concordance of cell morphometry structure between automated and manual segmentation was encouraging. These results suggest a promising 3D cell segmentation method applicable to cancer studies.

  8. Video clip transfer of radiological images using a mobile telephone in emergency neurosurgical consultations (3G Multi-Media Messaging Service).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waran, Vicknes; Bahuri, Nor Faizal Ahmad; Narayanan, Vairavan; Ganesan, Dharmendra; Kadir, Khairul Azmi Abdul

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate and assess the accuracy and usefulness of sending short video clips in 3gp file format of an entire scan series of patients, using mobile telephones running on 3G-MMS technology, to enable consultation between junior doctors in a neurosurgical unit and the consultants on-call after office hours. A total of 56 consecutive patients with acute neurosurgical problems requiring urgent after-hours consultation during a 6-month period, prospectively had their images recorded and transmitted using the above method. The response to the diagnosis and the management plan by two neurosurgeons (who were not on site) based on the images viewed on a mobile telephone were reviewed by an independent observer and scored. In addition to this, a radiologist reviewed the original images directly on the hospital's Patients Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and this was compared with the neurosurgeons' response. Both neurosurgeons involved in this study were in complete agreement with their diagnosis. The radiologist disagreed with the diagnosis in only one patient, giving a kappa coefficient of 0.88, indicating an almost perfect agreement. The use of mobile telephones to transmit MPEG video clips of radiological images is very advantageous for carrying out emergency consultations in neurosurgery. The images accurately reflect the pathology in question, thereby reducing the incidence of medical errors from incorrect diagnosis, which otherwise may just depend on a verbal description.

  9. Cell-based therapies and imaging in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengel, Frank M; Schachinger, Volker; Dimmeler, Stefanie

    2005-12-01

    Cell therapy for cardiac repair has emerged as one of the most exciting and promising developments in cardiovascular medicine. Evidence from experimental and clinical studies is increasing that this innovative treatment will influence clinical practice in the future. But open questions and controversies with regard to the basic mechanisms of this therapy continue to exist and emphasise the need for specific techniques to visualise the mechanisms and success of therapy in vivo. Several non-invasive imaging approaches which aim at tracking of transplanted cells in the heart have been introduced. Among these are direct labelling of cells with radionuclides or paramagnetic agents, and the use of reporter genes for imaging of cell transplantation and differentiation. Initial studies have suggested that these molecular imaging techniques have great potential. Integration of cell imaging into studies of cardiac cell therapy holds promise to facilitate further growth of the field towards a broadly clinically useful application.

  10. Cell-based therapies and imaging in cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengel, Frank M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Munich (Germany); Schachinger, Volker; Dimmeler, Stefanie [University of Frankfurt, Department of Molecular Cardiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    Cell therapy for cardiac repair has emerged as one of the most exciting and promising developments in cardiovascular medicine. Evidence from experimental and clinical studies is increasing that this innovative treatment will influence clinical practice in the future. But open questions and controversies with regard to the basic mechanisms of this therapy continue to exist and emphasise the need for specific techniques to visualise the mechanisms and success of therapy in vivo. Several non-invasive imaging approaches which aim at tracking of transplanted cells in the heart have been introduced. Among these are direct labelling of cells with radionuclides or paramagnetic agents, and the use of reporter genes for imaging of cell transplantation and differentiation. Initial studies have suggested that these molecular imaging techniques have great potential. Integration of cell imaging into studies of cardiac cell therapy holds promise to facilitate further growth of the field towards a broadly clinically useful application. (orig.)

  11. Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Derjabo, Alexander; Ferulova, Inesa; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of smartphones for in vivo skin autofluorescence imaging has been investigated. Filtered autofluorescence images from the same tissue area were periodically captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of fluorescence intensity decreasing at each image pixel for further imaging the planar distribution of those values. The proposed methodology was tested clinically with 13 basal cell carcinoma and 1 atypical nevus. Several clinical cases and potential future applications of the smartphone-based technique are discussed.

  12. Investigation progress of imaging techniques monitoring stem cell therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jun; An Rui

    2006-01-01

    Recently stem cell therapy has showed potential clinical application in diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumor and trauma. Efficient techniques of non-invasively monitoring stem cell transplants will accelerate the development of stem cell therapies. This paper briefly reviews the clinical practice of stem cell, in addition, makes a review of monitoring methods including magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging which have been used in stem cell therapy. (authors)

  13. Individual cell motility studied by time-lapse video recording: influence of experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann-Petersen, R; Walmod, P S; Berezin, A

    2000-01-01

    : Of the parameters evaluated, cell motility was most strongly affected by changes in pH and temperature. In general, changes in cell speed were accompanied by alterations in cell morphology and organization of filamentous actin, although no consistent phenotypic characteristics could be demonstrated for cells...

  14. Development of a video image-based QA system for the positional accuracy of dynamic tumor tracking irradiation in the Vero4DRT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebe, Kazuyu, E-mail: nrr24490@nifty.com; Tokuyama, Katsuichi; Baba, Ryuta; Ogihara, Yoshisada; Ichikawa, Kosuke; Toyama, Joji [Joetsu General Hospital, 616 Daido-Fukuda, Joetsu-shi, Niigata 943-8507 (Japan); Sugimoto, Satoru [Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Utsunomiya, Satoru; Kagamu, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Hidefumi [Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8510 (Japan); Court, Laurence [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a new video image-based QA system, including in-house software, that can display a tracking state visually and quantify the positional accuracy of dynamic tumor tracking irradiation in the Vero4DRT system. Methods: Sixteen trajectories in six patients with pulmonary cancer were obtained with the ExacTrac in the Vero4DRT system. Motion data in the cranio–caudal direction (Y direction) were used as the input for a programmable motion table (Quasar). A target phantom was placed on the motion table, which was placed on the 2D ionization chamber array (MatriXX). Then, the 4D modeling procedure was performed on the target phantom during a reproduction of the patient’s tumor motion. A substitute target with the patient’s tumor motion was irradiated with 6-MV x-rays under the surrogate infrared system. The 2D dose images obtained from the MatriXX (33 frames/s; 40 s) were exported to in-house video-image analyzing software. The absolute differences in the Y direction between the center of the exposed target and the center of the exposed field were calculated. Positional errors were observed. The authors’ QA results were compared to 4D modeling function errors and gimbal motion errors obtained from log analyses in the ExacTrac to verify the accuracy of their QA system. The patients’ tumor motions were evaluated in the wave forms, and the peak-to-peak distances were also measured to verify their reproducibility. Results: Thirteen of sixteen trajectories (81.3%) were successfully reproduced with Quasar. The peak-to-peak distances ranged from 2.7 to 29.0 mm. Three trajectories (18.7%) were not successfully reproduced due to the limited motions of the Quasar. Thus, 13 of 16 trajectories were summarized. The mean number of video images used for analysis was 1156. The positional errors (absolute mean difference + 2 standard deviation) ranged from 0.54 to 1.55 mm. The error values differed by less than 1 mm from 4D modeling function errors

  15. Development of a video image-based QA system for the positional accuracy of dynamic tumor tracking irradiation in the Vero4DRT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebe, Kazuyu; Tokuyama, Katsuichi; Baba, Ryuta; Ogihara, Yoshisada; Ichikawa, Kosuke; Toyama, Joji; Sugimoto, Satoru; Utsunomiya, Satoru; Kagamu, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Court, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a new video image-based QA system, including in-house software, that can display a tracking state visually and quantify the positional accuracy of dynamic tumor tracking irradiation in the Vero4DRT system. Methods: Sixteen trajectories in six patients with pulmonary cancer were obtained with the ExacTrac in the Vero4DRT system. Motion data in the cranio–caudal direction (Y direction) were used as the input for a programmable motion table (Quasar). A target phantom was placed on the motion table, which was placed on the 2D ionization chamber array (MatriXX). Then, the 4D modeling procedure was performed on the target phantom during a reproduction of the patient’s tumor motion. A substitute target with the patient’s tumor motion was irradiated with 6-MV x-rays under the surrogate infrared system. The 2D dose images obtained from the MatriXX (33 frames/s; 40 s) were exported to in-house video-image analyzing software. The absolute differences in the Y direction between the center of the exposed target and the center of the exposed field were calculated. Positional errors were observed. The authors’ QA results were compared to 4D modeling function errors and gimbal motion errors obtained from log analyses in the ExacTrac to verify the accuracy of their QA system. The patients’ tumor motions were evaluated in the wave forms, and the peak-to-peak distances were also measured to verify their reproducibility. Results: Thirteen of sixteen trajectories (81.3%) were successfully reproduced with Quasar. The peak-to-peak distances ranged from 2.7 to 29.0 mm. Three trajectories (18.7%) were not successfully reproduced due to the limited motions of the Quasar. Thus, 13 of 16 trajectories were summarized. The mean number of video images used for analysis was 1156. The positional errors (absolute mean difference + 2 standard deviation) ranged from 0.54 to 1.55 mm. The error values differed by less than 1 mm from 4D modeling function errors

  16. Preparation of Single Cells for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, E S; Fortson, S L; Kulp, K S; Checchi, K D; Wu, L; Felton, J S; Wu, K J

    2007-10-24

    Characterizing chemical changes within single cells is important for determining fundamental mechanisms of biological processes that will lead to new biological insights and improved disease understanding. Imaging biological systems with mass spectrometry (MS) has gained popularity in recent years as a method for creating precise chemical maps of biological samples. In order to obtain high-quality mass spectral images that provide relevant molecular information about individual cells, samples must be prepared so that salts and other cell-culture components are removed from the cell surface and the cell contents are rendered accessible to the desorption beam. We have designed a cellular preparation protocol for imaging MS that preserves the cellular contents for investigation and removes the majority of the interfering species from the extracellular matrix. Using this method, we obtain excellent imaging results and reproducibility in three diverse cell types: MCF7 human breast cancer cells, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts. This preparation technique allows routine imaging MS analysis of cultured cells, allowing for any number of experiments aimed at furthering scientific understanding of molecular processes within individual cells.

  17. In vivo SPECT reporter gene imaging of regulatory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sharif-Paghaleh

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs were identified several years ago and are key in controlling autoimmune diseases and limiting immune responses to foreign antigens, including alloantigens. In vivo imaging techniques including intravital microscopy as well as whole body imaging using bioluminescence probes have contributed to the understanding of in vivo Treg function, their mechanisms of action and target cells. Imaging of the human sodium/iodide symporter via Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT has been used to image various cell types in vivo. It has several advantages over the aforementioned imaging techniques including high sensitivity, it allows non-invasive whole body studies of viable cell migration and localisation of cells over time and lastly it may offer the possibility to be translated to the clinic. This study addresses whether SPECT/CT imaging can be used to visualise the migratory pattern of Tregs in vivo. Treg lines derived from CD4(+CD25(+FoxP3(+ cells were retrovirally transduced with a construct encoding for the human Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS and the fluorescent protein mCherry and stimulated with autologous DCs. NIS expressing self-specific Tregs were specifically radiolabelled in vitro with Technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99mTcO(4(- and exposure of these cells to radioactivity did not affect cell viability, phenotype or function. In addition adoptively transferred Treg-NIS cells were imaged in vivo in C57BL/6 (BL/6 mice by SPECT/CT using (99mTcO(4(-. After 24 hours NIS expressing Tregs were observed in the spleen and their localisation was further confirmed by organ biodistribution studies and flow cytometry analysis. The data presented here suggests that SPECT/CT imaging can be utilised in preclinical imaging studies of adoptively transferred Tregs without affecting Treg function and viability thereby allowing longitudinal studies within disease models.

  18. Automatic video segmentation employing object/camera modeling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farin, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    Practically established video compression and storage techniques still process video sequences as rectangular images without further semantic structure. However, humans watching a video sequence immediately recognize acting objects as semantic units. This semantic object separation is currently not

  19. Optofluidic fluorescent imaging cytometry on a cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Mavandadi, Sam; Coskun, Ahmet F; Yaglidere, Oguzhan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-09-01

    Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry are widely used tools in biomedical sciences. Cost-effective translation of these technologies to remote and resource-limited environments could create new opportunities especially for telemedicine applications. Toward this direction, here we demonstrate the integration of imaging cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using a compact, lightweight, and cost-effective optofluidic attachment. In this cell-phone-based optofluidic imaging cytometry platform, fluorescently labeled particles or cells of interest are continuously delivered to our imaging volume through a disposable microfluidic channel that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. The same microfluidic device also acts as a multilayered optofluidic waveguide and efficiently guides our excitation light, which is butt-coupled from the side facets of our microfluidic channel using inexpensive light-emitting diodes. Since the excitation of the sample volume occurs through guided waves that propagate perpendicular to the detection path, our cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the specimens as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the target solution of interest. We tested the performance of our cell-phone-based imaging cytometer by measuring the density of white blood cells in human blood samples, which provided a decent match to a commercially available hematology analyzer. We further characterized the imaging quality of the same platform to demonstrate a spatial resolution of ~2 μm. This cell-phone-enabled optofluidic imaging flow cytometer could especially be useful for rapid and sensitive imaging of bodily fluids for conducting various cell counts (e.g., toward monitoring of HIV+ patients) or rare cell analysis as well as for screening of water quality in

  20. Red blood cell image enhancement techniques for cells with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality or challenging conditions of the images such as poor illumination of blood smear and most importantly overlapping RBC. The algorithm comprises of two RBC segmentation that can be selected based on the image quality, circle mask technique and grayscale blood smear image processing. Detail explanations ...

  1. Live Cell Imaging of Alphaherpes Virus Anterograde Transport and Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew P.; Kratchmarov, Radomir; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in live cell fluorescence microscopy techniques, as well as the construction of recombinant viral strains that express fluorescent fusion proteins have enabled real-time visualization of transport and spread of alphaherpes virus infection of neurons. The utility of novel fluorescent fusion proteins to viral membrane, tegument, and capsids, in conjunction with live cell imaging, identified viral particle assemblies undergoing transport within axons. Similar tools have been successfully employed for analyses of cell-cell spread of viral particles to quantify the number and diversity of virions transmitted between cells. Importantly, the techniques of live cell imaging of anterograde transport and spread produce a wealth of information including particle transport velocities, distributions of particles, and temporal analyses of protein localization. Alongside classical viral genetic techniques, these methodologies have provided critical insights into important mechanistic questions. In this article we describe in detail the imaging methods that were developed to answer basic questions of alphaherpes virus transport and spread. PMID:23978901

  2. Genetic relationships between carcass cut weights predicted from video image analysis and other performance traits in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabiou, T; Fikse, W F; Amer, P R; Cromie, A R; Näsholm, A; Berry, D P

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the genetic associations between a range of carcass-related traits including wholesale cut weights predicted from video image analysis (VIA) technology, and a range of pre-slaughter performance traits in commercial Irish cattle. Predicted carcass cut weights comprised of cut weights based on retail value: lower value cuts (LVC), medium value cuts (MVC), high value cuts (HVC) and very high value cuts (VHVC), as well as total meat, fat and bone weights. Four main sources of data were used in the genetic analyses: price data of live animals collected from livestock auctions, live-weight data and linear type collected from both commercial and pedigree farms as well as from livestock auctions and weanling quality recorded on-farm. Heritability of carcass cut weights ranged from 0.21 to 0.39. Genetic correlations between the cut traits and the other performance traits were estimated using a series of bivariate sire linear mixed models where carcass cut weights were phenotypically adjusted to a constant carcass weight. Strongest positive genetic correlations were obtained between predicted carcass cut weights and carcass value (min r g(MVC) = 0.35; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.69), and animal price at both weaning (min r(g(MVC)) = 0.37; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.66) and post weaning (min r(g(MVC)) = 0.50; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.67). Moderate genetic correlations were obtained between carcass cut weights and calf price (min r g(HVC) = 0.34; max r g(LVC) = 0.45), weanling quality (min r(g(MVC)) = 0.12; max r (g(VHVC)) = 0.49), linear scores for muscularity at both weaning (hindquarter development: min r(g(MVC)) = -0.06; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.46), post weaning (hindquarter development: min r(g(MVC)) = 0.23; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.44). The genetic correlations between total meat weight were consistent with those observed with the predicted wholesale cut weights. Total fat and total bone weights were generally negatively correlated with carcass value, auction

  3. Design considerations for computationally constrained two-way real-time video communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivolarski, Lazar M.; Saunders, Steven E.; Ralston, John D.

    2009-08-01

    Today's video codecs have evolved primarily to meet the requirements of the motion picture and broadcast industries, where high-complexity studio encoding can be utilized to create highly-compressed master copies that are then broadcast one-way for playback using less-expensive, lower-complexity consumer devices for decoding and playback. Related standards activities have largely ignored the computational complexity and bandwidth constraints of wireless or Internet based real-time video communications using devices such as cell phones or webcams. Telecommunications industry efforts to develop and standardize video codecs for applications such as video telephony and video conferencing have not yielded image size, quality, and frame-rate performance that match today's consumer expectations and market requirements for Internet and mobile video services. This paper reviews the constraints and the corresponding video codec requirements imposed by real-time, 2-way mobile video applications. Several promising elements of a new mobile video codec architecture are identified, and more comprehensive computational complexity metrics and video quality metrics are proposed in order to support the design, testing, and standardization of these new mobile video codecs.

  4. Design of microdevices for long-term live cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huaying; Nordon, Robert E; Rosengarten, Gary; Li, Musen

    2012-01-01

    Advances in fluorescent live cell imaging provide high-content information that relates a cell's life events to its ancestors. An important requirement to track clonal growth and development is the retention of motile cells derived from an ancestor within the same microscopic field of view for days to weeks, while recording fluorescence images and controlling the mechanical and biochemical microenvironments that regulate cell growth and differentiation. The aim of this study was to design a microwell device for long-term, time-lapse imaging of motile cells with the specific requirements of (a) inoculating devices with an average of one cell per well and (b) retaining progeny of cells within a single microscopic field of view for extended growth periods. A two-layer PDMS microwell culture device consisting of a parallel-plate flow cell bonded on top of a microwell array was developed for cell capture and clonal culture. Cell deposition statistics were related to microwell geometry (plate separation and well depth) and the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate flow in the microdevices as well as cell–fluid interactions. Analysis of the forces acting upon a cell was used to predict cell docking zones, which were confirmed by experimental observations. Cell–fluid dynamic interactions are important considerations for design of microdevices for long-term, live cell imaging. The analysis of force and torque balance provides a reasonable approximation for cell displacement forces. It is computationally less intensive compared to simulation of cell trajectories, and can be applied to a wide range of microdevice geometries to predict the cell docking behavior. (paper)

  5. Immersive video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.

    1996-03-01

    Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

  6. Assessment of Machine Learning Algorithms for Automatic Benthic Cover Monitoring and Mapping Using Towed Underwater Video Camera and High-Resolution Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Benthic habitat monitoring is essential for many applications involving biodiversity, marine resource management, and the estimation of variations over temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, both automatic and semi-automatic analytical methods for deriving ecologically significant information from towed camera images are still limited. This study proposes a methodology that enables a high-resolution towed camera with a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS to adaptively monitor and map benthic habitats. First, the towed camera finishes a pre-programmed initial survey to collect benthic habitat videos, which can then be converted to geo-located benthic habitat images. Second, an expert labels a number of benthic habitat images to class habitats manually. Third, attributes for categorizing these images are extracted automatically using the Bag of Features (BOF algorithm. Fourth, benthic cover categories are detected automatically using Weighted Majority Voting (WMV ensembles for Support Vector Machines (SVM, K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN, and Bagging (BAG classifiers. Fifth, WMV-trained ensembles can be used for categorizing more benthic cover images automatically. Finally, correctly categorized geo-located images can provide ground truth samples for benthic cover mapping using high-resolution satellite imagery. The proposed methodology was tested over Shiraho, Ishigaki Island, Japan, a heterogeneous coastal area. The WMV ensemble exhibited 89% overall accuracy for categorizing corals, sediments, seagrass, and algae species. Furthermore, the same WMV ensemble produced a benthic cover map using a Quickbird satellite image with 92.7% overall accuracy.

  7. Self-adhesive microculture system for extended live cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skommer, J; McGuinness, D; Wlodkowic, D

    2011-06-01

    Gas permeable and biocompatible soft polymers are convenient for biological applications. Using the soft polymer poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), we established a straightforward technique for in-house production of self-adhesive and optical grade microculture devices. A gas permeable PDMS layer effectively protects against medium evaporation, changes in osmolarity, contamination and drug diffusion. These chip-based devices can be used effectively for long term mammalian cell culture and support a range of bioassays used in pharmacological profiling of anti-cancer drugs. Results obtained on a panel of hematopoietic and solid tumor cell lines during screening of investigative anti-cancer agents corresponded well to those obtained in a conventional cell culture on polystyrene plates. The cumulative correlation analysis of multiple cell lines and anti-cancer drugs showed no adverse effects on cell viability or cell growth retardation during microscale static cell culture. PDMS devices also can be custom modified for many bio-analytical purposes and are interfaced easily with both inverted and upright cell imaging platforms. Moreover, PDMS microculture devices are suitable for extended real time cell imaging. Data from the multicolor, real time analysis of apoptosis on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells provided further evidence that elimination of redundant centrifugation/washing achieved during microscale real time analysis facilitates preservation of fragile apoptotic cells and provides dynamic cellular information at high resolution. Because only small reaction volumes are required, such devices offer reduced use of consumables as well as simplified manipulations during all stages of live cell imaging.

