WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell german patent

  1. Patentability of Parthenogenic Stem Cells: International Stem Cell Corporation v. Comptroller General of Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansnérus, Juli

    2015-06-01

    The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has recently issued a ruling in Case C-364/13 International Stem Cell Corporation v. Comptroller General of Patents Designs and Tademarks (Case) that aims at harmonising the patenting practices regarding interpretation of Article 6.2.c of Directive 98/44/EC (Biotech Patent Directive) in respect of patentability of human parthenogenic stem cells (hpSCs). The Case alters the patenting regime for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) applications, by stating that moral restrictions against hESC-patents are only applicable to such cells derived from embryos that had the potential to develop into a human being. Consequently, hpSC-based inventions may be patentable in Europe. This Case represents a leap forward to striking a balance between protecting human dignity and integrity whilst granting patent incentives for biomedical research.

  2. Human embryonic stem cells and patent protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Sanja M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of biotechnological research in modern diagnostics and therapeutics, on the one hand, and stimulative function of a patent, on the other hand, this work deals with the question of the possibility of pa-tent protection of human embryonic stem cells. Taking into account that this is a biotechnological invention, the key question that this paper highlights is the interpretation of the provisions of their patentability. Namely, thanks to the advanced methods of isolation, purification and preparation for implementation, modern patent systems do not exclude a priori living organisms from patent protection. Therefore, the analysis of representative administrative decisions or court rulings sought to define the criteria that would be applied in order to give patent protection to a certain biotechnological invention (stem cells while others do not.

  3. A comparative analysis of the explanatory power of accounting and patent information for the market values of German firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ramb, Fred; Reitzig, Markus

    2004-01-01

    We present a theoretical and empirical analysis of the fitness of national German (German Commercial Code – Handelsgesetzbuch (HGB)) and international (IAS and US-GAAP) accounting information, as well as European patent data to explain the market values of German manufacturing firms. For the chosen volatile period from 1997 to 2002, cautious national accounting information does not correlate with the firms’ residual market values (RMV). International accounting information make...

  4. The ethics of patenting human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-09-01

    Just as human embryonic stem cell research has generated controversy about the uses of human embryos for research and therapeutic applications, human embryonic stem cell patents raise fundamental ethical issues. The United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted foundational patents, including a composition of matter (or product) patent to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), the University of Wisconsin-Madison's intellectual property office. In contrast, the European Patent Office rejected the same WARF patent application for ethical reasons. This article assesses the appropriateness of these patents placing the discussion in the context of the deontological and consequentialist ethical issues related to human embryonic stem cell patenting. It advocates for a patent system that explicitly takes ethical factors into account and explores options for new types of intellectual property arrangements consistent with ethical concerns.

  5. The stem cell patent landscape as relevant to cancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-10-01

    Cancer vaccine targeting cancer stem cells is proposed to serve as a potent immunotherapy. Thus, it would be useful to examine the main trends in stem cell patenting activity as a guide for those seeking to develop such cancer vaccines. We found that a substantial number of stem cell patents were granted up to the end of 2010, including ~2000 issued in the US. Many of these have been filed since 2001, including 7,551 applications in the US. Stem cell development, as evidenced by the numbers of PubMed articles, has matured steadily in recent years. However, the other metrics, such as the number of patent applications, the technology-science linkage and the number of patent assignees, have been stagnant. Moreover, the ownership of stem cell patents is still quiet fragmented across multiple organizations, and the number of stem cell patent assignees from the business sector has not increased significantly. Academic and nonprofit institutions not only account for a large share of stem cell patents but also apply for patents continually. Based on this analysis, the strength of stem cell resources seems to remain stagnant in recent years due to the ban on government funding of embryonic stem cell research. Furthermore, the patent prosecution or technical barriers in the field of stem cells would be another main reason that the number of US-issued stem cell patents for each application have been in gradual decline since 2000. Therefore, we consider stem cell technology to still be under development.

  6. Patenting human stem cells: an urgent need for a clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2008-09-01

    Patenting human stem cells has become one of the most controversial issues of the bioethics field at the beginning of the XXIst century, at least in industrial countries. This article relates the story of the long legal adventure that preceded the ruling of the Warf case by the Enlarged board of appeal of the European Patent Office on 25th November 2008.

  7. Global patent landscape of programmed cell death 1: implications of the rapid expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangjun; Zhang, Qianru; Lai, Yunfeng; Hu, Hao; Chen, Xin; Hu, Yuanjia

    2018-01-01

    Inhibitors of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands are producing a paradigm shift in cancer treatment. The promising clinical outcomes and a multi-billion dollar market have prompted active research and development and resulted in relentless patent protection. However, the global patent landscape in this field remains unclear. Areas covered: The patent landscape encompassing global patenting activities and developing trends in the field is discussed based on a data set of 1287 patent families. Patenting activities have expanded rapidly in the past three years. Specific trends in relevant aspects are presented, including patent filing countries, patent ownership, co-patents, technical areas, and technological connections in terms of patent citation relationships. Expert opinion: Together with patenting momentum in recent years, fragmented ownership and dense technological connections of PD-1-related inventions raise the possibility of a patent thicket. The explosion of patent applications and complex citation relationships could also lead to considerable patent conflicts and disputes on overlapping intellectual property rights, in addition to existing legal uncertainties. Patent applicants in this field are encouraged to be aware of these concerns when developing valid patent strategies.

  8. From human genes to stem cells: new challenges for patent law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy A

    2003-03-01

    The social controversies that have surrounded human cloning and the use of embryos for research purposes might create unique patent issues for stem cell researchers. Policy makers should learn from the legal and ethical concerns associated with human gene patents and develop coherent patent policies that recognize and clearly address emerging social controversies.

  9. Revocation of European patent for neural progenitors highlights patent challenges for inventions relating to human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Cells derived from human embryonic stem cells have great therapeutic potential. Patents are key to allowing companies that develop methods of generating such cells to recuperate their investment. However, in Europe, inventions relating to the use of human embryos for commercial purposes are excluded from patentability on moral grounds. The scope of this morality exclusion was recently tested before Germany's highest court and before the European Patent Office (EPO), with diverging results. The decision by the EPO's Opposition Division to revoke EP1040185 relating to neural precursors and methods for their generation has received a mixed reception. The decision has very recently been appealed, and the outcome of this Appeal should provide more definitive guidance on the scope of the morality exclusion.

  10. Human induced pluripotent stem cells: a review of the US patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Bilyana P; Love, Jane M

    2010-07-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and human embryonic stem cells are cells that have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Embryonic stem cells are derived from human embryos; however, by contrast, human iPS cells can be obtained from somatic cells that have undergone a process of 'reprogramming' via genetic manipulation such that they develop pluripotency. Since iPS cells are not derived from human embryos, they are a less complicated source of human pluripotent cells and are considered valuable research tools and potentially useful in therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine. Worldwide, there are only three issued patents concerning iPS cells. Therefore, the patent landscape in this field is largely undefined. This article provides an overview of the issued patents as well as the pending published patent applications in the field.

  11. Interfacing of science, medicine and law: The stem cell patent controversy in the United States and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya eDavey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The patent eligibility of stem cells – particularly those derived from human embryos – has long been under debate in both the scientific and legal communities. On the basis of moral grounds, the European Patent Office (EPO has refrained from granting patents for stem cells obtained through the destruction of human embryos. On the contrary, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO has historically granted patents regarding the isolation and use of human embryonic and other stem cells. To date, these US patents remain valid despite an increasing onslaught of challenges in court. However, recent precedents established in US courts significantly narrow the scope of patent eligibility within biotechnology. This article compares the implications of recent legal changes on stem cell patent eligibility between the EU and US.

  12. Stem cells and differentiation--a synoptic review of patents granted since 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Poornima; Srinivasan, Sureshkumar Perumal; Natarajan, Karthick; Gaspar, John Antonydas; Hescheler, Jürgen; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2015-06-01

    Innovations in human pluripotent stem cell research and their application in therapeutics have seen a giant leap in the past decade. Patent applications related to human pluripotent stem cell generation, culture and differentiation show an ever-increasing trend worldwide with hundreds of patents being applied for every year. With the turn of the second decade in stem cell patenting, a review of the latest patents issued will be significant. The growing need in healthcare sector has revolutionized stem cell application in clinical therapeutics by extending in unprecedented dimensions. With the potential of being able to differentiate into any desired adult cell lineage, human pluripotent stem cells find a wide range of applicability in clinical as well as cosmetic therapy. Moreover, the recent innovation of isolating a disease-specific pluripotent stem cell has opened new horizons to stem cell application in cell therapy. This review gives an overview of significant international patents granted on innovations in human pluripotent stem cell differentiation methodologies between 2009 and 2014. The discovery of human pluripotent stem cells and their immense potential in clinical therapeutics has increasingly channeled scientific research in their orientation. Although being widely used to fathom human physiology, the trend in stem cell application is slowly shifting toward disease-modeling, drug safety evaluation and toxicity-testing. And in order to probe those unexplored realms of stem cell applications, a unified approach from the scientific community is imperative.

  13. The Evolution of the CJEU’s Case Law on Stem Cell Patents:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    In its judgment in International Stem Cell Corporation v Comptroller General of Patents (ISCO) rendered on 18th December 2014, the CJEU qualified its’ earlier ruling in Brüstle v. Greenpeace (Brüstle) with regard to non-fertilised human ovums stimulated by parthenogenesis. The Court held that in ......In its judgment in International Stem Cell Corporation v Comptroller General of Patents (ISCO) rendered on 18th December 2014, the CJEU qualified its’ earlier ruling in Brüstle v. Greenpeace (Brüstle) with regard to non-fertilised human ovums stimulated by parthenogenesis. The Court held...... since it provides a reasonable and ethically justifiable leeway for patenting. This offers much needed support to the commercial viability of cell therapy research in Europe. Yet, ISCO only applies to certain hESC cells, and further clarifications would be helpful with regard to other non-totipotent hESCs....

  14. Modern evaluation of patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    The number of patents is not so important as the market value. The market value is especially important for licensing of patents, make-or-buy decisions for technology procurement, corporate finance. Patents can be used as collateral for financing. Patents and credit approvals: without patents only 46% and with patents 54%. The value share of knowledge-based components to industrial products already reached 50% and it is still rising. OECD called these developments under the slogan "knowledge economy”. German Norm-DIN 77100 provides a working method for monetary evaluation of a patent. The value of a patent arises from its use. A patent can be used to protect or to earn licensing revenues. An evaluation expertise is required in areas, such as marketing, finance, R & D and strategic planning. As an indicator of the value of a patent is often used the number of citations. The number of a patent citation refers to its meaning and value. Other indicators would be: size of the patent family, validity of the patent, result of objections against patent application, number and quality of claims. The analysis of 9.000 patents resulted that only 7.2% worth over 10 million euro and 68% below 1 million euro. The cost method: it is considered the cost that would be incurred for the development and patenting of a similar invention. The market method: are used the prices that have been achieved in comparable with recently transactions. The Income method: the potential reward is measured, which can arise from a patent. The evaluation will be in the following areas: legal status, technology, market conditions, finance and strategy. Each question relates to a different parameter of a value.

  15. Patent eligibility of stem cells in Europe: where do we stand after 8 years of case law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Ulrich; Faltus, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Since 2006, some of the highest ranking European Courts have issued decisions related to the patent eligibility of human embryonic stem cells. The question of patent eligibility of human embryonic stem cells remains, however, still erratic, at least in some aspects. This article will give a short comprehensive overview of the case history, and discuss questions still unsolved.

  16. The German hydrogen and fuel cell community. Successes and failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canzler, Weert; Marz, Lutz [Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin fuer Sozialforschung gGmbH (WZB), Berlin (Germany); Galich, Ante [Luxembourg Univ. (Luxembourg). Faculty of Languages and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the German Federal Government made the consequential decision to change its energy program. This not only as a result of the decision to shut down the existing nuclear power plants within the next few years, but also due to vital challenges like climate change and security of energy supply. The shift in the energy-technology paradigm from fossil fuel technologies to regenerative energies constitutes a major technical process but also new economic and social constellations. This paper focuses on hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in Germany. The institutional set up in this field is analysed and the new organizational actors are identified who have actively lobbied towards a political consensus. However, the experts in this field could not attain the required leadership in the public discourse on these technologies. It seems that an attractive guiding vision of a post-fossil energy future and a broad acceptance in daily use would have been major prerequisites for such leadership. (orig.)

  17. Ways Out of the Patenting Prohibition? Human Parthenogenetic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickl, Hannah; Braun, Matthias; Dabrock, Peter

    2017-06-01

    According to the judgement of the European Court of Justice in 2014, human parthenogenetic stem cells are excluded from the patenting prohibition of procedures based on hESC by the European Biopatent Directive, because human parthenotes are not human embryos. This article is based on the thesis that in light of the technological advances in the field of stem cell research, the attribution of the term 'human embryo' to certain entities on a descriptive level as well as the attribution of a normative protection status to certain entities based on the criterion of totipotency, are becoming increasingly unclear. The example of human parthenotes in particular demonstrates that totipotency is not at all a necessary condition for the attribution of the term 'human embryo'. Furthermore, the example of hiPSC and somatic cells particularly shows that totipotency is also not a sufficient condition for the attribution of a normative protection status to certain entities. Therefore, it is not a suitable criterion for distinguishing between human embryos worthy of protection and human non-embryos not worthy of protection. Consequently, this conclusion has repercussions for the patenting question. The strict delineation between an ethically problematic commercial use of human embryos and the concomitant patenting prohibition of hESC-based procedures and an ethically unproblematic commercial use of human non-embryos and the therefore either unrestrictedly permitted (cf. human parthenotes) or even unregulated (cf. hiPSC) patenting of procedures based on these alleged alternatives becomes increasingly blurred. © 2017 The Authors. Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Dendritic-cell-based technology landscape: Insights from patents and citation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangjun; Hu, Yuanjia; Cai, Zhifang; Yang, Fengqing; Zhang, Qianru

    2015-01-01

    As the most potent antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) are pivotal players in regulating immune responses. DC-based technologies have generated a series of typical and promising therapeutic options, especially after the first DC-based cancer vaccine was approved by US. Food and Drug Administration (US. FDA). In this context, this paper employs patents and citation networks to conduct a fundamental analysis in order to show overall landscape of DC-based technologies. The results in this research can be used as references for decision-making in developing efficacious DC therapeutic products. PMID:25714961

  19. Patents as instruments for exploring innovation dynamics: Different perspectives on "photovoltaic cells"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Alkemade, F.; Heimeriks, G.; Noyons, E.

    2014-01-01

    Patents are framed in different contexts: in addition to being among the outputs of the production system of knowledge, patents can also serve as input to the economic process of innovation. Furthermore, intellectual property in patents is legally regulated, for example, in national patent offices.

  20. A Subpopulation of Smooth Muscle Cells, Derived from Melanocyte-Competent Precursors, Prevents Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Isabel; Champeval, Delphine; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Belloir, Elodie; Bonaventure, Jacky; Mark, Manuel; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Taketo, Mark M.; Choquet, Philippe; Etchevers, Heather C.; Beermann, Friedrich; Delmas, Véronique; Monassier, Laurent; Larue, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    Background Patent ductus arteriosus is a life-threatening condition frequent in premature newborns but also present in some term infants. Current mouse models of this malformation generally lead to perinatal death, not reproducing the full phenotypic spectrum in humans, in whom genetic inheritance appears complex. The ductus arteriosus (DA), a temporary fetal vessel that bypasses the lungs by shunting the aortic arch to the pulmonary artery, is constituted by smooth muscle cells of distinct origins (SMC1 and SMC2) and many fewer melanocytes. To understand novel mechanisms preventing DA closure at birth, we evaluated the importance of cell fate specification in SMC that form the DA during embryonic development. Upon specific Tyr::Cre-driven activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling at the time of cell fate specification, melanocytes replaced the SMC2 population of the DA, suggesting that SMC2 and melanocytes have a common precursor. The number of SMC1 in the DA remained similar to that in controls, but insufficient to allow full DA closure at birth. Thus, there was no cellular compensation by SMC1 for the loss of SMC2. Mice in which only melanocytes were genetically ablated after specification from their potential common precursor with SMC2, demonstrated that differentiated melanocytes themselves do not affect DA closure. Loss of the SMC2 population, independent of the presence of melanocytes, is therefore a cause of patent ductus arteriosus and premature death in the first months of life. Our results indicate that patent ductus arteriosus can result from the insufficient differentiation, proliferation, or contractility of a specific smooth muscle subpopulation that shares a common neural crest precursor with cardiovascular melanocytes. PMID:23382837

  1. Patents on inventions related to human embryonic stem cells: the morality clause after Brüstle v. Greenpeace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panis, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    This paper analyses the meaning of Article 6, para. 2, sub c of the Biotechnology Directive prohibiting patents on inventions using human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes. It first examines the evolution ofthe Court of Justice ofthe EU's interpretation of this provision (which is part of the morality clause) and focuses on its most recent decision, Brüstle v. Greenpeace. This is considered a landmark case for three reasons: firstly, because it defines for the first time the term "embryo" in patent law; secondly, because it is the Court of Justice (and not EPO) that ruled on patent law; the third reason is its very broad interpretation of the morality exclusion. The exclusion is no longer limited to embryos but is extended to (even banked) embryonic stem cells and all downstream products made with them. It then looks into the consequences for the patentability of inventions using cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, such as Brüstle's invention. The recent decision by Germany's Federal Court of Justice on the validity of Brüstle's patent emphasises the limited influence on the patentability of those inventions. After that, the paper addresses possible cuts in funding stem cell research and even legislative bans of this type of research. This is followed by an evaluation of the existence and content of the morality exclusion. After a comparative analysis with the US, which is lacking in such morality exclusion, the paper concludes that the morality clause as a whole paid its dues but the provision on the use of human embryos is questionable as there is no European consensus against the use of human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes.

  2. Recent Patents Pertaining to Immune Modulation and Musculoskeletal Regeneration with Wharton's Jelly Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detamore, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UCMSCs) are isolated from Wharton's jelly in the umbilical cord at birth, and offer advantages over adult mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) such as highly efficient isolation, faster proliferation in vitro, a broader differentiation potential, and non-invasive harvesting procedure. Their expansion and differentiation potential renders them a promising cell source for tissue engineering and clinical applications. This review discusses recent updates on the differentiation strategies for musculoskeletal tissue engineering including cartilage, bone, and muscle. In addition to tissue engineering applications, UCMSCs can be utilized to support hematopoiesis and modulate immune response. We review the patents relevant to the application of MSCs including UCMSCs in hematopoiesis and immune modulation. Finally, the current hurdles in the clinical translation of UCMSCs are discussed. During clinical translation, it is critical to develop large-scale manufacturing of UCMSCs as well as the composition of expansion and differentiation media. Four clinical trials to date have examined the safety and efficacy of UCMSCs. Once public banking of UCMSCs is available to supply matched allogeneic units and once UCMSC manufacturing is standardized, we anticipate that UCMSCs will be more widely used in clinical trials. PMID:26279972

  3. Decoding Patent Information Using Patent Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen-Yuan; Yang, James Chingyu

    2008-01-01

    Patent information is a derivative product from the legal patent system. This information, which includes patent applications, patent descriptions, patent gazettes, patent abstracts, and patent data, is prepared in exact compliance with the regulations and specifications of the patent acts. Patent information, different from other published circulating information, is legally well protected. For convenience, this study classifies patent information into bibliographic and numeric data to creat...

  4. Selected performance indicators of the German environmental industry and environmental climate in an international comparison. Production, external trade, environmental research and patents; Ausgewaehlte Indikatoren zur Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich. Produktion, Aussenhandel, Umweltforschung und Patente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schasse, Ulrich; Gehrke, Birgit [Niedersaechsisches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Hannover (Germany); Ostertag, Katrin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The environmental technology is one of the most important growth markets worldwide. In the light of the unique environmental political challenges predictions refer to an expansionary trend towards market development - especially in the international context, with particular emphasis on the climate protection. The companies of the German environmental industry increasingly operate in global markets. A major share of that growth has been developed there. Temporarily, only the foreign market offered expansion opportunities. Even if the companies are not active on the export markets, the companies in the domestic market compete with their international export markets. Insofar, the question of the international competitiveness of the environmental industry is a key issue.

  5. Bioethical ambition, political opportunity and the European governance of patenting: the case of human embryonic stem cell science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Brian; Salter, Charlotte

    2013-12-01

    Scientific progress in the life sciences is dependent on the governance of tensions between the economic potential of the innovation and the cultural response from society. Ownership of the scientific innovation through patenting is a necessary part of the realization of its economic value yet, in the case of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) science, ownership of the human body and human life may offend fundamental cultural values. In the case of transnational patenting governance by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the European Union (EU), cross-national cultural conflict in the field of hESC science has produced a political demand for a form of governance that can incorporate ethical as well as economic judgements in its decision making. This paper explores how bioethics has responded to this opportunity to establish itself as a form of expert authority for the negotiation and resolution of the cultural conflict. In so doing, it shows how the political struggle that has accompanied this bid for new governance territory has been influenced both by the political tensions between the EPO and EU systems of patenting governance and the resistance of competing experts in law and science to a bioethical presence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A patent landscape analysis for organic photovoltaic solar cells: Identifying the technology's development phase

    OpenAIRE

    Lizin, Sebastien; Van Passel, Steven; De Schepper, Ellen; Delvenne, Cathérine; Dijk, Marc; Leroy, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPV) have developed into a vast research area. Progress in various directions has made it difficult to monitor the technology's precise development state. We offer a patent landscape analysis over all OPV devices, their substrates and encapsulation materials to provide an overview of patenting activity from a historical, organizational, geographical and technological point of view. Such an exercise is instrumental for private companies and research institutes aiming ...

  7. [Ethical justification for human stem cell research. The view of the German Central Ethics Committee for Stem Cell Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siep, L

    2008-09-01

    According to the German Stem Cell Act the Central Ethics Committee for Stem Cell Research (ZES) advices the competent authority (Robert Koch Institute) as to whether an application to import human embryonic stem-cells for research is "ethically justifiable" ("ethisch vertretbar"). The law does indeed specify some conditions of this justification, but without precisely defining them. This article clarifies the committee's understanding of ethically justifiable research. It deals with misunderstandings of the law and problems involved in its application.

  8. Morphometric study of red blood cells in Sloughi and German Shepherd dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Adili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the age, the sex and the breed on the diameter, the circumference and the surface area of red blood cells in the dog. Samples were taken from 88 local Sloughi and German shepherd dogs, and the morphometric study was done using OPTIKATM Vision Pro software. The obtained data indicated that the age and the sex had no influence on the three morphometric parameters of erythrocytes (P>0.05. However, the breed seemed to have a significant effect only on the diameter of erythrocytes, in this case: red blood cells of local Sloughi dogs were bigger than those of the German Shepherd (P<0.001. The breed had no influence on the circumference and surface area of ​​erythrocytes. This study allows us to propose new reference values ​​for the circumference and the surface of ​​erythrocytes in Sloughi and German Shepherd dogs; these both parameters appear most representative as to mark changes in the morphometry of red blood cells.

  9. A patent landscape analysis for organic photovoltaic solar cells: Identifying the technology's development phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lizin, Sebastien; Leroy, Julie; Delvenne, Catherine; Dijk, Marc; De Schepper, Ellen; Van Passel, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPV) have developed into a vast research area. Progress in various directions has made it difficult to monitor the technology's precise development state. We offer a patent landscape analysis over all OPV devices, their substrates and encapsulation materials to provide an

  10. Patent office Governance and Patent System Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Van Pottelsberghe; Pierre M. Picard

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses the role of quality in patent systems from the perspective of patent offices' behavior and organization. After documenting original stylized facts, the paper presents a model in which patent offices set patent fees and the quality level of their examination processes. Various objectives of patent offices' governors are considered. We show that the quality of the patent system is maximal for the patent offices that maximises either the social welfare or its own prof...

  11. No patent-no therapy: a matter of moral and legal consistency within the European Union regarding the use of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltus, Timo

    2014-12-01

    In the aftermath of the European Court of Justice's decision case of Brüstle v Greenpeace of October 2011 that patent claims encompassing human embryonic stem cells were patent-ineligible in the European Union on public order and morality grounds, a rash of stories has appeared predicting the destruction or exodus of human embryonic stem cells research. Irrespective of whether these predictions are justified, amazingly it has not been examined so far whether this decision has an implication on the justification of human embryonic stem cell-based therapies. Therefore, this article presents considerations about the logical link between that patent ruling and the justification of therapies based on human embryonic stem cells.

  12. Patents on Endophytic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, M; Gupta, D; Gupta, U; Faraz, R; Sandhu, S S

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are taxonomically and ecologically heterogeneous group of organisms, mainly belonging to the Ascomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Endophytes usually produce the enzymes necessary for the colonization of plant tissues. Endophytes are able to utilize components of plant cells without disturbing host metabolism, which is confirmed by isozyme analysis and studies on substrate utilization. The patents related to enzymes and metabolites produced by endophytic fungi are associated with their ecological significance. Application of metabolites and growth promoting factors produced from endophytic fungi, in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries, is now well established. The patents on secretion of extracellular enzymes in vitro by endophytic fungi needed for cell wall degradation, support the hypothesis that fungal endophytes represent a group of organisms specialized to live within plant tissue. This review presents the patents granted on different aspects of endophytic fungi for the last 11 years. This expresses the scenario and impact of these patents regarding significance in human society. In the last few years, research and inventions regarding the different aspects of endophytic fungi beneficial for host plant as well as for human beings have been carried out, which is supported by the increasing number of patents granted on endophytic fungi. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Proteasome inhibitor patents (2010 - present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Rainer; Scott, Latanya M; Daniel, Kenyon G; Dou, Q Ping

    2014-04-01

    Over the past 3 years, numerous patents and patent applications have been submitted and published involving compounds designed to inhibit the proteasome. Proteasome inhibition has been of great interest in cancer research since disruption of proteolysis leads to a significant buildup of cytotoxic proteins and activation of apoptotic pathways, particularly in rapidly proliferating cells. The current standards in proteasome inhibition are the only FDA-approved inhibitors, bortezomib and carfilzomib. Although these drugs are quite effective in treating multiple myeloma and other blood tumors, there are shortcomings, including toxicities and resistance. Most of the current patents attempt to improve on existing compounds, by increasing bioavailability and selectivity, while attempting to reduce toxicity. A general categorization of similar compounds was employed to evaluate and compare drug design strategies. This review focuses on novel compounds and subsequent analogs developed for proteasome inhibition, used in preventing and treating human cancers. A comprehensive description and categorization of patents related to each type of compound and its derivatives, as well as their uses and efficacies as anticancer agents is included. A review of combination therapy patents has also been included. Although there are many diverse chemical scaffolds being published, there are few patented proteasome inhibitors whose method of inhibition is genuinely novel. Most patents utilize a destructive chemical warhead to attack the catalytic threonine residue of the proteasome active sites. Few patents try to depart from this, emphasizing the need for developing new mechanisms of action and specific targeting.

  14. A “ray of hope” for European stem cell patents or “out of the smog into the fog”?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana; Minssen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    In Case C-364/13 International Stem Cell Corporation (ISCC) v. Comptroller General of Patents (December 18th, 2014), the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) distinguished its’ earlier ruling in Brüstle v. Greenpeace (Brüstle) with regard to non-fertilized human ova stimulated by parthen...

  15. Patenting of university and non-university public research organisations in Germany: evidence from patent applications for medical research results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tinnemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patents are one of the most important forms of intellectual property. They grant a time-limited exclusivity on the use of an invention allowing the recuperation of research costs. The use of patents is fiercely debated for medical innovation and especially controversial for publicly funded research, where the patent holder is an institution accountable to public interest. Despite this controversy, for the situation in Germany almost no empirical information exists. The purpose of this study is to examine the amount, types and trends of patent applications for health products submitted by German public research organisations. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic search for patent documents using the publicly accessible database search interface of the German Patent and Trademark Office. We defined keywords and search criteria and developed search patterns for the database request. We retrieved documents with application date between 1988 and 2006 and processed the collected data stepwise to compile the most relevant documents in patent families for further analysis. We developed a rationale and present individual steps of a systematic method to request and process patent data from a publicly accessible database. We retrieved and processed 10194 patent documents. Out of these, we identified 1772 relevant patent families, applied for by 193 different universities and non-university public research organisations. 827 (47% of these patent families contained granted patents. The number of patent applications submitted by universities and university-affiliated institutions more than tripled since the introduction of legal reforms in 2002, constituting almost half of all patent applications and accounting for most of the post-reform increase. Patenting of most non-university public research organisations remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: We search, process and analyse patent applications from publicly accessible databases

  16. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  17. Patent and product piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced industrial countries are affected by technology theft. German industry annually loses more than 50 billion euros. The main causes are industrial espionage and fraudulent copying patents and industrial products. Many Asian countries are profiteering saving up to 65% of production costs. Most affected are small medium enterprises, who do not have sufficient economic power to assert themselves against some powerful countries. International organizations, such as Interpol and World Customs Organization - WCO - work together to combat international economic crime. Several methods of protection can be achieved by registering patents or specific technical methods for recognition of product originality. They have developed more suitable protection, like Hologram, magnetic stripe, barcode, CE marking, digital watermarks, DNA or Nano-technologies, security labels, radio frequency identification, micro color codes, matrix code, cryptographic encodings. The automotive industry has developed the method “Manufactures against Product Piracy”. A sticker on the package features original products and it uses a Data Matrix verifiable barcode. The code can be recorded with a smartphone camera. The smartphone is connected via Internet to a database, where the identification numbers of the original parts are stored.

  18. System failure, innovation policy and patents: Fuel cells and related hydrogen technology in Norway 1990-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoe, Helge; Nygaard, Stian

    2006-01-01

    The empirical focus of this article is technological innovation activities in the emerging field of fuel cells and related hydrogen technology in Norway from 1990 to 2002. In this period, four comparatively large-scale research and development projects and a number of smaller projects aimed at development of fuel cells technology were undertaken, resulting in many inventions that were subsequently patented. Although this creativity may be considered an indication of success, only one of the projects became successful in an innovation perspective. All the large projects were initiated and funded for divergent political and economic reasons. An important reason in the late 1980s was the prospect of using Norway's abundant supply of natural gas in fuel cells for electric power generation. The large R and D projects that attempted to develop fuel cells based on natural gas as energy source failed. In contrast, the successful project was undertaken by military R and D, i.e. in a different system of innovation than the projects that failed. Analysis of these cases points to the importance of a systemic approach to innovations-and to policy making. One challenge for policy makers is to decide how they should promote this development which is crucial for the vision of a future 'Hydrogen Economy', i.e. what kind of policy incentives should be introduced to spur efficiency in technological development and diffusion. Theoretically, many options are available; however, understanding the innovation dynamics in this sector is fundamental for making choices. In this article, focus will be set on policy aspects using an innovation systemic approach to analyze development of fuel cells and related hydrogen technology in Norway

  19. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  20. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  1. 2. Sino-German workshop on fuel cells. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The CD-ROM contains the content of 13 lectures and 19 proposals for joint projects, which were presented on the second Sino-German Workshop on fuel cells. The topics of the 13 lectures are: Ab-initio calculations of oxygen species on low-index platinum surfaces (Pachenko, M.T.M. Koper, T.E. Shubina, S.J. Mitchell, E. Roduner). Cross-Linked (Composite) Polyaryl Blend Membranes for Membrane Fuel Cells. (J.A. Kerres, A. Ullrich, W. Zhang, M. Hein, V. Gogel, L. Joerissen, Th. Frey, A. Friedrich). Performance and Methanol Permeation of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: Dependence on Operating Conditions and on Electrode Structure(V. Gogel, Th. Frey, K.A. Friedrich, L. Joerissen, J. Garche, Z. Yongsheng). Experimental Investigation of Flow Bed Configuration Effect on Performance of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. (H. Guo, C.F. Ma, M.H. Wang, F. Ye, J. Yu, Y. Wang, C.Y. Wang). Improvement of MEAs for DMFC by a tuned production sequence assisted by mathematical modelling (Lindermeir, G. Rosenthal, U. Kunz, U. Hoffmann). Performance of the self-breathing air DMFC with solution grafted PVDF-g-PSSA membranes (X. Qiu, G. Guo, W. Li, W. Zhu, L. Chen). Modeling the Effects of Methanol Crossover on DMFC (J. Zhang, Y. Wang). The characteristics of 40 kW PEM fuel cell engine for vehicle(M. Hou, P. Ming, H. Zhang). A New and Simple Method for Preparing Biocathode in Biofuel Cells (D. Sun, C. Cai, X. Li, W. Xing, T. Lu). Nonlinear Model Reduction of a Dynamic Two-dimensional Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Model (M. Mangold, M. Sheng). Recent Advances in Design and Fabrication of Low-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (C. Xia, G. Meng). Novel CVD Techniques for Micro- and IT-SOFC Fabrication (G. Meng, H. Song, Q. Dong, D. Peng). Fundamental properties of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} at high temperatures (S. Wang, T.-L. Wen).

