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Sample records for cell function unique

  1. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

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    Marlowe S Tessmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  2. Unique and analogous functions of aquaporin O for fiber cell architecture and ocular lens transparency

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    Kumari, S.S.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Mathias, R. T.; Varadaraj, K.

    2011-09-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) 1 and AQP0 water channels are expressed in lens epithelial and fiber cells, respectively, facilitating fluid circulation for nourishing the avascular lens to maintain transparency. Even though AQP0 water permeability is 40-fold less than AQP1, AQP0 is selectively expressed in the fibers. Delimited AQP0 fiber expression is attributed to a unique structural role as an adhesion protein. To validate this notion, we determined if wild type (WT) lens ultrastructure and fibercell adhesion are different in AQP0{sup -/-}, and TgAQP1{sup +/+}/AQP0{sup -/-} mice that transgenically express AQP1 (TgAQP1) in fibercells without AQP0 (AQP0{sup -/-}). In WT, lenses were transparent with 'Y' sutures. Fibers contained opposite end curvature, lateral interdigitations, hexagonal shape, and were arranged as concentric growth shells. AQP0{sup -/-}lenses were cataractous, lacked 'Y' sutures, ordered packing and well-defined lateral interdigitations. TgAQP1{sup +/+}/AQP0{sup -/-} lenses showed improvement in transparency and lateral interdigitations in the outer cortex while inner cortex and nuclear fibers were severely disintegrated. Transmission electron micrographs exhibited tightly packed fibercells in WT whereas AQP0{sup -/-} and TgAQP1{sup +/+}/AQP0{sup -/-}lenses had wide extracellular spaces. Fibers were easily separable by teasing in AQP0{sup -/-} and TgAQP1{sup +/+}/AQP0{sup -/-}lenses compared to WT. Our data suggest that the increased water permeability through AQP1 does not compensate for loss of AQP0 expression in TgAQP1{sup +/+}/AQP0{sup -/-} mice. Fibercell AQP0 expression is required to maintain their organization, which is a requisite for lenstransparency. AQP0 appears necessary for cell-to-cell adhesion and thereby to minimize light scattering since in the AQP0{sup -/-} and TgAQP1{sup +/+}/AQP0{sup -/-} lenses, fiber cell disorganization was evident.

  3. Syndecans as cell surface receptors: Unique structure equates with functional diversity

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    Choi, Youngsil; Chung, Heesung; Jung, Heyjung

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of functions for syndecan cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been proposed over the last decade. Moreover, aberrant syndecan regulation has been found to play a critical role in multiple pathologies, including cancers, as well as wound healing and inflammation....... As receptors, they have much in common with other molecules on the cell surface. Syndecans are type I transmembrane molecules with cytoplasmic domains that link to the actin cytoskeleton and can interact with a number of regulators. However, they are also highly complex by virtue of their external...... glycosaminoglycan chains, especially heparan sulfate. This heterodisperse polysaccharide has the potential to interact with many ligands from diverse protein families. Here, we relate the structural features of syndecans to some of their known functions....

  4. Functional chloroplasts in metazoan cells - a unique evolutionary strategy in animal life

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    Krug Patrick J

    2009-12-01

    . Functional short-term retention was an apomorphy of the Plakobranchoidea, but the subsequent evolution of parapodia enabled slugs to protect kleptoplasts against high irradiance and further prolong plastid survival. We conclude that functional short-term retention was necessary but not sufficient for an adaptive radiation in the Plakobranchoidea, especially in the genus Elysia which comprises a third of all sacoglossan species. The adaptations necessary for long-term chloroplast survival arose independently in species feeding on different algal hosts, providing a valuable study system for examining the parallel evolution of this unique trophic strategy.

  5. Enabling cell-cell communication via nanopore formation: structure, function and localization of the unique cell wall amidase AmiC2 of Nostoc punctiforme.

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    Büttner, Felix M; Faulhaber, Katharina; Forchhammer, Karl; Maldener, Iris; Stehle, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    To orchestrate a complex life style in changing environments, the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme facilitates communication between neighboring cells through septal junction complexes. This is achieved by nanopores that perforate the peptidoglycan (PGN) layer and traverse the cell septa. The N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase AmiC2 (Npun_F1846; EC 3.5.1.28) in N. punctiforme generates arrays of such nanopores in the septal PGN, in contrast to homologous amidases that mediate daughter cell separation after cell division in unicellular bacteria. Nanopore formation is therefore a novel property of AmiC homologs. Immunofluorescence shows that native AmiC2 localizes to the maturing septum. The high-resolution crystal structure (1.12 Å) of its catalytic domain (AmiC2-cat) differs significantly from known structures of cell splitting and PGN recycling amidases. A wide and shallow binding cavity allows easy access of the substrate to the active site, which harbors an essential zinc ion. AmiC2-cat exhibits strong hydrolytic activity in vitro. A single point mutation of a conserved glutamate near the zinc ion results in total loss of activity, whereas zinc removal leads to instability of AmiC2-cat. An inhibitory α-helix, as found in the Escherichia coli AmiC(E. coli) structure, is absent. Taken together, our data provide insight into the cell-biological, biochemical and structural properties of an unusual cell wall lytic enzyme that generates nanopores for cell-cell communication in multicellular cyanobacteria. The novel structural features of the catalytic domain and the unique biological function of AmiC2 hint at mechanisms of action and regulation that are distinct from other amidases. The AmiC2-cat structure has been deposited in the Protein Data Bank under accession number 5EMI. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. Distinct Domains of CheA Confer Unique Functions in Chemotaxis and Cell Length in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

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    Gullett, Jessica M; Bible, Amber; Alexandre, Gladys

    2017-07-01

    Chemotaxis is the movement of cells in response to gradients of diverse chemical cues. Motile bacteria utilize a conserved chemotaxis signal transduction system to bias their motility and navigate through a gradient. A central regulator of chemotaxis is the histidine kinase CheA. This cytoplasmic protein interacts with membrane-bound receptors, which assemble into large polar arrays, to propagate the signal. In the alphaproteobacterium Azospirillum brasilense , Che1 controls transient increases in swimming speed during chemotaxis, but it also biases the cell length at division. However, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms for Che1-dependent control of multiple cellular behaviors are not known. Here, we identify specific domains of the CheA1 histidine kinase implicated in modulating each of these functions. We show that CheA1 is produced in two isoforms: a membrane-anchored isoform produced as a fusion with a conserved seven-transmembrane domain of unknown function (TMX) at the N terminus and a soluble isoform similar to prototypical CheA. Site-directed and deletion mutagenesis combined with behavioral assays confirm the role of CheA1 in chemotaxis and implicate the TMX domain in mediating changes in cell length. Fluorescence microscopy further reveals that the membrane-anchored isoform is distributed around the cell surface while the soluble isoform localizes at the cell poles. Together, the data provide a mechanism for the role of Che1 in controlling multiple unrelated cellular behaviors via acquisition of a new domain in CheA1 and production of distinct functional isoforms. IMPORTANCE Chemotaxis provides a significant competitive advantage to bacteria in the environment, and this function has been transferred laterally multiple times, with evidence of functional divergence in different genomic contexts. The molecular principles that underlie functional diversification of chemotaxis in various genomic contexts are unknown. Here, we provide a molecular

  7. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Paer

    2008-01-01

    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  8. Uniqueness of magnetotomography for fuel cells and fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H; Hirschfeld, J; Reissel, M; Steffen, B

    2009-01-01

    The criterion for the applicability of any tomographic method is its ability to construct the desired inner structure of a system from external measurements, i.e. to solve the inverse problem. Magnetotomography applied to fuel cells and fuel cell stacks aims at determining the inner current densities from measurements of the external magnetic field. This is an interesting idea since in those systems the inner electric current densities are large, several hundred mA per cm 2 and therefore relatively high external magnetic fields can be expected. Still the question remains how uniquely the inverse problem can be solved. Here we present a proof that by exploiting Maxwell's equations extensively the inverse problem of magnetotomography becomes unique under rather mild assumptions and we show that these assumptions are fulfilled in fuel cells and fuel cell stacks. Moreover, our proof holds true for any other device fulfilling the assumptions listed here. Admittedly, our proof has one caveat: it does not contain an estimate of the precision requirements the measurements need to fulfil for enabling reconstruction of the inner current densities from external magnetic fields.

  9. Unique proteomic signatures distinguish macrophages and dendritic cells.

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    Lev Becker

    Full Text Available Monocytes differentiate into heterogeneous populations of tissue macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs that regulate inflammation and immunity. Identifying specific populations of myeloid cells in vivo is problematic, however, because only a limited number of proteins have been used to assign cellular phenotype. Using mass spectrometry and bone marrow-derived cells, we provided a global view of the proteomes of M-CSF-derived macrophages, classically and alternatively activated macrophages, and GM-CSF-derived DCs. Remarkably, the expression levels of half the plasma membrane proteins differed significantly in the various populations of cells derived in vitro. Moreover, the membrane proteomes of macrophages and DCs were more distinct than those of classically and alternatively activated macrophages. Hierarchical cluster and dual statistical analyses demonstrated that each cell type exhibited a robust proteomic signature that was unique. To interrogate the phenotype of myeloid cells in vivo, we subjected elicited peritoneal macrophages harvested from wild-type and GM-CSF-deficient mice to mass spectrometric and functional analysis. Unexpectedly, we found that peritoneal macrophages exhibited many features of the DCs generated in vitro. These findings demonstrate that global analysis of the membrane proteome can help define immune cell phenotypes in vivo.

  10. Unique Action of Interleukin-18 on T Cells and Other Immune Cells

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    Kenji Nakanishi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-18 was originally discovered as a factor that enhances interferon (IFN-γ production by anti-CD3-stimulated Th1 cells, particularly in association with IL-12. IL-12 is a cytokine that induces development of Th1 cells. IL-18 cannot induce Th1 cell development, but has the capacity to activate established Th1 cells to produce IFN-γ in the presence of IL-12. Thus, IL-18 is regarded as a proinflammatory cytokine that facilitates type 1 responses. However, in the absence of IL-12 but presence of IL-2, IL-18 stimulates natural killer cells, NKT cells, and even established Th1 cells to produce IL-3, IL-9, and IL-13. Thus, IL-18 also facilitates type 2 responses. This unique function of IL-18 contributes to infection-associated allergic diseases. Together with IL-3, IL-18 stimulates mast cells and basophils to produce IL-4, IL-13, and chemical mediators such as histamine. Thus, IL-18 also induces innate-type allergic inflammation. IL-18 belongs to the IL-1 family of cytokines, which share similar molecular structures, receptors structures, and signal transduction pathways. Nevertheless, IL-18 shows a unique function by binding to a specific receptor expressed on distinct types of cells. In this review article, I will focus on the unique features of IL-18 in lymphocytes, basophils, and mast cells, particularly in comparison with IL-33.

  11. Executive Functions Contribute Uniquely to Reading Competence in Minority Youth

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    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Koriakin, Taylor; Lipkin, Paul; Boada, Richard; Frijters, Jan; Lovett, Maureen; Hill, Dina; Willcutt, Erik; Gottwald, Stephanie; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2018-01-01

    Competent reading requires various skills beyond those for basic word reading (i.e., core language skills, rapid naming, phonological processing). Contributing “higher-level” or domain-general processes include information processing speed and executive functions (working memory, strategic problem solving, attentional switching). Research in this area has relied on largely Caucasian samples, with limited representation of children from racial or ethnic minority groups. This study examined contributions of executive skills to reading competence in 761 children of minority backgrounds. Hierarchical linear regressions examined unique contributions of executive functions (EF) to word reading, fluency, and comprehension. EF contributed uniquely to reading performance, over and above reading-related language skills; working memory contributed uniquely to all components of reading; while attentional switching, but not problem solving, contributed to isolated and contextual word reading and reading fluency. Problem solving uniquely predicted comprehension, suggesting that this skill may be especially important for reading comprehension in minority youth. Attentional switching may play a unique role in development of reading fluency in minority youth, perhaps as a result of the increased demand for switching between spoken versus written dialects. Findings have implications for educational and clinical practice with regard to reading instruction, remedial reading intervention, and assessment of individuals with reading difficulty. PMID:26755569

  12. On the stability of unique range sets for meromorphic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Huy Khoai; Nguyen Van Khue

    2003-03-01

    For a set S we construct a complex space Z S such that S is a unique range set for meromorphic functions (URS) if and only if Z S is hyperbolic. A consequence of this result is that the set of URS with n elements (considered as a subset of C n ) is open, and then the small deformations of Yi's and Frank-Reinders' sets are URS. (author)

  13. Mast Cells Produce a Unique Chondroitin Sulfate Epitope.

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    Farrugia, Brooke L; Whitelock, John M; O'Grady, Robert; Caterson, Bruce; Lord, Megan S

    2016-02-01

    The granules of mast cells contain a myriad of mediators that are stored and protected by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains that decorate proteoglycans. Whereas heparin is the GAG predominantly associated with mast cells, mast cell proteoglycans are also decorated with heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate (CS). This study investigated a unique CS structure produced by mast cells that was detected with the antibody clone 2B6 in the absence of chondroitinase ABC digestion. Mast cells in rodent tissue sections were characterized using toluidine blue, Leder stain and the presence of mast cell tryptase. The novel CS epitope was identified in rodent tissue sections and localized to cells that were morphologically similar to cells chemically identified as mast cells. The rodent mast cell-like line RBL-2H3 was also shown to express the novel CS epitope. This epitope co-localized with multiple CS proteoglycans in both rodent tissue and RBL-2H3 cultured cells. These findings suggest that the novel CS epitope that decorates mast cell proteoglycans may play a role in the way these chains are structured in mast cells. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  14. Unique B cell differentiation profile in tolerant kidney transplant patients.

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    Chesneau, M; Pallier, A; Braza, F; Lacombe, G; Le Gallou, S; Baron, D; Giral, M; Danger, R; Guerif, P; Aubert-Wastiaux, H; Néel, A; Michel, L; Laplaud, D-A; Degauque, N; Soulillou, J-P; Tarte, K; Brouard, S

    2014-01-01

    Operationally tolerant patients (TOL) display a higher number of blood B cells and transcriptional B cell signature. As they rarely develop an allo-immune response, they could display an abnormal B cell differentiation. We used an in vitro culture system to explore T-dependent differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. B cell phenotype, apoptosis, proliferation, cytokine, immunoglobulin production and markers of differentiation were followed in blood of these patients. Tolerant recipients show a higher frequency of CD20(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) transitional and CD20(+) CD38(lo) CD24(lo) naïve B cells compared to patients with stable graft function, correlating with a decreased frequency of CD20(-) CD38(+) CD138(+) differentiated plasma cells, suggestive of abnormal B cell differentiation. B cells from TOL proliferate normally but produce more IL-10. In addition, B cells from tolerant recipients exhibit a defective expression of factors of the end step of differentiation into plasma cells and show a higher propensity for cell death apoptosis compared to patients with stable graft function. This in vitro profile is consistent with down-regulation of B cell differentiation genes and anti-apoptotic B cell genes in these patients in vivo. These data suggest that a balance between B cells producing IL-10 and a deficiency in plasma cells may encourage an environment favorable to the tolerance maintenance. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. The unique stem cell system of the immortal larva of the human parasite Echinococcus multilocularis

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    2014-01-01

    Background It is believed that in tapeworms a separate population of undifferentiated cells, the germinative cells, is the only source of cell proliferation throughout the life cycle (similar to the neoblasts of free living flatworms). In Echinococcus multilocularis, the metacestode larval stage has a unique development, growing continuously like a mass of vesicles that infiltrate the tissues of the intermediate host, generating multiple protoscoleces by asexual budding. This unique proliferation potential indicates the existence of stem cells that are totipotent and have the ability for extensive self-renewal. Results We show that only the germinative cells proliferate in the larval vesicles and in primary cell cultures that undergo complete vesicle regeneration, by using a combination of morphological criteria and by developing molecular markers of differentiated cell types. The germinative cells are homogeneous in morphology but heterogeneous at the molecular level, since only sub-populations express homologs of the post-transcriptional regulators nanos and argonaute. Important differences are observed between the expression patterns of selected neoblast marker genes of other flatworms and the E. multilocularis germinative cells, including widespread expression in E. multilocularis of some genes that are neoblast-specific in planarians. Hydroxyurea treatment results in the depletion of germinative cells in larval vesicles, and after recovery following hydroxyurea treatment, surviving proliferating cells grow as patches that suggest extensive self-renewal potential for individual germinative cells. Conclusions In E. multilocularis metacestodes, the germinative cells are the only proliferating cells, presumably driving the continuous growth of the larval vesicles. However, the existence of sub-populations of the germinative cells is strongly supported by our data. Although the germinative cells are very similar to the neoblasts of other flatworms in function and

  16. Merkel cell carcinoma with seborrheic keratosis: A unique association.

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    Anand, Murthy S; Krishnamurthy, Shantha; Ravindranath, Suvarna; Ranganathan, Jyothi

    2018-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, clinically aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin; MCC is 40 times less common as compared to melanoma. The most frequently reported sites have been the head and neck, extremities, and trunk. Potential mimics include malignant melanoma, lymphoma, or metastatic small cell (neuroendocrine) carcinomas. Histopathology of MCC resembles small cell carcinoma both morphologically and on IHC. The possible cell of origin was proposed as the Merkel cell, which functions as a mechanoreceptor. It has a high chance of local recurrence, regional and distant spread. In recent times, Merkel cell polyomavirus has been implicated as the causative agent for this tumor. The same agent has a reported etiologic association with other skin lesions, including seborrheic keratosis.

  17. Unique interaction pattern for a functionally biased ghrelin receptor agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, Bjørn Behrens; Lang, Manja; Frimurer, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the conformationally constrained D-Trp-Phe-D-Trp (wFw) core of the prototype inverse agonist [D-Arg(1),D-Phe(5),D-Trp(7,9),Leu(11)]substance P, a series of novel, small, peptide-mimetic agonists for the ghrelin receptor were generated. By using various simple, ring-constrained spacers...... connecting the D-Trp-Phe-D-Trp motif with the important C-terminal carboxyamide group, 40 nm agonism potency was obtained and also in one case (wFw-Isn-NH(2), where Isn is isonipecotic acid) ~80% efficacy. However, in contrast to all previously reported ghrelin receptor agonists, the piperidine-constrained w......Fw-Isn-NH(2) was found to be a functionally biased agonist. Thus, wFw-Isn-NH(2) mediated potent and efficacious signaling through the Ga(q) and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, but in contrast to all previous ghrelin receptor agonists it did not signal through the serum response element, conceivably the Ga(12...

  18. Unique Organization of the Nuclear Envelope in the Post-natal Quiescent Neural Stem Cells

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    Arantxa Cebrián-Silla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (B1 astrocytes; NSCs in the adult ventricular-subventricular-zone (V-SVZ originate in the embryo. Surprisingly, recent work has shown that B1 cells remain largely quiescent. They are reactivated postnatally to function as primary progenitors for neurons destined for the olfactory bulb and some corpus callosum oligodendrocytes. The cellular and molecular properties of quiescent B1 cells remain unknown. Here we found that a subpopulation of B1 cells has a unique nuclear envelope invagination specialization similar to envelope-limited chromatin sheets (ELCS, reported in certain lymphocytes and some cancer cells. Using molecular markers, [3H]thymidine birth-dating, and Ara-C, we found that B1 cells with ELCS correspond to quiescent NSCs. ELCS begin forming in embryonic radial glia cells and represent a specific nuclear compartment containing particular epigenetic modifications and telomeres. These results reveal a unique nuclear compartment in quiescent NSCs, which is useful for identifying these primary progenitors and study their gene regulation.

  19. Comparative fecal metagenomics unveils unique functional capacity of the swine gut

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    Martinson John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health as well as to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Nonetheless, limited information on the functional diversity of the swine gut microbiome is available. Results Analysis of 637, 722 pyrosequencing reads (130 megabases generated from Yorkshire pig fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the swine gut microbiome. Swine fecal metagenomic sequences were annotated using both MG-RAST and JGI IMG/M-ER pipelines. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated that swine fecal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Prevotella spp. dominated the swine fecal metagenome, while some genes associated with Treponema and Anareovibrio species were found to be exclusively within the pig fecal metagenomic sequences analyzed. Functional analysis revealed that carbohydrate metabolism was the most abundant SEED subsystem, representing 13% of the swine metagenome. Genes associated with stress, virulence, cell wall and cell capsule were also abundant. Virulence factors associated with antibiotic resistance genes with highest sequence homology to genes in Bacteroidetes, Clostridia, and Methanosarcina were numerous within the gene families unique to the swine fecal metagenomes. Other abundant proteins unique to the distal swine gut shared high sequence homology to putative carbohydrate membrane transporters. Conclusions The results from this metagenomic survey demonstrated the presence of genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and carbohydrate metabolism suggesting that the swine gut microbiome may be shaped by husbandry practices.

  20. FMIT test cell diagnostics: a unique materials challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, C.P.; Fuller, J.L.

    1981-08-01

    Basic materials problems are discussed in instrumenting the FMIT test cell, which are applicable to fusion devices in general. Recent data on ceramic-to-metal seals, mineral insulated instrument cables, thermocouples, and optical components are reviewed. The data makes it clear that it would be a mistake to assume that materials and instruments will behave in the FMIT test cell environment as they do in more familiar fission reactors and low power accelerators

  1. Unique associations between young adult men's emotional functioning and their body dissatisfaction and disordered eating.

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    Griffiths, Scott; Angus, Douglas; Murray, Stuart B; Touyz, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Research on emotional functioning, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in males is predominated by studies of negative affect and emotion regulation. Other aspects of emotional functioning, namely emotion recognition and attentional biases toward emotional stimuli, have received little empirical attention. The present study investigated the unique associations between different aspects of men's emotional functioning and their disordered eating attitudes, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction. Results from 132 male undergraduates showed that muscularity dissatisfaction was uniquely associated with both emotion regulation difficulties and an attentional bias toward rejecting faces. Body fat dissatisfaction was not uniquely associated with any aspect of emotional functioning. Disordered eating was uniquely associated with emotion regulation difficulties. Collectively, the results indicate differences in the patterns of associations between men's emotional functioning and their body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ALDH/CD44 identifies uniquely tumorigenic cancer stem cells in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

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    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Pearson, Alexander T; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Kim, Hong Sun; Mochizuki, Daiki; Basura, Gregory; Helman, Joseph; Mantesso, Andrea; Castilho, Rogério M; Wicha, Max S; Nör, Jacques E

    2015-09-29

    A small sub-population of cells characterized by increased tumorigenic potential, ability to self-renew and to differentiate into cells that make up the tumor bulk, has been characterized in some (but not all) tumor types. These unique cells, namedcancer stem cells, are considered drivers of tumor progression in these tumors. The purpose of this work is to understand if cancer stem cells play a functional role in the tumorigenesis of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Here, we investigated the expression of putative cancer stem cell markers (ALDH, CD10, CD24, CD44) in primary human mucoepidermoid carcinomas by immunofluorescence, in vitro salisphere assays, and in vivo tumorigenicity assays in immunodeficient mice. Human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (UM-HMC-1, UM-HMC-3A, UM-HMC-3B) sorted for high levels of ALDH activity and CD44 expression (ALDHhighCD44high) consistently formed primary and secondary salispheres in vitro, and showed enhanced tumorigenic potential in vivo (defined as time to tumor palpability, tumor growth after palpability), when compared to ALDHlowCD44low cells. Cells sorted for CD10/CD24, and CD10/CD44 showed varying trends of salisphere formation, but consistently low in vivo tumorigenic potential. And finally, cells sorted for CD44/CD24 showed inconsistent results in salisphere formation and tumorigenic potential assays when different cell lines were evaluated. Collectively, these data demonstrate that salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas contain a small population of cancer stem cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and that are characterized by high ALDH activity and CD44 expression. These results suggest that patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma might benefit from therapies that ablate these highly tumorigenic cells.

  3. A Unique Presentation of an Undiagnosed Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Georgios Kravvas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 58-year-old lady who presented initially to her general practitioner with a palpable warty urethral nodule. She was subsequently referred to the urology department for further investigations. She underwent flexible cystoscopy and imaging, followed by rigid cystoscopy and excision of the nodule. Histological analysis was consistent with renal cell carcinoma (RCC. CT imaging confirmed the presence of an invading metastatic left renal cell carcinoma with bilateral metastatic deposits to the lungs and adrenal glands. The patient was enlisted on the Panther Trial and received a course of Pazopanib before undergoing radical nephrectomy. Two years later she is still alive with metastases remaining reduced in size and numbers. During this study we have performed a literature review of similar cases with this unusual presentation of RCC.

  4. Transcriptome of interstitial cells of Cajal reveals unique and selective gene signatures.

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    Moon Young Lee

    Full Text Available Transcriptome-scale data can reveal essential clues into understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms behind specific cellular functions and biological processes. Transcriptomics is a continually growing field of research utilized in biomarker discovery. The transcriptomic profile of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC, which serve as slow-wave electrical pacemakers for gastrointestinal (GI smooth muscle, has yet to be uncovered. Using copGFP-labeled ICC mice and flow cytometry, we isolated ICC populations from the murine small intestine and colon and obtained their transcriptomes. In analyzing the transcriptome, we identified a unique set of ICC-restricted markers including transcription factors, epigenetic enzymes/regulators, growth factors, receptors, protein kinases/phosphatases, and ion channels/transporters. This analysis provides new and unique insights into the cellular and biological functions of ICC in GI physiology. Additionally, we constructed an interactive ICC genome browser (http://med.unr.edu/physio/transcriptome based on the UCSC genome database. To our knowledge, this is the first online resource that provides a comprehensive library of all known genetic transcripts expressed in primary ICC. Our genome browser offers a new perspective into the alternative expression of genes in ICC and provides a valuable reference for future functional studies.

  5. Fluorescent Photo-conversion: A second chance to label unique cells.

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    Mellott, Adam J; Shinogle, Heather E; Moore, David S; Detamore, Michael S

    2015-03-01

    Not all cells behave uniformly after treatment in tissue engineering studies. In fact, some treated cells display no signs of treatment or show unique characteristics not consistent with other treated cells. What if the "unique" cells could be isolated from a treated population, and further studied? Photo-convertible reporter proteins, such as Dendra2 , allow for the ability to selectively identify unique cells with a secondary label within a primary labeled treated population. In the current study, select cells were identified and labeled through photo-conversion of Dendra2 -transfected human Wharton's Jelly cells (hWJCs) for the first time. Robust photo-conversion of green-to-red fluorescence was achieved consistently in arbitrarily selected cells, allowing for precise cell identification of select hWJCs. The current study demonstrates a method that offers investigators the opportunity to selectively label and identify unique cells within a treated population for further study or isolation from the treatment population. Photo-convertible reporter proteins, such as Dendra2 , offer the ability over non-photo-convertible reporter proteins, such as green fluorescent protein, to analyze unique individual cells within a treated population, which allows investigators to gain more meaningful information on how a treatment affects all cells within a target population.

  6. B-Cell-Specific Diversion of Glucose Carbon Utilization Reveals a Unique Vulnerability in B Cell Malignancies.

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    Xiao, Gang; Chan, Lai N; Klemm, Lars; Braas, Daniel; Chen, Zhengshan; Geng, Huimin; Zhang, Qiuyi Chen; Aghajanirefah, Ali; Cosgun, Kadriye Nehir; Sadras, Teresa; Lee, Jaewoong; Mirzapoiazova, Tamara; Salgia, Ravi; Ernst, Thomas; Hochhaus, Andreas; Jumaa, Hassan; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Weinstock, David M; Graeber, Thomas G; Müschen, Markus

    2018-04-05

    B cell activation during normal immune responses and oncogenic transformation impose increased metabolic demands on B cells and their ability to retain redox homeostasis. While the serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was identified as a tumor suppressor in multiple types of cancer, our genetic studies revealed an essential role of PP2A in B cell tumors. Thereby, PP2A redirects glucose carbon utilization from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to salvage oxidative stress. This unique vulnerability reflects constitutively low PPP activity in B cells and transcriptional repression of G6PD and other key PPP enzymes by the B cell transcription factors PAX5 and IKZF1. Reflecting B-cell-specific transcriptional PPP-repression, glucose carbon utilization in B cells is heavily skewed in favor of glycolysis resulting in lack of PPP-dependent antioxidant protection. These findings reveal a gatekeeper function of the PPP in a broad range of B cell malignancies that can be efficiently targeted by small molecule inhibition of PP2A and G6PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Autobiographical memory functions of nostalgia in comparison to rumination and counterfactual thinking: similarity and uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Wing-Yee; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine

    2018-02-01

    We compared and contrasted nostalgia with rumination and counterfactual thinking in terms of their autobiographical memory functions. Specifically, we assessed individual differences in nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking, which we then linked to self-reported functions or uses of autobiographical memory (Self-Regard, Boredom Reduction, Death Preparation, Intimacy Maintenance, Conversation, Teach/Inform, and Bitterness Revival). We tested which memory functions are shared and which are uniquely linked to nostalgia. The commonality among nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking resides in their shared positive associations with all memory functions: individuals who evinced a stronger propensity towards past-oriented thought (as manifested in nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking) reported greater overall recruitment of memories in the service of present functioning. The uniqueness of nostalgia resides in its comparatively strong positive associations with Intimacy Maintenance, Teach/Inform, and Self-Regard and weak association with Bitterness Revival. In all, nostalgia possesses a more positive functional signature than do rumination and counterfactual thinking.

  8. Exploiting Unique Structural and Functional Properties of Malarial Glycolytic Enzymes for Antimalarial Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrar Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic enzymes have been known to carry out a variety of functions besides their normal housekeeping roles known as “moonlighting functions.” These functionalities arise from structural changes induced by posttranslational modifications and/or binding of interacting proteins. Glycolysis is the sole source of energy generation for malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, hence a potential pathway for therapeutic intervention. Crystal structures of several P. falciparum glycolytic enzymes have been solved, revealing that they exhibit unique structural differences from the respective host enzymes, which could be exploited for their selective targeting. In addition, these enzymes carry out many parasite-specific functions, which could be of potential interest to control parasite development and transmission. This review focuses on the moonlighting functions of P. falciparum glycolytic enzymes and unique structural differences and functional features of the parasite enzymes, which could be exploited for therapeutic and transmission blocking interventions against malaria.

  9. Mast Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2014-01-01

    Since first described by Paul Ehrlich in 1878, mast cells have been mostly viewed as effectors of allergy. It has been only in the past two decades that mast cells have gained recognition for their involvement in other physiological and pathological processes. Mast cells have a widespread distribution and are found predominantly at the interface between the host and the external environment. Mast cell maturation, phenotype and function are a direct consequence of the local microenvironment and have a marked influence on their ability to specifically recognize and respond to various stimuli through the release of an array of biologically active mediators. These features enable mast cells to act as both first responders in harmful situations as well as to respond to changes in their environment by communicating with a variety of other cells implicated in physiological and immunological responses. Therefore, the critical role of mast cells in both innate and adaptive immunity, including immune tolerance, has gained increased prominence. Conversely, mast cell dysfunction has pointed to these cells as the main offenders in several chronic allergic/inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge of mast cell function in both normal and pathological conditions with regards to their regulation, phenotype and role. PMID:25062998

  10. Unique functional properties of somatostatin-expressing GABAergic neurons in mouse barrel cortex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentet, L.J.; Kremer, Y.; Taniguchi, H.; Huang, Z.J.; Staiger, J.F.; Petersen, C.C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Neocortical GABAergic neurons have diverse molecular, structural and electrophysiological features, but the functional correlates of this diversity are largely unknown. We found unique membrane potential dynamics of somatostatin-expressing (SOM) neurons in layer 2/3 of the primary somatosensory

  11. Antiproliferative Effects of Bacillus coagulans Unique IS2 in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madempudi, Ratna Sudha; Kalle, Arunasree M

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, the in vitro anticancer (antiproliferative) effects of Bacillus coagulans Unique IS2 were evaluated on human colon cancer (COLO 205), cervical cancer (HeLa), and chronic myeloid leukemia (K562) cell lines with a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK 293T) as noncancerous control cells. The Cytotoxicity assay (MTT) clearly demonstrated a 22%, 31.7%, and 19.5% decrease in cell proliferation of COLO 205, HeLa, and K562 cells, respectively, when compared to the noncancerous HEK 293T cells. Normal phase-contrast microscopic images clearly suggested that the mechanism of cell death is by apoptosis. To further confirm the induction of apoptosis by Unique IS2, the sub-G0-G1 peak of the cell cycle was quantified using a flow cytometer and the data indicated 40% of the apoptotic cells in Unique IS2-treated COLO cells when compared with their untreated control cells. The Western blot analysis showed an increase in pro-apoptotic protein BAX, decrease in antiapoptotic protein, Bcl2, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in cytochrome c release, increase in Caspase 3 activity, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The present study suggests that the heat-killed culture supernatant of B. coagulans can be more effective in inducing apoptosis of colon cancer cells and that can be considered for adjuvant therapy in the treatment of colon carcinoma.

  12. Cell differentiation and tissue formation in the unique fruits of devil's claws (Martyniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbens, Melanie; Gao, Jie; Neinhuis, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Martyniaceae are characterized by capsules with two upwardly curved, horn-shaped extensions representing morphologically specialized epizoochorous fruits. Because the capsules are assumed to cling to hooves and ankles of large mammals, fiber arrangement and tissue combinations within the endocarp ensuring proper attachment to the vector's feet during transport are of particular interest. In this first detailed anatomical investigation, the functional adaptation of the fruits and their implications for the specific dispersal mode are provided. The peculiar fiber arrangement may also be of interest for future biomimetic composite materials.• Methods: Endocarp anatomy and details of tissue differentiation were examined in fruits of Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea louisianica subsp. fragrans combining light microscopy, SEM, and x-ray microtomography analysis.• Key results: While tips of the extensions are predominantly reinforced by longitudinally oriented fibers, in the middle segment these fibers are densely packed in individual bundles entwined and separated by transversely elongated cells. Within the capsule wall, the fiber bundles are embedded in a dense mesh of transversely oriented fibers that circularly reinforce and protect the loculus. This fibrous pericarp tissue develops within few days by localized cell divisions and intrusive growth of primarily isodiametric parenchyma cells in the pistil.• Conclusions: The study allows insight into a unique and complex example of functionally driven cell growth and tissue formation. Long-horned fruits of Martyniaceae obviously are highly specialized to epizoochorous dispersal, pointing to primary vector-related seed dispersal. The highly ordered arrangement of fibers results in a great mechanical firmness. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  13. Value Distribution and Uniqueness Results of Zero-Order Meromorphic Functions to Their q-Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwa Guan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate value distribution and uniqueness problems of meromorphic functions with their q-shift. We obtain that if f is a transcendental meromorphic (or entire function of zero order, and Q(z is a polynomial, then afn(qz+f(z−Q(z has infinitely many zeros, where q∈ℂ∖{0}, a is nonzero constant, and n≥5 (or n≥3. We also obtain that zero-order meromorphic function share is three distinct values IM with its q-difference polynomial P(f, and if limsup r→∞(N(r,f/T(r,f<1, then f≡P(f.

  14. Cells determine cell density using a small protein bound to a unique tissue-specific phospholipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Petzold

    2013-10-01

    bone cofactor was identified as a lipid containing a ceramide phosphate, a single chained glycerol lipid and a linker. Tendon uses a different cofactor made up of two fatty acid chains linked directly to the phosphate yielding a molecule about half the size. Moreover, adding the tendon factor/cofactor to osteosarcoma cells causes them to stop growing, which is opposite to its role with tendon cells. Thus, the cofactor is cell type specific both in composition and in the triggered response. Further support of its proposed role came from frozen sections from 5 week old mice where an antibody to the factor stained strongly at the growing ends of the tendon as predicted. In conclusion, the molecule needed for cell density signaling is a small protein bound to a unique, tissue-specific phospholipid yielding a membrane associated but diffusible molecule. Signal transduction is postulated to occur by an increased ordering of the plasma membrane as the concentration of this protein/lipid increases with cell density.

  15. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: Infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-01-01

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the 'Hayflick limit'. However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to 'passage' a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the 'passage' of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels

  16. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-06-10

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the "Hayflick limit". However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to "passage" a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the "passage" of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels.

  17. A unique epigenetic signature is associated with active DNA replication loci in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Su, Trent; Ferrari, Roberto; Li, Jing-Yu; Kurdistani, Siavash K

    2014-02-01

    The cellular epigenetic landscape changes as pluripotent stem cells differentiate to somatic cells or when differentiated cells transform to a cancerous state. These epigenetic changes are commonly correlated with differences in gene expression. Whether active DNA replication is also associated with distinct chromatin environments in these developmentally and phenotypically diverse cell types has not been known. Here, we used BrdU-seq to map active DNA replication loci in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), normal primary fibroblasts and a cancer cell line, and correlated these maps to the epigenome. In all cell lines, the majority of BrdU peaks were enriched in euchromatin and at DNA repetitive elements, especially at microsatellite repeats, and coincided with previously determined replication origins. The most prominent BrdU peaks were shared between all cells but a sizable fraction of the peaks were specific to each cell type and associated with cell type-specific genes. Surprisingly, the BrdU peaks that were common to all cell lines were associated with H3K18ac, H3K56ac, and H4K20me1 histone marks only in hESCs but not in normal fibroblasts or cancer cells. Depletion of the histone acetyltransferases for H3K18 and H3K56 dramatically decreased the number and intensity of BrdU peaks in hESCs. Our data reveal a unique epigenetic signature that distinguishes active replication loci in hESCs from normal somatic or malignant cells.