  8. A New Colorimetrically-Calibrated Automated Video-Imaging Protocol for Day-Night Fish Counting at the OBSEA Coastal Cabled Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín del Río

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Field measurements of the swimming activity rhythms of fishes are scant due to the difficulty of counting individuals at a high frequency over a long period of time. Cabled observatory video monitoring allows such a sampling at a high frequency over unlimited periods of time. Unfortunately, automation for the extraction of biological information (i.e., animals’ visual counts per unit of time is still a major bottleneck. In this study, we describe a new automated video-imaging protocol for the 24-h continuous counting of fishes in colorimetrically calibrated time-lapse photographic outputs, taken by a shallow water (20 m depth cabled video-platform, the OBSEA. The spectral reflectance value for each patch was measured between 400 to 700 nm and then converted into standard RGB, used as a reference for all subsequent calibrations. All the images were acquired within a standardized Region Of Interest (ROI, represented by a 2 × 2 m methacrylate panel, endowed with a 9-colour calibration chart, and calibrated using the recently implemented “3D Thin-Plate Spline” warping approach in order to numerically define color by its coordinates in n-dimensional space. That operation was repeated on a subset of images, 500 images as a training set, manually selected since acquired under optimum visibility conditions. All images plus those for the training set were ordered together through Principal Component Analysis allowing the selection of 614 images (67.6% out of 908 as a total corresponding to 18 days (at 30 min frequency. The Roberts operator (used in image processing and computer vision for edge detection was used to highlights regions of high spatial colour gradient corresponding to fishes’ bodies. Time series in manual and visual counts were compared together for efficiency evaluation. Periodogram and waveform analysis outputs provided very similar results, although quantified parameters in relation to the strength of respective rhythms were

  9. A new colorimetrically-calibrated automated video-imaging protocol for day-night fish counting at the OBSEA coastal cabled observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, Joaquín; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Costa, Corrado; Menesatti, Paolo; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Nogueras, Marc; Sarda, Francesc; Manuèl, Antoni

    2013-10-30

    Field measurements of the swimming activity rhythms of fishes are scant due to the difficulty of counting individuals at a high frequency over a long period of time. Cabled observatory video monitoring allows such a sampling at a high frequency over unlimited periods of time. Unfortunately, automation for the extraction of biological information (i.e., animals' visual counts per unit of time) is still a major bottleneck. In this study, we describe a new automated video-imaging protocol for the 24-h continuous counting of fishes in colorimetrically calibrated time-lapse photographic outputs, taken by a shallow water (20 m depth) cabled video-platform, the OBSEA. The spectral reflectance value for each patch was measured between 400 to 700 nm and then converted into standard RGB, used as a reference for all subsequent calibrations. All the images were acquired within a standardized Region Of Interest (ROI), represented by a 2 × 2 m methacrylate panel, endowed with a 9-colour calibration chart, and calibrated using the recently implemented "3D Thin-Plate Spline" warping approach in order to numerically define color by its coordinates in n-dimensional space. That operation was repeated on a subset of images, 500 images as a training set, manually selected since acquired under optimum visibility conditions. All images plus those for the training set were ordered together through Principal Component Analysis allowing the selection of 614 images (67.6%) out of 908 as a total corresponding to 18 days (at 30 min frequency). The Roberts operator (used in image processing and computer vision for edge detection) was used to highlights regions of high spatial colour gradient corresponding to fishes' bodies. Time series in manual and visual counts were compared together for efficiency evaluation. Periodogram and waveform analysis outputs provided very similar results, although quantified parameters in relation to the strength of respective rhythms were different. Results

  10. Background fluorescence estimation and vesicle segmentation in live cell imaging with conditional random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécot, Thierry; Bouthemy, Patrick; Boulanger, Jérôme; Chessel, Anatole; Bardin, Sabine; Salamero, Jean; Kervrann, Charles

    2015-02-01

    Image analysis applied to fluorescence live cell microscopy has become a key tool in molecular biology since it enables to characterize biological processes in space and time at the subcellular level. In fluorescence microscopy imaging, the moving tagged structures of interest, such as vesicles, appear as bright spots over a static or nonstatic background. In this paper, we consider the problem of vesicle segmentation and time-varying background estimation at the cellular scale. The main idea is to formulate the joint segmentation-estimation problem in the general conditional random field framework. Furthermore, segmentation of vesicles and background estimation are alternatively performed by energy minimization using a min cut-max flow algorithm. The proposed approach relies on a detection measure computed from intensity contrasts between neighboring blocks in fluorescence microscopy images. This approach permits analysis of either 2D + time or 3D + time data. We demonstrate the performance of the so-called C-CRAFT through an experimental comparison with the state-of-the-art methods in fluorescence video-microscopy. We also use this method to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of Rab6 transport carriers at the cell periphery for two different specific adhesion geometries.

  11. Close the Textbook & Open "The Cell: An Image Library"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Cheston; Taylor, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Many students leave the biology classroom with misconceptions centered on cellular structure. This article presents an activity in which students utilize images from an online database called "The Cell: An Image Library" (http://www.cellimagelibrary. org/) to gain a greater understanding of the diversity of cellular structure and the…

  12. Molecular Imaging and Therapy of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylergil, Volkan, E-mail: beylergv@mskcc.org [Molecular and Imaging Therapy Service, Department of Radiology Box 77, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Carrasquillo, Jorge A. [Molecular and Imaging Therapy Service, Department of Radiology Box 77, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-04-29

    Several molecular imaging modalities have been evaluated in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare and aggressive tumor with a high tendency to metastasize. Continuous progress in the field of molecular imaging might improve management in these patients. The authors review the current modalities and their impact on MCC in this brief review article.

  13. Molecular Imaging and Therapy of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Beylergil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several molecular imaging modalities have been evaluated in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, a rare and aggressive tumor with a high tendency to metastasize. Continuous progress in the field of molecular imaging might improve management in these patients. The authors review the current modalities and their impact on MCC in this brief review article.

  14. Deep Learning Automates the Quantitative Analysis of Individual Cells in Live-Cell Imaging Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Valen, David A; Kudo, Takamasa; Lane, Keara M; Macklin, Derek N; Quach, Nicolas T; DeFelice, Mialy M; Maayan, Inbal; Tanouchi, Yu; Ashley, Euan A; Covert, Markus W

    2016-11-01

    Live-cell imaging has opened an exciting window into the role cellular heterogeneity plays in dynamic, living systems. A major critical challenge for this class of experiments is the problem of image segmentation, or determining which parts of a microscope image correspond to which individual cells. Current approaches require many hours of manual curation and depend on approaches that are difficult to share between labs. They are also unable to robustly segment the cytoplasms of mammalian cells. Here, we show that deep convolutional neural networks, a supervised machine learning method, can solve this challenge for multiple cell types across the domains of life. We demonstrate that this approach can robustly segment fluorescent images of cell nuclei as well as phase images of the cytoplasms of individual bacterial and mammalian cells from phase contrast images without the need for a fluorescent cytoplasmic marker. These networks also enable the simultaneous segmentation and identification of different mammalian cell types grown in co-culture. A quantitative comparison with prior methods demonstrates that convolutional neural networks have improved accuracy and lead to a significant reduction in curation time. We relay our experience in designing and optimizing deep convolutional neural networks for this task and outline several design rules that we found led to robust performance. We conclude that deep convolutional neural networks are an accurate method that require less curation time, are generalizable to a multiplicity of cell types, from bacteria to mammalian cells, and expand live-cell imaging capabilities to include multi-cell type systems.

  15. A comparison of the quality of image acquisition between the incident dark field and sidestream dark field video-microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Gilbert-Kawai; J. Coppel (Jonny); V. Bountziouka (Vassiliki); C. Ince (Can); D. Martin (Daniel)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background__ The ‘Cytocam’ is a third generation video-microscope, which enables real time visualisation of the in vivo microcirculation. Based upon the principle of incident dark field (IDF) illumination, this hand held computer-controlled device was designed to address the

  16. Low-complexity wavelet-based image/video coding for home-use and remote surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.J.H.; Koeleman, C.J.; Joosen, K.M.J.; With, de P.H.N.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of inexpensive cameras enables alternative applications beyond personal video communication. For example, surveillance of rooms and home premises is such an alternative application, which can be extended with remote viewing on hand-held battery-powered consumer devices. Scalable

  17. A comparison of the quality of image acquisition between the incident dark field and sidestream dark field video-microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert-Kawai, Edward; Coppel, Jonny; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Ince, Can; Martin, Daniel; Ahuja, V.; Aref-Adib, G.; Burnham, R.; Chisholm, A.; Clarke, K.; Coates, D.; Coates, M.; Cook, D.; Cox, M.; Dhillon, S.; Dougall, C.; Doyle, P.; Duncan, P.; Edsell, M.; Edwards, L.; Evans, L.; Gardiner, P.; Grocott, M.; Gunning, P.; Hart, N.; Harrington, J.; Harvey, J.; Holloway, C.; Howard, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Imray, C.; Jonas, M.; van der Kaaij, J.; Khosravi, M.; Kolfschoten, N.; Levett, D.; Luery, H.; Luks, A.; Martin, D.; McMorrow, R.; Meale, P.; Mitchell, K.; Montgomery, H.; Morgan, G.; Morgan, J.; Murray, A.; Mythen, M.; Newman, S.; O'Dwyer, M.; Pate, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The 'Cytocam' is a third generation video-microscope, which enables real time visualisation of the in vivo microcirculation. Based upon the principle of incident dark field (IDF) illumination, this hand held computer-controlled device was designed to address the technical limitations of

  18. Pilot study on real-time motion detection in UAS video data by human observer and image exploitation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Brüstle, Stefan; Trantelle, Patrick; Unmüßig, Gabriel; Voit, Michael; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    Real-time motion video analysis is a challenging and exhausting task for the human observer, particularly in safety and security critical domains. Hence, customized video analysis systems providing functions for the analysis of subtasks like motion detection or target tracking are welcome. While such automated algorithms relieve the human operators from performing basic subtasks, they impose additional interaction duties on them. Prior work shows that, e.g., for interaction with target tracking algorithms, a gaze-enhanced user interface is beneficial. In this contribution, we present an investigation on interaction with an independent motion detection (IDM) algorithm. Besides identifying an appropriate interaction technique for the user interface - again, we compare gaze-based and traditional mouse-based interaction - we focus on the benefit an IDM algorithm might provide for an UAS video analyst. In a pilot study, we exposed ten subjects to the task of moving target detection in UAS video data twice, once performing with automatic support, once performing without it. We compare the two conditions considering performance in terms of effectiveness (correct target selections). Additionally, we report perceived workload (measured using the NASA-TLX questionnaire) and user satisfaction (measured using the ISO 9241-411 questionnaire). The results show that a combination of gaze input and automated IDM algorithm provides valuable support for the human observer, increasing the number of correct target selections up to 62% and reducing workload at the same time.

  19. Segmentation and classification of cell cycle phases in fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ilker; Bunyak, Filiz; Chagin, Vadim; Cardoso, M Christina; Palaniappan, Kannappan

    2009-01-01

    Current chemical biology methods for studying spatiotemporal correlation between biochemical networks and cell cycle phase progression in live-cells typically use fluorescence-based imaging of fusion proteins. Stable cell lines expressing fluorescently tagged protein GFP-PCNA produce rich, dynamically varying sub-cellular foci patterns characterizing the cell cycle phases, including the progress during the S-phase. Variable fluorescence patterns, drastic changes in SNR, shape and position changes and abundance of touching cells require sophisticated algorithms for reliable automatic segmentation and cell cycle classification. We extend the recently proposed graph partitioning active contours (GPAC) for fluorescence-based nucleus segmentation using regional density functions and dramatically improve its efficiency, making it scalable for high content microscopy imaging. We utilize surface shape properties of GFP-PCNA intensity field to obtain descriptors of foci patterns and perform automated cell cycle phase classification, and give quantitative performance by comparing our results to manually labeled data.

  20. Small molecule probes for plant cell wall polysaccharide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eWallace

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed of interlinked polymer networks consisting of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, proteins, and lignin. The ordered deposition of these components is a dynamic process that critically affects the development and differentiation of plant cells. However, our understanding of cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as the diverse cell wall architectures that result from these processes, has been limited by a lack of suitable chemical probes that are compatible with live-cell imaging. In this review, we summarize the currently available molecular toolbox of probes for cell wall polysaccharide imaging in plants, with particular emphasis on recent advances in small molecule-based fluorescent probes. We also discuss the potential for further development of small molecule probes for the analysis of cell wall architecture and dynamics.

  1. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallepitis, Charalambos; Bergholt, Mads S.; Mazo, Manuel M.; Leonardo, Vincent; Skaalure, Stacey C.; Maynard, Stephanie A.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2017-03-01

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell-material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  2. PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiachuan; Zhang, Hong [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University, Medical PET Center, Hangzhou (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China); Tian, Mei [University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Human neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis are caused by loss of different types of neurons and glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. At present, there are no effective therapies against these disorders. Discovery of the therapeutic potential of stem cells offers new strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. Direct assessment of stem cells' survival, interaction with the host and impact on neuronal functions after transplantation requires advanced in vivo imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a potential molecular imaging modality to evaluate the viability and function of transplanted tissue or stem cells in the nervous system. This review focuses on PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases. (orig.)

  3. Immunomagnetic cell separation, imaging, and analysis using Captivate ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laurie; Beechem, Joseph M.

    2002-05-01

    We have developed applications of CaptivateTM ferrofluids, paramagnetic particles (approximately 200 nm diameter), for isolating and analyzing cell populations in combination with fluorescence-based techniques. Using a microscope-mounted magnetic yoke and sample insertion chamber, fluorescent images of magnetically captured cells were obtained in culture media, buffer, or whole blood, while non-magnetically labeled cells sedimented to the bottom of the chamber. We combined this immunomagnetic cell separation and imaging technique with fluorescent staining, spectroscopy, and analysis to evaluate cell surface receptor-containing subpopulations, live/dead cell ratios, apoptotic/dead cell ratios, etc. The acquired images were analyzed using multi-color parameters, as produced by nucleic acid staining, esterase activity, or antibody labeling. In addition, the immunomagnetically separated cell fractions were assessed through microplate analysis using the CyQUANT Cell Proliferation Assay. These methods should provide an inexpensive alternative to some flow cytometric measurements. The binding capacities of the streptavidin- labled Captivate ferrofluid (SA-FF) particles were determined to be 8.8 nmol biotin/mg SA-FF, using biotin-4- fluorescein, and > 106 cells/mg SA-FF, using several cell types labeled with biotinylated probes. For goat anti- mouse IgG-labeled ferrofluids (GAM-FF), binding capacities were established to be approximately 0.2 - 7.5 nmol protein/mg GAM-FF using fluorescent conjugates of antibodies, protein G, and protein A.

  4. Interactive case vignettes utilizing simulated pathologist-clinician encounters with whole slide imaging and video tutorials of whole slide scans improves student understanding of disease processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Horn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the drawbacks of studying pathology in the second year of medical school in a classroom setting is the relatively limited exposure to patient encounters/clinical rotations, making it difficult to understand and fully appreciate the significance of the course material, specifically the molecular and tissue aspects of disease. In this study, we determined if case vignettes incorporating pathologist-clinician encounters with whole slide imaging (WSI and narrated/annotated videos of whole slide (WS scans in addition to clinical data improved student understanding of pathologic disease processes. Materials and Methods: Case vignettes were created for several genitourinary disease processes that utilized clinical data including narratives of pathologist-clinician encounters, WSI, and annotated video tutorials of WS scans (designed to simulate "double-heading". The students were encouraged to view the virtual slide first, with the video tutorials being provided to offer additional assistance. The case vignettes were created to be interactive with a detailed explanation of each correct and incorrect question choice. The cases were made available to all second year medical students via a website and could be viewed only after completing a 10 question pre-test. A post-test could be completed after viewing all cases followed by a brief satisfaction survey. Results: Ninety-six students completed the pre-test with an average score of 7.7/10. Fifty-seven students completed the post-test with an average score of 9.4/10. Thirty-six students completed the satisfaction survey. 94% agreed or strongly agreed that this was a useful exercise and 91% felt that it helped them better understand the topics. Conclusion: The development of interactive case vignettes incorporating simulated pathologist-clinician encounters with WSI and video tutorials of WS scans helps to improve student enthusiasm to learn and grasp pathologic aspects of disease

  5. Temperature-dependent imaging of living cells by AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espenel, Cedric; Giocondi, Marie-Cecile; Seantier, Bastien; Dosset, Patrice; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Le Grimellec, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of lateral organization of plasma membranes is a prerequisite to the understanding of membrane structure-function relationships in living cells. Lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions are responsible for the existence of various membrane microdomains involved in cell signalization and in numerous pathologies. Developing approaches for characterizing microdomains associate identification tools like recognition imaging with high-resolution topographical imaging. Membrane properties are markedly dependent on temperature. However, mesoscopic scale topographical information of cell surface in a temperature range covering most of cell biology experimentation is still lacking. In this work we have examined the possibility of imaging the temperature-dependent behavior of eukaryotic cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results establish that the surface of living CV1 kidney cells can be imaged by AFM, between 5 and 37 deg. C, both in contact and tapping modes. These first temperature-dependent data show that large cell structures appeared essentially stable at a microscopic scale. On the other hand, as shown by contact mode AFM, the surface was highly dynamic at a mesoscopic scale, with marked changes in apparent topography, friction, and deflection signals. When keeping the scanning conditions constant, a progressive loss in the image contrast was however observed, using tapping mode, on decreasing the temperature

  6. Optical Imaging for Stem Cell Differentiation to Neuronal Lineage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Do Won; Lee, Dong Soo

    2012-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, the prospect of stem cell therapy hold great promise for the recovery of injured tissues and effective treatment of intractable diseases. Tracking stem cell fate provides critical information to understand and evaluate the success of stem cell therapy. The recent emergence of in vivo noninvasive molecular imaging has enabled assessment of the behavior of grafted stem cells in living subjects. In this review, we provide an overview of current optical imaging strategies based on cell or tissue specific reporter gene expression and of in vivo methods to monitor stem cell differentiation into neuronal lineages. These methods use optical reporters either regulated by neuron-specific promoters or containing neuron-specific microRNA binding sites. Both systems revealed dramatic changes in optical reporter imaging signals in cells differentiating a yeast GAL4 amplification system or an engineering-enhanced luciferase reported gene. Furthermore, we propose an advanced imaging system to monitor neuronal differentiation during neurogenesis that uses in vivo multiplexed imaging techniques capable of detecting several targets simultaneously

  7. Information management for high content live cell imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Michael RH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High content live cell imaging experiments are able to track the cellular localisation of labelled proteins in multiple live cells over a time course. Experiments using high content live cell imaging will generate multiple large datasets that are often stored in an ad-hoc manner. This hinders identification of previously gathered data that may be relevant to current analyses. Whilst solutions exist for managing image data, they are primarily concerned with storage and retrieval of the images themselves and not the data derived from the images. There is therefore a requirement for an information management solution that facilitates the indexing of experimental metadata and results of high content live cell imaging experiments. Results We have designed and implemented a data model and information management solution for the data gathered through high content live cell imaging experiments. Many of the experiments to be stored measure the translocation of fluorescently labelled proteins from cytoplasm to nucleus in individual cells. The functionality of this database has been enhanced by the addition of an algorithm that automatically annotates results of these experiments with the timings of translocations and periods of any oscillatory translocations as they are uploaded to the repository. Testing has shown the algorithm to perform well with a variety of previously unseen data. Conclusion Our repository is a fully functional example of how high throughput imaging data may be effectively indexed and managed to address the requirements of end users. By implementing the automated analysis of experimental results, we have provided a clear impetus for individuals to ensure that their data forms part of that which is stored in the repository. Although focused on imaging, the solution provided is sufficiently generic to be applied to other functional proteomics and genomics experiments. The software is available from: fhttp://code.google.com/p/livecellim/

  8. Video games

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...

  9. Three-dimensional image reconstruction with free open-source OsiriX software in video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy and segmentectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fei; Wang, Jian; Yao, Ju; Hang, Fangrong; Lei, Xu; Cao, Yongke

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the practice and the feasibility of Osirix, a free and open-source medical imaging software, in performing accurate video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy and segmentectomy. From July 2014 to April 2016, 63 patients received anatomical video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), either lobectomy or segmentectomy, in our department. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction images of 61 (96.8%) patients were preoperatively obtained with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Preoperative resection simulations were accomplished with patient-individual reconstructed 3D images. For lobectomy, pulmonary lobar veins, arteries and bronchi were identified meticulously by carefully reviewing the 3D images on the display. For segmentectomy, the intrasegmental veins in the affected segment for division and the intersegmental veins to be preserved were identified on the 3D images. Patient preoperative characteristics, surgical outcomes and postoperative data were reviewed from a prospective database. The study cohort of 63 patients included 33 (52.4%) men and 30 (47.6%) women, of whom 46 (73.0%) underwent VATS lobectomy and 17 (27.0%) underwent VATS segmentectomy. There was 1 conversion from VATS lobectomy to open thoracotomy because of fibrocalcified lymph nodes. A VATS lobectomy was performed in 1 case after completing the segmentectomy because invasive adenocarcinoma was detected by intraoperative frozen-section analysis. There were no 30-day or 90-day operative mortalities CONCLUSIONS: The free, simple, and user-friendly software program Osirix can provide a 3D anatomic structure of pulmonary vessels and a clear vision into the space between the lesion and adjacent tissues, which allows surgeons to make preoperative simulations and improve the accuracy and safety of actual surgery. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Live cell imaging of Arabidopsis root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Root hairs are tubular extensions from the root surface that expand by tip growth. This highly focused type of cell expansion, combined with position of root hairs on the surface of the root, makes them ideal cells for microscopic observation. This chapter describes the method that is routinely used

  11. Probabilistic recognition of human faces from video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Saohua; Krüger, Volker; Chellappa, Rama

    2003-01-01

    Recognition of human faces using a gallery of still or video images and a probe set of videos is systematically investigated using a probabilistic framework. In still-to-video recognition, where the gallery consists of still images, a time series state space model is proposed to fuse temporal...... of the identity variable produces the recognition result. The model formulation is very general and it allows a variety of image representations and transformations. Experimental results using videos collected by NIST/USF and CMU illustrate the effectiveness of this approach for both still-to-video and video-to-video...... information in a probe video, which simultaneously characterizes the kinematics and identity using a motion vector and an identity variable, respectively. The joint posterior distribution of the motion vector and the identity variable is estimated at each time instant and then propagated to the next time...