  2. Improved method and apparatus for electrostatically sorting biological cells. [DOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, J.T.

    An improved method of sorting biological cells in a conventional cell sorter apparatus includes generating a fluid jet containing cells to be sorted, measuring the distance between the centers of adjacent droplets in a zone thereof defined at the point where the fluid jet separates into descrete droplets, setting the distance between the center of a droplet in said separation zone and the position along said fluid jet at which the cell is optically sensed for specific characteristics to be an integral multiple of said center-to-center distance, and disabling a charger from electrically charging a specific droplet if a cell is detected by the optical sensor in a position wherein it will be in the neck area between droplets during droplet formation rather than within a predetermined distance from the droplet center.

  3. Patent Foramen Ovale in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease and Stroke: Case Presentations and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Razdan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD are at increased risk for stroke, the underlying pathophysiology is incompletely understood. Intracardiac shunting via a patent foramen ovale (PFO is associated with cryptogenic stroke in individuals without SCD. Recent evidence suggests that PFOs are associated with stroke in children with SCD, although the role of PFOs in adults with stroke and SCD is unknown. Here, we report 2 young adults with SCD, stroke, and PFOs. The first patient had hemoglobin SC and presented with a transient ischemic attack and a subsequent ischemic stroke. There was no evidence of cerebral vascular disease on imaging studies and the PFO was closed. The second patient had hemoglobin SS and two acute ischemic strokes. She had cerebral vascular disease with moyamoya in addition to a peripheral deep venous thrombosis (DVT. Chronic transfusion therapy was recommended, and the DVT was managed with warfarin. The PFO was not closed, and the patients' neurologic symptoms were stabilized. We review the literature on PFOs and stroke in SCD. Our cases and the literature review illustrate the dire need for further research to evaluate PFO as a potential risk factor for stroke in adults with SCD.

  4. Concomitant radiochemotherapy for larynx preservation treatment in patents with locoregionally advanced squamous cell hypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiprian, D.; Kawecki, A.; Jarzabski, A.; Michalski, W.

    2011-01-01

    Laryngopharygectomy followed by radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy has been a standard treatment for patients with advanced hypopharyngeal cancer These treatment modalities lead to permanent tracheostomy, which has a negative influence on the quality of life. For this reason new treatment methods have been investigated for a number of years. The aim of the study. To evaluate the results and the toxicity of larynx preservation treatment for locally advanced squamous cell hypopharyngeal cancer. Material and methods. Between December 2004 and January 2007 56 patients with confirmed squamous cell hypopharyngeal cancer (stage III and IVa ) were treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy with an intention to preserve the larynx. Conformal 3D radiotherapy was applied in all cases. Chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 per die administered twice during irradiation (day 1 and 22, day 43 of treatment) or once a week (35 mg/m 2) . Results. Median follow-up is 32 months. 5-year OS is 72%, DFS - 57%c, 3-year laryngectomy-free survival - LFS is 72%, 5-year LFS - 68% of patients (alive with larynx preservation). 11 patients have been diagnosed with local recurrence, 3 patients with nodal failure and one with locoregional failure. No severe life-threatening early and late complications were observed. Only 2 patients required temporary tracheostomy because of dyspnea due to laryngeal edema. Conclusion. We conclude that organ-preservation treatment is a valuable alternative to surgical treatment in patients diagnosed with stage III and IVa laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. (authors)

  5. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  6. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT...

  7. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    of the patent office is one important dimension, particularly in new patenting areas (emerging technologies). In order to understand whether patent offices appear capable of providing consistent assessments of a patent's technological quality in such novel industries from the beginning, we study the concordance...... of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of technological quality...

  8. Litigation-proof patents: avoiding the most common patent mistakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldstein, Larry M

    2014-01-01

    "Litigation-Proof Patents: Avoiding the Most Common Patent Mistakes explains the principles of excellent patents, presents the ten most common errors in patents, and details a step-by-step method for avoiding these common errors...

  9. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  10. Patent ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm Patent ductus arteriosus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition in which the ductus arteriosus does not close. The word "patent" means open. The ductus arteriosus is a ...

  11. Licensing and Patent Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Aniruddha Bagchi; Arijit Mukherjee

    2010-01-01

    We show the impact of technology licensing on optimal patent policy. Strong patent protection that eliminates imitation may not be the equilibrium outcome in the presence of licensing. Depending on the cost of innovation, licensing may either increase or reduce the strength of the patent protection.

  12. Universities That Litigate Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooksby, Jacob H.

    2012-01-01

    American research universities frequently obtain and license patents to their faculty members' inventions. While university licensing is carefully tracked and thoroughly studied, little is known about university decisions to assertively litigate their patents through filing patent infringement lawsuits in federal court. Which universities…

  13. Invention note and patent note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sung Su

    1997-09-01

    This book deals with origin of invention and term related patent and invention, making idea, brain storming, 10 laws of invention skill, attitude of inventors, invention order, making good inventions, patent system, preparation of application, procedure and method of patent, management of patent, patent and trademark office, patent lawyer, copyright, new intellectual property right, industrial property right, trademark, invasion of industrial property right, patent, Judgment, preparation of items, application of industrial property right and effect of inventor and related people.

  14. 78 FR 52939 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License: Use of Scopolamine to Treat Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Exclusive Patent License: Use of Scopolamine to Treat Depression AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, HHS... Application 11/137,114, filed May 25, 2005, titled ``Scopolamine for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety... ``Scopolamine for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety'' [HHS Ref. No. E-175-2004/0-EP-03]; 3. German Patent...

  15. Patent Deployment Strategies and Patent Value in LED Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Fu; Chang, Keng-Wei; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Juan; Yuan, Chien-Chung; Chang, Ke-Chiun

    2015-01-01

    This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regression model in the analysis LED industry data. The results demonstrate that patent value has a positive relationship with the patent family depth, and earn plan ratio.

  16. Data anonymization patent landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Pejić Bach; Jasmina Pivar; Ksenija Dumičić

    2017-01-01

    The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i) the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii) the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii) the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and...

  17. Patent Landscape for Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Streletskiy; Vladimir Zabavnikov; Emil Aslanov; Dmitriy Kotlov

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the methodological aspects of nanotechnology patent landscaping. The authors suggest that nanotechnologies take precedence over other technological trends, an assertion that is confirmed by current assessments and forecasts regarding the size of the nanotechnology product market. In this paper the authors analyse patent activity within the Russian Federation and globally by building a patent map of nanotechnology and the associated field of metallurgy. Using this as a ...

  18. Patent Licensing Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Doh-Shin Jeon; Yassine Lefouili

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the patent licensing networks formed by competing firms. Assuming that licensing agreements can involve the payment of fixed fees only and that firms compete à la Cournot, we show that the complete network is always bilaterally efficient and that the monopoly network is bilaterally efficient if the patents are complementary enough. In the case of independent patents, we fully characterize the bilaterally efficient networks and find that when the cost reduction resultin...

  19. Nanofiber patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngiam, Michelle; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Raghunath, Michael; Chan, Casey K

    2007-01-01

    Despite the large number of publications in peer review literature in the field of nanofibers, there is still uncertainty as to what aspects of these research results have commercial applications. In an effort to better understand the technological progress made in the field of nanofibers, we surveyed the patents issued in the United States from 1976 up to end 2006. The present review will provide an overall view of the current patent landscape including trends and key applications. Key assignees and key inventors were identified and their contributions were discussed. Patents were identified using keywords such as nanofibers, ultrafine, and electrospinning. After patents were downloaded, we reviewed each patent for relevancy and identified 100 patents to be related to nanofibers. 75% of the current issued patents on nanofibers are directed at either fabrication methods or the use of nanofibers in filtration systems. The patent data indicates that medical applications and medical products using nanofibers appear to be the emerging application for nanofibers. We anticipate a growing number of patents on novel applications for nanofiber would originate from academic centers in the future.

  20. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe: Applying the ‘medical methods exception’ to emerging technologies is based on the authors PhD dissertation, defended in March 2014, at the University of Copenhagen. The book debates restrictions on the patentability of medical methods in European Patent Law....... The main question addressed is whether it is viable and advisable the reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of Article 53 (c) EPC – a provision restricting the patenting of medical methods. The subject is approached by reference to emerging technologies, and using nanomedicine innovation...

  1. Performance of Patenting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non-patenting...... firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political...

  2. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  3. Biotechnology: interferon patent contested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, C; Beardsley, T

    Biogen, a biotechnology company based in Cambridge, Mass., and Geneva, Switzerland, has been notified by the European Patent Office that it will receive a product patent for its alpha interferon synthesized by recombinant DNA technology. Genentech, a San Francisco company which claims priority for producing mature interferon, is planning a vigorous appeal of the decision.

  4. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  5. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    This work addresses the question of determining whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. It does so by reference to novel or resurfacing interpretative concerns connected with emerging technologies exemplif......This work addresses the question of determining whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. It does so by reference to novel or resurfacing interpretative concerns connected with emerging technologies...... in the patent system in order to allow for the protection of core ethical values of society. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been...

  6. Truth and falsity of patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gum Jin

    2006-10-01

    This book describes the process of the effect to build the business of patent strongly in difficult situation. The titles of this contents are finally, lawsuit if formed, the task of patent application introduction of tasks of patent negotiation, negotiation with Fujitsu, Mitsubishi, Oki and NEC, amalgamation between LG semiconductor and Hyundai Electronic Industry, life in incorporated company, current condition of application for a patent, the method to process strategy patent, how to make strong patent and effective negotiation strategy for a patent and strategy of patent application.

  7. Searching bioremediation patents through Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Patent classification systems have traditionally evolved independently at each patent jurisdiction to classify patents handled by their examiners to be able to search previous patents while dealing with new patent applications. As patent databases maintained by them went online for free access to public as also for global search of prior art by examiners, the need arose for a common platform and uniform structure of patent databases. The diversity of different classification, however, posed problems of integrating and searching relevant patents across patent jurisdictions. To address this problem of comparability of data from different sources and searching patents, WIPO in the recent past developed what is known as International Patent Classification (IPC) system which most countries readily adopted to code their patents with IPC codes along with their own codes. The Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) is the latest patent classification system based on IPC/European Classification (ECLA) system, developed by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) which is likely to become a global standard. This paper discusses this new classification system with reference to patents on bioremediation.

  8. German S3 guideline for renal cell carcinoma. Presentation and discussion of essential aspects for the radiation oncologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Arndt-Christian; Oorschot, Birgitt van; Micke, Oliver; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    We aim to introduce and discuss the statements and recommendations of the German S3 guideline on renal cell cancer for daily practice of radiation oncologists. This report comprises indication, treatment decision, dose prescription and current literature including treatment of oligometastatic disease. According to different stages of the disease and the structure of the guideline we focus on five treatment situations and recommendations for decision making: (1) Neo-/adjuvant treatment before or after nephrectomy: No indication for radiotherapy. (2) Small renal mass: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy is currently seen as experimental option due to small patient numbers reported in the literature. However, local tumor control achieved by SBRT appears favourable with >90% at 2 years. (3) Oligometastasis: Radiation treatment with higher local doses or stereotactic treatment is possible after interdisciplinary discussion. Indications for palliative (4) and symptomatic treatment (5) are not different compared to other tumor entities. Currently, there is no evidence-based indication for radiation treatment in the primary setting (adjuvant/neoadjuvant or definitive) of renal cell cancer. In the future stereotactic radiotherapy should have a stronger role in the treatment of medically inoperable patients with primary renal cell cancer and especially in the setting of oligometastasis. (orig.) [de

  9. [German S3 guideline for renal cell carcinoma : Presentation and discussion of essential aspects for the radiation oncologist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Arndt-Christian; van Oorschot, Birgitt; Micke, Oliver; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    We aim to introduce and discuss the statements and recommendations of the German S3 guideline on renal cell cancer for daily practice of radiation oncologists. This report comprises indication, treatment decision, dose prescription and current literature including treatment of oligometastatic disease. According to different stages of the disease and the structure of the guideline we focus on five treatment situations and recommendations for decision making: (1) Neo-/adjuvant treatment before or after nephrectomy: No indication for radiotherapy. (2) Small renal mass: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy is currently seen as experimental option due to small patient numbers reported in the literature. However, local tumor control achieved by SBRT appears favourable with >90% at 2 years. (3) Oligometastasis: Radiation treatment with higher local doses or stereotactic treatment is possible after interdisciplinary discussion. Indications for palliative (4) and symptomatic treatment (5) are not different compared to other tumor entities. Currently, there is no evidence-based indication for radiation treatment in the primary setting (adjuvant/neoadjuvant or definitive) of renal cell cancer. In the future stereotactic radiotherapy should have a stronger role in the treatment of medically inoperable patients with primary renal cell cancer and especially in the setting of oligometastasis.

  10. Patentability of inventions under the Nigeria's patents and designs act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature of invention, the reason(s) for protecting invention and the requirements for the patentability of invention under the Nigerian Patents and Designs Act are the main thrust of this paper. It is now trite that the global standard or criterion for granting a patent is that the invention must be patentable. The paper therefore ...

  11. Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    patents are being utilized. A substantial share of patents is neither used internally nor for market transactions, which confirms the importance of strategic patenting and inefficiency in the management of intellectual property. We investigate different types of unused patents—unused blocking patents...... and sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results...

  12. How Important are Noncorporate Patents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the innovative performances of noncorporate inventors using patent citations data from the European Patent Office. The results show that inventions patented outside an established corporate framework are on average less ‘important’ than corporate patents, but with large...... variations across technology classes. Patents applied for by independent inventors, start-ups and corporate firms are of comparable ‘quality’ in emerging technologies. The results also highlight that in these fields noncorporate patents are more ‘radical’ than corporate patents....

  13. FTTA Hightlighted Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page highlights patented EPA-developed technologies that are available for licensing. FTTA staff contacts (link) can provide more information on any of these technologies, as well as information on licensing.

  14. Total-body irradiation - role and indications. Results from the German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Bamberg, M.; Belka, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Ottinger, H. [German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST) Secretary, Univ. of Essen (Germany); Mueller, C.H.; Allgaier, S. [DRST Datacenter, DRK Bloodbank Center Ulm (Germany); Faul, C. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Background and purpose: total-body irradiation (TBI) is a key part of the conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The exact role of TBI as part of the conditioning regimen is largely unclear. In order to determine the relevance of TBI, the status of TBI utilization was analyzed on the basis of a nationwide registry. Material and methods: 14,371 patients (1998-2002) documented in the German Stem Cell Transplantation Registry (DRST) were analyzed regarding TBI utilization prior to autologous or allogeneic transplantation, underlying disorder, type of donor, stem cell source, and size of the treatment center. Results: for autologous HSCT {proportional_to}10% of the patients (873/8,167) received TBI, with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, {proportional_to}80%, 171/214) and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (l-NHL, {proportional_to}35%, 330/929) being the most important disorders. In the allogeneic setting 50% of the patients (2,399/4,904) received TBI, with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, 85%, 794/930), acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 45%, 662/1,487) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, 49%, 561/1,156) being the key indications. The type of donor, stem cell source and center size did not strongly influence the use of TBI. Conclusion: TBI has only a limited role for the conditioning prior to autologous HCST. For allogeneic HSCT TBI is widely accepted with no major changes over the observation time. The use of TBI is generally accepted for ALL, whereas approximately half of the patients with CML or AML received TBI. Although a considerably large database was analyzed, no clear determinants for the use of TBI could be distinguished. (orig.)

  15. Total-body irradiation - role and indications. Results from the German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Bamberg, M.; Belka, C.; Ottinger, H.; Mueller, C.H.; Allgaier, S.; Faul, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: total-body irradiation (TBI) is a key part of the conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The exact role of TBI as part of the conditioning regimen is largely unclear. In order to determine the relevance of TBI, the status of TBI utilization was analyzed on the basis of a nationwide registry. Material and methods: 14,371 patients (1998-2002) documented in the German Stem Cell Transplantation Registry (DRST) were analyzed regarding TBI utilization prior to autologous or allogeneic transplantation, underlying disorder, type of donor, stem cell source, and size of the treatment center. Results: for autologous HSCT ∝10% of the patients (873/8,167) received TBI, with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, ∝80%, 171/214) and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (l-NHL, ∝35%, 330/929) being the most important disorders. In the allogeneic setting 50% of the patients (2,399/4,904) received TBI, with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, 85%, 794/930), acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 45%, 662/1,487) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, 49%, 561/1,156) being the key indications. The type of donor, stem cell source and center size did not strongly influence the use of TBI. Conclusion: TBI has only a limited role for the conditioning prior to autologous HCST. For allogeneic HSCT TBI is widely accepted with no major changes over the observation time. The use of TBI is generally accepted for ALL, whereas approximately half of the patients with CML or AML received TBI. Although a considerably large database was analyzed, no clear determinants for the use of TBI could be distinguished. (orig.)

  16. How to find patents, september 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bonich, Mònica; Cervera-Farré, Albert; Santos-Hermosa, Gema

    2010-01-01

    Com es poden trobar les patents: què són les patents?, què es pot patentar?, qui assigna les patents? i com es poden trobar patents? Cómo encontrar patentes: ¿qué son las patentes?, ¿qué se puede patentar?, ¿quién asigna las patentes? y ¿cómo se pueden encontrar patentes? How to find patents: what are patents?, what can be patented?, who awards the patents? and how can patents be found?

  17. Cómo encontrar patentes, setiembre 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bonich, Mònica; Cervera-Farré, Albert; Santos-Hermosa, Gema

    2010-01-01

    Com es poden trobar les patents: què són les patents?, què es pot patentar?, qui assigna les patents? i com es poden trobar patents? Cómo encontrar patentes: ¿qué son las patentes?, ¿qué se puede patentar?, ¿quién asigna las patentes? y ¿cómo se pueden encontrar patentes? How to find patents: what are patents?, what can be patented?, who awards the patents? and how can patents be found?

  18. Patent law for the dermatologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Dan Feng; Liu, Josephine

    2013-12-01

    An exciting discovery in the laboratory may translate to a commercial product. How does the patent system fit into the picture? We first discuss the circumstances under which an invention is granted a patent. What is the purpose of a patent and what are the functions of the patent system? Who can apply for a patent? What makes an invention patentable? A patent does not automatically grant a right to make or sell a product. This is because multiple patents can cover a single pharmaceutical product. Understanding the patent landscape covering a product of interest is key to evaluating the risk of infringing another's exclusivity rights. We use a hypothetical example relating to skin cancer to guide a discussion of patent law.

  19. Patent protection strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent.

  20. The lifespan of semiconductor patents by assignee and patent characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the values of patents is critical for both managers and investors. Patent maintenance time is an ideal proxy indicator for evaluating commercial patent value. This study investigated the survival rates of patents in the semiconductor industry by using a survival analysis and incorporated a predictive model for patent maintenance times. The technical characteristics of the patents, the assignee factors, and the statuses of the patents were used as the predictive factors for patent maintenance time. The results revealed a small entity size and the number of assignees are the risk factors that increase the likelihood of the maintenance time of a patent decreasing. The litigation status of a patent and the number of its international patent classifications, claims, forward citations, and assignments were determined to be the protection factors that raise the likelihood of its maintenance time extending. Additionally, substantial differences were noted between small entities and nonsmall entities and between being litigated and not in their effects on the survival rates of patents. This study examined the factors that affect the survival rates of patents and provides a reference for the managers and investors of intellectual property rights to use when assessing technical and commercial patent values.

  1. Evaluation of Brazilian biotechnology patent activity from 1975 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F; Delfim, F; Drummond, I; Carmo, A O; Barroca, T M; Horta, C C; Kalapothakis, E

    2012-08-01

    The analysis of patent activity is one methodology used for technological monitoring. In this paper, the activity of biotechnology-related patents in Brazil were analyzed through 30 International Patent Classification (IPC) codes published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We developed a program to analyse the dynamics of the major patent applicants, countries and IPC codes extracted from the Brazilian Patent Office (INPI) database. We also identified Brazilian patent applicants who tried to expand protection abroad via the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). We had access to all patents published online at the INPI from 1975 to July 2010, including 9,791 biotechnology patent applications in Brazil, and 163 PCTs published online at World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) from 1997 to December 2010. To our knowledge, there are no other online reports of biotechnology patents previous to the years analyzed here. Most of the biotechnology patents filed in the INPI (10.9%) concerned measuring or testing processes involving nucleic acids. The second and third places belonged to patents involving agro-technologies (recombinant DNA technology for plant cells and new flowering plants, i.e. angiosperms, or processes for obtaining them, and reproduction of flowering plants by tissue culture techniques). The majority of patents (87.2%) were filed by nonresidents, with USA being responsible for 51.7% of all biotechnology patents deposited in Brazil. Analyzing the resident applicants per region, we found a hub in the southeast region of Brazil. Among the resident applicants for biotechnology patents filed in the INPI, 43.5% were from São Paulo, 18.3% were from Rio de Janeiro, and 9.7% were from Minas Gerais. Pfizer, Novartis, and Sanofi were the largest applicants in Brazil, with 339, 288, and 245 biotechnology patents filed, respectively. For residents, the largest applicant was the governmental institution FIOCRUZ (Oswaldo Cruz

  2. Strategic management and utilization of patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyeong Go; Yun, Gwon Jun

    1993-11-15

    This book deals with why does management of patents need?, system of management of patents with function and site of management of patents and system and composition, what does management of patents department do?, task like technical development, management regulation, patent information, management of patents in small business with technical development of small business, how does business manage the patents in real, introduction of management of patents in the U.S, Europe, Japan, and Korea, and management of patents as strategic management.

  3. Strategic management and utilization of patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyeong Go; Yun, Gwon Jun

    1993-11-01

    This book deals with why does management of patents need?, system of management of patents with function and site of management of patents and system and composition, what does management of patents department do?, task like technical development, management regulation, patent information, management of patents in small business with technical development of small business, how does business manage the patents in real, introduction of management of patents in the U.S, Europe, Japan, and Korea, and management of patents as strategic management.

  4. Comprehension and application of patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Nam

    2004-05-01

    This book gives descriptions of conception of patent information such as the meaning, characteristic, function, investigation and map of patent information, pro-patent period and patent strategy of the business. It also deals with comprehension of patent information like publication of nations, patent document, patent procedure in Korea, patent procedure in Japan, the U.S, and Europe, article and function of patent document, patent information survey such as writing of search keyword, procedure of the survey and search site of other countries, patent analysis and patent map.

  5. Patenting human genes: Chinese academic articles' portrayal of gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li

    2018-04-24

    The patenting of human genes has been the subject of debate for decades. While China has gradually come to play an important role in the global genomics-based testing and treatment market, little is known about Chinese scholars' perspectives on patent protection for human genes. A content analysis of academic literature was conducted to identify Chinese scholars' concerns regarding gene patents, including benefits and risks of patenting human genes, attitudes that researchers hold towards gene patenting, and any legal and policy recommendations offered for the gene patent regime in China. 57.2% of articles were written by law professors, but scholars from health sciences, liberal arts, and ethics also participated in discussions on gene patent issues. While discussions of benefits and risks were relatively balanced in the articles, 63.5% of the articles favored gene patenting in general and, of the articles (n = 41) that explored gene patents in the Chinese context, 90.2% supported patent protections for human genes in China. The patentability of human genes was discussed in 33 articles, and 75.8% of these articles reached the conclusion that human genes are patentable. Chinese scholars view the patent regime as an important legal tool to protect the interests of inventors and inventions as well as the genetic resources of China. As such, many scholars support a gene patent system in China. These attitudes towards gene patents remain unchanged following the court ruling in the Myriad case in 2013, but arguments have been raised about the scope of gene patents, in particular that the increasing numbers of gene patents may negatively impact public health in China.

  6. Are biosimilars patentable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Damian; Parker, Jayson; Morgan, Max

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores whether, and under what circumstances, a biosimilar approved in the United States under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act (hereafter 'BPCIA') can be patented. The possibility that a biosimilar product could have meaningful patent protection arises from specific requirements for biosimilarity under the BPCIA, which account for the fact that manufacturing processes of biologics are inherently imprecise. The requirements for biosimilar approval may provide sufficient leeway to a biosimilar applicant to patent structural or formulation differences that provide non-clinical but business-relevant advantages over the reference molecule, such as improved shelf-life or ease of manufacture, without compromising clinical biosimilarity. Examination of the BPCIA and related Acts, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance papers, case law, patent database searching, and relevant scholarly articles. Legislative and regulatory requirements for the approval of a biosimilar under the BPCIA are focused on clinical results and allow a degree of leeway for differences to exist between a biosimilar's structure and non-clinical components and those of the biosimilar's reference molecule. This leeway can be exploited to provide the biosimilar with potentially patentable business-relevant advantages over its reference product while maintaining clinical biosimilarity to the reference product.

  7. More than 150 novel variants of HLA class I genes detected in German Stem Cell Donor Registry and UCLA International Cell Exchange samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, V; Krause, S; Fischer, J; Enczmann, J

    2018-03-01

    High throughput analysis using amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) of HLA class I genes in samples of registered stem cell donors of the German Stem Cell Donor Registry Düsseldorf revealed 151 novel variants. In addition, four new variants were identified in well-defined samples obtained from the UCLA International Cell Exchange program. New alleles included 37 HLA-A, 57 HLA-B, and 61 HLA-C variant alleles. All variants were confirmed by NGS of HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C genes including the respective 5' and 3' untranslated regions as well as Sanger sequence analysis. Mainly, the variants encompass single nucleotide changes in intronic as well as exonic parts of the genes. We identified intronic variations in 114 new alleles, nonsynonymous nucleotide changes in 25 alleles, synonymous nucleotide changes in nine alleles, and three hybrid alleles. Four alleles carry exonic deletions or insertions resulting in frameshift of peptide translation. Two novel alleles of HLA-C were shown to result in splicing defects of the transcript. Two alleles showed exonic as well as intronic changes. Thirty-four of the new alleles were found in multiple samples. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  9. The Effect of Plant Growth Regulators and Different Explants on the Response of Tissue Culture and Cell Suspension Cultures of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Koohi,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. is one of the most important medicinal plants that its essential oils used in different medicinal industries. In this study which was carried out in 2013 growing season at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of the University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, the in vitro response of leaf and hypocotyl explants of German Chamomile in B5 medium supplemented with different levels of plant growth regulators including 2,4-D, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP were investigated in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design (CRD.In addition, cell suspension cultures were established and characterized. Hypocotyl and leaf explants exhibited cell proliferation and produced callus within 1-2 weeks. The highest fresh weight of the callus (264.1 mg was produced by leaf explants in the medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l BAP. However, the leaf explants cultured on medium containing 1.5 mg/l 2,4-D showed the lowest cell proliferation and callus yield (40.42 mg. The highest percentage of root induction from leaf explants (58.73% was observed on the medium containing 4 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l Kin, and from hypocotyl explants (48.61% was observed on medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l NAA. The 42.22% of calli derived from hypocotyl explants on B5 medium supplemented with 4 mg/l NAA and 3 mg/l BAP, were friable. Cell suspension cultures of German chamomile were established by transferring of hypocotyl-derived friable calli into the MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l kinetin. The growth curve of cell proliferations started 4 days after culture and continued to grow until day 13th, where the cells entered stationary phase.

  10. The fallacy of Software Patents

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Software patents are usually used as argument for innovation but do they really promote innovation? Who really benefits from software patents? This talk attempts to show the problems with software patents and how they can actually harm innovation having little value for software users and our society in general.

  11. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  12. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR PATENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To develop a proposal for metrics for patents to be applied in assessing the postgraduate programs of Medicine III - Capes. From the reading and analysis of the 2013 area documents of all the 48 areas of Capes, a proposal for metrics for patents was developed to be applied in Medicine III programs. Except for the areas Biotechnology, Food Science, Biological Sciences III, Physical Education, Engineering I, III and IV and Interdisciplinary, most areas do not adopt a scoring system for patents. The proposal developed was based on the criteria of Biotechnology, with adaptations. In general, it will be valued, in ascending order, the deposit, the granting and licensing/production. It will also be assigned higher scores to patents registered abroad and whenever there is a participation of students. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection Technical Production/Patents. The percentage of 10% for academic programs and 40% for Masters Professionals should be maintained. The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches 400 points or over; Good, between 200 and 399 points; Regular, between 71 and 199 points; Weak up to 70 points; Insufficient, no punctuation. Desenvolver uma proposta de métricas para patentes a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III - Capes. A partir da leitura e análise dos documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes, desenvolveu-se uma proposta de métricas para patentes, a ser aplicada na avaliação dos programas da área. Constatou-se que, com exceção das áreas Biotecnologia, Ciência de Alimentos, Ciências Biológicas III, Educação Física, Engenharias I, III e IV e Interdisciplinar, a maioria não adota sistema de pontuação para patentes. A proposta desenvolvida baseou-se nos critérios da Biotecnologia, com adaptações. De uma forma geral, foi valorizado, em ordem crescente, o depósito, a concessão e o

  13. Patent Documents as a Resource for Studies and Education in Geophysics - An Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, K. G.

    2016-12-01

    Patents are a highly neglected source of information in geophysics, although they supply a wealth of technical and historically relevant data and might be an important asset for researchers and students. The technical drawings and descriptions in patent documents provide insight into the personal work of a researcher or a scientific group and give detailed technical background information, show interdisciplinary solutions for similar problems, help to learn about inventions too advanced for their time but maybe useful now, and to explore the historical background and timelines of inventions and their inventors. It will be shown how to get access to patent documents and how to use them for research and education purposes. Exemplary inventions by well-known geoscientists or scientists in related fields will be presented to illustrate the usefulness of patent documents. The data pool used is the International Patent Classification (IPC) class G01V that the United Nations' World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) has set up mainly for inventions with key aspects in geophysics. This class contains approximately 235,000 patent documents (July 2016) for methods, apparatuses or scientific instruments developed during scientific projects or by geophysical companies. The patent documents can be accessed via patent databases. The most important patent databases are for free, search functionality is self-explanatory and the amount of information to be extracted is enormous. For example, more than 90 million multilingual patent documents are currently available online (July 2016) in DEPATIS database of the German Patent and Trade Mark Office or ESPACENET of the European Patent Office. To summarize, patent documents are a highly useful tool for educational and research purposes to strengthen students' and scientists' knowledge in a practically orientated geophysical field and to widen the horizon to adjacent technical areas. Last but not least, they also provide insight

  14. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for Recording § 3.21 Identification of patents and patent applications. An assignment relating to a...

  15. Lovely but dangerous: The impact of patent citations on patent duration

    OpenAIRE

    Maurseth, Per Botolf

    2001-01-01

    - What is the impact of patent citations on patent renewal behaviour? Patent citations are commonly used as an indicator of technology spillovers. For cited patents therefore, patent citations have a potentially ambiguous impact. On the one hand, patent citations may indicate a scientific breakthrough, a high value of the cited patent and therefore a long survival period. On the other hand, patent citations may indicate competing innovations that render the cited patent obsolete. By discri...

  16. Recent patents on flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta, Gokhale; Bansal, Y K; Sandhu, S S

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids are substances which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They occur in considerable quantities in common food products, spices and beverages. Interest of researchers has been greatly enhanced towards therapeutic potential of flavonoids in last some years. This review summarizes important patents pertaining to recent biotechnological techniques applied for the production, analysis of biosynthetic pathways, effects and applications of different flavonoids. For systematic studies investigations which have been published in the form of patents, are classified in different sectors like biosynthesis, medical application, antimicrobial activity, alteration of flower color, industrial application, cosmetics, food and plant tissue culture. A number of activities have been observed in each sector with vast area of research on flavonoids.

  17. Science of invention patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong Taek; Park, Su Dong

    1999-02-01

    This book tells science of invention patent about new way of invention and creative solution for problems, basic conception of TRIZ, resolution of physical contradictory and technical contradictory, development of system and types of evolution, change of thinking for solving the problems, analysis of structure for problem solution, problem solution using scientific phenomenon and effect, use of standard solution and algorithm of creative problem solution.

  18. Patents and Antitrust: Application to Adjacent Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Economides; William N. Hebert

    2007-01-01

    We examine the intersection of patents and antitrust where a patent holder uses the monopoly power it possesses in the market for a patented product to exclude competitors in an adjacent market and attempt to monopolize or monopolize the adjacent market. The present scheme for awarding patents cannot judge when the issuance of a patent will lead to the appropriate balance between innovation and efficiency. Where a patent holder’s invention uses an interface with adjacent products, the patent ...