  18. Establishment and characterization of a unique 1 microm diameter liver-derived progenitor cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Behnan Sahin, M; Cressman, Erik N K; Steer, Clifford J

    2010-01-01

    Liver-derived progenitor cells (LDPCs) are recently identified novel stem/progenitor cells from healthy, unmanipulated adult rat livers. They are distinct from other known liver stem/progenitor cells such as the oval cells. In this study, we have generated a LDPC cell line RA1 by overexpressing the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) in primary LDPCs. This cell line was propagated continuously for 55 passages in culture, after which it became senescent. Interestingly, following transformation with SV40 TAg, LDPCs decreased in size significantly and the propagating cells measured 1 microm in diameter. RA1 cells proliferated in vitro with a doubling time of 5-7 days, and expressed cell surface markers of LDPCs. In this report, we describe the characterization of this novel progenitor cell line that might serve as a valuable model to study liver cell functions and stem cell origin of liver cancers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Existence, uniqueness, and stability of stochastic neutral functional differential equations of Sobolev-type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xuetao; Zhu, Quanxin, E-mail: zqx22@126.com [School of Mathematical Sciences and Institute of Mathematics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we are mainly concerned with a class of stochastic neutral functional differential equations of Sobolev-type with Poisson jumps. Under two different sets of conditions, we establish the existence of the mild solution by applying the Leray-Schauder alternative theory and the Sadakovskii’s fixed point theorem, respectively. Furthermore, we use the Bihari’s inequality to prove the Osgood type uniqueness. Also, the mean square exponential stability is investigated by applying the Gronwall inequality. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the theory results.

  20. The unique rht-MOF platform, ideal for pinpointing the functionalization and CO 2 adsorption relationship

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The uniqueness of the rht-MOF platform, based on the singular (3,24)-connected net, allows for the facile design and synthesis of functionalized materials for desired applications. Here we designed a nitrogen-rich trefoil hexacarboxylate (trigonal tri-isophthalate) ligand, which serves to act as the trigonal molecular building block while concurrently coding the formation of the targeted truncated cuboctahedral supermolecular building block (in situ), and enhancing the CO 2 uptake in the resultant rht-MOF. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Functional profiles reveal unique ecological roles of various biological soil crust organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Mau, R.L.; Maestre, F.T.; Escolar, C.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    1. At the heart of the body of research on biodiversity effects on ecosystem function is the debate over whether different species tend to be functionally singular or redundant. When we consider ecosystem multi-function, the provision of multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously, we may find that seemingly redundant species may in fact play unique roles in ecosystems. 2. Over the last few decades, the significance of biological soil crusts (BSCs) as ecological boundaries and ecosystem engineers, and their multi-functional nature, has become increasingly well documented. We compiled 'functional profiles' of the organisms in this understudied community, to determine whether functional singularity emerges when multiple ecosystem functions are considered. 3. In two data sets, one representing multiple sites around the semi-arid regions of Spain (regional scale), and another from a single site in central Spain (local scale), we examined correlations between the abundance or frequency of BSC species in a community, and multiple surrogates of ecosystem functioning. There was a wide array of apparent effects of species on specific functions. 4. Notably, in gypsiferous soils and at regional scale, we found that indicators of carbon (C) and phosphorus cycling were apparently suppressed and promoted by the lichens Diploschistes diacapsis and Squamarina lentigera, respectively. The moss Pleurochaete squarrosa appears to promote C cycling in calcareous soils at this spatial scale. At the local scale in gypsiferous soils, D. diacapsis positively correlated with carbon cycling, but negatively with nitrogen cycling, whereas numerous lichens exhibited the opposite profile. 5. We found a high degree of functional singularity, i.e. that species were highly individualistic in their effects on multiple functions. Many functional attributes were not easily predictable from existing functional grouping systems based primarily on morphology. 6. Our results suggest that maintaining

  2. Unique determination of the effective potential in terms of renormalization group functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chishtie, F. A.; Hanif, T.; McKeon, D. G. C.; Steele, T. G.

    2008-01-01

    The perturbative effective potential V in the massless λφ 4 model with a global O(N) symmetry is uniquely determined to all orders by the renormalization group functions alone when the Coleman-Weinberg renormalization condition (d 4 V/dφ 4 )| φ=μ =λ is used, where μ represents the renormalization scale. Systematic methods are developed to express the n-loop effective potential in the Coleman-Weinberg scheme in terms of the known n-loop minimal-subtraction (MS) renormalization group functions. Moreover, it also proves possible to sum the leading- and subsequent-to-leading-logarithm contributions to V. An essential element of this analysis is a conversion of the renormalization group functions in the Coleman-Weinberg scheme to the renormalization group functions in the MS scheme. As an example, the explicit five-loop effective potential is obtained from the known five-loop MS renormalization group functions and we explicitly sum the leading-logarithm, next-to-leading-logarithm, and further subleading-logarithm contributions to V. Extensions of these results to massless scalar QED are also presented. Because massless scalar QED has two couplings, conversion of the renormalization group functions from the MS scheme to the Coleman-Weinberg scheme requires the use of multiscale renormalization group methods.

  3. On the existence and uniqueness of minima and maxima on spheres of the integral functional of the calculus of variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricceri, Biagio

    2006-12-01

    Given a bounded domain [Omega][subset of]Rn, we prove that if is a C1 function whose gradient is Lipschitzian in Rn+1 and non-zero at 0, then, for each r>0 small enough, the restriction of the integral functional to the sphere has a unique global minimum and a unique global maximum.

  4. On the existence and uniqueness of minima and maxima on spheres of the integral functional of the calculus of variations

    OpenAIRE

    Ricceri, Biagio

    2005-01-01

    We deal with the integral functional of the calculus of variations assuming that the gradient of the integrand is Lipschitzian. We then prove that if this gradient does not vanish at zero, then the functional has a unique minimum and a unique maximum on each sphere, centered at zero, with radius small enough.

  5. Common and unique elements of the ABA-regulated transcriptome of Arabidopsis guard cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhixin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the presence of drought and other desiccating stresses, plants synthesize and redistribute the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA. ABA promotes plant water conservation by acting on specialized cells in the leaf epidermis, guard cells, which border and regulate the apertures of stomatal pores through which transpirational water loss occurs. Following ABA exposure, solute uptake into guard cells is rapidly inhibited and solute loss is promoted, resulting in inhibition of stomatal opening and promotion of stomatal closure, with consequent plant water conservation. There is a wealth of information on the guard cell signaling mechanisms underlying these rapid ABA responses. To investigate ABA regulation of gene expression in guard cells in a systematic genome-wide manner, we analyzed data from global transcriptomes of guard cells generated with Affymetrix ATH1 microarrays, and compared these results to ABA regulation of gene expression in leaves and other tissues. Results The 1173 ABA-regulated genes of guard cells identified by our study share significant overlap with ABA-regulated genes of other tissues, and are associated with well-defined ABA-related promoter motifs such as ABREs and DREs. However, we also computationally identified a unique cis-acting motif, GTCGG, associated with ABA-induction of gene expression specifically in guard cells. In addition, approximately 300 genes showing ABA-regulation unique to this cell type were newly uncovered by our study. Within the ABA-regulated gene set of guard cells, we found that many of the genes known to encode ion transporters associated with stomatal opening are down-regulated by ABA, providing one mechanism for long-term maintenance of stomatal closure during drought. We also found examples of both negative and positive feedback in the transcriptional regulation by ABA of known ABA-signaling genes, particularly with regard to the PYR/PYL/RCAR class of soluble ABA receptors and

  6. Common and unique elements of the ABA-regulated transcriptome of Arabidopsis guard cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In the presence of drought and other desiccating stresses, plants synthesize and redistribute the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA promotes plant water conservation by acting on specialized cells in the leaf epidermis, guard cells, which border and regulate the apertures of stomatal pores through which transpirational water loss occurs. Following ABA exposure, solute uptake into guard cells is rapidly inhibited and solute loss is promoted, resulting in inhibition of stomatal opening and promotion of stomatal closure, with consequent plant water conservation. There is a wealth of information on the guard cell signaling mechanisms underlying these rapid ABA responses. To investigate ABA regulation of gene expression in guard cells in a systematic genome-wide manner, we analyzed data from global transcriptomes of guard cells generated with Affymetrix ATH1 microarrays, and compared these results to ABA regulation of gene expression in leaves and other tissues. Results The 1173 ABA-regulated genes of guard cells identified by our study share significant overlap with ABA-regulated genes of other tissues, and are associated with well-defined ABA-related promoter motifs such as ABREs and DREs. However, we also computationally identified a unique cis-acting motif, GTCGG, associated with ABA-induction of gene expression specifically in guard cells. In addition, approximately 300 genes showing ABA-regulation unique to this cell type were newly uncovered by our study. Within the ABA-regulated gene set of guard cells, we found that many of the genes known to encode ion transporters associated with stomatal opening are down-regulated by ABA, providing one mechanism for long-term maintenance of stomatal closure during drought. We also found examples of both negative and positive feedback in the transcriptional regulation by ABA of known ABA-signaling genes, particularly with regard to the PYR/PYL/RCAR class of soluble ABA receptors and their downstream targets

  7. Antigen presentation by small intestinal epithelial cells uniquely enhances IFN-γ secretion from CD4{sup +} intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Ryo; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Iwamoto, Taku; Maeda, Nana; Emoto, Tetsuro; Shimizu, Makoto; Totsuka, Mamoru, E-mail: atotuka@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •Small intestinal epithelial cells (sIECs). •sIECs are able to induce antigen specific proliferation of CD4{sup +} IELs. •sIECs induce markedly enhanced IFN-γ secretion by CD4{sup +} IELs. •Induction of enhanced IFN-γ secretion by sIECs is uniquely observed in CD4{sup +} IELs. -- Abstract: Small intestinal epithelial cells (sIECs) express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules even in a normal condition, and are known to function as antigen presenting cells (APCs) at least in vitro. These findings raised the possibility that sIECs play an important role in inducing immune responses against luminal antigens, especially those of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs). We herein showed that antigenic stimulation with sIECs induced markedly greater secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by CD4{sup +} IELs, but not interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and IL-17 although the proliferative response was prominently lower than that with T cell-depleted splenic APCs. In contrast, no enhanced IFN-γ secretion by CD4{sup +} LPLs and primed splenic CD4{sup +} T cells was observed when stimulated with sIECs. Taken together, these results suggest that sIECs uniquely activate CD4{sup +} IELs and induce remarkable IFN-γ secretion upon antigenic stimulation in vivo.

  8. Antigen presentation by small intestinal epithelial cells uniquely enhances IFN-γ secretion from CD4+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Ryo; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Iwamoto, Taku; Maeda, Nana; Emoto, Tetsuro; Shimizu, Makoto; Totsuka, Mamoru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Small intestinal epithelial cells (sIECs). •sIECs are able to induce antigen specific proliferation of CD4 + IELs. •sIECs induce markedly enhanced IFN-γ secretion by CD4 + IELs. •Induction of enhanced IFN-γ secretion by sIECs is uniquely observed in CD4 + IELs. -- Abstract: Small intestinal epithelial cells (sIECs) express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules even in a normal condition, and are known to function as antigen presenting cells (APCs) at least in vitro. These findings raised the possibility that sIECs play an important role in inducing immune responses against luminal antigens, especially those of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs). We herein showed that antigenic stimulation with sIECs induced markedly greater secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by CD4 + IELs, but not interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and IL-17 although the proliferative response was prominently lower than that with T cell-depleted splenic APCs. In contrast, no enhanced IFN-γ secretion by CD4 + LPLs and primed splenic CD4 + T cells was observed when stimulated with sIECs. Taken together, these results suggest that sIECs uniquely activate CD4 + IELs and induce remarkable IFN-γ secretion upon antigenic stimulation in vivo

  9. Identification of unique expression signatures and therapeutic targets in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wusheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, the predominant histological subtype of esophageal cancer, is characterized by high mortality. Previous work identified important mRNA expression differences between normal and tumor cells; however, to date there are limited ex vivo studies examining expression changes occurring during normal esophageal squamous cell differentiation versus those associated with tumorigenesis. In this study, we used a unique tissue microdissection strategy and microarrays to measure gene expression profiles associated with cell differentiation versus tumorigenesis in twelve cases of patient-matched normal basal squamous epithelial cells (NB, normal differentiated squamous epithelium (ND, and squamous cell cancer. Class comparison and pathway analysis were used to compare NB versus tumor in a search for unique therapeutic targets. Results As a first step towards this goal, gene expression profiles and pathways were evaluated. Overall, ND expression patterns were markedly different from NB and tumor; whereas, tumor and NB were more closely related. Tumor showed a general decrease in differentially expressed genes relative to NB as opposed to ND that exhibited the opposite trend. FSH and IgG networks were most highly dysregulated in normal differentiation and tumorigenesis, respectively. DNA repair pathways were generally elevated in NB and tumor relative to ND indicating involvement in both normal and pathological growth. PDGF signaling pathway and 12 individual genes unique to the tumor/NB comparison were identified as therapeutic targets, and 10 associated ESCC gene-drug pairs were identified. We further examined the protein expression level and the distribution patterns of four genes: ODC1, POSTN, ASPA and IGF2BP3. Ultimately, three genes (ODC1, POSTN, ASPA were verified to be dysregulated in the same pattern at both the mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions These data reveal insight into genes and

  10. On convergence of differential evolution over a class of continuous functions with unique global optimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sayan; Das, Swagatam; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Suresh, Kaushik

    2012-02-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is arguably one of the most powerful stochastic real-parameter optimization algorithms of current interest. Since its inception in the mid 1990s, DE has been finding many successful applications in real-world optimization problems from diverse domains of science and engineering. This paper takes a first significant step toward the convergence analysis of a canonical DE (DE/rand/1/bin) algorithm. It first deduces a time-recursive relationship for the probability density function (PDF) of the trial solutions, taking into consideration the DE-type mutation, crossover, and selection mechanisms. Then, by applying the concepts of Lyapunov stability theorems, it shows that as time approaches infinity, the PDF of the trial solutions concentrates narrowly around the global optimum of the objective function, assuming the shape of a Dirac delta distribution. Asymptotic convergence behavior of the population PDF is established by constructing a Lyapunov functional based on the PDF and showing that it monotonically decreases with time. The analysis is applicable to a class of continuous and real-valued objective functions that possesses a unique global optimum (but may have multiple local optima). Theoretical results have been substantiated with relevant computer simulations.

  11. CD8 Memory Cells Develop Unique DNA Repair Mechanisms Favoring Productive Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgano, Alessia; Barinov, Aleksandr; Vasseur, Florence; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Rocha, Benedita

    2015-01-01

    Immune responses are efficient because the rare antigen-specific naïve cells are able to proliferate extensively and accumulate upon antigen stimulation. Moreover, differentiation into memory cells actually increases T cell accumulation, indicating improved productive division in secondary immune responses. These properties raise an important paradox: how T cells may survive the DNA lesions necessarily induced during their extensive division without undergoing transformation. We here present the first data addressing the DNA damage responses (DDRs) of CD8 T cells in vivo during exponential expansion in primary and secondary responses in mice. We show that during exponential division CD8 T cells engage unique DDRs, which are not present in other exponentially dividing cells, in T lymphocytes after UV or X irradiation or in non-metastatic tumor cells. While in other cell types a single DDR pathway is affected, all DDR pathways and cell cycle checkpoints are affected in dividing CD8 T cells. All DDR pathways collapse in secondary responses in the absence of CD4 help. CD8 T cells are driven to compulsive suicidal divisions preventing the propagation of DNA lesions. In contrast, in the presence of CD4 help all the DDR pathways are up regulated, resembling those present in metastatic tumors. However, this up regulation is present only during the expansion phase; i.e., their dependence on antigen stimulation prevents CD8 transformation. These results explain how CD8 T cells maintain genome integrity in spite of their extensive division, and highlight the fundamental role of DDRs in the efficiency of CD8 immune responses.

  12. A cell wall-degrading esterase of Xanthomonas oryzae requires a unique substrate recognition module for pathogenesis on rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparna, Gudlur; Chatterjee, Avradip; Sonti, Ramesh V; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan

    2009-06-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight, a serious disease of rice (Oryza sativa). LipA is a secretory virulence factor of Xoo, implicated in degradation of rice cell walls and the concomitant elicitation of innate immune responses, such as callose deposition and programmed cell death. Here, we present the high-resolution structural characterization of LipA that reveals an all-helical ligand binding module as a distinct functional attachment to the canonical hydrolase catalytic domain. We demonstrate that the enzyme binds to a glycoside ligand through a rigid pocket comprising distinct carbohydrate-specific and acyl chain recognition sites where the catalytic triad is situated 15 A from the anchored carbohydrate. Point mutations disrupting the carbohydrate anchor site or blocking the pocket, even at a considerable distance from the enzyme active site, can abrogate in planta LipA function, exemplified by loss of both virulence and the ability to elicit host defense responses. A high conservation of the module across genus Xanthomonas emphasizes the significance of this unique plant cell wall-degrading function for this important group of plant pathogenic bacteria. A comparison with the related structural families illustrates how a typical lipase is recruited to act on plant cell walls to promote virulence, thus providing a remarkable example of the emergence of novel functions around existing scaffolds for increased proficiency of pathogenesis during pathogen-plant coevolution.

  13. HCMV Displays a Unique Transcriptome of Immunomodulatory Genes in Primary Monocyte-Derived Cell Types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Van Damme

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a betaherpesvirus which rarely presents problems in healthy individuals, yet may result in severe morbidity in immunocompromised patients and in immune-naïve neonates. HCMV has a large 235 kb genome with a coding capacity of at least 165 open reading frames (ORFs. This large genome allows complex gene regulation resulting in different sets of transcripts during lytic and latent infection. While latent virus mainly resides within monocytes and CD34+ progenitor cells, reactivation to lytic infection is driven by differentiation towards terminally differentiated myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages. Consequently, it has been suggested that macrophages and dendritic cells contribute to viral spread in vivo. Thus far only limited knowledge is available on the expression of HCMV genes in terminally differentiated myeloid primary cells and whether or not the virus exhibits a different set of lytic genes in primary cells compared with lytic infection in NHDF fibroblasts. To address these questions, we used Illumina next generation sequencing to determine the HCMV transcriptome in macrophages and dendritic cells during lytic infection and compared it to the transcriptome in NHDF fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate unique expression profiles in macrophages and dendritic cells which significantly differ from the transcriptome in fibroblasts mainly by modulating the expression of viral transcripts involved in immune modulation, cell tropism and viral spread. In a head to head comparison between macrophages and dendritic cells, we observed that factors involved in viral spread and virion composition are differentially regulated suggesting that the plasticity of the virion facilitates the infection of surrounding cells. Taken together, this study provides the full transcript expression analysis of lytic HCMV genes in monocyte-derived type 1 and type 2 macrophages as well as in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Thereby

  14. Unique organizational and functional features of the cytochrome c maturation system in Shewanella oneidensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Jin

    Full Text Available Shewanella are renowned for their ability to respire on a wide range of electron acceptors, which has been partially accredited to the presence of a large number of the c-type cytochromes. In the model species S. oneidensis MR-1, at least 41 genes encode c-type cytochromes that are predicted to be intact, thereby likely functional. Previously, in-frame deletion mutants for 36 of these genes were obtained and characterized. In this study, first we completed the construction of an entire set of c-type cytochrome mutants utilizing a newly developed att-based mutagenesis approach, which is more effective and efficient than the approach used previously by circumventing the conventional cloning. Second, we investigated the cytochrome c maturation (Ccm system in S. oneidensis. There are two loci predicted to encode components of the Ccm system, SO0259-SO0269 and SO0476-SO0478. The former is proven essential for cytochrome c maturation whereas the latter is dispensable. Unlike the single operon organization observed in other γ-proteobacteria, genes at the SO0259-SO0269 locus are uniquely organized into four operons, ccmABCDE, scyA, SO0265, and ccmFGH-SO0269. Functional analysis revealed that the SO0265 gene rather than the scyA and SO0269 genes are relevant to cytochrome c maturation.

  15. The unique functioning of a pre-Columbian Amazonian floodplain fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Roux, Bruno; Béarez, Philippe; Prestes-Carneiro, Gabriela; Amaya, Marcelo; Aramayo, Jose Luis; Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Iriarte, Jose; de Souza, Jonas Gregorio; Robinson, Mark; Bernard, Cyril; Pouilly, Marc; Durécu, Mélisse; Huchzermeyer, Carl F; Kalebe, Mashuta; Ovando, Alex; McKey, Doyle

    2018-04-16

    Archaeology provides few examples of large-scale fisheries at the frontier between catching and farming of fish. We analysed the spatial organization of earthen embankments to infer the functioning of a landscape-level pre-Columbian Amazonian fishery that was based on capture of out-migrating fish after reproduction in seasonal floodplains. Long earthen weirs cross floodplains. We showed that weirs bear successive V-shaped features (termed 'Vs' for the sake of brevity) pointing downstream for outflowing water and that ponds are associated with Vs, the V often forming the pond's downstream wall. How Vs channelled fish into ponds cannot be explained simply by hydraulics, because Vs surprisingly lack fishways, where, in other weirs, traps capture fish borne by current flowing through these gaps. We suggest that when water was still high enough to flow over the weir, out-migrating bottom-hugging fish followed current downstream into Vs. Finding deeper, slower-moving water, they remained. Receding water further concentrated fish in ponds. The pond served as the trap, and this function shaped pond design. Weir-fishing and pond-fishing are both practiced in African floodplains today. In combining the two, this pre-Columbian system appears unique in the world.

  16. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal endocrine cells and neuroendocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashima, Hirosato, E-mail: hmashima1-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Ohno, Hideki [Division of Advanced Medical Science, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Yamada, Yumi; Sakai, Toshitaka; Ohnishi, Hirohide [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells along the colorectum. ► INSL5 is expressed increasingly from proximal colon to rectum. ► INSL5 co-localizes rarely with chromogranin A. ► All rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined expressed INSL5. -- Abstract: Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a member of the insulin superfamily, and is a potent agonist for RXFP4. We have shown that INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells (EECs) along the colorectum with a gradient increase toward the rectum. RXFP4 is ubiquitously expressed along the digestive tract. INSL5-positive EECs have little immunoreactivity to chromogranin A (CgA) and might be a unique marker of colorectal EECs. CgA-positive EECs were distributed normally along the colorectum in INSL5 null mice, suggesting that INSL5 is not required for the development of CgA-positive EECs. Exogenous INSL5 did not affect the proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines, and chemically-induced colitis in INSL5 null mice did not show any significant changes in inflammation or mucosal healing compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, all of the rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined co-expressed INSL5 and RXFP4. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal EECs, and INSL5–RXFP4 signaling might play a role in an autocrine/paracrine fashion in the colorectal epithelium and rectal neuroendocrine tumors.

  17. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal endocrine cells and neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashima, Hirosato; Ohno, Hideki; Yamada, Yumi; Sakai, Toshitaka; Ohnishi, Hirohide

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells along the colorectum. ► INSL5 is expressed increasingly from proximal colon to rectum. ► INSL5 co-localizes rarely with chromogranin A. ► All rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined expressed INSL5. -- Abstract: Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a member of the insulin superfamily, and is a potent agonist for RXFP4. We have shown that INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells (EECs) along the colorectum with a gradient increase toward the rectum. RXFP4 is ubiquitously expressed along the digestive tract. INSL5-positive EECs have little immunoreactivity to chromogranin A (CgA) and might be a unique marker of colorectal EECs. CgA-positive EECs were distributed normally along the colorectum in INSL5 null mice, suggesting that INSL5 is not required for the development of CgA-positive EECs. Exogenous INSL5 did not affect the proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines, and chemically-induced colitis in INSL5 null mice did not show any significant changes in inflammation or mucosal healing compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, all of the rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined co-expressed INSL5 and RXFP4. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal EECs, and INSL5–RXFP4 signaling might play a role in an autocrine/paracrine fashion in the colorectal epithelium and rectal neuroendocrine tumors

  18. Bone marrow transplantations to study gene function in hematopoietic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winther, Menno P. J.; Heeringa, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Immune cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Experimental replacement of bone marrow offers the unique possibility to replace immune cells, to study gene function in mouse models of disease. Over the past decades, this technique has been used extensively to study, for

  19. Ontogeny and function of murine epidermal Langerhans cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel H

    2017-09-19

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are epidermis-resident antigen-presenting cells that share a common ontogeny with macrophages but function as dendritic cells (DCs). Their development, recruitment and retention in the epidermis is orchestrated by interactions with keratinocytes through multiple mechanisms. LC and dermal DC subsets often show functional redundancy, but LCs are required for specific types of adaptive immune responses when antigen is concentrated in the epidermis. This Review will focus on those developmental and functional properties that are unique to LCs.

  20. The RTR complex as caretaker of genome stability and its unique meiotic function in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eKnoll

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The RTR complex consisting of a RecQ helicase, a type IA topoisomerase and the structural protein RMI1 is involved in the processing of DNA recombination intermediates in all eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana the complex partners RECQ4A, topoisomerase 3α and RMI1 have been shown to be involved in DNA repair and in the suppression of homologous recombination (HR in somatic cells. Interestingly, mutants of AtTOP3A and AtRMI1 are also sterile due to extensive chromosome breakage in meiosis I, a phenotype that seems to be specific for plants. Although both proteins are essential for meiotic recombination it is still elusive on what kind of intermediates they are acting on. Recent data indicate that the pattern of non-crossover (NCO-associated meiotic gene conversion (GC differs between plants and other eukaryotes, as less NCOs in comparison to crossovers (CO could be detected in Arabidopsis. This indicates that NCOs happen either more rarely in plants or that the conversion tract length is significantly shorter than in other organisms. As the TOP3α/RMI1-mediated dissolution of recombination intermediates results exclusively in NCOs, we suggest that the peculiar GC pattern found in plants is connected to the unique role, members of the RTR complex play in plant meiosis.

  1. Lead Toxicity in the Pediatric Patient with Sickle Cell Disease: Unique Risks and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Josephine Misun; Peddinti, Radhika

    2018-01-01

    Lead toxicity is the result of lead ingestion, one of the most common ingestions in the pediatric population. Nationwide and statewide efforts to recognize and curtail this epidemic have led to declining rates of toxicity. In patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), lead toxicity can be an elusive diagnosis due to overlapping symptom profiles, and inconsistent follow-up with a primary care physician can make the diagnosis even more difficult. In this article, two illustrative cases of lead toxicity in patients with SCD are described. The discussion reviews the current risk factors, screening, and inpatient management of lead toxicity, as well as describing the unique and sometimes confounding presentations of lead toxicity versus sickle cell crisis. [Pediatr Ann. 2018;47(1):e36-e40.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Unique in vivo properties of olfactory ensheathing cells that may contribute to neural repair and protection following spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Jeffery D.; Lankford, Karen L.; Sasaki, Masanori; Radtke, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are specialized glial cells that guide olfactory receptor axons from the nasal mucosa into the brain where they make synaptic contacts in the olfactory bulb. While a number of studies have demonstrated that in vivo transplantation of OECs into injured spinal cord results in improved functional outcome, precise cellular mechanisms underlying this improvement are not fully understood. Current thinking is that OECs can encourage axonal regeneration, provide trophic support for injured neurons and for angiogenesis, and remyelinate axons. However, Schwann cell (SC) transplantation also results in significant functional improvement in animal models of spinal cord injury. In culture SCs and OECs share a number of phenotypic properties such as expression of the low affinity NGF receptor (p75). An important area of research has been to distinguish potential differences in the in vivo behavior of OECs and SCs to determine if one cell type may offer greater advantage as a cellular therapeutic candidate. In this review we focus on several unique features of OECs when they are transplanted into the spinal cord. PMID:19429149

  3. Body composition and reproductive function exert unique influences on indices of bone health in exercising women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Rebecca J; Williams, Nancy I; Hill, Brenna R; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2013-09-01

    Reproductive function, metabolic hormones, and lean mass have been observed to influence bone metabolism and bone mass. It is unclear, however, if reproductive, metabolic and body composition factors play unique roles in the clinical measures of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone geometry in exercising women. This study compares lumbar spine bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and estimates of femoral neck cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and cross-sectional area (CSA) between exercising ovulatory (Ov) and amenorrheic (Amen) women. It also explores the respective roles of reproductive function, metabolic status, and body composition on aBMD, lumbar spine BMAD and femoral neck CSMI and CSA, which are surrogate measures of bone strength. Among exercising women aged 18-30 years, body composition, aBMD, and estimates of femoral neck CSMI and CSA were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Lumbar spine BMAD was calculated from bone mineral content and area. Estrone-1-glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide were measured in daily urine samples collected for one cycle or monitoring period. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of leptin and total triiodothyronine. Ov (n = 37) and Amen (n = 45) women aged 22.3 ± 0.5 years did not differ in body mass, body mass index, and lean mass; however, Ov women had significantly higher percent body fat than Amen women. Lumbar spine aBMD and BMAD were significantly lower in Amen women compared to Ov women (p < 0.001); however, femoral neck CSA and CSMI were not different between groups. E1G cycle mean and age of menarche were the strongest predictors of lumbar spine aBMD and BMAD, together explaining 25.5% and 22.7% of the variance, respectively. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of total hip and femoral neck aBMD as well as femoral neck CSMI and CSA, explaining 8.5-34.8% of the variance. Upon consideration of several potential osteogenic stimuli, reproductive function appears to play

  4. Cellular and Molecular Characterization of Microglia : A Unique Immune Cell Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, Carole; Biber, Knut; Michelucci, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are essential for the development and function of the adult brain. Microglia arise from erythro-myeloid precursors in the yolk sac and populate the brain rudiment early during development. Unlike monocytes that are constantly renewed from bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells throughout

  5. Yeast Killer Toxin K28: Biology and Unique Strategy of Host Cell Intoxication and Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Becker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The initial discovery of killer toxin-secreting brewery strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae in the mid-sixties of the last century marked the beginning of intensive research in the yeast virology field. So far, four different S. cerevisiae killer toxins (K28, K1, K2, and Klus, encoded by cytoplasmic inherited double-stranded RNA viruses (dsRNA of the Totiviridae family, have been identified. Among these, K28 represents the unique example of a yeast viral killer toxin that enters a sensitive cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis to reach its intracellular target(s. This review summarizes and discusses the most recent advances and current knowledge on yeast killer toxin K28, with special emphasis on its endocytosis and intracellular trafficking, pointing towards future directions and open questions in this still timely and fascinating field of killer yeast research.

  6. Stem cell function and maintenance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stem cell research holds a promise to treat and prevent age-related degenerative changes in humans. Literature is replete with studies showing that stem cell function declines with aging, especially in highly proliferative tissues/organs. Among others, telomerase and telomere damage is one of the intrinsic physical ...

  7. Unique cell type-specific junctional complexes in vascular endothelium of human and rat liver sinusoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrill Géraud

    Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelium is strategically positioned to control access of fluids, macromolecules and cells to the liver parenchyma and to serve clearance functions upstream of the hepatocytes. While clearance of macromolecular debris from the peripheral blood is performed by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs using a delicate endocytic receptor system featuring stabilin-1 and -2, the mannose receptor and CD32b, vascular permeability and cell trafficking are controlled by transcellular pores, i.e. the fenestrae, and by intercellular junctional complexes. In contrast to blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells in other organs, the junctional complexes of LSECs have not yet been consistently characterized in molecular terms. In a comprehensive analysis, we here show that LSECs express the typical proteins found in endothelial adherens junctions (AJ, i.e. VE-cadherin as well as α-, β-, p120-catenin and plakoglobin. Tight junction (TJ transmembrane proteins typical of endothelial cells, i.e. claudin-5 and occludin, were not expressed by rat LSECs while heterogenous immunreactivity for claudin-5 was detected in human LSECs. In contrast, junctional molecules preferentially associating with TJ such as JAM-A, B and C and zonula occludens proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 were readily detected in LSECs. Remarkably, among the JAMs JAM-C was considerably over-expressed in LSECs as compared to lung microvascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, we show here that LSECs form a special kind of mixed-type intercellular junctions characterized by co-occurrence of endothelial AJ proteins, and of ZO-1 and -2, and JAMs. The distinct molecular architecture of the intercellular junctional complexes of LSECs corroborates previous ultrastructural findings and provides the molecular basis for further analyses of the endothelial barrier function of liver sinusoids under pathologic conditions ranging from hepatic inflammation to formation of liver metastasis.

  8. The end of the unique myocardial band: Part II. Clinical and functional considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacIver, David H.; Partridge, John B.; Agger, Peter; Stephenson, Robert S.; Boukens, Bastiaan J. D.; Omann, Camilla; Jarvis, Jonathan C.; Zhang, Henggui

    2018-01-01

    Two of the leading concepts of mural ventricular architecture are the unique myocardial band and the myocardial mesh model. We have described, in an accompanying article published in this journal, how the anatomical, histological and high-resolution computed tomographic studies strongly favour the

  9. What's So Special about FGF19-Unique Effects Reported on Skeletal Muscle Mass and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, David J

    2017-08-01

    In a recent study published in Nature Medicine, Benoit et al. (2017) reported unique effects of FGF19 on mouse skeletal muscle: FGF19 induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy and blocked muscle atrophy, acting via FGF receptors and ßKlotho, while a related FGF21 hormone was ineffective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Cases and Review of This Unique Presentation of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-03-22

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a unique variant of basal cell carcinoma. Including the three patients described in this report, red dot basal cell carcinoma has only been described in seven individuals. This paper describes the features of two males and one female with red dot basal cell carcinoma and reviews the characteristics of other patients with this clinical subtype of basal cell carcinoma. A 70-year-old male developed a pearly-colored papule with a red dot in the center on his nasal tip. A 71-year-old male developed a red dot surrounded by a flesh-colored papule on his left nostril. Lastly, a 74-year-old female developed a red dot within an area of erythema on her left mid back. Biopsy of the lesions all showed nodular and/or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Correlation of the clinical presentation and pathology established the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated by excision using the Mohs surgical technique. Pubmed was searched with the keyword: basal, cell, cancer, carcinoma, dot, red, and skin. The papers generated by the search and their references were reviewed. Red dot basal cell carcinoma has been described in three females and two males; the gender was not reported in two patients. The tumor was located on the nose (five patients), back (one patient) and thigh (one patient). Cancer presented as a solitary small red macule or papule; often, the carcinoma was surrounded by erythema or a flesh-colored papule. Although basal cell carcinomas usually do not blanch after a glass microscope slide is pressed against them, the red dot basal cell carcinoma blanched after diascopy in two of the patients, resulting in a delay of diagnosis in one of these individuals. Dermoscopy may be a useful non-invasive modality for evaluating skin lesions when the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma is considered. Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice; in some of the patients, the ratio of the area of the postoperative wound to that

  11. Unique proline-benzoquinone pigment from the colored nectar of "bird's Coca cola tree" functions in bird attractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi-Hong; Liu, Yan; Hua, Juan; Niu, Xue-Mei; Jing, Shu-Xi; Zhao, Xu; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2012-08-17

    The major pigment responsible for the dark brown nectar of the "bird's Coca cola tree", Leucosceptrum canum (Labiatae), was isolated and identified as a unique symmetric proline-quinone conjugate, 2,5-di-(N-(-)-prolyl)-para-benzoquinone (DPBQ). Behavioral experiments with both isolated and synthetic authentic samples indicated that DPBQ functions mainly as a color attractant to bird pollinators.

  12. Soyasaponin Bh, a Triterpene Saponin Containing a Unique Hemiacetal-Functional Five-Membered Ring from Glycine max (Soybeans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans (Glycine max L. Merill) and soy-based food products are major dietary sources of saponins. An oleanane triterpenoid saponin, soyasaponin Bh (1) containing a unique five-membered ring with a hemiacetal functionality together with seven known saponins were isolated from soybeans. Their struct...

  13. Liver-resident NK cells and their potential functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Sun, Rui

    2017-09-18

    Natural killer (NK) cells represent a heterogeneous population of innate lymphocytes with phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. In particular, recent studies have identified a unique subset of NK cells residing within the liver that are maintained as tissue-resident cells, confer antigen-specific memory responses and exhibit different phenotypical and developmental characteristics compared with conventional NK (cNK) cells. These findings have encouraged researchers to uncover tissue-resident NK cells at other sites, and detailed analyses have revealed that these tissue-resident NK cells share many similarities with liver-resident NK cells and tissue-resident memory T cells. Here, we present a brief historical perspective on the discovery of liver-resident NK cells and discuss their relationship to cNK cells and other emerging NK cell subsets and their potential functions.Cellular &Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 18 September 2017; doi:10.1038/cmi.2017.72.