  12. Innovative Video Diagnostic Equipment for Material Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, G.; Titomanlio, D.; Soellner, W.; Seidel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Materials science experiments under microgravity increasingly rely on advanced optical systems to determine the physical properties of the samples under investigation. This includes video systems with high spatial and temporal resolution. The acquisition, handling, storage and transmission to ground of the resulting video data are very challenging. Since the available downlink data rate is limited, the capability to compress the video data significantly without compromising the data quality is essential. We report on the development of a Digital Video System (DVS) for EML (Electro Magnetic Levitator) which provides real-time video acquisition, high compression using advanced Wavelet algorithms, storage and transmission of a continuous flow of video with different characteristics in terms of image dimensions and frame rates. The DVS is able to operate with the latest generation of high-performance cameras acquiring high resolution video images up to 4Mpixels@60 fps or high frame rate video images up to about 1000 fps@512x512pixels.

  13. Optimization of video capturing and tone mapping in video camera systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cvetkovic, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Image enhancement techniques are widely employed in many areas of professional and consumer imaging, machine vision and computational imaging. Image enhancement techniques used in surveillance video cameras are complex systems involving controllable lenses, sensors and advanced signal processing. In

  14. Comparison of segmentation algorithms for fluorescence microscopy images of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Alden A; Elliott, John T; Filliben, James J; Halter, Michael; Peskin, Adele; Bernal, Javier; Kociolek, Marcin; Brady, Mary C; Tang, Hai C; Plant, Anne L

    2011-07-01

    The analysis of fluorescence microscopy of cells often requires the determination of cell edges. This is typically done using segmentation techniques that separate the cell objects in an image from the surrounding background. This study compares segmentation results from nine different segmentation techniques applied to two different cell lines and five different sets of imaging conditions. Significant variability in the results of segmentation was observed that was due solely to differences in imaging conditions or applications of different algorithms. We quantified and compared the results with a novel bivariate similarity index metric that evaluates the degree of underestimating or overestimating a cell object. The results show that commonly used threshold-based segmentation techniques are less accurate than k-means clustering with multiple clusters. Segmentation accuracy varies with imaging conditions that determine the sharpness of cell edges and with geometric features of a cell. Based on this observation, we propose a method that quantifies cell edge character to provide an estimate of how accurately an algorithm will perform. The results of this study will assist the development of criteria for evaluating interlaboratory comparability. Published 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of single cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Strohm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic images of stained neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes from a blood smear were acquired using a combined acoustic/photoacoustic microscope. Photoacoustic images were created using a pulsed 532 nm laser that was coupled to a single mode fiber to produce output wavelengths from 532 nm to 620 nm via stimulated Raman scattering. The excitation wavelength was selected using optical filters and focused onto the sample using a 20× objective. A 1000 MHz transducer was co-aligned with the laser spot and used for ultrasound and photoacoustic images, enabling micrometer resolution with both modalities. The different cell types could be easily identified due to variations in contrast within the acoustic and photoacoustic images. This technique provides a new way of probing leukocyte structure with potential applications towards detecting cellular abnormalities and diseased cells at the single cell level.

  16. High resolution imaging of surface patterns of single bacterial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greif, Dominik; Wesner, Daniel; Regtmeier, Jan; Anselmetti, Dario

    2010-01-01

    We systematically studied the origin of surface patterns observed on single Sinorhizobium meliloti bacterial cells by comparing the complementary techniques atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Conditions ranged from living bacteria in liquid to fixed bacteria in high vacuum. Stepwise, we applied different sample modifications (fixation, drying, metal coating, etc.) and characterized the observed surface patterns. A detailed analysis revealed that the surface structure with wrinkled protrusions in SEM images were not generated de novo but most likely evolved from similar and naturally present structures on the surface of living bacteria. The influence of osmotic stress to the surface structure of living cells was evaluated and also the contribution of exopolysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by imaging two mutant strains of the bacterium under native conditions. AFM images of living bacteria in culture medium exhibited surface structures of the size of single proteins emphasizing the usefulness of AFM for high resolution cell imaging.

  17. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    KAUST Repository

    Kallepitis, Charalambos

    2017-03-22

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell–material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  18. Fast globally optimal segmentation of cells in fluorescence microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeest, Jan-Philip; Rohr, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and efficient segmentation of cells in fluorescence microscopy images is of central importance for the quantification of protein expression in high-throughput screening applications. We propose a new approach for segmenting cell nuclei which is based on active contours and convex energy functionals. Compared to previous work, our approach determines the global solution. Thus, the approach does not suffer from local minima and the segmentation result does not depend on the initialization. We also suggest a numeric approach for efficiently computing the solution. The performance of our approach has been evaluated using fluorescence microscopy images of different cell types. We have also performed a quantitative comparison with previous segmentation approaches.

  19. Live cell imaging reveals at novel view of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritomi-Yano, Keiko; Yano, Ken-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the major repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are the most severe form of DNA damages. Recently, live cell imaging techniques coupled with laser micro-irradiation were used to analyze the spatio-temporal behavior of the NHEJ core factors upon DSB induction in living cells. Based on the live cell imaging studies, we proposed a novel two-phase model for DSB sensing and protein assembly in the NHEJ pathway. This new model provides a novel view of the dynamic protein behavior on DSBs and broad implications for the molecular mechanism of NHEJ. (author)

  20. Automatic Cell Segmentation in Fluorescence Images of Confluent Cell Monolayers Using Multi-object Geometric Deformable Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhen; Bogovic, John A.; Carass, Aaron; Ye, Mao; Searson, Peter C.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of microscopy for cell imaging, there is a strong and growing demand for image analysis software to quantitatively study cell morphology. Automatic cell segmentation is an important step in image analysis. Despite substantial progress, there is still a need to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and adaptability to different cell morphologies. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic method for segmenting cells in fluorescence images of confluent cell monolayers. T...

  1. Imaging and reconstruction of cell cortex structures near the cell surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Luhong; Zhou, Xiaoxu; Xiu, Peng; Luo, Wei; Huang, Yujia; Yu, Feng; Kuang, Cuifang; Sun, Yonghong; Liu, Xu; Xu, Yingke

    2017-11-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) provides high optical sectioning capability and superb signal-to-noise ratio for imaging of cell cortex structures. The development of multi-angle (MA)-TIRFM permits high axial resolution imaging and reconstruction of cellular structures near the cell surface. Cytoskeleton is composed of a network of filaments, which are important for maintenance of cell function. The high-resolution imaging and quantitative analysis of filament organization would contribute to our understanding of cytoskeleton regulation in cell. Here, we used a custom-developed MA-TIRFM setup, together with stochastic photobleaching and single molecule localization method, to enhance the lateral resolution of TIRFM imaging to about 100 nm. In addition, we proposed novel methods to perform filament segmentation and 3D reconstruction from MA-TIRFM images. Furthermore, we applied these methods to study the 3D localization of cortical actin and microtubule structures in U373 cancer cells. Our results showed that cortical actins localize ∼ 27 nm closer to the plasma membrane when compared with microtubules. We found that treatment of cells with chemotherapy drugs nocodazole and cytochalasin B disassembles cytoskeletal network and induces the reorganization of filaments towards the cell periphery. In summary, this study provides feasible approaches for 3D imaging and analyzing cell surface distribution of cytoskeletal network. Our established microscopy platform and image analysis toolkits would facilitate the study of cytoskeletal network in cells.

  2. Computationally efficient video restoration for Nyquist sampled imaging sensors combining an affine-motion-based temporal Kalman filter and adaptive Wiener filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucci, Michael; Hardie, Russell C; Barnard, Kenneth J

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present a computationally efficient video restoration algorithm to address both blur and noise for a Nyquist sampled imaging system. The proposed method utilizes a temporal Kalman filter followed by a correlation-model based spatial adaptive Wiener filter (AWF). The Kalman filter employs an affine background motion model and novel process-noise variance estimate. We also propose and demonstrate a new multidelay temporal Kalman filter designed to more robustly treat local motion. The AWF is a spatial operation that performs deconvolution and adapts to the spatially varying residual noise left in the Kalman filter stage. In image areas where the temporal Kalman filter is able to provide significant noise reduction, the AWF can be aggressive in its deconvolution. In other areas, where less noise reduction is achieved with the Kalman filter, the AWF balances the deconvolution with spatial noise reduction. In this way, the Kalman filter and AWF work together effectively, but without the computational burden of full joint spatiotemporal processing. We also propose a novel hybrid system that combines a temporal Kalman filter and BM3D processing. To illustrate the efficacy of the proposed methods, we test the algorithms on both simulated imagery and video collected with a visible camera.

  3. Cross-Sectional Transport Imaging in a Multijunction Solar Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegel, Nancy M.; Ke, Chi-Wen; Taha, Hesham; Guthrey, Harvey; Fetzer, C. M.; King, Richard

    2015-06-14

    Combining highly localized electron-beam excitation at a point with the spatial resolution capability of optical near-field imaging, we have imaged carrier transport in a cross-sectioned multijunction (GaInP/GaInAs/Ge) solar cell. We image energy transport associated with carrier diffusion throughout the full width of the middle (GaInAs) cell and luminescent coupling from point excitation in the top cell GaInP to the middle cell. Supporting cathodoluminescence and near-field photoluminescence measurements demonstrate excitation-dependent Fermi level splitting effects that influence cross-sectioned spectroscopy results as well as transport limitations on the spatial resolution of cross-sectional measurements.

  4. Multimodal nonlinear imaging of arabidopsis thaliana root cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bumjoon; Lee, Sung-Ho; Woo, Sooah; Park, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Myeong Min; Park, Seung-Han

    2017-07-01

    Nonlinear optical microscopy has enabled the possibility to explore inside the living organisms. It utilizes ultrashort laser pulse with long wavelength (greater than 800nm). Ultrashort pulse produces high peak power to induce nonlinear optical phenomenon such as two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) and harmonic generations in the medium while maintaining relatively low average energy pre area. In plant developmental biology, confocal microscopy is widely used in plant cell imaging after the development of biological fluorescence labels in mid-1990s. However, fluorescence labeling itself affects the sample and the sample deviates from intact condition especially when labelling the entire cell. In this work, we report the dynamic images of Arabidopsis thaliana root cells. This demonstrates the multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy is an effective tool for long-term plant cell imaging.

  5. Akademisk video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Dette kapitel har fokus på metodiske problemstillinger, der opstår i forhold til at bruge (digital) video i forbindelse med forskningskommunikation, ikke mindst online. Video har længe været benyttet i forskningen til dataindsamling og forskningskommunikation. Med digitaliseringen og internettet ...

  6. Live-cell imaging: new avenues to investigate retinal regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Lahne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensing and responding to our environment requires functional neurons that act in concert. Neuronal cell loss resulting from degenerative diseases cannot be replaced in humans, causing a functional impairment to integrate and/or respond to sensory cues. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio possess an endogenous capacity to regenerate lost neurons. Here, we will focus on the processes that lead to neuronal regeneration in the zebrafish retina. Dying retinal neurons release a damage signal, tumor necrosis factor α, which induces the resident radial glia, the Müller glia, to reprogram and re-enter the cell cycle. The Müller glia divide asymmetrically to produce a Müller glia that exits the cell cycle and a neuronal progenitor cell. The arising neuronal progenitor cells undergo several rounds of cell divisions before they migrate to the site of damage to differentiate into the neuronal cell types that were lost. Molecular and immunohistochemical studies have predominantly provided insight into the mechanisms that regulate retinal regeneration. However, many processes during retinal regeneration are dynamic and require live-cell imaging to fully discern the underlying mechanisms. Recently, a multiphoton imaging approach of adult zebrafish retinal cultures was developed. We will discuss the use of live-cell imaging, the currently available tools and those that need to be developed to advance our knowledge on major open questions in the field of retinal regeneration.

  7. Design and Implementation of a Video-Zoom Driven Digital Audio-Zoom System for Portable Digital Imaging Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nam In; Kim, Seon Man; Kim, Hong Kook; Kim, Ji Woon; Kim, Myeong Bo; Yun, Su Won

    In this paper, we propose a video-zoom driven audio-zoom algorithm in order to provide audio zooming effects in accordance with the degree of video-zoom. The proposed algorithm is designed based on a super-directive beamformer operating with a 4-channel microphone system, in conjunction with a soft masking process that considers the phase differences between microphones. Thus, the audio-zoom processed signal is obtained by multiplying an audio gain derived from a video-zoom level by the masked signal. After all, a real-time audio-zoom system is implemented on an ARM-CORETEX-A8 having a clock speed of 600 MHz after different levels of optimization are performed such as algorithmic level, C-code, and memory optimizations. To evaluate the complexity of the proposed real-time audio-zoom system, test data whose length is 21.3 seconds long is sampled at 48 kHz. As a result, it is shown from the experiments that the processing time for the proposed audio-zoom system occupies 14.6% or less of the ARM clock cycles. It is also shown from the experimental results performed in a semi-anechoic chamber that the signal with the front direction can be amplified by approximately 10 dB compared to the other directions.

  8. Video processing project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Globisch, R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Video processing source code for algorithms and tools used in software media pipelines (e.g. image scalers, colour converters, etc.) The currently available source code is written in C++ with their associated libraries and DirectShow- Filters....

  9. Applying image quality in cell phone cameras: lens distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Donald; Goma, Sergio R.; Aleksic, Milivoje

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the framework used in one of the pilot studies run under the I3A CPIQ initiative to quantify overall image quality in cell-phone cameras. The framework is based on a multivariate formalism which tries to predict overall image quality from individual image quality attributes and was validated in a CPIQ pilot program. The pilot study focuses on image quality distortions introduced in the optical path of a cell-phone camera, which may or may not be corrected in the image processing path. The assumption is that the captured image used is JPEG compressed and the cellphone camera is set to 'auto' mode. As the used framework requires that the individual attributes to be relatively perceptually orthogonal, in the pilot study, the attributes used are lens geometric distortion (LGD) and lateral chromatic aberrations (LCA). The goal of this paper is to present the framework of this pilot project starting with the definition of the individual attributes, up to their quantification in JNDs of quality, a requirement of the multivariate formalism, therefore both objective and subjective evaluations were used. A major distinction in the objective part from the 'DSC imaging world' is that the LCA/LGD distortions found in cell-phone cameras, rarely exhibit radial behavior, therefore a radial mapping/modeling cannot be used in this case.

  10. Deep video deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2016-11-25

    Motion blur from camera shake is a major problem in videos captured by hand-held devices. Unlike single-image deblurring, video-based approaches can take advantage of the abundant information that exists across neighboring frames. As a result the best performing methods rely on aligning nearby frames. However, aligning images is a computationally expensive and fragile procedure, and methods that aggregate information must therefore be able to identify which regions have been accurately aligned and which have not, a task which requires high level scene understanding. In this work, we introduce a deep learning solution to video deblurring, where a CNN is trained end-to-end to learn how to accumulate information across frames. To train this network, we collected a dataset of real videos recorded with a high framerate camera, which we use to generate synthetic motion blur for supervision. We show that the features learned from this dataset extend to deblurring motion blur that arises due to camera shake in a wide range of videos, and compare the quality of results to a number of other baselines.

  11. Dual photon excitation microscopy and image threshold segmentation in live cell imaging during compression testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo, Eng Kuan; Abusara, Ziad; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Herzog, Walter

    2013-08-09

    Morphological studies of live connective tissue cells are imperative to helping understand cellular responses to mechanical stimuli. However, photobleaching is a constant problem to accurate and reliable live cell fluorescent imaging, and various image thresholding methods have been adopted to account for photobleaching effects. Previous studies showed that dual photon excitation (DPE) techniques are superior over conventional one photon excitation (OPE) confocal techniques in minimizing photobleaching. In this study, we investigated the effects of photobleaching resulting from OPE and DPE on morphology of in situ articular cartilage chondrocytes across repeat laser exposures. Additionally, we compared the effectiveness of three commonly-used image thresholding methods in accounting for photobleaching effects, with and without tissue loading through compression. In general, photobleaching leads to an apparent volume reduction for subsequent image scans. Performing seven consecutive scans of chondrocytes in unloaded cartilage, we found that the apparent cell volume loss caused by DPE microscopy is much smaller than that observed using OPE microscopy. Applying scan-specific image thresholds did not prevent the photobleaching-induced volume loss, and volume reductions were non-uniform over the seven repeat scans. During cartilage loading through compression, cell fluorescence increased and, depending on the thresholding method used, led to different volume changes. Therefore, different conclusions on cell volume changes may be drawn during tissue compression, depending on the image thresholding methods used. In conclusion, our findings confirm that photobleaching directly affects cell morphology measurements, and that DPE causes less photobleaching artifacts than OPE for uncompressed cells. When cells are compressed during tissue loading, a complicated interplay between photobleaching effects and compression-induced fluorescence increase may lead to interpretations in

  12. Progress in molecular nuclear medicine imaging of pancreatic beta cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Haifei; Yin Hongyan; Liu Shuai; Zhang Yifan

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common and frequently occurring disease which seriously threaten the health of human beings. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes respectively results from being destroyed and insufficient beta-cell mass. The associated symptoms appear until 50%-60% decrease of beta-cell mass. Because pancreas is deeply located in the body, with few beta-cell mass, the current methods of clinical diagnosis are invasive and late. So diagnosis of metabolism disease of beta-cell early non-invasively becomes more and more popular, imaging diagnosis of diabetes mellitus becomes the focus of researches, but how to estimate the mass of beta-cell still an important subject in imaging technology. (authors)

  13. 3D/4D multiscale imaging in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells: visualizing dynamics of cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangapani, Sreelatha; Mohan, Rosmin Elsa; Patil, Ajeetkumar; Lang, Matthew J.; Asundi, Anand

    2017-06-01

    Quantitative phase detection is a new methodology that provides quantitative information on cellular morphology to monitor the cell status, drug response and toxicity. In this paper the morphological changes in acute leukemia cells treated with chitosan were detected using d'Bioimager a robust imaging system. Quantitative phase image of the cells was obtained with numerical analysis. Results show that the average area and optical volume of the chitosan treated cells is significantly reduced when compared with the control cells, which reveals the effect of chitosan on the cancer cells. From the results it can be attributed that d'Bioimager can be used as a non-invasive imaging alternative to measure the morphological changes of the living cells in real time.

  14. Video Retrieval Berdasarkan Teks dan Gambar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Hidayati

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Retrieval video has been used to search a video based on the query entered by user which were text and image. This system could increase the searching ability on video browsing and expected to reduce the video’s retrieval time. The research purposes were designing and creating a software application of retrieval video based on the text and image on the video. The index process for the text is tokenizing, filtering (stopword, stemming. The results of stemming to saved in the text index table. Index process for the image is to create an image color histogram and compute the mean and standard deviation at each primary color red, green and blue (RGB of each image. The results of feature extraction is stored in the image table The process of video retrieval using the query text, images or both. To text query system to process the text query by looking at the text index tables. If there is a text query on the index table system will display information of the video according to the text query. To image query system to process the image query by finding the value of the feature extraction means red, green means, means blue, red standard deviation, standard deviation and standard deviation of blue green. If the value of the six features extracted query image on the index table image will display the video information system according to the query image. To query text and query images, the system will display the video information if the query text and query images have a relationship that is query text and query image has the same film title.   Keywords—  video, index, retrieval, text, image

  15. Creating Stop-Motion Videos with iPads to Support Students' Understanding of Cell Processes: "Because You Have to Know What You're Talking about to Be Able to Do It"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Ivankovic, Diana; Norris, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study is two-fold: (a) describe the implementation of a stop-motion animation video activity to support students' understanding of cell processes, and (b) present research findings about students' beliefs and use of iPads to support their creation of stop-motion videos in an introductory biology course. Data…

  16. FogBank: a single cell segmentation across multiple cell lines and image modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Joe; Majurski, Michael; Dima, Alden; Stuelten, Christina; Peskin, Adele; Brady, Mary

    2014-12-30

    Many cell lines currently used in medical research, such as cancer cells or stem cells, grow in confluent sheets or colonies. The biology of individual cells provide valuable information, thus the separation of touching cells in these microscopy images is critical for counting, identification and measurement of individual cells. Over-segmentation of single cells continues to be a major problem for methods based on morphological watershed due to the high level of noise in microscopy cell images. There is a need for a new segmentation method that is robust over a wide variety of biological images and can accurately separate individual cells even in challenging datasets such as confluent sheets or colonies. We present a new automated segmentation method called FogBank that accurately separates cells when confluent and touching each other. This technique is successfully applied to phase contrast, bright field, fluorescence microscopy and binary images. The method is based on morphological watershed principles with two new features to improve accuracy and minimize over-segmentation. First, FogBank uses histogram binning to quantize pixel intensities which minimizes the image noise that causes over-segmentation. Second, FogBank uses a geodesic distance mask derived from raw images to detect the shapes of individual cells, in contrast to the more linear cell edges that other watershed-like algorithms produce. We evaluated the segmentation accuracy against manually segmented datasets using two metrics. FogBank achieved segmentation accuracy on the order of 0.75 (1 being a perfect match). We compared our method with other available segmentation techniques in term of achieved performance over the reference data sets. FogBank outperformed all related algorithms. The accuracy has also been visually verified on data sets with 14 cell lines across 3 imaging modalities leading to 876 segmentation evaluation images. FogBank produces single cell segmentation from confluent cell

  17. Nano-imaging of single cells using STIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Minqin [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Kan, J.A. van [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Bettiol, A.A. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Daina, Lim [Department of Anatomy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Gek, Chan Yee [Department of Anatomy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Huat, Bay Boon [Department of Anatomy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Whitlow, H.J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 (Finland); Osipowicz, T. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Watt, F. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)]. E-mail: phywattf@nus.edu.sg

    2007-07-15

    Scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) is a technique which utilizes the energy loss of high energy (MeV) ions passing through a sample to provide structural images. In this paper, we have successfully demonstrated STIM imaging of single cells at the nano-level using the high resolution capability of the proton beam writing facility at the Centre for Ion Beam Applications, National University of Singapore. MCF-7 breast cancer cells (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC]) were seeded on to silicon nitride windows, backed by a Hamamatsu pin diode acting as a particle detector. A reasonable contrast was obtained using 1 MeV protons and excellent contrast obtained using 1 MeV alpha particles. In a further experiment, nano-STIM was also demonstrated using cells seeded on to the pin diode directly, and high quality nano-STIM images showing the nucleus and multiple nucleoli were extracted before the detector was significantly damaged.