  19. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in... sublicenses, are classified as follows: (a) Class A. Patents, other than those referred to in paragraph (c) of...

  20. Comparison of Patent Claim Construction between Netherlands and Germany on Basis of AGA v. Occlutech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoutsanis, A.; Kau, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview on how the Dutch and German courts interpret the claims of a patent. It briefly compares each national approach on the basis of the recent AGA v Occlutech litigation in both countries. The dispute between AGA and Occlutech involved socalled ‘‘occluders’’, a

  1. The role of patent and non-patent databases in patent research in universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstaya, A. M.; Suslina, I. V.; Tolstaya, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    This studies deal with the description and systematization of the popular patent retrieval resources. The importance of the non-patent information when conducting patent research for the intellectual property created in educational and scientific activity of the university is highlighted. The differences in the patent and non-patent information are found out. Based on the databases` analysis the authors conducted the patent research on "Wireless endoscopic capsules" (development of the NRNU MEPhI). This study can be used to facilitate the university work on the new product development in order to improve the efficiency of the process of the commercialization of the intellectual activity results, including the entering the international market.

  2. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patents subject to extension of the patent term. 1.710 Section 1.710 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension...

  3. How Patent Function Integration with R&D Influence the Value of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn

    with no in-house patent function mitigates and generate valuable patents by focusing on broader patents. The findings emphasize that managerial decisions on organizational setup of patent functions are critical for firm success in creating valuable patents and adds to the literature on how patenting...

  4. Recent patents and patented technology platforms for pharmaceutical taste masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak; Dureja, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Taste masking is an important factor in the development of oral dosage forms containing bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients. Currently numerous techniques are being applied to overcome this problem. Realizing this, several researchers and pharmaceutical companies are now engaged in developing novel techniques to address the problem of taste masking evident by numerous patents filed in this area in recent times. In this review the most recent patents for taste masking are discussed and how these patents overcome the limitations of conventional approaches of taste masking is also highlighted. Novel techniques based on some recent patents such as nanohybrid, melt extrusion, non-complex cyclodextrin compositions and off taste masking are providing new realms to taste masking of bitter drugs. The present article also provides an overview of various patented platform technologies based on different techniques/mechanisms employed for taste masking. The unique features and principles of taste-masking approaches used in various patented technologies are also discussed. A better understanding of these new patents and patented technologies will help researchers and pharmaceutical industries to select the appropriate platform, or to develop innovative products with improved taste masking properties.

  5. The story of global patent inventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeun Jung

    1996-11-01

    This book introduces the global patent inventions, which are soap floating on the water, computer, radar, zipper, fuel cell, a raincoat, a pencil, a ball point pen, vitamin, an ice saw, a subway, post it, endoscope, ultrasonic detector, machine to pierce the hall, hair-restorer, a refrigerator, tricycle tractor of Benz steam engine of watt, carburettor, aluminum smelting process, video game, ice cream freezer, lead powder, piling system, burner using infrared rays, small projector, blender for recycling of resource, and artificial silk.

  6. Patents to "treat me", no patents to "test me": an analysis of the 2009 Senate inquiry into gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triffett, Damian

    2010-05-01

    This article critically analyses the submissions to the Senate Community Affairs Committee Inquiry into Gene Patents. It argues that gene patents are essential for attracting the investment required to ensure therapeutics based on gene technology reach the patient (patents to "treat me"). However, due to the lower costs of development, it argues that gene patent incentive is not required to ensure patient access to genetic testing services (no patents to "test me"). The article recommends that gene patents should not be prohibited by an amendment of the Patents Act 1990 (Cth), rather that regulation should occur post-grant to ensure patented technology is broadly licensed.

  7. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivi?re, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely...

  8. Pesticides and the Patent Bargain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermann, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enlarge the pool of knowledge available in the public domain, temporary exclusive rights (i.e. patents) are granted to innovators who are willing to fully disclose the information needed to reproduce their invention. After the 20-year patent protection period elapses, society should be

  9. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    , the government uses two policy tools, the optimal breadth and length. We show that theoretical models give very different answers to what is the optimal patent policy. In particular, we show that the optimal patent policy depends among othet things on the price elasticity of demand, the intersectoral elasticity...

  10. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...

  11. Preferred supplier contracts in post-patent prescription drug markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankart, Carl Rudolf; Stargardt, Tom

    2016-02-22

    In recent years, the expiration of patents for large drug classes has increased the importance of post-patent drug markets. However, previous research has focused solely on patent drug markets. In this study, the authors evaluate the influence of preferred supplier contracts, the German approach to tendering, in post-patent drug markets using a hierarchical market share attraction model. The authors find that preferred supplier contracts are a powerful strategic instrument for generic manufacturers in a highly competitive environment. They quantify the effects of signing a preferred supplier contract and show that brand-name manufacturers are vulnerable to tendering. Therefore, brand-name manufacturers should readjust their strategies and consider including preferred supplier contracts in their marketing mix. In addition, the authors employ a simulation to demonstrate that a first-mover advantage might be gained from signing a preferred supplier contract. Furthermore, their results can be used as a blueprint for decision makers in the pharmaceutical industry to assess the market share effects of different contracting strategies regarding preferred supplier contracts.

  12. Rubella (German Measles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Rubella (German Measles) KidsHealth / For Parents / Rubella (German Measles) ... Call the Doctor Print en español Rubéola About Rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3- ...

  13. Patent arterial duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robin P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes. Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of

  14. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  15. The German ISS experiment Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CERASP): The effects of single and combined space flight conditions on mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark-Khan, C.; Hellweg, C.; Arenz, A.

    2005-08-01

    The German experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CERASP)", to be performed on the International Space Station (ISS) will supply basic information on the cellular response to radiation applied in microgravity. One of the biological endpoints under investigation will be gene activation by space flight conditions in mammalian cells, based on fluorescent promoter reporter systems using green fluorescent protein. The promoter element to be investigated reflects the activity of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Results obtained with X-rays and accelerated argon ions (95 MeV/u, LET 230 keV/μm) produced at the French heavy ion accelerator GANIL imply that densely ionizing radiation has a stronger potential to activate NF-κB dependent gene expression than sparsely ionizing radiation.

  16. Economic Justification of Patents and Exceptions to Patentability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The present article is the conclusion of a review of economic justifications for patent rights conducted with the objective of determining whether such arguments are per se capable of sustaining the existence of a different patentability regime for inventions of methods for treatment and diagnostic...... methods (art.53 (c) European Patent Convention). It starts by exploring the normative background and summarily describes the different types of claims allowed under the current legal framework and their differences. The following sections will describe and apply the main economic arguments sustaining...... patent rights inventions of methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. These reasoning will be later confronted with contra-arguments. This piece will finalize with the formulation of conclusions extracted from the previous debate, inter-alia that economic reasoning does not per se sustain...

  17. Technology Clusters Exploration for Patent Portfolio through Patent Abstract Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabjo Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores technology clusters through patent analysis. The aim of exploring technology clusters is to grasp competitors’ levels of sustainable research and development (R&D and establish a sustainable strategy for entering an industry. To achieve this, we first grouped the patent documents with similar technologies by applying affinity propagation (AP clustering, which is effective while grouping large amounts of data. Next, in order to define the technology clusters, we adopted the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF weight, which lists the terms in order of importance. We collected the patent data of Korean electric car companies from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO to verify our proposed methodology. As a result, our proposed methodology presents more detailed information on the Korean electric car industry than previous studies.

  18. Patenting Biotechnological Inventions in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Raspor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The patent system has been able to provide the protection for the achievements of different technologies and in that way it has supported further development and growth of the industry where those achievements were implemented. Modern technologies like information technology and biotechnology with genetic engineering that appeared in the 70s have overgrown the frames of the existing patent system because of their exponential development during the last thirty years. Industry that invests a huge amount of money in these technologies, especially in the field of biotechnology, where the results are very uncertain, has started to claim changes in the patent system.

  19. Annual patents review, January-December 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland Gleisner; Karen Scallon; Michael Fleischmann; Julie Blankenburg; Marguerite Sykes

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes patents related to paper recycling that first appeared in patent databases during the 2004. Two on-line databases, Claims/U.S. Patents Abstracts and Derwent World Patents Index, were searched for this review. This feature is intended to inform readers about recent developments in equipment design, chemicals, and process technologies for recycling...

  20. Patent classifications as indicators of intellectual organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.

    2008-01-01

    Using the 138,751 patents filed in 2006 under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, co-classification analysis is pursued on the basis of three- and four-digit codes in the International Patent Classification (IPC, 8th ed.). The co-classifications among the patents enable us to analyze and visualize the

  1. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal...

  2. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S... Consultants, 1255 Roberts Boulevard NW., Suite 200, Kennesaw, GA 30144, on U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/133,666, and a divisional patent application to be filed shortly at the Patent and Trademark...

  3. 78 FR 7759 - Patent Cooperation Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Cooperation Treaty ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal...

  4. 77 FR 16813 - Patent Processing (Updating)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent Processing (Updating) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office... the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria...

  5. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services in connection with patents and patent... RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.72 Services in connection with patents and patent applications. (a) Affidavit of applicant. The form of the affidavit of an applicant for a United States patent...

  6. Religious coalition opposes gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1995-05-19

    The biotechnology industry is concerned about a coalition of mainstream religious leaders, working with Jeremy Rifkin of the Foundation of Economic Trends, who oppose the patenting of human and animal life forms, body parts, and genes. The coalition called a press conference on May 18 to ask the government to prohibit the current patenting practices for genetic engineering. The biotechnology industry argues that patents indicate that a company's research tool has significant value, and encourages capitalists to invest their dollars in the development of new treatments for diseases. They also argue that the 29 biotech drugs that are on the market have been developed as a result of patents on genes. Although most business leaders are united in opposing restrictions, many scientists are divided, citing both religious and scientific reasons.

  7. Com es poden trobar les patents, setembre 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bonich, Mònica; Cervera-Farré, Albert; Santos-Hermosa, Gema

    2010-01-01

    Com es poden trobar les patents: què són les patents?, què es pot patentar?, qui assigna les patents? i com es poden trobar patents? Cómo encontrar patentes: ¿qué son las patentes?, ¿qué se puede patentar?, ¿quién asigna las patentes? y ¿cómo se pueden encontrar patentes? How to find patents: what are patents?, what can be patented?, who awards the patents? and how can patents be found?

  8. Phosphorus-containing nanoparticles: biomedical patents review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Shcharbina, Natallia; Shakhbazau, Antos; Mignani, Serge; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Bryszewska, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The beginning of the nano-era started with the appearance of artificial nanosized supramolecular systems called nanomaterials and nanoparticles (NPs). In the present review, we have analyzed the patents on phosphorus-based nanomaterials (fullerenes, quantum dots [QDs], graphene, liposomes, dendrimers, gold and silver NPs) in biology and medicine. Their impact in treatment of cancer, viral infections and cardiovascular diseases is discussed. Liposomes and dendrimers had the highest number of biomedical patents. The third candidates were QDs and the fourth and fifth were gold and silver NPs. Fullerenes and carbon nanotubes have the fewest applications in biology and medicine. Thus, our first conclusion was about the 'unifying nanotoxicology paradigm', that 'soft' NPs are significantly more biocompatible than 'hard' NPs. There has been a trend of these nanomaterials being applied in medicine drug and gene delivery, visualization of cells and pathologic processes, using them as antivirals and antimicrobials, contrast agents, antioxidants and photosensitizers. It was unexpected that no patents were found in which phosphorus NPs were used in 3D printing of bones and other biological tissues. The conclusion reached is that nanomaterials are promising tools in future medical applications.

  9. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  10. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  11. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks of the current method, this study proposes a novel patent analysis method, called the intelligent patent network analysis method, to make a visual network with great precision. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, the proposed method provides an automated procedure for searching patent documents, extracting patent keywords, and determining the weight of each patent keyword in order to generate a sophisticated visualization of the patent network. This study proposes a detailed procedure for generating an intelligent patent network that is helpful for improving the efficiency and quality of patent analysis. Furthermore, patents in the field of Carbon Nanotube Backlight Unit (CNT-BLU were analyzed to verify the utility of the proposed method.

  12. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  13. Economics of Patent Pools When Some (but not all) Patents are Essential

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Quint

    2006-01-01

    Patent pools are agreements by multiple patent owners to license certain patents to third parties as a package, and often in conjunction with the development of a technological standard. A key distinction made by regulators—between patents essential to a standard and patents that are suitable substitutes—has not been captured in existing economic models. I present a model of competition among differentiated technologies, in which some patents are essential and some are not. I show that pools ...

  14. The Simbox Experiment with Arabidopsis Thaliana Cell Cultures: Hardware-Tests and First Resutls from the German-Chinese satellite Mission Shenzhou 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, Svenja; Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Hampp, Ruediger

    2013-02-01

    The Simbox experiment was the first joint German-Chinese space project. In this context Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures were exposed to microgravity for a 17-day period. To carry out a successful space mission, diverse hardware tests were performed in advance. Due to the limited oxygen supply inside the hardware units, cells were fixed after 5 days under microgravity conditions. As a control, samples were exposed in an on-board 1g reference centrifuge. To investigate the space effect, a ground-based study was performed with the same hardware and identical experimental procedures. As we were able to obtain high quality RNA from the RNAlater quenched samples, we used the Affymetrix Arabidopsis genome array for a transcriptome analysis. Our experiment aimed at the identification of plant genes that were differentially expressed after long-term exposure to microgravity. Pair-wise comparison of flight samples with 1g controls revealed the largest differences between space 1g and ground 1g controls.

  15. Patents, Inducement Prizes, and Contestant Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome; Davis, Lee N.

    2006-01-01

    Debate over the merits of patents versus inducement prizes has tended to ignore the signaling roles of patents, and totally ignores the impact of patent signaling on prize contests. This paper asks: How does patent signaling affect the strategic choices of firms considering entering prize contests......? First, we consider contests that do not allow patenting, then contests that do. If patenting is not allowed, we argue, patent-holders, both internal and external to the contest, can adversely impact prize contests by claiming prize winner violation of their patents, and suing for damages. The likelihood...... of such challenges being made can deter entry, particularly in contests requiring large sunk costs. Furthermore, the firm's decisionmaking process will discriminate against entering prize contests and favor R&D projects with patentable outcomes. Together, these problems may circumscribe any future wider role...

  16. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... relates to an increase in the number of patent applications of the new employer by 0.0646. This corresponds to a 14 percent increase in the mean number of yearly patent applications. We also find that mobility of R&D workers increases the joint patenting activity of the donor and recipient firms...

  17. Health Information in German (Deutsch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use ...

  18. Argonne National Laboratory patent portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguelet, B.C.

    1976-01-01

    This booklet contains the abstracts of all active U. S. patents on technology items that originated at ANL, the applicability of which is not limited to nuclear reactors. Also listed are the titles of all ANL-originated nuclear-related U. S. patents that are still in force. Selected technology items for which patent applications have been filed and are available for licensing are included in several categories. Categories included in this booklet are as follows: atmospheric and earth sciences; biological and medical sciences; chemistry and chemical engineering; cryogenics and superconductivity; electronics and electrical engineering; energy conversion; measurements and controls; methods and devices; materials and fabrication; physics, accelerators and fusion; and selected nuclear-related technology

  19. Flexibility features in patent writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sancho-Guinda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available International patents are increasingly demanded in academic circles as a sign of excellence and compete with situated genres such as projects, grants, PhD supervisions, books and journal articles, especially in hard science environments. The scarce modelling and dissemination of the genre so far, however, together with some wrong assumptions about the technical register, have helped propagate a series of “genre fallacies” that contribute to perpetuating undesirable writing practices and make the case for explicit instruction. In this paper I advocate a pedagogy of patent writing based on the deconstruction of such myths, which are basically concerned with a notion of the genre as rigid and static, highly impersonal, and exclusively descriptive. My study, based on a qualitative and corpus methodology, revolves around the crucial role of metadiscourse as evidence of flexibility in patent texts.

  20. Patents and the supply of therapeutic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, W L

    1992-01-01

    In some countries protests against the grant of exclusive rights in developments that benefit humanity have caused limits to be placed on the scope of patent rights. A characteristic of all modern patent systems is that the invention that one seeks to patent must have some practical utility and be new. The US is making patent protection available even for methods of medical treatment and for non human living things. A patent will expire in most developed countries 20 years from the filing of the application except in the US which grants patents from 17 years. India, China, and Brazil grant patents for shorter terms. In Australia and New Zealand, the term of a patent may be extended. In France and the US; extensions of term are possible only for medically related inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the right, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the rights, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented invention. A patent owner who attempts to enforce a patent may be faced with a challenge that the patentee has misbehaved. In the US an alleged infringer may argue that the patentee misled the Patent Office when applying for the patent. The Patent laws of many countries enable the government to use patented inventions but compensate patent owners. Under sections 37 and 38 of the French patent legislation the government may decree that licenses are available in the interests of public health. In connection with Roussel-Uclaf's mifepristone, RU-486 it has been reported that such a decree cannot be made for a medicine that has not been approved by the government for distribution. The Canadian government has announced its intention to cancel the provisions in the Canadian Patent Act relating to compulsory licensing of medicines. Negotiations are continuing under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that may lead to an

  1. Monitoring innovation in electrochemical energy storage technologies: A patent-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Simon C.; Sandner, Philipp G.; Welpe, Isabell M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Grid effects of intermittent sources show increasing need for decentralized storage. • Novel patent classification is applied to monitor competing technologies. • Up-to-date geographical, organizational, and qualitative insight is given. • Redox flow patenting shows strong growth, lithium also strong absolute numbers. • Revealed patents allow the expectation of improved modules in the future. - Abstract: Due to the suitability to balance the intermittency in decentralized systems with renewable sources, electrochemical energy storage possibilities have been analyzed in several studies, all highlighting the need for improvements in relevant techno-economic parameters. Particularly a reduction in the costs per cycle is much needed, which could either come from innovation in more cost-efficient manufacturing methods, a higher endurance of charge/discharge sequences or higher capacities. Looking at patent applications as a metric allows us to determine whether the necessary technological progress is indeed occurring, as the mandatory publication of the underlying inventions provides access to otherwise hidden R and D activities. Our paper contributes to the literature with a compilation of technological classes related to important battery types in the novel Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC), which can be used to identify relevant patent applications of the competing technologies. Using the worldwide patent statistical database (PATSTAT), we find that promising technologies have been showing increasing patent counts in recent years. For example, the number of patent applications related to regenerative fuel cells (e.g. redox flow batteries) doubled from 2009 to 2011. Nevertheless, the volume of patent filings in technologies related to lithium remains unchallenged. Patent applications in this area are still growing, which indicates that the introduction of improved modules will continue. Using citation analysis, we have identified

  2. Patent trend and competitive analysis of cancer immunotherapy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chia-Lin; Chen, Feng-Chi

    2017-11-02

    Immunotherapy has brought high hopes for cancer treatment, and attracted tremendous resources from the biopharmaceutical community. Here we analyze cancer immunotherapy-related patents granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office in the past decade (2006-2016). A total of 2,229 patents were identified in 13 subfields. The growth of patent number in this field has outpaced the background rate, with cytokine-related therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and natural killer cell therapies growing the most rapidly. The top 15 assignees possess 27.6% (616) of the patents. Amgen is the largest patent holder, followed by Novartis, and then by Chugai Seiyaku. The top assignees have focused on different subfields, and collaborated with each other for technology development. Our competitive analysis reveals that Novartis, Chugai Seiyaku, and Abbvie lead in both patent number and average quality of patents. Meanwhile, Immunomedics owns a high-quality though relatively small patent portfolio in single-chain variable fragment technology, which is not the focus of the abovementioned forerunners. Overall, our analysis illustrates an ecosystem where industry giants and smaller-size players each occupies a niche. Selection and succession are expected to continue for years in this young ecosystem.

  3. Patent quality and incentives at the patent office

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuett, F.

    2013-01-01

    Patent examination is a problem of moral hazard followed by adverse selection: examiners must have incentives to exert effort, but also to truthfully reveal the evidence they find. I develop a theoretical model to study the design of incentives for examiners. The model can explain the puzzling

  4. Fundamentals of patenting and licensing for scientists and engineers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, M. Y. (Matthew Y.)

    2009-01-01

    ... ...28 3.2 Types of Patents...28 3.3 Patent Dates ...29 viiviii Fundamentals of Patenting and Licensing for Scientists and Engineers 3.4 Eligibility of Priority Date ...30 3.5 Patentability ...32...

  5. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability. ...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered income...

  7. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as Down syndrome Infants whose mothers had German measles (rubella) during pregnancy PDA is twice as common in girls as it is in boys. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications A heart murmur may be the only sign ...

  8. Current challenges in patent information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Lupu, Mihai; Kando, Noriko; Trippe, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Intellectual property in the form of patents plays a vital role in today's increasingly knowledge-based economy. This book assembles state-of-the art research and is intended to illustrate innovative approaches to patent information retrieval.

  9. Impact of bioethics on patentability of inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaiah, Vishwas H

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of bioethics on patent claims. The increase in research activities involving human biological materials, and the rush to commercialise inventions derived from such biological materials, can at times result in unethical conduct of research. Questions arise as to whether patent law should concern itself with tainted research that has resulted in an invention or whether it should grant patent rights solely on the basis of the technical improvements resulting from such research. This paper highlights the significance of ethical practice in biomedical research, an issue that may influence the decision to grant patents on inventions. It explores the relation between morality, bioethics and patents from the perspective of the objectives of the patent system and current developments in the law on patents. The inclusion of the morality provision in patent law introduces a mechanism through which inventions derived from tainted research can be filtered at an early stage.

  10. Can this kind of idea be a patent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    2004-08-01

    This book mentions patent such as application, what is patents, patent law, procedure and patent attorney, which includes business idea is patent. Is internet domain name or name-brand? We can make a big money with others idea, the difference among patent, trademark, utility model rights and registration of design, priority system, new weapon in digital period, patent is a knife and a shield, the cost from application to registration, what is hunting of patent information, writing document for patent, patent examination and patent lawyer.

  11. 77 FR 4509 - Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... currently is planning to set or adjust patent fees pursuant to its Section 10 fee setting authority. As part... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Chapter I [Docket No.: PTO-P-2012-0002] Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule...

  12. Exploring gender differences in patenting in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Elba Mauleón; Cinzia Daraio; Maria Bordons

    2013-01-01

    The under-representation of women in science and technology is a matter of current great concern. Obtaining patent-based indicators by gender is crucial to analyse the situation of women in innovation, identify potential cases of gender inequalities, and support policy measures to promote gender balance. In this article we analyse men and women involvement in Spanish patents applied to the European Patent Office during 1990--2004. At least one female inventor is present in 18% of the patents;...

  13. 14 CFR 1260.28 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent rights. 1260.28 Section 1260.28... Provisions § 1260.28 Patent rights. Patent Rights May 2006 As stated at § 1260.136, this award is subject to... “Patent Rights (Small Business Firms and Nonprofit Organizations)” and the following: (a) Where the term...

  14. Becoming German: Integration, Citizenship and Territorialization of Germanness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelman, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    transforms Germanness into more of a lived experience of the territorially grounded, emplaced German society, opening up more space to migrants to become-German. In the conclusion, I consider how this potential opening up of Germanness continues to be threatened by concomitant developments, including...

  15. Semiannual patents review, January-June 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerite. Sykes; Julie J. Blankenburg

    1998-01-01

    This review summarizes patents in the area of paper recycling that appeared during the first half of 1998 in either of two on-line data bases: Derwent World Patent Index or Claims/U.S.Patents Abstracts. The information in these data bases is intended to keep readers informed about the latest equipment, chemicals, and technology in this field. The abstracts provide only...

  16. Semiannual patents review, July-December 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew. Stroika; Marguerite. Sykes; Julie. Blankenburg

    1999-01-01

    This review summarizes patents related to paper recycling issued during the last 6 months of 1998. The two online databases used for this search are Claim/US. Patents Abstracts and Derwent World Patents Index. This semiannual feature is intended to inform readers about the latest developments in equipment, chemicals, and technology in the field of paper recycling. This...

  17. Semiannual patents review, July 2001-December 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland Gleisner; Marguerite Sykes; Julie Blankenburg

    2002-01-01

    This review summarizes patents related to paper recycling that were issued during the last six months of 2001. Two on-line databases, Claims/U.S. Patents Abstracts and Derwent World Patents Index, were searched for this review. This semiannual feature is intended to inform readers about recent developments in equipment design, chemicals and process technology for...

  18. Semiannual patents review, January-June 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerite Sykes; Julie Blankenburg

    1999-01-01

    This review summarizes patents related to paper recycling that were issued during the first 6 months of 1999. The two on-line databases used for this search were C1aims/U.S. Patents Abstracts and Derwent World Patents Index. This semiannual feature is intended to inform readers about the latest developments in equipment design, chemicals, and process technology for...

  19. Semiannual patents review, January — June 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerite S. Sykes; Julie. Blankenburg

    2001-01-01

    This review summarizes patents related to paper recycling that were issued during the first 6 months of 2001. Two online databases, Claims/U.S. Patents Abstracts and Derwent World Patents Index, were searched for this review. This semiannual feature is intended to inform readers about recent developments in equipment design, chemicals, and process technology for...

  20. Analyzing Patents Generated by SBIR Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    OECD). The national IPO measures typically issue annual reports on patenting trends by type of patent, geographic location of inventor, technology...class of the invention, assignee organization and by inventor. Because the national IPO offices primary missions are for patent data storage and

  1. On Sharks, Trolls, and Other Patent Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzig, Markus; Henkel, Joachim; Heath, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Patent trolls (or sharks) are small patent holding individuals or firms who trap R&D intense manufacturers in patent infringement situations in order to receive damage awards for the illegitimate use of their technology. While of great concern to management, their existence and impact for both...

  2. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights. ...

  3. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights, see...

  4. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted to...

  5. Patentability aspects of computational cancer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishchuk, Iryna

    2017-07-01

    Multiscale cancer models, implemented in silico, simulate tumor progression at various spatial and temporal scales. Having the innovative substance and possessing the potential of being applied as decision support tools in clinical practice, patenting and obtaining patent rights in cancer models seems prima facie possible. What legal hurdles the cancer models need to overcome for being patented we inquire from this paper.

  6. Patents - Overlooked Source of Information

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Ilavský, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2004), s. 473-476 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : patent * database * thermal spraying Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.068, year: 2004

  7. Patentering af det humane genom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2004-01-01

    Direktiv 98/44/EF om retlig beskyttelse af bioteknologiske opfindelser blev gennemført i dansk ret med ikrafttrædelse den 30. juli 2000. Direktivet indeholder i artikel 5 en central bestemmelse som giver adgang til patent på humane gener. I artikel 5, stk. 3, er indføjet et skærpet krav til...

  8. Patenting Human Genes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    In accordance with the concept of the book and the assigned scope of the contribution, this chapter describes the European law with respect to the patent-eligibility of isolated DNA sequences. This chapter will further include a brief comparison with recent developments from the US and Australia....

  9. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term...

  10. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Betancourt, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC). This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent a...

  11. The German ISS-experiment Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CERASP): The effects of single and combined space flight conditions on mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, C. E.; Thelen, M.; Arenz, A.; Baumstark-Khan, C.

    The combined action of ionizing radiation and microgravity will continue to influence future manned space missions, with special risks for astronauts on the Moon surface or for long duration missions to Mars. There is increasing evidence that basic cellular functions are sensitive not only to radiation but also to microgravity. Previous space flight experiments gave contradictory results: from inhibition of DNA repair by microgravity to enhancement, whereas others did not detect any influence of microgravity on repair. At the Radiation Biology Department of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), recombinant bacterial and mammalian cell systems were developed as reporters for cellular signal transduction modulation by genotoxic environmental conditions. The space experiment “Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space” (CERASP) to be performed at the International Space Station (ISS) will make use of such reporter cell lines thereby supplying basic information on the cellular response to radiation applied in microgravity. One of the biological endpoints will be survival reflected by radiation-dependent reduction of constitutive expression of the enhanced variant of green fluorescent protein (EGFP). A second end-point will be gene activation by space flight conditions in mammalian cells, based on fluorescent promoter reporter systems using the destabilized d2EGFP variant. The promoter element to be investigated reflects the activity of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. The NF-κB family of proteins plays a major role in the inflammatory and immune response, cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and tumor genesis. Results obtained with X-rays and accelerated heavy ions produced at the French heavy ion accelerator GANIL imply that densely ionizing radiation has a stronger potential to activate NF-κB dependent gene expression than sparsely ionizing radiation. The correlation of NF-κB activation to negative regulation of apoptosis could favor

  12. German-Chinese wedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iken, Joern

    2010-07-01

    German wind power technology is widely regarded as being ahead of its competitors worldwide. Combine this technology with production in China and a renowned designer and you should get a competitive product. (orig.)

  13. Germanic Verb Particle Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2017-01-01

    This paper has two closely related goals. The more "global" one is to present an overview of the variation conceming verb particles across the Germanic languages (see e.g. den Dikken 1995; Haiden 2005; Mclntyre 2007 and many others), and the more "local" one is to use some of this variation data...... to argue for Yiddish being an SOV-language like German and Dutch rather than an SVO-language like English and the Scandinavian languages....

  14. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  15. Patent data mining method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyack, Kevin W.; Grafe, V. Gerald; Johnson, David K.; Wylie, Brian N.

    2002-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related patents in a multidimensional space. Distance between patents in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the patents. The relationship between pairings of patents can be expressed based on weighted combinations of several predicates. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the patents.

  16. Orexin research: patent news from 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Christoph; Roch, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    The orexin system consists of two G-protein-coupled receptors, orexin 1 and orexin 2 and two endogenous ligands, orexin A and orexin B . It is evolutionarily highly conserved. It is involved in the promotion of wakefulness as well as in anxiety and addictive disorders. In addition, its activation via the Ox1 receptor triggers apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. Dual orexin receptor antagonists are successfully used to treat primary insomnia. The major open questions are now related to the clinical validation of Ox1 selective antagonists. A strong rationale exists for orexin agonism in the treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy. Areas covered: The patent applications from Thomson Reuters Integrity Database added in 2016 are summarized and discussed together with the most important findings published in the scientific literature. Expert opinion: The large number of patents shows the continuing interest in the orexin receptors as targets. The structural scope covered is narrow. Questions about novelty and inventiveness are evident. The additional information published on X-ray structures on both orexin receptors opens new ways of optimizing antagonists. It might also influence the efforts in the identification of orexin receptor agonists. Being potential treatments for narcolepsy with cataplexy.

  17. Analysis of US patents on spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Jeon, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Jae Keun; Oh, Seung Eun; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Jin Seok; Park, Seong Keun

    1997-06-01

    The total of 137 US patents on spacer grids patented from 1968 through 1993 are analyzed and summarized. Database is constituted with designing the appropriate fields by which each patent can be identified. The fields consist of patent number, inventor, assignee, date of patent, title and major foci of the patent. The major foci are again classified by detailed subjects such as the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related, the strength-related, the fabrication-related as for mechanical subjects, while the cooling performance-related and the pressure drop-related as for thermal-hydraulic one. The 92% of the patents analyzed were issued form nuclear companies of USA, France and Germany. Among the patents dealing with mechanical subjects, the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related is more than the pressure drop-related among the patents of thermal-hydraulic subjects. The number of patents issued from Japan ranks just after Germany i.e., the 4th country. It is thought that much concern as well as investment should be increased in this field, the patent of nuclear components. (author). 2 tabs., 5 figs

  18. Separating sheep from goats: A European view on the patent eligibility of biomedical diagnostic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Schwartz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    and denial of a rehearing en banc. The claims at issue in U.S. Patent No. 6,258,540 (“US ’540 patent”) are directed to methods of genetic testing by detecting and amplifying paternally inherited fetal cell-free DNA (cffDNA) from maternal blood and plasma. Before the development of this non-invasive prenatal...... diagnostic test, patients were placed at higher risk and maternal plasma was routinely discarded as waste. A reluctant CAFC formulaically interpreted the Supreme Court-devised bifurcated test to identify patent ineligible subject matter and invalidated the patent for this ground-breaking method. Notably......, Judge Linn wrote that this innovation deserves patent protection, but that the “sweeping language of the test” established in Mayo requires a determination that the claims are patent ineligible. On March 21, 2016 Sequenom Inc. filed for certiorari and the issue may once again find itself at the Supreme...

  19. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    -examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...... of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio...