  14. Detection of circulating tumor cells harboring a unique ALK rearrangement in ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailler, Emma; Adam, Julien; Barthélémy, Amélie; Oulhen, Marianne; Auger, Nathalie; Valent, Alexander; Borget, Isabelle; Planchard, David; Taylor, Melissa; André, Fabrice; Soria, Jean Charles; Vielh, Philippe; Besse, Benjamin; Farace, Françoise

    2013-06-20

    The diagnostic test for ALK rearrangement in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for crizotinib treatment is currently done on tumor biopsies or fine-needle aspirations. We evaluated whether ALK rearrangement diagnosis could be performed by using circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The presence of an ALK rearrangement was examined in CTCs of 18 ALK-positive and 14 ALK-negative patients by using a filtration enrichment technique and filter-adapted fluorescent in situ hybridization (FA-FISH), a FISH method optimized for filters. ALK-rearrangement patterns were determined in CTCs and compared with those present in tumor biopsies. ALK-rearranged CTCs and tumor specimens were characterized for epithelial (cytokeratins, E-cadherin) and mesenchymal (vimentin, N-cadherin) marker expression. ALK-rearranged CTCs were monitored in five patients treated with crizotinib. All ALK-positive patients had four or more ALK-rearranged CTCs per 1 mL of blood (median, nine CTCs per 1 mL; range, four to 34 CTCs per 1 mL). No or only one ALK-rearranged CTC (median, one per 1 mL; range, zero to one per 1 mL) was detected in ALK-negative patients. ALK-rearranged CTCs harbored a unique (3'5') split pattern, and heterogeneous patterns (3'5', only 3') of splits were present in tumors. ALK-rearranged CTCs expressed a mesenchymal phenotype contrasting with heterogeneous epithelial and mesenchymal marker expressions in tumors. Variations in ALK-rearranged CTC levels were detected in patients being treated with crizotinib. ALK rearrangement can be detected in CTCs of patients with ALK-positive NSCLC by using a filtration technique and FA-FISH, enabling both diagnostic testing and monitoring of crizotinib treatment. Our results suggest that CTCs harboring a unique ALK rearrangement and mesenchymal phenotype may arise from clonal selection of tumor cells that have acquired the potential to drive metastatic progression of ALK-positive NSCLC.

  15. Lipidomic Profiling of Lung Pleural Effusion Identifies Unique Metabotype for EGFR Mutants in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Swan Ho; Lian Yee Yip; Nurhidayah Basri; Vivian Su Hui Chong; Chin Chye Teo; Eddy Tan; Kah Ling Lim; Gek San Tan; Xulei Yang; Si Yong Yeo; Mariko Si Yue Koh; Anantham Devanand; Angela Takano; Eng Huat Tan; Daniel Shao Weng Tan

    2016-01-01

    Cytology and histology forms the cornerstone for the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but obtaining sufficient tumour cells or tissue biopsies for these tests remains a challenge. We investigate the lipidome of lung pleural effusion (PE) for unique metabolic signatures to discriminate benign versus malignant PE and EGFR versus non-EGFR malignant subgroups to identify novel diagnostic markers that is independent of tumour cell availability. Using liquid chromatography mass spect...

  16. Shared and Unique Proteins in Human, Mouse and Rat Saliva Proteomes: Footprints of Functional Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Karn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of our study was to compare the proteins found in the saliva proteomes of three mammals: human, mouse and rat. Our first objective was to compare two human proteomes with very different analysis depths. The 89 shared proteins in this comparison apparently represent a core of highly-expressed human salivary proteins. Of the proteins unique to each proteome, one-half to 2/3 lack signal peptides and probably are contaminants instead of less highly-represented salivary proteins. We recently published the first rodent saliva proteomes with saliva collected from the genome mouse (C57BL/6 and the genome rat (BN/SsNHsd/Mcwi. Our second objective was to compare the proteins in the human proteome with those we identified in the genome mouse and rat to determine those common to all three mammals, as well as the specialized rodent subset. We also identified proteins unique to each of the three mammals, because differences in the secreted protein constitutions can provide clues to differences in the evolutionary adaptation of the secretions in the three different mammals.

  17. Unique and shared roles of the posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumi eKatsuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex are two parts of a broader brain network involved in the control of cognitive functions such as working memory, spatial attention, and decision making. The two areas share many functional properties and exhibit similar patterns of activation during the execution of mental operations. However, neurophysiological experiments in non-human primates have also documented subtle differences, revealing functional specialization within the fronto-parietal network. These differences include the ability of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to influence memory performance, attention allocation and motor responses to a greater extent, and to resist interference by distracting stimuli. In recent years, distinct cellular and anatomical differences have been identified, offering insights into how functional specialization is achieved. This article reviews the common functions and functional differences between the dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, and their underlying mechanisms.

  18. Unique relations between post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and patient functioning in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Juth, Vanessa; Trief, Paula; Wallston, Kenneth; Ulbrecht, Jan; Smyth, Joshua M

    2017-08-01

    This study examined reported post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in adults with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes who had no history of psychiatric diagnosis or treatment ( n = 184, M HbA1c  = 9.13%, standard deviation = 1.68). Participants reported moderate to severe intensity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms ( M = 19.17, SD = 17.58). Together, depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accounted for 10-40 percent of the variance in type 2 diabetes outcomes; post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with elevated diabetes distress and more frequent exercise and self-blood glucose testing (unique R 2  ~ 3%). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may be overlooked in type 2 diabetes among patients without formal psychiatric diagnoses, and warrant increased attention.

  19. Massive splenic infarction in Saudi patients with sickle cell anemia: a unique manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama, Ali Hassan Al; Salem, Ahmed Hassan Al; Dabbous, Ibrahim Abdalla Al

    2002-03-01

    Splenic infarcts are common in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA), but these are usually small and repetitive, leading ultimately to autosplenectomy. Massive splenic infarcts on the other hand are extremely rare. This is a report of our experience with 8 (4 males and 4 females) cases of massive splenic infarction in patients with SCA. Their ages ranged from 16 to 36 years (mean 22 years). Three presented with left upper quadrant abdominal pain and massive splenic infarction on admission, while the other 5 developed massive splenic infarction while in hospital. In 5 the precipitating factors were high altitude, postoperative, postpartum, salmonella septicemia, and strenuous exercise in one each, while the remaining 3 had severe generalized vasoocclusive crises. Although both ultrasound and CT scan of the abdomen were of diagnostic value, we found CT scan more accurate in delineating the size of infarction. All our patients were managed conservatively with I.V. fluids, analgesia, and blood transfusion when necessary. Diagnostic aspiration under ultrasound guidance was necessary in two patients to differentiate between massive splenic infarction and splenic abscess. Two patients required splenectomy during the same admission because of suspicion of secondary infection and abscess formation, while a third patient had splenectomy 2 months after the attack because of persistent left upper quadrant abdominal pain. In all the 3 histology of the spleen showed congestive splenomegaly with massive infarction. All of our patients survived. Two patients subsequently developed autosplenectomy while the remaining 3 continue to have persistent but asymptomatic splenomegaly. Massive splenic infarction is a rare and unique complication of SCA in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, and for early diagnosis and treatment, physicians caring for these patients should be aware of such a complication.

  20. The Hydrologic Implications Of Unique Urban Soil Horizon Sequencing On The Functions Of Passive Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, W.; Schifman, L. A.; Herrmann, D.

    2017-12-01

    Green infrastructure represents a broad set of site- to landscape-scale practices that can be flexibly implemented to increase sewershed retention capacity, and can thereby improve on the management of water quantity and quality. Although much green infrastructure presents as formal engineered designs, urbanized landscapes with highly-interspersed pervious surfaces (e.g., right-of-way, parks, lawns, vacant land) may offer ecosystem services as passive, infiltrative green infrastructure. Yet, infiltration and drainage processes are regulated by soil surface conditions, and then the layering of subsoil horizons, respectively. Drawing on a unique urban soil taxonomic and hydrologic dataset collected in 12 cities (each city representing a major soil order), we determined how urbanization processes altered the sequence of soil horizons (compared to pre-urbanized reference soil pedons) and modeled the hydrologic implications of these shifts in layering with an unsaturated zone code (HYDRUS2D). We found that the different layering sequences in urbanized soils render different types and extents of supporting (plant-available soil water), provisioning (productive vegetation), and regulating (runoff mitigation) ecosystem services.

  1. Unique Cell Adhesion and Invasion Properties of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3, the Most Frequent Cause of Human Yersiniosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliczka, Frank; Pisano, Fabio; Schaake, Julia; Stolz, Tatjana; Rohde, Manfred; Fruth, Angelika; Strauch, Eckhard; Skurnik, Mikael; Batzilla, Julia; Rakin, Alexander; Heesemann, Jürgen; Dersch, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Many enteric pathogens are equipped with multiple cell adhesion factors which are important for host tissue colonization and virulence. Y. enterocolitica, a common food-borne pathogen with invasive properties, uses the surface proteins invasin and YadA for host cell binding and entry. In this study, we demonstrate unique cell adhesion and invasion properties of Y. enterocolitica serotype O:3 strains, the most frequent cause of human yersiniosis, and show that these differences are mainly attributable to variations affecting the function and expression of invasin in response to temperature. In contrast to other enteric Yersinia strains, invasin production in O:3 strains is constitutive and largely enhanced compared to other Y. enterocolitica serotypes, in which invA expression is temperature-regulated and significantly reduced at 37°C. Increase of invasin levels is caused by (i) an IS1667 insertion into the invA promoter region, which includes an additional promoter and RovA and H-NS binding sites, and (ii) a P98S substitution in the invA activator protein RovA rendering the regulator less susceptible to proteolysis. Both variations were shown to influence bacterial colonization in a murine infection model. Furthermore, we found that co-expression of YadA and down-regulation of the O-antigen at 37°C is required to allow efficient internalization by the InvA protein. We conclude that even small variations in the expression of virulence factors can provoke a major difference in the virulence properties of closely related pathogens which may confer better survival or a higher pathogenic potential in a certain host or host environment. PMID:21750675

  2. Domain swapping in structure of mNKR-P1A: unique feature with unknown function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolenko, Petr; Rozbeský, Daniel; Skálová, Tereza; Koval, Tomáš; Fejfarová, Karla; Dušková, Jarmila; Stránský, Jan; Hašek, Jindřich; Dohnálek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 70, Supplement /August/ (2014), C249 ISSN 0108-7673. [Congress and General Assembly of the International Union of Crystallography /23./ - IUCr 2014. 05.08.2014-12.08.2014, Montreal] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388971 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : NK cell * receptor * swapping Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  3. Pain and executive functions: A unique relationship between Stroop task and experimentally induced pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjekic, J.; Zivanovic, M.; Puric, D.; Oosterman, J.M.; Filipovic, S.R.

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that a higher level of cognitive inhibition is associated with lower experimental pain sensitivity. However, a systematic examination of the association between executive functions, which include not only inhibition but also updating and shifting, and experimental

  4. Capillary pressure as a unique function of electric permittivity and water saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, W.J.; Slob, E.; Van Turnhout, J.; Bruining, J.

    2007-01-01

    The relation between capillary pressure (Pc) and interfacial area has been investigated by measuring Pc and the electric permittivity at 100 kHz simultaneously as function of the water saturation, (Sw). Drainage and imbibition experiments have been conducted for sand-distilled water-gas (CO2/N2)

  5. Comparative Fecal Metagenomics Unveils Unique Functional Capacity of the Swine Gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health and to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Limited information on the physiological...

  6. Functional Impairments in Children with ADHD: Unique Effects of Age and Comorbid Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booster, Genery D.; DuPaul, George J.; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Power, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD and comorbid disorders display poorer overall functioning compared with children with ADHD alone, though little research has examined the differential impact of externalizing versus internalizing comorbidities. Method: This study examined the impact of internalizing and externalizing comorbidities on the academic and…

  7. Triazole: a unique building block for the construction of functional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juríček, Michal; Kouwer, Paul H J; Rowan, Alan E

    2011-08-21

    Over the past 50 years, numerous roads towards carbon-based materials have been explored, all of them being paved using mainly one functional group as the brick: acetylene. The acetylene group, or the carbon-carbon triple bond, is one of the oldest and simplest functional groups in chemistry, and although not present in any of the naturally occurring carbon allotropes, it is an essential tool to access their synthetic carbon-rich family. In general, two strategies towards the synthesis of π-conjugated carbon-rich structures can be employed: (a) either the acetylene group serves as a building block to access acetylene-derived structures or (b) it serves as a synthetic tool to provide other, usually benzenoid, structures. The recently discovered copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction, however, represents a new powerful alternative: it transforms the acetylene group into a five-membered heteroaromatic 1H-1,2,3-triazole (triazole) ring and this gives rise to new opportunities. Compared with all-carbon aromatic non-functional rings, the triazole ring possesses three nitrogen atoms and, thus, can serve as a ligand to coordinate metals, or as a hydrogen bond acceptor and donor. This Feature Article summarises examples of using the triazole ring to construct conjugation- and/or function-related heteroaromatic materials, such as tuneable multichromophoric covalent ensembles, macrocyclic receptors or responsive foldamers. These recent examples, which open a new sub-field within organic materials, started to appear only few years ago and represent "a few more bricks" on the road to carbon-rich functional materials. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  8. Dissection of Ire1 functions reveals stress response mechanisms uniquely evolved in Candida glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiga Miyazaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is vital in all eukaryotes. When misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen, the transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease Ire1 initiates splicing of HAC1 mRNA to generate the bZIP transcription factor Hac1, which subsequently activates its target genes to increase the protein-folding capacity of the ER. This cellular machinery, called the unfolded protein response (UPR, is believed to be an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in eukaryotes. In this study, we comprehensively characterized mutant phenotypes of IRE1 and other related genes in the human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata. Unexpectedly, Ire1 was required for the ER stress response independently of Hac1 in this fungus. C. glabrata Ire1 did not cleave mRNAs encoding Hac1 and other bZIP transcription factors identified in the C. glabrata genome. Microarray analysis revealed that the transcriptional response to ER stress is not mediated by Ire1, but instead is dependent largely on calcineurin signaling and partially on the Slt2 MAPK pathway. The loss of Ire1 alone did not confer increased antifungal susceptibility in C. glabrata contrary to UPR-defective mutants in other fungi. Taken together, our results suggest that the canonical Ire1-Hac1 UPR is not conserved in C. glabrata. It is known in metazoans that active Ire1 nonspecifically cleaves and degrades a subset of ER-localized mRNAs to reduce the ER load. Intriguingly, this cellular response could occur in an Ire1 nuclease-dependent fashion in C. glabrata. We also uncovered the attenuated virulence of the C. glabrata Δire1 mutant in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. This study has unveiled the unique evolution of ER stress response mechanisms in C. glabrata.

  9. Unique and shared areas of cognitive function in children with intractable frontal or temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Nicole; Widjaja, Elysa; Smith, Mary Lou

    2018-03-01

    Previous findings have been mixed in terms of identifying a distinct pattern of neuropsychological deficits in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and in those with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The current study investigated the neuropsychological similarities and differences across these two pediatric medically intractable localization-related epilepsies. Thirty-eight children with FLE, 20 children with TLE, and 40 healthy children (HC) participated in this study. A comprehensive battery of standardized tests assessed five neuropsychological domains including intelligence, language, memory, executive function, and motor function. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to distill our neuropsychological measures into latent components to compare between groups. Principal component analysis extracted 5 latent components: executive function (F1), verbal semantics (F2), motor (F3), nonverbal cognition/impulsivity (F4), and verbal cognition/attention (F5). The group with FLE differed from the HC group on F1, F2, F4, and F5, and had worse performance than the group with TLE on F1; the group with TLE had lower performance relative to the HC group on F2. Our findings suggest that, in comparison with neurotypically developing children, children with medically intractable FLE have more widespread neuropsychological impairments than do children with TLE. The differences between the two patient groups were greatest for the factor score most clearly related to executive function. The results provide mixed support for the concept of specificity in neuropsychological dysfunction among different subtypes of localization-related medically intractable childhood epilepsies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Block Copolymers with Unique Chemical Functionalities and Entropically-Hindering Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    methanol as a function of chemistry , morphology and hydration levels. Accomplishments: This section is included in the "upload" section. Training...Copolymer Blend Membranes.” In Press, Polymer Engineering and Science, DOI: 10.1002 /pen.24508, 2017. 5. M. Pérez-Pérez and D. Suleiman. “Synthesis and...Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Amine Block Copolymers for Energy Efficient Applications". Chemical Engineering Symposium, University of

  11. Cell Elasticity Determines Macrophage Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Naimish R.; Bole, Medhavi; Chen, Cheng; Hardin, Charles C.; Kho, Alvin T.; Mih, Justin; Deng, Linhong; Butler, James; Tschumperlin, Daniel; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Koziel, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function. PMID:23028423

  12. Cell elasticity determines macrophage function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naimish R Patel

    Full Text Available Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function.

  13. Big-Data-Driven Stem Cell Science and Tissue Engineering: Vision and Unique Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sol, Antonio; Thiesen, Hans J; Imitola, Jaime; Carazo Salas, Rafael E

    2017-02-02

    Achieving the promises of stem cell science to generate precise disease models and designer cell samples for personalized therapeutics will require harnessing pheno-genotypic cell-level data quantitatively and predictively in the lab and clinic. Those requirements could be met by developing a Big-Data-driven stem cell science strategy and community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The human CD8β M-4 isoform dominant in effector memory T cells has distinct cytoplasmic motifs that confer unique properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepshi Thakral

    Full Text Available The CD8 co-receptor influences T cell recognition and responses in both anti-tumor and anti-viral immunity. During evolution in the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, the CD8B gene acquired two additional exons. As a result, in humans, there are four CD8β splice variants (M1 to M4 that differ in their cytoplasmic tails. The M-1 isoform which is the equivalent of murine CD8β, is predominantly expressed in naïve T cells, whereas, the M-4 isoform is predominantly expressed in effector memory T cells. The characteristics of the M-4 isoform conferred by its unique 36 amino acid cytoplasmic tail are not known. In this study, we identified a dihydrophobic leucine-based receptor internalization motif in the cytoplasmic tail of M-4 that regulated its cell surface expression and downregulation after activation. Further the M-4 cytoplasmic tail was able to associate with ubiquitinated targets in 293T cells and mutations in the amino acids NPW, a potential EH domain binding site, either enhanced or inhibited the interaction. In addition, the M-4 tail was itself mono-ubiquitinated on a lysine residue in both 293T cells and a human T cell line. When peripheral blood human T cells expressed CD8αβ M-4, the frequency of MIP-1β secreting cells responding to antigen presenting cells was two-fold higher as compared to CD8αβ M-1 expressing T cells. Thus, the cytoplasmic tail of the CD8β M-4 isoform has unique characteristics, which likely contributed to its selective expression and function in human effector memory T cells.

  15. Specific Preschool Executive Functions Predict Unique Aspects of Mathematics Development: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanowski, Stefanie; Krajewski, Kristin

    2017-08-10

    This study assessed the extent to which executive functions (EF), according to their factor structure in 5-year-olds (N = 244), influenced early quantity-number competencies, arithmetic fluency, and mathematics school achievement throughout first and second grades. A confirmatory factor analysis resulted in updating as a first, and inhibition and shifting as a combined second factor. In the structural equation model, updating significantly affected knowledge of the number word sequence, suggesting a facilitatory effect on basic encoding processes in numerical materials that can be learnt purely by rote. Shifting and inhibition significantly influenced quantity to number word linkages, indicating that these processes promote developing a profound understanding of numbers. These results show the supportive role of specific EF for specific aspects of a numerical foundation. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures.

  17. Establishment and characterization of a unique 1 μm diameter liver-derived progenitor cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N.; Behnan Sahin, M.; Cressman, Erik N.K.; Steer, Clifford J.

    2010-01-01

    Liver-derived progenitor cells (LDPCs) are recently identified novel stem/progenitor cells from healthy, unmanipulated adult rat livers. They are distinct from other known liver stem/progenitor cells such as the oval cells. In this study, we have generated a LDPC cell line RA1 by overexpressing the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) in primary LDPCs. This cell line was propagated continuously for 55 passages in culture, after which it became senescent. Interestingly, following transformation with SV40 TAg, LDPCs decreased in size significantly and the propagating cells measured 1 μm in diameter. RA1 cells proliferated in vitro with a doubling time of 5-7 days, and expressed cell surface markers of LDPCs. In this report, we describe the characterization of this novel progenitor cell line that might serve as a valuable model to study liver cell functions and stem cell origin of liver cancers.

  18. Establishment and characterization of a unique 1 {mu}m diameter liver-derived progenitor cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N., E-mail: arava001@umn.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Behnan Sahin, M. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cressman, Erik N.K. [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Steer, Clifford J., E-mail: steer001@umn.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Liver-derived progenitor cells (LDPCs) are recently identified novel stem/progenitor cells from healthy, unmanipulated adult rat livers. They are distinct from other known liver stem/progenitor cells such as the oval cells. In this study, we have generated a LDPC cell line RA1 by overexpressing the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) in primary LDPCs. This cell line was propagated continuously for 55 passages in culture, after which it became senescent. Interestingly, following transformation with SV40 TAg, LDPCs decreased in size significantly and the propagating cells measured 1 {mu}m in diameter. RA1 cells proliferated in vitro with a doubling time of 5-7 days, and expressed cell surface markers of LDPCs. In this report, we describe the characterization of this novel progenitor cell line that might serve as a valuable model to study liver cell functions and stem cell origin of liver cancers.

  19. A Unique Cause of Intestinal and Splenic Infarction in a Sickle Cell Trait Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Asfaw, Sofya H.; Falk, Gavin A.; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Tuthill, Ralph J.; Moorman, Matthew L.; Samotowka, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Sickle-cell trait is a common genetic abnormality in the African American population. A sickle-cell crisis in a patient with sickle-cell trait is uncommon at best. Abdominal painful crises are typical of patients with sickle cell anemia. The treatment for an abdominal painful crisis is usually medical and rarely surgical. We present the case of a cocaine-induced sickle-cell crisis in a sickle-cell trait patient that resulted in splenic, intestinal, and cerebral infarctions and multisystem org...

  20. A note on the uniqueness of 2D elastostatic problems formulated by different types of potential functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, José Luis Morales; Vidal, Manuel Cánovas; Nicolás, José Andrés Moreno; López, Francisco Alhama

    2018-05-01

    New additional conditions required for the uniqueness of the 2D elastostatic problems formulated in terms of potential functions for the derived Papkovich-Neuber representations, are studied. Two cases are considered, each of them formulated by the scalar potential function plus one of the rectangular non-zero components of the vector potential function. For these formulations, in addition to the original (physical) boundary conditions, two new additional conditions are required. In addition, for the complete Papkovich-Neuber formulation, expressed by the scalar potential plus two components of the vector potential, the additional conditions established previously for the three-dimensional case in z-convex domain can be applied. To show the usefulness of these new conditions in a numerical scheme two applications are numerically solved by the network method for the three cases of potential formulations.

  1. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone: a unique site of origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelczer, R.K.; Wenger, D.E.; Wold, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma is a rare soft tissue neoplasm, accounting for less than 1% of soft tissue sarcomas. We are presenting a case of a clear cell sarcoma of bone which, to our knowledge, is the only report of a primary clear cell sarcoma of bone. (orig.)

  2. Unique functional abnormalities in youth with combined marijuana use and depression: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A Ford

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown a relationship between early onset marijuana (MJ use and depression, however this relationship is complex and poorly understood. Here, we utilized passive music listening and fMRI to examine functional brain activation to a rewarding stimulus in 75 participants (healthy controls (HC, patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, frequent MJ users (MJ, and the combination of MDD and MJ (MDD+MJ. For each participant a preferred and neutral piece of instrumental music was determined (utilizing ratings on a standardized scale, and each completed two 6-minute fMRI scans of a passive music listening task. Data underwent preprocessing and 61 participants were carried forward for analysis (17 HC, 15 MDD, 15 MJ, 14 MDD+MJ. Two statistical analyses were performed using SPM8, an ANCOVA with two factors (group x music-type and a whole brain, multiple regression analysis incorporating two predictors of interest (MJ use in past 28 days; and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score. We identified a significant group x music-type interaction. Post hoc comparisons showed the preferred music had significantly greater activation in the MDD+MJ group in areas including the right middle and inferior frontal gyri extending into the claustrum and putamen and the anterior cingulate. No significant differences were identified in MDD, MJ or HC groups. Multiple regression analysis showed that activation in medial frontal cortex was positively correlated with amount of MJ use, and activation in areas including the insula was negatively correlated with BDI score. Results showed modulation in brain activation during passive music listening specific to MDD, frequent MJ users. This supports the suggestion that frequent MJ use, when combined with MDD, is associated with changes in neurocircuitry involved in reward-processing in ways that are absent with either frequent marijuana use or MDD alone. This could help inform clinical recommendations for youth with

  3. Executive functioning in schizophrenia: Unique and shared variance with measures of fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A K; Mowry, B; Reutens, D; Robinson, G A

    2015-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often display deficits on tasks thought to measure "executive" processes. Recently, it has been suggested that reductions in fluid intelligence test performance entirely explain deficits reported for patients with focal frontal lesions on classical executive tasks. For patients with schizophrenia, it is unclear whether deficits on executive tasks are entirely accountable by fluid intelligence and representative of a common general process or best accounted for by distinct contributions to the cognitive profile of schizophrenia. In the current study, 50 patients with schizophrenia and 50 age, sex and premorbid intelligence matched controls were assessed using a broad neuropsychological battery, including tasks considered sensitive to executive abilities, namely the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT), word fluency, Stroop test, digit-span backwards, and spatial working memory. Fluid intelligence was measured using both the Matrix reasoning subtest from the Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and a composite score derived from a number of cognitive tests. Patients with schizophrenia were impaired on all cognitive measures compared with controls, except smell identification and the optimal betting and risk-taking measures from the Cambridge Gambling Task. After introducing fluid intelligence as a covariate, significant differences remained for HSCT suppression errors, and classical executive function tests such as the Stroop test and semantic/phonemic word fluency, regardless of which fluid intelligence measure was included. Fluid intelligence does not entirely explain impaired performance on all tests considered as reflecting "executive" processes. For schizophrenia, these measures should remain part of a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment alongside a measure of fluid intelligence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional Analysis of the Unique Cytochrome P450 of the Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Y Pakharukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic metabolic cytochrome P450 (CYP system is essential for biotransformation of sterols and xenobiotics including drugs, for synthesis and degradation of signaling molecules in all living organisms. Most eukaryotes including free-living flatworms have numerous paralogues of the CYP gene encoding heme monooxygenases with specific substrate range. Notably, by contrast, the parasitic flatworms have only one CYP gene. The role of this enzyme in the physiology and biochemistry of helminths is not known. The flukes and tapeworms are the etiologic agents of major neglected tropical diseases of humanity. Three helminth infections (Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma haematobium are considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC as definite causes of cancer. We focused our research on the human liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus, an emerging source of biliary tract disease including bile duct cancer in Russia and central Europe. The aims of this study were (i to determine the significance of the CYP activity for the morphology and survival of the liver fluke, (ii to assess CYP ability to metabolize xenobiotics, and (iii to localize the CYP activity in O. felineus tissues. We observed high constitutive expression of CYP mRNA (Real-time PCR in O. felineus. This enzyme metabolized xenobiotics selective for mammalian CYP2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, but not CYP1A, as determined by liquid chromatography and imaging analyses. Tissue localization studies revealed the CYP activity in excretory channels, while suppression of CYP mRNA by RNA interference was accompanied by morphological changes of the excretory system and increased mortality rates of the worms. These results suggest that the CYP function is linked to worm metabolism and detoxification. The findings also suggest that the CYP enzyme is involved in vitally important processes in the organism of parasites and is a potential drug target.

  5. A unique cause of intestinal and splenic infarction in a sickle cell trait patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Sofya H; Falk, Gavin A; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Tuthill, Ralph J; Moorman, Matthew L; Samotowka, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Sickle-cell trait is a common genetic abnormality in the African American population. A sickle-cell crisis in a patient with sickle-cell trait is uncommon at best. Abdominal painful crises are typical of patients with sickle cell anemia. The treatment for an abdominal painful crisis is usually medical and rarely surgical. We present the case of a cocaine-induced sickle-cell crisis in a sickle-cell trait patient that resulted in splenic, intestinal, and cerebral infarctions and multisystem organ failure necessitating a splenectomy, subtotal colectomy, and small bowel resection. This case highlights the diagnostic dilemma that abdominal pain can present in the sickle-cell population and illustrates the importance of recognizing the potential for traditionally medically managed illnesses to become surgical emergencies.

  6. A Unique Cause of Intestinal and Splenic Infarction in a Sickle Cell Trait Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya H. Asfaw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle-cell trait is a common genetic abnormality in the African American population. A sickle-cell crisis in a patient with sickle-cell trait is uncommon at best. Abdominal painful crises are typical of patients with sickle cell anemia. The treatment for an abdominal painful crisis is usually medical and rarely surgical. We present the case of a cocaine-induced sickle-cell crisis in a sickle-cell trait patient that resulted in splenic, intestinal, and cerebral infarctions and multisystem organ failure necessitating a splenectomy, subtotal colectomy, and small bowel resection. This case highlights the diagnostic dilemma that abdominal pain can present in the sickle-cell population and illustrates the importance of recognizing the potential for traditionally medically managed illnesses to become surgical emergencies.

  7. Unique battery with an active membrane separator having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels and a method making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J [Chicago, IL; Sears, Devin N [Spruce Grove, CA; Smith, Luis J [Natick, MA; Klingler, Robert J [Glenview, IL; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL

    2012-02-21

    The invention relates to a unique battery having an active, porous membrane and method of making the same. More specifically the invention relates to a sealed battery system having a porous, metal oxide membrane with uniform, physicochemically functionalized ion channels capable of adjustable ionic interaction. The physicochemically-active porous membrane purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  8. Structural analysis and unique molecular recognition properties of a Bauhinia forficata lectin that inhibits cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkowski, Jacek; Durbin, Sarah V; Silva, Mariana C C; Farnsworth, David; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Oliva, Maria Luiza V; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Lectins have been used at length for basic research and clinical applications. New insights into the molecular recognition properties enhance our basic understanding of carbohydrate-protein interactions and aid in the design/development of new lectins. In this study, we used a combination of cell-based assays, glycan microarrays, and X-ray crystallography to evaluate the structure and function of the recombinant Bauhinia forficata lectin (BfL). The lectin was shown to be cytostatic for several cancer cell lines included in the NCI-60 panel; in particular, it inhibited growth of melanoma cancer cells (LOX IMVI) by over 95%. BfL is dimeric in solution and highly specific for binding of oligosaccharides and glycopeptides with terminal N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc). BfL was found to have especially strong binding (apparent K d  = 0.5-1.0 nm) to the tumor-associated Tn antigen. High-resolution crystal structures were determined for the ligand-free lectin, as well as for its complexes with three Tn glycopeptides, globotetraose, and the blood group A antigen. Extensive analysis of the eight crystal structures and comparison to structures of related lectins revealed several unique features of GalNAc recognition. Of special note, the carboxylate group of Glu126, lining the glycan-binding pocket, forms H-bonds with both the N-acetyl of GalNAc and the peptide amido group of Tn antigens. Stabilization provided by Glu126 is described here for the first time for any GalNAc-specific lectin. Taken together, the results provide new insights into the molecular recognition of carbohydrates and provide a structural understanding that will enable rational engineering of BfL for a variety of applications. Structural data are available in the PDB under the accession numbers 5T50, 5T52, 5T55, 5T54, 5T5L, 5T5J, 5T5P, and 5T5O. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosan, Christian; Godmann, Maren

    2016-01-01

    All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function. PMID:26798358

  10. The viral envelope is not sufficient to transfer the unique broad cell tropism of Bungowannah virus to a related pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Maria; Reimann, Ilona; Schirrmeier, Horst; Kirkland, Peter D; Beer, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Bungowannah virus is the most divergent pestivirus, and both origin and reservoir host have not been identified so far. We therefore performed in vitro tropism studies, which showed that Bungowannah virus differs remarkably from other pestiviruses. Interestingly, cell lines of vervet monkey, mouse, human and even of bat origin were susceptible. This broad in vitro tropism was not observed for a chimeric bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) expressing all structural proteins of Bungowannah virus. The viral envelope was not sufficient to completely transfer the cell tropism of Bungowannah virus to another pestivirus, and viral RNA replication was either markedly reduced or not detectable in a number of different cell lines for the tested BVDV strain and the chimera. We therefore suggest that the replication machinery together with the viral envelope is responsible for the unique broad cell tropism of Bungowannah virus. © 2014 The Authors.

  11. Photovoltaic cell and array technology development for future unique NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S.; Curtis, H.; Piszczor, M.; Surampudi, R.; Hamilton, T.; Rapp, D.; Stella, P.; Mardesich, N.; Mondt, J.; Bunker, R.; hide

    2002-01-01

    A technology review committee from NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Air Force Research Lab, was formed to assess solar cell and array technologies required for future NASA science missions.

  12. Structural and biochemical analysis of a unique phosphatase from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus reveals its structural and functional relationship with the protein tyrosine phosphatase class of phytase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Gruninger

    Full Text Available Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is an unusual δ-proteobacterium that invades and preys on other Gram-negative bacteria and is of potential interest as a whole cell therapeutic against pathogens of man, animals and crops. PTPs (protein tyrosine phosphatases are an important class of enzyme involved in desphosphorylating a variety of substrates, often with implications in cell signaling. The B. bacteriovorus open reading frame Bd1204 is predicted to encode a PTP of unknown function. Bd1204 is both structurally and mechanistically related to the PTP-like phytase (PTPLP class of enzymes and possesses a number of unique properties not observed in any other PTPLPs characterized to date. Bd1204 does not display catalytic activity against some common protein tyrosine phosphatase substrates but is highly specific for hydrolysis of phosphomonoester bonds of inositol hexakisphosphate. The structure reveals that Bd1204 has the smallest and least electropositive active site of all characterized PTPLPs to date yet possesses a unique substrate specificity characterized by a strict preference for inositol hexakisphosphate. These two active site features are believed to be the most significant contributors to the specificity of phytate degrading enzymes. We speculate that Bd1204 may be involved in phosphate acquisition outside of prey.

  13. Interpreting heterogeneity in intestinal tuft cell structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; McKinley, Eliot T; von Moltke, Jakob; Coffey, Robert J; Lau, Ken S

    2018-05-01

    Intestinal tuft cells are a morphologically unique cell type, best characterized by striking microvilli that form an apical tuft. These cells represent approximately 0.5% of gut epithelial cells depending on location. While they are known to express chemosensory receptors, their function has remained unclear. Recently, numerous groups have revealed startling insights into intestinal tuft cell biology. Here, we review the latest developments in understanding this peculiar cell type's structure and function. Recent advances in volumetric microscopy have begun to elucidate tuft cell ultrastructure with respect to its cellular neighbors. Moreover, single-cell approaches have revealed greater diversity in the tuft cell population than previously appreciated and uncovered novel markers to characterize this heterogeneity. Finally, advanced model systems have revealed tuft cells' roles in mucosal healing and orchestrating type 2 immunity against eukaryotic infection. While much remains unknown about intestinal tuft cells, these critical advances have illuminated the physiological importance of these previously understudied cells and provided experimentally tractable tools to interrogate this rare cell population. Tuft cells act as luminal sensors, linking the luminal microbiome to the host immune system, which may make them a potent clinical target for modulating host response to a variety of acute or chronic immune-driven conditions.

  14. Unique CCT repeats mediate transcription of the TWIST1 gene in mesenchymal cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuma, Mizue; Funato, Noriko; Higashihori, Norihisa; Murakami, Masanori; Ohyama, Kimie; Nakamura, Masataka

    2007-01-01

    TWIST1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, plays critical roles in embryo development, cancer metastasis and mesenchymal progenitor differentiation. Little is known about transcriptional regulation of TWIST1 expression. Here we identified DNA sequences responsible for TWIST1 expression in mesenchymal lineage cell lines. Reporter assays with TWIST1 promoter mutants defined the -102 to -74 sequences that are essential for TWIST1 expression in human and mouse mesenchymal cell lines. Tandem repeats of CCT, but not putative CREB and NF-κB sites in the sequences substantially supported activity of the TWIST1 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that the DNA sequences with the CCT repeats formed complexes with nuclear factors, containing, at least, Sp1 and Sp3. These results suggest critical implication of the CCT repeats in association with Sp1 and Sp3 factors in sustaining expression of the TWIST1 gene in mesenchymal cells

  15. Photoreactivation of thymine dimers in uv-irradiated human cells: unique dependence on culture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortelmans, K; Friedberg, E C [Stanford Univ., Calif. (USA). Dept. of Pathology. Lab. of Experimental Oncology; Cleaver, J E; Thomas, G H [California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Lab. of Radiobiology; Paterson, M C; Smith, B P [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario. Biology and Health Physics Div. Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1977-09-01

    UV-irradiated human fibroblasts in tissue culture were exposed to photoreactivating light in an attempt to demonstrate a light-dependent loss of thymine dimers from the acid-insoluble fraction of the DNA. The only experimental conditions in which this phenomenon was observed was if the cells were grown for at least 10 days in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's minimum essential medium. Such cells lost a maximum of between 10 to 30% of the thymine dimers from their DNA during illumination for 1 h. When cells were grown in a variety of other media, this phenomenon was not observed. The present experiments do not discriminate between true enzymatic photoreactivation and a medium-dependent photosensitization phenomenon that is not enzymatic in nature.