  18. Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma: imaging and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yong; Zhang Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma (MCRCC) is a subtype of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and has mild clinical symptoms and a favorable prognosis. Accordingly, nephron-sparing surgery is recommended as a therapeutic strategy. If histologic subtype of MCRCC can be predicted preoperatively with an acceptable level of accuracy, it may be important in predicting prognosis and make clinical management. Most MCRCCs show characteristic cross-sectional imaging findings and permit accurate diagnosis before the treatment. Cross -sectional imaging of MCRCC reveals a well -defined multilocular cystic mass with irregularly enhanced thickened septa and without enhanced intracystic solid nodule. It is often classified as Bosniak classification Ⅲ , which is significantly different from that of other renal cystic masses. The clinical, pathologic, and radiologic features of MCRCC were discussed and illustrated in this article. The role of the imaging preoperative evaluation for MCRCC, and management implications were emphasized. (authors)

  19. Imaging: Guiding the Clinical Translation of Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Patricia K.; Lan, Feng; Wang, Yongming; Wu, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have been touted as the holy grail of medical therapy with promises to regenerate cardiac tissue, but it appears the jury is still out on this novel therapy. Using advanced imaging technology, scientists have discovered that these cells do not survive nor engraft long-term. In addition, only marginal benefit has been observed in large animal studies and human trials. However, all is not lost. Further application of advanced imaging technology will help scientists unravel the mysteries of stem cell therapy and address the clinical hurdles facing its routine implementation. In this review, we will discuss how advanced imaging technology will help investigators better define the optimal delivery method, improve survival and engraftment, and evaluate efficacy and safety. Insights gained from this review may direct the development of future preclinical investigations and clinical trials. PMID:21960727

  20. Video Podcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne Mette; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2016-01-01

    This project’s aim was to support and facilitate master’s students’ preparation and collaboration by making video podcasts of short lectures available on YouTube prior to students’ first face-to-face seminar. The empirical material stems from group interviews, from statistical data created through...... YouTube analytics and from surveys answered by students after the seminar. The project sought to explore how video podcasts support learning and reflection online and how students use and reflect on the integration of online activities in the videos. Findings showed that students engaged actively...

  1. Video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B

    2005-06-01

    The video game industry insists that it is doing everything possible to provide information about the content of games so that parents can make informed choices; however, surveys indicate that ratings may not reflect consumer views of the nature of the content. This article describes some of the currently popular video games, as well as developments that are on the horizon, and discusses the status of research on the positive and negative impacts of playing video games. Recommendations are made to help parents ensure that children play games that are consistent with their values.

  2. Red Blood Cell Count Automation Using Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingli; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-12-01

    Red blood cell counts have been proven to be one of the most frequently performed blood tests and are valuable for early diagnosis of some diseases. This paper describes an automated red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology. Unlike the light microscopy-based red blood count methods, a combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify red blood cells by integrating active contour models and automated two-dimensional k-means with spectral angle mapper algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than spatial based algorithm because the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of blood cells.

  3. The learning curve for narrow-band imaging in the diagnosis of precancerous gastric lesions by using Web-based video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Silva, Diogo; Pimentel-Nunes, Pedro; Magalhães, Joana; Magalhães, Ricardo; Veloso, Nuno; Ferreira, Carlos; Figueiredo, Pedro; Moutinho, Pedro; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

    2014-06-01

    A simplified narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy classification of gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions was derived and validated in a multicenter study. This classification comes with the need for dissemination through adequate training. To address the learning curve of this classification by endoscopists with differing expertise and to assess the feasibility of a YouTube-based learning program to disseminate it. Prospective study. Five centers. Six gastroenterologists (3 trainees, 3 fully trained endoscopists [FTs]). Twenty tests provided through a Web-based program containing 10 randomly ordered NBI videos of gastric mucosa were taken. Feedback was sent 7 days after every test submission. Measures of accuracy of the NBI classification throughout the time. From the first to the last 50 videos, a learning curve was observed with a 10% increase in global accuracy, for both trainees (from 64% to 74%) and FTs (from 56% to 65%). After 200 videos, sensitivity and specificity of 80% and higher for intestinal metaplasia were observed in half the participants, and a specificity for dysplasia greater than 95%, along with a relevant likelihood ratio for a positive result of 7 to 28 and likelihood ratio for a negative result of 0.21 to 0.82, were achieved by all of the participants. No constant learning curve was observed for the identification of Helicobacter pylori gastritis and sensitivity to dysplasia. The trainees had better results in all of the parameters, except specificity for dysplasia, compared with the FTs. Globally, participants agreed that the program's structure was adequate, except on the feedback, which should have consisted of a more detailed explanation of each answer. No formal sample size estimate. A Web-based learning program could be used to teach and disseminate classifications in the endoscopy field. In this study, an NBI classification for gastric mucosal features seems to be easily learned for the identification of gastric preneoplastic

  4. Chronological alterations of diagnostic imaging of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Kiminobu; Sugimura, Yoshiki; Yanagawa, Makoto; Tochigi, Hiromi; Kawamura, Juichi

    1994-01-01

    A review of 156 cases of renal cell carcinoma diagnosed during a 20-year period demonstrated the changes of initial signs/symptoms and imaging modalities for detection and definition. According to the imaging modality used for diagnosing renal cell carcinoma, clinical pictures were chronologically examined over 4 periods: 1973 to 1979 (before CT era), 1980 to 1984 (early CT era), 1985 to 1987 (CT era) and 1988 to 1992 (CT/MRI era). With regards to initial signs or symptoms, the proportion of classical trials has gradually decreased, while that of tumors noted incidentally has increased. As for imaging modalities for detection, the proportion of IVP has gradually decreased and that of CT and US has increased over the periods. With regard to imaging modalities for definition, the proportion of angiography has decreased and that of CT has increased. From chronological changes in clinical pictures and imaging modalities, we suggested a decision tree of imaging modalities for detection and definition of renal cell carcinoma. (author)

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of large chromophobe renal cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaguri, Kohei; Irie, Hiroyuki; Kamochi, Noriyuki; Nakazono, Takahiko; Yamaguchi, Ken; Uozumi, Jiro; Kudo, Sho

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of large chromophobe renal cell carcinomas. Five patients diagnosed pathologically with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma are included. MRI findings were retrospectively evaluated for the tumor contour, uniformity and hypointensity of the rim of the tumor on T2-weighted images, ''micro-scopic fat'', enhancement degree and pattern on dynamic study, and necrosis in the tumor, among other findings. The tumor size ranged from 4.8 to 13.7 cm (mean 7.9 cm). The tumor contour was well defined in four patients. All but one tumor showed a hypointensity rim, and all tumors had a heterogeneous appearance on T2-weighted images. ''Microscopic fat'' was detected in one case. All tumors demonstrated low enhancement compared to that of the renal cortex. All tumors showed heterogeneous enhancement on postcontrast images. Necrosis was seen in four. Hemorrhage and renal vein thrombosis was seen in one. Chromophobe renal cell carcinomas of large size tend to have a heterogeneous appearance on post-contrast and T2-weighted images, a well-defined tumor contour with a hypointensity rim on T2-wighted images, and lower enhancement than that of the renal cortex. Tumor necrosis is easily apparent, and ''microscopic fat'' may be observed. (author)

  6. [Development of a Fluorescence Probe for Live Cell Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Aya

    2017-01-01

     Probes that detect specific biological materials are indispensable tools for deepening our understanding of various cellular phenomena. In live cell imaging, the probe must emit fluorescence only when a specific substance is detected. In this paper, we introduce a new probe we developed for live cell imaging. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity is higher in tumor cells than in normal cells and is involved in the development of resistance to various anticancer drugs. We previously reported the development of a general strategy for the synthesis of probes for detection of GST enzymes, including fluorogenic, bioluminogenic, and 19 F-NMR probes. Arylsulfonyl groups were used as caging groups during probe design. The fluorogenic probes were successfully used to quantitate very low levels of GST activity in cell extracts and were also successfully applied to the imaging of microsomal MGST1 activity in living cells. The bioluminogenic and 19 F-NMR probes were able to detect GST activity in Escherichia coli cells. Oligonucleotide-templated reactions are powerful tools for nucleic acid sensing. This strategy exploits the target strand as a template for two functionalized probes and provides a simple molecular mechanism for multiple turnover reactions. We developed a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction-triggered fluorescent probe. The probe completed its reaction within 30 s of initiation and amplified the fluorescence signal from 0.5 pM target oligonucleotide by 1500 fold under isothermal conditions. Additionally, we applied the oligonucleotide-templated reaction for molecular releasing and peptide detection.

  7. PC image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, Mok Jin Il; Am, Ha Jeng Ung

    1995-04-01

    This book starts summary of digital image processing and personal computer, and classification of personal computer image processing system, digital image processing, development of personal computer and image processing, image processing system, basic method of image processing such as color image processing and video processing, software and interface, computer graphics, video image and video processing application cases on image processing like satellite image processing, color transformation of image processing in high speed and portrait work system.

  8. PET imaging of T cells: Target identification and feasibility assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auberson, Yves P; Briard, Emmanuelle; Rudolph, Bettina; Kaupmann, Klemen; Smith, Paul; Oberhauser, Berndt

    2018-06-01

    Imaging T cells using positron emission tomography (PET) would be highly useful for diagnosis and monitoring in immunology and oncology patients. There are however no obvious targets that can be used to develop imaging agents for this purpose. We evaluated several potential target proteins with selective expression in T cells, and for which lead molecules were available: PKC , Lck, ZAP70 and Itk. Ultimately, we focused on Itk (interleukin-2-inducible T cell kinase) and identified a tool molecule with properties suitable for in vivo imaging of T cells, (5aR)-5,5-difluoro-5a-methyl-N-(1-((S)-3-(methylsulfonyl)-phenyl)(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6-hexahydro-cyclopropa[f]-indazole-3-carboxamide (23). While not having the optimal profile for clinical use, this molecule indicates that it might be possible to develop Itk-selective PET ligands for imaging the distribution of T cells in patients. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Multiphoton autofluorescence lifetime imaging of induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchugonova, Aisada

    2017-06-01

    The multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging tomograph MPTflex with its flexible 360-deg scan head, articulated arm, and tunable femtosecond laser source was employed to study induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) cultures. Autofluorescence (AF) lifetime imaging was performed with 250-ps temporal resolution and submicron spatial resolution using time-correlated single-photon counting. The two-photon excited AF was based on the metabolic coenzymes NAD(P)H and flavin adenine dinucleotide/flavoproteins. iPS cells generated from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and cocultured with growth-arrested MEFs as feeder cells have been studied. Significant differences on AF lifetime signatures were identified between iPS and feeder cells as well as between their differentiating counterparts.

  10. Quantitative image analysis for investigating cell-matrix interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkel, Brian; Notbohm, Jacob

    2017-07-01

    The extracellular matrix provides both chemical and physical cues that control cellular processes such as migration, division, differentiation, and cancer progression. Cells can mechanically alter the matrix by applying forces that result in matrix displacements, which in turn may localize to form dense bands along which cells may migrate. To quantify the displacements, we use confocal microscopy and fluorescent labeling to acquire high-contrast images of the fibrous material. Using a technique for quantitative image analysis called digital volume correlation, we then compute the matrix displacements. Our experimental technology offers a means to quantify matrix mechanics and cell-matrix interactions. We are now using these experimental tools to modulate mechanical properties of the matrix to study cell contraction and migration.

  11. A Novel Morphometry-Based Protocol of Automated Video-Image Analysis for Species Recognition and Activity Rhythms Monitoring in Deep-Sea Fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Menesatti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of ecosystem dynamics in deep-sea areas is to date limited by technical constraints on sampling repetition. We have elaborated a morphometry-based protocol for automated video-image analysis where animal movement tracking (by frame subtraction is accompanied by species identification from animals’ outlines by Fourier Descriptors and Standard K-Nearest Neighbours methods. One-week footage from a permanent video-station located at 1,100 m depth in Sagami Bay (Central Japan was analysed. Out of 150,000 frames (1 per 4 s, a subset of 10.000 was analyzed by a trained operator to increase the efficiency of the automated procedure. Error estimation of the automated and trained operator procedure was computed as a measure of protocol performance. Three displacing species were identified as the most recurrent: Zoarcid fishes (eelpouts, red crabs (Paralomis multispina, and snails (Buccinum soyomaruae. Species identification with KNN thresholding produced better results in automated motion detection. Results were discussed assuming that the technological bottleneck is to date deeply conditioning the exploration of the deep-sea.

  12. In vivo imaging of the retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica Ijams Wolfing

    The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells form an important layer of the retina because they are responsible for providing metabolic support to the photoreceptors. Techniques to image the RPE layer include autofluorescence imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). However, previous studies were unable to resolve single RPE cells in vivo. This thesis describes the technique of combining autofluorescence, SLO, adaptive optics (AO), and dual-wavelength simultaneous imaging and registration to visualize the individual cells in the RPE mosaic in human and primate retina for the first time in vivo. After imaging the RPE mosaic non-invasively, the cell layer's structure and regularity were characterized using quantitative metrics of cell density, spacing, and nearest neighbor distances. The RPE mosaic was compared to the cone mosaic, and RPE imaging methods were confirmed using histology. The ability to image the RPE mosaic led to the discovery of a novel retinal change following light exposure; 568 nm exposures caused an immediate reduction in autofluorescence followed by either full recovery or permanent damage in the RPE layer. A safety study was conducted to determine the range of exposure irradiances that caused permanent damage or transient autofluorescence reductions. Additionally, the threshold exposure causing autofluorescence reduction was determined and reciprocity of radiant exposure was confirmed. Light exposures delivered by the AOSLO were not significantly different than those delivered by a uniform source. As all exposures tested were near or below the permissible light levels of safety standards, this thesis provides evidence that the current light safety standards need to be revised. Finally, with the retinal damage and autofluorescence reduction thresholds identified, the methods of RPE imaging were modified to allow successful imaging of the individual cells in the RPE mosaic while still ensuring retinal safety. This thesis has provided a

  13. A video event trigger for high frame rate, high resolution video technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1991-12-01

    When video replaces film the digitized video data accumulates very rapidly, leading to a difficult and costly data storage problem. One solution exists for cases when the video images represent continuously repetitive 'static scenes' containing negligible activity, occasionally interrupted by short events of interest. Minutes or hours of redundant video frames can be ignored, and not stored, until activity begins. A new, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term or short term changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pretrigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable for archiving the digital stream from only the significant video images.

  14. Contraction of gut smooth muscle cells assessed by fluorescence imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Tokita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we discuss the development of a novel cell imaging system for the evaluation of smooth muscle cell (SMC contraction. SMCs were isolated from the circular and longitudinal muscular layers of mouse small intestine by enzymatic digestion. SMCs were stimulated by test agents, thereafter fixed in acrolein. Actin in fixed SMCs was stained with phalloidin and cell length was determined by measuring diameter at the large end of phalloidin-stained strings within the cells. The contractile response was taken as the decrease in the average length of a population of stimulated-SMCs. Various mediators and chemically identified compounds of daikenchuto (DKT, pharmaceutical-grade traditional Japanese prokinetics, were examined. Verification of the integrity of SMC morphology by phalloidin and DAPI staining and semi-automatic measurement of cell length using an imaging analyzer was a reliable method by which to quantify the contractile response. Serotonin, substance P, prostaglandin E2 and histamine induced SMC contraction in concentration-dependent manner. Two components of DKT, hydroxy-α-sanshool and hydroxy-β-sanshool, induced contraction of SMCs. We established a novel cell imaging technique to evaluate SMC contractility. This method may facilitate investigation into SMC activity and its role in gastrointestinal motility, and may assist in the discovery of new prokinetic agents.

  15. Imaging of complications from hematopoietic stem cell transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Tarun; Maximin, Suresh; Bhargava, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell transplant has been the focus of clinical research for a long time given its potential to treat several incurable diseases like hematological malignancies, diabetes mellitus, and neuro-degenerative disorders like Parkinson disease. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the oldest and most widely used technique of stem cell transplant. HSCT has not only been used to treat hematological disorders including hematological malignancies, but has also been found useful in treamtent of genetic, immunological, and solid tumors like neuroblastoma, lymphoma, and germ cell tumors. In spite of the rapid advances in stem cell technology, success rate with this technique has not been universal and many complications have also been seen with this form of therapy. The key to a successful HSCT therapy lies in early diagnosis and effective management of complications associated with this treatment. Our article aims to review the role of imaging in diagnosis and management of stem cell transplant complications associated with HSCT

  16. Cellular transfer of magnetic nanoparticles via cell microvesicles: impact on cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda K Andriola; Wilhelm, Claire; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Luciani, Nathalie; Gazeau, Florence

    2012-05-01

    Cell labeling with magnetic nanoparticles can be used to monitor the fate of transplanted cells in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging. However, nanoparticles initially internalized in administered cells might end up in other cells of the host organism. We investigated a mechanism of intercellular cross-transfer of magnetic nanoparticles to different types of recipient cells via cell microvesicles released under cellular stress. Three cell types (mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial cells and macrophages) were labeled with 8-nm iron oxide nanoparticles. Then cells underwent starvation stress, during which they produced microvesicles that were subsequently transferred to unlabeled recipient cells. The analysis of the magnetophoretic mobility of donor cells indicated that magnetic load was partially lost under cell stress. Microvesicles shed by stressed cells participated in the release of magnetic label. Moreover, such microvesicles were uptaken by naïve cells, resulting in cellular redistribution of nanoparticles. Iron load of recipient cells allowed their detection by MRI. Cell microvesicles released under stress may be disseminated throughout the organism, where they can be uptaken by host cells. The transferred cargo may be sufficient to allow MRI detection of these secondarily labeled cells, leading to misinterpretations of the effectiveness of transplanted cells.

  17. Unraveling cell processes: interference imaging interwoven with data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda; Brazhe, Alexey; Pavlov, A N

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents results on the application of interference microscopy and wavelet-analysis for cell visualization and studies of cell dynamics. We demonstrate that interference imaging of erythrocytes can reveal reorganization of the cytoskeleton and inhomogenity in the distribution of hemoglo......The paper presents results on the application of interference microscopy and wavelet-analysis for cell visualization and studies of cell dynamics. We demonstrate that interference imaging of erythrocytes can reveal reorganization of the cytoskeleton and inhomogenity in the distribution...... properties differ from cell type to cell type and depend on the cellular compartment. Our results suggest that low frequency variations (0.1-0.6 Hz) result from plasma membrane processes and that higher frequency variations (20-26 Hz) are related to the movement of vesicles. Using double-wavelet analysis, we...... study the modulation of the 1 Hz rhythm in neurons and reveal its changes under depolarization and hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane. We conclude that interference microscopy combined with wavelet analysis is a useful technique for non-invasive cell studies, cell visualization, and investigation...

  18. A probabilistic cell model in background corrected image sequences for single cell analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fieguth Paul

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods of manual cell localization and outlining are so onerous that automated tracking methods would seem mandatory for handling huge image sequences, nevertheless manual tracking is, astonishingly, still widely practiced in areas such as cell biology which are outside the influence of most image processing research. The goal of our research is to address this gap by developing automated methods of cell tracking, localization, and segmentation. Since even an optimal frame-to-frame association method cannot compensate and recover from poor detection, it is clear that the quality of cell tracking depends on the quality of cell detection within each frame. Methods Cell detection performs poorly where the background is not uniform and includes temporal illumination variations, spatial non-uniformities, and stationary objects such as well boundaries (which confine the cells under study. To improve cell detection, the signal to noise ratio of the input image can be increased via accurate background estimation. In this paper we investigate background estimation, for the purpose of cell detection. We propose a cell model and a method for background estimation, driven by the proposed cell model, such that well structure can be identified, and explicitly rejected, when estimating the background. Results The resulting background-removed images have fewer artifacts and allow cells to be localized and detected more reliably. The experimental results generated by applying the proposed method to different Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC image sequences are quite promising. Conclusion The understanding of cell behavior relies on precise information about the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of cells. Such information may play a key role in disease research and regenerative medicine, so automated methods for observation and measurement of cells from microscopic images are in high demand. The proposed method in this paper is capable

  19. Restoration of Static JPEG Images and RGB Video Frames by Means of Nonlinear Filtering in Conditions of Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, R. I.; Abdullin, R. R.

    2017-11-01

    The use of nonlinear Markov process filtering makes it possible to restore both video stream frames and static photos at the stage of preprocessing. The present paper reflects the results of research in comparison of these types image filtering quality by means of special algorithm when Gaussian or non-Gaussian noises acting. Examples of filter operation at different values of signal-to-noise ratio are presented. A comparative analysis has been performed, and the best filtered kind of noise has been defined. It has been shown the quality of developed algorithm is much better than quality of adaptive one for RGB signal filtering at the same a priori information about the signal. Also, an advantage over median filter takes a place when both fluctuation and pulse noise filtering.

  20. In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Daniel C.; Merigan, William; Wolfing, Jessica I.; Gee, Bernard P.; Porter, Jason; Dubra, Alfredo; Twietmeyer, Ted H.; Ahamd, Kamran; Tumbar, Remy; Reinholz, Fred; Williams, David R.