  20. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Sugimoto

    Full Text Available We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO. Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  1. German for physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ben

    2009-04-01

    "German is the language of science" I remember my father telling me as a boy growing up in the Bronx in New York during the 1970s. As I watched astronomy programmes on TV with my father and older brothers, I imagined having to speak ceaselessly in fluent German if I was ever to become a scientist as a grown-up. But when I started my studies at university in New York in the 1980s, I realized my father's advice - sought from weekly trips to the neighbourhood public library - was way out of date. Not only did my physics professors present their research in English at conferences all around the world, but they also published in English-language journals - thus seemingly not needing a single word of German.

  2. Of patents and patent disputes - The TNFα patent files. Part 2: Enbrel, Remicade, Cimzia and Simponi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Ulrich

    2018-02-05

    This article is the second part of a trilogy that discusses IP issues related to anti-Tumor Necrosis factor α (TNFα) biologics. TNFα is the world's most valuable target, with accumulated sales of TNFα biologics of 34 bn USD in 2014. While in the first part of this trilogy, Humira was discussed, this second parts discusses the patent strategies of Enbrel, Remicade, Cimzia and Simponi.

  3. The moral tollbooth: a method that makes use of the patent system to address ethical concerns in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, E Richard; Caulfield, Timothy A

    2002-06-29

    Patents granted for biotechnological innovations continue to cause social and ethical dilemmas. For example, much controversy surrounds the patenting of genes that predispose to breast-cancer, and in the USA the debate continues about whether or not stem-cell technology should be accessible to all. In this report, we argue that some of these concerns can be addressed within national patent systems. In particular, we examine the "order public or morality" clause that exists in most national patent procedures. Furthermore, we propose that patents for inventions that present social and ethical questions should be subject to suspension by an independent, transparent, and responsible tribunal made up of specialists in ethics, research, and economics. This suspension should be reversible so that, when the social or ethical concerns have been addressed in an appropriate manner, the suspension can be lifted. Although controversial, such a flexible mechanism would assist governments and industry in enhancing public support for patents in the biotechnology area.

  4. Open-Framework Germanates and Nickel Germanates : Synthesis and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shiliang

    2012-01-01

    Microporous materials have a wide range of important applications in separation, gas adsorption, ion-exchange and catalysis. Open-framework germanates are a family of microporous compounds and are of particular interest. This thesis focuses on the synthesis and characterization of new open-framework germanates as well as introducing the transition-metal nickel into germanate structures. One new microporous germanosilicate, SU-78 and four new open-framework germanates, SU-74, SU-75, SU-69 and ...

  5. Software Patents: Current Challenges and Future Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Goyal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Software patents for years have been used in the software industry to suppress innovation, kill competition, and generate undeserved royalties. This article considers whether software patents maintain the right “bargain between the inventor and the public” where, in exchange for disclosure of the invention to the public, the inventor receives a limited monopoly and the exclusive right to exploit the invention. This article argues that they do not and then explores possible solutions to address the problems identified. Those solutions include streamlining the patent process, making it more difficult to patent software innovations, making it easier to invalidate software patents, and shortening the patent protection from 20 to 10 years. The article closes with a call to action for people to work collectively to effect change in the industry.

  6. PATENTS IN GENOMICS AND HUMAN GENETICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Deegan, Robert; Heaney, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Genomics and human genetics are scientifically fundamental and commercially valuable. These fields grew to prominence in an era of growth in government and nonprofit research funding, and of even greater growth of privately funded research and development in biotechnology and pharmaceuticals. Patents on DNA technologies are a central feature of this story, illustrating how patent law adapts---and sometimes fails to adapt---to emerging genomic technologies. In instrumentation and for therapeutic proteins, patents have largely played their traditional role of inducing investment in engineering and product development, including expensive postdiscovery clinical research to prove safety and efficacy. Patents on methods and DNA sequences relevant to clinical genetic testing show less evidence of benefits and more evidence of problems and impediments, largely attributable to university exclusive licensing practices. Whole-genome sequencing will confront uncertainty about infringing granted patents but jurisprudence trends away from upholding the broadest and potentially most troublesome patent claims. PMID:20590431

  7. Alienation from the Objectives of the Patent System: How to Remedy the Situation of Biotechnology Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li

    2018-03-12

    Some fundamental biotechnologies hold unprecedented potential to eradicate many incurable diseases. However, in absence of regulations, the power of patent makes the future use of some important biotechnology in few institution's hands. The excessive patents restrict researcher access to the fundamental technologies. It generates concerns and complaints of deteriorating the public health and social welfare. Furthermore, intellectual curiosities, funding, respect among colleagues etc., rather than patents, are the real motivations driving a major ground-breaking discoveries in biotechnology. These phenomena reveal that some biotechnology patents are alienated from the purpose of patent system. Therefore, it is necessary to take some approaches to stop over-patenting these fundamental biotechnology inventions. This article proposes a model regulatory framework for controlling biotechnology patent alienating from the purpose of patent system.

  8. Advances in patent applications related to allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eduardo Santos da; Pinheiro, Carina Silva; Quintella, Cristina Maria; Ferreira, Fatima; C Pacheco, Luis Gustavo; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria

    2016-06-01

    Allergies are among the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is used as an alternative treatment to pharmacotherapy. These immunotherapies are performed with crude extracts, which have disadvantages when compared to the new approaches, among them are recombinant proteins and hypoallergens. This review aims to assess immunotherapy for allergies through patent application analysis spanning recent decades. Patents referring to allergen immunotherapies used in allergy treatment. Data were obtained from the Espacenet® website, using the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) system. Two-hundred-and-one patent applications were analyzed, taking into consideration their classification by the type of technology and applicant. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents the only potentially curative therapeutic intervention for the treatment of allergic diseases. The extract-based immunotherapy is being replaced by the use of recombinant allergens, highlighting the hypoallergenic forms, which have low IgE-binding while retaining T-cell reactivity. It is expected that the development of hypoallergens will expand the scope of allergen-specific immunotherapy, especially if associated with alternative systems for expression and delivery systems with future potential. Furthermore, these new developments will likely address the problem of long-term protocols in allergen-specific immunotherapy, thus allowing better patient adherence and compliance.

  9. Synthetic Biology in the Biotech Patent Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana García-llerena

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the intended positive effects of the current patent system in biotechnological research have been widely questioned. As part of this review, it is discussed here one of the foundations of the model. The assumption of the indispensability of patents is examined through the analysis of their expected benefits; namely, that patents are suitable to ensure access to information, access to and use of inventions and, finally, that they should promote both creativity and research. Applied t...

  10. The US patent system is broken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczenik, George

    2013-08-01

    In discussions in this issue of RBM Online relating to a patent granted to Auxogyn, Professor Renee Reijo Pera claims this is not about a "broken patent system". I shall demonstrate how dysfunctional the patent system has become and how much in denial 'inventor' Renee Reijo Pera is about her invention differing from a naturally occurring phenomenon. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. (When) Do Stronger Patents Increase Continual Innovation?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yongmin; Pan, Shiyuan; Zhang, Tianle

    2012-01-01

    Under continual innovation, greater patent strength expands innovating firms’ profit against imitation, but also shifts profit from current to past innovators. We show how the impact of patents on innovation, as determined by these two opposing effects, varies with industry characteristics. When the discount factor is sufficiently high, the negative profit division effect is negligible, and innovation monotonically increases in patent strength; otherwise, innovation has an inverted-U relation...

  12. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawings required in patent..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The Drawings § 1.81 Drawings required in patent application. (a) The applicant for a patent is required to furnish...

  13. 37 CFR 1.41 - Applicant for patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.41 Section 1.41 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for A...

  14. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE...

  15. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Publication...

  16. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of...

  17. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of...

  18. 37 CFR 1.177 - Issuance of multiple reissue patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of multiple reissue patents. 1.177 Section 1.177 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Reissues § 1...

  19. 37 CFR 1.46 - Assigned inventions and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned inventions and patents. 1.46 Section 1.46 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply...

  20. Patenting and licensing in genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymé, S; Matthijs, G; Soini, S

    2008-04-01

    Patents for inventions can be beneficial for society, if they drive innovation and promote progress. In most areas, the patenting system works satisfactorily. However, it must be recognized that in some instances it can also be problematic; this is the case in the field of genetics, and particularly in the area of genetic testing. As patents should serve their original purpose (promoting innovation through a fair reward system for the inventors), the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) suggests ways to improve the mechanisms that already form part of the patents system as a whole. In brief, the ESHG recommends limiting the breadth of the claims in genetic patents and, more practically, to reduce the number of patents by limiting the patentable subject matter, thereby improving the quality of the patents that will eventually be granted. There is also a suggestion to redefine the concept of utility in patent law, by taking account of downstream clinical experience. The ESHG sees no harm in the patenting of novel technical tools for genetic testing (eg PCR or chip technologies), as they can promote investment and still allow for invention around them. Many disputes between supporters of the patenting system and the public revolve around ethical issues. The European Patent Office should consider the benefit of having an ethics committee to consider issues of major interest, such as patents applied to genes. The problem of licensing should also be addressed. Practically, this means supporting the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines, which prescribe that licenses should be non-exclusive and easily obtainable, both in practical and in financial terms. To promote this, the practical exploration of alternative models for licensing, like patent pools and clearinghouses, is a prerequisite. To better track developments in this field, the establishment of a voluntary reporting system, whereby geneticists could report on any issues related to

  1. Performance of Patenting Firms in Danish Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non......-patenting firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political...

  2. Patents - Superconductor materials, processes and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test, A.

    1987-01-01

    A patent is a grant by a country to an inventor or his assignee of the right to exclude others for a limited period of time from making, using or selling the patented invention within its territory. It is reported that basic patents have been filed by IBM and the University of Houston to protect a broad range of warm superconducting materials or compounds. It is believed that other researchers are seeking patents to protect related or improved materials, processes and apparatus. Because of the importance of this field and to speed up the patent process, the United States Patent Office is giving, upon request, special expedited status to these patent applications. A survey of Japanese companies shows that more than 1500 patents have been applied for in Japan relating to superconducting materials, compositions, apparatus using superconductors and improvements. It appears that the goal of the Japanese companies is to obtain a patent position in Japan so that they can trade with companies wishing to do business in Japan for rights in other parts of the world

  3. The History of Patenting Genetic Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkow, Jacob S; Greely, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    The US Supreme Court's recent decision in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc. declared, for the first time, that isolated human genes cannot be patented. Many have wondered how genes were ever the subjects of patents. The answer lies in a nuanced understanding of both legal and scientific history. Since the early twentieth century, "products of nature" were not eligible to be patented unless they were "isolated and purified" from their surrounding environment. As molecular biology advanced, and the capability to isolate genes both physically and by sequence came to fruition, researchers (and patent offices) began to apply patent-law logic to genes themselves. These patents, along with other biological patents, generated substantial social and political criticism. Myriad Genetics, a company with patents on BRCA1 and BRCA2, two genes critical to assessing early-onset breast and ovarian cancer risk, and with a particularly controversial business approach, became the antagonist in an ultimately successful campaign to overturn gene patents in court. Despite Myriad's defeat, some questions concerning the rights to monopolize genetic information remain. The history leading to that defeat may be relevant to these future issues.

  4. On German Unity 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 3 October 1990 the division of Germany into two states came to an end. The. German Democratic Republic (GDR) acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany and in doing so ceased to exist. This epoch-making event took place peacefully and in agreement with all Germany's friends, allies and European neighbours.

  5. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  6. Pre-empted Patents, Infringed Patents and Firms’ Participation in Markets for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk their patent applications to be pre-empted or to be infringed upon by rivals. While ...

  7. 76 FR 18194 - Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially Exclusive, or Non- Exclusive Licenses; Battery Day Patent Licensing Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  8. Interactive overlay maps for US Patent (USPTO) data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Kushnir, D.; Rafols, I.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of an interface to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that allows for the mapping of patent portfolios as overlays to basemaps constructed from citation relations among all patents contained in this database during the period 1976-2011. Both the interface and the

  9. 78 FR 51177 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable...

  10. 78 FR 72872 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable...

  11. German Jewish Intellectuals and the German Occupation of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Wyrwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In August 1914 the majority of German Jews expressed their patriotic approval of the war and their loyalty to the German state. They identified with Germany, and a large number signed up voluntarily for military service at the front. The Jewish population in Germany affirmed the war not least because it was directed against Russia, the harshest adversary of the Jews. This paper concentrates on the first acts of war conducted by the German military forces during the German occupation of Belgium; it examines whether and in what way German-Jewish Intellectuals perceived Germany’s violation of Belgian neutrality and the new feature of war as a war against a civilian population. The first part examines autobiographical sources to reconstruct the experiences and the perception of German Jewish soldiers, German military rabbis, and other German Jewish witnesses to the war. The second part then analyzes the coverage of German Jewish newspapers regarding the warfare against Belgium; and, finally, the third and last part scrutinizes the commentaries of German Jewish intellectuals and socialist Jews [Jewish socialists?] regarding the German war against Belgium.

  12. Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

  13. Prior art relevant to active beads patent application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moolman, S

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper entails patents related to active beads containing encapsulated ingredients, patents cited by International Search Report on previous application and US patents related to suspension of inclusions in beverages...

  14. Neglected knowledge in geophysics: Patents - how to find them, how to use them and how to apply for them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, K. G.

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical departments of universities or major geophysical research institutes around the world hardly ever file for a patent, even if pioneering and marketable work is done - this is what research in patent databases shows. Patents for methods, apparatuses or scientific instruments developed during scientific projects are mostly filed by companies, i.e. more than 90% of approximately 185,000 patent documents added by May 2013 to the International Patent Classification (IPC) class G01V, which the United Nations' World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) has set up mainly for inventions with key aspects in geophysics. Even inventions born of cooperations between research institutes or universities and well-known geophysical companies where both act as equal partners almost never make it to the G01V. University departments responsible for intellectual property management explain that geoscientists prefer to publish their results in journals rather than in the form of patent applications even if these departments support them and parallel publication is protected legally. This means geoscientists miss the opportunity to protect their intellectual work and to tap its economic potential. But even if scientists don't want to apply for patents, patent documents constitute a wealth of knowledge that should be used much more frequently in research e.g. to stay on top of developments in one's own scientific field. Most important databases are for free, search functionality is self-explanatory and the amount of information to be extracted is enormous. All in all, about 80 million multilingual patent documents are currently available online e.g. in DEPATIS database from the German Patent and Trade Mark Office (DPMA) or ESPACENET from the European Patent Office (EPO). From a researcher's perspective, they might also be interesting for detailed technical background information, interdisciplinary solutions for similar problems, to learn about inventions too advanced for

  15. Patent documentation - comparison of two MT strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on two matters: A comparison of how two different MT strategies manage translating the text type of patent documentation and a survey of what is needed to transform a MT research prototype system to a translation application for patent texts. The two MT strategies is represented...

  16. Patents and research--an uneasy alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashige, Kate

    2002-12-01

    Critics of the patent system have argued that rather than promoting the progress of science and the useful arts, the patent system as it exists in the United States and perhaps elsewhere may actually inhibit such progress. Much of the criticism has been focused on patenting of research tools. The author attempts to evaluate the extent of this effect, and to suggest some possible modifications to the patent system to address its shortcomings. She considers the advantages attributed to the patenting system-providing incentives for finance and development and spurring creativity-with the disadvantages perceived by the academic community, including impediments to the communication of research findings and other transaction costs. Also examined are possible options for mitigating these problems, including legislative restrictions of certain subject matter from patentability, or strengthening the criteria used in review of patent applications, especially non-obviousness and utility. In addition, the author discusses potential "post-patent solutions," such as legislative or other restrictions on licensing.

  17. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    'The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty' is a book covering the 'Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)' and the 'Regulations under the PCT'. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind this book is to add cross-references to the

  18. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    'The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty' is a book covering the 'Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)' and the 'Regulations under the PCT'. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind this book is to add cross-references to the

  19. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    'The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty' is a book covering the 'Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)' and the 'Regulations under the PCT'. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind this book is to add cross-references to the

  20. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    'The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty' is a book covering the 'Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)' and the 'Regulations under the PCT'. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind this book is to add cross-references to the

  1. The cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    'The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty' is a book covering the 'Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)' and the 'Regulations under the PCT'. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind this book is to add cross-references to the

  2. DOE patents available for licensing: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoeming, G.H.

    1982-06-01

    Abstracts and indexes are provided for 1344 DOE patents or patent applications concerning any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization. The entries are arranged by subject category as shown in the table of contents. The bibliography covers the period from January 1974 through December 1980

  3. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human...

  4. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law...

  5. Pharmaceutical Innovation, Incremental Patenting and Compulsory ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The granting of patents on minor variants of known pharmaceuticals may, in particular, force governments to resort to granting compulsory licenses. Developing countries interested in promoting local innovation therefore face a policy dilemma, mainly, how to design patent policies that promote local innovation while ...

  6. Recognizing chemicals in patents: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Maryam; Wiegandt, David Luis; Schmedding, Florian; Leser, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Recently, methods for Chemical Named Entity Recognition (NER) have gained substantial interest, driven by the need for automatically analyzing todays ever growing collections of biomedical text. Chemical NER for patents is particularly essential due to the high economic importance of pharmaceutical findings. However, NER on patents has essentially been neglected by the research community for long, mostly because of the lack of enough annotated corpora. A recent international competition specifically targeted this task, but evaluated tools only on gold standard patent abstracts instead of full patents; furthermore, results from such competitions are often difficult to extrapolate to real-life settings due to the relatively high homogeneity of training and test data. Here, we evaluate the two state-of-the-art chemical NER tools, tmChem and ChemSpot, on four different annotated patent corpora, two of which consist of full texts. We study the overall performance of the tools, compare their results at the instance level, report on high-recall and high-precision ensembles, and perform cross-corpus and intra-corpus evaluations. Our findings indicate that full patents are considerably harder to analyze than patent abstracts and clearly confirm the common wisdom that using the same text genre (patent vs. scientific) and text type (abstract vs. full text) for training and testing is a pre-requisite for achieving high quality text mining results.

  7. Recent patents in pressurised metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtezazi, Touraj

    2012-04-01

    In this paper recent patents in pressurised metered dose inhalers have been reviewed. The patents are related to novel valves, dose-counters, formulations, add-on devices, reduction of propellant leakage and inkjet technology. Recently patented dose-counters provide mechanisms that are less susceptible to inaccuracy, and are battery-less electronic dose-counters with the help of miniature electromechanical generators. Regarding the formulation aspect, recent patents provide methods for combinational pMDIs and more stable products. Advantages of recently patented valves are being spring-free and less subject to loss of prime. Recent developments in micromachining have allowed patents that incorporate inkjet technology to develop inhalers that are similar to pMDIs, but produce uniform aerosol droplets. Coating canisters with suitable polymers has reduced need for excipients. Recently patented add-on devices reduce aerosol deposition in the spacer by creating turbulence on the walls of the chamber. Blockage of nozzles in actuators is prevented by providing tapered nozzle channels. In conclusion, these patents show better understanding of pMDIs and provide methods to achieve products with much improved reliability, aerosol performance and stability.

  8. School of German Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Evteev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of German is one of the oldest language departments at MGIMO. Since its foundation in 1944 the military experienced teachers of the department, most of whom were native speakers, have begun to develop a unique method of teaching the German language, thereby revolutionize learning this foreign language. The first steps made under the supervision of the Department of Antonina V. Celica. The department refused to conventional time and is still used in universities such as the Moscow Linguistic University, separate teaching phonetics, grammar and vocabulary, which was due to the specific objectives set for the teaching staff: prepare for short term specialists in international relations, active Germanspeaking. The department can be proud of its graduates, many of whom continue his career in the walls of native high school. Many graduates have dedicated their lives to serving the State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  9. Simultaneous invention and the patent law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D

    is typical of important pioneer inventions in both survey evidence and alleged illustrative cases of simultaneous invention. We show this in the cases of Edison, the Wright brothers, the Selden automobile patent vis a vis Ford, Watt and the steam engine. We then point out that patent law inherently ensures...... inventions they often find this to challenge the idea that patent law (which rewards only the first inventor with exclusive rights) is needed to encourage invention and innovation. We review the empirical evidence alleged to show that simultaneous invention is prevalent for important inventions. In general...... that patent protection is not extended to near simultaneous inventions. There remain a number of simultaneous inventions discovered through interference proceedings but we find the number too small to mount a serious challenge to the general operation of patent law....

  10. The Transformation of Science Into Patented Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin...... for searching in new directions for solutions if challenges of exploitation with regard to the scientific invention arise.......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety...

  11. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...... patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers....

  12. Canada's Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Proceedings and Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Henry; McCourt, Conor

    2015-01-08

    Canada's Patent Register is a tool created by the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations to help innovators protect their inventions relating to pharmaceuticals. This tool exists at the intersection between the intellectual property and drug approval regimes. By listing a patent on the Patent Register, an innovator can prevent a generic manufacturer from entering the marketplace rather than having to wait for his or her patent to be infringed. This article provides information on the requirements for listing a patent on the Patent Register and an overview of how the Patent Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations affect the drug approval process. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. European stem cell research in legal shackles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.G.; de Vries, S.A.; Geijsen, N.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised legal challenges to the patentability of stem cells and any derived technologies and processes. In 1999, Oliver Brustle was granted a patent for the generation and therapeutic use of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The patent

  14. Analysis of access to patent information systems of Industrial Property Office CZ, European Patent Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office and World Intellectual Property Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Nowaková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The master thesis analyses and compares selected accesses to patent information systems of Czech Industrial Property Office, European Patent Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office and World Intellectual Property Organization. This includes accesses via web sites of the institutions mentioned above and an access via Google Patents service. The thesis is divided into six parts. The first part discusses patent information systems, the second one gives an overview of the selected insti...

  15. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  16. Patent foramen ovale: Unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojadidi, Mohammad Khalid; Christia, Panagiota; Salamon, Jason; Liebelt, Jared; Zaman, Tarique; Gevorgyan, Rubine; Nezami, Nariman; Mojaddedi, Sanaullah; Elgendy, Islam Y; Tobis, Jonathan M; Faillace, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The foramen ovale is a remnant of the fetal circulation that remains patent in 20-25% of the adult population. Although long overlooked as a potential pathway that could produce pathologic conditions, the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with a higher than expected frequency in a variety of clinical syndromes including cryptogenic stroke, migraines, sleep apnea, platypnea-orthodeoxia, deep sea diving associated decompression illness, and high altitude pulmonary edema. A unifying hypothesis is that a chemical or particulate matter from the venous circulation crosses the PFO conduit between the right and left atria to produce a variety of clinical syndromes. Although observational studies suggest a therapeutic benefit of PFO closure compared to medical therapy alone in patients with cryptogenic stroke, 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not confirm the superiority of PFO closure for the secondary prevention of stroke. However, meta-analyses of these RCTs demonstrate a significant benefit of PFO closure over medical therapy alone. Similarly, observational studies provide support for PFO closure for symptomatic relief of migraines. But one controversial randomized study failed to replicate the results of the observational studies while another two demonstrated a partial benefit. The goal of this review is to discuss the clinical conditions associated with PFO and provide internists and primary care physicians with current data on PFO trials, and clinical insight to help guide their patients who are found to have a PFO on echocardiographic testing. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of gene patents on diagnostic testing: a new patent landscaping method applied to spinocerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthels, Nele; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui

    2011-11-01

    Recent reports in Europe and the United States raise concern about the potential negative impact of gene patents on the freedom to operate of diagnosticians and on the access of patients to genetic diagnostic services. Patents, historically seen as legal instruments to trigger innovation, could cause undesired side effects in the public health domain. Clear empirical evidence on the alleged hindering effect of gene patents is still scarce. We therefore developed a patent categorization method to determine which gene patents could indeed be problematic. The method is applied to patents relevant for genetic testing of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). The SCA test is probably the most widely used DNA test in (adult) neurology, as well as one of the most challenging due to the heterogeneity of the disease. Typically tested as a gene panel covering the five common SCA subtypes, we show that the patenting of SCA genes and testing methods and the associated licensing conditions could have far-reaching consequences on legitimate access to this gene panel. Moreover, with genetic testing being increasingly standardized, simply ignoring patents is unlikely to hold out indefinitely. This paper aims to differentiate among so-called 'gene patents' by lifting out the truly problematic ones. In doing so, awareness is raised among all stakeholders in the genetic diagnostics field who are not necessarily familiar with the ins and outs of patenting and licensing.

  18. Patent landscape for biological hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, David B; Lubieniechi, Simona

    2013-12-01

    Research and development of biological hydrogen production have expanded significantly in the past decade. Production of renewable hydrogen from agricultural, forestry, or other organic waste streams offers the possibility to contribute to hydrogen production capacity with no net, or at least with lower, greenhouse gas emissions. Significant improvements in the volumetric or molar yields of hydrogen production have been accomplished through genetic engineering of hydrogen synthesizing microorganisms. Although no commercial scale renewable biohydrogen production facilities are currently in operation, a few pilot scale systems have been demonstrated successfully, and while industrial scale production of biohydrogen still faces a number of technical and economic barriers, understanding the patent landscape is an important step in developing a viable commercialization strategy. In this paper, we review patents filed on biological hydrogen production. Patents on biohydrogen production from both the Canadian and American Patents databases were classified into three main groups: (1) patents for biological hydrogen by direct photolysis; (2) patents for biological hydrogen by dark fermentation; and (3) patents for process engineering for biological hydrogen production.

  19. AVC/H.264 patent portfolio license

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalis, Dean A.

    2006-08-01

    MPEG LA, LLC offers a joint patent license for the AVC (a/k/a H.264) Standard (ISO/IEC IS 14496-10:2004). Like MPEG LA's other licenses, the AVC Patent Portfolio License is offered for the convenience of the marketplace as an alternative enabling users to access essential intellectual property owned by many patent holders under a single license rather than negotiating licenses with each of them individually. The AVC Patent Portfolio License includes essential patents owned by DAEWOO Electronics Corporation; Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI); France Telecom, societe anonyme; Fujitsu Limited; Hitachi, Ltd.; Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; LG Electronics Inc.; Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.; Microsoft Corporation; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; Robert Bosch GmbH; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.; Sedna Patent Services, LLC; Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha; Siemens AG; Sony Corporation; The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York; Toshiba Corporation; UB Video Inc.; and Victor Company of Japan, Limited. Another is expected also to join as of August 1, 2006. MPEG LA's objective is to provide worldwide access to as much AVC essential intellectual property as possible for the benefit of AVC users. Therefore, any party that believes it has essential patents is welcome to submit them for evaluation of their essentiality and inclusion in the License if found essential.

  20. The Transformation of Science Into Patented Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...

  1. How old are Germanic lambs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieland, Seán D.

    2017-01-01

    Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto-Germanic, an......Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto......-Germanic, and speaks for Gothic and Gutnish preserving the original Proto-Germanic meaning of the etymon. These semantics provide a missing link for connecting Pro-to-Germanic *lambiz- with PIE *h₁él-n-/*h₁l-ón- ‘red deer’....

  2. Revising the Complex Economics of Patent Scope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory...... that a function of patents is to enable the coordinated development of novel technical ideas. This article is a critical review of Merges and Nelson's historical empirical evidence. I find that, first, 'broad' scope is only implicated in one of the examples cited by Merges and Nelson as supportive evidence...

  3. Quinoxaline derivatives: a patent review (2006--present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo

    2012-11-01

    Quinoxaline scaffold is included in a large number of therapeutic agents because of its physicochemical properties that make the difference between them and the carbono analogue, naphthalene. This review of patented products presents the quinoxaline heterocycle as part of the structural patent claims from a medicinal chemistry perspective. We centred our discussion in the various drug patent applications of the quinoxaline and its derivatives. The applications are based firstly in the specific enzyme target with very low development in the disease treatment. Only for cancer and antimicrobial agents they were specifically determined but little is mentioned in order to insight in the last development activities.

  4. The German drought monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  5. Baltic, Slavic, Germanic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The western Indo-European vocabulary in Baltic and Slavic is the result of an Indo-European substratum which contained an older non-Indo-European layer and was part of the Corded Ware horizon. The numbers show that a considerable part of the vocabulary was borrowed after the split between Baltic and Slavic, which came about when their speakers moved westwards north and south of the Pripet marshes. Germanic and Balto-Slavic were never contiguous Indo-European dialects at any stage of their prehistory.

  6. Electricity: the German example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes some comments on the content of the Energiewende, i.e. the definition of the energy transition in Germany which aims at producing and consuming a green energy, without carbon nor nuclear. He comments the German energy mix for 2010 in terms of electricity production per origin (nuclear, coal and lignite, gas, oil, wind, solar photovoltaic, other renewable sources) and of installed capacities per origin. He notices that gas and coal still have a major weight in this mix, and discusses the content of a scenario based 100 per cent renewable energies as it has been studied by the Fraunhofer Institute, notably in terms of production level and of costs

  7. The German Humpback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Ploeen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies find a monotonic positive relationship between a firm’s internationalization and its foreign exchange hedging. We argue that high levels of internationalization can reduce the need for foreign exchange hedging through diversification (e.g. sales to several markets) and operational...... hedging (matching of cash flows and operational flexibility). We employ multivariate regression analysis and find an inverse U-shape relationship (“humpback”) for large listed non-financial German firms. Foreign exchange hedging activity peaks when half of sales (or long-term assets) is outside Europe. We...

  8. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    It has been proposed that when multiple, independently-owned and ‘over-lapping’ patents must be licensed for legal technology development the difficulty of negotiating cross-licenses may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter that development. Our literature review finds these features allegedly...... present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re......-examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...

  9. 78 FR 21787 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 3 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Proposed Rule #0;#0...-0007] RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties...

  10. 78 FR 62367 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ... Office 37 CFR Parts 1, 3 and 11 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends...

  11. Valuing patents on cost-reducing technology: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Triest, S.P.; van de Vis, Wim

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach for valuing patents on production process improvements. Specifically, we focus on valuing a patent on cost-reducing process improvements from the viewpoint of the patent holding firm. We do this by considering the relevant cash flows that result from owning the patent. The

  12. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Records and Files of the Patent and Trademark Office § 1.14 Patent applications preserved in confidence... published under 35 U.S.C. 122(b) are generally preserved in confidence pursuant to 35 U.S.C. 122(a...

  13. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information

  14. 76 FR 53885 - Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and... ``Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K...

  15. 76 FR 40339 - Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) Program ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as... Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450...

  16. The European Patent System: Dealing with emerging technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa; Groenendijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent controversial patent decisions in biotechnology, this article argues that the current European patent examination and opposition procedures do not suffice to balance the patent system These procedures do not provide sufficient guidance for patent examiners to deal effectively with

  17. 77 FR 269 - Matters Related to Patent Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Matters Related to Patent Appeals ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office... Matters Related to Patent Appeals comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K. Fawcett...

  18. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and the...

  19. 76 FR 34062 - Patent and Trademark Financial Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Financial Transactions ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office... Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450...

  20. 50 CFR 401.21 - Patents and inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 401.21 Section 401... CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.21 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights... to the Act shall be consistent with the “Government Patent Policy” (President's memorandum for Heads...

  1. 77 FR 14766 - Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents for Humanity Program... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent... . Include ``0651- 0066 Patents for Humanity Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit of...

  3. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and...

  4. Die Deutschen in Wisconsin (Germans in Wisconsin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The following curriculum units comprise this course book: (1) Germans in a New Home, (2) Contributions of the Germans in Wisconsin, (3) A Letter to Germany, (4) Germans Come to Kingston, (5) First a Soldier, Then a Man of the Church (about Heinrich von Rohr), (6) A Visiting German, and (7) Germans and Music. Each unit begins with a reading of…

  5. Analysis of radio-sensitization patents in China from 2006 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guofeng; Di, Xiaoke; Sun, Xinchen; Yan, Jingjing; Zhang, Shu

    2017-10-01

    Radiotherapy is by means of ionizing radiation to kill tumor cells, inhibit and control the growth, metastasis and diffusion of tumor cells. During the last few decades, application of radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy and surgery are clinical mainstream treatments. However, little is known what radio-sensitization agents have been patented in China and what the potential drug candidates for patents are in China. Areas covered: This reviews covers research and patent literature of the last 10 years dealing with the discovery and development of novel radio-sensitization patents in China. Expert opinion: The 94 radio-sensitization patents granted from 2006 to 2015 mainly focus on six types of products. They are: traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), synthetic compounds, combinations of synthetic compounds and TCM, biological products, medical apparatus and others. In the course of tumor treatment, radiotherapy occupies an irreplaceable position. Previously believed that due to the prevalence of hypoxic cells in solid tumors, most of the tumor exist a certain degree of radiation resistance. To find effective ways to improve the sensitivity of tumor cells to radiation therapy has become a focus in scientific research and clinical treatment. So radiation sensitivity has been proposed and widely studied.