  16. The Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Unique Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Basolateral and Centromedial Amygdala Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Andrew A; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A; Théberge, Jean; Neufeld, Richard Wj; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies point towards differential connectivity patterns among basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala regions in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as compared with controls. Here we describe the first study to compare directly connectivity patterns of the BLA and CMA complexes between PTSD patients with and without the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS and PTSD-DS, respectively). Amygdala connectivity to regulatory prefrontal regions and parietal regions involved in consciousness and proprioception were expected to differ between these two groups based on differential limbic regulation and behavioral symptoms. PTSD patients (n=49) with (n=13) and without (n=36) the dissociative subtype and age-matched healthy controls (n=40) underwent resting-state fMRI. Bilateral BLA and CMA connectivity patterns were compared using a seed-based approach via SPM Anatomy Toolbox. Among patients with PTSD, the PTSD+DS group exhibited greater amygdala functional connectivity to prefrontal regions involved in emotion regulation (bilateral BLA and left CMA to the middle frontal gyrus and bilateral CMA to the medial frontal gyrus) as compared with the PTSD-DS group. In addition, the PTSD+DS group showed greater amygdala connectivity to regions involved in consciousness, awareness, and proprioception-implicated in depersonalization and derealization (left BLA to superior parietal lobe and cerebellar culmen; left CMA to dorsal posterior cingulate and precuneus). Differences in amygdala complex connectivity to specific brain regions parallel the unique symptom profiles of the PTSD subgroups and point towards unique biological markers of the dissociative subtype of PTSD.

  17. Commensal–dendritic-cell interaction specifies a unique protective skin immune signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Shruti; Bouladoux, Nicolas; Linehan, Jonathan L.; Han, Seong-Ji; Harrison, Oliver J.; Wilhelm, Christoph; Conlan, Sean; Himmelfarb, Sarah; Byrd, Allyson L.; Deming, Clayton; Quinones, Mariam; Brenchley, Jason M.; Kong, Heidi H.; Tussiwand, Roxanne; Murphy, Kenneth M.; Merad, Miriam; Segre, Julia A; Belkaid, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    The skin represents the primary interface between the host and the environment. This organ is also home to trillions of microorganisms that play an important role in tissue homeostasis and local immunity1–4. Skin microbial communities are highly diverse and can be remodelled over time or in response to environmental challenges5–7. How, in the context of this complexity, individual commensal microorganisms may differentially modulate skin immunity and the consequences of these responses for tissue physiology remains unclear. Here we show that defined commensals dominantly affect skin immunity and identify the cellular mediators involved in this specification. In particular, colonization with Staphylococcus epidermidis induces IL-17A+ CD8+ T cells that home to the epidermis, enhance innate barrier immunity and limit pathogen invasion. Commensal-specific T-cell responses result from the coordinated action of skin-resident dendritic cell subsets and are not associated with inflammation, revealing that tissue-resident cells are poised to sense and respond to alterations in microbial communities. This interaction may represent an evolutionary means by which the skin immune system uses fluctuating commensal signals to calibrate barrier immunity and provide heterologous protection against invasive pathogens. These findings reveal that the skin immune landscape is a highly dynamic environment that can be rapidly and specifically remodelled by encounters with defined commensals, findings that have profound implications for our understanding of tissue-specific immunity and pathologies. PMID:25539086

  18. Unique role of NADPH oxidase 5 in oxidative stress in human renal proximal tubule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiying Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidases are the major sources of reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular, neural, and kidney cells. The NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5 gene is present in humans but not rodents. Because Nox isoforms in renal proximal tubules (RPTs are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, we tested the hypothesis that NOX5 is differentially expressed in RPT cells from normotensive (NT and hypertensive subjects (HT. We found that NOX5 mRNA, total NOX5 protein, and apical membrane NOX5 protein were 4.2±0.7-fold, 5.2±0.7-fold, and 2.8±0.5-fold greater in HT than NT. Basal total NADPH oxidase activity was 4.5±0.2-fold and basal NOX5 activity in NOX5 immunoprecipitates was 6.2±0.2-fold greater in HT than NT (P=<0.001, n=6–14/group. Ionomycin increased total NOX and NOX5 activities in RPT cells from HT (P<0.01, n=4, ANOVA, effects that were abrogated by pre-treatment of the RPT cells with diphenylene-iodonium or superoxide dismutase. Silencing NOX5 using NOX5-siRNA decreased NADPH oxidase activity (−45.1±3.2% vs. mock-siRNA, n=6–8 in HT. D1-like receptor stimulation decreased NADPH oxidase activity to a greater extent in NT (−32.5±1.8% than HT (−14.8±1.8. In contrast to the marked increase in expression and activity of NOX5 in HT, NOX1 mRNA and protein were minimally increased in HT, relative to NT; total NOX2 and NOX4 proteins were not different between HT and NT, while the increase in apical RPT cell membrane NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4 proteins in HT, relative to NT, was much less than those observed with NOX5. Thus, we demonstrate, for the first time, that NOX5 is expressed in human RPT cells and to greater extent than the other Nox isoforms in HT than NT. We suggest that the increased expression of NOX5, which may be responsible for the increased oxidative stress in RPT cells in human essential hypertension, is caused, in part, by a defective renal dopaminergic system.

  19. Integrated analysis of breast cancer cell lines reveals unique signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, Laura M.; Wang, Nicholas J.; Talcott, Carolyn L.; Laderoute, Keith R.; Knapp, Merrill; Guan, Yinghui; Hu, Zhi; Ziyad, Safiyyah; Weber, Barbara L.; Laquerre, Sylvie; Jackson, Jeffrey R.; Wooster, Richard F.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Gray, Joe W.; Spellman, Paul T.

    2009-03-31

    Cancer is a heterogeneous disease resulting from the accumulation of genetic defects that negatively impact control of cell division, motility, adhesion and apoptosis. Deregulation in signaling along the EGFR-MAPK pathway is common in breast cancer, though the manner in which deregulation occurs varies between both individuals and cancer subtypes. We were interested in identifying subnetworks within the EGFR-MAPK pathway that are similarly deregulated across subsets of breast cancers. To that end, we mapped genomic, transcriptional and proteomic profiles for 30 breast cancer cell lines onto a curated Pathway Logic symbolic systems model of EGFR-MEK signaling. This model was comprised of 539 molecular states and 396 rules governing signaling between active states. We analyzed these models and identified several subtype specific subnetworks, including one that suggested PAK1 is particularly important in regulating the MAPK cascade when it is over-expressed. We hypothesized that PAK1 overexpressing cell lines would have increased sensitivity to MEK inhibitors. We tested this experimentally by measuring quantitative responses of 20 breast cancer cell lines to three MEK inhibitors. We found that PAK1 over-expressing luminal breast cancer cell lines are significantly more sensitive to MEK inhibition as compared to those that express PAK1 at low levels. This indicates that PAK1 over-expression may be a useful clinical marker to identify patient populations that may be sensitive to MEK inhibitors. All together, our results support the utility of symbolic system biology models for identification of therapeutic approaches that will be effective against breast cancer subsets.

  20. Integrated analysis of breast cancer cell lines reveals unique signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Laura M; Wang, Nicholas J; Talcott, Carolyn L; Laderoute, Keith R; Knapp, Merrill; Guan, Yinghui; Hu, Zhi; Ziyad, Safiyyah; Weber, Barbara L; Laquerre, Sylvie; Jackson, Jeffrey R; Wooster, Richard F; Kuo, Wen Lin; Gray, Joe W; Spellman, Paul T

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is a heterogeneous disease resulting from the accumulation of genetic defects that negatively impact control of cell division, motility, adhesion and apoptosis. Deregulation in signaling along the EgfR-MAPK pathway is common in breast cancer, though the manner in which deregulation occurs varies between both individuals and cancer subtypes. We were interested in identifying subnetworks within the EgfR-MAPK pathway that are similarly deregulated across subsets of breast cancers. To that end, we mapped genomic, transcriptional and proteomic profiles for 30 breast cancer cell lines onto a curated Pathway Logic symbolic systems model of EgfR-MAPK signaling. This model was composed of 539 molecular states and 396 rules governing signaling between active states. We analyzed these models and identified several subtype-specific subnetworks, including one that suggested Pak1 is particularly important in regulating the MAPK cascade when it is over-expressed. We hypothesized that Pak1 over-expressing cell lines would have increased sensitivity to Mek inhibitors. We tested this experimentally by measuring quantitative responses of 20 breast cancer cell lines to three Mek inhibitors. We found that Pak1 over-expressing luminal breast cancer cell lines are significantly more sensitive to Mek inhibition compared to those that express Pak1 at low levels. This indicates that Pak1 over-expression may be a useful clinical marker to identify patient populations that may be sensitive to Mek inhibitors. All together, our results support the utility of symbolic system biology models for identification of therapeutic approaches that will be effective against breast cancer subsets.

  1. Comparative kinomics of human and chimpanzee reveal unique kinship and functional diversity generated by new domain combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Juliette

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorylation by protein kinases is a common event in many cellular processes. Further, many kinases perform specialized roles and are regulated by non-kinase domains tethered to kinase domain. Perturbation in the regulation of kinases leads to malignancy. We have identified and analysed putative protein kinases encoded in the genome of chimpanzee which is a close evolutionary relative of human. Result The shared core biology between chimpanzee and human is characterized by many orthologous protein kinases which are involved in conserved pathways. Domain architectures specific to chimp/human kinases have been observed. Chimp kinases with unique domain architectures are characterized by deletion of one or more non-kinase domains in the human kinases. Interestingly, counterparts of some of the multi-domain human kinases in chimp are characterized by identical domain architectures but with kinase-like non-kinase domain. Remarkably, out of 587 chimpanzee kinases no human orthologue with greater than 95% sequence identity could be identified for 160 kinases. Variations in chimpanzee kinases compared to human kinases are brought about also by differences in functions of domains tethered to the catalytic kinase domain. For example, the heterodimer forming PB1 domain related to the fold of ubiquitin/Ras-binding domain is seen uniquely tethered to PKC-like chimpanzee kinase. Conclusion Though the chimpanzee and human are evolutionary very close, there are chimpanzee kinases with no close counterpart in the human suggesting differences in their functions. This analysis provides a direction for experimental analysis of human and chimpanzee protein kinases in order to enhance our understanding on their specific biological roles.

  2. Unique contributions of emotion regulation and executive functions in predicting the quality of parent-child interaction behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Obradović, Jelena

    2017-03-01

    Parenting is a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral endeavor, yet limited research investigates parents' executive functions and emotion regulation as predictors of how parents interact with their children. The current study is a multimethod investigation of parental self-regulation in relation to the quality of parenting behavior and parent-child interactions in a diverse sample of parents and kindergarten-age children. Using path analyses, we tested how parent executive functions (inhibitory control) and lack of emotion regulation strategies uniquely relate to both sensitive/responsive behaviors and positive/collaborative behaviors during observed interaction tasks. In our analyses, we accounted for parent education, financial stress, and social support as socioeconomic factors that likely relate to parent executive function and emotion regulation skills. In a diverse sample of primary caregivers (N = 102), we found that direct assessment of parent inhibitory control was positively associated with sensitive/responsive behaviors, whereas parent self-reported difficulties in using emotion regulation strategies were associated with lower levels of positive and collaborative dyadic behaviors. Parent education and financial stress predicted inhibitory control, and social support predicted emotion regulation difficulties; parent education was also a significant predictor of sensitive/responsive behaviors. Greater inhibitory control skills and fewer difficulties identifying effective emotion regulation strategies were not significantly related in our final path model. We discuss our findings in the context of current and emerging parenting interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Epstein-Barr virus ensures B cell survival by uniquely modulating apoptosis at early and late times after infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alexander M; Dai, Joanne; Bazot, Quentin; Patel, Luv; Nikitin, Pavel A; Djavadian, Reza; Winter, Peter S; Salinas, Cristina A; Barry, Ashley Perkins; Wood, Kris C; Johannsen, Eric C; Letai, Anthony; Allday, Martin J; Luftig, Micah A

    2017-04-20

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is causally linked to several human cancers. EBV expresses viral oncogenes that promote cell growth and inhibit the apoptotic response to uncontrolled proliferation. The EBV oncoprotein LMP1 constitutively activates NFκB and is critical for survival of EBV-immortalized B cells. However, during early infection EBV induces rapid B cell proliferation with low levels of LMP1 and little apoptosis. Therefore, we sought to define the mechanism of survival in the absence of LMP1/NFκB early after infection. We used BH3 profiling to query mitochondrial regulation of apoptosis and defined a transition from uninfected B cells (BCL-2) to early-infected (MCL-1/BCL-2) and immortalized cells (BFL-1). This dynamic change in B cell survival mechanisms is unique to virus-infected cells and relies on regulation of MCL-1 mitochondrial localization and BFL-1 transcription by the viral EBNA3A protein. This study defines a new role for EBNA3A in the suppression of apoptosis with implications for EBV lymphomagenesis.

  4. A Unique Opportunity to Test Whether Cell Fusion is a Mechanism of Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Gilgoff I, Stein J, Chan Y, Lidov HG, Bonnemann CG. Long-term persistence of donor nuclei in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient receiving bone marrow...myoblasts of muscle fibers and osteoclasts of bone.13 However, it was not appreciated until recently that fusion products may form between...fusion products such as osteoclasts and muscle fibers.13 Additional proof was provided by Duelli et al. in the context of viral-induced cell

  5. The cell cycle in Alzheimer disease: a unique target for neuropharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kate M; Raina, Arun K; Marlatt, Michael W; Zhu, Xiongwei; Prat, María I; Morelli, Laura; Casadesus, Gemma; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A

    2005-10-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed attempting to explain the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease including, among others, theories involving amyloid deposition, tau phosphorylation, oxidative stress, metal ion dysregulation and inflammation. While there is strong evidence suggesting that each one of these proposed mechanisms contributes to disease pathogenesis, none of these mechanisms are able to account for all the physiological changes that occur during the course of the disease. For this reason, we and others have begun the search for a causative factor that predates known features found in Alzheimer disease, and that might therefore be a fundamental initiator of the pathophysiological cascade. We propose that the dysregulation of the cell cycle that occurs in neurons susceptible to degeneration in the hippocampus during Alzheimer disease is a potential causative factor that, together with oxidative stress, would initiate all known pathological events. Neuronal changes supporting alterations in cell cycle control in the etiology of Alzheimer disease include the ectopic expression of markers of the cell cycle, organelle kinesis and cytoskeletal alterations including tau phosphorylation. Such mitotic alterations are not only one of the earliest neuronal abnormalities in the disease, but as discussed herein, are also intimately linked to all of the other pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease including tau protein, amyloid beta protein precursor and oxidative stress, and even risk factors such as mutations in the presenilin genes. Therefore, therapeutic interventions targeted toward ameliorating mitotic changes would be predicted to have a profound and positive impact on Alzheimer disease progression.

  6. Plutonium uniqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A standard is suggested against which the putative uniqueness of plutonium may be tested. It is common folklore that plutonium is unique among the chemical elements because its four common oxidation states can coexist in the same solution. Whether this putative uniqueness appears only during transit to equilibrium, or only at equilibrium, or all of the time, is not generally made clear. But while the folklore may contain some truth, it cannot be put to test until some measure of 'uniqueness' is agreed upon so that quantitative comparisons are possible. One way of measuring uniqueness is as the magnitude of the product of the mole fractions of the element at equilibrium. A 'coexistence index' is defined and discussed. (author)

  7. A Unique Opportunity To Test Whether Cell Fusion Is a Mechanism of Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Germany 2. Duelli, D. M., Padilla-Nash, H. M., Berman, D., Murphy, K. M., Ried, T., andLazebnik, Y. (2007)A virus causes cancer by inducingmassive...result from the deregulation of normal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation pathways [14–16], or may develop from EMTs [17,18]. This current idea...Organismen; Engelmann: Leipzig, Germany , 1911; p. 115S. 20. Mekler, L.B. Creation of antineoplastic preparations on the basis of the theory of organ-tissue

  8. A unique dermal dendritic cell subset that skews the immune response toward Th2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Murakami

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC subsets in the skin and draining lymph nodes (LNs are likely to elicit distinct immune response types. In skin and skin-draining LNs, a dermal DC subset expressing macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin 2 (MGL2/CD301b was found distinct from migratory Langerhans cells (LCs or CD103(+ dermal DCs (dDCs. Lower expression levels of Th1-promoting and/or cross-presentation-related molecules were suggested by the transcriptome analysis and verified by the quantitative real-time PCR analysis in MGL2(+ dDCs than in CD103(+ dDCs. Transfer of MGL2(+ dDCs but not CD103(+ dDCs from FITC-sensitized mice induced a Th2-type immune response in vivo in a model of contact hypersensitivity. Targeting MGL2(+ dDCs with a rat monoclonal antibody against MGL2 efficiently induced a humoral immune response with Th2-type properties, as determined by the antibody subclass. We propose that the properties of MGL2(+ dDCs, are complementary to those of CD103(+ dDCs and skew the immune response toward a Th2-type response.

  9. Measuring Environmental Factors: Unique and Overlapping International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Coverage of 5 Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W; Miskovic, Ana; Semik, Patrick; Wong, Alex; Dashner, Jessica; Baum, Carolyn; Magasi, Susan; Hammel, Joy; Tulsky, David S; Garcia, Sofia F; Jerousek, Sara; Lai, Jin-Shei; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Gray, David B

    2016-12-01

    To describe the unique and overlapping content of the newly developed Environmental Factors Item Banks (EFIB) and 7 legacy environmental factor instruments, and to evaluate the EFIB's construct validity by examining associations with legacy instruments. Cross-sectional, observational cohort. Community. A sample of community-dwelling adults with stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury (N=568). None. EFIB covering domains of the built and natural environment; systems, services, and policies; social environment; and access to information and technology; the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF) short form; the Facilitators and Barriers Survey/Mobility (FABS/M) short form; the Home and Community Environment Instrument (HACE); the Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE) short form; and 3 of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System's (PROMIS) Quality of Social Support measures. The EFIB and legacy instruments assess most of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) environmental factors chapters, including chapter 1 (products and technology; 75 items corresponding to 11 codes), chapter 2 (natural environment and human-made changes; 31 items corresponding to 7 codes), chapter 3 (support and relationships; 74 items corresponding to 7 codes), chapter 4 (attitudes; 83 items corresponding to 8 codes), and chapter 5 (services, systems, and policies; 72 items corresponding to 16 codes). Construct validity is provided by moderate correlations between EFIB measures and the CHIEF, MQE barriers, HACE technology mobility, FABS/M community built features, and PROMIS item banks and by small correlations with other legacy instruments. Only 5 of the 66 legacy instrument correlation coefficients are moderate, suggesting they measure unique aspects of the environment, whereas all intra-EFIB correlations were at least moderate. The EFIB measures provide a brief and focused assessment of ICF

  10. Border patrol: insights into the unique role of perlecan/heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 at cell and tissue borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farach-Carson, Mary C; Warren, Curtis R; Harrington, Daniel A; Carson, Daniel D

    2014-02-01

    The extracellular matrix proteoglycan (ECM) perlecan, also known as heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 or HSPG2, is one of the largest (>200 nm) and oldest (>550 M years) extracellular matrix molecules. In vertebrates, perlecan's five-domain structure contains numerous independently folding modules with sequence similarities to other ECM proteins, all connected like cars into one long, diverse complex train following a unique N-terminal domain I decorated with three long glycosaminoglycan chains, and an additional glycosaminoglycan attachment site in the C-terminal domain V. In lower invertebrates, perlecan is not typically a proteoglycan, possessing the majority of the core protein modules, but lacking domain I where the attachment sites for glycosaminoglycan chains are located. This suggests that uniting the heparan sulfate binding growth factor functions of domain I and the core protein functions of the rest of the molecule in domains II-V occurred later in evolution for a new functional purpose. In this review, we surveyed several decades of pertinent literature to ask a fundamental question: Why did nature design this protein uniquely as an extraordinarily long multifunctional proteoglycan with a single promoter regulating expression, rather than separating these functions into individual proteins that could be independently regulated? We arrived at the conclusion that the concentration of perlecan at functional borders separating tissues and tissue layers is an ancient key function of the core protein. The addition of the heparan sulfate chains in domain I likely occurred as an additional means of binding the core protein to other ECM proteins in territorial matrices and basement membranes, and as a means to reserve growth factors in an on-site depot to assist with rapid repair of those borders when compromised, such as would occur during wounding. We propose a function for perlecan that extends its role from that of an extracellular scaffold, as we previously

  11. T-cell responses targeting HIV Nef uniquely correlate with infected cell frequencies after long-term antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison S Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses limit viral replication in untreated infection. After the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART, these responses decay and the infected cell population that remains is commonly considered to be invisible to T-cells. We hypothesized that HIV antigen recognition may persist in ART-treated individuals due to low-level or episodic protein expression. We posited that if persistent recognition were occurring it would be preferentially directed against the early HIV gene products Nef, Tat, and Rev as compared to late gene products, such as Gag, Pol, and Env, which have higher barriers to expression. Using a primary cell model of latency, we observed that a Nef-specific CD8+ T-cell clone exhibited low-level recognition of infected cells prior to reactivation and robust recognition shortly thereafter. A Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell clone failed to recognized infected cells under these conditions, corresponding with a lack of detectable Gag expression. We measured HIV-specific T-cell responses in 96 individuals who had been suppressed on ART for a median of 7 years, and observed a significant, direct correlation between cell-associated HIV DNA levels and magnitudes of IFN-γ-producing Nef/Tat/Rev-specific T-cell responses. This correlation was confirmed in an independent cohort (n = 18. Correlations were not detected between measures of HIV persistence and T-cell responses to other HIV antigens. The correlation with Nef/Tat/Rev-specific T-cells was attributable to Nef-specific responses, the breadth of which also correlated with HIV DNA levels. These results suggest that ongoing Nef expression in ART-treated individuals drives preferential maintenance and/or expansion of T-cells reactive to this protein, implying sensing of infected cells by the immune system. The direct correlation, however, suggests that recognition does not result in efficient elimination of infected cells. These results raise the possibility that

  12. Coordinated and unique functions of the E-selectin ligand ESL-1 during inflammatory and hematopoietic recruitment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramkumar, Vinatha; Leiva, Magdalena; Stadtmann, Anika; Pitaval, Christophe; Ortega-Rodríguez, Inés; Wild, Martin K; Lee, Brendan; Zarbock, Alexander; Hidalgo, Andrés

    2013-12-05

    Beyond its well-established roles in mediating leukocyte rolling, E-selectin is emerging as a multifunctional receptor capable of inducing integrin activation in neutrophils, and of regulating various biological processes in hematopoietic precursors. Although these effects suggest important homeostatic contributions of this selectin in the immune and hematologic systems, the ligands responsible for transducing these effects in different leukocyte lineages are not well defined. We have characterized mice deficient in E-selectin ligand-1 (ESL-1), or in both P-selectin glycoprotein-1 (PSGL-1) and ESL-1, to explore and compare the contributions of these glycoproteins in immune and hematopoietic cell trafficking. In the steady state, ESL-1 deficiency resulted in a moderate myeloid expansion that became more prominent when both glycoproteins were eliminated. During inflammation, PSGL-1 dominated E-selectin binding, rolling, integrin activation, and extravasation of mature neutrophils, but only the combined deficiency in PSGL-1 and ESL-1 completely abrogated leukocyte recruitment. Surprisingly, we find that the levels of ESL-1 were strongly elevated in hematopoietic progenitor cells. These elevations correlated with a prominent function of ESL-1 for E-selectin binding and for migration of hematopoietic progenitor cells into the bone marrow. Our results uncover dominant roles for ESL-1 in the immature compartment, and a functional shift toward PSGL-1 dependence in mature neutrophils.

  13. Niche partitioning of feeding microhabitats produces a unique function for herbivorous rabbitfishes (Perciformes, Siganidae) on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. J.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2013-03-01

    Niche theory predicts that coexisting species minimise competition by evolving morphological or behavioural specialisations that allow them to spread out along resource axes such as space, diet and temporal activity. These specialisations define how a species interacts with its environment and, by extension, determine its functional role. Here, we examine the feeding niche of three species of coral reef-dwelling rabbitfishes (Siganidae, Siganus). By comparing aspects of their feeding behaviour (bite location, bite rate, foraging distance) with that of representative species from two other abundant herbivorous fish families, the parrotfishes (Labridae, Scarus) and surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae, Acanthurus), we examine whether rabbitfishes have a feeding niche distinct from other members of the herbivore guild. Measurements of the penetration of the fishes' snouts and bodies into reef concavities when feeding revealed that rabbitfish fed to a greater degree from reef crevices and interstices than other herbivores. There was just a 40 % overlap in the penetration-depth niche between rabbitfish and surgeonfish and a 45 % overlap between rabbitfish and parrotfish, compared with the almost complete niche overlap (95 %) recorded for parrotfish and surgeonfish along this spatial niche axis. Aspects of the morphology of rabbitfish which may contribute to this niche segregation include a comparatively longer, narrower snout and narrower head. Our results suggest that sympatric coexistence of rabbitfish and other reef herbivores is facilitated by segregation along a spatial (and potentially dietary) axis. This segregation results in a unique functional role for rabbitfishes among roving herbivores that of "crevice-browser": a group that specifically feeds on crevice-dwelling algal or benthic organisms. This functional trait may have implications for reef ecosystem processes in terms of controlling the successional development of crevice-based algal communities, reducing their

  14. The unique fold and lability of the [2Fe-2S] clusters of NEET proteins mediate their key functions in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmi, Ola; Marjault, Henri-Baptiste; Pesce, Luca; Carloni, Paolo; Onuchic, Jose' N; Jennings, Patricia A; Mittler, Ron; Nechushtai, Rachel

    2018-02-12

    NEET proteins comprise a new class of [2Fe-2S] cluster proteins. In human, three genes encode for NEET proteins: cisd1 encodes mitoNEET (mNT), cisd2 encodes the Nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1) and cisd3 encodes MiNT (Miner2). These recently discovered proteins play key roles in many processes related to normal metabolism and disease. Indeed, NEET proteins are involved in iron, Fe-S, and reactive oxygen homeostasis in cells and play an important role in regulating apoptosis and autophagy. mNT and NAF-1 are homodimeric and reside on the outer mitochondrial membrane. NAF-1 also resides in the membranes of the ER associated mitochondrial membranes (MAM) and the ER. MiNT is a monomer with distinct asymmetry in the molecular surfaces surrounding the clusters. Unlike its paralogs mNT and NAF-1, it resides within the mitochondria. NAF-1 and mNT share similar backbone folds to the plant homodimeric NEET protein (At-NEET), while MiNT's backbone fold resembles a bacterial MiNT protein. Despite the variation of amino acid composition among these proteins, all NEET proteins retained their unique CDGSH domain harboring their unique 3Cys:1His [2Fe-2S] cluster coordination through evolution. The coordinating exposed His was shown to convey the lability to the NEET proteins' [2Fe-2S] clusters. In this minireview, we discuss the NEET fold and its structural elements. Special attention is given to the unique lability of the NEETs' [2Fe-2S] cluster and the implication of the latter to the NEET proteins' cellular and systemic function in health and disease.

  15. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  16. A unique DNA found in post-mitochondrial fraction from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, R.C.; Bloch, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    A DNA found in post-mitochondrial fractions from Ehrlich ascites cells, comprising 0.2% of the total cellular DNA, is partially characterized. It appears in cytoplasmic homogenates as a 14.6 S molecule, and is eluted from hydroxyapatite with 0.24 M sodium phosphate buffer. Its Cs 2 SO 4 buoyant density is lower than Erlich ascites tumor nuclear DNA and it has low dG+dC content, as determined by chromatography of hydrolysates of 32 P-labelled DNA. It is enriched in sequences which reassociate rapidly in the presence of excess nuclear DNA. It can be used as promoter for DNA synthesis by an endogenous DNA-dependent DNA polymerase found in association with the post-mitochondrial preparations. It is found to be associated with newly incorporated radioactivity following incubation in vitro with labelled UTP. Its localization in situ has not yet been attempled. It is thought to represent viral A-type particle associated, or plasma membrane associated DNA. (author) [pt

  17. Unique proliferation response in odontoblastic cells derived from human skeletal muscle stem cells by cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Hase, Naoko; Kawai, Rie; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Hiyama, Taiki; Kondo, Ayami; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Mogi, Makio

    2015-01-01

    A pro-inflammatory cytokine mixture (CM: interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ) and IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 activity have been shown to increase the proliferation of rat dental pulp cells and murine stem cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. This suggests that MMP-3 may regulate wound healing and regeneration in the odontoblast-rich dental pulp. Here, we determined whether these results can be extrapolated to human dental pulp by investigating the effects of CM-induced MMP-3 up-regulation on the proliferation and apoptosis of purified odontoblast-like cells derived from human skeletal muscle stem cells. We used siRNA to specifically reduce MMP-3 expression. We found that CM treatment increased MMP-3 mRNA and protein levels as well as MMP-3 activity. Cell proliferation was also markedly increased, with no changes in apoptosis, upon treatment with CM and following the application of exogenous MMP-3. Endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases were constitutively expressed during all experiments and unaffected by MMP-3. Although treatment with MMP-3 siRNA suppressed cell proliferation, it also unexpectedly increased apoptosis. This siRNA-mediated increase in apoptosis could be reversed by exogenous MMP-3. These results demonstrate that cytokine-induced MMP-3 activity regulates cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis in human odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • Pro-inflammatory cytokines induce MMP-3 activity in human odontoblast-like cells. • Increased MMP-3 activity can promote cell proliferation in odontoblasts. • Specific loss of MMP-3 increases apoptosis in odontoblasts. • MMP-3 has potential as a promising new target for pupal repair and regeneration

  18. Unique proliferation response in odontoblastic cells derived from human skeletal muscle stem cells by cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Hase, Naoko; Kawai, Rie; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Hiyama, Taiki [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, 2-11 Suemori-dori, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8651, Aichi (Japan); Kondo, Ayami [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, 1-100 Kusumoto, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan); Nakata, Kazuhiko [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, 2-11 Suemori-dori, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8651, Aichi (Japan); Mogi, Makio, E-mail: makio@dpc.agu.ac.jp [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, 1-100 Kusumoto, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    A pro-inflammatory cytokine mixture (CM: interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ) and IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 activity have been shown to increase the proliferation of rat dental pulp cells and murine stem cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. This suggests that MMP-3 may regulate wound healing and regeneration in the odontoblast-rich dental pulp. Here, we determined whether these results can be extrapolated to human dental pulp by investigating the effects of CM-induced MMP-3 up-regulation on the proliferation and apoptosis of purified odontoblast-like cells derived from human skeletal muscle stem cells. We used siRNA to specifically reduce MMP-3 expression. We found that CM treatment increased MMP-3 mRNA and protein levels as well as MMP-3 activity. Cell proliferation was also markedly increased, with no changes in apoptosis, upon treatment with CM and following the application of exogenous MMP-3. Endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases were constitutively expressed during all experiments and unaffected by MMP-3. Although treatment with MMP-3 siRNA suppressed cell proliferation, it also unexpectedly increased apoptosis. This siRNA-mediated increase in apoptosis could be reversed by exogenous MMP-3. These results demonstrate that cytokine-induced MMP-3 activity regulates cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis in human odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • Pro-inflammatory cytokines induce MMP-3 activity in human odontoblast-like cells. • Increased MMP-3 activity can promote cell proliferation in odontoblasts. • Specific loss of MMP-3 increases apoptosis in odontoblasts. • MMP-3 has potential as a promising new target for pupal repair and regeneration.

  19. A synergistic antiproliferation effect of curcumin and docosahexaenoic acid in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells: unique signaling not explained by the effects of either compound alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenburg, Jeffrey D; Bieberich, Andrew A; Terry, Colin; Harvey, Kevin A; VanHorn, Justin F; Xu, Zhidong; Jo Davisson, V; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is a collection of diseases in which molecular phenotypes can act as both indicators and mediators of therapeutic strategy. Therefore, candidate therapeutics must be assessed in the context of multiple cell lines with known molecular phenotypes. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and curcumin (CCM) are dietary compounds known to antagonize breast cancer cell proliferation. We report that these compounds in combination exert a variable antiproliferative effect across multiple breast cell lines, which is synergistic in SK-BR-3 cells and triggers cell signaling events not predicted by the activity of either compound alone. Dose response curves for CCM and DHA were generated for five breast cell lines. Effects of the DHA+ CCM combination on cell proliferation were evaluated using varying concentrations, at a fixed ratio, of CCM and DHA based on their individual ED 50 . Detection of synergy was performed using nonlinear regression of a sigmoid dose response model and Combination Index approaches. Cell molecular network responses were investigated through whole genome microarray analysis of transcript level changes. Gene expression results were validated by RT-PCR, and western blot analysis was performed for potential signaling mediators. Cellular curcumin uptake, with and without DHA, was analyzed via flow cytometry and HPLC. CCM+DHA had an antiproliferative effect in SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, MCF7 and MCF10AT cells. The effect was synergistic for SK-BR-3 (ER - PR - Her2 + ) relative to the two compounds individually. A whole genome microarray approach was used to investigate changes in gene expression for the synergistic effects of CCM+DHA in SK-BR-3 cells lines. CCM+DHA triggered transcript-level responses, in disease-relevant functional categories, that were largely non-overlapping with changes caused by CCM or DHA individually. Genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, inhibition of metastasis, and cell adhesion were upregulated, whereas genes

  20. Alterations in a Unique Class of Cortical Chandelier Cell Axon Cartridges in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Brad R; DeDionisio, Adam M; Lewis, David A; Fish, Kenneth N

    2017-07-01

    The axons of chandelier cells (ChCs) target the axon initial segment of pyramidal neurons, forming an array of boutons termed a cartridge. In schizophrenia, the density of cartridges detectable by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) membrane transporter 1 immunoreactivity is lower, whereas the density of axon initial segments detectable by immunoreactivity for the α2 subunit of the GABA A receptor is higher in layers 2/superficial 3 of the prefrontal cortex. These findings were interpreted as compensatory responses to lower GABA levels in ChCs. However, we recently found that in schizophrenia, ChC cartridge boutons contain normal levels of the 67 kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) protein, the enzyme responsible for GABA synthesis in these boutons. To understand these findings we quantified the densities of ChC cartridges immunoreactive for vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT+), which is present in all cartridge boutons, and the subset of cartridges that contain calbindin (CB+). Prefrontal cortex tissue sections from 20 matched pairs of schizophrenia and unaffected comparison subjects were immunolabeled for vGAT, GAD67, and CB. The mean density of vGAT+/CB+ cartridges was 2.7-fold higher, exclusively in layer 2 of schizophrenia subjects, whereas the density of vGAT+/CB- cartridges did not differ between subject groups. Neither vGAT, CB, or GAD67 protein levels per ChC bouton nor the number of boutons per cartridge differed between subject groups. Our findings of a greater density of CB+ ChC cartridges in prefrontal cortex layer 2 from schizophrenia subjects suggests that the normal developmental pruning of these cartridges is blunted in the illness. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cell sheet engineering: a unique nanotechnology for scaffold-free tissue reconstruction with clinical applications in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi-Hannachi, I; Yamato, M; Okano, T

    2010-01-01

    Cell sheet technology (CST) is based on the use of thermoresponsive polymers, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm). The surface of PIPAAms is formulated in such a way as to make its typical thickness <100 nm. In this review, we first focus on how the methods of PIPAAm-grafted surface preparations and functionalization are important to be able to harvest a functional cell sheet, to be further transplanted. Then, we present aspects of tissue mimics and three-dimensional reconstruction of a tissue in vitro. Finally, we give an overview of clinical applications and clinically relevant animal experimentations of the technology, such as cardiomyopathy, visual acuity, periodonty, oesophageal ulcerations and type 1 diabetes.

  2. The unique architecture and function of cellulose-interacting proteins in oomycetes revealed by genomic and structural analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larroque Mathieu

    2012-11-01

    provides insight into the evolution and biological roles of CBM1-containing proteins from oomycetes. We show that while CBM1s from fungi and oomycetes are similar, they team up with different protein domains, either in proteins implicated in the degradation of plant cell wall components in the case of fungi or in proteins involved in adhesion to polysaccharidic substrates in the case of oomycetes. This work highlighted the unique role and evolution of CBM1 proteins in oomycete among the Stramenopile lineage.

  3. Phylogenetic and functional diversity of Bacteria and Archaea in a unique stratified lagoon, the Clipperton atoll (N Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galand, Pierre E; Bourrain, Muriel; De Maistre, Emmanuel; Catala, Philippe; Desdevises, Yves; Elifantz, Hila; Kirchman, David L; Lebaron, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The Clipperton lagoon in the North Pacific Ocean has been isolated from the surrounding sea for c. 160 years. It has a stratified water column that comprises an oxic and brackish upper water layer (mixolimnion) and a deep sulfuric anoxic saline layer (monimolimnion), separated by a steep pycnocline. Here, we test whether the Clipperton lagoon with its distinctive physico-chemical features, geographic isolation, recent water column stratification, and large nutrient input harbors original microbial communities. The combination of capillary electrophoresis single-strand polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting and sequencing of cloned bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes, and functional genes for methanogenesis (mcrA), methanotrophy (pmoA), and sulfate reduction (dsrAB), revealed that microbial communities and pathways were highly stratified down the water column. The mixolimnion contained ubiquitous freshwater clades of Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria, while the pycnocline contained mostly green sulfur bacteria (phylum Chlorobi). Sequences of the upper layers were closely related to sequences found in other aquatic ecosystems, suggesting that they have a strong potential for dispersal and colonization. In contrast, the monimolimnion contained new deeply branching bacterial divisions within the OP11 cluster and the Bacteroidetes, and was the most diverse of the layers. The unique environmental conditions characterizing the deep layers of the lagoon may explain the novelty of the microbial communities found at the Clipperton atoll.