    2006-08-01

    The ability to resolve single cells noninvasively in the living retina has important applications for the study of normal retina, diseased retina, and the efficacy of therapies for retinal disease. We describe a new instrument for high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the mammalian retina that combines the benefits of confocal detection, adaptive optics, multispectral, and fluorescence imaging. The instrument is capable of imaging single ganglion cells and their axons through retrograde transport in ganglion cells of fluorescent dyes injected into the monkey lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). In addition, we demonstrate a method involving simultaneous imaging in two spectral bands that allows the integration of very weak signals across many frames despite inter-frame movement of the eye. With this method, we are also able to resolve the smallest retinal capillaries in fluorescein angiography and the mosaic of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with lipofuscin autofluorescence.

  1. Autofluorescence-Free Live-Cell Imaging Using Terbium Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso Dos Santos, M; Goetz, J; Bartenlian, H; Wong, K-L; Charbonnière, L J; Hildebrandt, N

    2018-04-18

    Fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) have become irreplaceable tools for advanced cellular and subcellular imaging. While very bright NPs require excitation with UV or visible light, which can create strong autofluorescence of biological components, NIR-excitable NPs without autofluorescence issues exhibit much lower brightness. Here, we show the application of a new type of surface-photosensitized terbium NPs (Tb-NPs) for autofluorescence-free intracellular imaging in live HeLa cells. The combination of exceptionally high brightness, high photostability, and long photoluminecence (PL) lifetimes for highly efficient suppression of the short-lived autofluorescence allowed for time-gated PL imaging of intracellular vesicles over 72 h without toxicity and at extremely low Tb-NP concentrations down to 12 pM. Detection of highly resolved long-lifetime (ms) PL decay curves from small (∼10 μm 2 ) areas within single cells within a few seconds emphasized the unprecedented photophysical properties of Tb-NPs for live-cell imaging that extend well beyond currently available nanometric imaging agents.

  2. Quantifying Solar Cell Cracks in Photovoltaic Modules by Electroluminescence Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a method for quantifying the percentage of partially and totally disconnected solar cell cracks by analyzing electroluminescence images of the photovoltaic module taken under high- and low-current forward bias. The method is based on the analysis of the module’s electrolumin...

  3. MR-based imaging of neural stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Politi, Letterio S. [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Neuroradiology Department, Milano (Italy)

    2007-06-15

    The efficacy of therapies based on neural stem cells (NSC) has been demonstrated in preclinical models of several central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Before any potential human application of such promising therapies can be envisaged, there are some important issues that need to be solved. The most relevant one is the requirement for a noninvasive technique capable of monitoring NSC delivery, homing to target sites and trafficking. Knowledge of the location and temporospatial migration of either transplanted or genetically modified NSC is of the utmost importance in analyzing mechanisms of correction and cell distribution. Further, such a technique may represent a crucial step toward clinical application of NSC-based approaches in humans, for both designing successful protocols and monitoring their outcome. Among the diverse imaging approaches available for noninvasive cell tracking, such as nuclear medicine techniques, fluorescence and bioluminescence, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has unique advantages. Its high temporospatial resolution, high sensitivity and specificity render MRI one of the most promising imaging modalities available, since it allows dynamic visualization of migration of transplanted cells in animal models and patients during clinically useful time periods. Different cellular and molecular labeling approaches for MRI depiction of NSC are described and discussed in this review, as well as the most relevant issues to be considered in optimizing molecular imaging techniques for clinical application. (orig.)

  4. In Vivo Imaging of Natural Killer Cell Trafficking in Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, Filippo; Rapisarda, Anna Serafina; Stabile, Helena; Malviya, Gaurav; Manni, Isabella; Bonanno, Elena; Piaggio, Giulia; Gismondi, Angela; Santoni, Angela; Signore, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer cells (NKs) are important effectors of the innate immune system, with marked antitumor activity. Imaging NK trafficking in vivo may be relevant to following up the efficacy of new therapeutic approaches aiming at increasing tumor-infiltrating NKs (TINKs). The specific aims of present

  5. MR-based imaging of neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politi, Letterio S.

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of therapies based on neural stem cells (NSC) has been demonstrated in preclinical models of several central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Before any potential human application of such promising therapies can be envisaged, there are some important issues that need to be solved. The most relevant one is the requirement for a noninvasive technique capable of monitoring NSC delivery, homing to target sites and trafficking. Knowledge of the location and temporospatial migration of either transplanted or genetically modified NSC is of the utmost importance in analyzing mechanisms of correction and cell distribution. Further, such a technique may represent a crucial step toward clinical application of NSC-based approaches in humans, for both designing successful protocols and monitoring their outcome. Among the diverse imaging approaches available for noninvasive cell tracking, such as nuclear medicine techniques, fluorescence and bioluminescence, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has unique advantages. Its high temporospatial resolution, high sensitivity and specificity render MRI one of the most promising imaging modalities available, since it allows dynamic visualization of migration of transplanted cells in animal models and patients during clinically useful time periods. Different cellular and molecular labeling approaches for MRI depiction of NSC are described and discussed in this review, as well as the most relevant issues to be considered in optimizing molecular imaging techniques for clinical application. (orig.)

  6. Dynamic Torsional and Cyclic Fracture Behavior of ProFile Rotary Instruments at Continuous or Reciprocating Rotation as Visualized with High-speed Digital Video Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokita, Daisuke; Ebihara, Arata; Miyara, Kana; Okiji, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the dynamic fracture behavior of nickel-titanium rotary instruments in torsional or cyclic loading at continuous or reciprocating rotation by means of high-speed digital video imaging. The ProFile instruments (size 30, 0.06 taper; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were categorized into 4 groups (n = 7 in each group) as follows: torsional/continuous (TC), torsional/reciprocating (TR), cyclic/continuous (CC), and cyclic/reciprocating (CR). Torsional loading was performed by rotating the instruments by holding the tip with a vise. For cyclic loading, a custom-made device with a 38° curvature was used. Dynamic fracture behavior was observed with a high-speed camera. The time to fracture was recorded, and the fractured surface was examined with scanning electron microscopy. The TC group initially exhibited necking of the file followed by the development of an initial crack line. The TR group demonstrated opening and closing of a crack according to its rotation in the cutting and noncutting directions, respectively. The CC group separated without any detectable signs of deformation. In the CR group, initial crack formation was recognized in 5 of 7 samples. The reciprocating rotation exhibited a longer time to fracture in both torsional and cyclic fatigue testing (P rotary instruments, as visualized with high-speed digital video imaging, varied between the different modes of rotation and different fatigue testing. Reciprocating rotation induced a slower crack propagation and conferred higher fatigue resistance than continuous rotation in both torsional and cyclic loads. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-intrusive telemetry applications in the oilsands: from visible light and x-ray video to acoustic imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, John M.

    2013-06-01

    While the production, transport and refining of oils from the oilsands of Alberta, and comparable resources elsewhere is performed at industrial scales, numerous technical and technological challenges and opportunities persist due to the ill defined nature of the resource. For example, bitumen and heavy oil comprise multiple bulk phases, self-organizing constituents at the microscale (liquid crystals) and the nano scale. There are no quantitative measures available at the molecular level. Non-intrusive telemetry is providing promising paths toward solutions, be they enabling technologies targeting process design, development or optimization, or more prosaic process control or process monitoring applications. Operation examples include automated large object and poor quality ore during mining, and monitoring the thickness and location of oil water interfacial zones within separation vessels. These applications involve real-time video image processing. X-ray transmission video imaging is used to enumerate organic phases present within a vessel, and to detect individual phase volumes, densities and elemental compositions. This is an enabling technology that provides phase equilibrium and phase composition data for production and refining process development, and fluid property myth debunking. A high-resolution two-dimensional acoustic mapping technique now at the proof of concept stage is expected to provide simultaneous fluid flow and fluid composition data within porous inorganic media. Again this is an enabling technology targeting visualization of diverse oil production process fundamentals at the pore scale. Far infrared spectroscopy coupled with detailed quantum mechanical calculations, may provide characteristic molecular motifs and intermolecular association data required for fluid characterization and process modeling. X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS/USAXS) provides characteristic supramolecular structure information that impacts fluid rheology and process

  8. Hierarchical imaging: a new concept for targeted imaging of large volumes from cells to tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Irene; Spomer, Waldemar; Hofmann, Andreas; Thaler, Marlene; Hillmer, Stefan; Gengenbach, Ulrich; Schröder, Rasmus R

    2016-12-12

    Imaging large volumes such as entire cells or small model organisms at nanoscale resolution seemed an unrealistic, rather tedious task so far. Now, technical advances have lead to several electron microscopy (EM) large volume imaging techniques. One is array tomography, where ribbons of ultrathin serial sections are deposited on solid substrates like silicon wafers or glass coverslips. To ensure reliable retrieval of multiple ribbons from the boat of a diamond knife we introduce a substrate holder with 7 axes of translation or rotation specifically designed for that purpose. With this device we are able to deposit hundreds of sections in an ordered way in an area of 22 × 22 mm, the size of a coverslip. Imaging such arrays in a standard wide field fluorescence microscope produces reconstructions with 200 nm lateral resolution and 100 nm (the section thickness) resolution in z. By hierarchical imaging cascades in the scanning electron microscope (SEM), using a new software platform, we can address volumes from single cells to complete organs. In our first example, a cell population isolated from zebrafish spleen, we characterize different cell types according to their organelle inventory by segmenting 3D reconstructions of complete cells imaged with nanoscale resolution. In addition, by screening large numbers of cells at decreased resolution we can define the percentage at which different cell types are present in our preparation. With the second example, the root tip of cress, we illustrate how combining information from intermediate resolution data with high resolution data from selected regions of interest can drastically reduce the amount of data that has to be recorded. By imaging only the interesting parts of a sample considerably less data need to be stored, handled and eventually analysed. Our custom-designed substrate holder allows reproducible generation of section libraries, which can then be imaged in a hierarchical way. We demonstrate, that EM

  9. Live cell imaging of actin dynamics in dexamethasone-treated porcine trabecular meshwork cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Tomokazu; Inoue, Toshihiro; Inoue-Mochita, Miyuki; Tanihara, Hidenobu

    2016-04-01

    The regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells is important for controlling outflow of the aqueous humor. In some reports, dexamethasone (DEX) increased the aqueous humor outflow resistance and induced unusual actin structures, such as cross-linked actin networks (CLAN), in TM cells. However, the functions and dynamics of CLAN in TM cells are not completely known, partly because actin stress fibers have been observed only in fixed cells. We conducted live-cell imaging of the actin dynamics in TM cells with or without DEX treatment. An actin-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion construct with a modified insect virus was transfected into porcine TM cells. Time-lapse imaging of live TM cells treated with 25 μM Y-27632 and 100 nM DEX was performed using an inverted fluorescence microscope. Fluorescent images were recorded every 15 s for 30 min after Y-27632 treatment or every 30 min for 72 h after DEX treatment. The GFP-actin was expressed in 22.7 ± 10.9% of the transfected TM cells. In live TM cells, many actin stress fibers were observed before the Y-27632 treatment. Y-27632 changed the cell shape and decreased stress fibers in a time-dependent manner. In fixed cells, CLAN-like structures were seen in 26.5 ± 1.7% of the actin-GFP expressed PTM cells treated with DEX for 72 h. In live imaging, there was 28% CLAN-like structure formation at 72 h after DEX treatment, and the lifetime of CLAN-like structures increased after DEX treatment. The DEX-treated cells with CLAN-like structures showed less migration than DEX-treated cells without CLAN-like structures. Furthermore, the control cells (without DEX treatment) with CLAN-like structures also showed less migration than the control cells without CLAN-like structures. These results suggested that CLAN-like structure formation was correlated with cell migration in TM cells. Live cell imaging of the actin cytoskeleton provides valuable information on the actin dynamics in TM

  10. Cell Matrix Remodeling Ability Shown by Image Spatial Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-Li; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is a critical step of many biological and pathological processes. However, most of the studies to date lack a quantitative method to measure ECM remodeling at a scale comparable to cell size. Here, we applied image spatial correlation to collagen second harmonic generation (SHG) images to quantitatively evaluate the degree of collagen remodeling by cells. We propose a simple statistical method based on spatial correlation functions to determine the size of high collagen density area around cells. We applied our method to measure collagen remodeling by two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7), which display different degrees of invasiveness, and a fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3). We found distinct collagen compaction levels of these three cell lines by applying the spatial correlation method, indicating different collagen remodeling ability. Furthermore, we quantitatively measured the effect of Latrunculin B and Marimastat on MDA-MB-231 cell line collagen remodeling ability and showed that significant collagen compaction level decreases with these treatments. PMID:23935614

  11. Segmentation of fluorescence microscopy cell images using unsupervised mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xian; Dua, Sumeet

    2010-05-28

    The accurate measurement of cell and nuclei contours are critical for the sensitive and specific detection of changes in normal cells in several medical informatics disciplines. Within microscopy, this task is facilitated using fluorescence cell stains, and segmentation is often the first step in such approaches. Due to the complex nature of cell issues and problems inherent to microscopy, unsupervised mining approaches of clustering can be incorporated in the segmentation of cells. In this study, we have developed and evaluated the performance of multiple unsupervised data mining techniques in cell image segmentation. We adapt four distinctive, yet complementary, methods for unsupervised learning, including those based on k-means clustering, EM, Otsu's threshold, and GMAC. Validation measures are defined, and the performance of the techniques is evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively using synthetic and recently published real data. Experimental results demonstrate that k-means, Otsu's threshold, and GMAC perform similarly, and have more precise segmentation results than EM. We report that EM has higher recall values and lower precision results from under-segmentation due to its Gaussian model assumption. We also demonstrate that these methods need spatial information to segment complex real cell images with a high degree of efficacy, as expected in many medical informatics applications.

  12. Cell and Tissue Imaging with Molecularly Imprinted Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kunath, Stephanie; Haupt, Karsten; Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Advanced tools for cell imaging are of particular interest as they can detect, localize and quantify molecular targets like abnormal glycosylation sites that are biomarkers of cancer and infection. Targeting these biomarkers is often challenging due to a lack of receptor materials. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are promising artificial receptors; they can be tailored to bind targets specifically, be labeled easily, and are physically and chemically stable. Herein, we demonstrate the application of MIPs as artificial antibodies for selective labeling and imaging of cellular targets, on the example of hyaluronan and sialylation moieties on fixated human skin cells and tissues. Thus, fluorescently labeled MIP nanoparticles templated with glucuronic acid (MIPGlcA) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (MIPNANA) are respectively applied. Two different fluorescent probes are used: (1) MIPGlcA particles, ~400 nm in size are labeled with the dye rhodamine that target the extracellular hyaluronan on cells and tissue specimens and (2) MIP-coated InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) of two different colors, ~125 nm in size that target the extracellular and intracellular hyaluronan and sialylation sites. Green and red emitting QDs are functionalized with MIPGlcA and MIPNANA respectively, enabling multiplexed cell imaging. This is a general approach that can also be adapted to other target molecules on and in cells.

  13. Fast Aerial Video Stitching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The highly efficient and robust stitching of aerial video captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is a challenging problem in the field of robot vision. Existing commercial image stitching systems have seen success with offline stitching tasks, but they cannot guarantee high-speed performance when dealing with online aerial video sequences. In this paper, we present a novel system which has an unique ability to stitch high-frame rate aerial video at a speed of 150 frames per second (FPS. In addition, rather than using a high-speed vision platform such as FPGA or CUDA, our system is running on a normal personal computer. To achieve this, after the careful comparison of the existing invariant features, we choose the FAST corner and binary descriptor for efficient feature extraction and representation, and present a spatial and temporal coherent filter to fuse the UAV motion information into the feature matching. The proposed filter can remove the majority of feature correspondence outliers and significantly increase the speed of robust feature matching by up to 20 times. To achieve a balance between robustness and efficiency, a dynamic key frame-based stitching framework is used to reduce the accumulation errors. Extensive experiments on challenging UAV datasets demonstrate that our approach can break through the speed limitation and generate an accurate stitching image for aerial video stitching tasks.

  14. Super-resolution Microscopy in Plant Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komis, George; Šamajová, Olga; Ovečka, Miroslav; Šamaj, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    Although the development of super-resolution microscopy methods dates back to 1994, relevant applications in plant cell imaging only started to emerge in 2010. Since then, the principal super-resolution methods, including structured-illumination microscopy (SIM), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), and stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED), have been implemented in plant cell research. However, progress has been limited due to the challenging properties of plant material. Here we summarize the basic principles of existing super-resolution methods and provide examples of applications in plant science. The limitations imposed by the nature of plant material are reviewed and the potential for future applications in plant cell imaging is highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Automatic analysis of microscopic images of red blood cell aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichini, Pablo A.; Larese, Mónica G.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2015-06-01

    Red blood cell aggregation is one of the most important factors in blood viscosity at stasis or at very low rates of flow. The basic structure of aggregates is a linear array of cell commonly termed as rouleaux. Enhanced or abnormal aggregation is seen in clinical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, producing alterations in the microcirculation, some of which can be analyzed through the characterization of aggregated cells. Frequently, image processing and analysis for the characterization of RBC aggregation were done manually or semi-automatically using interactive tools. We propose a system that processes images of RBC aggregation and automatically obtains the characterization and quantification of the different types of RBC aggregates. Present technique could be interesting to perform the adaptation as a routine used in hemorheological and Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories because this automatic method is rapid, efficient and economical, and at the same time independent of the user performing the analysis (repeatability of the analysis).

  16. MR imaging of clear cell carcinoma of the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Yujiro; Kojima, Kaoru; Ohtomo, Kuni; Yoshikawa, Wataru; Fuwa, Sokun; Araki, Tsutomu

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging findings are reported for 12 pathologically proven lesions of clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary in 11 women (mean age 50 years). T1- and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in all patients, and gadolinium-enhanced MR images were obtained in 9. The mean diameter of the tumors was 13 cm. Seven patients presented with stage-I tumors. All 12 lesions consisted of cystic masses with solid protrusions occurring in 10 and solid masses in 2. The cysts were unilocular in 9 lesions and multilocular in 1. In four lesions, the cysts displayed with high intensity on T1-weighted images. Round solid protrusions were identified in 8 lesions. In 5 lesions, the number of protrusions was only a few. The solid portions of 5 masses had slightly high-intensity regions on T1-weighted images. The number of patients with ascites was three. Magnetic resonance imaging of CCC usually shows a unilocular large cyst with solid protrusions, which are often round and few in number. Such MR imaging findings suggest malignant tumor but are not specific. (orig.)

  17. Imaging Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian Ring

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the presentation of a patch-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL using optical coherence tomography (OCT. Methods: A patient with a patch caused by CTCL was photographed digitally, OCT-scanned and biopsied. A normal skin area adjacent to the patch was OCT-scanned for comparison, but not biopsied. The OCT image and the histological image were compared. Results: The OCT images illustrated a thickened and hyperreflective stratum corneum. OCT also demonstrated several elongated hyporeflective structures in the dermis. The largest structure was measured to have a width of 0.13 mm. A good immediate correlation was found between histology and OCT imaging of the sample. Conclusion: The aetiology of the elongated structures is thought to be lymphomatous infiltrates. Similar findings have been described in ocular lymphoma and may therefore be an important characteristic of cutaneous lymphoma. It may further be speculated that the differences in OCT images may reflect the biological behaviour of the infiltrate. This observation therefore suggests that OCT imaging may be a relevant tool for the in vivo investigation of mycosis fungoides and other CTCLs, but in order to verify these observed patterns in OCT imaging, further investigations will be required.

  18. New concepts for building vocabulary for cell image ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Anne L; Elliott, John T; Bhat, Talapady N

    2011-12-21

    There are significant challenges associated with the building of ontologies for cell biology experiments including the large numbers of terms and their synonyms. These challenges make it difficult to simultaneously query data from multiple experiments or ontologies. If vocabulary terms were consistently used and reused across and within ontologies, queries would be possible through shared terms. One approach to achieving this is to strictly control the terms used in ontologies in the form of a pre-defined schema, but this approach limits the individual researcher's ability to create new terms when needed to describe new experiments. Here, we propose the use of a limited number of highly reusable common root terms, and rules for an experimentalist to locally expand terms by adding more specific terms under more general root terms to form specific new vocabulary hierarchies that can be used to build ontologies. We illustrate the application of the method to build vocabularies and a prototype database for cell images that uses a visual data-tree of terms to facilitate sophisticated queries based on a experimental parameters. We demonstrate how the terminology might be extended by adding new vocabulary terms into the hierarchy of terms in an evolving process. In this approach, image data and metadata are handled separately, so we also describe a robust file-naming scheme to unambiguously identify image and other files associated with each metadata value. The prototype database http://sbd.nist.gov/ consists of more than 2000 images of cells and benchmark materials, and 163 metadata terms that describe experimental details, including many details about cell culture and handling. Image files of interest can be retrieved, and their data can be compared, by choosing one or more relevant metadata values as search terms. Metadata values for any dataset can be compared with corresponding values of another dataset through logical operations. Organizing metadata for cell imaging

  19. New concepts for building vocabulary for cell image ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plant Anne L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are significant challenges associated with the building of ontologies for cell biology experiments including the large numbers of terms and their synonyms. These challenges make it difficult to simultaneously query data from multiple experiments or ontologies. If vocabulary terms were consistently used and reused across and within ontologies, queries would be possible through shared terms. One approach to achieving this is to strictly control the terms used in ontologies in the form of a pre-defined schema, but this approach limits the individual researcher's ability to create new terms when needed to describe new experiments. Results Here, we propose the use of a limited number of highly reusable common root terms, and rules for an experimentalist to locally expand terms by adding more specific terms under more general root terms to form specific new vocabulary hierarchies that can be used to build ontologies. We illustrate the application of the method to build vocabularies and a prototype database for cell images that uses a visual data-tree of terms to facilitate sophisticated queries based on a experimental parameters. We demonstrate how the terminology might be extended by adding new vocabulary terms into the hierarchy of terms in an evolving process. In this approach, image data and metadata are handled separately, so we also describe a robust file-naming scheme to unambiguously identify image and other files associated with each metadata value. The prototype database http://sbd.nist.gov/ consists of more than 2000 images of cells and benchmark materials, and 163 metadata terms that describe experimental details, including many details about cell culture and handling. Image files of interest can be retrieved, and their data can be compared, by choosing one or more relevant metadata values as search terms. Metadata values for any dataset can be compared with corresponding values of another dataset through logical

  20. Feature Importance for Human Epithelial (HEp-2 Cell Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Gupta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Indirect Immuno-Fluorescence (IIF microscopy imaging of human epithelial (HEp-2 cells is a popular method for diagnosing autoimmune diseases. Considering large data volumes, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD systems, based on image-based classification, can help in terms of time, effort, and reliability of diagnosis. Such approaches are based on extracting some representative features from the images. This work explores the selection of the most distinctive features for HEp-2 cell images using various feature selection (FS methods. Considering that there is no single universally optimal feature selection technique, we also propose hybridization of one class of FS methods (filter methods. Furthermore, the notion of variable importance for ranking features, provided by another type of approaches (embedded methods such as Random forest, Random uniform forest is exploited to select a good subset of features from a large set, such that addition of new features does not increase classification accuracy. In this work, we have also, with great consideration, designed class-specific features to capture morphological visual traits of the cell patterns. We perform various experiments and discussions to demonstrate the effectiveness of FS methods along with proposed and a standard feature set. We achieve state-of-the-art performance even with small number of features, obtained after the feature selection.