  6. Patent Ethics: The Misalignment of Views Between the Patent System and the Wider Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Ellen-Marie; Hanssen, Anders Braarud; Nielsen, Hanne Marie; Olesen, Ingrid

    2017-08-15

    Concerns have been voiced about the ethical implications of patenting practices in the field of biotechnology. Some of these have also been incorporated into regulation, such as the European Commission Directive 98/44 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. However, the incorporation of ethically based restrictions into patent legislation has not had the effect of satisfying all concerns. In this article, we will systematically compare the richness of ethical concerns surrounding biotech patenting, with the limited scope of ethical concerns actually addressed in the patent system. As sources of our analyses we will use literature and document studies and a survey with important stakeholders and experts related to Norwegian patenting in the aquacultural biotechnology sector. We will structure the analyses with an ethical matrix, developed for this purpose. Showing the misalignment of the discussions within and outside the patent system, we suggest that an important reason for the ethical controversy still surrounding patenting is that ethical questions keep being framed in a narrow way within the system. Until a richer set of ethical considerations is addressed head-on within the patent system, the patent system will continue to evoke academic and interest group criticism, potentially contributing to a legitimacy crisis of the whole system.

  7. Patent documentation - comparison of two MT strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on two matters: A comparison of how two different MT strategies manage translating the text type of patent documentation and a survey of what is needed to transform a MT research prototype system to a translation application for patent texts. The two MT strategies is represented....... The distinctive text type of patents pose special demands for machine translation and these aspects are discussed based on linguistic observations with focus on the users point of view. Two main demands are automatic pre processing of the documents and implementation of a module which in a flexible and user......-friendly manner offers the opportunity to extend the lexical coverage of the system. These demands and the comparison of the two MT strategies are discussed on the basis of proofread patents....

  8. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Protonation of Patented Blue V ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    XTreme.ws

    SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. Protonation of Patented Blue V in aqueous solutions: Theoretical and experimental studies. KATERYNA BEVZIUKa, ALEXANDER CHEBOTAREVa, MAKSYM FIZERb,. ANASTASIIA KLOCHKOVAa, KONSTANTIN PLIUTAa and DENYS SNIGURa*. aDepartment of Analytical Chemistry, ...

  9. Classifying patents based on their semantic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we extend some usual techniques of classification resulting from a large-scale data-mining and network approach. This new technology, which in particular is designed to be suitable to big data, is used to construct an open consolidated database from raw data on 4 million patents taken from the US patent office from 1976 onward. To build the pattern network, not only do we look at each patent title, but we also examine their full abstract and extract the relevant keywords accordingly. We refer to this classification as semantic approach in contrast with the more common technological approach which consists in taking the topology when considering US Patent office technological classes. Moreover, we document that both approaches have highly different topological measures and strong statistical evidence that they feature a different model. This suggests that our method is a useful tool to extract endogenous information. PMID:28445550

  10. The patent activity of the Czech R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučera Zdeněk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective knowledge transfer between research institutions and industry is a significant bottleneck in the national innovation system. CR adopted in recent years a series of systemic measures aimed to stimulate the orientation of the R&D organizations towards the generation of knowledge directly applicable in the innovation process and more generally to improve the collaboration of the R&D establishment with the industry. In the majority of programs supporting the applied research patents and industrial designs and utility models are among the anticipated results. The Methodology of the evaluation of R&D organizations implemented in the second half of the last decade brought financial bonuses for the creation of the results in the category of industrial property. Despite of this stimulus CR lags behind the technologically advanced EU countries in the patent activities. The topic of this article is a comparison of the protection of the industrial property rights in the Czech higher education institutions and governmental R&D institutions with selected EU countries. We make use of a couple of quantitative indicators to assess the quality and the technological and the commercial potential of the produced industrial property. Despite a dynamic growth of the patent applications in the CR the number of patent applications relative to the country size is far below the EU-15 average. The Czech research organizations contribute to a higher extent to the number of patent applications then do the analogous institutions in EU-15 countries where the majority of patent applications come from the industrial sphere. The Czech research organizations mainly limit the patent rights to the Czech Republic whereas in the EU-15 countries the opposite is preponderant and only a small fraction of patent applications remains limited to the national environment. Thus the majority of the Czech patents created by research organizations cannot be commercialized on the

  11. INTRODUCING PATENT PROTECTION IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR:

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pluvia ZUNIGA; Emmanuel COMBE

    2002-01-01

    Reformed under NAFTA negotiations and in compliance with the TRIPs Agreement (Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights) when Mexico joined the World Trade Organization, patent protection for pharmaceuticals in this country has been reinforced since 1991 with the new Industrial Property Law. The aim of this paper is to make a first brief evaluation of the static and dynamic effects of the introduction of patent protection for pharmaceuticals in Mexico and to compare them to those predicted b...

  12. Pharmaceutical patent bargains: the Brazilian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Bruno Meyerhof; Benoliel, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In the backdrop of the strict patent regime flatly adopted by the World Trade Organization (WTO) for all countries, a few countries constantly challenge this system through aggressive patent bargains. Within the pharmaceutical sector, noticeably, some countries now threaten to issue or otherwise actually issue compulsory licenses that may sway large pharmaceutical companies into selling drugs with large discounts or into granting voluntary licenses domestically. That is conspicuously the nego...

  13. Antibody therapeutics - the evolving patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Jenny; McManamny, Patrick; Honeyman, Jane

    2011-09-01

    The antibody patent landscape has evolved dramatically over the past 30 years, particularly in areas of technology relating to antibody modification to reduce immunogenicity in humans or improve antibody function. In some cases antibody techniques that were developed in the 1980s are still the subject of patent protection in the United States or Canada. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent Patent Advances For Neurodegenerative Disorders And Its Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bhavna; Sharma, Deepika

    2017-10-10

    Neurodegenerative disorders are one of the common diseases that affect our society with tremendous medical and financial burdens. As a whole, neurodegeneration affects individuals of all ages, but becomes increasingly frequent with age, coming to affect a very large share of our elderly population which is severely affecting the patient, caregivers, and enormously increasing the financial burden of the nation. These diseases share a very complex nature, which often result from combined genetic, environment and pathogenic factors. Various challenges are faced by the scientific community that researches on the pathogenesis and the therapy of neurodegenerative disorder. The review has been analysed for recent patent documents and treatment approaches for neurodegenerative disorders. The study design is based on updating the international and national literatures and an exhaustive patent search and compiling of various patented documents for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders (EP2282779 A1, US20110229555 A1) to provide information in the state of technological innovation in terms of research and development. In the present review, the authors described various neurodegenerative diseases, there treatment strategies and emphasized on various patented approaches for age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as New therapeutic approaches for treating Alzheimer disease and related disorders through a modulation of cell stress response EP2282779 A1, through combined therapies that modulate angiogenesis US20120058992 A1. The review will attract the interest of academics, researchers, students and pharmaceutical companies in the recent on-going activities in neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Patents and licensing in pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Ancevska Netkovska

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual property rights (IPR have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial application. IPR is prerequisite for better identification, planning, commercialization, rendering, and thereby protection of invention or creativity. Each industry should evolve its own IPR policies, management style, strategies, and so on depending on its area of specialty. Pharmaceutical industry currently has an evolving IPR strategy requiring a better focus and approach in the coming era. The protection of inventions with patents in the pharmaceutical industry have a specific role in the development of society and represent one of the drivers of economic development. The license agreements are considered as one of the most common types of transfer of industrial property rights. The right holders often transfer their rights to patents by concluding licensing agreement. While the patent license may give the license a right to use the technology many license agreements have provisions for the transfer of know-how in addition to the patent.

  16. You can patent that? Are patents on computer programs and business methods good for the new economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert M. Hunt

    2001-01-01

    In other parts of the economy, firms are increasingly turning to patents to protect not just physical inventions but more abstract ones such as computer programs or ways of doing business. Just two decades ago such patents would have been impossible to obtain, let alone enforce. In "You Can Patent That? Are Patents on Computer Programs and Business Methods Good for the New Economy?" Bob Hunt describes the changes in patent law that have given rise to this phenomenon.

  17. German visits to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    State secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar.On 21 February, Professor Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, State Secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, came to CERN. He visited the ALICE and ATLAS experiments and the computing centre before meeting the CERN's Director-General, some German physicists and members of the top management. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Peter Frankenberg, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, signing an agreement on education. In the background: Sigurd Lettow, CERN's Director of Finance and Human Resources, and Karl-Heinz Meisel, Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Prof. Peter Frankenberg, visited CERN on 23 February. He was accompanied by the Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe, Prof. Karl-Heinz Meisel, and b...

  18. Can patents prohibit research? On the social epistemology of patenting and licensing in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Justin B

    2014-03-01

    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology--nonideal systems design--and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development of knowledge, which in turn facilitates social progress. Some have disputed this argument, maintaining that patenting actually inhibits knowledge production. In this paper, I make a stronger argument; in some areas of research in the US--in particular, research on GM seeds--patents and patent licenses can be, and are in fact being, used to prohibit some research. I discuss three potential solutions to this problem: voluntary agreements, eliminating patents, and a research exemption. I argue against eliminating patents, and I show that while voluntary agreements and a research exemption could be helpful, they do not sufficiently address the problems of access that are discussed here. More extensive changes in the organization of research are necessary.

  19. Published patent applications and patents from the promoted R + D area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeckel, G.; Zierl, I.

    1977-09-01

    The Ministry for Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany has sponsored technological R + D for industrial innovations since 1969. The following compilation includes the published patent applications and patents from all projects which were sponsored up to and including 1973. (orig.) [de

  20. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights and…

  1. Technology Trends Analysis Using Patent Landscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vsevolodovich Kortov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis and the choice of the priorities in technology development and, particularly, to the use of patent landscaping as a tool for the study of technology trends. Currently, patent activity indicators are often used for technology foresight and for competitive intelligence as well. Nevertheless, causal relationship between these indicators, on the one hand, and strategic and tactical decisions in the sphere of technological development on meso- and microeconomic level, on the other hand, are not adequately investigated to solve practical tasks. The goal of the work is to systemize the challenges of technology trends analysis, which could be effectively solved on the base of patent landscape analysis. The article analyses the patent landscaping methodology and tools, as well as their use for evaluating the current competitive environment and technology foresight. The authors formulated the generalized classification for the criteria of promising technologies for a selected region. To assess the compliance of a technology with these criteria, we propose a system of corresponding indicators of patenting activity. Using the proposed methodology, we have analysed the patent landscape to select promising technologies for the Sverdlovsk region. The research confirmed the hypothesis of the patent landscapes performance in evaluating such technology indicators as stages of the life cycle stage, universality (applicability in different industries, pace of worldwide development, innovations and science availability in the region and potential possibilities for scientific collaboration with international research institutions and universities. The results of the research may be useful to the wide audience, including representatives small and medium enterprises, large companies and regional authorities for the tasks concerned with the technology trends analysis and technology strategy design

  2. Biological diversity in the patent system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Oldham

    Full Text Available Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL. We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8-1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on

  3. Biological Diversity in the Patent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Forero, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI) established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL). We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8–1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual

  4. Patent landscape of neglected tropical diseases: an analysis of worldwide patent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsolu, Folahanmi Tomiwa; de Paiva, Vitor Nobre; Souza, Samuel Santos; Varga, Orsolya

    2017-11-14

    "Neglected Tropical Diseases" (NTDs) affect millions of people in Africa, Asia and South America. The two primary ways of strategic interventions are "preventive chemotherapy and transmission control" (PCT), and "innovative and intensified disease management" (IDM). In the last 5 years, phenomenal progress has been achieved. However, it is crucial to intensify research effort into NTDs, because of the emerging drug resistance. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the term NTDs covers 17 diseases, namely buruli ulcer, Chagas disease, dengue, dracunculiasis, echinococcosis, trematodiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthes, taeniasis, trachoma, and yaws. The aim of this study is to map out research and development (R&D) landscape through patent analysis of these identified NTDs. To achieve this, analysis and evaluation have been conducted on patenting trends, current legal status of patent families, priority countries by earliest priority years and their assignee types, technological fields of patent families over time, and original and current patent assignees. Patent families were extracted from Patseer, an international database of patents from over 100 patent issuing authorities worldwide. Evaluation of the patents was carried out using the combination of different search terms related to each identified NTD. In this paper, a total number of 12,350 patent families were analyzed. The main countries with sources of inventions were identified to be the United States (US) and China. The main technological fields covered by NTDs patent landscape are pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, organic fine chemistry, analysis of biological materials, basic materials chemistry, and medical technology. Governmental institutions and universities are the primary original assignees. Among the NTDs, leishmaniasis, dengue, and rabies received the highest number of

  5. The Seductive-Plausibility of Patent Hold-Up Myths — A Flawed Historiography of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D

    In previous work we have shown that a flawed historiography of patents continues to be the basis for patent policy advocacy. We set out objective standards of evidence that allegations of development block due to assertion of patents must meet. We show the extent of the errors in the historical...... record in the aircraft, automobile, radio and incandescent lamp technologies. We then evaluate how they measure against the objective standards. We find many simple errors and that an absence of indicia of development block characterise scholarship alleging that assertion of patents blocked development...... of multiple case studies subjected to such standards justifies the rebuttable presumption that “pioneer patents have never blocked development”....

  6. Analysis of Patent Databases Using VxInsight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYACK,KEVIN W.; WYLIE,BRIAN N.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.; JOHNSON,DAVID K.

    2000-12-12

    We present the application of a new knowledge visualization tool, VxInsight, to the mapping and analysis of patent databases. Patent data are mined and placed in a database, relationships between the patents are identified, primarily using the citation and classification structures, then the patents are clustered using a proprietary force-directed placement algorithm. Related patents cluster together to produce a 3-D landscape view of the tens of thousands of patents. The user can navigate the landscape by zooming into or out of regions of interest. Querying the underlying database places a colored marker on each patent matching the query. Automatically generated labels, showing landscape content, update continually upon zooming. Optionally, citation links between patents may be shown on the landscape. The combination of these features enables powerful analyses of patent databases.

  7. The challenges of joint performance to method patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-Chi

    2017-04-01

    Biotech patents are facing increasingly stern challenges. The patent statue holds that a multi-step method patent is not directly infringed unless all steps are carried out and attributed to a single entity. When separate steps are performed jointly by two or more parties, those parties are liable for divided infringement if there exists a direct infringement. Possibilities thus exist for unauthorized but non-infringing joint performance, i.e. enforcing a method patent will be difficult if joint performance stands as a valid defense against direct infringement. Areas covered: This analysis covers issues on patent infringement, specifically on divided infringement of diagnostic and method patents. Expert opinion: A retrospective analysis indicates that a large number of cancer diagnostic patents issued during 2005-2014 are potentially vulnerable to read on unauthorized use in the manner of joint performance. Inventors should draft patent claims appropriately to reduce the risk to assert their patents in this regard.

  8. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Yan; Zhang Yulei; Fan Li; Chen Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the 'title-abstract' keyword search on esp-cenet 'worldwide' database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant 'home advantage.' The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  9. The therapeutic applications of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs): a patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Kim, Cheolmin; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small molecules with a broad spectrum of antibiotic activities against bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and viruses and cytotoxic activity on cancer cells, in addition to anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Therefore, AMPs have garnered interest as novel therapeutic agents. Because of the rapid increase in drug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms, AMPs from synthetic and natural sources have been developed using alternative antimicrobial strategies. This article presents a broad analysis of patents referring to the therapeutic applications of AMPs since 2009. The review focuses on the universal trends in the effective design, mechanism, and biological evolution of AMPs.

  10. El Sistema de patentes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viana Barceló

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se realiza un análisis económico del Sistema de Patentes de Colombia. Para ello, se establece el efecto que tienen las patentes concedidas a los inventores foráneos sobre la Inversión Extranjera Directa y el Producto Interno Bruto Nacional, a través de la técnica de regresión de data panel. De igual manera, se identifican los sectores económicos que registran mayores tasas de innovación por parte de los inventores nacionales y extranjeros. Se muestra que el sistema nacional de propiedad intelectual tiene un grado de fortaleza acorde con el resto de países latinoamericanos; para ello, se construye un índice de grado de fortalecimiento de sistema de patente nacional que luego será comparado con el de otros países latinos.Palabras Clave: Sistema de Patentes; Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual; Inversión Directa extranjera; Producto Interno Bruto e innovación tecnológica. The system of patents in ColombiaAbstractIn this document an economic analysis of the System of Patents of Colombia is made. For it, the effect that has the patents granted to the foreign inventors on the Direct Foreign Investment and the Internal Product Gross National, through the technique of regression of data settles down panel. Of equal way, the economic sectors are identified that register greater rates of innovation on the part of the national and foreign inventors.Sample that the national system of intellectual property has a degree of agreed strength with the rest of Latin American countries; for it, an index of degree of fortification of system of national patent is constructed that soon will be compared with the one of other Latin countries.Keywords: System Patent; Rights of Intellectual Property; Foreign Direct Investment; Gross Domestic Product and Technology Innovation.

  11. … but You Are Not German." -- Afro-German Culture and Literature in the German Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Theresa; Munro, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Units and classes dedicated to multiculturalism in Germany have predominantly focused on Turkish-German literature and culture. Afro-Germans have been a minority whose culture and literature have only marginally been included in German classes, even though Afro-Germans have been a part of Germany for centuries and have undergone efforts at…

  12. Prospective evaluation of a patented DNA test for canine hip dysplasia (CHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Eberhard; Tellhelm, Bernd; Krawczak, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Genetic testing has been propagated as a suitable means to specify individual risks for canine hip dysplasia (CHD). However, the current lack of validation of most genetic CHD tests has left dog owners and breeders in the dark about their practical utility. Therefore, the Society for German Shepherd Dogs (Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde, SV) initiated a prospective study of 935 animals to assess independently the value of a genetic CHD test (European Patent Specification EP 2 123 777 B1) that was developed by Distl et al. (2009) on the basis of the SV animal stock. Dogs were followed-up for 3 years after birth, classified regarding their CHD phenotype using the scheme of the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, and genotyped for the 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) constituting the CHD test in question. Individual SNP genotypes were combined into animal-specific genomic breeding values (GBVs), calculated as the weighted sum of SNP-wise scores as laid down in the patent specification. Logistic regression analysis revealed that, unexpectedly, the odds ratio for CHD decreased, rather than increased, by a factor of 0.98 per unit increase of the GBV. Nevertheless, since this effect was not statistically significant (95% CI: 0.93-1.03), and the area-under-curve of the test was only 0.523, it must be concluded that the genetic test patented by Distl et al. (2009) is unsuitable for individual CHD risk assessment.

  13. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Early Radio Alleged Patent “Thicket”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    It has been proposed that difficulties in negotiating cross-licenses under multiple, independently-owned and ”overlapping” patents may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter development of technology covered by such patents. The literature alleges these features were present in radio development...... during 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, we re-examine the legal trajectories...... and entrepreneurial exploitation of patents on early vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent was alleged to have ”overlapped” with De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how patent rights were resolved...

  14. Intellectual Property Strategies of Multinational Companies Patenting in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Schuster, Gerd; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    systems in those countries are mostly not able to effectively protect intellectual property rights of multinational companies. Still, we observe the phenomenon of a strongly increasing rate of technology patenting in countries with weak appropriability regimes. This article studies patenting strategy......While global intellectual property trends show a stable rate of worldwide patent applications during the last five years, patent applications in emerging economies strongly increased within the same period. Unless the increasing number of applications in emerging economies, the indigenous legal...... clustering reveals the existence of five patent strategy archetypes of companies patenting in economies with weak appropriability regimes....

  15. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; Vepa, Suryanarayana; Weinstein, Ronald S; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (www.uspto.gov) (through January 2014) were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA). Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI), image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands). A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18%) were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82%) included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12%) patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75%) more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies) applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus), quality (z-stacks), management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files), and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI), workflow, slide navigation and remote control). An

  16. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan C. Cucoranu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Materials and Methods: Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO database (www.uspto.gov (through January 2014 were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA. Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI, image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands. Results: A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18% were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82% included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12% patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75% more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus, quality (z-stacks, management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files, and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI

  17. Genetic technologies, health care policy and the patent bargain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, T A; Knoppers, B M; Gold, E R; Sheremeta, L E; Bridge, P J

    2003-01-01

    The idea of granting patents on human genetic material continues to cause controversy. The debate is largely focussed on the moral acceptability of human gene patents, the impact of gene patents on the research environment and the value of patents to stimulate innovation and the commercialization and dissemination of genetic discoveries. As highlighted by a recent controversy in Canada, patents can also have a profound effect on health policy and access to genetic services. Creative and bold patent reform initiatives are necessary to ensure that society will, to the highest degree possible, reap the health care benefits of the genetic revolution.

  18. [Fungus patents: from Pasteur to the present day].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo-Álvarez, María Ángela

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the 19(th) century, the American Patent Office granted the patent known as "Pasteur's application", claiming the protection of a yeast strain. Since that date, the debate around biotechnology patents, especially for those that affect living organisms or part of them, has grown exponentially. In the present article, the Patent Law is reviewed, pointing out the particular problems about fungi or parts of them. Also, some of the fungus patents are discussed from the perspective of the ethical, economical, social and environmental aspects of these kind of patents. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. The diffusion of generics after patent expiry in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Katharina Elisabeth; Stargardt, Tom

    2016-11-01

    To identify the influences on the diffusion of generics after patent expiry, we analyzed 65 generic entries using prescription data of a large German sickness fund between 2007 and 2012 in a sales model. According to theory, several elements are responsible for technology diffusion: (1) time reflecting the rate of adaption within the social system, (2) communication channels, and (3) the degree of incremental innovation, e.g., the modifications of existing active ingredient's strength. We investigated diffusion in two ways: (1) generic market share (percentage of generic prescriptions of all prescriptions of a substance) and, (2) generic sales quantity (number of units sold) over time. We specified mixed regression models. Generic diffusion takes considerable time. An average generic market share of about 75 % was achieved not until 48 months. There was a positive effect of time since generic entry on generic market share (p innovation influenced generic market share (mostly p diffusion to amplify savings through generic entry.

  20. The impact of patent eligibility on biotech patents: A flow chart for determining patent eligibility and an immune therapy case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bao-Chi; Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2015-01-01

    US common law recites a natural law, natural phenomenon or abstract idea as exceptions to the 4 statutory patentable categories to guard against the wholesale preemption of fundamental principles. The very recent evolutions of patent exceptions in the US may increase the difficulty of patenting and may create uncertainty in determining patent eligibility. To solve the thorny problem of eligibility, this study presents a flow chart based on the courts’ decisions that can serve as a set of guidelines for determining patent eligibility. A case related to prostate cancer immune therapy is presented for discussion. PMID:25714661

  1. Immunotherapeutics for the treatment of prostate cancer: a patent landscape based on key therapeutic mechanisms of actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Elaine

    2018-01-01

    The area of immunotherapeutics for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer has made significant progress since the autologous cell-based vaccine sipuleucel T became the first and to date only immunotherapy for its treatment. This review focuses on a broad patent landscaping exercise of this therapeutic area and considers if basing this landscaping on key mechanisms of action is appropriate to elicit the main patenting trends.

  2. [The patents game. Generic and biosimilar drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamañán, E; González, D; Armada, E; Ruano, M; Álvarez-Sala, R; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by patents on medicines has a limited duration. The expiry of patents expiration allows copies of the drugs to be released, competing with original. At first, they were identical to the original, known as generic drugs, but in recent years, due to the marketing of biological therapies and the expiry of many of their patents, biosimilar drugs have also emerged. These are not exact copies of the original, but, like generic drugs, biosimilar drugs have to demonstrate equivalence to the reference drugs in quality, safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, despite their importance and contribution to sustainability of health system, doctors are sometimes unaware of differences between them, and their impact in terms of clinical and economic effects. An attempt is made to review and clarify certain aspects often unknown by physicians, despite their involvement in their use. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthetic Biology in the Biotech Patent Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana García-llerena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the intended positive effects of the current patent system in biotechnological research have been widely questioned. As part of this review, it is discussed here one of the foundations of the model. The assumption of the indispensability of patents is examined through the analysis of their expected benefits; namely, that patents are suitable to ensure access to information, access to and use of inventions and, finally, that they should promote both creativity and research. Applied to synthetic biology, in spite of newly discovered techniques and promising products, this approach reveals that this discipline also encounters similar issues. However, it also offers a new vision of intellectual property rights and their effects on research, which is based on a different conception of the commons and its relationship with private ownership of intangible assets in the knowledge economy.

  4. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship.

  5. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created.

  6. Which Patent Foramen Ovales Need Closure to Prevent Cryptogenic Strokes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, James E; Alpert, Joseph S

    2018-03-01

    Patients with cryptogenic strokes are more likely to have a patent foremen ovale than in the general population. It is speculated that these strokes are due to paradoxical embolism, that is, passage of a venous thrombus across the patent foremen ovale to enter the arterial circulation, resulting in an embolic stroke. Venous thromboembolism is rarely present in these cases of cryptogenic stroke. Thousands of patients with cryptogenic strokes have undergone transcatheter closure of their patent foremen ovale via a variety of devices. The first 3 randomized clinical trials comparing patent foremen ovale closure with medical therapy failed to show a significant advantage of patent foremen ovale closure. Three additional trials reported in 2017 had longer years of follow-up and demonstrated an advantage of patent foremen ovale closure versus medical therapy. Analysis of their data indicated that patent foremen ovale closure in patients with an atrial septal aneurysm in addition to a patent foremen ovale had a very significant decrease in cryptogenic strokes (P patent foremen ovale closure (P = .37). Aneurysms of the atrial septum are easily recognized by echocardiography and are present in approximately one-third of patients with patent foremen ovales. These data suggest that closure of patent foremen ovales in patients with an atrial septal aneurysm is indicated. In patients with a patent foremen ovale without an aneurysm of the atrial septum, patent foremen ovale closure is not indicated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tips for reading patents: a concise introduction for scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kate E; Kabir, K M Mohibul; Donald, William A

    2018-04-01

    Many commercial and academic institutions protect their commercially valuable research information using patents, making the patent literature a rich and early source of cutting-edge research. While scientists and students often create the data that finds its way into patents, some rarely read the patent literature. Here, we provide an informal and brief collection of hints and tips that may assist scientists and students who do not regularly read the patent literature to locate the key scientific findings that are disclosed by patentees. These tips will introduce the reader to: (i) the general structure of patents and the sections of the patents that scientists and students may find particularly helpful; and (ii) a few factors to keep in mind when using data disclosed in the patent literature, such as patent lifespans, jurisdictions and the patent review processes. Although this is not a comprehensive and complete guide to reading patents, the accessible nature of this informal introduction to patent reading should assist scientists and students to make more effective use of the cutting-edge research disclosed in patent specifications.

  8. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alba Betancourt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC. This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent an advantage compared to the current litigation system? The paper argues that it does and explores what it considers to be the two main advantages of a UPC over the current system of cross-border litigation of patents: the ability to drag several conflicts to a single procedure and the neutrality of the decision makers. These advantages are consequently compared to the characteristics of arbitration. Then, an explanation is provided with regards to how the UPC system is going to work in terms of jurisdiction, preliminary injunctions, the choice of law and enforcement of decisions, comparing those same procedural aspects to arbitration. The article finds that arbitration involves many of the same advantages (as compared to the UPC and that the procedural issues studied in both means are, so too, similar. Therefore, arbitration represents a viable alternative to the UPC when it comes to reducing the risks in solving cross-border patent conflicts.

  9. Patent Keyword Extraction Algorithm Based on Distributed Representation for Patent Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many text mining tasks such as text retrieval, text summarization, and text comparisons depend on the extraction of representative keywords from the main text. Most existing keyword extraction algorithms are based on discrete bag-of-words type of word representation of the text. In this paper, we propose a patent keyword extraction algorithm (PKEA based on the distributed Skip-gram model for patent classification. We also develop a set of quantitative performance measures for keyword extraction evaluation based on information gain and cross-validation, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM classification, which are valuable when human-annotated keywords are not available. We used a standard benchmark dataset and a homemade patent dataset to evaluate the performance of PKEA. Our patent dataset includes 2500 patents from five distinct technological fields related to autonomous cars (GPS systems, lidar systems, object recognition systems, radar systems, and vehicle control systems. We compared our method with Frequency, Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF, TextRank and Rapid Automatic Keyword Extraction (RAKE. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm provides a promising way to extract keywords from patent texts for patent classification.

  10. Mark Twain and "The Awful German Language."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedderich, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's 1869 essay "The Awful German Language" in terms of Twain's comments on morphological, syntactical, lexical, and phonological features of German. The topic is presented in the context of Twain's German language learning experience. Relevance of the article for German language instruction today is also described.…

  11. Layers of root nouns in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2017-01-01

    The root-noun declension became productive in early Germanic, containing (I) inherited root nouns, (IIa) original substrate or loan words, and transitions from other declensions in (IIb) Proto-Germanic and (III) North Germanic. As ablaut was abolished, the inherited type would display ablaut grades...... that, in late Proto-Germanic, became predictable from the phonotactic structure of the root....

  12. Determinants of Foreign Technological Activity in German Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dettmann, Eva; Lacasa, Iciar Dominguez; Günther, Jutta

    that foreign technological activity more than doubled during the observation period with persistent spatial heterogeneity in Germany. Using a pooled count data model, we estimate the effect of various sources for externalities on the extent of foreign technological activity across regions. Our results show......This paper analyses the determinants of spatial distribution of foreign technological activity across 96 German regions (1996-2009). We identify foreign inventive activity by applying the ‘cross-border-ownership concept’ to transnational patent applications. The descriptive analysis shows...... that foreign technological activity is attracted by technologically specialised sectors of regions. In contrast to existing findings this effect applies both to foreign as well as domestic sources of specialisation. We show that the relation between specialization and foreign technological activity is non...

  13. Danish-German Submarine Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sender, Johannes F.; Lucas, Edward R.

    Germany has invited the Royal Danish Navy to participate in training missions and exercises on board German submarines. This brief examines the benefits and challenges of this proposed cooperation for both Denmark and NATO more broadly.......Germany has invited the Royal Danish Navy to participate in training missions and exercises on board German submarines. This brief examines the benefits and challenges of this proposed cooperation for both Denmark and NATO more broadly....

  14. Coursebook of German: Gender Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Valeryevna Filippova

    2015-01-01

    The present article regards Aspekte 1 coursebook of German as a foreign language in the context of the gender policy initiated at the end of the last century by sociolinguists and by the representatives of the so called feminist criticism of the German language. This policy has been carried out up to date, and, according to many sociological and linguistic research, it is aimed at destructing gender stereotypes in teaching and reference materials. The use of this policy is conditioned by the ...

  15. Bio-patents, development and society: on the patentability of human genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszczuk, Ana Paula; de Meirelles, Jussara Maria Leal

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses the possibility of patenting inventions based on human genes and the need for an effective adaptation of the Patent Law system to enable the patenting of material derived from human genes. Furthermore, to allow for the inclusion of human gene-based inventions in the current patent system, many more amendments are required than those that have already become law during and since the twentieth century. It should be emphasized that one of the main characteristics of Patent Law is this changeability that requires the law to constantly respond to economic needs, advances in science and their resulting challenges in order to protect the product of human ingenuity. Therefore, new adaptations are required. In this context, the present paper adopts the understanding that human genes may serve as a basis for patentable inventions provided that the traditional requirements of novelty, inventiveness, utility and descriptive adequacy are adapted to the specific nature of living human matter. They should also be in line with the principles of legality and morality and not infringe human dignity, personality rights and should fulfill their social and environmental functions. Therefore, a bio-patent has a threefold function: economic, social and environmental. The economic function lies in the exclusive right to exploit an invention; the social function is implicit because there is no reason for the existence of a patent that solely benefits, its owner without society also enjoying its benefits and; the environmental function is that which guarantees that a bio-patent should preserve biodiversity and social diversity.

  16. Nanocellulose patents trends: a comprehensive review on patents on cellulose nanocrystals, microfibrillated and bacterial cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreau, Hernan; Foresti, Maria L; Vazquez, Analia

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose nanoparticles (i.e. cellulose elements having at least one dimension in the 1-100 nm range) have received increasing attention during the last decade. This is not only evident in academic articles, but it is also manifested by the increasing number of nanocellulose patents that are published every year. In the current review, nanocellulose patents are reviewed using specific software which provides valuable information on the annual number of patents that have been published throughout the years, main patent owners, most prolific inventors, and patents on the field that have received more citations. Patent statistics on rod-like cellulose nanoparticles extracted from plants by acid hydrolysis (nanocrystals), mechanical treatment leading to microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), and microbially produced nanofibrils (bacterial cellulose, BC) are analyzed in detail. The aim of the current review is to provide researchers with patent information which may help them in visualizing the evolution of nanocellulose technology, both as a whole and also divided among the different nanosized particles that are currently the subject of outstanding scientific attention. Then, patents are not only analyzed by their content, but also by global statistics which will reveal the moment at which different cellulose nanoparticles technologies achieved a breakthrough, the relative interest received by different nanocellulose particles throughout the years, the companies that have been most interested in this technology, the most prolific inventors, and the patents that have had more influence in further developments. It is expected that the results showing the explosion that nanocellulose technology is experiencing in current days will still bring more research on the topic and contribute to the expansion of nanocellulosics applications.