  4. The unique hemoglobin system of Pleuragramma antarcticum, an antarctic migratory teleost. Structure and function of the three components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrini, M; D'Avino, R; Fago, A; Carratore, V; Kunzmann, A; Prisco, G

    1996-09-27

    Pleuragramma antarcticum (suborder Notothenioidei, family Nototheniidae) is the most abundant fish in the antarctic shelf. This pelagic species has a circum-antarctic distribution and is characterized by spawning migration. This species displays the highest multiplicity of major hemoglobins (three); the other notothenioids have a single one (except one species, having two) with relatively low oxygen affinity regulated by pH and organophosphates. The hemoglobins of P. antarcticum display strong Bohr and Root effects; however, they reveal important functional differences in subunit cooperativity and organophosphate regulation and, above all, in the response of oxygenation to temperature. Despite the substitution ValbetaE11 --> Ile found in Hb 2, which decreases the affinity in human mutants, the hemoglobins have similar oxygen affinity, higher than that of the other notothenioids. Hb 1 has the alpha chain in common with Hb 2 and the beta in common with Hb 3. The amino acid sequence of all four chains has been established. Thus the hematological features of P. antarcticum differ remarkably from those of antarctic notothenioids. This unique and sophisticated oxygen transport system may adequately meet the requirements of the unusual mode of life of this fish.

  5. Unique insula subregion resting-state functional connectivity with amygdala complexes in posttraumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Andrew A; Sapru, Iman; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A; Neufeld, Richard W J; Théberge, Jean; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2016-04-30

    The insula and amygdala are implicated in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where both have been shown to be hyper/hypoactive in non-dissociative (PTSD-DS) and dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS) PTSD patients, respectively, during symptom provocation. However, the functional connectivity between individual insula subregions and the amygdala has not been investigated in persons with PTSD, with or without the dissociative subtype. We examined insula subregion (anterior, mid, and posterior) functional connectivity with the bilateral amygdala using a region-of-interest seed-based approach via PickAtlas and SPM8. Resting-state fMRI was conducted with (n=61) PTSD patients (n=44 PTSD-DS; n=17 PTSD+DS), and (n=40) age-matched healthy controls. When compared to controls, the PTSD-DS group displayed increased insula connectivity (bilateral anterior, bilateral mid, and left posterior) to basolateral amygdala clusters in both hemispheres, and the PTSD+DS group displayed increased insula connectivity (bilateral anterior, left mid, and left posterior) to the left basolateral amygdala complex. Moreover, as compared to PTSD-DS, increased insula subregion connectivity (bilateral anterior, left mid, and right posterior) to the left basolateral amygdala was found in PTSD+DS. Depersonalization/derealization symptoms and PTSD symptom severity correlated with insula subregion connectivity to the basolateral amygdala within PTSD patients. This study is an important first step in elucidating patterns of neural connectivity associated with unique symptoms of arousal/interoception, emotional processing, and awareness of bodily states, in PTSD and its dissociative subtype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigating evolutionary conservation of dendritic cell subset identity and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien-Phong eVu Manh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC were initially defined as mononuclear phagocytes with a dendritic morphology and an exquisite efficiency for naïve T cell activation. DC encompass several subsets initially identified by their expression of specific cell surface molecules and later shown to excel in distinct functions and to develop under the instruction of different transcription factors or cytokines. Very few cell surface molecules are expressed in a specific manner on any immune cell type. Hence, to identify cell types, the sole use of a small number of cell surface markers in classical flow cytometry can be deceiving. Moreover, the markers currently used to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets vary depending on the tissue and animal species studied and even between laboratories. This has led to confusion in the definition of DC subset identity and in their attribution of specific functions. There is a strong need to identify a rigorous and consensus way to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets, with precise guidelines potentially applicable throughout tissues and species. We will discuss the advantages, drawbacks and complementarities of different methodologies: cell surface phenotyping, ontogeny, functional characterization and molecular profiling. We will advocate that gene expression profiling is a very rigorous, largely unbiased and accessible method to define the identity of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which strengthens and refines surface phenotyping. It is uniquely powerful to yield new, experimentally testable, hypotheses on the ontogeny or functions of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, their molecular regulation and their evolutionary conservation. We propose defining cell populations based on a combination of cell surface phenotyping, expression analysis of hallmark genes and robust functional assays, in order to reach a consensus and integrate faster the huge but scattered knowledge accumulated by different laboratories on different cell types

  7. CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells from FIV+ cats induce a unique anergic profile in CD8+ lymphocyte targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tompkins Mary B

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using the FIV model, we reported previously that CD4+CD25+ T regulatory (Treg cells from FIV+ cats are constitutively activated and suppress CD4+CD25- and CD8+ T cell immune responses. In an effort to further explore Treg-mediated suppression, we asked whether Treg cells induce anergy through the alteration of production of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases and their inhibitors. Results Lymphocytes were obtained from control or FIV+ cats and sorted by FACS into CD4+CD25+ and CD8+ populations. Following co-culture with CD4+CD25+ cells, CD8+ targets were examined by Western blot for changes in cyclins D3, E and A, retinoblastoma (Rb protein, as well as the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21cip1. Following co-culture with CD4+CD25+cells, we observed up-regulation of p21cip1 and cyclin E, with down-regulation of cyclin D3, in CD8+ cells from FIV+ cats. As expected, CD8+ targets from control cats were quiescent with little up-regulation of p21cip1 and cyclin E. There was also a lack of Rb phosphorylation in CD8+ targets consistent with late G1 cell cycle arrest. Further, IL-2 mRNA was down regulated in CD8+ cells after co-culture with CD4+CD25+ Treg cells. Following CD4+CD25+ co-culture, CD8+ targets from FIV+ cats also had increased Foxp3 mRNA expression; however, these CD8+Foxp3+ cells did not exhibit suppressor function. Conclusions Collectively, these data suggest that CD4+CD25+ Treg cells from FIV+ cats induce CD8+ anergy by disruption of normal G1 to S cell cycle progression.

  8. Complimentary mechanisms of dual checkpoint blockade expand unique T-cell repertoires and activate adaptive anti-tumor immunity in triple-negative breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junping; Yang, Xiao Yi; Lei, Gangjun; Wang, Tao; Liu, Cong-Xiao; Morse, Michael A.; Gouin, Kenneth; Knott, Simon R. V.; Hartman, Zachary C.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and molecularly diverse breast cancer subtype typified by the presence of p53 mutations (∼80%), elevated immune gene signatures and neoantigen expression, as well as the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). As these factors are hypothesized to be strong immunologic prerequisites for the use of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) antibodies, multiple clinical trials testing single ICBs have advanced to Phase III, with early indications of heterogeneous response rates of <20% to anti-PD1 and anti-PDL1 ICB. While promising, these modest response rates highlight the need for mechanistic studies to understand how different ICBs function, how their combination impacts functionality and efficacy, as well as what immunologic parameters predict efficacy to different ICBs regimens in TNBC. To address these issues, we tested anti-PD1 and anti-CTLA4 in multiple models of TNBC and found that their combination profoundly enhanced the efficacy of either treatment alone. We demonstrate that this efficacy is due to anti-CTLA4-driven expansion of an individually unique T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire whose functionality is enhanced by both intratumoral Treg suppression and anti-PD1 blockade of tumor expressed PDL1. Notably, the individuality of the TCR repertoire was observed regardless of whether the tumor cells expressed a nonself antigen (ovalbumin) or if tumor-specific transgenic T-cells were transferred prior to sequencing. However, responsiveness was strongly correlated with systemic measures of tumor-specific T-cell and B-cell responses, which along with systemic assessment of TCR expansion, may serve as the most useful predictors for clinical responsiveness in future clinical trials of TNBC utilizing anti-PD1/anti-CTLA4 ICB. PMID:29721371

  9. Complimentary mechanisms of dual checkpoint blockade expand unique T-cell repertoires and activate adaptive anti-tumor immunity in triple-negative breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Erika J; Wei, Junping; Yang, Xiao Yi; Lei, Gangjun; Wang, Tao; Liu, Cong-Xiao; Agarwal, Pankaj; Korman, Alan J; Morse, Michael A; Gouin, Kenneth; Knott, Simon R V; Lyerly, H Kim; Hartman, Zachary C

    2018-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and molecularly diverse breast cancer subtype typified by the presence of p53 mutations (∼80%), elevated immune gene signatures and neoantigen expression, as well as the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). As these factors are hypothesized to be strong immunologic prerequisites for the use of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) antibodies, multiple clinical trials testing single ICBs have advanced to Phase III, with early indications of heterogeneous response rates of <20% to anti-PD1 and anti-PDL1 ICB. While promising, these modest response rates highlight the need for mechanistic studies to understand how different ICBs function, how their combination impacts functionality and efficacy, as well as what immunologic parameters predict efficacy to different ICBs regimens in TNBC. To address these issues, we tested anti-PD1 and anti-CTLA4 in multiple models of TNBC and found that their combination profoundly enhanced the efficacy of either treatment alone. We demonstrate that this efficacy is due to anti-CTLA4-driven expansion of an individually unique T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire whose functionality is enhanced by both intratumoral Treg suppression and anti-PD1 blockade of tumor expressed PDL1. Notably, the individuality of the TCR repertoire was observed regardless of whether the tumor cells expressed a nonself antigen (ovalbumin) or if tumor-specific transgenic T-cells were transferred prior to sequencing. However, responsiveness was strongly correlated with systemic measures of tumor-specific T-cell and B-cell responses, which along with systemic assessment of TCR expansion, may serve as the most useful predictors for clinical responsiveness in future clinical trials of TNBC utilizing anti-PD1/anti-CTLA4 ICB.

  10. The numerology of T cell functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haining, W Nicholas

    2012-01-27

    Memory T cells are heterogeneous in phenotype and function. In this issue of Immunity, Newell et al. (2012) use a new flow cytometry platform to show that the functional heterogeneity of the human T cell compartment is even greater than previously thought. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Numerology of T Cell Functional Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Haining, W. Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Memory T cells are heterogeneous in phenotype and function. In this issue of Immunity Newell et al. (2012) use a new flow cytometry platform to show that the functional heterogeneity in the human T cell compartment is even greater than expected.

  12. Blimp-1 controls plasma cell function through regulation of immunoglobulin secretion and the unfolded protein response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Julie; Shi, Wei; Minnich, Martina; Liao, Yang; Crawford, Simon; Smyth, Gordon K; Kallies, Axel; Busslinger, Meinrad; Nutt, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell differentiation requires silencing of B cell transcription, while establishing antibody-secretory function and long-term survival. The transcription factors Blimp-1 and IRF4 are essential for plasma cell generation, however their function in mature plasma cells has remained elusive. We have found that while IRF4 was essential for plasma cell survival, Blimp-1 was dispensable. Blimp-1-deficient plasma cells retained their transcriptional identity, but lost the ability to secrete antibody. Blimp-1 regulated many components of the unfolded protein response (UPR), including XBP-1 and ATF6. The overlap of Blimp-1 and XBP-1 function was restricted to the UPR, with Blimp-1 uniquely regulating mTOR activity and plasma cell size. Thus, Blimp-1 is required for the unique physiological capacity of plasma cells that enables the secretion of protective antibody. PMID:26779600

  13. Lipidomic Profiling of Lung Pleural Effusion Identifies Unique Metabotype for EGFR Mutants in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ying Swan; Yip, Lian Yee; Basri, Nurhidayah; Chong, Vivian Su Hui; Teo, Chin Chye; Tan, Eddy; Lim, Kah Ling; Tan, Gek San; Yang, Xulei; Yeo, Si Yong; Koh, Mariko Si Yue; Devanand, Anantham; Takano, Angela; Tan, Eng Huat; Tan, Daniel Shao Weng; Lim, Tony Kiat Hon

    2016-10-14

    Cytology and histology forms the cornerstone for the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but obtaining sufficient tumour cells or tissue biopsies for these tests remains a challenge. We investigate the lipidome of lung pleural effusion (PE) for unique metabolic signatures to discriminate benign versus malignant PE and EGFR versus non-EGFR malignant subgroups to identify novel diagnostic markers that is independent of tumour cell availability. Using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, we profiled the lipidomes of the PE of 30 benign and 41 malignant cases with or without EGFR mutation. Unsupervised principal component analysis revealed distinctive differences between the lipidomes of benign and malignant PE as well as between EGFR mutants and non-EGFR mutants. Docosapentaenoic acid and Docosahexaenoic acid gave superior sensitivity and specificity for detecting NSCLC when used singly. Additionally, several 20- and 22- carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipid species were significantly elevated in the EGFR mutants compared to non-EGFR mutants. A 7-lipid panel showed great promise in the stratification of EGFR from non-EGFR malignant PE. Our data revealed novel lipid candidate markers in the non-cellular fraction of PE that holds potential to aid the diagnosis of benign, EGFR mutation positive and negative NSCLC.

  14. Regulation of satellite cell function in sarcopenia

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    Stephen E Alway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell function that is impacted by the environment (niche of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia, and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration. While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function.

  15. Regulation of Satellite Cell Function in Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alway, Stephen E.; Myers, Matthew J.; Mohamed, Junaith S.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins, and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration). While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function. PMID:25295003

  16. Cyclophilin Inhibitors Remodel the Endoplasmic Reticulum of HCV-Infected Cells in a Unique Pattern Rendering Cells Impervious to a Reinfection.

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    Udayan Chatterji

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of action by which cyclophilin inhibitors (CypI interfere with the HCV life cycle remain poorly understood. We reported that CypI and NS5A inhibitors (NS5Ai, but not other classes of anti-HCV agents, prevent assembly of double membrane vesicles (DMVs, which protect replication complexes. We demonstrated that both NS5A and the isomerase cyclophilin A (CypA are required for DMV formation. Here, we examined whether CypI mediate an additional antiviral effect that could further explain the high efficacy of CypI. We identified a unique action of CypI. CypI remodel the organization of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of HCV-infected cells, but not of uninfected cells. This effect is specific since it was not observed for other classes of anti-HCV agents including NS5Ai, and has no effect on the viability of CypI-treated cells. Since ER serves as platform for the establishment of HCV replication complexes, we asked whether the ER reorganization by CypI would prevent cells from being newly infected. Remarkably, CypI-treated HCV-pre-infected cells remain totally impervious to a reinfection, suggesting that the CypI-mediated ER reorganization prevents a reinfection. This block is not due to residual CypI since CypI-resistant HCV variants also fail to infect these cells. The ER reorganization by CypI is rapid and reversible. This study provides the first evidence that CypI trigger a unique ER reorganization of infected cells, rendering cells transiently impervious to a reinfection. This study further suggests that the HCV-induced ER rearrangement represents a key target for the development of new therapies.

  17. Unique gene expression profile of the proliferating Xenopus tadpole tail blastema cells deciphered by RNA-sequencing analysis.

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    Hiroshi Tsujioka

    Full Text Available Organ regenerative ability depends on the animal species and the developmental stage. The molecular bases for variable organ regenerative ability, however, remain unknown. Previous studies have identified genes preferentially expressed in the blastema tissues in various animals, but transcriptome analysis of the isolated proliferating blastema cells has not yet been reported. In the present study, we used RNA-sequencing analysis to analyze the gene expression profile of isolated proliferating blastema cells of regenerating Xenopus laevis tadpole tails. We used flow cytometry to isolate proliferating cells, and non-proliferating blastema cells, from regenerating tadpole tails as well as proliferating tail bud cells from tail bud embryos, the latter two of which were used as control cells, based on their DNA content. Among the 28 candidate genes identified by RNA-sequencing analysis, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction identified 10 genes whose expression was enriched in regenerating tadpole tails compared with non-regenerating tadpole tails or tails from the tail bud embryos. Among them, whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that chromosome segregation 1-like and interleukin 11 were expressed in the broad area of the tail blastema, while brevican, lysyl oxidase, and keratin 18 were mainly expressed in the notochord bud in regenerating tails. We further combined whole mount in situ hybridization with immunohistochemistry for the incorporated 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine to confirm that keratin 18 and interleukin 11 were expressed in the proliferating tail blastema cells. Based on the proposed functions of their homologs in other animal species, these genes might have roles in the extracellular matrix formation in the notochord bud (brevican and lysyl oxidase, cell proliferation (chromosome segregation 1-like and keratin 18, and in the maintenance of the differentiation ability of proliferating blastema cells (interleukin 11

  18. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation into Functional Epicardial Progenitor Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadix, Juan Antonio; Orlova, Valeria V.; Giacomelli, Elisa; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; Mummery, Christine L.; Pérez-Pomares, José M.; Passier, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced) to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA)

  19. Generation of functional eyes from pluripotent cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Viczian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem (ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are the starting point from which to generate organ specific cell types. For example, converting pluripotent cells to retinal cells could provide an opportunity to treat retinal injuries and degenerations. In this study, we used an in vivo strategy to determine if functional retinas could be generated from a defined population of pluripotent Xenopus laevis cells. Animal pole cells isolated from blastula stage embryos are pluripotent. Untreated, these cells formed only epidermis, when transplanted to either the flank or eye field. In contrast, misexpression of seven transcription factors induced the formation of retinal cell types. Induced retinal cells were committed to a retinal lineage as they formed eyes when transplanted to the flanks of developing embryos. When the endogenous eye field was replaced with induced retinal cells, they formed eyes that were molecularly, anatomically, and electrophysiologically similar to normal eyes. Importantly, induced eyes could guide a vision-based behavior. These results suggest the fate of pluripotent cells may be purposely altered to generate multipotent retinal progenitor cells, which differentiate into functional retinal cell classes and form a neural circuitry sufficient for vision.

  20. The dengue vector Aedes aegypti contains a functional high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 protein with a unique regulatory C-terminus.

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    Fabio Schneider Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti can spread the dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. Thus, the search for key molecules involved in the mosquito survival represents today a promising vector control strategy. High Mobility Group Box (HMGB proteins are essential nuclear factors that maintain the high-order structure of chromatin, keeping eukaryotic cells viable. Outside the nucleus, secreted HMGB proteins could alert the innate immune system to foreign antigens and trigger the initiation of host defenses. In this work, we cloned and functionally characterized the HMGB1 protein from Aedes aegypti (AaHMGB1. The AaHMGB1 protein typically consists of two HMG-box DNA binding domains and an acidic C-terminus. Interestingly, AaHMGB1 contains a unique alanine/glutamine-rich (AQ-rich C-terminal region that seems to be exclusive of dipteran HMGB proteins. AaHMGB1 is localized to the cell nucleus, mainly associated with heterochromatin. Circular dichroism analyses of AaHMGB1 or the C-terminal truncated proteins revealed α-helical structures. We showed that AaHMGB1 can effectively bind and change the topology of DNA, and that the AQ-rich and the C-terminal acidic regions can modulate its ability to promote DNA supercoiling, as well as its preference to bind supercoiled DNA. AaHMGB1 is phosphorylated by PKA and PKC, but not by CK2. Importantly, phosphorylation of AaHMGB1 by PKA or PKC completely abolishes its DNA bending activity. Thus, our study shows that a functional HMGB1 protein occurs in Aedes aegypt and we provide the first description of a HMGB1 protein containing an AQ-rich regulatory C-terminus.

  1. Membrane elastic properties and cell function.

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    Bruno Pontes

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the cell membrane, interacting with its attached cytoskeleton, is an important regulator of cell function, exerting and responding to forces. We investigate this relationship by looking for connections between cell membrane elastic properties, especially surface tension and bending modulus, and cell function. Those properties are measured by pulling tethers from the cell membrane with optical tweezers. Their values are determined for all major cell types of the central nervous system, as well as for macrophage. Astrocytes and glioblastoma cells, which are considerably more dynamic than neurons, have substantially larger surface tensions. Resting microglia, which continually scan their environment through motility and protrusions, have the highest elastic constants, with values similar to those for resting macrophage. For both microglia and macrophage, we find a sharp softening of bending modulus between their resting and activated forms, which is very advantageous for their acquisition of phagocytic functions upon activation. We also determine the elastic constants of pure cell membrane, with no attached cytoskeleton. For all cell types, the presence of F-actin within tethers, contrary to conventional wisdom, is confirmed. Our findings suggest the existence of a close connection between membrane elastic constants and cell function.

  2. Staphylococcal enterotoxin-like X (SElX is a unique superantigen with functional features of two major families of staphylococcal virulence factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ries J Langley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that produces many virulence factors. Two major families of which are the staphylococcal superantigens (SAgs and the Staphylococcal Superantigen-Like (SSL exoproteins. The former are immunomodulatory toxins that induce a Vβ-specific activation of T cells, while the latter are immune evasion molecules that interfere with a wide range of innate immune defences. The superantigenic properties of Staphylococcal enterotoxin-like X (SElX have recently been established. We now reveal that SElX also possesses functional characteristics of the SSLs. A region of SElX displays high homology to the sialyl-lactosamine (sLacNac-specific binding site present in a sub-family of SSLs. By analysing the interaction of SElX with sLacNac-containing glycans we show that SElX has an equivalent specificity and host cell binding range to the SSLs. Mutation of key amino acids in this conserved region affects the ability of SElX to bind to cells of myeloid origin and significantly reduces its ability to protect S. aureus from destruction in a whole blood killing (WBK assay. Like the SSLs, SElX is up-regulated early during infection and is under the control of the S. aureus exotoxin expression (Sae two component gene regulatory system. Additionally, the structure of SElX in complex with the sLacNac-containing tetrasaccharide sialyl Lewis X (sLeX reveals that SElX is a unique single-domain SAg. In summary, SElX is an 'SSL-like' SAg.

  3. Uniquely identifying cell orientation and sarcomere length in the intact rodent heart with oblique plane remote focussing microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, A. D.; Burton, R. A. B.; Bub, G.; Wilson, T.

    2015-07-01

    In cardiac imaging, the spacing between sub-cellular sarcomere structures is of great importance to physiologists in understanding muscle design and performance. Making accurate measurements of the sarcomere length (SL) presents a significant imaging challenge owing to the size of the SL (~2μm) and its naturally low variability (pathological models of chronic hypertension. As well as improving measurement precision, the distribution of α across the field of view provides additional structural information which can be related to disease morphology. To validate this new imaging protocol, the value of α calculated from the oblique planes provided the input to a rigid model cell which was used to predict the appearance of the cell in the conventional focal plane. The comparison of the model to the image data provided a confidence metric for our measurements. Finally, by considering the optical transfer function, the range of cell orientations for which the method is valid could be calculated.

  4. Unique and Common Features of Innate-Like Human Vδ2+ γδT Cells and Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells

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    Nicholas M. Provine

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells are innate-like T cells abundant in humans that can be activated in a TCR-independent manner by inflammatory and antiviral cytokines. In humans, the capacity for TCR-independent activation is functionally linked to a transcriptional program that can be identified by the expression of the C-type lectin receptor, CD161. In addition to MAIT cells, it has been demonstrated that a subset of γδT cells expresses CD161 and can be activated by TCR-independent cytokine stimulation. In this study, we sought to clarify the nature of cytokine-responsive human γδT cells. We could link CD161 expression on Vδ2+ versus Vδ1+ γδT cells to the observation that Vδ2+ γδT cells, but not Vδ1+ γδT cells, robustly produced IFN-γ upon stimulation with a variety of cytokine combinations. Interestingly, both CD161+ and CD161− Vδ2+ γδT cells responded to these stimuli, with increased functionality within the CD161+ subset. This innate-like responsiveness corresponded to high expression of PLZF and IL-18Rα, analogous to MAIT cells. Vδ2+ γδT cells in human duodenum and liver maintained a CD161+ IL-18Rα+ phenotype and produced IFN-γ in response to IL-12 and IL-18 stimulation. In contrast to MAIT cells, we could not detect IL-17A production but observed higher steady-state expression of Granzyme B by Vδ2+ γδT cells. Finally, we investigated the frequency and functionality of γδT cells in the context of chronic hepatitis C virus infection, as MAIT cells are reduced in frequency in this disease. By contrast, Vδ2+ γδT cells were maintained in frequency and displayed unimpaired IFN-γ production in response to cytokine stimulation. In sum, human Vδ2+ γδT cells are a functionally distinct population of cytokine-responsive innate-like T cells that is abundant in blood and tissues with similarities to human MAIT cells.

  5. Short Term Culture of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Commercial Osteoconductive Carriers Provides Unique Insights into Biocompatibility

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    Matthew B. Murphy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For spinal fusions and the treatment of non-union fractures, biological substrates, scaffolds, or carriers often are applied as a graft to support regeneration of bone. The selection of an appropriate material critically influences cellular function and, ultimately, patient outcomes. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are regarded as a critical component of bone healing. However, the interactions of BMSCs and commercial bone matrices are poorly reported. BMSCs were cultured with several commercially available bone substrates (allograft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM, collagen, and various forms of calcium phosphates for 48 h to understand their response to graft materials during surgical preparation and the first days following implantation (cell retention, gene expression, pH. At 30 and 60 min, bone chips and inorganic substrates supported significantly more cell retention than other materials, while collagen-containing materials became soluble and lost their structure. At 48 h, cells bound to β-tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite (βTCP-HA and porous hydroxyapatite (HA granules exhibited osteogenic gene expression statistically similar to bone chips. Through 24 h, the DBM strip and βTCP-collagen became mildly acidic (pH 7.1–7.3, while the DBM poloxamer-putties demonstrated acidity (pH 10. The dissolution of DBM and collagen led to a loss of cells, while excessive pH changes potentially diminish cell viability and metabolism. Extracts from DBM-poloxamers induced osteogenic gene expression at 48 h. This study highlights the role that biochemical and structural properties of biomaterials play in cellular function, potentially enhancing or diminishing the efficacy of the overall therapy.

  6. A unique combination of anatomy and physiology in cells of the rat paralaminar thalamic nuclei adjacent to the medial geniculate body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip H.; Bartlett, Edward L.; Kowalkowski, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The medial geniculate body (MGB) has three major subdivisions - ventral (MGV), dorsal (MGD) and medial (MGM). MGM is linked with paralaminar nuclei that are situated medial and ventral to MGV/MGD. Paralaminar nuclei have unique inputs and outputs when compared with MGV and MGD and have been linked to circuitry underlying some important functional roles. We recorded intracellularly from cells in the paralaminar nuclei in vitro. We found that they possess an unusual combination of anatomical and physiological features when compared to those reported for “standard” thalamic neurons seen in the MGV/MGD and elsewhere in the thalamus. Compared to MGV/MGD neurons, anatomically, 1) paralaminar cell dendrites can be long, branch sparingly and encompass a much larger area. 2) their dendrites may be smooth but can have well defined spines and 3) their axons can have collaterals that branch locally within the same or nearby paralaminar nuclei. When compared to MGV/MGD neurons physiologically 1) their spikes are larger in amplitude and can be shorter in duration and 2) can have dual afterhyperpolarizations with fast and slow components and 3) they can have a reduction or complete absence of the low threshold, voltage-sensitive calcium conductance that reduces or eliminates the voltage-dependent burst response. We also recorded from cells in the parafascicular nucleus, a nucleus of the posterior intralaminar nuclear group, because they have unusual anatomical features that are similar to some of our paralaminar cells. Like the labeled paralaminar cells, parafascicular cells had physiological features distinguishing them from typical thalamic neurons. PMID:16566009

  7. Low dose irradiation of thyroid cells reveals a unique transcriptomic and epigenetic signature in RET/PTC-positive cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-El-Ardat, Khalil, E-mail: kabouela@sckcen.be [Radiobiology Unit, Molecular and Cellular Biology, GKD Building, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Universiteit Gent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Monsieurs, Pieter [Radiobiology Unit, Molecular and Cellular Biology, GKD Building, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Anastasov, Natasa; Atkinson, Mike [Department of Radiation Sciences, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Derradji, Hanane [Radiobiology Unit, Molecular and Cellular Biology, GKD Building, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Meyer, Tim [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Universiteit Gent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Universiteit Gent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Bekaert, Sofie [Clinical Research Center, Faculty for Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiteit Gent, 185 De Pintelaan, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Criekinge, Wim [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Universiteit Gent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); and others

    2012-03-01

    The high doses of radiation received in the wake of the Chernobyl incident and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been linked to the increased appearance of thyroid cancer in the children living in the vicinity of the site. However, the data gathered on the effect of low doses of radiation on the thyroid remain limited. We have examined the genome wide transcriptional response of a culture of TPC-1 human cell line of papillary thyroid carcinoma origin with a RET/PTC1 translocation to various doses (0.0625, 0.5, and 4 Gy) of X-rays and compared it to response of thyroids with a RET/PTC3 translocation and against wild-type mouse thyroids irradiated with the same doses using Affymetrix microarrays. We have found considerable overlap at a high dose of 4 Gy in both RET/PTC-positive systems but no common genes at 62.5 mGy. In addition, the response of RET/PTC-positive system at all doses was distinct from the response of wild-type thyroids with both systems signaling down different pathways. Analysis of the response of microRNAs in TPC-1 cells revealed a radiation-responsive signature of microRNAs in addition to dose-responsive microRNAs. Our results point to the fact that a low dose of X-rays seems to have a significant proliferative effect on normal thyroids. This observation should be studied further as opposed to its effect on RET/PTC-positive thyroids which was subtle, anti-proliferative and system-dependent.

  8. Novel immunomodulatory effects of adiponectin on dendritic cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Julia Yuen Shan; Li, Daxu; Ho, Derek; Peng, Jiao; Xu, Aimin; Lamb, Jonathan; Chen, Yan; Tam, Paul Kwong Hang

    2011-05-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocytokine with anti-inflammatory properties. Although it has been reported that ADN can inhibit the immunostimulatory function of monocytes and macrophages, little is known of its effect on dendritic cells (DC). Recent data suggest that ADN can regulate immune responses. DCs are uniquely specialised antigen presenting cells that play a central role in the initiation of immunity and tolerance. In this study, we have investigated the immuno- modulatory effects of ADN on DC functions. We found that ADN has only moderate effect on the differentiation of murine bone marrow (BM) derived DCs but altered the phenotype of DCs. The expression of major histocompatibilty complex class II (MHCII), CD80 and CD86 on ADN conditioned DCs (ADN-DCs) was lower than that on untreated cells. The production of IL-12p40 was also suppressed in ADN-DCs. Interestingly, ADN treated DCs showed an increase in the expression of the inhibitory molecule, programmed death-1 ligand (PDL-1) compared to untreated cells. In vitro co-culture of ADN-DCs with allogeneic T cells led to a decrease in T cell proliferation and reduction of IL-2 production. Concomitant with that, a higher percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) was detected in co-cultures of T cells and ADN-DCs. Blocking PD-1/PDL-1 pathway could partially restore T cell function. These findings suggest that the immunomodulatory effect of ADN on immune responses could be at least partially be mediated by its ability to alter DC function. The PD-1/PDL-1 pathway and the enhancement of Treg expansion are implicated in the immunomodulatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of Polyamines in Immune Cell Functions

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    Rebecca S. Hesterberg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is remarkably responsive to a myriad of invading microorganisms and provides continuous surveillance against tissue damage and developing tumor cells. To achieve these diverse functions, multiple soluble and cellular components must react in an orchestrated cascade of events to control the specificity, magnitude and persistence of the immune response. Numerous catabolic and anabolic processes are involved in this process, and prominent roles for l-arginine and l-glutamine catabolism have been described, as these amino acids serve as precursors of nitric oxide, creatine, agmatine, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, nucleotides and other amino acids, as well as for ornithine, which is used to synthesize putrescine and the polyamines spermidine and spermine. Polyamines have several purported roles and high levels of polyamines are manifest in tumor cells as well in autoreactive B- and T-cells in autoimmune diseases. In the tumor microenvironment, l-arginine catabolism by both tumor cells and suppressive myeloid cells is known to dampen cytotoxic T-cell functions suggesting there might be links between polyamines and T-cell suppression. Here, we review studies suggesting roles of polyamines in normal immune cell function and highlight their connections to autoimmunity and anti-tumor immune cell function.

  10. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation into Functional Epicardial Progenitor Cells

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    Juan Antonio Guadix

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 promoted expression of the mesodermal marker PDGFRα, upregulated characteristic (proepicardial progenitor cell genes, and downregulated transcription of myocardial genes. We confirmed the (proepicardial-like properties of these cells using in vitro co-culture assays and in ovo grafting of hPSC-epicardial cells into chick embryos. Our data show that RA + BMP4-treated hPSCs differentiate into (proepicardial-like cells displaying functional properties (adhesion and spreading over the myocardium of their in vivo counterpart. The results extend evidence that hPSCs are an excellent model to study (proepicardial differentiation into cardiovascular cells in human development and evaluate their potential for cardiac regeneration. : The authors have shown that hPSCs can be instructed in vitro to differentiate into a specific cardiac embryonic progenitor cell population called the proepicardium. Proepicardial cells are required for normal formation of the heart during development and might contribute to the development of cell-based therapies for heart repair. Keywords: human pluripotent stem cells, proepicardium, progenitor cells, cardiovascular, differentiation

  11. Unique and Overlapping Functions of Formins Frl and DAAM During Ommatidial Rotation and Neuronal Development in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Dollar, Gretchen; Gombos, Rita; Barnett, Austen A.; Sanchez Hernandez, David; Maung, Saw M. T.; Mih?ly, Jozsef; Jenny, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The noncanonical Frizzled/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway regulates establishment of polarity within the plane of an epithelium to generate diversity of cell fates, asymmetric, but highly aligned structures, or to orchestrate the directional migration of cells during convergent extension during vertebrate gastrulation. In Drosophila, PCP signaling is essential to orient actin wing hairs and to align ommatidia in the eye, in part by coordinating the movement of groups of photoreceptor cells...

  12. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanwen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bundles. The hair-cell-like cells exhibited rapid permeation of FM1-43FX. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure the membrane currents of cells differentiated for 7 days on chicken utricle stromal cells and analyze the biophysical properties of the hair-cell-like cells by recording membrane properties of cells. The results suggested that the hair-cell-like cells derived from inner ear multipotent cells were functional following differentiation in an enabling environment.

  13. A unique heterologous fibrin sealant (HFS) as a candidate biological scaffold for mesenchymal stem cells in osteoporotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Patrícia Rodrigues; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda Cruz; Justulin, Luis Antônio; Kaneno, Ramon; de Assis Golim, Marjorie; Dos Santos, Daniela Carvalho; Creste, Camila Fernanda Zorzella; Oba, Eunice; Maia, Leandro; Barraviera, Benedito; Ferreira, Rui Seabra

    2017-09-29

    The injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) directly into the bone of osteoporotic (OP) patients for rapid recovery has been studied worldwide. Scaffolds associated with MSCs are used to maintain and avoid cell loss after application. A unique heterologous fibrin sealant (HFS) derived from snake venom was evaluated for the cytotoxicity of its main components and as a three-dimensional biological scaffold for MSCs to repair a critical femur defect in osteoporotic rats. The cytotoxicity of HFS was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay and transmission electron microscopy. The cells were cultured, characterized by flow cytometry and differentiated into the osteogenic lineage. Two-month-old rats underwent ovariectomy to induce OP. After 3 months, a 5 mm critical bone defect was made in the distal end of the rat femurs and filled with HFS; HFS + MSCs; and HFS + MSCs D (differentiated into the osteogenic lineage) to evaluate the effects. An injury control group (injury and no treatment) and blank control group (no injury and no treatment) were also included. The animals were observed at days 14 and 28 by microtomographic (micro-CT) analyses, histologic and biochemical analysis, as well as scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that one of the compounds of HFS, the thrombin-like enzyme extracted from snake venom, had no cytotoxic effects on the MSCs. OP was successfully induced, as demonstrated by the significant differences in the levels of 17β-estradiol, Micro-CT analyses and alkaline phosphatase between the ovariectomized (OVX) and non-ovariectomized (NOVX) groups. The histological data revealed that at 14 days after surgery in both the OVX and NOVX animals, the HFS + CTMs and HFS + CTMsD showed a higher formation of bone cells at the site in relation to the control group (without treatment). Collagen formation was evidenced through bone neoformation in all treated and control groups

  14. Unique N-Glycan Moieties of the 66-kDa Cell Wall Glycoprotein from the Red Microalga Porphyridium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Arad, Shoshana (Malis); Harvey, David J.; Parsons, Thomas B.; Fairbanks, Antony; Tekoah, Yoram

    2011-01-01

    We report here the structural determination of the N-linked glycans in the 66-kDa glycoprotein, part of the unique sulfated complex cell wall polysaccharide of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. Structures were elucidated by a combination of normal phase/reverse phase HPLC, positive ion MALDI-TOF MS, negative ion electrospray ionization, and MS/MS. The sugar moieties of the glycoprotein consisted of at least four fractions of N-linked glycans, each composed of the same four monosaccharides, GlcNAc, Man, 6-O-MeMan, and Xyl, with compositions Man8–9Xyl1–2Me3GlcNAc2. The present study is the first report of N-glycans with the terminal Xyl attached to the 6-mannose branch of the 6-antenna and to the 3-oxygen of the penultimate (core) GlcNAc. Another novel finding was that all four glycans contain three O-methylmannose residues in positions that have never been reported before. Although it is known that some lower organisms are able to methylate terminal monosaccharides in glycans, the present study on Porphyridium sp. is the first describing an organism that is able to methylate non-terminal mannose residues. This study will thus contribute to understanding of N-glycosylation in algae and might shed light on the evolutionary development from prokaryotes to multicellular organisms. It also may contribute to our understanding of the red algae polysaccharide formation. The additional importance of this research lies in its potential for biotechnological applications, especially in evaluating the use of microalgae as cell factories for the production of therapeutic proteins. PMID:21515680

  15. Hierarchical nanostructured hollow spherical carbon with mesoporous shell as a unique cathode catalyst support in proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Baizeng; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Minsik; Kim, Minwoo; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2009-03-07

    Hierarchical nanostructured spherical carbon with hollow macroporous core in combination with mesoporous shell has been explored to support Pt cathode catalyst with high metal loading in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The hollow core-mesoporous shell carbon (HCMSC) has unique structural characteristics such as large specific surface area and mesoporous volume, ensuring uniform dispersion of the supported high loading (60 wt%) Pt nanoparticles with small particle size, and well-developed three-dimensionally interconnected hierarchical porosity network, facilitating fast mass transport. The HCMSC-supported Pt(60 wt%) cathode catalyst has demonstrated markedly enhanced catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and greatly improved PEMFC polarization performance compared with carbon black Vulcan XC-72 (VC)-supported ones. Furthermore, the HCMSC-supported Pt(40 wt%) or Pt(60 wt%) outperforms the HCMSC-supported Pt(20 wt%) even at a low catalyst loading of 0.2 mg Pt cm(-2) in the cathode, which is completely different from the VC-supported Pt catalysts. The capability of supporting high loading Pt is supposed to accelerate the commercialization of PEMFC due to the anticipated significant reduction in the amount of catalyst support required, diffusion layer thickness and fabricating cost of the supported Pt catalyst electrode.