  1. Cell tracking in cardiac repair: What to image and how to image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ruggiero (Alessandro); D.L.J. Thorek (Daniel L.J.); J. Guenoun (Jamal); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel); M.R. Bernsen (Monique)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStem cell therapies hold the great promise and interest for cardiac regeneration among scientists, clinicians and patients. However, advancement and distillation of a standard treatment regimen are not yet finalised. Into this breach step recent developments in the imaging biosciences.

  2. Dual-Modal Nanoprobes for Imaging of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplant by MRI and Fluorescence Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Chang Kyu; Hong, Kyung Ah; Lin, Shun Mei

    2009-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of labeling human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with bifunctional nanoparticles and assessing their potential as imaging probes in the monitoring of hMSC transplantation. The T1 and T2 relaxivities of the nanoparticles (MNP SiO 2 [RITC]-PEG) were measured at 1.5T and 3T magnetic resonance scanner. Using hMSCs and the nanoparticles, labeling efficiency, toxicity, and proliferation were assessed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to specify the intracellular localization of the endocytosed iron nanoparticles. We also observed in vitro and in vivo visualization of the labeled hMSCs with a 3T MR scanner and optical imaging. MNP SiO 2 (RITC)-PEG showed both superparamagnetic and fluorescent properties. The r 1 and r 2 relaxivity values of the MNP SiO 2 (RITC)-PEG were 0.33 and 398 mM -1 s -1 at 1.5T, respectively, and 0.29 and 453 mM -1 s -1 at 3T, respectively. The effective internalization of MNP SiO 2 (RITC)-PEG into hMSCs was observed by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. The transmission electron microscopy images showed that MNP SiO 2 (RITC)-PEG was internalized into the cells and mainly resided in the cytoplasm. The viability and proliferation of MNP SiO 2 (RITC)-PEG-labeled hMSCs were not significantly different from the control cells. MNP SiO 2 (RITC)-PEG-labeled hMSCs were observed in vitro and in vivo with optical and MR imaging. MNP SiO 2 (RITC)-PEG can be a useful contrast agent for stem cell imaging, which is suitable for a bimodal detection by MRI and optical imaging

  3. Design of a Lossless Image Compression System for Video Capsule Endoscopy and Its Performance in In-Vivo Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tareq H.; Wahid, Khan A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new low complexity and lossless image compression system for capsule endoscopy (CE) is presented. The compressor consists of a low-cost YEF color space converter and variable-length predictive with a combination of Golomb-Rice and unary encoding. All these components have been heavily optimized for low-power and low-cost and lossless in nature. As a result, the entire compression system does not incur any loss of image information. Unlike transform based algorithms, the compressor can be interfaced with commercial image sensors which send pixel data in raster-scan fashion that eliminates the need of having large buffer memory. The compression algorithm is capable to work with white light imaging (WLI) and narrow band imaging (NBI) with average compression ratio of 78% and 84% respectively. Finally, a complete capsule endoscopy system is developed on a single, low-power, 65-nm field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) chip. The prototype is developed using circular PCBs having a diameter of 16 mm. Several in-vivo and ex-vivo trials using pig's intestine have been conducted using the prototype to validate the performance of the proposed lossless compression algorithm. The results show that, compared with all other existing works, the proposed algorithm offers a solution to wireless capsule endoscopy with lossless and yet acceptable level of compression. PMID:25375753

  4. Improved signal to noise ratio and sensitivity of an infrared imaging video bolometer on large helical device by using an infrared periscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, Shwetang N.; Sano, Ryuichi; Peterson, Byron J.; Mukai, Kiyofumi; Enokuchi, Akito; Takeyama, Norihide

    2014-01-01

    An Infrared imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) diagnostic is currently being used in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for studying the localization of radiation structures near the magnetic island and helical divertor X-points during plasma detachment and for 3D tomography. This research demands high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity to improve the temporal resolution for studying the evolution of radiation structures during plasma detachment and a wide IRVB field of view (FoV) for tomography. Introduction of an infrared periscope allows achievement of a higher SNR and higher sensitivity, which in turn, permits a twofold improvement in the temporal resolution of the diagnostic. Higher SNR along with wide FoV is achieved simultaneously by reducing the separation of the IRVB detector (metal foil) from the bolometer's aperture and the LHD plasma. Altering the distances to meet the aforesaid requirements results in an increased separation between the foil and the IR camera. This leads to a degradation of the diagnostic performance in terms of its sensitivity by 1.5-fold. Using an infrared periscope to image the IRVB foil results in a 7.5-fold increase in the number of IR camera pixels imaging the foil. This improves the IRVB sensitivity which depends on the square root of the number of IR camera pixels being averaged per bolometer channel. Despite the slower f-number (f/# = 1.35) and reduced transmission (τ 0 = 89%, due to an increased number of lens elements) for the periscope, the diagnostic with an infrared periscope operational on LHD has improved in terms of sensitivity and SNR by a factor of 1.4 and 4.5, respectively, as compared to the original diagnostic without a periscope (i.e., IRVB foil being directly imaged by the IR camera through conventional optics). The bolometer's field of view has also increased by two times. The paper discusses these improvements in apt details

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... they move through vessels. The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitch of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler ... Do you have a personal ...

  6. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  7. Video-rate resonant scanning multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Chung, Euiheon; Cook, Daniel C.; Han, Xiaoxing; Gruionu, Gabriel; Liao, Shan; Munn, Lance L.; Padera, Timothy P.; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    The abnormal tumor microenvironment fuels tumor progression, metastasis, immune suppression, and treatment resistance. Over last several decades, developments in and applications of intravital microscopy have provided unprecedented insights into the dynamics of the tumor microenvironment. In particular, intravital multiphoton microscopy has revealed the abnormal structure and function of tumor-associated blood and lymphatic vessels, the role of aberrant tumor matrix in drug delivery, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, the dynamics of immune cell trafficking to and within tumors, and gene expression in tumors. However, traditional multiphoton microscopy suffers from inherently slow imaging rates—only a few frames per second, thus unable to capture more rapid events such as blood flow, lymphatic flow, and cell movement within vessels. Here, we report the development and implementation of a video-rate multiphoton microscope (VR-MPLSM) based on resonant galvanometer mirror scanning that is capable of recording at 30 frames per second and acquiring intravital multispectral images. We show that the design of the system can be readily implemented and is adaptable to various experimental models. As examples, we demonstrate the utility of the system to directly measure flow within tumors, capture metastatic cancer cells moving within the brain vasculature and cells in lymphatic vessels, and image acute responses to changes in a vascular network. VR-MPLSM thus has the potential to further advance intravital imaging and provide new insight into the biology of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24353926

  8. Mapping Iterative Medical Imaging Algorithm on Cell Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilian Xu

    2011-01-01

    architectures that exploit data parallel applications, medical imaging algorithms such as OS-SART can be studied to produce increased performance. In this paper, we map OS-SART on cell broadband engine (Cell BE. We effectively use the architectural features of Cell BE to provide an efficient mapping. The Cell BE consists of one powerPC processor element (PPE and eight SIMD coprocessors known as synergetic processor elements (SPEs. The limited memory storage on each of the SPEs makes the mapping challenging. Therefore, we present optimization techniques to efficiently map the algorithm on the Cell BE for improved performance over CPU version. We compare the performance of our proposed algorithm on Cell BE to that of Sun Fire ×4600, a shared memory machine. The Cell BE is five times faster than AMD Opteron dual-core processor. The speedup of the algorithm on Cell BE increases with the increase in the number of SPEs. We also experiment with various parameters, such as number of subsets, number of processing elements, and number of DMA transfers between main memory and local memory, that impact the performance of the algorithm.

  9. Alterations of the cytoskeleton in human cells in space proved by life-cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corydon, Thomas J.; Kopp, Sascha; Wehland, Markus; Braun, Markus; Schütte, Andreas; Mayer, Tobias; Hülsing, Thomas; Oltmann, Hergen; Schmitz, Burkhard; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Grimm, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Microgravity induces changes in the cytoskeleton. This might have an impact on cells and organs of humans in space. Unfortunately, studies of cytoskeletal changes in microgravity reported so far are obligatorily based on the analysis of fixed cells exposed to microgravity during a parabolic flight campaign (PFC). This study focuses on the development of a compact fluorescence microscope (FLUMIAS) for fast live-cell imaging under real microgravity. It demonstrates the application of the instrument for on-board analysis of cytoskeletal changes in FTC-133 cancer cells expressing the Lifeact-GFP marker protein for the visualization of F-actin during the 24th DLR PFC and TEXUS 52 rocket mission. Although vibration is an inevitable part of parabolic flight maneuvers, we successfully for the first time report life-cell cytoskeleton imaging during microgravity, and gene expression analysis after the 31st parabola showing a clear up-regulation of cytoskeletal genes. Notably, during the rocket flight the FLUMIAS microscope reveals significant alterations of the cytoskeleton related to microgravity. Our findings clearly demonstrate the applicability of the FLUMIAS microscope for life-cell imaging during microgravity, rendering it an important technological advance in live-cell imaging when dissecting protein localization. PMID:26818711

  10. OAS :: Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    subscriptions Videos Photos Live Webcast Social Media Facebook @oasofficial Facebook Twitter @oas_official Audios Photos Social Media Facebook Twitter Newsletters Press and Communications Department Contact us at Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber

  11. Live-cell imaging study of mitochondrial morphology in mammalian cells exposed to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, M.; Yokoya, A.; Narita, A.; Fujii, K.; Kanari, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Morphological changes in mitochondria induced by X-irradiation in normal murine mammary gland cells were studied with a live-cell microscopic imaging technique. Mitochondria were visualised by staining with a specific fluorescent probe in the cells, which express fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator 2 (Fucci2) probes to visualise cell cycle. In unirradiated cells, the number of cells with fragmented mitochondria was about 20 % of the total cells through observation period (96 h). In irradiated cells, the population with fragmented mitochondria significantly increased depending on the absorbed dose. Particularly, for 8 Gy irradiation, the accumulation of fragmentation persists even in the cells whose cell cycle came to a stand (80 % in G1 (G0-like) phase). The fraction reached to a maximum at 96 h after irradiation. The kinetics of the fraction with fragmented mitochondria was similar to that for cells in S/G2/M phase (20 %) through the observation period (120 h). The evidences show that, in irradiated cells, some signals are continually released from a nucleus or cytoplasm even in the G0-like cells to operate some sort of protein machineries involved in mitochondrial fission. It is inferred that this delayed mitochondrial fragmentation is strongly related to their dysfunction, and hence might modulate radiobiological effects such as mutation or cell death. (authors)

  12. Short Project-Based Learning with MATLAB Applications to Support the Learning of Video-Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    University courses concerning Computer Vision and Image Processing are generally taught using a traditional methodology that is focused on the teacher rather than on the students. This approach is consequently not effective when teachers seek to attain cognitive objectives involving their students' critical thinking. This manuscript covers the…

  13. Imaging findings of abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Sin; Byun, Jae Ho; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, Ah Young; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Moon Gyu; Bae, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm. From April 2000 to January 2005, eight patients (four men, four women; mean age, 50.6 years) with pathologically proved, extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm involving the abdominal organs were included in this study. The diagnoses were based on consensus agreement between two radiologists who retrospectively reviewed CT, ultrasonography, and enteroclysis findings. We evaluated the findings by focusing on the location, size, margin, and enhancement pattern of the lesion, and lymphadenopathy on each image. There were multiple myeloma in four patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in the remaining four. Involved abdominal organs were the liver (n = 4), spleen (n 4), lymph node (n = 3), stomach (n = 1), small bowel (n = 1), and colon (n 1). The hepatic involvement of plasma cell neoplasm presented as a homogeneous, well-defined, solitary mass (n = 1), multiple nodules (n = 1), and hepatomegaly (n = 2). Its involvement of the spleen and lymph node appeared as splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, respectively. Its involvement of the gastrointestinal tract including the stomach, small bowel, and colon, presented as a homogeneous, diffuse wall thickening or mass in the gastrointestinal tract. Abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm involves occasionally the liver, spleen, and lymph node, and rarely the gastrointestinal tract. When we encounter a well-defined, homogeneous lesion of the abdominal organs in patients diagnosed or suspected as having plasma cell neoplasm, we should consider its involvement of the abdominal organs

  14. Active vision and image/video understanding with decision structures based on the network-symbolic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2003-08-01

    Vision is a part of a larger information system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive vision process, resolve ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback projections, and provide image understanding that is an interpretation of visual information in terms of such knowledge models. The ability of human brain to emulate knowledge structures in the form of networks-symbolic models is found. And that means an important shift of paradigm in our knowledge about brain from neural networks to "cortical software". Symbols, predicates and grammars naturally emerge in such active multilevel hierarchical networks, and logic is simply a way of restructuring such models. Brain analyzes an image as a graph-type decision structure created via multilevel hierarchical compression of visual information. Mid-level vision processes like clustering, perceptual grouping, separation of figure from ground, are special kinds of graph/network transformations. They convert low-level image structure into the set of more abstract ones, which represent objects and visual scene, making them easy for analysis by higher-level knowledge structures. Higher-level vision phenomena are results of such analysis. Composition of network-symbolic models works similar to frames and agents, combines learning, classification, analogy together with higher-level model-based reasoning into a single framework. Such models do not require supercomputers. Based on such principles, and using methods of Computational intelligence, an Image Understanding system can convert images into the network-symbolic knowledge models, and effectively resolve uncertainty and ambiguity, providing unifying representation for perception and cognition. That allows creating new intelligent computer vision systems for robotic and defense industries.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in the staging of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Hiroichi; Umeda, Takashi; Niijima, Tadao; Yashiro, Naobumi; Kawabe, Kazuki

    1987-07-01

    Eighteen patients with renal neoplasm underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 1.5 Tesla superconducting magnetic system and spin echo images were obtained by quick scan technique under holding breath. MR images were interpreted independently of the computerized tomography (CT) findings. The preoperative stagings of the 18 renal carcinomas, as judged by MRI, were compared with those obtained at laparotomy. The anatomic staging was correctly performed by MRI in 13 patients (72 %). In the patients who had intrarenal small tumor with normal renal contour, MRI demonstrated a solid mass clearly distinguishable from surrounding renal parenchyma using the paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium-DTPA). When compared with results of evaluation by CT in staging, MRI appeared to have several advantages in determination of whole mass; the detection of tumor thrombus into renal vein and inferior vena cava; and the evaluation of direct tumor invasion of adjacent organs. MRI should play an important role in the staging of renal cell carcinoma.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in the staging of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Hiroichi; Umeda, Takashi; Niijima, Tadao; Yashiro, Naobumi; Kawabe, Kazuki

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen patients with renal neoplasm underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 1.5 Tesla superconducting magnetic system and spin echo images were obtained by quick scan technique under holding breath. MR images were interpreted independently of the computerized tomography (CT) findings. The preoperative stagings of the 18 renal carcinomas, as judged by MRI, were compared with those obtained at laparotomy. The anatomic staging was correctly performed by MRI in 13 patients (72 %). In the patients who had intrarenal small tumor with normal renal contour, MRI demonstrated a solid mass clearly distinguishable from surrounding renal parenchyma using the paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium-DTPA). When compared with results of evaluation by CT in staging, MRI appeared to have several advantages in determination of whole mass; the detection of tumor thrombus into renal vein and inferior vena cava; and the evaluation of direct tumor invasion of adjacent organs. MRI should play an important role in the staging of renal cell carcinoma. (author)

  17. Using image processing technology and mathematical algorithm in the automatic selection of vocal cord opening and closing images from the larynx endoscopy video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wang, Po-Chun; Lai, Chun-Yu; Chu, Wen-Lin; Leu, Yi-Shing; Wang, Hsing-Won

    2013-12-01

    The human larynx is an important organ for voice production and respiratory mechanisms. The vocal cord is approximated for voice production and open for breathing. The videolaryngoscope is widely used for vocal cord examination. At present, physicians usually diagnose vocal cord diseases by manually selecting the image of the vocal cord opening to the largest extent (abduction), thus maximally exposing the vocal cord lesion. On the other hand, the severity of diseases such as vocal palsy, atrophic vocal cord is largely dependent on the vocal cord closing to the smallest extent (adduction). Therefore, diseases can be assessed by the image of the vocal cord opening to the largest extent, and the seriousness of breathy voice is closely correlated to the gap between vocal cords when closing to the smallest extent. The aim of the study was to design an automatic vocal cord image selection system to improve the conventional selection process by physicians and enhance diagnosis efficiency. Also, due to the unwanted fuzzy images resulting from examination process caused by human factors as well as the non-vocal cord images, texture analysis is added in this study to measure image entropy to establish a screening and elimination system to effectively enhance the accuracy of selecting the image of the vocal cord closing to the smallest extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-Term Live Cell Imaging of Cell Migration: Effects of Pathogenic Fungi on Human Epithelial Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllert, Torsten; Langford, George M

    2016-01-01

    Long-term live cell imaging was used in this study to determine the responses of human epithelial cells to pathogenic biofilms formed by Candida albicans. Epithelial cells of the skin represent the front line of defense against invasive pathogens such as C. albicans but under certain circumstances, especially when the host's immune system is compromised, the skin barrier is breached. The mechanisms by which the fungal pathogen penetrates the skin and invade the deeper layers are not fully understood. In this study we used keratinocytes grown in culture as an in vitro model system to determine changes in host cell migration and the actin cytoskeleton in response to virulence factors produced by biofilms of pathogenic C. albicans. It is clear that changes in epithelial cell migration are part of the response to virulence factors secreted by biofilms of C. albicans and the actin cytoskeleton is the downstream effector that mediates cell migration. Our goal is to understand the mechanism by which virulence factors hijack the signaling pathways of the actin cytoskeleton to alter cell migration and thereby invade host tissues. To understand the dynamic changes of the actin cytoskeleton during infection, we used long-term live cell imaging to obtain spatial and temporal information of actin filament dynamics and to identify signal transduction pathways that regulate the actin cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Long-term live cell imaging was achieved using a high resolution, multi-mode epifluorescence microscope equipped with specialized light sources, high-speed cameras with high sensitivity detectors, and specific biocompatible fluorescent markers. In addition to the multi-mode epifluorescence microscope, a spinning disk confocal long-term live cell imaging system (Olympus CV1000) equipped with a stage incubator to create a stable in vitro environment for long-term real-time and time-lapse microscopy was used. Detailed descriptions of these two long-term live

  19. Extreme compression for extreme conditions: pilot study to identify optimal compression of CT images using MPEG-4 video compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, P Gabriel; Pak, Sung K; Nguyen, Binh; Jacobs, Genevieve; Folio, Les

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the utility of compressed computed tomography (CT) studies (to expedite transmission) using Motion Pictures Experts Group, Layer 4 (MPEG-4) movie formatting in combat hospitals when guiding major treatment regimens. This retrospective analysis was approved by Walter Reed Army Medical Center institutional review board with a waiver for the informed consent requirement. Twenty-five CT chest, abdomen, and pelvis exams were converted from Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine to MPEG-4 movie format at various compression ratios. Three board-certified radiologists reviewed various levels of compression on emergent CT findings on 25 combat casualties and compared with the interpretation of the original series. A Universal Trauma Window was selected at -200 HU level and 1,500 HU width, then compressed at three lossy levels. Sensitivities and specificities for each reviewer were calculated along with 95 % confidence intervals using the method of general estimating equations. The compression ratios compared were 171:1, 86:1, and 41:1 with combined sensitivities of 90 % (95 % confidence interval, 79-95), 94 % (87-97), and 100 % (93-100), respectively. Combined specificities were 100 % (85-100), 100 % (85-100), and 96 % (78-99), respectively. The introduction of CT in combat hospitals with increasing detectors and image data in recent military operations has increased the need for effective teleradiology; mandating compression technology. Image compression is currently used to transmit images from combat hospital to tertiary care centers with subspecialists and our study demonstrates MPEG-4 technology as a reasonable means of achieving such compression.