  17. The governance of the European patent system:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2006-01-01

    at the formal and informal dimensions of interactions in economic systems. This is further developed into an analytical framework which is then used in the assessment of the structural features of the current European patent system, one of the most advanced, complex, and contested economic systems in Europe....... The conclusions elaborate on the normative implications regarding the current weaknesses of the European patent system, and examine the general theoretical implications of the findings, particularly looking at the effectiveness and legitimacy of technically complex governance systems....

  18. Intelligibility of Standard German and Low German to Speakers of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, C.S.; Kürschner, Sebastian; van Bezooijen, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the intelligibility of spoken Low German and Standard German for speakers of Dutch. Two aspects are considered. First, the relative potential for intelligibility of the Low German variety of Bremen and the High German variety of Modern Standard German for speakers of Dutch is

  19. Transferability and Commercialization of Patent Rights: Economic and Practical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haim V. Levy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of innovation into commercial value depends primarily on appropriate protection of the intellectual property, usually by patents, and efficient pathway(s of its transferability as well as the transfer of the protected knowledge. The key features of patents, from an economic perspective, are that they encompass new knowledge and confer monopoly rights to the owner. The exclusiveness of patent rights is generally conceived as a necessary mechanism to ensure further innovation, stimulate advanced research and facilitate efficient market transactions with patent rights. The patent holder can transfer the technology embodied by way of granting to others a license to use the patented invention in return for a share of the revenues, usually royalties. Patent rights transferability has been proven to be efficient and profitable to the industry as well as beneficial to the welfare of society. The economic and practical perspectives of the transferability and commercialization of patent rights are discussed.

  20. Patent Reform: Issues in the Biomedical and Software Industries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schacht, Wendy H

    2006-01-01

    Congress currently is considering reform of the existing patent system. This interest in patent policy reflects a recognition of the increasing importance of intellectual property to U.S. innovation...

  1. An advanced search engine for patent analytics in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Vishnykova, Dina; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent collections contain an important amount of medical-related knowledge, but existing tools were reported to lack of useful functionalities. We present here the development of TWINC, an advanced search engine dedicated to patent retrieval in the domain of health and life sciences. Our tool embeds two search modes: an ad hoc search to retrieve relevant patents given a short query and a related patent search to retrieve similar patents given a patent. Both search modes rely on tuning experiments performed during several patent retrieval competitions. Moreover, TWINC is enhanced with interactive modules, such as chemical query expansion, which is of prior importance to cope with various ways of naming biomedical entities. While the related patent search showed promising performances, the ad-hoc search resulted in fairly contrasted results. Nonetheless, TWINC performed well during the Chemathlon task of the PatOlympics competition and experts appreciated its usability.

  2. Evaluating patent portfolios by means of multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of intangible assets is a complex topic where traditional methodologies are not always successful. Nevertheless, intangible assets, like patents, have become of great importance to companies, as their value is considered to be relevant economic and strategic information, so it is necessary to evaluate firms’ patent portfolios. The present research introduces an extended goal programming model to calculate the relative importance of the patents of companies in a patent pool. This information may be useful for patent valuation as well as for management purposes. The proposed multicriteria methodology has been applied to the 19 companies in the MPEG2 patent pool, with a total of 770 valid patents, using 7 criteria to obtain a composite measure of the relative position of the firms in the patent pool.

  3. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-30 - Patent costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 970.3102-05... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contract Cost Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05-30 Patent costs. ...

  4. Constructing a unitary title regime for the European Patent System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2011-01-01

    The European Patent System without any unitary title allows Member States to retain institutional arrangements within their borders and to prevent any moves to delegate responsibility outside the national sphere. This intergovernmental patent regime suffers from fragmentation due to national

  5. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements. ...

  6. Drug repurposing and the prior art patents of competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternitzke, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Drug repurposing (i.e., finding novel indications for established substances) has received increasing attention in industry recently. One challenge of repositioned drugs is obtaining effective patent protection, especially if the 'novel' indications have already been claimed by competitors within the same drug class. Here, I report the case of patents relating to phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Patentees of later-filed patents on novel indications (even when they could not observe prior patenting of their direct competitors) filed patents for which patent examiners did not see the prior-filed patents of the competitors as relevant prior art, whereas these follower patent applications often failed because of other reasons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA Dilemma: A Perspective on Current U.S. Patent and Trademarh Office Philosophy Concerning Life Patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, K.; Faletra, P.

    2002-01-01

    The lack of a solid set of criteria for determining patentability of subject matter - particularly subject matter dealing with life - has recently been of increasing public concern in the United States. Alarm for patent practices related to life systems ranges from patents being granted on biochemical processes and the knowledge of these processes to the patenting of entire organisms. One of the most volatile concerns is the patenting of human genes or parts of genes since this genetic material is the basic informational molecule for all life. Current patent law, legislated in 1952, has been interpreted by the U.S. Supreme Court to allow broad patents of DNA, biochemical processes, and what are generally considered 'inventions' of life systems. Several issues are addressed in this paper regarding the unsound reasoning underlying both the interpretation and execution of patent law. Lapses in logic provide a gateway for businesses and individuals to take patenting to an illogical and unworkable extreme. Patent Office disorder of this magnitude is unnecessary and has great potential for harming the mission that the patent office was designed to serve. Recently disclosed patent-granting guidelines suggest the United States Patent and Trademark Office is not upholding its Constitutional responsibility of promoting the progress of science.

  8. 75 FR 39667 - Availability for Non-Exclusive or Partially Exclusive Licensing of a U.S. Patent Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... proteins and biologically active nucleic acids, across eukaryotic cell membranes. Brenda S. Bowen, Army... Nucleic Acids Across Mammalian Cell Membranes In Vitro and In Vivo,'' and U.S. Patent Application Serial... Transcriptionally Active Nucleic Acids Across Mammalian Cell Membranes In Vitro and In Vivo,'' filed September 21...

  9. Anticancer patent landscape and technology assessment of Indian public-funded research institutes and organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Ajay; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2014-08-01

    This review discusses the various drug therapeutic targets and latest technologies of anticancer patents from 10 Indian public-funded research organizations covering more than 150 esteemed institutes. We have identified and reported the leading assignee and inventors along with their collaboration network and, thereby, have analyzed the various patent trends, geographical distributions, citation maps, Derwent World Patents Index, international patent classification analysis and the like. This article provides the insights of 1905 patent documents from 191 families and discusses in-depth anticancer technology through categorization studies at the level of drug discovery, drug development and treatment and diagnosis. In addition, various cancer targets were correlated with recent technologies so as to identify the white spaces for upcoming technologies. Over a period of 13 years (1990 - 2013) the main focus of Indian cancer research was in the field of synthetic chemistry and natural extracts followed by the pharmaceutical compositions and combinations, whereas, the white spaces for future cancer remedy were identified from research in the areas of cancer stem cell lines, vaccines, gene therapy, nano formulations with targeted drug delivery systems as core and latest technologies.

  10. Therapeutic bispecific antibody formats: a patent applications review (1994-2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Marie; de Haard, Hans; Blanchetot, Christophe; Rasser, Jacobus

    2018-03-01

    Bispecific antibodies have become increasingly of interest by enabling new therapeutic applications such as retargeting cellular immunity towards tumor cells. About 23 bispecific antibody platforms have therefore been developed, generating about 62 molecules which are currently being evaluated for potential treatment of a variety of indications, such as cancer and inflammatory diseases, among which three molecules were approved. This class of drugs will represent a multi-million-dollar market over the coming years. Many companies have consequently invested in the development of bispecific antibody platforms, creating an important patent activity in this field. Areas covered: The present review gives an overview of the patent literature over the period 1994-2017 of different immunoglobulin gamma-based bispecific antibody platforms and the molecules approved or in clinical trials. Expert opinion: Bispecific antibodies are progressively accepted as potentially superior therapeutic molecules in a broad range of diseases. This frantic activity creates a maze of hundreds of patents that pose considerable legal risks for both newcomers and established companies. It can consecutively be anticipated that the number of patent conflicts will increase. Nevertheless, it can be expected that patents related to the use of a bispecific antibody will have tremendous commercial value.

  11. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Cucoranu, Ioan C.; Parwani, Anil V.; Vepa, Suryanarayana; Weinstein, Ronald S.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United State...

  12. Patenting Computer Programs—Realistic Protection Now Possible

    OpenAIRE

    Novick, Harold L.

    1982-01-01

    As a result of a recent Supreme Court decision, the legal focus has changed from whether any computer program is properly patentable subject matter to whether the computer program described in the patent application “is directed solely to the mathematical algorithm portion of [the] invention....” However, whether one should resort to the patent system to legally protect a patentable computer program remains an economic consideration.

  13. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, RD; Howells, John

    for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  14. Use of Patent Information : Empirical Evidence from Innovative SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, Enno

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of patent information by innovative SMEs. The standard literature tends to focus on obtaining patents; studies of using patent information for different purposes are underrepresented in the innovation literature. Studying the case of SMEs is especially interesting,

  15. Semiannual patents review July 2002–December 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland Gleisner; Julie Blankenburg

    2003-01-01

    This review summarizes patents related to paper recycling that were issued during the last six months of 2002. Two on-line databases, Claims/U.S. Patents Abstracts and Derwent World Patents Index, were searched for this review. This semiannual feature is intended to inform readers about recent developments in equipment design, chemicals, and process technology for...

  16. Patent Blocking and Infringement and their Effects on Firms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk to be blocked in their patent applications or to be infringed upon by rivals. While ...

  17. A Database of EPO-Patenting Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    of the existing patent stock issued to firms with domicile in Denmark. Sections four and five report the basic characteristics of the EPO-patent sample and the procedures for linking the patent statistics to accounting data at the firm level, and finally they present the basic properties of the resulting database...

  18. 14 CFR 1214.112 - Patent, data and information matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Customers § 1214.112 Patent, data and information matters. (a) Patent and data rights. NASA will not acquire... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent, data and information matters. 1214... which a customer has reimbursed NASA under the policies set forth herein. However, in certain instances...

  19. Why do firms give away their patents for free?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziegler, Nicole; Gassmann, Oliver; Friesike, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Within the trend of increasing patent commercialisation and open innovation, a recent phenomenon where firms give away their patents free of charge can be observed. This seems contradictory to the original intention of the patent system (enabling firms to create temporary monopolies to appropriate

  20. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred...

  1. 78 FR 48158 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9843-9] Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... the invention described and claimed in the U.S. patent entitled PROCESS FOR THE BIODEGRADATION OF..., filed as U.S. serial number 10/395,893 on March 25, 2003 and issued as U.S. Patent 7,252,986 on August 7...

  2. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee...

  3. 10 CFR 603.840 - Negotiating data and patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negotiating data and patent rights. 603.840 Section 603... patent rights. (a) The contracting officer must confer with program officials and assigned intellectual... that would support modification of standard patent and data terms, and should include considerations...

  4. 9 CFR 124.20 - Patent term extension calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent term extension calculation. 124... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PATENT TERM RESTORATION Regulatory Review Period § 124.20 Patent term extension calculation. (a) As provided in 37 CFR 1...

  5. 77 FR 48130 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of prospective grant of exclusive patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e... Provisional Application for Patent Application No. 61,638,362 titled ``Flow Cytometer Systems and Associated...

  6. 77 FR 65673 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of prospective grant of exclusive patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e.... Patent Application No. 61/625,511 titled ``UV-Assisted Alcohol Sensing with Zinc Oxide Functionalized...

  7. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee...

  8. 76 FR 57720 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License... in: U.S. Patent Application No. 12/932,341, filed on February 23, 2011, entitled ``Resin-Based... INFORMATION CONTACT: An exclusive license for the invention described in this patent application will be...

  9. 78 FR 70294 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License... interest the Air Force has in: U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/354,522, filed on June 14, 2010... Anish Tuteja et al.; U.S. Non-provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,950, filed on June 14, 2011...

  10. 77 FR 22298 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License... interest the Air Force has in: U.S. Patent No. 7,391,877, issued 24 June 2008, entitled ``Spatial Processor... intends to grant a license for the patent unless a written objection is received within fifteen (15) days...

  11. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981, the...

  12. 77 FR 40345 - Intent to Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Intent to Grant an Exclusive Patent License... William V. Stoecker, Hernan F. Gomez, Jonathan A. Green, and David L. McGlasson; U.S. Patent Number 7,927... David L. McGlasson; U.S. Patent Application Number Serial No. 12/756,875, filed on April 8, 2010...

  13. 75 FR 63443 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of prospective grant of exclusive patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(c)(1.... Patent Application No. 12/820,218, titled ``Magnetic Connectors For Microfluidic Applications,'' NIST...

  14. 77 FR 55465 - US Air Force Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force US Air Force Exclusive Patent License AGENCY..., DOD. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Issue an Exclusive Patent License. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the.... Patent No. 8,051,475, filed on March 27, 2007 and issued on November 1, 2011, entitled ``Collaboration...

  15. Patents, trademarks, and their complementarity in venture capital funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Haibo; Sandner, Philipp G.; Martinelli, Simon Luca; Block, Joern H.

    This paper analyzes the effects of patents and trademarks in the financing of start-ups through venture capitalists (VCs). Patents and trademarks signal a start-up's technological and marketing capabilities. We find that patents and trademarks not only have direct effects on venture capital

  16. 77 FR 32642 - Patents and Inventions; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Patents and... regarding the invention and patent program of CDC and the authority to make determinations of rights in inventions and patents in which CDC and the Department have an interest. This delegation excludes the...

  17. Biotechnological Patents Applications of the Deuterium Oxide in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da S Mariano, Reysla M; Bila, Wendell C; Trindade, Maria Jaciara F; Lamounier, Joel A; Galdino, Alexsandro S

    2017-01-01

    Deuterium oxide is a molecule that has been used for decades in several studies related to human health. Currently, studies on D2O have mobilized a "Race for Patenting" worldwide. Several patents have been registered from biomedical and technological studies of D2O showing the potential of this stable isotope in industry and health care ecosystems. Most of the patents related to the applications of the deuterium oxide in human health have been summarized in this review. The following patents databases were consulted: European Patent Office (Espacenet), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the United States Latin America Patents (LATIPAT), Patent scope -Search International and National Patent Collections (WIPO), Google Patents and Free Patents Online. With this review, the information was collected on recent publications including 22 patents related to deuterium oxide and its applications in different areas. This review showed that deuterium oxide is a promising component in different areas, including biotechnology, chemistry and medicine. In addition, the knowledge of this compound was covered, reinforcing its importance in the field of biotechnology and human health. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. 77 FR 71004 - Patents and Inventions; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Patents and..., all authorities to administer and make decisions regarding the invention and patent program of CDC and the authority to make determinations of rights in inventions and patents in which CDC and the...

  19. 78 FR 30304 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ...; Information Collection; Patents AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration (GSA... concerning patents. DATES: Submit comments on or before July 22, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0096, Patents, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov...

  20. 50 CFR 82.19 - Patents and inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 82.19 Section 82...-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.19 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights in any inventions or discoveries resulting from work under cooperative...

  1. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems: a patent perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patent, once seen as a technical matter for legal experts, has today become a central concern for governments, businesses, civil society, scientists and innovators. In a world where the economic growth of nations is driven increasingly by creativity and knowledge of their people, effective intellectual property (IP) systems, ...

  2. Patent nasopalatine duct: a diagnostic pitfall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valstar, M.H.; van den Akker, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a patient in whom the combination of excessive air in the maxillary sinus and the presence of a patent nasopalatine duct led to misdiagnosis and subsequent treatment of a non-existent oroantral perforation. When a radiograph indicates that antral involvement during removal of a maxillary

  3. Update on Brazil's pharma patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, Rana

    2016-09-01

    Brazil's Pharma market is a dynamic and promising one. It ranks within the top ten market. There are peculiar hurdles that patentees have to overcome, such as, a two-tier examination, a serious backlog at the Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office. Several measures to accelerate examination have been adopted given the meager number of Examiners.

  4. Savannah River Site Patented Technologies Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1995-07-18

    This information represents SRS`s contribution of the DOE technology information network, an internet service coordinated out of Los Alamos. The information provided is strictly DOE-SR-titled and-issued patented technologies including environmental remediation, robotics, sensors, materials science, biomedical applications, hydrogen, and consumer products.

  5. Patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Koki; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Homma, Shunichi

    2017-11-01

    The presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been found to be associated with an increased risk of cryptogenic stroke in many case-control studies. This paper reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and diagnosis of PFO, and therapeutic options of patients with PFO and cryptogenic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Careers in Patent Law for Physics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    An important question that many undergraduate physics students ask is, "What can one do with a physics degree?" Of course there are many answers to this question. Often a general reference to becoming a lawyer is given as a possible answer. This paper is intended to explain the field of patent law and how a physics degree can lead to an…

  7. Pharmaceutical Innovation, Incremental Patenting and Compulsory ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Developing countries interested in promoting local innovation therefore face a policy dilemma, mainly, how to design patent policies that promote local innovation while ensuring the broadest possible access to medicines, particularly by the poor. The research will test the hypotheses that a) given the asymmetries in ...

  8. Recent Survey on Patents of Nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rashmin B; Thakore, Shivam D; Patel, Mrunali R

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal systems are most prominent delivery systems mainly used as vehicles for the transportation, targeting the various types of biomolecules, proteins, peptides, synthetic medicinal agents. To provide concise information on patents that are directly or indirectly related to the nanoemulsions. The ample of research work going on with such system, in which small insoluble particle/droplets are dispersed within the immiscible secondary liquid referred to as continuous phase, is enormous. A highly praised colloidal system is nanoemulsion which possesses 'nano' sized droplets of one phase dispersed within second continuous phase. The characteristic features of nanoemulsion are their optical clarity, clear or bluish tint appearance and small globule size (20-200 nm) which makes them insensitive to gravitational instability, dilution and temperature. Above of all, achieving said properties using lower surfactant concentration and by supplying external energy differentiate them from microemulsion, which uses higher amount of surfactant thereby making them toxic for human body. Due to such variable advantages, researchers are engaged in going for the protecting their ideas in nanoemulsions by filling various patents. Patents in this review, covers various areas (types of drug delivery and applications) where nanoemulsion are used. Literature revealed that filing of patents on nanoemulsion increased tremendously during last 5 years and will increase in upcoming time as 21st century will be called as the century of nanomedicine.

  9. The backlog issue in patents: A look at the European case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Backlogs can be caused by an increase in the number of patent applications and patent size. A large number of patents granted could be explained by patent examiners’ bonuses, legal and cultural contexts, claim forms, the geographical origin of patents, a firm’s experience in patenting, the number of

  10. 37 CFR 1.501 - Citation of prior art in patent files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of prior art in... Patents Citation of Prior Art § 1.501 Citation of prior art in patent files. (a) At any time during the... patent and believes to have a bearing on the patentability of any claim of the patent. If the citation is...

  11. The backlog issue in patents: A look at the European case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Backlogs can be caused by an increase in the number of patent applications and patent size. A large number of patents granted could be explained by patent examiners' bonuses, legal and cultural contexts, claim forms, the geographical origin of patents, a firm's experience in patenting, the number of

  12. Diabetes area patent participation analysis - part II: years 2011-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Markus; Crawford, Matthew; Moscovitz, Jamie E; Carpino, Philip A

    2018-02-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of plasma glucose. When untreated, diabetes increases the risk of developing co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease. Several drugs, often used as part of combination therapies, have been approved to treat the disease, but these drugs will eventually fail to effectively control blood glucose levels, at which point insulin replacement therapy is required. A medical need exists for new antidiabetic drugs that exhibit good efficacy with improved safety/toleration profiles and can be added on top of existing therapies, or that can provide additional benefits beyond glucose lowering such as pancreatic beta (β)-cell protection. Areas covered: This review analyzes drug targets and applicants of patents that published between 2011-2016 claiming novel small or large molecules for the treatment of diabetes, and compares the results to the 2008-2010 time period. Expert opinion: A majority of patent activity around the discovery of new antidiabetic drugs in 2011-2016 was directed against 15 targets, most of which were also the focus of drug discovery efforts in the 2008-2010 time period. The top targets by total patent counts were DPP4, GLP1R, INSR, GPR119, and SGLT2 (SLC5A2). With the exception of GPR119, these are the pharmacological targets of some of the best-selling antidiabetic drugs currently on the market. The top targets of patent families with the largest size counts, a metric useful in assessing patent value and applicant interest, were AMPK, CALCR, DPP4, and GLP1R. The patent analysis identified several emerging targets with greater patent activity in 2011-2016 compared to 2008-2010, including FFAR1, FFAR4, and FGFR1. Most of the patent activity in 2011-2016 was directed at established and precedented diabetes targets, the modulation of which may lead to improvements in glucose control and a delay in the progression of the disease. Few targets were identified that promote pancreatic β-cell

  13. A Patent Analysis for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyeog Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology analysis (TA is an important issue in the management of technology. Most R&D (Research & Development policies have depended on diverse TA results. Traditional TA results have been obtained through qualitative approaches such as the Delphi expert survey, scenario analysis, or technology road mapping. Although they are representative methods for TA, they are not stable because their results are dependent on the experts’ knowledge and subjective experience. To solve this problem, recently many studies on TA have been focused on quantitative approaches, such as patent analysis. A patent document has diverse information of developed technologies, and thus, patent is one form of objective data for TA. In addition, sustainable technology has been a big issue in the TA fields, because most companies have their technological competitiveness through the sustainable technology. Sustainable technology is a technology keeping the technological superiority of a company. So a country as well as a company should consider sustainable technology for technological competition and continuous economic growth. Also it is important to manage sustainable technology in a given technology domain. In this paper, we propose a new patent analysis approach based on statistical analysis for the management of sustainable technology (MOST. Our proposed methodology for the MOST is to extract a technological structure and relationship for knowing the sustainable technology. To do this, we develop a hierarchical diagram of technology for finding the causal relationships among technological keywords of a given domain. The aim of the paper is to select the sustainable technology and to create the hierarchical technology paths to sustainable technology for the MOST. This contributes to planning R&D strategy for the sustainability of a company. To show how the methodology can be applied to real problem, we perform a case study using retrieved patent documents related to

  14. 78 FR 68422 - Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) Actions (Formerly Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... additional information should be directed to the attention of Linda Horner, Acting Vice Chief Judge, Patent..., i.e., 35 U.S.C. 134, 135, 306, and 315, to decide ex parte and inter partes appeals and..., the Commissioner for Patents, the Commissioner for Trademarks, and the Administrative Patent Judges...

  15. Uniform interpretation of european patent law with a special view on the creation of a common patent court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luginbühl, SL

    2009-01-01

    The European Patent Convention (EPC) provides for a common application and examination procedure for European patents. Therefore, European patents are granted on the basis of uniform European law which is applied and interpreted by the EPO, as well as by a great number of national judges and members

  16. 75 FR 34749 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... and FDA-2008-E-0267] Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent Nos. 5,759,580 and 6,545,040 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... determination because of the submission of applications to the Director of Patents and Trademarks, Department of...

  17. Secondary patenting of branded pharmaceuticals: a case study of how patents on two HIV drugs could be extended for decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tahir; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2012-10-01

    Pharmaceutical manufacturers rely on patents to protect their intellectual property and often seek to extend market exclusivity for their products to maximize their return on investment. One method is by obtaining patents on features other than the original active drug ingredient, including secondary patents on alternate formulations of the drug or on methods of administration. This article examines how secondary patents can extend market exclusivity and thus delay generic competition, using as an example two key antiretroviral drugs for the management of HIV: ritonavir (Norvir) and lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra). We identified 108 patents, which together could delay generic competition until at least 2028--twelve years after the expiration of the patents on the drugs' base compounds and thirty-nine years after the first patents on ritonavir were filed. Some of the secondary patents that were reviewed were found to be of questionable inventiveness. We argue that increased transparency for existing patents, stricter patentability standards, and increased opportunities to challenge patent applications and patents could reduce inappropriate market exclusivity extensions on brand-name drugs and open the door to lower-cost generics.

  18. Evaluating patent portfolios by means of multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of intangible assets is a complex topic where traditional methodologies are not always successful. Nevertheless, intangible assets, like patents, have become of great importance to companies, as their value is considered to be relevant economic and strategic information, so it is necessary to evaluate firms’ patent portfolios. The present research introduces an extended goal programming model to calculate the relative importance of the patents of companies in a patent pool. This information may be useful for patent valuation as well as for management purposes. The proposed multicriteria methodology has been applied to the 19 companies in the MPEG2 patent pool, with a total of 770 valid patents, using 7 criteria to obtain a composite measure of the relative position of the firms in the patent pool.RESUMENLa valoración de activos intangibles constituye un área compleja donde los métodos tradicionales no siempre obtienen buenos resultados. Sin embargo, los activos intangibles, entre ellos las patentes, han ganado importancia en las empresas, de forma que el cálculo de su valor se ha convertido en una cuestión estratégica en muchos casos. Este hecho requiere que las empresas valoren la cartera de patentes en su conjunto. La presente investigación presenta un modelo extendido de programación por metas y su aplicación para el cálculo de la importancia relativa de las patentes. Este modelo puede resultar importante tanto para la valoración de las patentes como para la gestión empresarial. La metodología multicriterio propuesta ha sido aplicado a 19 empresas en el sector de las patentes del formato MPEG2, con un total de 770 patentes válidas, y utilizando 7 criterios con el objetivo de obtener una medida compuesta de la posición relativa de las empresas en el conjunto de patentes.

  19. Glycolysis Inhibitors for Anticancer Therapy: A Review of Recent Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Huaming; Tang, Weijuan

    2016-01-01

    The aerobic glycolysis in tumor cells known as Warburg effect is one of the most important hallmarks of cancer. It is proposed that the upregulation of the series of metabolic enzymes along the glycolytic pathway may contribute to the Warburg effect. The inhibition of these glycolytic enzymes has been found to be a novel strategy for anticancer treatment. This review summaries recent patents in the development of small molecule inhibitors for the key enzymes in tumor glycolysis. The targeted enzymes are GLUTs, HKs, PFK, PGAM1, PKM2, LDHA, MCTs and PDK. Although most inhibitors are still in the preclinical phase, the inhibition of glycolytic enzymes represents a very promising approach for anticancer treatment. The future development could be more focused on the discovery of new metabolic enzyme that is specifically expressed in tumor cells.

  20. Patent analysis for competitive technical intelligence and innovative thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Patents are a very useful source of technical information. The public availability of patents over the Internet, with for some databases (eg. Espacenet the assurance of a constant format, allows the development of high value added products using this information source and provides an easy way to analyze patent information. This simple and powerful tool facilitates the use of patents in academic research, in SMEs and in developing countries providing a way to use patents as a ideas resource thus improving technological innovation.

  1. Research Productivity and Patent Quality: Measurement with Multiple Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Lanjouw, Jean O; Schankerman, Mark

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of the decline in measured research productivity (the patent/R&D ratio) using panel data on manufacturing firms in the U.S. for the period 1980-93. We focus on three factors: the level of demand, the quality of patents, and technological exhaustion. We first develop an index of patent ‘quality’ using detailed information on patents in the U.S. in seven technology fields. Using a factor model, we construct a minimum-variance index based on four patent characteristic...

  2. Anglo-german – a colloquial language?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Teodora BIRIŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years more and more words from English entered in German language, which ledto the formation of a colloquial language called "Denglisch" from "Deutsch - German" and"Englisch - English". Denglisch differs from the Anglicisms through the fact that here are observedsyntactic and morphological rules of the German language, which proves the power of Germangrammar.In the article below we follow the areas where the colloquial language is used morefrequently and how it is used by German speakers. Denglisch is fought by the German linguists,who recommended the use of English words, only if there is not a similar term in German.

  3. Immobile Complex Verbs in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2005-01-01

    Certain complex verbs in Dutch, German, and Swiss German do not undergo verb movement. The suggestion to be made in this article is that these ‘‘immobile'' verbs have to fulfill both the requirements imposed on complex verbs of the V° type (=verbs with non-separable prefixes) and the requirements...... imposed on complex verbs of the V* type (=verbs with separable prefixes). This results in such verbs being morphologically unexceptional, i.e., having a full set of forms but syntactically peculiar (‘‘immobile''), i.e., they can only occur in their base position. Any movement is incompatible with either...... frequent type with only one prefix-like part (e.g., German bauchreden/Dutch buikspreken ‘to ventriloquize'). This analysis will try to account not only for the data discussed in Haider (1993) and Koopman (1995) but also for the following: - why immobile verbs include verbs with only one prefix-like part...

  4. Patent Value: A Business Perspective for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Wilton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last year, news headlines have highlighted record patent infringement settlements, multibillion dollar auctions of large corporate patent portfolios, and ongoing patent battles between key technology industry players. Despite this acknowledgment of the significant value of patents for large corporations, many small technology companies are understandably more focused on the near-term costs of obtaining a patent rather than future value. Costs may seem prohibitive to an early stage technology startup. Some software startups question whether patents are relevant to their business. In practice, effective intellectual property (IP strategy and management is dependent on many factors, such as technology or industry sector, size and maturity of the business, technology lifecycle, and the business and market environment. IP strategy must be aligned to business strategy from the outset. By considering IP in the broader context of the overall business plan and the competitive environment, opportunities for generating increased return on R&D investment and added business value through patents or other forms of IP can be recognized early on. This approach ensures that a decision about whether or not to patent is driven by business reasons rather than budget constraints. This article examines the costs and benefits of patents from the perspective of early-stage technology startups and growing businesses, and it provides some general guidance on best practices for developing an IP and patent activity plan and for building a patent portfolio that appropriately supports business objectives.

  5. Key points in biotechnological patents to be exploited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alfredo Mateos; López-Moya, José Rafael; Ramos, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Patents in some biotechnological fields are controversial. Despite this fact, the number of patent applications increases every year. Total revenues in the global biotechnology market are expected to increase in the middle term. Nowadays, the bioeconomy is an important socio-economic area, which is reflected in the number of firms dedicated to or using biotechnology. The exploitation of biotechnological patents is an essential task in the management of intellectual capital. This paper explains the multiplicity of factors that influence the exploitation of biotechnological patents; specifically, the internal and external key points of patents exploitation. The external determining factors for patents are: (i) the market need for biotechnological products and services, (ii) the importance of the freedom to operate analysis before entering the market, and (iii) efficiency in prosecution by Patent Offices. This paper primarily focuses on the internal determining factors, more particularly, the characteristics that the patent's owner must take into consideration in order to have a strong, broad subject-matter in the granted patent. The experimentation needed to obtain an adequate scope of the subject- matter in the claims is a critical issue in the exploitation of a patent or patent application.

  6. How do Firms Use the Information in Patent Disclosures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Scholderer, Joachim

    the patentee will use patent disclosures to make the invention described, after the expiry of the patent term. This prediction is different from the predictions of information usage that derive from theories that the function of a patent is to secure the incentive to invent and develop: these only require...... expressed in the literature of the value of the QPQ theory. QPQ theory assumes that the disclosed information in a patent specification is socially and economically useful because it enables the diffusion of an invention that would otherwise have remained secret. It clearly predicts that firms other than...... that the patent specification should disclose sufficient information to identify the invention with respect to the prior art and therefore make the patent defensible against rival patents in court - they need not enable the making of the invention. Our research design gathers data on how firms use the information...

  7. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    been developed to improve the system as it is known today, since the Community patent is not guaranteed to be introduced in the near future. Should it be introduced, the Working Group considers that many of the policy options put forward would have an even better effect. When making its recommendations...... forward in the report includes an assessment of key patenting activity trends occurring at the moment. The analysis assesses what kind of impact these trends have on the ability of the European patent system to work well, and what are the specific challenges that arise as a result. The report identifies...... that worldwide, the most important patent trends happening now relate to the number of patent applications being made. Specifically, the fact that applications received by patent offices continue to grow steeply, resulting in high numbers of granted patent rights. One potentially undesirable consequence...