  16. Generation of functional podocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osele Ciampi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Generating human podocytes in vitro could offer a unique opportunity to study human diseases. Here, we describe a simple and efficient protocol for obtaining functional podocytes in vitro from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Cells were exposed to a three-step protocol, which induced their differentiation into intermediate mesoderm, then into nephron progenitors and, finally, into mature podocytes. After differentiation, cells expressed the main podocyte markers, such as synaptopodin, WT1, α-Actinin-4, P-cadherin and nephrin at the protein and mRNA level, and showed the low proliferation rate typical of mature podocytes. Exposure to Angiotensin II significantly decreased the expression of podocyte genes and cells underwent cytoskeleton rearrangement. Cells were able to internalize albumin and self-assembled into chimeric 3D structures in combination with dissociated embryonic mouse kidney cells. Overall, these findings demonstrate the establishment of a robust protocol that, mimicking developmental stages, makes it possible to derive functional podocytes in vitro.

  17. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kosan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function.

  18. Functional genomics unique to week 20 post wounding in the deep cone/fat dome of the Duroc/Yorkshire porcine model of fibroproliferative scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engrav, Loren H; Tuggle, Christopher K; Kerr, Kathleen F; Zhu, Kathy Q; Numhom, Surawej; Couture, Oliver P; Beyer, Richard P; Hocking, Anne M; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Ramos, Maria Luiza C; Klein, Matthew B; Gibran, Nicole S

    2011-04-20

    Hypertrophic scar was first described over 100 years ago; PubMed has more than 1,000 references on the topic. Nevertheless prevention and treatment remains poor, because 1) there has been no validated animal model; 2) human scar tissue, which is impossible to obtain in a controlled manner, has been the only source for study; 3) tissues typically have been homogenized, mixing cell populations; and 4) gene-by-gene studies are incomplete. We have assembled a system that overcomes these barriers and permits the study of genome-wide gene expression in microanatomical locations, in shallow and deep partial-thickness wounds, and pigmented and non-pigmented skin, using the Duroc(pigmented fibroproliferative)/Yorkshire(non-pigmented non-fibroproliferative) porcine model. We used this system to obtain the differential transcriptome at 1, 2, 3, 12 and 20 weeks post wounding. It is not clear when fibroproliferation begins, but it is fully developed in humans and the Duroc breed at 20 weeks. Therefore we obtained the derivative functional genomics unique to 20 weeks post wounding. We also obtained long-term, forty-six week follow-up with the model. 1) The scars are still thick at forty-six weeks post wounding further validating the model. 2) The differential transcriptome provides new insights into the fibroproliferative process as several genes thought fundamental to fibroproliferation are absent and others differentially expressed are newly implicated. 3) The findings in the derivative functional genomics support old concepts, which further validates the model, and suggests new avenues for reductionist exploration. In the future, these findings will be searched for directed networks likely involved in cutaneous fibroproliferation. These clues may lead to a better understanding of the systems biology of cutaneous fibroproliferation, and ultimately prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scarring.

  19. Functional genomics unique to week 20 post wounding in the deep cone/fat dome of the Duroc/Yorkshire porcine model of fibroproliferative scarring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren H Engrav

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic scar was first described over 100 years ago; PubMed has more than 1,000 references on the topic. Nevertheless prevention and treatment remains poor, because 1 there has been no validated animal model; 2 human scar tissue, which is impossible to obtain in a controlled manner, has been the only source for study; 3 tissues typically have been homogenized, mixing cell populations; and 4 gene-by-gene studies are incomplete. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have assembled a system that overcomes these barriers and permits the study of genome-wide gene expression in microanatomical locations, in shallow and deep partial-thickness wounds, and pigmented and non-pigmented skin, using the Duroc(pigmented fibroproliferative/Yorkshire(non-pigmented non-fibroproliferative porcine model. We used this system to obtain the differential transcriptome at 1, 2, 3, 12 and 20 weeks post wounding. It is not clear when fibroproliferation begins, but it is fully developed in humans and the Duroc breed at 20 weeks. Therefore we obtained the derivative functional genomics unique to 20 weeks post wounding. We also obtained long-term, forty-six week follow-up with the model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: 1 The scars are still thick at forty-six weeks post wounding further validating the model. 2 The differential transcriptome provides new insights into the fibroproliferative process as several genes thought fundamental to fibroproliferation are absent and others differentially expressed are newly implicated. 3 The findings in the derivative functional genomics support old concepts, which further validates the model, and suggests new avenues for reductionist exploration. In the future, these findings will be searched for directed networks likely involved in cutaneous fibroproliferation. These clues may lead to a better understanding of the systems biology of cutaneous fibroproliferation, and ultimately prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scarring.

  20. Functional dynamics of cell surface membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Noritaka; Osawa, Masanori; Takeuchi, Koh; Imai, Shunsuke; Stampoulis, Pavlos; Kofuku, Yutaka; Ueda, Takumi; Shimada, Ichio

    2014-04-01

    Cell surface receptors are integral membrane proteins that receive external stimuli, and transmit signals across plasma membranes. In the conventional view of receptor activation, ligand binding to the extracellular side of the receptor induces conformational changes, which convert the structure of the receptor into an active conformation. However, recent NMR studies of cell surface membrane proteins have revealed that their structures are more dynamic than previously envisioned, and they fluctuate between multiple conformations in an equilibrium on various timescales. In addition, NMR analyses, along with biochemical and cell biological experiments indicated that such dynamical properties are critical for the proper functions of the receptors. In this review, we will describe several NMR studies that revealed direct linkage between the structural dynamics and the functions of the cell surface membrane proteins, such as G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), ion channels, membrane transporters, and cell adhesion molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Distinct accessory cell requirements define two types of rat T cell hybridomas specific for unique determinants in the encephalitogenic 68-86 region of myelin basic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannie, M.D.; Paterson, P.Y.; Thomas, D.W.; Nairn, R.

    1990-01-01

    Six clonotypically unique T cell hybridomas from Lewis rats were used to study accessory cell activities required for class II MHC restricted T cell responses to the 68-86 encephalitogenic sequence of myelin basic protein (MBP). T cell hybrids which were cultured with GP68-86 68-86 sequence of guinea pig MBP (GPMBP) and naive splenocytes (SPL) were induced to produce IL-2 as measured by the CTLL indicator cell line. The hybrids were categorized into two subsets (designated THYB-1 and THYB-2), because two distinct subset-specific pathways of communication between accessory cells and T cells were involved in GPMBP-induced IL-2 production. These pathways were distinguished by the following six observations. First, when the duration of a pulse of SPL with GPMBP was lengthened from 1 to 4 h, these SPL lost their ability to induce IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids yet nevertheless retained full stimulatory activity for THYB-1 hybrids. Second, paraformaldehyde fixation of GPMBP-pulsed SPL abrogated an activity necessary for Ag-induced IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids. These fixed SPL were nevertheless able to stimulate THYB-1 hybrids, albeit to a lesser extent than viable unfixed SPL. Third, the addition of either cycloheximide, cytochalasin B, or 2-deoxyglucose to an Ag pulse of SPL with GPMBP dramatically inhibited the subsequent responses of THYB-2 hybrids yet had little or no effect upon the reactivity of THYB-1 hybrids. Fourth, thymocytes lacked necessary activities for GPMBP evoked IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids yet strongly promoted THYB-1 hybrid responses. Fifth, exposure of SPL to as little as 500 rad of gamma-irradiation markedly attenuated THYB-2 hybrid response to GPMBP but did not affect THYB-1 responses. Sixth, anti-GPMBP responses by THYB-2 hybrids were observed only in the presence of both radioresistant adherent SPL and a distinct population of radiosensitive nonadherent SPL

  2. Hybrid cell adhesive material for instant dielectrophoretic cell trapping and long-term cell function assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Darwin R; Hong, Jennifer S; Elliott, John T; Gaitan, Michael

    2011-08-16

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) for cell manipulation has focused, for the most part, on approaches for separation/enrichment of cells of interest. Advancements in cell positioning and immobilization onto substrates for cell culture, either as single cells or as cell aggregates, has benefited from the intensified research efforts in DEP (electrokinetic) manipulation. However, there has yet to be a DEP approach that provides the conditions for cell manipulation while promoting cell function processes such as cell differentiation. Here we present the first demonstration of a system that combines DEP with a hybrid cell adhesive material (hCAM) to allow for cell entrapment and cell function, as demonstrated by cell differentiation into neuronlike cells (NLCs). The hCAM, comprised of polyelectrolytes and fibronectin, was engineered to function as an instantaneous cell adhesive surface after DEP manipulation and to support long-term cell function (cell proliferation, induction, and differentiation). Pluripotent P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells flowing within a microchannel were attracted to the DEP electrode surface and remained adhered onto the hCAM coating under a fluid flow field after the DEP forces were removed. Cells remained viable after DEP manipulation for up to 8 d, during which time the P19 cells were induced to differentiate into NLCs. This approach could have further applications in areas such as cell-cell communication, three-dimensional cell aggregates to create cell microenvironments, and cell cocultures.

  3. Functional duality of the cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latgé, Jean-Paul; Beauvais, Anne

    2014-08-01

    The polysaccharide cell wall is the extracellular armour of the fungal cell. Although essential in the protection of the fungal cell against aggressive external stresses, the biosynthesis of the polysaccharide core is poorly understood. For a long time it was considered that this cell wall skeleton was a fixed structure whose role was only to be sensed as non-self by the host and consequently trigger the defence response. It is now known that the cell wall polysaccharide composition and localization continuously change to adapt to their environment and that these modifications help the fungus to escape from the immune system. Moreover, cell wall polysaccharides could function as true virulence factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The crystal structure of Haloferax volcanii proliferating cell nuclear antigen reveals unique surface charge characteristics due to halophilic adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morroll Shaun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high intracellular salt concentration required to maintain a halophilic lifestyle poses challenges to haloarchaeal proteins that must stay soluble, stable and functional in this extreme environment. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a fundamental protein involved in maintaining genome integrity, with roles in both DNA replication and repair. To investigate the halophilic adaptation of such a key protein we have crystallised and solved the structure of Haloferax volcanii PCNA (HvPCNA to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Results The overall architecture of HvPCNA is very similar to other known PCNAs, which are highly structurally conserved. Three commonly observed adaptations in halophilic proteins are higher surface acidity, bound ions and increased numbers of intermolecular ion pairs (in oligomeric proteins. HvPCNA possesses the former two adaptations but not the latter, despite functioning as a homotrimer. Strikingly, the positive surface charge considered key to PCNA's role as a sliding clamp is dramatically reduced in the halophilic protein. Instead, bound cations within the solvation shell of HvPCNA may permit sliding along negatively charged DNA by reducing electrostatic repulsion effects. Conclusion The extent to which individual proteins adapt to halophilic conditions varies, presumably due to their diverse characteristics and roles within the cell. The number of ion pairs observed in the HvPCNA monomer-monomer interface was unexpectedly low. This may reflect the fact that the trimer is intrinsically stable over a wide range of salt concentrations and therefore additional modifications for trimer maintenance in high salt conditions are not required. Halophilic proteins frequently bind anions and cations and in HvPCNA cation binding may compensate for the remarkable reduction in positive charge in the pore region, to facilitate functional interactions with DNA. In this way, HvPCNA may harness its environment as

  5. The crystal structure of Haloferax volcanii proliferating cell nuclear antigen reveals unique surface charge characteristics due to halophilic adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jody A; Christofi, Panayiotis; Morroll, Shaun; Bunting, Karen A

    2009-01-01

    Background The high intracellular salt concentration required to maintain a halophilic lifestyle poses challenges to haloarchaeal proteins that must stay soluble, stable and functional in this extreme environment. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a fundamental protein involved in maintaining genome integrity, with roles in both DNA replication and repair. To investigate the halophilic adaptation of such a key protein we have crystallised and solved the structure of Haloferax volcanii PCNA (HvPCNA) to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Results The overall architecture of HvPCNA is very similar to other known PCNAs, which are highly structurally conserved. Three commonly observed adaptations in halophilic proteins are higher surface acidity, bound ions and increased numbers of intermolecular ion pairs (in oligomeric proteins). HvPCNA possesses the former two adaptations but not the latter, despite functioning as a homotrimer. Strikingly, the positive surface charge considered key to PCNA's role as a sliding clamp is dramatically reduced in the halophilic protein. Instead, bound cations within the solvation shell of HvPCNA may permit sliding along negatively charged DNA by reducing electrostatic repulsion effects. Conclusion The extent to which individual proteins adapt to halophilic conditions varies, presumably due to their diverse characteristics and roles within the cell. The number of ion pairs observed in the HvPCNA monomer-monomer interface was unexpectedly low. This may reflect the fact that the trimer is intrinsically stable over a wide range of salt concentrations and therefore additional modifications for trimer maintenance in high salt conditions are not required. Halophilic proteins frequently bind anions and cations and in HvPCNA cation binding may compensate for the remarkable reduction in positive charge in the pore region, to facilitate functional interactions with DNA. In this way, HvPCNA may harness its environment as opposed to simply surviving in

  6. Unique Reversible Crystal-to-Crystal Phase Transition – Structural and Functional Properties of Fused Ladder Thienoarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Abe, Yuichiro

    2017-08-15

    Donor-acceptor type molecules based on fused ladder thienoarenes, indacenodithiophene (IDT) and dithienocyclopenta-thienothiophene (DTCTT), coupled with benzothiadiazole, are prepared and their solid-state structures are investigated. They display a rich variety of solid phases ranging from amorphous glass states to crystalline states, upon changes in the central aromatic core and side group structures. Most notably, the DTCTT-based derivatives showed reversible crystal-to-crystal phase transitions in heating and cooling cycles. Unlike what has been seen in π−conjugated molecules variable temperature XRD revealed that structural change occurs continuously during the transition. A columnar self-assembled structure with slip-stacked π−π interaction is proposed to be involved in the solid-state. This research provides the evidence of unique structural behavior of the DTCTT-based molecules through the detailed structural analysis. This unique structural transition paves the way for these materials to have self-healing of crystal defects, leading to improved optoelectronic properties.

  7. Unique Reversible Crystal-to-Crystal Phase Transition – Structural and Functional Properties of Fused Ladder Thienoarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Abe, Yuichiro; Savikhin, Victoria; Yin, Jun; Grimsdale, Andrew C.; Soci, Cesare; Toney, Michael F.; Lam, Yeng Ming

    2017-01-01

    Donor-acceptor type molecules based on fused ladder thienoarenes, indacenodithiophene (IDT) and dithienocyclopenta-thienothiophene (DTCTT), coupled with benzothiadiazole, are prepared and their solid-state structures are investigated. They display a rich variety of solid phases ranging from amorphous glass states to crystalline states, upon changes in the central aromatic core and side group structures. Most notably, the DTCTT-based derivatives showed reversible crystal-to-crystal phase transitions in heating and cooling cycles. Unlike what has been seen in π−conjugated molecules variable temperature XRD revealed that structural change occurs continuously during the transition. A columnar self-assembled structure with slip-stacked π−π interaction is proposed to be involved in the solid-state. This research provides the evidence of unique structural behavior of the DTCTT-based molecules through the detailed structural analysis. This unique structural transition paves the way for these materials to have self-healing of crystal defects, leading to improved optoelectronic properties.

  8. Cell functional enviromics: Unravelling the function of environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Paula M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While functional genomics, focused on gene functions and gene-gene interactions, has become a very active field of research in molecular biology, equivalent methodologies embracing the environment and gene-environment interactions are relatively less developed. Understanding the function of environmental factors is, however, of paramount importance given the complex, interactive nature of environmental and genetic factors across multiple time scales. Results Here, we propose a systems biology framework, where the function of environmental factors is set at its core. We set forth a "reverse" functional analysis approach, whereby cellular functions are reconstructed from the analysis of dynamic envirome data. Our results show these data sets can be mapped to less than 20 core cellular functions in a typical mammalian cell culture, while explaining over 90% of flux data variance. A functional enviromics map can be created, which provides a template for manipulating the environmental factors to induce a desired phenotypic trait. Conclusion Our results support the feasibility of cellular function reconstruction guided by the analysis and manipulation of dynamic envirome data.

  9. Lipids in the cell: organisation regulates function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana L; Preta, Giulio

    2018-06-01

    Lipids are fundamental building blocks of all cells and play important roles in the pathogenesis of different diseases, including inflammation, autoimmune disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The lipid composition of different organelles can vary substantially from cell to cell, but increasing evidence demonstrates that lipids become organised specifically in each compartment, and this organisation is essential for regulating cell function. For example, lipid microdomains in the plasma membrane, known as lipid rafts, are platforms for concentrating protein receptors and can influence intra-cellular signalling. Lipid organisation is tightly regulated and can be observed across different model organisms, including bacteria, yeast, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting that lipid organisation is evolutionarily conserved. In this review, we summarise the importance and function of specific lipid domains in main cellular organelles and discuss recent advances that investigate how these specific and highly regulated structures contribute to diverse biological processes.

  10. Visuomotor Integration and Executive Functioning Are Uniquely Linked to Chinese Word Reading and Writing in Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Lam, Chun Bun; Cheung, Ka Chun

    2018-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the associations of visuomotor integration and executive functioning with Chinese word reading and writing in kindergarten children. A total of 369 Chinese children (mean age = 57.99 months; 55% of them were girls) from Hong Kong, China, completed tasks on visuomotor integration, executive functioning, and…

  11. Oxygen Concentration Inside a Functioning Photosynthetic Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kihara, Shigeharu; Hartzler, Daniel A.; Savikhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    The excess oxygen concentration in the photosynthetic membranes of functioning oxygenic photosynthetic cells was estimated using classical diffusion theory combined with experimental data on oxygen production rates of cyanobacterial cells. The excess oxygen concentration within the plesiomorphic cyanobacterium Gloeobactor violaceus is only 0.025 μM, or four orders of magnitude lower than the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water. Such a low concentration suggests that the first oxygenic...

  12. Functional imaging of microdomains in cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, James; Jamal, Ghadir; Tilley, Mark; Davis, Ben; McKenzie, Graeme; Vere, Kelly; Somekh, Michael G; O'Shea, Paul; Harris, Helen

    2008-10-01

    The presence of microdomains or rafts within cell membranes is a topic of intense study and debate. The role of these structures in cell physiology, however, is also not yet fully understood with many outstanding problems. This problem is partly based on the small size of raft structures that presents significant problems to their in vivo study, i.e., within live cell membranes. But the structure and dynamics as well as the factors that control the assembly and disassembly of rafts are also of major interest. In this review we outline some of the problems that the study of rafts in cell membranes present as well as describing some views of what are considered the generalised functions of membrane rafts. We point to the possibility that there may be several different 'types' of membrane raft in cell membranes and consider the factors that affect raft assembly and disassembly, particularly, as some researchers suggest that the lifetimes of rafts in cell membranes may be sub-second. We attempt to review some of the methods that offer the ability to interrogate rafts directly as well as describing factors that appear to affect their functionality. The former include both near-field and far-field optical approaches as well as scanning probe techniques. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are outlined. Finally, we describe our own views of raft functionality and properties, particularly, concerning the membrane dipole potential, and describe briefly some of the imaging strategies we have developed for their study.

  13. Interaction of multi-functional silver nanoparticles with living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, Ilknur; Cam, Dilek; Kahraman, Mehmet; Culha, Mustafa; Baysal, Asli

    2010-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in household products and in medicine due to their antibacterial and to wound healing properties. In recent years, there is also an effort for their use in biomedical imaging and photothermal therapy. The primary reason behind the effort for their utility in biomedicine and therapy is their unique plasmonic properties and easy surface chemistry for a variety of functionalizations. In this study, AgNPs modified with glucose, lactose, oligonucleotides and combinations of these ligands are investigated for their cytotoxicity and cellular uptake in living non-cancer (L929) and cancer (A549) cells. It is found that the chemical nature of the ligand strongly influences the toxicity and cellular uptake into the model cells. While the lactose-and glucose-modified AgNPs enter the L929 cells at about the same rate, a significant increase in the rate of lactose-modified AgNPs into the A549 cells is observed. The binding of oligonucleotides along with the carbohydrate on the AgNP surfaces influences the differential uptake rate pattern into the cells. The cytotoxicity study with the modified AgNPs reveals that only naked AgNPs influence the viability of the A549 cells. The findings of this study may provide the key to developing effective applications in medicine such as cancer therapy.

  14. Fuzzy Analogues of Sets and Functions Can Be Uniquely Determined from the Corresponding Ordered Category: A Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Servin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern mathematics, many concepts and ideas are described in terms of category theory. From this viewpoint, it is desirable to analyze what can be determined if, instead of the basic category of sets, we consider a similar category of fuzzy sets. In this paper, we describe a natural fuzzy analog of the category of sets and functions, and we show that, in this category, fuzzy relations (a natural fuzzy analogue of functions can be determined in category terms—of course, modulo 1-1 mapping of the corresponding universe of discourse and 1-1 re-scaling of fuzzy degrees.

  15. N-Pyridineium-2-yl Darrow Red analogue: unique near-infrared lysosome-biomarker for the detection of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan-Dan; Liu, Wu; Sun, Ru; Fan, Chen; Xu, Yu-Jie; Ge, Jian-Feng

    2015-02-03

    The lysosome-targetable OFF-ON type pH sensor that does not emit at pH = 4.0 is adopted for the selective detection of cancer cells, and the acidity difference of lysosomes in cancer and normal cells is verified. Three pH probes based on Darrow Red derivatives were designed and prepared that were demonstrated to be lysosome-specific biomarkers with inducible emission at 580-850 nm by the comparable in cellular imaging assays using HeLa, KB, and V79 cells. Of these, a pyridineium-2-yl Darrow Red analogue with a pKa of 2.4 was found to be a lysosome tracker for cancer cells, it is a unique pH sensor for the optical identification and distinction of cancer cells from normal cells and has potential application as a fluorescent biomaker of cancer cells in in vitro assays.

  16. Unique solvability of some two-point boundary value problems for linear functional differential equations with singularities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rontó, András; Samoilenko, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2007), s. 115-136 ISSN 1512-0015 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0254 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : two-point problem * functional differential equation * singular boundary problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. Participatory role of zinc in structural and functional characterization of bioremediase: a unique thermostable microbial silica leaching protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Trinath; Sarkar, Manas; Chaudhuri, Biswadeep; Chattopadhyay, Brajadulal; Halder, Umesh Chandra

    2015-07-01

    A unique protein, bioremediase (UniProt Knowledgebase Accession No.: P86277), isolated from a hot spring bacterium BKH1 (GenBank Accession No.: FJ177512), has shown to exhibit silica leaching activity when incorporated to prepare bio-concrete material. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry analysis suggests that bioremediase is 78% homologous to bovine carbonic anhydrase II though it does not exhibit carbonic anhydrase-like activity. Bioinformatics study is performed for understanding the various physical and chemical parameters of the protein which predicts the involvement of zinc encircled by three histidine residues (His94, His96 and His119) at the active site of the protein. Isothermal titration calorimetric-based thermodynamic study on diethyl pyrocarbonate-modified protein recognizes the presence of Zn(2+) in the enzyme moiety. Exothermic to endothermic transition as observed during titration of the protein with Zn(2+) discloses that there are at least two binding sites for zinc within the protein moiety. Addition of Zn(2+) regains the activity of EDTA chelated bioremediase confirming the presence of extra binding site of Zn(2+) in the protein moiety. Revival of folding pattern of completely unfolded urea-treated protein by Zn(2+) explains the participatory role of zinc in structural stability of the protein. Restoration of the λ max in intrinsic fluorescence emission study of the urea-treated protein by Zn(2+) similarly confirms the involvement of Zn in the refolding of the protein. The utility of bioremediase for silica nanoparticles preparation is observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Comprehensive functional characterization of the glycoside hydrolase family 3 enzymes from Cellvibrio japonicus reveals unique metabolic roles in biomass saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Cassandra E; Attia, Mohamed A; Rogowski, Artur; Morland, Carl; Brumer, Harry; Gardner, Jeffrey G

    2017-12-01

    Lignocellulose degradation is central to the carbon cycle and renewable biotechnologies. The xyloglucan (XyG), β(1→3)/β(1→4) mixed-linkage glucan (MLG) and β(1→3) glucan components of lignocellulose represent significant carbohydrate energy sources for saprophytic microorganisms. The bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus has a robust capacity for plant polysaccharide degradation, due to a genome encoding a large contingent of Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZymes), many of whose specific functions remain unknown. Using a comprehensive genetic and biochemical approach, we have delineated the physiological roles of the four C. japonicus glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH3) members on diverse β-glucans. Despite high protein sequence similarity and partially overlapping activity profiles on disaccharides, these β-glucosidases are not functionally equivalent. Bgl3A has a major role in MLG and sophorose utilization, and supports β(1→3) glucan utilization, while Bgl3B underpins cellulose utilization and supports MLG utilization. Bgl3C drives β(1→3) glucan utilization. Finally, Bgl3D is the crucial β-glucosidase for XyG utilization. This study not only sheds the light on the metabolic machinery of C. japonicus, but also expands the repertoire of characterized CAZymes for future deployment in biotechnological applications. In particular, the precise functional analysis provided here serves as a reference for informed bioinformatics on the genomes of other Cellvibrio and related species. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comprehensive functional characterization of the Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 enzymes from Cellvibrio japonicus reveals unique metabolic roles in biomass saccharification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Cassandra E.; Attia, Mohamed A.; Rogowski, Artur; Morland, Carl; Brumer, Harry; Gardner, Jeffrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Here, lignocellulose degradation is central to the carbon cycle and renewable biotechnologies. The xyloglucan (XyG), β(1!3)/β(1!4) mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), and β(1!3) glucan components of lignocellulose represent significant carbohydrate energy sources for saprophytic microorganisms. The bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus has a robust capacity for plant polysaccharide degradation, due to a genome encoding a large contingent of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), many of whose specific functions remain unknown. Using a comprehensive genetic and biochemical approach we have delineated the physiological roles of the four C. japonicus Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 (GH3) members on diverse β-glucans. Despite high protein sequence similarity and partially overlapping activity profiles on disaccharides, these β-glucosidases are not functionally equivalent. Bgl3A has a major role in MLG and sophorose utilization, and supports β(1!3) glucan utilization, while Bgl3B underpins cellulose utilization and supports MLG utilization. Bgl3C drives β(1!3) glucan utilization. Finally, Bgl3D is the crucial β-glucosidase for XyG utilization. This study not only sheds the light on the metabolic machinery of C. japonicus, but also expands the repertoire of characterized CAZymes for future deployment in biotechnological applications. In particular, the precise functional analysis provided here serves as a reference for informed bioinformatics on the genomes of other Cellvibrio and related species.

  20. Identification and functional characterization of cardiac pacemaker cells in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Tessadori

    Full Text Available In the mammalian heart a conduction system of nodes and conducting cells generates and transduces the electrical signals evoking myocardial contractions. Specialized pacemaker cells initiating and controlling cardiac contraction rhythmicity are localized in an anatomically identifiable structure of myocardial origin, the sinus node. We previously showed that in mammalian embryos sinus node cells originate from cardiac progenitors expressing the transcription factors T-box transcription factor 3 (Tbx3 and Islet-1 (Isl1. Although cardiac development and function are strikingly conserved amongst animal classes, in lower vertebrates neither structural nor molecular distinguishable components of a conduction system have been identified, questioning its evolutionary origin. Here we show that zebrafish embryos lacking the LIM/homeodomain-containing transcription factor Isl1 display heart rate defects related to pacemaker dysfunction. Moreover, 3D reconstructions of gene expression patterns in the embryonic and adult zebrafish heart led us to uncover a previously unidentified, Isl1-positive and Tbx2b-positive region in the myocardium at the junction of the sinus venosus and atrium. Through their long interconnecting cellular protrusions the identified Isl1-positive cells form a ring-shaped structure. In vivo labeling of the Isl1-positive cells by transgenic technology allowed their isolation and electrophysiological characterization, revealing their unique pacemaker activity. In conclusion we demonstrate that Isl1-expressing cells, organized as a ring-shaped structure around the venous pole, hold the pacemaker function in the adult zebrafish heart. We have thereby identified an evolutionary conserved, structural and molecular distinguishable component of the cardiac conduction system in a lower vertebrate.

  1. SEVAQ: a unique multi-functional tool for assessing and improving the quality of e-courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schreurs

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available It is challenging to enhance quality of e-learning.We based the quality assessment on the EFQM and theKirkpatrick models. We built our own SEVAQ qualitymodel on which we based our multi-functional selfevaluationquestionnaire. We focused and limited ourselveson the valuable learners feedback. Our questionnaire isstructured around the 3 main criteria: the enablinglearning resources, learning processes and the learningresults. Questions are linked with their criteria andsubcriteria.The SEVAQ tool addresses the designer of the questionnaireas well as the learner, being the evaluator and so being theuser of the questionnaire. The designer selects on a flexibleway a set of relevant questions to be answered by thelearner. After finishing the questionnaire by the learner, thesystem analysis the results

  2. MicroRNAs as regulators of beta-cell function and dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmai, Mirwais; Osmai, Yama; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner

    2016-01-01

    , recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are important regulators of the islet transcriptome, controlling apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation, as well as regulating unique islet and beta-cell functions and pathways such as insulin expression, processing and secretion. Furthermore, a large...

  3. Schwann cell myelination requires Dynein function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langworthy Melissa M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction of Schwann cells with axons triggers signal transduction that drives expression of Pou3f1 and Egr2 transcription factors, which in turn promote myelination. Signal transduction appears to be mediated, at least in part, by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP because elevation of cAMP levels can stimulate myelination in the absence of axon contact. The mechanisms by which the myelinating signal is conveyed remain unclear. Results By analyzing mutations that disrupt myelination in zebrafish, we learned that Dynein cytoplasmic 1 heavy chain 1 (Dync1h1, which functions as a motor for intracellular molecular trafficking, is required for peripheral myelination. In dync1h1 mutants, Schwann cell progenitors migrated to peripheral nerves but then failed to express Pou3f1 and Egr2 or make myelin membrane. Genetic mosaic experiments revealed that robust Myelin Basic Protein expression required Dync1h1 function within both Schwann cells and axons. Finally, treatment of dync1h1 mutants with a drug to elevate cAMP levels stimulated myelin gene expression. Conclusion Dync1h1 is required for retrograde transport in axons and mutations of Dync1h1 have been implicated in axon disease. Our data now provide evidence that Dync1h1 is also required for efficient myelination of peripheral axons by Schwann cells, perhaps by facilitating signal transduction necessary for myelination.

  4. Unique Aspects of Cryptochrome in Chronobiology and Metabolism, Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction, and Regeneration: Research into Cysteine414-Alanine Mutant CRY1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Okano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptochrome proteins (CRYs, which can bind noncovalently to cofactor (chromophore flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD, occur widely among organisms. CRYs play indispensable roles in the generation of circadian rhythm in mammals. Transgenic mice (Tg mice, ubiquitously expressing mouse CRY1 having a mutation in which cysteine414 (the zinc-binding site of CRY1 being replaced with alanine, display unique phenotypes in their circadian rhythms. Moreover, male Tg mice exhibit symptoms of diabetes characterized by beta-cell dysfunction, resembling human maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY. The lowered proliferation of β-cells is a primary cause of age-dependent β-cell loss. Furthermore, unusually enlarged duct-like structures developed prominently in the Tg mice pancreases. The duct-like structures contained insulin-positive cells, suggesting neogenesis of β-cells in the Tg mice. This review, based mainly on the author’s investigation of the unique features of Tg mice, presents reported results and recent findings related to molecular processes associated with mammalian cryptochromes, especially their involvement in the regulation of metabolism. New information is described with emphasis on the aspects of islet architecture, pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, and regeneration.

  5. Oxygen concentration inside a functioning photosynthetic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Shigeharu; Hartzler, Daniel A; Savikhin, Sergei

    2014-05-06

    The excess oxygen concentration in the photosynthetic membranes of functioning oxygenic photosynthetic cells was estimated using classical diffusion theory combined with experimental data on oxygen production rates of cyanobacterial cells. The excess oxygen concentration within the plesiomorphic cyanobacterium Gloeobactor violaceus is only 0.025 μM, or four orders of magnitude lower than the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water. Such a low concentration suggests that the first oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria in solitary form could have evolved ∼2.8 billion years ago without special mechanisms to protect them against reactive oxygen species. These mechanisms instead could have been developed during the following ∼500 million years while the oxygen level in the Earth's atmosphere was slowly rising. Excess oxygen concentrations within individual cells of the apomorphic cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Synechococcus are 0.064 and 0.25 μM, respectively. These numbers suggest that intramembrane and intracellular proteins in isolated oxygenic photosynthetic cells are not subjected to excessively high oxygen levels. The situation is different for closely packed colonies of photosynthetic cells. Calculations show that the excess concentration within colonies that are ∼40 μm or larger in diameter can be comparable to the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water, suggesting that species forming colonies require protection against reactive oxygen species even in the absence of oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Unique solvability of a non-linear non-local boundary-value problem for systems of non-linear functional differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dilna, N.; Rontó, András

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2010), s. 327-338 ISSN 0139-9918 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0254 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : non-linear boundary value-problem * functional differential equation * non-local condition * unique solvability * differential inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.316, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.2478%2Fs12175-010-0015-9

  7. Pancreatic Stellate Cells Have Distinct Characteristics From Hepatic Stellate Cells and Are Not the Unique Origin of Collagen-Producing Cells in the Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Gen; Taura, Kojiro; Iwaisako, Keiko; Asagiri, Masataka; Ito, Shinji; Koyama, Yukinori; Tanabe, Kazutaka; Iguchi, Kohta; Satoh, Motohiko; Nishio, Takahiro; Okuda, Yukihiro; Ikeno, Yoshinobu; Yoshino, Kenji; Seo, Satoru; Hatano, Etsuro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2017-10-01

    The origin of collagen-producing myofibroblasts in pancreatic fibrosis is still controversial. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), which have been recognized as the pancreatic counterparts of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), are thought to play an important role in the development of pancreatic fibrosis. However, sources of myofibroblasts other than PSCs may exist because extensive studies of liver fibrosis have uncovered myofibroblasts that did not originate from HSCs. This study aimed to characterize myofibroblasts in an experimental pancreatic fibrosis model in mice. We used transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein via the collagen type I α1 promoter and induced pancreatic fibrosis with repetitive injections of cerulein. Collagen-producing cells that are negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein (ie, not derived from PSCs) exist in the pancreas. Pancreatic stellate cells had different characteristics from those of HSCs in a very small possession of vitamin A using mass spectrometry and a low expression of lecithin retinol acyltransferase. The microstructure of PSCs was entirely different from that of HSCs using flow cytometry and electron microscopy. Our study showed that characteristics of PSCs are different from those of HSCs, and myofibroblasts in the pancreas might be derived not only from PSCs but also from other fibrogenic cells.

  8. Microbial Communities and Their Predicted Metabolic Functions in Growth Laminae of a Unique Large Conical Mat from Lake Untersee, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunmin Koo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report the distribution of microbial taxa and their predicted metabolic functions observed in the top (U1, middle (U2, and inner (U3 decadal growth laminae of a unique large conical microbial mat from perennially ice-covered Lake Untersee of East Antarctica, using NextGen sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and bioinformatics tools. The results showed that the U1 lamina was dominated by cyanobacteria, specifically Phormidium sp., Leptolyngbya sp., and Pseudanabaena sp. The U2 and U3 laminae had high abundances of Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Closely related taxa within each abundant bacterial taxon found in each lamina were further differentiated at the highest taxonomic resolution using the oligotyping method. PICRUSt analysis, which determines predicted KEGG functional categories from the gene contents and abundances among microbial communities, revealed a high number of sequences belonging to carbon fixation, energy metabolism, cyanophycin, chlorophyll, and photosynthesis proteins in the U1 lamina. The functional predictions of the microbial communities in U2 and U3 represented signal transduction, membrane transport, zinc transport and amino acid-, carbohydrate-, and arsenic- metabolisms. The Nearest Sequenced Taxon Index (NSTI values processed through PICRUSt were 0.10, 0.13, and 0.11 for U1, U2, and U3 laminae, respectively. These values indicated a close correspondence with the reference microbial genome database, implying high confidence in the predicted metabolic functions of the microbial communities in each lamina. The distribution of microbial taxa observed in each lamina and their predicted metabolic functions provides additional insight into the complex microbial ecosystem at Lake Untersee, and lays the foundation for studies that will enhance our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the formation of these unique mat structures and their evolutionary significance.