  20. Using simulated fluorescence cell micrographs for the evaluation of cell image segmentation algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, Veit; Bergler, Matthias; Palmisano, Ralf; Prinzen, Martin; Franz, Daniela; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2017-03-18

    Manual assessment and evaluation of fluorescent micrograph cell experiments is time-consuming and tedious. Automated segmentation pipelines can ensure efficient and reproducible evaluation and analysis with constant high quality for all images of an experiment. Such cell segmentation approaches are usually validated and rated in comparison to manually annotated micrographs. Nevertheless, manual annotations are prone to errors and display inter- and intra-observer variability which influence the validation results of automated cell segmentation pipelines. We present a new approach to simulate fluorescent cell micrographs that provides an objective ground truth for the validation of cell segmentation methods. The cell simulation was evaluated twofold: (1) An expert observer study shows that the proposed approach generates realistic fluorescent cell micrograph simulations. (2) An automated segmentation pipeline on the simulated fluorescent cell micrographs reproduces segmentation performances of that pipeline on real fluorescent cell micrographs. The proposed simulation approach produces realistic fluorescent cell micrographs with corresponding ground truth. The simulated data is suited to evaluate image segmentation pipelines more efficiently and reproducibly than it is possible on manually annotated real micrographs.

  1. Image-guided radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, Andreas; Clasen, Stephan; Pereira, Philippe L.; Kuczyk, Markus; Schick, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma is rising with the increased number of incidental detection of small tumours. During the past few years, percutaneous imaging-guided radiofrequency ablation has evolved as a minimally invasive treatment of small unresectable renal tumours offering reduced patient morbidity and overall health care costs. In radiofrequency ablation, thermal energy is deposited into a targeted tumour by means of a radiofrequency applicator. In recent studies, radiofrequency ablation was shown to be an effective and safe modality for local destruction of renal cell carcinoma. Radiofrequency applicator navigation can be performed via ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance guidance; however, ultrasound seems less favourable because of the absence of monitoring capabilities during ablation. On-line monitoring of treatment outcome can only be performed with magnetic resonance imaging giving the possibility of eventual applicator repositioning to ablate visible residual tumour tissue. Long-term follow-up is crucial to assess completeness of tumour ablation. New developments in ablation technology and radiological equipment will further increase the indication field for radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma. Altogether, radiofrequency ablation seems to be a promising new modality for the minimally invasive treatment of renal cell carcinoma, which was demonstrated to exhibit high short-term effectiveness. (orig.)

  2. Cell biochemistry studied by single-molecule imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashanov, G I; Nenasheva, T A; Peckham, M; Molloy, J E

    2006-11-01

    Over the last decade, there have been remarkable developments in live-cell imaging. We can now readily observe individual protein molecules within living cells and this should contribute to a systems level understanding of biological pathways. Direct observation of single fluorophores enables several types of molecular information to be gathered. Temporal and spatial trajectories enable diffusion constants and binding kinetics to be deduced, while analyses of fluorescence lifetime, intensity, polarization or spectra give chemical and conformational information about molecules in their cellular context. By recording the spatial trajectories of pairs of interacting molecules, formation of larger molecular complexes can be studied. In the future, multicolour and multiparameter imaging of single molecules in live cells will be a powerful analytical tool for systems biology. Here, we discuss measurements of single-molecule mobility and residency at the plasma membrane of live cells. Analysis of diffusional paths at the plasma membrane gives information about its physical properties and measurement of temporal trajectories enables rates of binding and dissociation to be derived. Meanwhile, close scrutiny of individual fluorophore trajectories enables ideas about molecular dimerization and oligomerization related to function to be tested directly.

  3. Enhanced 3D fluorescence live cell imaging on nanoplasmonic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartia, Manas Ranjan; Hsiao, Austin; Logan Liu, G; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Chen Yi

    2011-01-01

    We have created a randomly distributed nanocone substrate on silicon coated with silver for surface-plasmon-enhanced fluorescence detection and 3D cell imaging. Optical characterization of the nanocone substrate showed it can support several plasmonic modes (in the 300-800 nm wavelength range) that can be coupled to a fluorophore on the surface of the substrate, which gives rise to the enhanced fluorescence. Spectral analysis suggests that a nanocone substrate can create more excitons and shorter lifetime in the model fluorophore Rhodamine 6G (R6G) due to plasmon resonance energy transfer from the nanocone substrate to the nearby fluorophore. We observed three-dimensional fluorescence enhancement on our substrate shown from the confocal fluorescence imaging of chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells grown on the substrate. The fluorescence intensity from the fluorophores bound on the cell membrane was amplified more than 100-fold as compared to that on a glass substrate. We believe that strong scattering within the nanostructured area coupled with random scattering inside the cell resulted in the observed three-dimensional enhancement in fluorescence with higher photostability on the substrate surface.

  4. Enhanced 3D fluorescence live cell imaging on nanoplasmonic substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartia, Manas Ranjan [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hsiao, Austin; Logan Liu, G [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Sivaguru, Mayandi [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Chen Yi, E-mail: loganliu@illinois.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2011-09-07

    We have created a randomly distributed nanocone substrate on silicon coated with silver for surface-plasmon-enhanced fluorescence detection and 3D cell imaging. Optical characterization of the nanocone substrate showed it can support several plasmonic modes (in the 300-800 nm wavelength range) that can be coupled to a fluorophore on the surface of the substrate, which gives rise to the enhanced fluorescence. Spectral analysis suggests that a nanocone substrate can create more excitons and shorter lifetime in the model fluorophore Rhodamine 6G (R6G) due to plasmon resonance energy transfer from the nanocone substrate to the nearby fluorophore. We observed three-dimensional fluorescence enhancement on our substrate shown from the confocal fluorescence imaging of chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells grown on the substrate. The fluorescence intensity from the fluorophores bound on the cell membrane was amplified more than 100-fold as compared to that on a glass substrate. We believe that strong scattering within the nanostructured area coupled with random scattering inside the cell resulted in the observed three-dimensional enhancement in fluorescence with higher photostability on the substrate surface.

  5. Segmentation of object-based video of gaze communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Forchhammer, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Aspects of video communication based on gaze interaction are considered. The overall idea is to use gaze interaction to control video, e.g. for video conferencing. Towards this goal, animation of a facial mask is demonstrated. The animation is based on images using Active Appearance Models (AAM......). Good quality reproduction of (low-resolution) coded video of an animated facial mask as low as 10-20 kbit/s using MPEG-4 object based video is demonstated....

  6. Authentication Approaches for Standoff Video Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, G.; Sweatt, W.; Thomas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Video surveillance for international nuclear safeguards applications requires authentication, which confirms to an inspector reviewing the surveillance images that both the source and the integrity of those images can be trusted. To date, all such authentication approaches originate at the camera. Camera authentication would not suffice for a ''standoff video'' application, where the surveillance camera views an image piped to it from a distant objective lens. Standoff video might be desired in situations where it does not make sense to expose sensitive and costly camera electronics to contamination, radiation, water immersion, or other adverse environments typical of hot cells, reprocessing facilities, and within spent fuel pools, for example. In this paper, we offer optical architectures that introduce a standoff distance of several metres between the scene and camera. Several schemes enable one to authenticate not only that the extended optical path is secure, but also that the scene is being viewed live. They employ optical components with remotely-operated spectral, temporal, directional, and intensity properties that are under the control of the inspector. If permitted by the facility operator, illuminators, reflectors and polarizers placed in the scene offer further possibilities. Any tampering that would insert an alternative image source for the camera, although undetectable with conventional cryptographic authentication of digital camera data, is easily exposed using the approaches we describe. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-programme laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Support to Sandia National Laboratories provided by the NNSA Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is gratefully acknowledged. SAND2014-3196 A. (author)

  7. Diffusion weighted MR imaging of pancreatic islet cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, Baris; Salmaslioglu, Artur; Poyanli, Arzu; Rozanes, Izzet; Acunas, Bulent

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of our study is to demonstrate the feasibility of body diffusion weighted (DW) MR imaging in the evaluation of pancreatic islet cell tumors (ICTs) and to define apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for these tumors. Materials and methods: 12 normal volunteers and 12 patients with histopathologically proven pancreatic ICT by surgery were included in the study. DW MR images were obtained by a body-phased array coil using a multisection single-shot echo planar sequence on the axial plane without breath holding. In addition, the routine abdominal imaging protocol for pancreas was applied in the patient group. We measured the ADC value within the normal pancreas in control group, pancreatic ICT, and surrounding pancreas parenchyma. Mann-Whitney U-test has been used to compare ADC values between tumoral tissues and normal pancreatic tissues of the volunteers. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test was preferred to compare ADC values between tumoral tissues and surrounding pancreatic parenchyma of the patients. Results: In 11 patients out of 12, conventional MR sequences were able to demonstrate ICTs successfully. In 1 patient an indistinct suspicious lesion was noted at the pancreatic tail. DW sequence was able to demonstrate the lesions in all of the 12 patients. On the DW images, all ICTs demonstrated high signal intensity relative to the surrounding pancreatic parenchyma. The mean and standard deviations of the ADC values (x10 -3 mm 2 /s) were as follows: ICT (n = 12), 1.51 ± 0.35 (0.91-2.11), surrounding parenchyma (n = 11) 0.76 ± 0.15 (0.51-1.01) and normal pancreas in normal volunteers (n = 12), 0.80 ± 0.06 (0.72-0.90). ADC values of the ICT were significantly higher compared with those of surrounding parenchyma (p < 0.01) and normal pancreas (p < 0.001). Conclusion: DW MR imaging does not appear to provide significant contribution to routine MR imaging protocol in the evaluation of pancreatic islet cell tumors. But it can be added to MR imaging

  8. Chemical Imaging of the Cell Membrane by NanoSIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.K.; Kraft, M.L.; Frisz, J.F.; Carpenter, K.J.; Hutcheon, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    The existence of lipid microdomains and their role in cell membrane organization are currently topics of great interest and controversy. The cell membrane is composed of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins that can flow along the two-dimensional surface defined by the membrane. Microdomains, known as lipid rafts, are believed to play a central role in organizing this fluid system, enabling the cell membrane to carry out essential cellular processes, including protein recruitment and signal transduction. Lipid rafts are also implicated in cell invasion by pathogens, as in the case of the HIV. Therefore, understanding the role of lipid rafts in cell membrane organization not only has broad scientific implications, but also has practical implications for medical therapies. One of the major limitations on lipid organization research has been the inability to directly analyze lipid composition without introducing artifacts and at the relevant length-scales of tens to hundreds of nanometers. Fluorescence microscopy is widely used due to its sensitivity and specificity to the labeled species, but only the labeled components can be observed, fluorophores can alter the behavior of the lipids they label, and the length scales relevant to imaging cell membrane domains are between that probed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging (<10 nm) and the diffraction limit of light. Topographical features can be imaged on this length scale by atomic force microscopy (AFM), but the chemical composition of the observed structures cannot be determined. Immuno-labeling can be used to study the distribution of membrane proteins at high resolution, but not lipid composition. We are using imaging mass spectrometry by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in concert with other high resolution imaging methods to overcome these limitations. The experimental approach of this project is to combine molecule-specific stable isotope labeling with high-resolution SIMS using a

  9. Dynamic imaging for CAR-T-cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami-Shahri, Nia; Papa, Sophie

    2016-04-15

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy is entering the mainstream for the treatment of CD19(+)cancers. As is does we learn more about resistance to therapy and the role, risks and management of toxicity. In solid tumour CAR therapy research the route to the clinic is less smooth with a wealth of challenges facing translating this, potentially hugely valuable, therapeutic option for patients. As we strive to understand our successes, and navigate the challenges, having a clear understanding of how adoptively transferred CAR-T-cells behavein vivoand in human trials is invaluable. Harnessing reporter gene imaging to enable detection and tracking of small numbers of CAR-T-cells after adoptive transfer is one way by which we can accomplish this. The compatibility of certain reporter gene systems with tracers available routinely in the clinic makes this approach highly useful for future appraisal of CAR-T-cell success in humans. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  10. Pediatric littoral cell angioma of the spleen: multimodality imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mitchell, Sally [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore (United States); Keefer, Jeffrey [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Hematology, Department of Pediatrics, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare primary splenic vascular tumor originating from littoral cells lining the splenic red pulp sinuses. LCAs are rarely seen in children. We present the US, CT, and MRI findings including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in a 2-year-old boy with histologically proven LCA. Previous studies on liver lesions have shown that DWI allows differentiation of vascular tumors from primary neoplasms and metastatic disease. The current case indicates that increased ADC values within the splenic lesions suggest a vascular etiology, which might help narrow the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Pediatric littoral cell angioma of the spleen: multimodality imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Mitchell, Sally; Keefer, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare primary splenic vascular tumor originating from littoral cells lining the splenic red pulp sinuses. LCAs are rarely seen in children. We present the US, CT, and MRI findings including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in a 2-year-old boy with histologically proven LCA. Previous studies on liver lesions have shown that DWI allows differentiation of vascular tumors from primary neoplasms and metastatic disease. The current case indicates that increased ADC values within the splenic lesions suggest a vascular etiology, which might help narrow the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. In vivo imaging of tumor vascular endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dawen; Stafford, Jason H.; Zhou, Heling; Thorpe, Philip E.

    2013-02-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS), normally restricted to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, becomes exposed on the outer surface of viable (non-apoptotic) endothelial cells in tumor blood vessels, probably in response to oxidative stresses present in the tumor microenvironment. In the present study, we optically imaged exposed PS on tumor vasculature in vivo using PGN635, a novel human monoclonal antibody that targets PS. PGN635 F(ab')2 was labeled with the near infrared (NIR) dye, IRDye 800CW. Human glioma U87 cells or breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were implanted subcutaneously or orthotopically into nude mice. When the tumors reached ~5 mm in diameter, 800CW- PGN635 was injected via a tail vein and in vivo dynamic NIR imaging was performed. For U87 gliomas, NIR imaging allowed clear detection of tumors as early as 4 h later, which improved over time to give a maximal tumor/normal ratio (TNR = 2.9 +/- 0.5) 24 h later. Similar results were observed for orthotopic MDA-MB-231 breast tumors. Localization of 800CW-PGN635 to tumors was antigen specific since 800CW-Aurexis, a control probe of irrelevant specificity, did not localize to the tumors, and pre-administration of unlabeled PGN635 blocked the uptake of 800CW-PGN635. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed that 800CW-PGN635 was binding to PS-positive tumor vascular endothelium. Our studies suggest that tumor vasculature can be successfully imaged in vivo to provide sensitive tumor detection.

  13. Transition from thoracotomy to uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery in non-small cell lung cancer-the Oslo experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamodt, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Thoracoscopic surgery has been applied in medicine for more than 100 years. Still it is only within the last decade that it has gained momentum as a method in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) surgery. Several approaches have been published, one of the more resent being uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). In this article we describe the transition from thoracotomy to uniportal VATS in our institution, the last step to uniportal VATS exemplified with two cases performed during our masterclass held in May 2016.

  14. Imaging Proteolysis by Living Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Sameni

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant progression is accompanied by degradation of extracellular matrix proteins. Here we describe a novel confocal assay in which we can observe proteolysis by living human breast cancer cells (BT20 and BT549 through the use of quenchedfluorescent protein substrates. Degradation thus was imaged, by confocal optical sectioning, as an accumulation of fluorescent products. With the BT20 cells, fluorescence was localized to pericellular focal areas that coincide with pits in the underlying matrix. In contrast, fluorescence was localized to intracellular vesicles in the BT549 cells, vesicles that also label for lysosomal markers. Neither intracellular nor pericellular fluorescence was observed in the BT549 cells in the presence of cytochalasin B, suggesting that degradation occurred intracellularly and was dependent on endocytic uptake of substrate. In the presence of a cathepsin 13-selective cysteine protease inhibitor, intracellular fluorescence was decreased ~90% and pericellular fluorescence decreased 67% to 96%, depending on the protein substrate. Matrix metallo protease inhibitors reduced pericellular fluorescence ~50%, i.e., comparably to a serine and a broad spectrum cysteine protease inhibitor. Our results suggest that: 1 a proteolytic cascade participates in pericellular digestion of matrix proteins by living human breast cancer cells, and 2 the cysteine protease cathepsin B participates in both pericellular and intracellular digestion of matrix proteins by living human breast cancer cells.

  15. Utilising E-on Vue and Unity 3D scenes to generate synthetic images and videos for visible signature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Christopher S.; Richards, Noel J.; Culpepper, Joanne B.

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the ability to develop synthetic scenes in an image generation tool, E-on Vue, and a gaming engine, Unity 3D, which can be used to generate synthetic imagery of target objects across a variety of conditions in land environments. Developments within these tools and gaming engines have allowed the computer gaming industry to dramatically enhance the realism of the games they develop; however they utilise short cuts to ensure that the games run smoothly in real-time to create an immersive effect. Whilst these short cuts may have an impact upon the realism of the synthetic imagery, they do promise a much more time efficient method of developing imagery of different environmental conditions and to investigate the dynamic aspect of military operations that is currently not evaluated in signature analysis. The results presented investigate how some of the common image metrics used in target acquisition modelling, namely the Δμ1, Δμ2, Δμ3, RSS, and Doyle metrics, perform on the synthetic scenes generated by E-on Vue and Unity 3D compared to real imagery of similar scenes. An exploration of the time required to develop the various aspects of the scene to enhance its realism are included, along with an overview of the difficulties associated with trying to recreate specific locations as a virtual scene. This work is an important start towards utilising virtual worlds for visible signature evaluation, and evaluating how equivalent synthetic imagery is to real photographs.

  16. Imaging anatomy of the infraorbital ethmoid cells on multislice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Zhenyu; Qian Xiaojun; Gu Hua; Zhai Renyou

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the anatomic characteristics of the infraorbital ethmoid cells on multislice CT (MSCT) and explore the relationship between the infraobital ethmoid cells and mucosal swelling of sinuses. Methods: Two hundred sixty patients (520 sides) of consecutive axial scans by GE Hispeed VCT and the multiplanar reformation (MPR), virtual endoscopy(VE) reconstruction images by GE AW 4.2 workstation were reviewed retrospectively. The following CT features were assessed: (1) the anatomic characteristics of the infraobital ethmoid cells, including the frequency of identification, origin, classification, (2) presence of mucosal swelling of sinuses, (3) the maximal transversal diameter of the infraobital ethmoid cells in ostium of maxillary sinus (perpendicular to the uncinate process), and the diameter of the ostium of maxillary sinus, (4) presence of infraobital ethmoid cells inflammatory findings and a contact between the mucosal surface of the ostium of maxillary sinus. The results were analyzed by using Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis with the statistical software SPSS 11.5. Results: (1) Unilateral infraobital ethmoid cells were found in 68 patients (26.1%), and bilateral infraobital ethmoid cells were found in 81 patients (31.2%). Infraobital ethmoid cells were found in 230 sides on left side (120 sides) and right side(110 sides). (2)Infraobital ethmoid cells originated from the anterior ethmoid cells in 124 sides (53.9%) and from posterior ethmoidal cells in 62 sides (27%), originated from both the anterior ethmoidal cells and the posterior ethmoidal cells in 44 sides( 19. 1% ). (3)The classification of the infraobital ethmoid cells included three types. Infraobital ethmoid cells with different origination differed significantly in their types (X 2 =193.433, P 2 =1.824, P>0.05). The maximal transversal diameter of the infraobital ethmoid cells in ostium of maxillary sinus did not differ significantly between the cases with or without

  17. Molecular Imaging Of Metabolic Reprogramming In Mutant IDH Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra eViswanath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH have recently been identified as drivers in the development of several tumor types. Most notably, cytosolic IDH1 is mutated in 70-90% of low-grade gliomas and upgraded glioblastomas, and mitochondrial IDH2 is mutated in ~20% of acute myeloid leukemia cases. Wild-type IDH catalyzes the interconversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG. Mutations in the enzyme lead to loss of wild-type enzymatic activity and a neomorphic activity that converts α-KG to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG. In turn, 2-HG, which has been termed an oncometabolite, inhibits key α-KG- dependent enzymes, resulting in alterations of the cellular epigenetic profile and, subsequently, inhibition of differentiation and initiation of tumorigenesis. In addition, it is now clear that the IDH mutation also induces a broad metabolic reprogramming that extends beyond 2-HG production, and this reprogramming often differs from what has been previously reported in other cancer types. In this review we will discuss in detail what is known to date about the metabolic reprogramming of mutant IDH cells and how this reprogramming has been investigated using molecular metabolic imaging. We will describe how metabolic imaging has helped shed light on the basic biology of mutant IDH cells and how this information can be leveraged to identify new therapeutic targets and to develop new clinically translatable imaging methods to detect and monitor mutant IDH tumors in vivo.

  18. Renal cell carcinoma: histological classification and correlation with imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muglia, Valdair F., E-mail: fmuglia@fmrp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CCIFM/FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica. Faculdade de Medicina; Prando, Adilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imaginologia

    2015-05-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. The histological classification of RCCs is of utmost importance, considering the significant prognostic and therapeutic implications of its histological subtypes. Imaging methods play an outstanding role in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of RCC. Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. New strategies recently developed for treating renal cancer, such as cryo and radiofrequency ablation, molecularly targeted therapy and active surveillance also require appropriate preoperative characterization of renal masses. Less common histological types, although sharing nonspecific imaging features, may be suspected on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. The present study is aimed at reviewing the main clinical and imaging findings of histological RCC subtypes. (author)

  19. State of the art in video system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    The closed circuit television (CCTV) system that is onboard the Space Shuttle has the following capabilities: camera, video signal switching and routing unit (VSU); and Space Shuttle video tape recorder. However, this system is inadequate for use with many experiments that require video imaging. In order to assess the state-of-the-art in video technology and data storage systems, a survey was conducted of the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) products. The performance of the state-of-the-art solid state cameras and image sensors, video recording systems, data transmission devices, and data storage systems versus users' requirements are shown graphically.