  8. Increasing Access to Patented Inventions by Post-grant Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2009-01-01

     This paper builds on the recommendation in the STOA Report (2007) to improve the European patent system to "Increase Access to Patented Inventions". The paper first provides some background information to the patent system and to the limitations on access to protected technology from "thickets......" and the so called "tragedy of the anticommons". Next the paper discusses the use of (some) post grant measure to increase access to patented inventions. Traditionally patent law has not paid much attention to such measures. The paper argues that developments suggest that there is good reason to reconsider...... this reluctance and to include measures in the European patent legislation which seek to increase access to patented inventions. Finally the paper presents and discusses three such measures: Compulsory licences, licences of rights, and behavioural rules...

  9. Intellectual Property Strategies of Multinational Companies Patenting in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Schuster, Gerd; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    While global intellectual property trends show a stable rate of worldwide patent applications during the last five years, patent applications in emerging economies strongly increased within the same period. Unless the increasing number of applications in emerging economies, the indigenous legal...... systems in those countries are mostly not able to effectively protect intellectual property rights of multinational companies. Still, we observe the phenomenon of a strongly increasing rate of technology patenting in countries with weak appropriability regimes. This article studies patenting strategy...... archetypes of the world’s largest patent applicants using the case of China as an empirical context. Using Questel’s professional patent search application Orbit, we build a unique data set of the world’s top patent applicants combining data from the World Intellectual Property Organization and the State...

  10. Fortune and hindsight: gene patents' muted effect on medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkow, Jacob S; Abbott, Ryan

    2018-03-28

    Physicians have long worried about gene patents' potential to restrict their medical practices. Fortune and hindsight have proven these worries exaggerated both in the UK and elsewhere. Neither current nor future medical practices appear to be impinged by gene patents, although they may be subject to future intellectual property disputes. Qualitative and quantitative (survey) studies of gene patents' effects on medical practice; recent developments in patent law. Traditional gene patents do not appear to have restricted medical practice in the UK, although their effect elsewhere has been more nuanced. Whether patents will restrict the spread of newer medical technologies is unresolved. Continuing survey data on practitioners' views concerning patents' role in the distribution of newer technologies would be beneficial.

  11. Inventing around Edison’s incandescent lamp patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    We provide an anatomy of the influence of Edison’s incandescent lamp patent U.S. 223,898 on downstream development and show how subsequent inventor activity adjusts to the improved certainty provided by court decisions as to the boundaries of a patent’s claims. First, we show that court decisions...... upholding Edison’s patent generated a surge of patent filings in the incandescent lamp classes at the U.S. Patent Office. Second, by inspection of the specifications of these later patents we are able to categorize certain design-around efforts by their evasion of specific elements of the claims of Edison......’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...

  12. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    We provide an anatomy of the influence of Edison’s incandescent lamp patent U.S. 223,898 on downstream development and show how subsequent inventor activity adjusts to the improved certainty provided by court decisions as to the boundaries of a patent’s claims. First, we show that court decisions...... upholding Edison’s patent generated a surge of patent filings in the incandescent lamp classes at the U.S. Patent Office. Second, by inspection of the specifications of these later patents we are able to categorize certain design-around efforts by their evasion of specific elements of the claims of Edison......’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...

  13. Government patent policy: An analysis of the effects of three alternative patent policies on technology of goverment inventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of present and proposed Government patent policies on the process of technology transfer and the commercialization of inventions resulting from Government sponsored research are addressed. The function of the patent system in Government research and the value of patents resulting from government sponsored research are examined. Three alternative patent policies, title in the contractor, title in the Government, and the waiver policy, are examined in terms of their effect on the commercialization of inventions, industrial competitions, disclosure of inventions, participation of research contractors and administrative costs. Efforts to reform the present Government patent policy are also described.

  14. Could patents interfere with the development of a cardiovascular polypill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Reed F; Schwalm, Jon-David R; Huffman, Mark D; McCready, Tara; Yusuf, Salim; Attaran, Amir

    2016-08-18

    The Wellcome Trust, the World Health Organization, and cardiologists have advocated for the idea of a "polypill" containing multiple cardiovascular drugs to be co-formulated into a single pill for over a decade. Some cardiologists have asserted that the drugs commonly considered for inclusion into such a polypill are older and therefore free of patent protection. We tested this assertion. This project was requested by the World Heart Federation (WHF). Two cardiologists from the WHF provided a list of 48 cardiovascular drugs for evaluation. We designated the United States and Canada as the base jurisdictions for this patent study. We linked patent data from these countries' national medicine patent registers to patent information in over 96 other countries using Derwent and INPADOC via Thomson Innovation. We expanded our study beyond the aforementioned data linkage through a systematic search of the World Intellectual Property Organization's PatentScope, which was based primarily upon the drugs' active ingredient names. In the United States and Canada, eight of the drugs were only available in the patent-protected, brand name formulation in one or both countries. Another 21 drugs had relevant patents, but generic equivalents were nevertheless available. Only 19 drugs (40 %) appeared entirely post-patent. Broadening the co-formulation searches globally, the overwhelming majority of drugs (40/48) were mentioned in patent applications for cardiovascular drug combinations. The assertion that most of these cardiovascular drugs are post-patent is accurate, but only in the sense that many of the original patents on these active ingredients have expired and that generic alternatives are usually available. The landscape of patents covering novel (co-) formulations is far more complex, however. Most research and development for cardiovascular combination medicines are likely to be undertaken by companies whose original patents on the active ingredient will soon expire or

  15. Patenting and the gender gap: should women be encouraged to patent more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada

    2013-06-01

    The commercialization of academic science has come to be understood as economically desirable for institutions, individual researchers, and the public. Not surprisingly, commercial activity, particularly that which results from patenting, appears to be producing changes in the standards used to evaluate scientists' performance and contributions. In this context, concerns about a gender gap in patenting activity have arisen and some have argued for the need to encourage women to seek more patents. They believe that because academic advancement is mainly dependent on productivity (Stuart and Ding in American Journal of Sociology 112:97-144, 2006; Azoulay et al. in Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 63:599-623, 2007), differences in research output have the power to negatively impact women's careers. Moreover, in the case of patenting activity, they claim that the gender gap also has the potential to negatively affect society. This is so because scientific and technological advancement and innovation play a crucial role in contemporary societies. Thus, women's more limited involvement in the commercialization of science and technology can also be detrimental to innovation itself. Nevertheless, calls to encourage women to patent on grounds that such activity is likely to play a significant role in the betterment of both women's careers and society seem to be based on two problematic assumptions: (1) that the methods to determine women's productivity in patenting activities are an appropriate way to measure their research efforts and the impact of their work, and (2) that patenting, particularly in academia, benefits society. The purpose of this paper is to call into question these two assumptions.

  16. Drug patents and intellectual property rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Gerard Marshall; Priyadarshini, Rekha; Mathaiyan, Jayanthi

    2015-04-01

    Inquisitive scientists are untiring and relentless in the hard work they perform day in and day out. In this pursuit, a researcher has to exercise their intellectual expertise in its entirety. Eventually, all credit of the invention is vested with the inventor who has the right of control over their intellectual creation. Likewise, pharmaceutical companies spend extravagantly in successfully introducing a novel drug from hundreds and thousands of lead compounds. Hence, it is a prerogative for every company to protect its innovative products from unauthorized duplication. Certainly, "patents" are the sole custodians of these products of medical intelligence - the drugs! This review focuses on the various intricacies of the drug patent system all over the world with special emphasis on India, Europe, and the United States. A note on other intellectual properties such as copyrights, trademarks, and designs is also added.

  17. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Danish Press during the German Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45......Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45...

  19. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  20. NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Inhibitors in Inflammation-Associated Cancer Immunotherapy: An Update on the Recent Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopalli, Spandana R; Kang, Tae-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Koppula, Sushruta

    2018-01-01

    Inflammasomes are recognized as key regulators in innate immunity from the pathogenic to endogenous danger signals. Although controlled activation of inflammasome is highly beneficial, dysregulation of inflammasome activation plays central role in various autoimmune, inflammatory disorders and aid in promoting various forms of cancers in humans such as breast cancer, fibrosarcoma, gastric carcinoma, and lung metastasis. NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been emerged as a topic of interest and is under profound investigation for its involvement in multiple forms of cancers. This review emphasizes an overview of the recent patents on NLRP3 inflammasome activation inhibitors with their relevant biological/pharmacological properties for the prevention and treatment of inflammation-associated cancer disorders. Data were obtained from online patent searchers such as World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO®), Free Patent Online (FPO), Espacenet® and Google Patents. Several NLRP3 inflammasome activation inhibitors were recently patented from naturally derived and synthetic agents mainly by academic researchers. Most of the claimed patents have been validated and confined to cell lines and animal models limiting their entry into clinical settings. The vigorous effort to discover and develop agents to specifically inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation, may pave the way to therapeutic intervention targeting inflammasome-regulated pathways that are involved in the pathogenesis of various forms of cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Bioethics commission to review gene patenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenburg, L.

    1995-12-01

    In October, in an unexpected development, U.S. President Bill Clinton created a national ethics advisory board, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC, Washington, DC), to study both research ethics and the management and use of genetic information. Of particular interest to biotechnology companies and researchers is the fact that the commission`s brief encompasses issues about human gene patenting, a subject not contained in earlier proposals for the commission.

  2. Bargaining and delay in patent licensing

    OpenAIRE

    MAULEON, Ana; VANNETELBOSCH, Vincent; VERGARI, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    We consider a model of licensing of a non-drastic innovation in which the patent holder (an outside innovator) negotiates either up-front fixed fees or per-unit royal- ties with two firms producing horizontally differentiated brands and competing à la Cournot. We investigate how licensing schemes (fixed fee or per-unit royalty) and the number of licenses sold (exclusive licensing or complete technology diffusion) affect price agreements and delays in reaching an agreement. We show that the pa...

  3. German 1990: Intensive and Diverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Franz R.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests the following methods for improving university-level German language education curricula: reduce skill-development time through immersion programs, adopt Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache as the proficiency standard for advanced students, and include literature from a variety of liberal arts disciplines in the reading materials for…

  4. Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Correia Da Silva, L.

    2004-01-01

    German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows than UK and US firms.However, on a published profits basis, the pattern is reversed.Company law provisions and accounting policies account for these conflicting results.A partial adjustment model is used to estimate the implicit target

  5. German urologists under national socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischel, Matthis

    2014-08-01

    The first full-time professorship for urology at a German university was established in 1937 and in 1942, a rare teaching qualification (Habilitation) for urology was granted, both at the prestigious Berlin University. At the same time, nearly a third of all physicians who worked in the field of urology were classified as "non-Aryan" according to Nazi race laws and were forced out of their profession and their homeland. Many of them committed suicide or, if they refused to flee, were murdered in concentration camps. German urologists also contributed to compulsory sterilization of men according to the "law for the prevention of hereditarily diseased offspring" between 1934 and 1945. Historical sources on the history of urology in Nazi Germany were reviewed and analyzed. These include textbooks and medical journals from the 1930s and 1940s, as well as files from different state and university archives. For urologists, the changing political environment in Germany after 1933 offered possibilities to assert their personal and professional interests. Unfortunately, in many cases, moral principles were thrown overboard, and physicians advanced their own careers and the specialty of urology at the expense of their patients and their Jewish colleagues. Under national socialism, German urologists backed Nazi health and race policies and in exchange gained further professionalization for their specialty, including university positions and increased independence from surgery. Only in recent years has this chapter of German urology's past become a topic of debate among members of the professional society.

  6. Patents Assessed through Sectoral Operational Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula – Angela VIDRAȘCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Accounting Standards – IAS 38 „Intangible assets”; these assets are identifiable non-monetary assets under construction were considered without physical substance. Lack actual physical form must not be understood that an intangible asset would have no material support, because the presence of any intangible asset can be demonstrated only by a support material form. Exmple: frequently encounter compact-disc (in case a software, legal documentation (in the case of licences, trade marks and patents of invention, contracts, permits and licences, technical documentation or films. Nowadays we are constantly subjected to the changing flow of information that is found in a perpetual technological change which started the emergence of a new stage in the society development that which carries the name of knowledge. The object of my research is the patent for the structural funds reimbursable project submitted in the "Operational Program, Economic Competitiveness" Operation 2.3.1. "Support for start-ups and innovative spin-offs. Patent is an official document certifying the inventor, the exclusive right to produce a certain good or product or use a particular process. Remember that evaluation of intangible assets is the most complex and systematic procedure.

  7. Why Is Hard To Patent An Invention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When employed by a company, in almost all the cases a new employee has to sign an agreement giving the company exclusive rights to any intellectual property developed as part of their work assignments. This agreement could extend beyond a change of jobs and cause conflict of interests in new employment situations. A patent is a government-granted monopoly given to an inventor as both a reward for the intellectual and financial investment, and a stimulus to innovate. As a monopoly, the patent has legal power to exclude others from exploiting the invention in any way for a period of 20 years from the time the patent application has been filed. A trademark provides instant recognition of a product or company; a service mark provides instant recognition of a service. They both have unlimited lifetime. But the owner must renew or confirm continuous use at the end of five years, and every 10 years thereafter. A trade secret is information keep secret by the owner to give him advantage over competitors. Since it is secret, a trade secret protection has unlimited lifetime.

  8. Resveratrol derivatives: a patent review (2009 - 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzuto, John M; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Ogas, Talysa

    2013-12-01

    There is currently a wealth of information on the effects of resveratrol and its derivatives in therapeutic, cosmetic and nutraceutical patent applications. Structure-activity studies of the resveratrol scaffold provide a foundation for the development of new analogs with potent activity or other beneficial properties. Ongoing research has yielded promising results and potential use in the treatment of various diseases. This review provides analysis of patents published from January 2009 to April 2013. There is a focus on different approaches for the production of resveratrol derivatives, combinations of new derivatives with old drugs, and applications in therapeutic areas, nutraceutical compositions and cosmetics. The ability of resveratrol to interact with a disparate array of subcellular targets is uncanny. Nonetheless, even though limited or no toxicity is apparent, the molecule is not a panacea due to lack of potency and issues with bioavailability. Thus, as witnessed by a number of patents, a large assortment of derivatives have been synthesized under the guise of having superior characteristics for treating or preventing various diseases or for use as neutraceutics and cosmetics. Some of these suppositions are probably correct, but evidence-based applications are essentially nil due to a lack of commitment in terms of investing the resources necessary for the conduct of obligatory clinical trials. Current usage is largely based on anecdotes and publicity. Hopefully, at some point in time, it will be possible to follow a standard protocol with a predicable outcome.

  9. Recent Patents in Pulmonary Delivery of Macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Animikh; Mandal, Abhirup; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary delivery is a non-invasive form of delivery that holds tremendous therapeutic promise for topical and systemic administration of several macromolecules. Oral administration of macromolecules has several limitations such as low bioavailability, degradation of drug before reaching circulation and insufficient absorption across intestinal membrane. Administration of macromolecules such as proteins, peptides and nucleic acids via inhalation offers great potential due to the avoidance of first pass metabolism, higher surface area and rapid clinical response. However, delivery of reproducible, uniform and safe doses of inhaled particles remains a major challenge for clinical translation. Recent advances in the fields of biotechnology and particle engineering led to progress in novel pulmonary drug delivery systems. Moreover, significant developments in carriers and delivery devices prevent denaturation of macromolecules and control their release within the lungs. This article reviews the advances in pulmonary drug delivery systems by focusing on the recent patents in delivery of macromolecules. Furthermore, recent patents in gene delivery to the lungs have also been discussed. List of patents included in this review is comprehensive in terms of pulmonary delivery of therapeutics. It includes inventions related to proteins and peptides, DNA therapeutics, siRNA and other genetic materials with therapeutic applications. The diseases targeted by these therapeutic molecules are varied including but not limited to different forms of cancer, respiratory diseases etc.

  10. Anglo-german – a colloquial language?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Teodora BIRIŞ

    2011-01-01

    In the last years more and more words from English entered in German language, which ledto the formation of a colloquial language called "Denglisch" from "Deutsch - German" and"Englisch - English". Denglisch differs from the Anglicisms through the fact that here are observedsyntactic and morphological rules of the German language, which proves the power of Germangrammar.In the article below we follow the areas where the colloquial language is used morefrequently and how it is used by German s...

  11. Network theory model of the United States Patent citation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobochnik, Jan; Erdi, Peter; Strandburg, Katherine; Csardi, Gabor; Zalanyi, Laszlo

    2006-03-01

    We report results of a network theory approach to the study of the United States patent system. We model the patent citation network as a discrete time, discrete space stochastic dynamic system. From data on more than two million patents and their citations, we extract an attractiveness function, A(k,l), which determines the likelihood that a patent will be cited. A(k,l) is approximately separable into a product of a function Ak(k) and a function Al(l), where k is the number of citations already received (in-degree) and l is the age measured in patent number units. Al(l) displays a peak at low l and a long power law tail, suggesting that some patented technologies have very long-term effects. Ak(k) exhibits super-linear preferential attachment. The preferential attachment exponent has been increasing since 1991, suggesting that patent citations are increasingly concentrated on a relatively small number of patents. The overall average probability that a new patent will be cited by a given patent has increased slightly during the same period.

  12. Patent Foramen Ovale: Is Stroke Due to Paradoxical Embolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranoux, D.; Cohen, A.; Cabanes, L.; Amarenco, P.; Bousser, M. G.; Mas, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Background and Purpose: A patent foramen ovale has been reported to be significantly more frequent in young stroke patients than in matched control subjects, and paradoxical embolism has been suggested as the main mechanism of stroke in-this situation. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. Methods: Sixty-eight consecutive patients under 55 years of age presenting with an ischemic stroke had an extensive workup, including transesophageal echocardiography with contrast. We compared the prevalence of criteria for the diagnosis of paradoxical embolism in patients with and without a patent foramen ovale. Results: A patent foramen ovale was found in 32 patients (47%). A Valsalva-provoking activity was present at stroke onset in six patients with a patent foramen ovale and in eight patients with no patent foramen ovale (X(sup 2)=0.1, nonsignificant). Clinical/radiological features suggestive of an embolic mechanism were not more frequent in patients with a patent foramen ovale. Clinical evidence of deep vein thrombosis was present in one patient with a patent foramen ovale and in none of the others. No occult venous thrombosis was found in a subgroup of patients with a patent foramen ovale and no definite cause for stroke who underwent venography (n=13). Conclusions. Our results do not support the hypothesis that paradoxical embolism is the primary mechanism of stroke in patients with a patent foramen ovale. (Stroke 1993;24:31-34) KEY WORDS e cerebral ischemia e embolism foramen ovale, patent

  13. Patents associated with high-cost drugs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew F; Dent, Chris; McIntyre, Peter; Wilson, Lachlan; Studdert, David M

    2013-01-01

    Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators.

  14. Patents Associated with High-Cost Drugs in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew F.; Dent, Chris; McIntyre, Peter; Wilson, Lachlan; Studdert, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by “evergreening” blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators. PMID:23577165

  15. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evert

    direct result of the successful German submarine operations in the North Atlantic during 1939–1942. The first German .... The presence of Japanese and German warships in the Southern Atlantic and Indian Oceans was ..... sailed at great speed from the equator in order to arrive off Cape Town for the commencement of the.

  16. Enriching the Curriculum with Pennsylvania German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…

  17. Confidential patent application with an example of preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order that the invention solving a technical problem receives a patent protection, it is necessary to file a patent application. For the protection of confidential inventions which are important for defense and national security, a confidential patent application[1] must be filed. A confidential patent application is an important and complex document, the parts of which are,  in principle, exposed in an established order. For the preparation of patent applications, it is necessary to engage experts with higher education, primarily in the technical field the invention relates to. The contents of the patent application is a basis for examining whether the application meets the requirements for patentability and whether the right to patent protection is achieved. Besides theoretical discussions on patent application, the paper gives a short version of an example of an application regarding a protected confidential invention. Introduction The basic condition for the exercise of patent protection is filing a patent application, the test procedure and, eventually, depending on the test results - the recognition or rejection of the patent. The paper gives a description of all parts of the patent application on an example of a confidential invention already patented. The content of the confidential patent application The confidential patent application for confidential invention protection consists of the following parts: The application for a patent; description of the invention; the claims (indication of what is new and what is required to be protected by patenting; abstract (short summary of the invention  and a draft of the invention (to which the description and the claims are referred. The application for a patent The application for patent is filed on Form P-1 and a request for the petty patent on Form MP-1. The data entered in the file is, for example: the applicant; the lawyer; the name of the invention in Serbian and English; the inventor

  18. Limitation of medical research in German law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Erwin

    2005-01-01

    In Germany, pharmaceutical trials and the testing of medical devices is regulated by statute. Any other kind of medical experimentation is handled according to the Declaration of Helsinki. Medical experimentation has to be reviewed by an ethics committee before the start and there has to be an elaborate research protocol, which provides for the protection of the experimental subject. In case of an accident, there is compulsory accident insurance as far as pharmaceutical trials and the testing of medical devices are concerned. The third party accident insurance just covers material loss, there is no provision paying and suffering. The sum paid by the insurance company is set off against damages for negligence. There is no strict liability for medical experimentation, but the German courts are expected to set very high standards for medical care in experimentation. The data protection and medical confidentiality have been lessened because of the European law that requires the experimental subject to give his consent to the inspection of the data or the file and if he takes part in the experimentation, that his data and some of his cells might be with the pharmaceutical company forever. In general, the German law seems to be adequate to the protection of experimental subjects.

  19. "To patent or not to patent? the case of Novartis' cancer drug Glivec in India".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabble, Ravinder; Kohler, Jillian Clare

    2014-01-06

    Glivec (imatinib mesylate), produced by the pharmaceutical company Novartis, is prescribed in the case of chronic myeloid leukemia, one of the most common blood cancers in eastern countries. After more than a decade of legal battles surrounding its patentability, the Supreme Court of India gave its final decision on April 1st of 2013, rejecting the appeal of the Swiss giant drug manufacturer. In 2006, the Indian Patent Office first refused Glivec's patent under Section 3(d) of the Indian Patent Act arguing that it was only a modified version of an existing drug, Imatinib, and therefore that the drug was not innovative. Novartis replied filing legal challenges against the Indian government but the final verdict in April of 2013 ends the battle. Indeed, the Supreme Court stated that even if the bioavailability of the drug was improved, it did not demonstrate enhanced efficacy and that Glivec was not patentable. The research primarily focused on journal, newspaper and magazine articles relevant to the time frame of the lawsuit (from 1994 to 2013) as well as news searches through Google, Factiva, ProQuest, PubMed, and YouTube where press articles from court verdicts were obtained by using the following keywords: "India", "Novartis", "Glivec", "Patent", "Novartis Case", and "Supreme Court of India". The data sources were interpreted and analyzed according to the authors' own prior knowledge and understanding of the exigencies of the TRIPS Agreement. This case illuminates how India is interpreting international law to fit domestic public health needs. The Novartis case arguably sets an important precedent for the global pharmaceutical industry and ideally will help improve access to lifesaving medicines in the developing world by demanding that patient health needs supersede commercial interests. The Supreme Court of India's decision may affect the interpretation of the article of the TRIPS Agreement, which states members shall be free to determine the appropriate method

  20. "We call it Springbok-German!": language contact in the German communities in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Varieties of German are spoken all over the world, some of which have been maintained for prolonged periods of time. As a result, these transplanted varieties often show traces of the ongoing language contact as specific to their particular context. This thesis explores one such transplanted German language variety – Springbok- German – as spoken by a small subset of German Lutherans in South Africa. Specifically, this study takes as its focus eight rural German communities acr...

  1. Dictionary of surfactants English/German and German/English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, K.

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is supplement to the monograph ''Surfactants in Consumer Products'' edited by Professor Dr. J. Falbe. It comprises approximately 3.200 keywords of the chemistry, technology and applications of surfactants in English/German and German/English. In the monograph the physical-chemical principles of action of the surfactants, their production and their application in laundry detergents, dishwashing detergents and cleaning agents as well as in cosmetics and toiletries are discussed. The technological aspects of application and formulation along with those of production and manufacturing processes are illustrated. Ecological and toxicological questions are probed in depth. Finally, important economic data concerning this branch of industry as well as an attempt to provide a perspective with regard to the future of the surfactant market round out the picture.

  2. Commentary on patents: Don`t dismiss Rifkin`s damning of gene patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, R.

    1995-07-01

    Biotech may have less to fear from Rifkin than from its own inclination to dismiss the fact that the evolution of ethics and patent laws applying to patenting genes has been haphazard. Perhaps it is time for the biotechnology industry to get behind the establishment of an effective forum for opening much-needed dialogue. Perhaps a Senate proposal to establish a bioethics commission, which reportedly has bogged down in partisan politics, is just such a venue for the government and private sector to begin to hash out the ethical and legal dilemmas that are indisputably at the heart of the biotechnology industry, and its future success.

  3. Patents and Trademarks as Information Sources and the Turkish Patent Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoğan Karaahmet

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The protection of industrial property rights in a country is an important factor in encouraging the invention activities, application of new technologies to industry, increasing foreign investment and supporting national and international trade. The present industrial property system of Turkey, which is one of the first countries in the world that started the protection of industrial property rights, includes protection of patents and trademarks only. This paper discusses the importance of access to technological and commercial information, describes the basic concepts of industrial property rights, and introduces the Turkish Patent Institute, its structure and functions along with information and documentation services it offers.

  4. Using networks in patent exploration: application in patent analysis: the democratization of 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Reymond

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2014v19n40p117 Bibliometry coupling is used to process bibliographic data to assert existing latent information on publication material. We apply here this technique on patent data gathered from the OPS web service to enhance the exploration process of patents using network visualization. The following will present briefly graph theory preliminaries, the gathering and transforming process on the ops base. The different networks produced will be discussed and placed in a generic economic intelligence process. Finally we present a case study using this approach to discuss the democratization of 3D printing.

  5. [German Urological Associations under National Socialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischel, M; Moll, F; Fangerau, H

    2011-09-01

    The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie (German Urological Association), established in 1907, was a German-Austrian medical society in which Jewish physicians held important positions. When the Nazis seized power in 1933, the Austrian Hans Rubritius was president of the society. The non-German presidency and the exclusion of Jewish colleagues from the professional society and medical practice led to a halt of the society's activities. At the same time in the mid 1930s, German urologists founded the Gesellschaft Reichsdeutscher Urologen (Association of Reichs-German Urologists) whose members aligned themselves with Nazi health policies and in turn received professional and personal benefits.

  6. Word order in the Germanic languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Anders; Rijkhoff, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The Germanic branch of Indo-European consists of three main groups (Ruhlen 1987: 327):- East Germanic: Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian (all extinct);- North Germanic (or: Scandinavian): Runic (extinct), Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese;- West Germanic: German, Yiddish, Luxembourgeois......, Dutch, Afrikaans, Frisian, English.Here we will only consider the languages that are currently spoken in geographical Europe. Thus Afrikaans, which is spoken in South Africa, and the extinct languages Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian, and Runic will not be taken into account (but see e.g. König & van der...

  7. Languages, Fees and the International Scope of Patenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in patenting activity are the subject of a growing literature. Existing research contributes to a better understanding of the incentives that drive economic agents to rely on the patent system (e.g. Cohen et al., 2000; Arundel, 2001; Blind et al., 2006; Peeters and van...... Pottelsberghe, 2006; von Graevenitz et al., 2013) and on potential implications of their behaviour for the effectiveness of the patent system. Lately, a number of researchers have started to explore the design of the patent system itself, i.e. the role of fees and costs of patenting (Archontopoulos et al., 2007......; Harhoff et al., 2009; de Rassenfosse and van Pottelsberghe, 2013), the duration of examination (Thomas, 2010; Harhoff, 2011), as well as patent office governance and management (Friebel et al., 2006)....

  8. [INDENA SPA company's patent portfolio of Ginkgo biloba preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Guo, Kai; Cheng, Xin-min; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-01

    INDENA SPA Company in Italy is a multi-national company that produces and sells plant extracts. Based on its own re- search advantages in the field of Ginkgo biloba preparation, the company protects its own products market effectively through building patent portfolio around the patents of its opponent. Based on the multi-angle analysis for patent portfolio of G. biloba preparation from the aspects of application time, legal status, technical development route, and patent portfolio layout, this article provides technical reference on research and development of G. biloba preparation, and the author suggest that Chinese applicants learn techniques and layout experiences of other patents fully to enhance the level of research and patent protection level.

  9. Patents on Phytochemicals: Methodologies of Extraction, Application in Food and Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz-Trinidad, Nancy; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Salas-Benito, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Patents on phytochemicals are being registered worldwide. Such phytochemicals provide benefits to human health, and include terpenoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, lignin, and fiber. This review has the purpose to provide a comprehensive overview of patents published in the last five years about extraction of phytochemicals and their application in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Forty eight pa- tents were analyzed and classified in four topics of interest; 1) Extraction, 2) Functional foods, 3) Biological activity, and 4) Prevention of diseases. Extraction yield of phytochemicals is the critical step. The techniques to extract phytochemicals include enzymat- ic hydrolysis, nano-particulate precipitation, salts formation and combination of solvents; however, the use of ultrasound and microwave is increasing. Patents concerning functional foods include pediatric formulations, sport drink, and compo- sitions that produce beneficial effects. Biological activity of plant extracts tested in animals or cell cultures, as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer activity, reduction of obesity and diabetes are presented in this review. Application of phy- tochemicals in the prevention and treatment of health disorders, such as diabetes, gastritis, enteritis, topical inflammation, macular degeneration, gingivitis, prostatic hyperplasia, urinary impairments. Patents revised include 30% methodologies for extraction of phytochemicals, 16% application of phytochem- icals in food matrixes to obtain functional foods, 18% biological activity of extracts or compounds and 36% application in the prevention and treatment of illness, which reveals a great interest to protect intellectual property concerning applica- tion of phytochemicals formulations for human health.

  10. Compulsory licensing, price controls, and access to patented foreign products

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Saggi; Saggi Saggi

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by existing multilateral rules regarding intellectual property, we develop a North-South model to highlight the dual roles price controls and compulsory licensing play in determining Southern access to a patented Northern product. The Northern patent-holder chooses whether and how to work its patent in the South (either via entry or voluntarily licensing) while the South determines the price control and whether to issue a compulsory license. The threat of compulsory licensing benefi...

  11. Patent foramen ovale and migraine attacks: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Philomena Z Y; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2014-05-01

    Migraine headache and the presence of a patent foramen ovale have been associated with each other, although the precise pathophysiological mechanism(s) are uncertain. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the extent of patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and to determine whether closure of a patent foramen ovale would improve migraine headache. An electronic literature search was performed to select studies between January 1980 and February 2013 that were relevant to the prevalence of patent foramen ovale and migraine, and the effects of intervention(s) on migraine attacks. Of the initial 368 articles presented by the initial search, 20 satisfied the inclusion criteria assessing patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and 21 presented data on patent foramen ovale closure. In case series and cohort studies, patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs ranged from 14.6% to 66.5%. Case-control studies reported a prevalence ranging from 16.0% to 25.7% in controls, compared with 26.8% to 96.0% for migraine with aura. The extent of improvement or resolution of migraine headache attack symptoms was variable. In case series, intervention ameliorated migraine headache attack in 13.6% to 92.3% of cases. One single randomized trial did not show any benefit from patent foramen ovale closure. The data overall do not exclude the possibility of a placebo effect for resolving migraine following patent foramen ovale closure. This systematic review demonstrates firstly that migraine headache attack is associated with a higher prevalence of patent foramen ovale than among the general population. Observational data suggest that some improvement of migraine would be observed if the patent foramen ovale were to be closed. A proper assessment of any interventions for patent foramen ovale closure would require further large randomized trials to be conducted given uncertainties from existing trial data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Do patents impede the provision of genetic tests in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Dianne; Liddicoat, John

    2013-06-01

    Health policy and law reform agencies lack a sound evidence base of the impacts of patents on innovation and access to healthcare to assist them in their deliberations. This paper reports the results of a survey of managers of Australian genetic testing laboratories that asked a series of questions relating to the tests they perform, whether they pay to access patented inventions and whether they have received notifications from patent holders about patents associated with particular tests. Some diagnostics facilities are exposed to patent costs, but they are all located in the private sector. No public hospitals reported paying licence fees or royalties beyond those included in the price of commercial test kits. Some respondents reported having received enforcement notices from patent holders, but almost all related to the widely known breast cancer-associated patents. Respondents were also asked for their views on the most effective mechanisms to protect their ability to provide genetic tests now and in the future. Going to the media, paying licence fees, ignoring patent rights and relying on the government to take action were widely seen as most effective. Litigation and applications for compulsory licences were seen as some of the least effective mechanisms. These results provide an evidence base for development of health policy and law reform. What is known about the topic? The impact of patents on the delivery of genetic testing services remains unclear in Australia. What does this paper add? The survey reported in this paper suggests that, aside from well-known enforcement actions relating to the breast cancer associated patents, there is little evidence that providers of genetic testing services are being exposed to aggressive patent-enforcement practices. What are the implications for practitioners? Although patent-enforcement actions may increase in the future, a range of strategies are available to providers of testing services to protect them against

  13. 37 CFR 1.945 - Response to Office action by patent owner in inter partes reexamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... patent owner in inter partes reexamination. 1.945 Section 1.945 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... CASES Inter Partes Reexamination of Patents That Issued From an Original Application Filed in the United... Reexamination § 1.945 Response to Office action by patent owner in inter partes reexamination. (a) The patent...