  9. Unique and cross-reactive T cell epitope peptides of the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etto, Tamara; de Boer, Carmela; Prickett, Sara; Gardner, Leanne M; Voskamp, Astrid; Davies, Janet M; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Rolland, Jennifer M

    2012-01-01

    Bahia grass pollen (BaGP) is a major cause of allergic rhinitis. Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for grass pollen allergy, but is unsuitable for patients with moderate to severe asthma due to the risk of anaphylaxis. T cell-reactive but IgE nonreactive peptides provide a safer treatment option. This study aimed to identify and characterize dominant CD4(+) T cell epitope peptides of the major BaGP allergen, Pas n 1. Pas n 1-specific T cell lines generated from the peripheral blood of BaGP-allergic subjects were tested for proliferative and cytokine response to overlapping 20-mer Pas n 1 peptides. Cross-reactivity to homologous peptides from Lol p 1 and Cyn d 1 of Ryegrass and Bermuda grass pollen, respectively, was assessed using Pas n 1 peptide-specific T cell clones. MHC class II restriction of Pas n 1 peptide T cell recognition was determined by HLA blocking assays and peptide IgE reactivity tested by dot blotting. Three Pas n 1 peptides showed dominant T cell reactivity; 15 of 18 (83%) patients responded to one or more of these peptides. T cell clones specific for dominant Pas n 1 peptides showed evidence of species-specific T cell reactivity as well as cross-reactivity with other group 1 grass pollen allergens. The dominant Pas n 1 T cell epitope peptides showed HLA binding diversity and were non-IgE reactive. The immunodominant T cell-reactive Pas n 1 peptides are candidates for safe immunotherapy for individuals, including those with asthma, who are allergic to Bahia and possibly other grass pollens. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Breaking down pluripotency in the porcine embryo reveals both a premature and reticent stem cell state in the inner cell mass and unique expression profiles of the naive and primed stem cell states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hyttel, Poul

    2014-09-01

    To date, it has been difficult to establish bona fide porcine embryonic stem cells (pESC) and stable induced pluripotent stem cells. Reasons for this remain unclear, but they may depend on inappropriate culture conditions. This study reports the most insights to date on genes expressed in the pluripotent cells of the porcine embryo, namely the inner cell mass (ICM), the trophectoderm-covered epiblast (EPI), and the embryonic disc epiblast (ED). Specifically, we reveal that the early porcine ICM represents a premature state of pluripotency due to lack of translation of key pluripotent proteins, and the late ICM enters a transient, reticent pluripotent state which lacks expression of most genes associated with pluripotency. We describe a unique expression profile of the porcine EPI, reflecting the naive stem cell state, including expression of OCT4, NANOG, CRIPTO, and SSEA-1; weak expression of NrOB1 and REX1; but very limited expression of genes in classical pathways involved in regulating pluripotency. The porcine ED, reflecting the primed stem cell state, can be characterized by the expression of OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, REX1, CRIPTO, and KLF2. Further cell culture experiments using inhibitors against FGF, JAK/STAT, BMP, WNT, and NODAL pathways on cell cultures derived from day 5 and 10 embryos reveal the importance of FGF, JAK/STAT, and BMP signaling in maintaining cell proliferation of pESCs in vitro. Together, this article provides new insights into the regulation of pluripotency, revealing unique stem cell states in the different porcine stem cell populations derived from the early developing embryo.

  11. Factors Affecting Quality of Life at Different Intervals After Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer: Unique Influence of Treatment Decision Making Satisfaction, Personality and Sexual Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorson, David E; Schuette, Stephanie; Schalet, Benjamin D; Kundu, Shilajit D; Helfand, Brian T; Novakovic, Kristian; Sufrin, Nathaniel; McGuire, Michael; Brendler, Charles

    2016-11-01

    Using patient reported outcomes measures we identified the most informative set of factors associated with quality of life in a large sample of men treated for localized prostate cancer. We examined relationships with quality of life using FACIT (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy). We also hypothesized variables in a sample of men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer who represented different time points since treatment, including less than 12 months in 70, 1 to 3 years in 344, greater than 3 to 5 years in 291 and greater than 5 years in 97. Correlative measures included subscales of MAX-PC (Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer), short forms of PROMIS® and SOMS (Surgical Outcomes Measurement System), TDM-SATS (Treatment Decision-Making Satisfaction Scale) and subscales of the BFI (Big Five Inventory) of personality. Quality of life was significantly associated with hypothesized variables across different time cohorts. In regression models several factors accounted for most of the variability in quality of life scores depending on time since treatment, including 47%, 22%, 29% and 27% at less than 12 months, 1 to 3 years, greater than 3 to 5 years and greater than 5 years, respectively. Upon examining the unique contribution of these variables, treatment decision making satisfaction was the only variable to have a significant and unique contribution to quality of life across all 4 time cohorts (standardized coefficients 0.33, 0.27, 0.31 and 0.49, respectively, p personality style also had unique associations with quality of life (standardized coefficients 0.25 and -0.20, respectively). When considering the short-term and the longer term quality of life of a man after treatment for localized prostate cancer, our findings highlight the importance of treatment decision making satisfaction, erectile function and personality. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. What Happens Inside a Fuel Cell? Developing an Experimental Functional Map of Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Brett, Daniel J. L.

    2010-08-20

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due to reactant consumption, water management and the design of fluid-flow plates. It is therefore unlikely that any bulk measurement made on a fuel cell will accurately represent performance at all parts of the cell. The ability to make spatially resolved measurements in a fuel cell provides one of the most useful ways in which to monitor and optimise performance. This Minireview explores a range of in situ techniques being used to study fuel cells and describes the use of novel experimental techniques that the authors have used to develop an \\'experimental functional map\\' of fuel cell performance. These techniques include the mapping of current density, electrochemical impedance, electrolyte conductivity, contact resistance and CO poisoning distribution within working PEFCs, as well as mapping the flow of reactant in gas channels using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). For the high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), temperature mapping, reference electrode placement and the use of Raman spectroscopy are described along with methods to map the microstructural features of electrodes. The combination of these techniques, applied across a range of fuel cell operating conditions, allows a unique picture of the internal workings of fuel cells to be obtained and have been used to validate both numerical and analytical models. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: Unique properties of decidual T cells and their role in immune regulation during human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburgs, T; Claas, F H J; Scherjon, S A

    2010-03-01

    Maternal lymphocytes at the fetal-maternal interface play a key role in the immune acceptance of the allogeneic fetus. Most studies focus on decidual NK cells and their interaction with fetal trophoblasts, whereas limited data are available on the mechanisms of fetus specific immune recognition and immune regulation by decidual T cells at the fetal-maternal interface. The aim of this review is to describe the phenotypic characteristics of decidual T cell subsets present at the fetal-maternal interface, their interaction with HLA-C expressed by fetal trophoblasts and their role in immune recognition and regulation at the fetal-maternal interface during human pregnancy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Among B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, MALT lymphomas express a unique antibody repertoire with frequent rheumatoid factor reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bende, Richard J.; Aarts, Wilhelmina M.; Riedl, Robert G.; de Jong, Daphne; Pals, Steven T.; van Noesel, Carel J. M.

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the structure of antigen receptors of a comprehensive panel of mature B nonHodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHLs) by comparing, at the amino acid level, their immunoglobulin (Ig)V-H-CDR3s with CDR3 sequences present in GenBank. Follicular lymphomas, diffuse large B cell lymphomas, Burkitt's

  15. IMGT unique numbering for immunoglobulin and T cell receptor constant domains and Ig superfamily C-like domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Pommié, Christelle; Kaas, Quentin

    2005-01-01

    IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system (http://imgt.cines.fr) provides a common access to expertly annotated data on the genome, proteome, genetics and structure of immunoglobulins (IG), T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and related proteins...

  16. Origins of Protein Functions in Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, Burchard; Pohorille, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    In modern organisms proteins perform a majority of cellular functions, such as chemical catalysis, energy transduction and transport of material across cell walls. Although great strides have been made towards understanding protein evolution, a meaningful extrapolation from contemporary proteins to their earliest ancestors is virtually impossible. In an alternative approach, the origin of water-soluble proteins was probed through the synthesis and in vitro evolution of very large libraries of random amino acid sequences. In combination with computer modeling and simulations, these experiments allow us to address a number of fundamental questions about the origins of proteins. Can functionality emerge from random sequences of proteins? How did the initial repertoire of functional proteins diversify to facilitate new functions? Did this diversification proceed primarily through drawing novel functionalities from random sequences or through evolution of already existing proto-enzymes? Did protein evolution start from a pool of proteins defined by a frozen accident and other collections of proteins could start a different evolutionary pathway? Although we do not have definitive answers to these questions yet, important clues have been uncovered. In one example (Keefe and Szostak, 2001), novel ATP binding proteins were identified that appear to be unrelated in both sequence and structure to any known ATP binding proteins. One of these proteins was subsequently redesigned computationally to bind GTP through introducing several mutations that introduce targeted structural changes to the protein, improve its binding to guanine and prevent water from accessing the active center. This study facilitates further investigations of individual evolutionary steps that lead to a change of function in primordial proteins. In a second study (Seelig and Szostak, 2007), novel enzymes were generated that can join two pieces of RNA in a reaction for which no natural enzymes are known

  17. In vitro induced regulatory T cells are unique from endogenous regulatory T cells and effective at suppressing late stages of ongoing autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Long M Nguyen

    Full Text Available Strategies to boost the numbers and functions of regulatory T cells (Tregs are currently being tested as means to treat autoimmunity. While Tregs have been shown to be effective in this role, strategies to manipulate Tregs to effectively suppress later stages of ongoing diseases need to be established. In this study, we evaluated the ability of TGF-β-induced Tregs (iTregs specific for the major self-antigen in autoimmune gastritis to suppress established autoimmune gastritis in mice. When transferred into mice during later stages of disease, iTregs demethylated the Foxp3 promoter, maintained Foxp3 expression, and suppressed effector T cell proliferation. More importantly, these iTregs were effective at stopping disease progression. Untreated mice had high numbers of endogenous Tregs (enTregs but these were unable to stop disease progression. In contrast, iTregs, were found in relatively low numbers in treated mice, yet were effective at stopping disease progression, suggesting qualitative differences in suppressor functions. We identified several inhibitory receptors (LAG-3, PD-1, GARP, and TNFR2, cytokines (TGF-β1 and IL12p35, and transcription factors (IRF4 and Tbet expressed at higher levels by iTregs compared to enTregs isolated form mice with ongoing disease, which likely accounts for superior suppressor ability in this disease model. These data support efforts to use iTregs in therapies to treat establish autoimmunity, and show that iTregs are more effective than enTregs at suppressing inflammation in this disease model.

  18. Synchronous gastric and duodenal metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a unique presentation of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarangelo, Nicholas P; Kistler, C Andrew; Daitch, Zachary; Jiang, Wei; Quirk, Daniel M

    2018-01-01

    Metastatic disease to the stomach or duodenum is an infrequent diagnosis, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the least common primary malignancies that lead to gastric or duodenal metastases. We report the case of a 65-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus infection and previously diagnosed HNSCC who presented with melena. The patient had a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placed 3 months prior to his presentation. Laboratory testing was significant for normocytic anemia and a digital rectal examination was positive for melena. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed numerous cratered nodules with contact bleeding in the stomach as well as the duodenum that appeared malignant. Biopsies of the gastric and duodenal nodules were positive for p40 and CK 5/6, consistent with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. Highly active antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors does not confer a unique CD4 cell benefit. The AVANTI and INCAS Study Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-07

    To determine if triple combination therapy, particularly including HIV protease inhibitors (PI), confers an unique immunological benefit that is independent of reductions of plasma viral load (pVL). The correlation between changes from baseline in CD4 cell count and pVL was examined at all time points up to 52 weeks in three randomized clinical trials (AVANTI-2, AVANTI-3 and INCAS) that compared dual nucleoside therapy with triple combination therapy. Individual pVL and CD4 cell counts changes from baseline were entered into multivariate linear regression models for patients receiving double therapy and for those receiving triple therapy including a PI and/or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and the null hypothesis was tested. After 52 weeks of therapy, the relationship between changes from baseline CD4 cell count and pVL was independent of whether patients were assigned double or triple therapy (P = 0.23 and 0.69 for intercept and slope, respectively), or whether patients were assigned triple therapy including a PI or triple therapy including an NNRTI (P = 0.92 and 0.95, respectively). Less than 5% of patients ever had 'discordant' increases in both CD4 cell count and pVL compared with baseline, and this proportion was unrelated to the class of therapy used. 'Discordant' decreases from baseline in both parameters were observed in up to 35% of individuals. The correlation between pVL and CD4 cell count changes from baseline improved over time on therapy, regardless of the therapeutic regimen involved. The data provide no evidence for a CD4 cell count benefit of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) unique to triple therapy or PI-containing regimens.

  20. Identification of a unique hepatocellular carcinoma line, Li-7, with CD13(+) cancer stem cells hierarchy and population change upon its differentiation during culture and effects of sorafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Abei, Masato; Danjoh, Inaho; Shirota, Ryoko; Yamashita, Taro; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Nakamura, Yukio

    2015-04-11

    cells more effectively than the reverse sequence or either alone. We identified a unique HCC line, Li-7, which not only shows heterogeneity for a CD13(+) CSC hierarchy, but also undergoes a "population change" upon CSC differentiation. Sorafenib targeted the CSC in vitro, supporting the use of this model for screening drugs targeting the CSC. This type of "heterogeneous, unstable" cell line may prove more useful in the CSC era than conventional "homogeneous, stable" cell lines.

  1. Personalized Stem Cell Therapy to Correct Corneal Defects Due to a Unique Homozygous-Heterozygous Mosaicism of Ectrodactyly-Ectodermal Dysplasia-Clefting Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Vanessa; Nasti, Annamaria Assunta; Raffa, Paolo; Migliorati, Angelo; Nespeca, Patrizia; Ferrari, Stefano; Palumbo, Elisa; Bertolin, Marina; Breda, Claudia; Miceli, Francesco; Russo, Antonella; Caenazzo, Luciana; Ponzin, Diego; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina; Di Iorio, Enzo

    2016-08-01

    : Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting (EEC) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the p63 gene. To date, approximately 40 different p63 mutations have been identified, all heterozygous. No definitive treatments are available to counteract and resolve the progressive corneal degeneration due to a premature aging of limbal epithelial stem cells. Here, we describe a unique case of a young female patient, aged 18 years, with EEC and corneal dysfunction, who was, surprisingly, homozygous for a novel and de novo R311K missense mutation in the p63 gene. A detailed analysis of the degree of somatic mosaicism in leukocytes from peripheral blood and oral mucosal epithelial stem cells (OMESCs) from biopsies of buccal mucosa showed that approximately 80% were homozygous mutant cells and 20% were heterozygous. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses excluded genomic alterations, thus suggesting a de novo mutation followed by an allelic gene conversion of the wild-type allele by de novo mutant allele as a possible mechanism to explain the homozygous condition. R311K-p63 OMESCs were expanded in vitro and heterozygous holoclones selected following clonal analysis. These R311K-p63 OMESCs were able to generate well-organized and stratified epithelia in vitro, resembling the features of healthy tissues. This study supports the rationale for the development of cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial stem cell sheets obtained by selected heterozygous R311K-p63 stem cells, as an effective and personalized therapy for reconstructing the ocular surface of this unique case of EEC syndrome, thus bypassing gene therapy approaches. This case demonstrates that in a somatic mosaicism context, a novel homozygous mutation in the p63 gene can arise as a consequence of an allelic gene conversion event, subsequent to a de novo mutation. The heterozygous mutant R311K-p63 stem cells can be isolated by means of clonal analysis and given their good regenerative

  2. Expression and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman S. Cheung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypical ligand gated ion channels typically found in muscular and neuronal tissues. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, however, have also recently been identified on other cell types, including stem cells. Activation of these receptors by the binding of agonists like choline, acetylcholine, or nicotine has been implicated in many cellular changes. In regards to stem cell function, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation leads to changes in stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation potential. In this review we summarize the expression and function of known nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different classes of stem cells including: pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, periodontal ligament derived stem cells, and neural progenitor cells and discuss the potential downstream effects of receptor activation on stem cell function.

  3. Impact of genomic damage and ageing on stem cell function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Axel; van Deursen, Jan M.; Rudolph, K. Lenhard; Schumacher, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of stem cell function contributes to the progressive deterioration of tissue maintenance and repair with ageing. Evidence is mounting that age-dependent accumulation of DNA damage in both stem cells and cells that comprise the stem cell microenvironment are partly responsible for stem cell dysfunction with ageing. Here, we review the impact of the various types of DNA damage that accumulate with ageing on stem cell functionality, as well as the development of cancer. We discuss DNA-damage-induced cell intrinsic and extrinsic alterations that influence these processes, and review recent advances in understanding systemic adjustments to DNA damage and how they affect stem cells. PMID:24576896

  4. Using non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques to detect unique aspects of protein Amide functional groups and chemical properties of modeled forage from different sourced-origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuiying; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-03-05

    The non-invasive molecular spectroscopic technique-FT/IR is capable to detect the molecular structure spectral features that are associated with biological, nutritional and biodegradation functions. However, to date, few researches have been conducted to use these non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques to study forage internal protein structures associated with biodegradation and biological functions. The objectives of this study were to detect unique aspects and association of protein Amide functional groups in terms of protein Amide I and II spectral profiles and chemical properties in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa L.) from different sourced-origins. In this study, alfalfa hay with two different origins was used as modeled forage for molecular structure and chemical property study. In each forage origin, five to seven sources were analyzed. The molecular spectral profiles were determined using FT/IR non-invasive molecular spectroscopy. The parameters of protein spectral profiles included functional groups of Amide I, Amide II and Amide I to II ratio. The results show that the modeled forage Amide I and Amide II were centered at 1653 cm(-1) and 1545 cm(-1), respectively. The Amide I spectral height and area intensities were from 0.02 to 0.03 and 2.67 to 3.36 AI, respectively. The Amide II spectral height and area intensities were from 0.01 to 0.02 and 0.71 to 0.93 AI, respectively. The Amide I to II spectral peak height and area ratios were from 1.86 to 1.88 and 3.68 to 3.79, respectively. Our results show that the non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques are capable to detect forage internal protein structure features which are associated with forage chemical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A unique case of a huge mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of non-endobronchial origin with a peripheral growth

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    Kei Yabuki

    Full Text Available We report a case of a huge solitary non-endobronchial pulmonary tumor in a 76-year-old male smoker. The tumor measured 11 × 10 × 8 cm. It was ill-defined, and it was located periphery of the right lower lobe with the subpleural cystic spaces. He underwent right lower lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection and is free from tumor 30 months after surgery. Microscopically, it was composed of a proliferation of squamous and ciliated columnar epithelial cells with a few mucous cells. These cells were arranged in a papillary growth fashion extending along the fibrously thickened alveolar septa together with metaplastic bronchiolar and squamous epithelia displaying an usual interstitial pneumonia-pattern. Although the histologic features of the tumor were that of a mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (MSCGP, it was peripherally located and showed a lepidic growth, and it was much larger than previously reported MSCGPs. It is possible that the tumor developed in association with bronchial metaplasia in the periphery of the lung, and then extended along the surface of the reconstructed air spaces, which resulted in its unique histologic appearance. Further investigations of respiratory papilloma are needed to clarify the pathogenesis of these lesions. Keywords: Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma, Non-endobronchial, Cytology, Interstitial pneumonia, Pulmonary tumor

  6. Unique protein expression signatures of survival time in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma through a pan-cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangchun; Zhao, Wei; Song, Xiaofeng; Kwok-Shing Ng, Patrick; Karam, Jose A; Jonasch, Eric; Mills, Gordon B; Zhao, Zhongming; Ding, Zhiyong; Jia, Peilin

    2017-10-03

    In 2016, it is estimated that there will be 62,700 new cases of kidney cancer in the United States, and 14,240 patients will die from the disease. Because the incidence of kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC), the most common type of kidney cancer, is expected to continue to increase in the US, there is an urgent need to find effective diagnostic biomarkers for KIRC that could help earlier detection of and customized treatment strategies for the disease. Accordingly, in this study we systematically investigated KIRC's prognostic biomarkers for survival using the reverse phase protein array (RPPA) data and the high throughput sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). With comprehensive data available in TCGA, we systematically screened protein expression based survival biomarkers in 10 major cancer types, among which KIRC presented many protein prognostic biomarkers of survival time. This is in agreement with a previous report that expression level changes (mRNAs, microRNA and protein) may have a better performance for prognosis of KIRC. In this study, we also identified 52 prognostic genes for KIRC, many of which are involved in cell-cycle and cancer signaling, as well as 15 tumor-stage-specific prognostic biomarkers. Notably, we found fewer prognostic biomarkers for early-stage than for late-stage KIRC. Four biomarkers (the RPPA protein IDs: FASN, ACC1, Cyclin_B1 and Rad51) were found to be prognostic for survival based on both protein and mRNA expression data. Through pan-cancer screening, we found that many protein biomarkers were prognostic for patients' survival in KIRC. Stage-specific survival biomarkers in KIRC were also identified. Our study indicated that these protein biomarkers might have potential clinical value in terms of predicting survival in KIRC patients and developing individualized treatment strategies. Importantly, we found many biomarkers in KIRC at both the mRNA expression level and the protein expression level. These

  7. Mof-associated complexes have overlapping and unique roles in regulating pluripotency in embryonic stem cells and during differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravens, Sarina; Fournier, Marjorie; Ye, Tao; Stierle, Matthieu; Dembele, Doulaye; Chavant, Virginie; Tora, Làszlò

    2014-01-01

    The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Mof is essential for mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) pluripotency and early development. Mof is the enzymatic subunit of two different HAT complexes, MSL and NSL. The individual contribution of MSL and NSL to transcription regulation in mESCs is not well understood. Our genome-wide analysis show that i) MSL and NSL bind to specific and common sets of expressed genes, ii) NSL binds exclusively at promoters, iii) while MSL binds in gene bodies. Nsl1 regulates proliferation and cellular homeostasis of mESCs. MSL is the main HAT acetylating H4K16 in mESCs, is enriched at many mESC-specific and bivalent genes. MSL is important to keep a subset of bivalent genes silent in mESCs, while developmental genes require MSL for expression during differentiation. Thus, NSL and MSL HAT complexes differentially regulate specific sets of expressed genes in mESCs and during differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02104.001 PMID:24898753

  8. Precursors (pre-CFCmulti) of multilineage hemopoietic colony-forming cells quantitated in vitro. Uniqueness of IL-1 requirement, partial separation from pluripotential colony-forming cells, and correlation with long term reconstituting cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iscove, N.N.; Yan, X.Q.

    1990-01-01

    Pluripotential colony-forming cells (CFCmulti) from mouse marrow can expand significantly in number during 4 days of suspension culture with IL-1 and IL-3. In this study, the cells (pre-CFCmulti) which originate this response are characterized in terms of their frequency, progeny number, factor requirements, buoyant density, and extent of restoration following marrow transplantation. Parallel measurements of both CFCmulti and cells providing long term marrow reconstitution in vivo allowed direct comparisons to be made with pre-CFCmulti. The proliferative response of pre-CFCmulti was found to depend uniquely on the combination of IL-1 and IL-3, and neither of these regulators was replaceable by any of IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, GM-CSF, G-CSF, M-CSF or LIF. After separation on density gradients, pre-CFCmulti were recovered in fractions of lower density than most of the CFCmulti, but in the same fractions that contained most of the in vivo reconstituting cells. After irradiation and marrow transplantation, marrow CFCmulti were restored to near normal levels, while both pre-CFCmulti as well as reconstituting stem cells remained profoundly depressed. These results show pre-CFCmulti to be distinct from most CFCmulti and to represent the closest approach to quantitative detection of reconstituting stem cells so far achieved in vitro

  9. Comparison of the Functional microRNA Expression in Immune Cell Subsets of Neonates and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Hsu, Te-Yao; Huang, Hsin-Chun; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Li, Sung-Chou; Yang, Kuender D.; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Diversity of biological molecules in newborn and adult immune cells contributes to differences in cell function and atopic properties. Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are reported to involve in the regulation of immune system. Therefore, determining the miRNA expression profile of leukocyte subpopulations is important for understanding immune system regulation. In order to explore the unique miRNA profiling that contribute to altered immune in neonates, we comprehensively analyzed the functional miRNA signatures of eight leukocyte subsets (polymorphonuclear cells, monocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and myeloid dendritic cells) from both neonatal and adult umbilical cord and peripheral blood samples, respectively. We observed distinct miRNA profiles between adult and neonatal blood leukocyte subsets, including unique miRNA signatures for each cell lineage. Leukocyte miRNA signatures were altered after stimulation. Adult peripheral leukocytes had higher let-7b-5p expression levels compared to neonatal cord leukocytes across multiple subsets, irrespective of stimulation. Transfecting neonatal monocytes with a let-7b-5p mimic resulted in a reduction of LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6 and TNF-α production, while transfection of a let-7b-5p inhibitor into adult monocytes enhanced IL-6 and TNF-α production. With this functional approach, we provide intact differential miRNA expression profiling of specific immune cell subsets between neonates and adults. These studies serve as a basis to further understand the altered immune response observed in neonates and advance the development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:28066425

  10. Comparison of the functional microRNA expression in immune cell subsets of neonates and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ren Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of biological molecules in newborn and adult immune cells contributes to differences in cell function and atopic properties. Micro RNAs (miRNAs are reported involve in the regulation of immune system. Therefore, determining the miRNA expression profile of leukocyte sub-populations is important for understanding immune system regulation. In order to explore the unique microRNA profiling that contribute to altered immune in neonates, we comprehensively analyzed the functional miRNA signatures of eight leukocyte subsets (polymorphonuclear cells, monocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs, and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs from both neonatal and adult umbilical cord and peripheral blood samples, respectively. We observed distinct miRNA profiles between adult and neonatal blood leukocyte subsets, including unique miRNA signatures for each cell lineage. Leukocyte miRNA signatures were altered after stimulation. Adult peripheral leukocytes had higher let-7b-5p expression levels compared to neonatal cord leukocytes across multiple subsets, irrespective of stimulation. Transfecting neonatal monocytes with a let-7b-5p mimic resulted in a reduction of LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF-alpha production, while transfection of a let-7b-5p inhibitor into adult monocytes enhanced IL-6 and TNF-alpha production. With this functional approach, we provide intact differential microRNA expression profiling of specific immune cell subsets between neonates and adults. These studies serve as a basis to further understand the altered immune response observed in neonates and advance the development of therapeutic strategies.

  11. Is Life Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  12. Sox5 Functions as a Fate Switch in Medaka Pigment Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yusuke; Suzuki, Takao; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kimura, Tetsuaki; Seki, Ryoko; Adachi, Tomoko; Inoue, Chikako; Omae, Yoshihiro; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Hara, Ikuyo; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Wakamatsu, Yuko; Kelsh, Robert N.; Hibi, Masahiko; Hashimoto, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms generating diverse cell types from multipotent progenitors are crucial for normal development. Neural crest cells (NCCs) are multipotent stem cells that give rise to numerous cell-types, including pigment cells. Medaka has four types of NCC-derived pigment cells (xanthophores, leucophores, melanophores and iridophores), making medaka pigment cell development an excellent model for studying the mechanisms controlling specification of distinct cell types from a multipotent progenitor. Medaka many leucophores-3 (ml-3) mutant embryos exhibit a unique phenotype characterized by excessive formation of leucophores and absence of xanthophores. We show that ml-3 encodes sox5, which is expressed in premigratory NCCs and differentiating xanthophores. Cell transplantation studies reveal a cell-autonomous role of sox5 in the xanthophore lineage. pax7a is expressed in NCCs and required for both xanthophore and leucophore lineages; we demonstrate that Sox5 functions downstream of Pax7a. We propose a model in which multipotent NCCs first give rise to pax7a-positive partially fate-restricted intermediate progenitors for xanthophores and leucophores; some of these progenitors then express sox5, and as a result of Sox5 action develop into xanthophores. Our results provide the first demonstration that Sox5 can function as a molecular switch driving specification of a specific cell-fate (xanthophore) from a partially-restricted, but still multipotent, progenitor (the shared xanthophore-leucophore progenitor). PMID:24699463

  13. Sox5 functions as a fate switch in medaka pigment cell development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Nagao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms generating diverse cell types from multipotent progenitors are crucial for normal development. Neural crest cells (NCCs are multipotent stem cells that give rise to numerous cell-types, including pigment cells. Medaka has four types of NCC-derived pigment cells (xanthophores, leucophores, melanophores and iridophores, making medaka pigment cell development an excellent model for studying the mechanisms controlling specification of distinct cell types from a multipotent progenitor. Medaka many leucophores-3 (ml-3 mutant embryos exhibit a unique phenotype characterized by excessive formation of leucophores and absence of xanthophores. We show that ml-3 encodes sox5, which is expressed in premigratory NCCs and differentiating xanthophores. Cell transplantation studies reveal a cell-autonomous role of sox5 in the xanthophore lineage. pax7a is expressed in NCCs and required for both xanthophore and leucophore lineages; we demonstrate that Sox5 functions downstream of Pax7a. We propose a model in which multipotent NCCs first give rise to pax7a-positive partially fate-restricted intermediate progenitors for xanthophores and leucophores; some of these progenitors then express sox5, and as a result of Sox5 action develop into xanthophores. Our results provide the first demonstration that Sox5 can function as a molecular switch driving specification of a specific cell-fate (xanthophore from a partially-restricted, but still multipotent, progenitor (the shared xanthophore-leucophore progenitor.

  14. Cell lipids: from isolation to functional dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, R.JJ; Pecheur, EL; van Ijzendoorn, Sven; Kok, Jan Willem; Hoekstra, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    81. Veldman RJ, Pécheur EI., Van IJzendoorn SCD., Kok JW. and Hoekstra D. (2003) . In: Essential Cell Biology. Cell Structure (Davey, J. and Lord, M. eds.) Oxford University Press, Oxford. Vol. 1, pp.

  15. Intermediate Filaments Play a Pivotal Role in Regulating Cell Architecture and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Jason; Kuczmarski, Edward R; Herrmann, Harald; Goldman, Robert D

    2015-07-10

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) are composed of one or more members of a large family of cytoskeletal proteins, whose expression is cell- and tissue type-specific. Their importance in regulating the physiological properties of cells is becoming widely recognized in functions ranging from cell motility to signal transduction. IF proteins assemble into nanoscale biopolymers with unique strain-hardening properties that are related to their roles in regulating the mechanical integrity of cells. Furthermore, mutations in the genes encoding IF proteins cause a wide range of human diseases. Due to the number of different types of IF proteins, we have limited this short review to cover structure and function topics mainly related to the simpler homopolymeric IF networks composed of vimentin, and specifically for diseases, the related muscle-specific desmin IF networks. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. CD1d-unrestricted NKT cells are endowed with a hybrid function far superior than that of iNKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Alexander R; Wu, Weisheng; Choi, Bongkum; Cavalcoli, James D; Laouar, Yasmina

    2014-09-02

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells to date represent the best example of cells known to have a hybrid function, representing both innate and adaptive immunity. Shared phenotypic similarities with NK cells together with a rapid response to a cytokine stimulus and a productive TCR engagement are the features that underline the hybrid nature of iNKT cells. Using these criteria, we provide molecular and functional evidence demonstrating that CD1d-independent (CD1d(ind)) NKT cells, a population of CD1d-unrestricted NKT cells, are endowed with a hybrid function far superior to that of iNKT cells: (i) an extensive shared program with NK cells, (ii) a closer Euclidian distance with NK cells, and (iii) the ability to respond to innate stimuli (Poly:IC) with cytotoxic potential in the same manner as NK cells identify a hybrid feature in CD1d(ind)NKT cells that truly fulfills the dual function of an NK and a T cell. Our finding that CD1d(ind)NKT cells are programmed to act like NK cells in response to innate signals while being capable of adaptive responses is unprecedented, and thus might reemphasize CD1d-unrestricted NKT cells as a subset of lymphocytes that could affect biological processes of antimicrobial and tumor immunity in a unique way.

  17. Depletion of CD11c⁺ cells in the CD11c.DTR model drives expansion of unique CD64⁺ Ly6C⁺ monocytes that are poised to release TNF-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Shivajanani; Henderson, Stephen; Ward, Sophie; Sousa, Pedro Santos E; Manzo, Teresa; Zhang, Lei; Conlan, Thomas; Means, Terry K; D'Aveni, Maud; Hermine, Olivier; Rubio, Marie-Thérèse; Chakraverty, Ronjon; Bennett, Clare L

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a vital role in innate and adaptive immunities. Inducible depletion of CD11c(+) DCs engineered to express a high-affinity diphtheria toxin receptor has been a powerful tool to dissect DC function in vivo. However, despite reports showing that loss of DCs induces transient monocytosis, the monocyte population that emerges and the potential impact of monocytes on studies of DC function have not been investigated. We found that depletion of CD11c(+) cells from CD11c.DTR mice induced the expansion of a variant CD64(+) Ly6C(+) monocyte population in the spleen and blood that was distinct from conventional monocytes. Expansion of CD64(+) Ly6C(+) monocytes was independent of mobilization from the BM via CCR2 but required the cytokine, G-CSF. Indeed, this population was also expanded upon exposure to exogenous G-CSF in the absence of DC depletion. CD64(+) Ly6C(+) monocytes were characterized by upregulation of innate signaling apparatus despite the absence of inflammation, and an increased capacity to produce TNF-α following LPS stimulation. Thus, depletion of CD11c(+) cells induces expansion of a unique CD64(+) Ly6C(+) monocyte population poised to synthesize TNF-α. This finding will require consideration in experiments using depletion strategies to test the role of CD11c(+) DCs in immunity. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Regulation of Hematopoietic Cell Development and Function Through Phosphoinositides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Elich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most paramount receptor-induced signal transduction mechanisms in hematopoietic cells is production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5trisphosphate (PIP3 by class I phosphoinositide 3 kinases (PI3K. Defective PIP3 signaling impairs almost every aspect of hematopoiesis, including T cell development and function. Limiting PIP3 signaling is particularly important, because excessive PIP3 function in lymphocytes can transform them and cause blood cancers. Here, we review the key functions of PIP3 and related phosphoinositides in hematopoietic cells, with a special focus on those mechanisms dampening PIP3 production, turnover, or function. Recent studies have shown that beyond “canonical” turnover by the PIP3 phosphatases and tumor suppressors phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN and SH2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1/2, PIP3 function in hematopoietic cells can also be dampened through antagonism with the soluble PIP3 analogs inositol(1,3,4,5tetrakisphosphate (IP4 and inositol-heptakisphosphate (IP7. Other evidence suggests that IP4 can promote PIP3 function in thymocytes. Moreover, IP4 or the kinases producing it limit store-operated Ca2+ entry through Orai channels in B cells, T cells, and neutrophils to control cell survival and function. We discuss current models for how soluble inositol phosphates can have such diverse functions and can govern as distinct processes as hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis, neutrophil macrophage and NK cell function, and development and function of B cells and T cells. Finally, we will review the pathological consequences of dysregulated IP4 activity in immune cells and highlight contributions of impaired inositol phosphate functions in disorders such as Kawasaki disease, common variable immunodeficiency, or blood cancer.

  19. The Critical Role of Redox Homeostasis in Shikonin-Induced HL-60 Cell Differentiation via Unique Modulation of the Nrf2/ARE Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among various cancer cell lines, the leukemia cell line HL-60 was most sensitive to Shikonin, with evidence showing both the prooxidative activities and proapoptotic effects of micromolar concentrations of Shikonin. However, the mechanism involved in the cytotoxicity of Shikonin in the submicromolar range has not been fully characterized. Using biochemical and free radical biological experiments in vitro, we identified the prodifferentiated profiles of Shikonin and evaluated the redox homeostasis during HL-60 differentiation. The data showed a strong dose-response relationship between Shikonin exposure and the characteristics of HL-60 differentiation in terms of morphology changes, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT reductive activity, and the expression level of surface antigens CD11b/CD14. During drug exposure, intercellular redox homeostasis changes towards oxidation are necessary to support Shikonin-induced differentiation, which was proven by additional enzymatic and non-enzymatic redox modulators. A statistically significant and dose-dependent increase (P<0.05 was recorded with regard to the unique expression levels of the Nrf2/ARE downstream target genes in HL-60 cells undergoing late differentiation, which were restored with further antioxidants employed with the Shikonin treatment. Our research demonstrated that Shikonin is a differentiation-inducing agent, and its mechanisms involve the Nrf2/ARE pathway to modulate the intercellular redox homeostasis, thus facilitating differentiation.

  20. Unique Preservation of Neural Cells in Hutchinson- Gilford Progeria Syndrome Is Due to the Expression of the Neural-Specific miR-9 MicroRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Nissan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One puzzling observation in patients affected with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, who overall exhibit systemic and dramatic premature aging, is the absence of any conspicuous cognitive impairment. Recent studies based on induced pluripotent stem cells derived from HGPS patient cells have revealed a lack of expression in neural derivatives of lamin A, a major isoform of LMNA that is initially produced as a precursor called prelamin A. In HGPS, defective maturation of a mutated prelamin A induces the accumulation of toxic progerin in patient cells. Here, we show that a microRNA, miR-9, negatively controls lamin A and progerin expression in neural cells. This may bear major functional correlates, as alleviation of nuclear blebbing is observed in nonneural cells after miR-9 overexpression. Our results support the hypothesis, recently proposed from analyses in mice, that protection of neural cells from progerin accumulation in HGPS is due to the physiologically restricted expression of miR-9 to that cell lineage.