  20. Photoplethysmography Signal Analysis for Optimal Region-of-Interest Determination in Video Imaging on a Built-In Smartphone under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyoung Nam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones and tablets are widely used in medical fields, which can improve healthcare and reduce healthcare costs. Many medical applications for smartphones and tablets have already been developed and widely used by both health professionals and patients. Specifically, video recordings of fingertips made using a smartphone camera contain a pulsatile component caused by the cardiac pulse equivalent to that present in a photoplethysmographic signal. By performing peak detection on the pulsatile signal, it is possible to estimate a continuous heart rate and a respiratory rate. To estimate the heart rate and respiratory rate accurately, which pixel regions of the color bands give the most optimal signal quality should be investigated. In this paper, we investigate signal quality to determine the best signal quality by the largest amplitude values for three different smartphones under different conditions. We conducted several experiments to obtain reliable PPG signals and compared the PPG signal strength in the three color bands when the flashlight was both on and off. We also evaluated the intensity changes of PPG signals obtained from the smartphones with motion artifacts and fingertip pressure force. Furthermore, we have compared the PSNR of PPG signals of the full-size images with that of the region of interests (ROIs.

  1. Interactive Video, The Next Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, L. R.; Wold-Brennon, R.; Cooper, S. K.; Brinkhuis, D.

    2012-12-01

    Video has the ingredients to reach us emotionally - with amazing images, enthusiastic interviews, music, and video game-like animations-- and it's emotion that motivates us to learn more about our new interest. However, watching video is usually passive. New web-based technology is expanding and enhancing the video experience, creating opportunities to use video with more direct interaction. This talk will look at an Educaton and Outreach team's experience producing video-centric curriculum using innovative interactive media tools from TED-Ed and FlixMaster. The Consortium for Ocean Leadership's Deep Earth Academy has partnered with the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) to send educators and a video producer aboard three deep sea research expeditions to the Juan de Fuca plate to install and service sub-seafloor observatories. This collaboration between teachers, students, scientists and media producers has proved a productive confluence, providing new ways of understanding both ground-breaking science and the process of science itself - by experimenting with new ways to use multimedia during ocean-going expeditions and developing curriculum and other projects post-cruise.

  2. A spectral k-means approach to bright-field cell image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Laura; Wan, Justin W L

    2010-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of bright-field cell images is important to cell biologists, but difficult to complete due to the complex nature of the cells in bright-field images (poor contrast, broken halo, missing boundaries). Standard approaches such as level set segmentation and active contours work well for fluorescent images where cells appear as round shape, but become less effective when optical artifacts such as halo exist in bright-field images. In this paper, we present a robust segmentation method which combines the spectral and k-means clustering techniques to locate cells in bright-field images. This approach models an image as a matrix graph and segment different regions of the image by computing the appropriate eigenvectors of the matrix graph and using the k-means algorithm. We illustrate the effectiveness of the method by segmentation results of C2C12 (muscle) cells in bright-field images.

  3. Untangling cell tracks: Quantifying cell migration by time lapse image data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Carl-Magnus; Medyukhina, Anna; Belyaev, Ivan; Al-Zaben, Naim; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2018-03-01

    Automated microscopy has given researchers access to great amounts of live cell imaging data from in vitro and in vivo experiments. Much focus has been put on extracting cell tracks from such data using a plethora of segmentation and tracking algorithms, but further analysis is normally required to draw biologically relevant conclusions. Such relevant conclusions may be whether the migration is directed or not, whether the population has homogeneous or heterogeneous migration patterns. This review focuses on the analysis of cell migration data that are extracted from time lapse images. We discuss a range of measures and models used to analyze cell tracks independent of the biological system or the way the tracks were obtained. For single-cell migration, we focus on measures and models giving examples of biological systems where they have been applied, for example, migration of bacteria, fibroblasts, and immune cells. For collective migration, we describe the model systems wound healing, neural crest migration, and Drosophila gastrulation and discuss methods for cell migration within these systems. We also discuss the role of the extracellular matrix and subsequent differences between track analysis in vitro and in vivo. Besides methods and measures, we are putting special focus on the need for openly available data and code, as well as a lack of common vocabulary in cell track analysis. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  4. Phase imaging of mechanical properties of live cells (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Adam

    2017-02-01

    The mechanisms by which cells respond to mechanical stimuli are essential for cell function yet not well understood. Many rheological tools have been developed to characterize cellular viscoelastic properties but these typically require direct mechanical contact, limiting their throughput. We have developed a new approach for characterizing the organization of subcellular structures using a label free, noncontact, single-shot phase imaging method that correlates to measured cellular mechanical stiffness. The new analysis approach measures refractive index variance and relates it to disorder strength. These measurements are compared to cellular stiffness, measured using the same imaging tool to visualize nanoscale responses to flow shear stimulus. The utility of the technique is shown by comparing shear stiffness and phase disorder strength across five cellular populations with varying mechanical properties. An inverse relationship between disorder strength and shear stiffness is shown, suggesting that cell mechanical properties can be assessed in a format amenable to high throughput studies using this novel, non-contact technique. Further studies will be presented which include examination of mechanical stiffness in early carcinogenic events and investigation of the role of specific cellular structural proteins in mechanotransduction.

  5. Evaluation of microvascular endothelial function in patients with infective endocarditis using laser speckle contrast imaging and skin video-capillaroscopy: research proposal of a case control prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Amanda; Lamas, Cristiane; Tibiriça, Eduardo

    2017-07-28

    Infective endocarditis is a severe condition with high in-hospital and 5-year mortality. There is increasing incidence of infective endocarditis, which may be related to healthcare and changes in prophylaxis recommendations regarding oral procedures. Few studies have evaluated the microcirculation in patients with infective endocarditis, and so far, none have utilized laser-based technology or evaluated functional capillary density. The aim of the study is to evaluate the changes in the systemic microvascular bed of patients with both acute and subacute endocarditis. This is a cohort study that will include adult patients with confirmed active infective endocarditis according to the modified Duke criteria who were admitted to our center for treatment. A control group of sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers will be included. Functional capillary density, which is defined as the number of spontaneously perfused capillaries per square millimeter of skin, will be assessed by video-microscopy with an epi-illuminated fiber optic microscope. Capillary recruitment will be evaluated using post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. Microvascular flow will be evaluated in the forearm using a laser speckle contrast imaging system for the noninvasive and continuous measurement of cutaneous microvascular perfusion changes. Laser speckle contrast imaging will be used in combination with skin iontophoresis of acetylcholine, an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, or sodium nitroprusside (endothelium independent) to test microvascular reactivity. The present study will contribute to the investigation of microcirculatory changes in infective endocarditis and possibly lead to an earlier diagnosis of the condition and/or determination of its severity and complications. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02940340.

  6. Imaging in cell-based therapy for neurodegenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirik, Deniz; Breysse, Nathalie; Bjoerklund, Tomas; Besret, Laurent; Hantraye, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Fetal cell transplantation for the treatment of Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases has been developed over the past two decades and is now in early clinical testing phase. Direct assessment of the graft's survival, integration into the host brain and impact on neuronal functions requires advanced in vivo neuroimaging techniques. Owing to its high sensitivity, positron emission tomography is today the most widely used tool to evaluate the viability and function of the transplanted tissue in the brain. Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are opening new possibilities for imaging neurochemical events in the brain. The ultimate goal will be to use the combination of multiple imaging modalities for complete functional monitoring of the repair processes in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of Teratoma Formation between Embryonic Stem Cells and Parthenogenetic Embryonic Stem Cells by Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With their properties of self-renewal and differentiation, embryonic stem (ES cells hold great promises for regenerative therapy. However, teratoma formation and ethical concerns of ES cells may restrict their potential clinical applications. Currently, parthenogenetic embryonic stem (pES cells have attracted the interest of researchers for its self-renewing and pluripotent differentiation while eliciting less ethic concerns. In this study, we established a model with ES and pES cells both stably transfected with a double-fusion reporter gene containing renilla luciferase (Rluc and red fluorescent protein (RFP to analyze the mechanisms of teratoma formation. Transgenic Vegfr2-luc mouse, which expresses firefly luciferase (Fluc under the promoter of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (Vegfr2-luc, was used to trace the growth of new blood vessel recruited by transplanted cells. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI of Rluc/Fluc provides an effective tool in estimating the growth and angiogenesis of teratoma in vivo. We found that the tumorigenesis and angiogenesis capacity of ES cells were higher than those of pES cells, in which VEGF/VEGFR2 signal pathway plays an important role. In conclusion, pES cells have the decreased potential of teratoma formation but meanwhile have similar differentiating capacity compared with ES cells. These data demonstrate that pES cells provide an alternative source for ES cells with the risk reduction of teratoma formation and without ethical controversy.

  8. Smoking in Video Games: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, SR; Malone, RE

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Video games are played by a majority of adolescents, yet little is known about whether and how video games are associated with smoking behavior and attitudes. This systematic review examines research on the relationship between video games and smoking. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, psycINFO, and Web of Science through August 20, 2014. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were synthesized qualitatively in four domains: the prevalence and incidence of smoking imager...

  9. Quantification and recognition of parkinsonian gait from monocular video imaging using kernel-based principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shih-Wei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The computer-aided identification of specific gait patterns is an important issue in the assessment of Parkinson's disease (PD. In this study, a computer vision-based gait analysis approach is developed to assist the clinical assessments of PD with kernel-based principal component analysis (KPCA. Method Twelve PD patients and twelve healthy adults with no neurological history or motor disorders within the past six months were recruited and separated according to their "Non-PD", "Drug-On", and "Drug-Off" states. The participants were asked to wear light-colored clothing and perform three walking trials through a corridor decorated with a navy curtain at their natural pace. The participants' gait performance during the steady-state walking period was captured by a digital camera for gait analysis. The collected walking image frames were then transformed into binary silhouettes for noise reduction and compression. Using the developed KPCA-based method, the features within the binary silhouettes can be extracted to quantitatively determine the gait cycle time, stride length, walking velocity, and cadence. Results and Discussion The KPCA-based method uses a feature-extraction approach, which was verified to be more effective than traditional image area and principal component analysis (PCA approaches in classifying "Non-PD" controls and "Drug-Off/On" PD patients. Encouragingly, this method has a high accuracy rate, 80.51%, for recognizing different gaits. Quantitative gait parameters are obtained, and the power spectrums of the patients' gaits are analyzed. We show that that the slow and irregular actions of PD patients during walking tend to transfer some of the power from the main lobe frequency to a lower frequency band. Our results indicate the feasibility of using gait performance to evaluate the motor function of patients with PD. Conclusion This KPCA-based method requires only a digital camera and a decorated corridor setup

  10. NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, David H.; Moeller, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    A method is described for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. NMR images the 3D thermal dynamics inside ex vivo bovine brain tissue and equivalent gel under exposure to power and irradiation time-varying radio frequency (RF) fields. The absorbed RF energy in brain tissue converts into Joule heat and affects the nuclear magnetic shielding and the Larmor precession. The resultant temperature increase is measured by the resonance frequency shift of hydrogen protons in brain tissue. This proposed application of NMR thermometry offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the hot spots from absorbed cell phone radiation in aqueous media and biological tissues. Specific absorption rate measurements averaged over 1 mg and 10 s in the brain tissue cover the total absorption volume. Reference measurements with fiber optic temperature sensors confirm the accuracy of the NMR thermometry. PMID:23248293

  11. Video auto stitching in multicamera surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Qifang; Li, Yangyang

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns the problem of video stitching automatically in a multi-camera surveillance system. Previous approaches have used multiple calibrated cameras for video mosaic in large scale monitoring application. In this work, we formulate video stitching as a multi-image registration and blending problem, and not all cameras are needed to be calibrated except a few selected master cameras. SURF is used to find matched pairs of image key points from different cameras, and then camera pose is estimated and refined. Homography matrix is employed to calculate overlapping pixels and finally implement boundary resample algorithm to blend images. The result of simulation demonstrates the efficiency of our method.

  12. Video image analysis in the Australian meat industry - precision and accuracy of predicting lean meat yield in lamb carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D L; Safari, E; Thompson, J M; Smith, C R

    2004-06-01

    A wide selection of lamb types of mixed sex (ewes and wethers) were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir and during this process images of 360 carcasses were obtained online using the VIAScan® system developed by Meat and Livestock Australia. Soft tissue depth at the GR site (thickness of tissue over the 12th rib 110 mm from the midline) was measured by an abattoir employee using the AUS-MEAT sheep probe (PGR). Another measure of this thickness was taken in the chiller using a GR knife (NGR). Each carcass was subsequently broken down to a range of trimmed boneless retail cuts and the lean meat yield determined. The current industry model for predicting meat yield uses hot carcass weight (HCW) and tissue depth at the GR site. A low level of accuracy and precision was found when HCW and PGR were used to predict lean meat yield (R(2)=0.19, r.s.d.=2.80%), which could be improved markedly when PGR was replaced by NGR (R(2)=0.41, r.s.d.=2.39%). If the GR measures were replaced by 8 VIAScan® measures then greater prediction accuracy could be achieved (R(2)=0.52, r.s.d.=2.17%). A similar result was achieved when the model was based on principal components (PCs) computed from the 8 VIAScan® measures (R(2)=0.52, r.s.d.=2.17%). The use of PCs also improved the stability of the model compared to a regression model based on HCW and NGR. The transportability of the models was tested by randomly dividing the data set and comparing coefficients and the level of accuracy and precision. Those models based on PCs were superior to those based on regression. It is demonstrated that with the appropriate modeling the VIAScan® system offers a workable method for predicting lean meat yield automatically.

  13. Development of P4140 video data wall projector; Video data wall projector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H.; Inoue, H. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The P4140 is a 3 cathode-ray tube (CRT) video data wall projector for super video graphics array (SVGA) signals. It is used as an image display unit, providing a large screen when several sets are put together. A high-quality picture has been realized by higher resolution and improved color uniformity technology. A new convergence adjustment system has also been developed through the optimal combination of digital and analog technologies. This video data wall installation has been greatly enhanced by the automation of cubes and cube performance settings. The P4140 video data wall projector can be used for displaying not only data but video as well. (author)

  14. Segmentation of Pollen Tube Growth Videos Using Dynamic Bi-Modal Fusion and Seam Carving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Asongu L; Bhanu, Bir

    2016-05-01

    The growth of pollen tubes is of significant interest in plant cell biology, as it provides an understanding of internal cell dynamics that affect observable structural characteristics such as cell diameter, length, and growth rate. However, these parameters can only be measured in experimental videos if the complete shape of the cell is known. The challenge is to accurately obtain the cell boundary in noisy video images. Usually, these measurements are performed by a scientist who manually draws regions-of-interest on the images displayed on a computer screen. In this paper, a new automated technique is presented for boundary detection by fusing fluorescence and brightfield images, and a new efficient method of obtaining the final cell boundary through the process of Seam Carving is proposed. This approach takes advantage of the nature of the fusion process and also the shape of the pollen tube to efficiently search for the optimal cell boundary. In video segmentation, the first two frames are used to initialize the segmentation process by creating a search space based on a parametric model of the cell shape. Updates to the search space are performed based on the location of past segmentations and a prediction of the next segmentation.Experimental results show comparable accuracy to a previous method, but significant decrease in processing time. This has the potential for real time applications in pollen tube microscopy.

  15. PVR system design of advanced video navigation reinforced with audible sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerenberg, O.; Aarts, R.; De With, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced video navigation concept for Personal Video Recording (PVR), based on jointly using the primary image and a Picture-in-Picture (PiP) image, featuring combined rendering of normal-play video fragments with audio and fast-search video. The hindering loss of audio during

  16. Silica nanoparticle-based dual imaging colloidal hybrids: cancer cell imaging and biodistribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Haisung Lee,1 Dongkyung Sung,2 Jinhoon Kim,3 Byung-Tae Kim,3 Tuntun Wang,4 Seong Soo A An,5 Soo-Won Seo,6 Dong Kee Yi4 1Molecular Diagnostics, In Vitro Diagnostics Unit, New Business Division, SK Telecom, 2Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Korea University, 3Interdisciplinary Graduate Program of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Samsung Medical Center, 4Department of Chemistry, Myongji University, Seoul, 5Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Seongnam, 6Medical Device Development Center, Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation, Daegu, Republic of Korea Abstract: In this study, fluorescent dye-conjugated magnetic resonance (MR imaging agents were investigated in T mode. Gadolinium-conjugated silica nanoparticles were successfully synthesized for both MR imaging and fluorescence diagnostics. Polyamine and polycarboxyl functional groups were modified chemically on the surface of the silica nanoparticles for efficient conjugation of gadolinium ions. The derived gadolinium-conjugated silica nanoparticles were investigated by zeta potential analysis, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. MR equipment was used to investigate their use as contrast-enhancing agents in T1 mode under a 9.4 T magnetic field. In addition, we tracked the distribution of the gadolinium-conjugated nanoparticles in both lung cancer cells and organs in mice. Keywords: dual bioimaging, MR imaging, silica colloid, T1 contrast imaging, nanohybrid

  17. Indexed Captioned Searchable Videos: A Learning Companion for STEM Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Tayfun; Subhlok, Jaspal; Barker, Lecia; Shah, Shishir; Johnson, Olin; Hovey, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Videos of classroom lectures have proven to be a popular and versatile learning resource. A key shortcoming of the lecture video format is accessing the content of interest hidden in a video. This work meets this challenge with an advanced video framework featuring topical indexing, search, and captioning (ICS videos). Standard optical character recognition (OCR) technology was enhanced with image transformations for extraction of text from video frames to support indexing and search. The images and text on video frames is analyzed to divide lecture videos into topical segments. The ICS video player integrates indexing, search, and captioning in video playback providing instant access to the content of interest. This video framework has been used by more than 70 courses in a variety of STEM disciplines and assessed by more than 4000 students. Results presented from the surveys demonstrate the value of the videos as a learning resource and the role played by videos in a students learning process. Survey results also establish the value of indexing and search features in a video platform for education. This paper reports on the development and evaluation of ICS videos framework and over 5 years of usage experience in several STEM courses.

  18. Automated Quantification of Hematopoietic Cell – Stromal Cell Interactions in Histological Images of Undecalcified Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehentmeier, Sandra; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Escribano Navarro, Juan; Niesner, Raluca A.; Hauser, Anja E.

    2015-01-01

    Confocal microscopy is the method of choice for the analysis of localization of multiple cell types within complex tissues such as the bone marrow. However, the analysis and quantification of cellular localization is difficult, as in many cases it relies on manual counting, thus bearing the risk of introducing a rater-dependent bias and reducing interrater reliability. Moreover, it is often difficult to judge whether the co-localization between two cells results from random positioning, especially when cell types differ strongly in the frequency of their occurrence. Here, a method for unbiased quantification of cellular co-localization in the bone marrow is introduced. The protocol describes the sample preparation used to obtain histological sections of whole murine long bones including the bone marrow, as well as the staining protocol and the acquisition of high-resolution images. An analysis workflow spanning from the recognition of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types in 2-dimensional (2D) bone marrow images to the quantification of the direct contacts between those cells is presented. This also includes a neighborhood analysis, to obtain information about the cellular microenvironment surrounding a certain cell type. In order to evaluate whether co-localization of two cell types is the mere result of random cell positioning or reflects preferential associations between the cells, a simulation tool which is suitable for testing this hypothesis in the case of hematopoietic as well as stromal cells, is used. This approach is not limited to the bone marrow, and can be extended to other tissues to permit reproducible, quantitative analysis of histological data. PMID:25938636

  19. Preprocessing with Photoshop Software on Microscopic Images of A549 Cells in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhou-Xin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Shen, Jun-Ling; Li, Ya; Li, Jian-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    To establish a preprocessing method for cell morphometry in microscopic images of A549 cells in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Adobe Photoshop CS2 (Adobe Systems, Inc.) was used for preprocessing the images. First, all images were processed for size uniformity and high distinguishability between the cell and background area. Then, a blank image with the same size and grids was established and cross points of the grids were added into a distinct color. The blank image was merged into a processed image. In the merged images, the cells with 1 or more cross points were chosen, and then the cell areas were enclosed and were replaced in a distinct color. Except for chosen cellular areas, all areas were changed into a unique hue. Three observers quantified roundness of cells in images with the image preprocess (IPP) or without the method (Controls), respectively. Furthermore, 1 observer measured the roundness 3 times with the 2 methods, respectively. The results between IPPs and Controls were compared for repeatability and reproducibility. As compared with the Control method, among 3 observers, use of the IPP method resulted in a higher number and a higher percentage of same-chosen cells in an image. The relative average deviation values of roundness, either for 3 observers or 1 observer, were significantly higher in Controls than in IPPs (p Photoshop, a chosen cell from an image was more objective, regular, and accurate, creating an increase of reproducibility and repeatability on morphometry of A549 cells in epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

  20. Glyph-Based Video Visualization for Semen Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Duffy, Brian

    2015-08-01

    © 2013 IEEE. The existing efforts in computer assisted semen analysis have been focused on high speed imaging and automated image analysis of sperm motility. This results in a large amount of data, and it is extremely challenging for both clinical scientists and researchers to interpret, compare and correlate the multidimensional and time-varying measurements captured from video data. In this work, we use glyphs to encode a collection of numerical measurements taken at a regular interval and to summarize spatio-temporal motion characteristics using static visual representations. The design of the glyphs addresses the needs for (a) encoding some 20 variables using separable visual channels, (b) supporting scientific observation of the interrelationships between different measurements and comparison between different sperm cells and their flagella, and (c) facilitating the learning of the encoding scheme by making use of appropriate visual abstractions and metaphors. As a case study, we focus this work on video visualization for computer-aided semen analysis, which has a broad impact on both biological sciences and medical healthcare. We demonstrate that glyph-based visualization can serve as a means of external memorization of video data as well as an overview of a large set of spatiotemporal measurements. It enables domain scientists to make scientific observation in a cost-effective manner by reducing the burden of viewing videos repeatedly, while providing them with a new visual representation for conveying semen statistics.