  14. 37 CFR 1.941 - Amendments by patent owner in inter partes reexamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inter partes reexamination. 1.941 Section 1.941 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Inter Partes... Amendments by patent owner in inter partes reexamination. Amendments by patent owner in inter partes...

  15. 37 CFR 1.17 - Patent application and reexamination processing fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application and reexamination processing fees. 1.17 Section 1.17 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Fees...

  16. 37 CFR 1.18 - Patent post allowance (including issue) fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent post allowance (including issue) fees. 1.18 Section 1.18 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Fees...

  17. 37 CFR 1.770 - Express withdrawal of application for extension of patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term Extension of Patent Term Due to Regulatory Review § 1.770 Express... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express withdrawal of application for extension of patent term. 1.770 Section 1.770 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED...

  18. 78 FR 64925 - Request for Comments on Proposed Elimination of Patents Search Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office [Docket No. PTO-P-2013-0011] Request for Comments on Proposed Elimination of Patents Search Templates AGENCY: United States Patent and... Patents Search Templates from the USPTO Web site. In 2006, the United States Patent and Trademark Office...

  19. Oficina española de patentes y marcas. Video

    OpenAIRE

    Vila Riudavets, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    Por qué utilizar las patentes como fuente de información tecnológica. Ventajas de las patentes: extensa colección de información técnica, información completa, novedosa, a veces única, en distintos idiomas, clasificada y en muchos casos de dominio público. Cómo localizar información sobre patentes. Información gratuita en Internet en la web de la OEPM: Boletines de Vigilancia Tecnológica, e-learning, etc. Bases de datos de patentes de oficinas internacionales gratuitas: esp@cenet, Register...

  20. Bioterrorism Countermeasure Development: Issues in Patents and Homeland Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schacht, Wendy H; Thomas, John R

    2006-01-01

    ... potential biological threats. These bills proposed reforms to current policies and practices associated with intellectual property, particularly patents, and the marketing of pharmaceuticals and related products...

  1. Applying patent information to tracking a specific technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yuan Liu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Patents in general contain much novel technological information. This paper demonstrates that the usage of patent analysis can facilitate a unique scheme for tracking technology development. In this paper, the walking technique of the Japanese biped robot is tracked as an example. The searching method of the FI (file index and F-term classification system developed by JPO (Japan Patent Office was employed in this study, where all the related patent data were searched from the IPDL (Intellectual Property Digital Library. This study investigated an important technique applied to the humanoid biped robot that imitates the walking behavior of the human beings on two legs. By analyzing the patent information obtained, the relative research capabilities, technical strengths, and patent citation conditions among patent competitors were compared. Furthermore, a formulated technical matrix of patent map is established in this paper to indicate that the ZMP (Zero Moment Point control means is the main technology to achieve stabilized walking control of the humanoid biped robot. This study also incorporates relevant academic journal findings and industrial information. Results presented herein demonstrate that patents can function not only as a map for tracking a technology trajectory, but also as a guide to the main development of a new technology in years to come.

  2. Comparative analysis of access to patented HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of access to patented HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical medicines through the Canadian and EU TRIPS flexibilities measures: are they efficacious or overly burdensome and ineffective measures?

  3. Enhancing antibody patent protection using epitope mapping information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaoxiang; Storz, Ulrich; Doranz, Benjamin J.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT As the $100B therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) market continues to grow, developers of therapeutic mAbs increasingly face the need to strengthen patent protection of their products and enforce their patents in courts. In view of changes in the patent law landscape, patent applications are strategically using information on the precise binding sites of their mAbs, i.e., the epitopes, to support patent novelty, non-obviousness, subject matter, and a tightened written description requirement for broad genus antibody claims. Epitope data can also allow freedom-to-operate for second-generation mAbs by differentiation from patented first-generation mAbs. Numerous high profile court cases, including Amgen v. Sanofi over rival mAbs that block PCSK9 activity, have been centered on epitope mapping claims, highlighting the importance of epitopes in determining broad mAb patent rights. Based on these cases, epitope mapping claims must describe a sufficiently large number of mAbs that share an epitope, and each epitope must be described at amino acid resolution. Here, we review current best practices for the use of epitope information to overcome the increasing challenges of patenting mAbs, and how the quality, conformation, and resolution of epitope residue data can influence the breadth and strength of mAb patents. PMID:29120697

  4. R&D, patents and innovation: a differential game approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, H.-M.

    2016-01-01

    A patent race is a technological competition among firms and the firm making a first-hand innovation takes advantages of patenting. Firms strategically invest in R&D and produce knowledge in order to innovate. Instead of growing model of R&D, I use a differential game approach to investigate firms interaction of R&D behavior in a patent race. In general, knowledge is an intangible good that gives a special feature of a patent race. Whether knowledge is substitutable to the existing knowledge ...

  5. Nano/micro-electro mechanical systems: a patent view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangyuan; Liu, Weishu

    2015-12-01

    Combining both bibliometrics and citation network analysis, this research evaluates the global development of micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) research based on the Derwent Innovations Index database. We found that worldwide, the growth trajectory of MEMS patents demonstrates an approximate S shape, with United States, Japan, China, and Korea leading the global MEMS race. Evidenced by Derwent class codes, the technology structure of global MEMS patents remains steady over time. Yet there does exist a national competitiveness component among the top country players. The latecomer China has become the second most prolific country filing MEMS patents, but its patent quality still lags behind the global average.

  6. Prevailing impact trends in patenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

      Patents are at the heart of science and public policy. Getting European patent policy right is a daunting task and involves listening to numerous voices. Part of this process must entail a full understanding of emerging trends that challenge the present system. The challenges are fluid and vary...... from sector to sector. This paper identifies and evaluates key recent developments in patenting which impact upon the European patent system, whichever way it looks. An analysis of these and the underlying causes means we are in a much better position to build an effective policy rearguard.    ...

  7. Enhancing antibody patent protection using epitope mapping information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaoxiang; Storz, Ulrich; Doranz, Benjamin J

    As the $100B therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) market continues to grow, developers of therapeutic mAbs increasingly face the need to strengthen patent protection of their products and enforce their patents in courts. In view of changes in the patent law landscape, patent applications are strategically using information on the precise binding sites of their mAbs, i.e., the epitopes, to support patent novelty, non-obviousness, subject matter, and a tightened written description requirement for broad genus antibody claims. Epitope data can also allow freedom-to-operate for second-generation mAbs by differentiation from patented first-generation mAbs. Numerous high profile court cases, including Amgen v. Sanofi over rival mAbs that block PCSK9 activity, have been centered on epitope mapping claims, highlighting the importance of epitopes in determining broad mAb patent rights. Based on these cases, epitope mapping claims must describe a sufficiently large number of mAbs that share an epitope, and each epitope must be described at amino acid resolution. Here, we review current best practices for the use of epitope information to overcome the increasing challenges of patenting mAbs, and how the quality, conformation, and resolution of epitope residue data can influence the breadth and strength of mAb patents.

  8. Transcatheter closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus through only venous route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Abdul Malik; Duke, Abdul Karim; Sattar, Hina

    2018-03-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus is a common congenital cardiac defect comprising 5-10% of all these defects in term neonates. Although open chest and video-assisted interruption are still in use, transcatheter occlusion has rapidly become the first choice for patent ductus arteriosus closure in the appropriate patient. Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus is widely done by transvenous approach guided by aortic access. We present the case of a 2 year old girl who underwent patent ductus arteriosus device occlusion with transvenous access only.

  9. Trends in nanotechnology patents applied to the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Adelaide Maria de Souza; Alencar, Maria Simone de Menezes; da Silva, Cicera Henrique; Nunes, Jeziel; Mendes, Flavia Maria Lins

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a method for identifying trends in patent applications for nanotechnology applied to the health sector around the world, based on the International Patent Classification. This classification divides the sector into: dental care, drugs, diagnostic kits, and medical apparatus & medical care. The Derwent database was mined for patent documents using nanotechnology terms associated with the IPC subclasses from the health subsectors. The number of patents was found to be rising, led by the United States, particularly universities and R centers. In the dental care subsector, nanotechnology was found to be used in composite material for manufacturing dental appliances. In drugs, the focus is on the use of nanoparticulate compositions comprising agents that are useful for a variety of diseases. In diagnostic kits, nanostructures have been patented that are capable of detecting target analytes. Meanwhile, in medical apparatus & medical care, patent applications have been made for nanocapsules and/or nanocomposite materials inserted in devices and guide catheters. A study was also made of patents in Brazil, where the same assignees and the same country (United States) as in the survey of global patents were found to be the leading patent applicants / holders.

  10. Academic Patents and Access to Medicines in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    There is a widespread and growing concern that patents hinder access to life-saving drugs in developing countries. Recent student movements and legislative initiatives emphasize the potential role that research universities in developed countries could have in ameliorating this “access gap.” These efforts are based on the assumption that universities own patents on a substantial number of drugs and that patents on these drugs are currently filed in developing countries. I provide empirical evidence regarding these issues and explore the feasibility and desirability of proposals to change university patenting and licensing practices to promote access to medicines in the developing world. PMID:19008514

  11. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Early Radio Alleged Patent ‘Thicket’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, RD

    It has been proposed that when multiple, independently-owned and ‘over-lapping’ patents must be licensed for legal technology development the difficulty of negotiating cross-licenses may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter that development. Our literature review finds these features allegedly...... present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re......-examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...

  12. Bi-Cell Unit for Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent concerns a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell . The bi-cell unit is comprised of two electrode packs. Each of the electrode packs includes an...invention relates in general to a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell and in particular, to a bi-cell unit for a hydrazine-air fuel cell .

  13. German cross-cultural psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1986-01-01

    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  14. German industrial policy: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Vitols, Sigurt

    1996-01-01

    Despite intense study as an attractive model for adjustment to slower worldwide growth and increasing competition from low-wage producers, the sources of German institutional comparative advantage remain controversial, particularly with regard to the role of the national state. This paper argues that the national state plays a key -- though mainly indirect -- role in supporting the modernization of industry. On the one hand, the national regulation of labor markets has discouraged price compe...

  15. Patent Remedies: Online Management of IP Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Gordon

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper was inspired by work currently in progress under a DTI (Department of Trade and Industry funded KTP (Knowledge Transfer Partnership Project between Kennedy’s Patent and Glasgow Caledonian University. The project offers a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the firm's business exigencies, and the constantly evolving legal and procedural framework within which the firm operates. The particular focus of the paper is the issues raised by the provision of online legal/quasi-legal services in an ‘e-government’ context.

  16. Absorptive routines and international patent performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando E. García-Muiña

    2017-04-01

    We enrich the treatment of the absorptive capacity phases including the moderating effects between routines associated to the traditional potential-realized absorptive capacities. Taking into account external knowledge search strategies, the deeper external relationships, the better transference and appropriation of specific external knowledge. Nevertheless, when the moderating role of assimilation is included, cooperation agreements appear as the most efficient source of external knowledge. Finally, we show that technological tools let firms store and structure the information making easier its use for international patenting. This positive effect is reinforced in the presence of exploitation routines, since technological knowledge will better fit to the industry's key factors of success.

  17. 77 FR 43082 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Commerce Patent Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ...; Information Collection; Commerce Patent Regulations AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning Department of Commerce patent regulations. Public comments are particularly invited on... Information Collection 9000- 0095, Commerce Patent Regulations, by any of the following methods: Regulations...

  18. The practical Einstein experiments, patents, inventions

    CERN Document Server

    Illy, József

    2012-01-01

    Albert Einstein may be best known as the wire-haired whacky physicist who gave us the theory of relativity, but that's just one facet of this genius' contribution to human knowledge and modern science. As Jozsef Illy expertly shows in this book, Einstein had an eminently practical side as well. As a youth, Einstein was an inveterate tinkerer in the electrical supply factory his father and uncle owned and operated. His first paid job was as a patent examiner. Later in life, Einstein contributed to many inventions, including refrigerators, microphones, and instruments for aviation. In published papers, Einstein often provided ways to test his theories and fundamental problems of the scientific community of his times. He delved deeply into a variety of technological innovations, most notably the gyrocompass, and consulted for industry in patent cases and on other legal matters. Einstein also provided explanations for common and mundane phenomena, such as the meandering of rivers. In these and other hands-on exam...

  19. Universal precautions: awareness and practice of patent medicines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine patent medicine vendor's awareness and practice of universal precautions. Methodology: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in Enugu metropolis, Enugu State, Nigeria in November, 2008. Three hundred and thirty seven patent medicine vendors were studied using ...

  20. Large scale disambiguation of scientific references in patent databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Kangran; Caron, Emiel; Guner, Stanislaw; Rafols, Ismael; Molas-Gallart, Jordi; Castro-Martinez, Elena; Woolley, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The PATSTAT database stores information on patent applications and publications. One of its tables, stores scientific references cited by patents. As such, this is a potentially powerful resource to investigate the relation between science, technology and innovation. We aim to provide a reliable way

  1. Survey of the patents intensity in advanced ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, C.S.; Oliveira, E.C. de; Pencinato, M.V.; Bandeira, R.J.; Ribeiro, E.

    1989-01-01

    A survey about a sectorial diagnostic of advanced ceramics, using patents of the Industrial Properties National Institute, as a reference documentation is presented. The mains points for generating technology in 80 decade are identified, by the institutions/company titularies of patents. (C.G.C.) [pt

  2. A patent landscape on application of microorganisms in construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapurkar, Dipti; Telang, Manasi

    2017-07-01

    Construction biotechnology includes research and development of construction materials and processes that make use of various microbes. The present technology landscape gives a perspective on how microbes have been used in construction industry as cement and concrete additives by analyzing patents filed in this technology arena. All patents related to the technology of interest published globally to date have been reviewed. The earliest patent filing in this technology domain was recorded in the year 1958 and the patenting activity reached its peak around mid to late 1990s. The early technology was mainly focused on microbial polysaccharides and other metabolic products as additives. Year 2002 onwards, biomineralization has taken precedence over the other technologies with consistent patent filings indicating a shift in innovation focus. Japan has been the global leader with highest number of patents filed on application of microbes in construction industry. Southeast University, China has topped the patent assignee list with maximum number of filings followed by Kajima Corp. and Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd. Most patent applications have claimed microbe based bio-products. Construction-related microbial technologies are mainly based on activity of different microorganisms such as urease-producing, acidogenic, halophilic, alkaliphilic, nitrate and iron-reducing bacteria. Sporosarcina pasteurii has been the most widely used microbe for biomineralization.

  3. 21 CFR 314.53 - Submission of patent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Cosmetic Act. This time-sensitive patent information is submitted pursuant to 21 CFR 314.53. I attest that... approved under section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. This time-sensitive patent... information, an archival copy and a copy for the chemistry, manufacturing, and controls section of the review...

  4. The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2007-01-01

    The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement - An Exclusively Nondiscriminatory Approach?   Gene patenting in Europe has provoked much debate both before and since the adoption of Directive 98/44/EC on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. Some of the major points of...

  5. Software and patents: the law and its (ab)uses

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Patents and software live on a tense footing: on the one hand, the law doesn't draw a clear line, and on the other hand, patents on computer-implemented inventions are frequently used in ways which hamper innovation. Are there any legitimate uses? How can abuses be addressed?

  6. Genetic contribution to patent ductus arteriosus in the premature newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Vineet; Zhou, Gongfu; Bizzarro, Matthew J; Buhimschi, Catalin; Hussain, Naveed; Gruen, Jeffrey R; Zhang, Heping

    2009-02-01

    The most common congenital heart disease in the newborn population, patent ductus arteriosus, accounts for significant morbidity in preterm newborns. In addition to prematurity and environmental factors, we hypothesized that genetic factors play a significant role in this condition. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of genetic factors to the variance in liability for patent ductus arteriosus in premature newborns. A retrospective study (1991-2006) from 2 centers was performed by using zygosity data from premature twins born at Patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed by echocardiography at each center. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to assess the effect of specific covariates. Latent variable probit modeling was then performed to estimate the heritability of patent ductus arteriosus, and mixed-effects probit modeling was used to quantify the genetic component. We obtained data from 333 dizygotic twin pairs and 99 monozygotic twin pairs from 2 centers (Yale University and University of Connecticut). Data on chorioamnionitis, antenatal steroids, gestational age, body weight, gender, respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, oxygen supplementation, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia were comparable between monozygotic and dizygotic twins. We found that gestational age, respiratory distress syndrome, and institution were significant covariates for patent ductus arteriosus. After controlling for specific covariates, genetic factors or the shared environment accounted for 76.1% of the variance in liability for patent ductus arteriosus. Preterm patent ductus arteriosus is highly familial (contributed to by genetic and environmental factors), with the effect being mainly environmental, after controlling for known confounders.

  7. A Selection Model of Patenting Firms in Demark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1999-01-01

    on how market structure relate to innovative activity in small open economies. The paper explores the relation between patenting activity and market structure in the Danish manufacturing industries using data from a recently developed database containing accounting information on a sample of patenting...

  8. 78 FR 61185 - Patent and Trademark Office Acquisition Guidelines (PTAG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... site. Part 3--Electronic Commerce The USPTO will use governmentwide acquisition systems to the maximum... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Chapter I [Docket No.: PTO... and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office...

  9. Patent processus vaginalis: A window to the abdomen | Rahman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A patent processus vaginalis (PPV) allows a communication between the peritoneum and scrotum. Hydrocoele is the usual presentation of a PPV in children. However, with intraabdominal pathology the patent PPV may provide the first clue to the mischief within the abdomen. We present here two unusual cases associated ...

  10. 77 FR 14686 - Claims for Patent and Copyright Infringement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ...; 22 U.S.C. 2356; 35 U.S.C. 181-188 and 286; and 28 U.S.C. 1498. Sec. 1245.200 Purpose. The purpose of... a claim to permit rapid processing and resolution of the claim. (1) A copy of the asserted patent(s...

  11. The myth of the early aviation patent hold-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Ron D; Howells, John

    2015-01-01

    The prevailing historical accounts of the formation of the U.S. aircraft “patent pool” in 1917 assume the U.S. Government necessarily intervened to alleviate a patent hold-up among private aircraft manufacturers. We show these accounts to be inconsistent with the historical facts. We show that de...

  12. R&D, patents and innovation: a differential game approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.-M.

    2016-01-01

    A patent race is a technological competition among firms and the firm making a first-hand innovation takes advantages of patenting. Firms strategically invest in R&D and produce knowledge in order to innovate. Instead of growing model of R&D, I use a differential game approach to investigate firms

  13. Allantoic cyst: a prenatal clue to patent urachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Paul T.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Imhoff, Steven C. [Good Samaritan Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Crombleholme, Timothy M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2006-10-15

    A patent urachus, which is typically diagnosed as leakage from the umbilicus postnatally, can present as an allantoic cyst in the umbilical cord antenatally. We report a case of a patent urachus with an allantoic cyst diagnosed via fetal MR imaging at 24 weeks' gestation. Early detection allowed for appropriate counseling and prompt corrective surgery after birth. (orig.)

  14. The Battle for Patent Rights in Plant Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    ”. In contrast to previous findings, however, the results show that large-volume applicants are more likely to be opposed. Because the boundaries of plant biotech patents are ill-defined, large patent portfolios do not promote cooperative behavior such as licensing or settlements. The analysis rejects...

  15. Patenting activities and firm performance : Does firm size matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries, P.; Faems, D.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas prior research has provided valuable insights into the willingness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and large firms to engage in patenting, a comparison of the performance implications of patenting activities across small and large firms is still lacking. This gap is important

  16. Patenting the bomb: nuclear weapons, intellectual property, and technological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellerstein, Alex

    2008-03-01

    During the course of the Manhattan Project, the U.S. government secretly attempted to acquire a monopoly on the patent rights for inventions used in the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. The use of patents as a system of control, while common for more mundane technologies, would seem at first glance to conflict with the regimes of secrecy that have traditionally been associated with nuclear weapons. In explaining the origins and operations of the Manhattan Project patent system, though, this essay argues that the utilization of patents was an ad hoc attempt at legal control of the atomic bomb by Manhattan Project administrators, focused on the monopolistic aspects of the patent system and preexisting patent secrecy legislation. From the present perspective, using patents as a method of control for such weapons seems inadequate, if not unnecessary; but at the time, when the bomb was a new and essentially unregulated technology, patents played an important role in the thinking of project administrators concerned with meaningful postwar control of the bomb.

  17. Biotechnology Patenting in the BRICS Countries: Strategies and Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsova, Ekaterina; Linton, Jonathan D

    2018-01-05

    The BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) account for 25% of global biotechnology patents. To understand the current and future landscape of the domain, it is important to better understand the capacity of these contributors. Here, we consider the thematic priorities, strategies, and key players of the BRICS countries in biotechnology patenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Protonation of Patented Blue V in aqueous solutions: theoretical and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The acid-base properties of the Patented Blue V dye were studied by spectrophotometry and tristimulus colourimetry. The mechanism of protonation of Patented Blue V has been investigated with semiempirical and DFT methods.The quantum chemical calculations of total energy defined the most stable isomer foreach ...

  19. Patenting for economic development: how aware are Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the level of awareness of Nigerian Pharmaceutical researchers about patent matters with a view to elucidating the reasons for the low number of patents registered from their research efforts. About 42% of the researchers that responded to the study claimed to have developed some inventions. However ...

  20. Screening for Patent Quality : Examination, Fees, and the Courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schankerman, Mark; Schütt, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We develop an integrated framework to study how governments can improve the quality of patent screening. We focus on four key policy instruments: patent office examination, pre- and post-grant fees, and challenges in the courts. We show that there are important complementarities among these

  1. 75 FR 38543 - Patent, Trademark and Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Patent, Trademark and Copyright Acts AGENCY: Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of prospective intent to award exclusive license. SUMMARY: The... Technologies Group, Inc., 253 Portman Lane, Suite 107, Bridgeville, PA 15017 on U.S. Patent No. 6,485,696 B1...

  2. Patent medicine vendors are major providers antimalaria treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: Patent medicine vendors are major providers antimalaria treatment in Nigeria. The management of malaria by this informal sector of healthcare delivery is however dominated by negative practices. This study determines the influence of training on antimalaria treatment practices of patent medicine ...

  3. Pervasive sequence patents cover the entire human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A; Mason, Christopher E

    2013-01-01

    The scope and eligibility of patents for genetic sequences have been debated for decades, but a critical case regarding gene patents (Association of Molecular Pathologists v. Myriad Genetics) is now reaching the US Supreme Court. Recent court rulings have supported the assertion that such patents can provide intellectual property rights on sequences as small as 15 nucleotides (15mers), but an analysis of all current US patent claims and the human genome presented here shows that 15mer sequences from all human genes match at least one other gene. The average gene matches 364 other genes as 15mers; the breast-cancer-associated gene BRCA1 has 15mers matching at least 689 other genes. Longer sequences (1,000 bp) still showed extensive cross-gene matches. Furthermore, 15mer-length claims from bovine and other animal patents could also claim as much as 84% of the genes in the human genome. In addition, when we expanded our analysis to full-length patent claims on DNA from all US patents to date, we found that 41% of the genes in the human genome have been claimed. Thus, current patents for both short and long nucleotide sequences are extraordinarily non-specific and create an uncertain, problematic liability for genomic medicine, especially in regard to targeted re-sequencing and other sequence diagnostic assays.

  4. 38 CFR 17.266 - Copyrights and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copyrights and patents. 17.266 Section 17.266 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants for Exchange of Information § 17.266 Copyrights and patents. If a grant-supported program results...

  5. 48 CFR 2453.227 - Patents, data, and copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patents, data, and copyrights. 2453.227 Section 2453.227 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 2453.227 Patents, data, and copyrights. ...

  6. Patent indicators: a window to pharmaceutical market success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Hu, Yuanjia; Zheng, Mingli; Wang, Yitao

    2013-07-01

    Pharmaceutical success in the market is the best reward for pharmaceutical investors undergoing the lengthy, costly and risky process of pharmaceutical Research and Development (R&D). Drugs with high market revenues trigger fierce competition between pharmaceutical enterprises, as is demonstrated by the increasing Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A) cases focusing on seizing the best-selling products. On the other hand, patents, as the best shield for innovative drugs against generic drugs, become a powerful weapon for pharmaceutical enterprises to win the substantial returns generated by market exclusivity. Patents seem to be directly responsible for the commercial success of new medicines. In this context, it is of great significance to find out the empirical associations between pharmaceutical commercial success and patents. By comprehensively analysing 127 drugs marketed in the USA and their 621 American patents, this article identifies the evidence to link various patent indicators with pharmaceutical sales in actual market.

  7. Making Patent Scopes Exceed the Technological Scopes of Scientific Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin...... for searching in new directions for solutions if challenges of exploitation with regard to the scientific invention arise.......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety...

  8. Quantitative Determination of Technological Improvement from Patent Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The results in this paper establish that information contained in patents in a technological domain is strongly correlated with the rate of technological progress in that domain. The importance of patents in a domain, the recency of patents in a domain and the immediacy of patents in a domain are all strongly correlated with increases in the rate of performance improvement in the domain of interest. A patent metric that combines both importance and immediacy is not only highly correlated (r = 0.76, p = 2.6*10-6) with the performance improvement rate but the correlation is also very robust to domain selection and appears to have good predictive power for more than ten years into the future. Linear regressions with all three causal concepts indicate realistic value in practical use to estimate the important performance improvement rate of a technological domain. PMID:25874447

  9. Evergreening by whom? A review of secondary patents for omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Mike

    2013-11-01

    Evergreening, or the practice of technology developers to retain legal protection over valuable drugs beyond the normal patent term, is a well known practice by originators of successful drugs. Generic competitors also attempt similar strategies for commercial reasons. In this paper we look at secondary US and European patents in relation to the 'blockbuster' drug omeprazole (e.g., Prilosec® by AstraZeneca among other brands), with these secondary patents selected because they refer to the 'omeprazole' in either the title, abstract, Derwent Title or first claim. We find that 485 patents meet this criteria, with only 29% owned by the drugs originator (or known subsidiaries or predecessors). AstraZeneca was also the leading applicant by a number of measures, including grant ratio, number of patents filed, forward citation count, family member count and claim breadth.

  10. Geogenic heavy metal concentrations in German soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindel, R.; Fleige, H.

    1990-01-01

    In the area of the German Federal Republic, 6,300 soil samples of 526 soil profiles were examined for the concentrations of lead, copper, zinc, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, mercury, antimony, arsenic and lithium. The soil profiles were selected so that the prevailing loose and solid rock floors of the German Federal Republic were represented. The analysis data of these samples formed the basis for the calculation of average geogenic heavy metal concentrations in the soils of the German Federal Republic. (orig.) [de

  11. Patent landscape of countermeasures against smallpox and estimation of grant attraction capability through patent landscape data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayburd, Anatoly L; Kedia, Govind; Evans, Haydn W; Kaslival, Pritesh C

    2010-11-01

    The study was concerned with countermeasures against a possible smallpox outbreak. In the process of assessment 18 landscaping sectors were defined and described, the advantages and drawbacks of the corresponding countermeasures being reviewed. The data of the previously published influenza landscape were revisited. The current economic climate of deficit cutting (austerity) also puts emphasis on the optimization of capital investment. We used the materials of the landscape to define and analyze metrics of capital placement optimization. Value score was obtained by fitting patent landscape internals to the sale price of individual patents. Success score was obtained as a product of a-priori parameters that measure likelihood of emergence of a marketable product in a technological sector. Both scores were combined in a qualitative metric. Our methodology defined weight as a product of the sector size by the success score. We hypothesized - based on the material of two landscapes- that a life cycle of a technology begins in IP space with a high patent quality low volume "bud" of low weight, reaches maximum weight and then weight falls again when the technology becomes outdated. The weight and the annual dynamic of weight can serve a measure of investment risk and return. In this report we modeled investment by issue of government grants or purchase of patents by government. In the smallpox landscape the number of patents purchased by government agencies was the highest in the sectors with the highest weight and the trend was confirmed by the count of NIH grants issued in support of the technological sectors. In the influenza landscape only grant issue count was statistically meaningful and the trend was also confirmed. To better fit the grant support levels, the weight expression was optimized by using training coefficients. We propose to use value scores for evaluation of individual patent publications/company portfolios and to use weights for assessment of

  12. Canada’s Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Proceedings and Intellectual Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Henry; McCourt, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Canada’s Patent Register is a tool created by the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations to help innovators protect their inventions relating to pharmaceuticals. This tool exists at the intersection between the intellectual property and drug approval regimes. By listing a patent on the Patent Register, an innovator can prevent a generic manufacturer from entering the marketplace rather than having to wait for his or her patent to be infringed. This article provides information on the requirements for listing a patent on the Patent Register and an overview of how the Patent Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations affect the drug approval process. PMID:25573772

  13. Patents: a tool to bring innovation from the lab bench to the marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z Ying; Meyer, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual property (IP) is creations of the mind. Protecting IP through patents is an important venue for a researcher to reap rewards from his scientific endeavors. It is part of a competitive strategy for bringing one's invention to the marketplace. Using the US and European patent systems as examples, we provide here an overview of how patents protect innovation, with a focus on biotechnology. We explain what a patent is, what a patent owner can do with a patent, and how patents are granted. The article ends with some recent examples of noteworthy patents in the field of yeast research.

  14. Gyama Bugibugi (German gunpowder) : a history of German presence in Nawuriland, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ntewusu, SA

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses general political and economic issues in Nawuriland during and after German colonialism. The paper argues that the legacies of German colonialism are still largely seen and felt in Nawuriland especially in plantation projects, land and chieftaincy.

  15. German Librarianship and Munich Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 27 municipal libraries including the Central Public Library in Munich. The other important libraries in the city are Bayern State National Library, Maximillian University Library, a technical highschool library and the "Deutsches Musuem" Library. All these libraries are financed locally. The author introduces these libraries briefly and compares German libraries with Turkish libraries. He concludes that although theoretically there are not distinctive differences, in practice, buildings and their layout are better in Germany where more variety of services are offered. In Turkey standardization has not been realized yet. Turkey needs to computerize and network to improve the services offered in an efficient way.

  16. 63rd German radiological congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The book of abstracts contains abstracts of 171 papers read at the German Radiological Congress in Berlin as well as abstracts of two papers not read for lack of time. Further, there are 31 brief descriptions of the scientific exhibition. Subjects: Diagnosis of gall bladder diseases and inflammatory diseases of the large intestine; hyperthermia and irradiation in tumour therapy; nuclear methods in the diagnosis of growing and displacing processes, skeletal diseases, thromboses, embolisms, gastrointestinal and liver affections; new techniques and methods, diagnostics of the spinal tract; radiooncology; carcinoma of the ovaries; diagnostics and therapy of tumours of the lungs; computerized tomography; angiography; ultrasonic diagnosis. (MG) [de

  17. German versus Nordic Board Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2016-01-01

    changes and developments in business practice, the article argues that board practices in the two systems effectively blur the structural distinction, and that board organization is converging in practice. It thereby contributes to the broader debates on functionality and comparative corporate law......Board structure is an important component of the individual governance of firms, and the appropriateness of the various models is one of the most debated issues in corporate governance today. A comparison of the Nordic and German approaches to the structure of corporate boards reveals stark...

  18. German family policy at the crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    . Simulation makes those reforms comparable over time and across countries. Results show that the profile of the German scheme is changing from "general family" towards "dual-earner" support. Furthermore, the recent reforms make the German scheme converge towards the Swedish leave scheme. The recent reforms....... Microsimulation helps to overcome these problems. It compares policy options - actual reforms or reform plans - simultaneously and provides a comparable measure: the disposable income of model families. This article uses a type-case approach to investigate recent reforms of the German parental leave benefit...... introduce a new concept of fairness and a focus on gender equality to German family policies....

  19. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action - How Will the Design of the UPC Affect Patent Law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Riis, Thomas; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2014-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law...

  20. Getting patent policy right: a conclusion to a special issue on the European patent system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Good or bad, the patent system really is important. Its ever-increasing use, for a variety of reasons, means there is a danger of collapse under its own weight. Those charged with steering the European patent system past the challenges it faces have a huge task. Because unchecked, challenges...