  1. Vaccinating for natural killer cell effector functions

    OpenAIRE

    Wagstaffe, Helen R; Mooney, Jason P; Riley, Eleanor M; Goodier, Martin R

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Vaccination has proved to be highly effective in reducing global mortality and eliminating infectious diseases. Building on this success will depend on the development of new and improved vaccines, new methods to determine efficacy and optimum dosing and new or refined adjuvant systems. NK cells are innate lymphoid cells that respond rapidly during primary infection but also have adaptive characteristics enabling them to integrate innate and acquired immune responses. NK cells are ac...

  2. Deficient natural killer cell function in preeclampsia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanen, A.; Lassila, O.

    1982-11-01

    Natural killer cell activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured against K-562 target cells with a 4-hour /sup 51/Cr release assay in 15 primigravid women with preeclamptic symptoms. Nineteen primigravid women with an uncomplicated pregnancy and 18 nonpregnant women served as controls. The natural killer cell activity of preeclamptic women was observed to be significantly lower than that of both control groups. Natural killer cells in preeclamptic women responded normally to augmentation caused by interferon. These findings give further evidence for the participation of the maternal immune system in this pregnancy disorder.

  3. Deficient natural killer cell function in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanen, A.; Lassila, O.

    1982-01-01

    Natural killer cell activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured against K-562 target cells with a 4-hour 51 Cr release assay in 15 primigravid women with preeclamptic symptoms. Nineteen primigravid women with an uncomplicated pregnancy and 18 nonpregnant women served as controls. The natural killer cell activity of preeclamptic women was observed to be significantly lower than that of both control groups. Natural killer cells in preeclamptic women responded normally to augmentation caused by interferon. These findings give further evidence for the participation of the maternal immune system in this pregnancy disorder

  4. Mitochondrial respiration controls lysosomal function during inflammatory T cell responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixauli, Francesc; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Villarroya-Beltrí, Carolina; Mazzeo, Carla; Nuñez-Andrade, Norman; Gabandé-Rodriguez, Enrique; Dolores Ledesma, Maria; Blázquez, Alberto; Martin, Miguel Angel; Falcón-Pérez, Juan Manuel; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Mittelbrunn, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Summary The endolysosomal system is critical for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. However, how endolysosomal compartment is regulated by mitochondrial function is largely unknown. We have generated a mouse model with defective mitochondrial function in CD4+ T lymphocytes by genetic deletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam). Mitochondrial respiration-deficiency impairs lysosome function, promotes p62 and sphingomyelin accumulation and disrupts endolysosomal trafficking pathways and autophagy, thus linking a primary mitochondrial dysfunction to a lysosomal storage disorder. The impaired lysosome function in Tfam-deficient cells subverts T cell differentiation toward pro-inflammatory subsets and exacerbates the in vivo inflammatory response. Restoration of NAD+ levels improves lysosome function and corrects the inflammatory defects in Tfam-deficient T cells. Our results uncover a mechanism by which mitochondria regulate lysosome function to preserve T cell differentiation and effector functions, and identify novel strategies for intervention in mitochondrial-related diseases. PMID:26299452

  5. N-Acetylglucosamine Functions in Cell Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Konopka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc is well known for the important structural roles that it plays at the cell surface. It is a key component of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan, fungal cell wall chitin, and the extracellular matrix of animal cells. Interestingly, recent studies have also identified new roles for GlcNAc in cell signaling. For example, GlcNAc stimulates the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans to undergo changes in morphogenesis and expression of virulence genes. Pathogenic E. coli responds to GlcNAc by altering the expression of fimbriae and CURLI fibers that promote biofilm formation and GlcNAc stimulates soil bacteria to undergo changes in morphogenesis and production of antibiotics. Studies with animal cells have revealed that GlcNAc influences cell signaling through the posttranslational modification of proteins by glycosylation. O-linked attachment of GlcNAc to Ser and Thr residues regulates a variety of intracellular proteins, including transcription factors such as NFκB, c-myc, and p53. In addition, the specificity of Notch family receptors for different ligands is altered by GlcNAc attachment to fucose residues in the extracellular domain. GlcNAc also impacts signal transduction by altering the degree of branching of N-linked glycans, which influences cell surface signaling proteins. These emerging roles of GlcNAc as an activator and mediator of cellular signaling in fungi, animals, and bacteria will be the focus of this paper.

  6. Effects of Human Parvovirus B19 and Bocavirus VP1 Unique Region on Tight Junction of Human Airway Epithelial A549 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Ching; Shi, Ya-Fang; Yang, Jiann-Jou; Hsiao, Yuan-Chao; Tzang, Bor-Show; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2014-01-01

    As is widely recognized, human parvovirus B19 (B19) and human bocavirus (HBoV) are important human pathogens. Obviously, both VP1 unique region (VP1u) of B19 and HBoV exhibit the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity and are recognized to participate in the pathogenesis of lower respiratory tract illnesses. However, exactly how, both VP1u from B19 and HBoV affect tight junction has seldom been addressed. Therefore, this study investigates how B19-VP1u and HBoV-VP1u may affect the tight junction of the airway epithelial A549 cells by examining phospholipase A2 activity and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as performing immunoblotting analyses. Experimental results indicate that TEER is more significantly decreased in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α (10 ng), two dosages of B19-VP1u and BoV-VP1u (400 ng and 4000 ng) or bee venom PLA2 (10 ng) than that of the control. Accordingly, more significantly increased claudin-1 and decreased occludin are detected in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α or both dosages of HBoV-VP1u than that of the control. Additionally, more significantly decreased Na+/K+ ATPase is observed in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α, high dosage of B19-VP1u or both dosages of BoV-VP1u than that of the control. Above findings suggest that HBoV-VP1u rather than B19 VP1u likely plays more important roles in the disruption of tight junction in the airway tract. Meanwhile, this discrepancy appears not to be associated with the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity. PMID:25268969

  7. Isolation and functional interrogation of adult human prostate epithelial stem cells at single cell resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen-Yang; Hu, Dan-Ping; Xie, Lishi; Li, Ye; Majumdar, Shyama; Nonn, Larisa; Hu, Hong; Shioda, Toshi; Prins, Gail S

    2017-08-01

    Using primary cultures of normal human prostate epithelial cells, we developed a novel prostasphere-based, label-retention assay that permits identification and isolation of stem cells at a single cell level. Their bona fide stem cell nature was corroborated using in vitro and in vivo regenerative assays and documentation of symmetric/asymmetric division. Robust WNT10B and KRT13 levels without E-cadherin or KRT14 staining distinguished individual stem cells from daughter progenitors in spheroids. Following FACS to isolate label-retaining stem cells from label-free progenitors, RNA-seq identified unique gene signatures for the separate populations which may serve as useful biomarkers. Knockdown of KRT13 or PRAC1 reduced sphere formation and symmetric self-renewal highlighting their role in stem cell maintenance. Pathways analysis identified ribosome biogenesis and membrane estrogen-receptor signaling enriched in stem cells with NF-ĸB signaling enriched in progenitors; activities that were biologically confirmed. Further, bioassays identified heightened autophagy flux and reduced metabolism in stem cells relative to progenitors. These approaches similarly identified stem-like cells from prostate cancer specimens and prostate, breast and colon cancer cell lines suggesting wide applicability. Together, the present studies isolate and identify unique characteristics of normal human prostate stem cells and uncover processes that maintain stem cell homeostasis in the prostate gland. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation and functional interrogation of adult human prostate epithelial stem cells at single cell resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yang Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using primary cultures of normal human prostate epithelial cells, we developed a novel prostasphere-based, label-retention assay that permits identification and isolation of stem cells at a single cell level. Their bona fide stem cell nature was corroborated using in vitro and in vivo regenerative assays and documentation of symmetric/asymmetric division. Robust WNT10B and KRT13 levels without E-cadherin or KRT14 staining distinguished individual stem cells from daughter progenitors in spheroids. Following FACS to isolate label-retaining stem cells from label-free progenitors, RNA-seq identified unique gene signatures for the separate populations which may serve as useful biomarkers. Knockdown of KRT13 or PRAC1 reduced sphere formation and symmetric self-renewal highlighting their role in stem cell maintenance. Pathways analysis identified ribosome biogenesis and membrane estrogen-receptor signaling enriched in stem cells with NF-ĸB signaling enriched in progenitors; activities that were biologically confirmed. Further, bioassays identified heightened autophagy flux and reduced metabolism in stem cells relative to progenitors. These approaches similarly identified stem-like cells from prostate cancer specimens and prostate, breast and colon cancer cell lines suggesting wide applicability. Together, the present studies isolate and identify unique characteristics of normal human prostate stem cells and uncover processes that maintain stem cell homeostasis in the prostate gland.

  9. Cell Adhesion on Surface-Functionalized Magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Victoria; Schilling, Achim; Mainka, Astrid; Hennig, Diana; Gerum, Richard; Kelch, Marie-Luise; Keim, Simon; Fabry, Ben; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2016-05-18

    The biocompatibility of commercially pure magnesium-based (cp Mg) biodegradable implants is compromised of strong hydrogen evolution and surface alkalization due to high initial corrosion rates of cp Mg in the physiological environment. To mitigate this problem, the addition of corrosion-retarding alloying elements or coating of implant surfaces has been suggested. In the following work, we explored the effect of organic coatings on long-term cell growth. cp Mg was coated with aminopropyltriehtoxysilane + vitamin C (AV), carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), or stearic acid (SA). All three coatings have been previously suggested to reduce initial corrosion and to enhance protein adsorption and hence cell adhesion on magnesium surfaces. Endothelial cells (DH1+/+) and osteosarcoma cells (MG63) were cultured on coated samples for up to 20 days. To quantify Mg corrosion, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was measured after 1, 3, and 5 days of cell culture. We also investigated the speed of initial cell spreading after seeding using fluorescently labeled fibroblasts (NIH/3T3). Hydrogen evolution after contact with cell culture medium was markedly decreased on AV- and SA-coated Mg compared to uncoated Mg. These coatings also showed improved cell adhesion and spreading after 24 h of culture comparable to tissue-treated plastic surfaces. On AV-coated cp Mg, a confluent layer of endothelial cells formed after 5 days and remained intact for up to 20 days. Together, these data demonstrate that surface coating with AV is a viable strategy for improving long-term biocompatibility of cp Mg-based implants. EIS measurements confirmed that the presence of a confluent cell layer increased the corrosion resistance.

  10. Unique, Voltammetric Electrochemical Sensors for Organic Contaminants, with Excellent Discrimination, Based on Conducting Polymer-, Aptamer- and Other-Functionalized Sensing Electrodes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In ongoing and recent prior work for the Army, this firm has developed a unique, patented technology for voltammetric electrochemical detection of toxic gases,...

  11. Hematopoietic stem cell function in motheaten mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, L.D.; Bailey, C.L.; Coman, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    Mice homozygous for the autosomal recessive mutation ''motheaten'' have normal numbers of multipotential hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and spleen as determined by spleen colony assay. Histologic examination shows no qualitative abnormality in morphology of stem cell colonies in recipients of bone marrow or spleen cells from motheaten mice. Despite the apparently normal ontogeny, distribution, and differentiative capacity of CFU stem cells, bone marrow and spleen cells from motheaten mice fail to save congenic +/+ lethally gamma-irradiated hosts. This impaired lifesparing capacity is not due to defective self-renewal but appears to be due in part to pulmonary hemorrhage from alveolar capillaries in the gamma-irradiated hosts. Treatment of motheaten mice with 500 R gamma-irradiation followed by reconstitution with normal bone marrow cells increases the lifespan of this mutant to 10 months of age. The early onset of pneumonitis and subsequent short lifespan of motheaten mice is determined at the level of progenitor cells in the bone marrow

  12. Dental enamel cells express functional SOCE channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaeva, Meerim K; Eckstein, Miriam; Concepcion, Axel R; Smith, Charles E; Srikanth, Sonal; Paine, Michael L; Gwack, Yousang; Hubbard, Michael J; Feske, Stefan; Lacruz, Rodrigo S

    2015-10-30

    Dental enamel formation requires large quantities of Ca(2+) yet the mechanisms mediating Ca(2+) dynamics in enamel cells are unclear. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) channels are important Ca(2+) influx mechanisms in many cells. SOCE involves release of Ca(2+) from intracellular pools followed by Ca(2+) entry. The best-characterized SOCE channels are the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels. As patients with mutations in the CRAC channel genes STIM1 and ORAI1 show abnormal enamel mineralization, we hypothesized that CRAC channels might be an important Ca(2+) uptake mechanism in enamel cells. Investigating primary murine enamel cells, we found that key components of CRAC channels (ORAI1, ORAI2, ORAI3, STIM1, STIM2) were expressed and most abundant during the maturation stage of enamel development. Furthermore, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) but not ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression was high in enamel cells suggesting that IP3Rs are the main ER Ca(2+) release mechanism. Passive depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores with thapsigargin resulted in a significant raise in [Ca(2+)]i consistent with SOCE. In cells pre-treated with the CRAC channel blocker Synta-66 Ca(2+) entry was significantly inhibited. These data demonstrate that enamel cells have SOCE mediated by CRAC channels and implicate them as a mechanism for Ca(2+) uptake in enamel formation.

  13. Role of type I interferon receptor signaling on NK cell development and functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Guan

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN are unique cytokines transcribed from intronless genes. They have been extensively studied because of their anti-viral functions. The anti-viral effects of type I IFN are mediated in part by natural killer (NK cells. However, the exact contribution of type I IFN on NK cell development, maturation and activation has been somewhat difficult to assess. In this study, we used a variety of approaches to define the consequences of the lack of type I interferon receptor (IFNAR signaling on NK cells. Using IFNAR deficient mice, we found that type I IFN affect NK cell development at the pre-pro NK stage. We also found that systemic absence of IFNAR signaling impacts NK cell maturation with a significant increase in the CD27+CD11b+ double positive (DP compartment in all organs. However, there is tissue specificity, and only in liver and bone marrow is the maturation defect strictly dependent on cell intrinsic IFNAR signaling. Finally, using adoptive transfer and mixed bone marrow approaches, we also show that cell intrinsic IFNAR signaling is not required for NK cell IFN-γ production in the context of MCMV infection. Taken together, our studies provide novel insights on how type I IFN receptor signaling regulates NK cell development and functions.

  14. Osteomacs interact with megakaryocytes and osteoblasts to regulate murine hematopoietic stem cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Safa F; Xu, Linlin; Ghosh, Joydeep; Childress, Paul J; Abeysekera, Irushi; Himes, Evan R; Wu, Hao; Alvarez, Marta B; Davis, Korbin M; Aguilar-Perez, Alexandra; Hong, Jung Min; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Kacena, Melissa A; Srour, Edward F

    2017-12-12

    Networking between hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and cells of the hematopoietic niche is critical for stem cell function and maintenance of the stem cell pool. We characterized calvariae-resident osteomacs (OMs) and their interaction with megakaryocytes to sustain HSC function and identified distinguishing properties between OMs and bone marrow (BM)-derived macrophages. OMs, identified as CD45 + F4/80 + cells, were easily detectable (3%-5%) in neonatal calvarial cells. Coculture of neonatal calvarial cells with megakaryocytes for 7 days increased OM three- to sixfold, demonstrating that megakaryocytes regulate OM proliferation. OMs were required for the hematopoiesis-enhancing activity of osteoblasts, and this activity was augmented by megakaryocytes. Serial transplantation demonstrated that HSC repopulating potential was best maintained by in vitro cultures containing osteoblasts, OMs, and megakaryocytes. With or without megakaryocytes, BM-derived macrophages were unable to functionally substitute for neonatal calvarial cell-associated OMs. In addition, OMs differentiated into multinucleated, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts capable of bone resorption. Nine-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that although BM-derived macrophages and OMs share many cell surface phenotypic similarities (CD45, F4/80, CD68, CD11b, Mac2, and Gr-1), only a subgroup of OMs coexpressed M-CSFR and CD166, thus providing a unique profile for OMs. CD169 was expressed by both OMs and BM-derived macrophages and therefore was not a distinguishing marker between these 2 cell types. These results demonstrate that OMs support HSC function and illustrate that megakaryocytes significantly augment the synergistic activity of osteoblasts and OMs. Furthermore, this report establishes for the first time that the crosstalk between OMs, osteoblasts, and megakaryocytes is a novel network supporting HSC function.

  15. Medroxyprogesterone acetate-treated human, primary endometrial epithelial cells reveal unique gene expression signature linked to innate immunity and HIV-1 susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Matthew W; Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Dizzell, Sara; Verschoor, Chris P; Kaushic, Charu

    2018-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a progestin-based hormonal contraceptive designed to mimic progesterone, has been linked to increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) susceptibility. Genital epithelial cells (GECs) form the mucosal lining of the female genital tract (FGT) and provide the first line of protection against HIV-1. The impact of endogenous sex hormones or MPA on the gene expression profile of GECs has not been comprehensively documented. Using microarray analysis, we characterized the transcriptional profile of primary endometrial epithelial cells grown in physiological levels of E2, P4, and MPA. Each hormone treatment altered the gene expression profile of GECs in a unique manner. Interestingly, although MPA is a progestogen, the gene expression profile induced by it was distinct from P4. MPA increased gene expression of genes related to inflammation and cholesterol synthesis linked to innate immunity and HIV-1 susceptibility. The analysis of gene expression profiles provides insights into the effects of sex hormones and MPA on GECs and allows us to posit possible mechanisms of the MPA-mediated increase in HIV-1 acquisition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Mitochondrial function in Müller cells - Does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Skytt, Dorte Marie; Svare, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    in the most predominant glial cells of the retina, the Müller cells. Müller cells span the entire thickness of the neuroretina and are in close proximity to retinal cells including the retinal neurons that provides visual signaling to the brain. Among multiple functions, Müller cells are responsible...... for the removal of neurotransmitters, buffering potassium, and providing neurons with essential metabolites. Thus, Müller cells are responsible for a stable metabolic dialogue in the inner retina and their crucial role in supporting retinal neurons is indisputable. Müller cell functions require considerable......Growing evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction might play a key role in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative inner retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. Therefore, the present review provides a perspective on the impact of functional mitochondria...

  17. Synthetic RNA Controllers for Programming Mammalian Cell Fate and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-04

    Final report for “Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function” Principal Investigator: Christina D. Smolke...SUBTITLE Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18   2 Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function Task 1

  18. Three domains of SLP-76 are required for its optimal function in a T cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musci, M A; Motto, D G; Ross, S E; Fang, N; Koretzky, G A

    1997-08-15

    We and others have shown that overexpression of SLP-76 augments TCR-stimulated IL-2 promoter activity in the Jurkat T cell line. In this report we investigate the signaling mechanisms through which SLP-76 mediates its effect on T cell activation. We show that overexpressed SLP-76 acts downstream of TCR-stimulated protein tyrosine kinases, but does not affect calcium signaling. Overexpression of SLP-76 does, however, augment TCR stimulation of both ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) activity and a reporter construct driven by activating protein-1 binding sites. Structure/function analysis reveals that three distinct regions of SLP-76, each important for protein associations, are required for augmentation of TCR-induced nuclear factor-AT activity. These data suggest that SLP-76 functions as an adapter molecule that requires three unique domains to link proximal TCR signals in T cells.

  19. Skeletal muscle aging: stem cell function and tissue homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Victor, Pedro Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Muscle aging, in particular, is characterized by the reduction of tissue mass and function, which are particularly prominent in geriatric individuals undergoing sarcopenia. The age-associated muscle wasting is also associated with a decline in regenerative ability and a reduction in resident muscle stem cell (satellite cell) number and function. Although sarcopenia is one of the major contributors to the general loss of physiological function, the mechanisms involved in age-related loss of mu...

  20. Radiosensitivity of yeast cells as a function of radiation LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobachevskij, P.N.; Krasavin, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    A model is proposed for interpreting the radiosensitivity of yeast cells as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) of ionizing radiation. The model takes into account the role of repair processes in sensitivity of yeast cells to ionizing radiation of different LET. Two types of repair are discussed: (1) a nonspecific repair (characteristic of both haploid and diploid cells), and (2) a diploid - soecific repair (characteristic of diploid cells only)

  1. Ex vivo cytosolic delivery of functional macromolecules to immune cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armon Sharei

    Full Text Available Intracellular delivery of biomolecules, such as proteins and siRNAs, into primary immune cells, especially resting lymphocytes, is a challenge. Here we describe the design and testing of microfluidic intracellular delivery systems that cause temporary membrane disruption by rapid mechanical deformation of human and mouse immune cells. Dextran, antibody and siRNA delivery performance is measured in multiple immune cell types and the approach's potential to engineer cell function is demonstrated in HIV infection studies.

  2. Bacterial Signaling Nucleotides Inhibit Yeast Cell Growth by Impacting Mitochondrial and Other Specifically Eukaryotic Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Andy; Vergnano, Marta; Wan, Chris; Oliver, Stephen G

    2017-07-25

    We have engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inducibly synthesize the prokaryotic signaling nucleotides cyclic di-GMP (cdiGMP), cdiAMP, and ppGpp in order to characterize the range of effects these nucleotides exert on eukaryotic cell function during bacterial pathogenesis. Synthetic genetic array (SGA) and transcriptome analyses indicated that, while these compounds elicit some common reactions in yeast, there are also complex and distinctive responses to each of the three nucleotides. All three are capable of inhibiting eukaryotic cell growth, with the guanine nucleotides exhibiting stronger effects than cdiAMP. Mutations compromising mitochondrial function and chromatin remodeling show negative epistatic interactions with all three nucleotides. In contrast, certain mutations that cause defects in chromatin modification and ribosomal protein function show positive epistasis, alleviating growth inhibition by at least two of the three nucleotides. Uniquely, cdiGMP is lethal both to cells growing by respiration on acetate and to obligately fermentative petite mutants. cdiGMP is also synthetically lethal with the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor hydroxyurea. Heterologous expression of the human ppGpp hydrolase Mesh1p prevented the accumulation of ppGpp in the engineered yeast and restored cell growth. Extensive in vivo interactions between bacterial signaling molecules and eukaryotic gene function occur, resulting in outcomes ranging from growth inhibition to death. cdiGMP functions through a mechanism that must be compensated by unhindered RNR activity or by functionally competent mitochondria. Mesh1p may be required for abrogating the damaging effects of ppGpp in human cells subjected to bacterial infection. IMPORTANCE During infections, pathogenic bacteria can release nucleotides into the cells of their eukaryotic hosts. These nucleotides are recognized as signals that contribute to the initiation of defensive immune responses that help the infected

  3. Membrane phosphorylation and nerve cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with the phosphorylation of membrane components. In part I a series of experiments is described using the hippocampal slice as a model system. In part II a different model system - cultured hybrid cells - is used to study protein and lipid phosphorylation, influenced by incubation with neuropeptides. In part III in vivo and in vitro studies are combined to study protein phosphorylation after neuroanatomical lesions. In a section of part II (Page 81-90) labelling experiments of the membrane inositol-phospholipids are described. 32 P-ATP was used to label phospholipids in intact hybrid cells, and short incubations were found to be the most favourable. (C.F.)

  4. A Cell Model to Evaluate Chemical Effects on Adult Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Differentiation and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult cardiac stem cells (CSC) and progenitor cells (CPC) represent a population of cells in the heart critical for its regeneration and function over a lifetime. The impact of chemicals on adult human CSC/CPC differentiation and function is unknown. Research was conducted to dev...

  5. Kupffer cell complement receptor clearance function and host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loegering, D J

    1986-01-01

    Kupffer cells are well known to be important for normal host defense function. The development of methods to evaluate the in vivo function of specific receptors on Kupffer cells has made it possible to assess the role of these receptors in host defense. The rationale for studying complement receptors is based on the proposed important role of these receptors in host defense and on the observation that the hereditary deficiency of a complement receptor is associated with recurrent severe bacterial infections. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that forms of injury that are associated with depressed host defense including thermal injury, hemorrhagic shock, trauma, and surgery also cause a decrease in complement receptor clearance function. This decrease in Kupffer cell receptor clearance function was shown not to be the result of depressed hepatic blood flow or depletion of complement components. Complement receptor function was also depressed following the phagocytosis of particulates that are known to depress Kupffer cell host defense function. Endotoxemia and bacteremia also were associated with a depression of complement receptor function. Complement receptor function was experimentally depressed in uninjured animals by the phagocytosis of IgG-coated erythrocytes. There was a close association between the depression of complement receptor clearance function and increased susceptibility to the lethal effects of endotoxin and bacterial infection. These studies support the hypotheses that complement receptors on Kupffer cells are important for normal host defense and that depression of the function of these receptors impairs host defense.

  6. Defective TFH Cell Function and Increased TFR Cells Contribute to Defective Antibody Production in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Peter T; Tan, Catherine L; Freeman, Gordon J; Haigis, Marcia; Sharpe, Arlene H

    2015-07-14

    Defective antibody production in aging is broadly attributed to immunosenescence. However, the precise immunological mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate an increase in the ratio of inhibitory T follicular regulatory (TFR) cells to stimulatory T follicular helper (TFH) cells in aged mice. Aged TFH and TFR cells are phenotypically distinct from those in young mice, exhibiting increased programmed cell death protein-1 expression but decreased ICOS expression. Aged TFH cells exhibit defective antigen-specific responses, and programmed cell death protein-ligand 1 blockade can partially rescue TFH cell function. In contrast, young and aged TFR cells have similar suppressive capacity on a per-cell basis in vitro and in vivo. Together, these studies reveal mechanisms contributing to defective humoral immunity in aging: an increase in suppressive TFR cells combined with impaired function of aged TFH cells results in reduced T-cell-dependent antibody responses in aged mice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Skeletal Stem Cells: Origins, Functions and Uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Fatma F; Franceschi, Renny T

    2017-12-01

    The development and maintenance of the skeleton requires a steady source of skeletal progenitors to provide the osteoblasts and chondrocytes necessary for bone and cartilage growth and development. The current model for skeletal stem cells (SSCs) posits that SSC/progenitor cells are present in bone marrow (BM) and other osteogenic sites such as cranial sutures where they undergo self-renewal and differentiation to give rise to the main skeletal tissues. SSCs hold great promise for understanding skeletal biology and genetic diseases of bone as well as for the advancement of bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies. In the past few years, a considerable effort has been devoted to identifying and purifying skeletal stem cells and determining their contribution to bone formation and homeostasis. Here, we review recent progress in this area with particular emphasis on the discovery of specific SSC markers, their use in tracking the progression of cell populations along specific lineages and the regulation of SSCs in both the appendicular and cranial skeleton.

  8. Nonredundant functions of alphabeta and gammadelta T cells in acrolein-induced pulmonary pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Michael T; Wesselkamper, Scott C; Eppert, Bryan L; Motz, Gregory T; Sartor, Maureen A; Tomlinson, Craig R; Medvedovic, Mario; Tichelaar, Jay W

    2008-09-01

    Acrolein exposure represents a significant human health hazard. Repeated acrolein exposure causes the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes, mucous cell metaplasia, and epithelial injury. Currently, the mechanisms that control these events are unclear, and the relative contribution of T-cell subsets to pulmonary pathologies following repeated exposures to irritants is unknown. To examine whether lymphocyte subpopulations regulate inflammation and epithelial cell pathology, we utilized a mouse model of pulmonary pathology induced by repeated acrolein exposures. The role of lymphocyte subsets was examined by utilizing transgenic mice genetically deficient in either alphabeta T cells or gammadelta T cells, and changes in cellular, molecular, and pathologic outcomes associated with repeated inhalation exposure to 2.0 and 0.5 ppm acrolein were measured. To examine the potential functions of lymphocyte subsets, we purified these cells from the lungs of mice repeatedly exposed to 2.0 ppm acrolein, isolated and amplified messenger RNA, and performed microarray analysis. Our data demonstrate that alphabeta T cells are required for macrophage accumulation, whereas gammadelta T cells are critical regulators of epithelial cell homeostasis, as identified by epithelial cell injury and apoptosis, following repeated acrolein exposure. This is supported by microarray analyses that indicated the T-cell subsets are unique in their gene expression profiles following acrolein exposures. Microarray analyses identified several genes that may contribute to phenotypes mediated by T-cell subpopulations including those involved in cytokine receptor signaling, chemotaxis, growth factor production, lymphocyte activation, and apoptosis. These data provide strong evidence that T-cell subpopulations in the lung are major determinants of pulmonary pathology and highlight the advantages of dissecting their effector functions in response to toxicant exposures.

  9. Structure and function of stem cell pools in mammalian cell renewal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Nothdurft, W.

    1979-01-01

    Stem cells play a key-role in the maintenance of the equilibrium between cell loss and cell production in cell renewal systems as well as in the understanding of the radiation pathophysiology of mammalian organisms. The integrity of mammalian organisms with the need to maintain a constant ''millieu interior'' is depending on the normal functioning of cell renewal systems, especially those of epithelial surfaces and blood cell forming organs. All cell renewal systems of bodies have a very similar functional structure consisting of functional, proliferative - amplifying and stem cell compartments. They differ in transit and cell cycle times and in the number of amplification division - aside from the difference in their functional and biochemical make-up. The stem cell pools are providing the cells capable of differentiation without depleting their own kind. This can be achieved by symmetrical or assymmetrical stem cell division. In normal steady state, 50% of the stem cell division remain in the stem cell pool, while the other 50% leave it to differentiate, proliferate and mature, hemopoietic system is distributed throughout bodies. This is an important factor in the radiation biology of mammalian organisms since the loss of function in one area can be compensated for by more production in other areas, and locally depleted sites can be reseeded with the stem cells migrating in from blood. (Yamashita, S.)

  10. Effort towards symmetric removal and surface smoothening of 1.3-GHz niobium single-cell cavity in vertical electropolishing using a unique cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Vijay; Kato, Shigeki; Nii, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Takanori; Sawabe, Motoaki; Hayano, Hitoshi; Ida, Yoshiaki

    2017-08-01

    A detailed study on vertical electropolishing (VEP) of a 1.3-GHz single-cell niobium coupon cavity, which contains six coupons and four viewports at different positions, is reported. The cavity was vertically electropolished using a conventional rod and three types of unique cathodes named as Ninja cathodes, which were designed to have four retractable blades made of either an insulator or a metal or a combination of both. This study reveals the effect of the cathodes and their rotation speed on uniformity in removal thickness and surface morphology at different positions inside the cavity. Removal thickness was measured at several positions of the cavity using an ultrasonic thickness gauge and the surface features of the coupons were examined by an optical microscope and a surface profiler. The Ninja cathode with partial metallic blades was found to be effective not only in reducing asymmetric removal, which is one of the major problems in VEP and might be caused by the accumulation of hydrogen (H2 ) gas bubbles on the top iris of the cavity, but also in yielding a smooth surface of the entire cavity. A higher rotation speed of the Ninja cathode prevents bubble accumulation on the upper iris, and might result in a viscous layer of similar thickness in the cavity cell. Moreover, a higher electric field at the equator owing to the proximity of partial metallic blades to the equator surface resulted in a smooth surface. The effects of H2 gas bubbles and stirring were also observed in lab EP experiments.

  11. Effort towards symmetric removal and surface smoothening of 1.3-GHz niobium single-cell cavity in vertical electropolishing using a unique cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Chouhan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study on vertical electropolishing (VEP of a 1.3-GHz single-cell niobium coupon cavity, which contains six coupons and four viewports at different positions, is reported. The cavity was vertically electropolished using a conventional rod and three types of unique cathodes named as Ninja cathodes, which were designed to have four retractable blades made of either an insulator or a metal or a combination of both. This study reveals the effect of the cathodes and their rotation speed on uniformity in removal thickness and surface morphology at different positions inside the cavity. Removal thickness was measured at several positions of the cavity using an ultrasonic thickness gauge and the surface features of the coupons were examined by an optical microscope and a surface profiler. The Ninja cathode with partial metallic blades was found to be effective not only in reducing asymmetric removal, which is one of the major problems in VEP and might be caused by the accumulation of hydrogen (H_{2} gas bubbles on the top iris of the cavity, but also in yielding a smooth surface of the entire cavity. A higher rotation speed of the Ninja cathode prevents bubble accumulation on the upper iris, and might result in a viscous layer of similar thickness in the cavity cell. Moreover, a higher electric field at the equator owing to the proximity of partial metallic blades to the equator surface resulted in a smooth surface. The effects of H_{2} gas bubbles and stirring were also observed in lab EP experiments.

  12. Is Arc mRNA Unique: A Search for mRNAs That Localize to the Distal Dendrites of Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells Following Neural Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. de Solis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There have been several attempts to identify which RNAs are localized to dendrites; however, no study has determined which RNAs localize to the dendrites following the induction of synaptic activity. We sought to identify all RNA transcripts that localize to the distal dendrites of dentate gyrus granule cells following unilateral high frequency stimulation of the perforant pathway (pp-HFS using Sprague Dawley rats. We then utilized laser microdissection (LMD to very accurately dissect out the distal 2/3rds of the molecular layer (ML, which contains these dendrites, without contamination from the granule cell layer, 2 and 4 h post pp-HFS. Next, we purified and amplified RNA from the ML and performed an unbiased screen for 27,000 RNA transcripts using Affymetrix microarrays. We determined that Activity Regulated Cytoskeletal Protein (Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA, exhibited the greatest fold increase in the ML at both timepoints (2 and 4 h. In total, we identified 31 transcripts that increased their levels within the ML following pp-HFS across the two timepoints. Of particular interest is that one of these identified transcripts was an unprocessed micro-RNA (pri-miR132. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR were used to confirm some of these candidate transcripts. Our data indicate Arc is a unique activity dependent gene, due to the magnitude that its activity dependent transcript localizes to the dendrites. Our study determined other activity dependent transcripts likely localize to the dendrites following neural activity, but do so with lower efficiency compared to Arc.

  13. Endocrine Disruptors and Leydig Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Svechnikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, a large body of information concerning the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs on animals and humans has been accumulated. EDCs are of synthetic or natural origin and certain groups are known to disrupt the action of androgens and to impair the development of the male reproductive tract and external genitalia. The present overview describes the effects of the different classes of EDCs, such as pesticides, phthalates, dioxins, and phytoestrogens, including newly synthesized resveratrol analogs on steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. The potential impact of these compounds on androgen production by Leydig cells during fetal development and in the adult age is discussed. In addition, the possible role of EDCs in connection with the increasing frequency of abnormalities in reproductive development in animals and humans is discussed.

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor impairs the functional ability of dendritic cells through Id pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxmanan, Sreenivas; Robertson, Stuart W.; Wang Enfeng; Lau, Julie S.; Briscoe, David M.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2005-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic cytokine that plays an important role in tumor growth and progression. Recent evidence suggests an alternate, albeit indirect, role of VEGF on host immune response to tumors. VEGF appears to diminish host immunity by altering the function of major antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) [D.I. Gabrilovich, T. Ishida, S. Nadaf, J.E. Ohm, D.P. Carbone, Antibodies to vascular endothelial growth factor enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy by improving endogenous dendritic cell function, Clin. Cancer Res. 5 (1999) 2963-2970, D. Gabrilovich, T. Ishida, T. Oyama, S. Ran, V. Kravtsov, S. Nadaf, D.P. Carbone, Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits the development of dendritic cells and dramatically affects the differentiation of multiple hematopoietic lineages in vivo, Blood 92 (1998) 4150-4166, T. Oyama, S. Ran, T. Ishida, S. Nadaf, L. Kerr, D.P. Carbone, D.I. Gabrilovich, Vascular endothelial growth factor affects dendritic cell maturation through the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activation in hemopoietic progenitor cells, J. Immunol. 160 (1998) 1224-1232.]. DCs are prime initiators of host immunity as they are known to activate both primary as well as secondary immune responses [J. Banchereau, F. Briere, C. Caux, J. Davoust, S. Lebecque, Y.J. Liu, B. Pulendran, K. Palucka, Immunobiology of dendritic cells, Ann. Rev. Immunol. 18 (2000) 767-811.]. However, the exact nature of how VEGF suppresses DC function is not fully clear. In this report, we show that DCs cultured in the presence of VEGF are less potent in stimulating antigen-specific T-cells. Furthermore, by using DCs derived from Id1 -/- mice that are defective in Flt-1 signaling, we demonstrated that the inhibitory function of VEGF on DC function is most likely mediated by Flt-1. Thus, the role of VEGF in downregulating host immunity may highlight a unique role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of cancer

  15. Matrix regulators in neural stem cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Anna; McKinney, Andrew; Phillips, Joanna J

    2014-08-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) reside within a complex and dynamic extracellular microenvironment, or niche. This niche regulates fundamental aspects of their behavior during normal neural development and repair. Precise yet dynamic regulation of NSPC self-renewal, migration, and differentiation is critical and must persist over the life of an organism. In this review, we summarize some of the major components of the NSPC niche and provide examples of how cues from the extracellular matrix regulate NSPC behaviors. We use proteoglycans to illustrate the many diverse roles of the niche in providing temporal and spatial regulation of cellular behavior. The NSPC niche is comprised of multiple components that include; soluble ligands, such as growth factors, morphogens, chemokines, and neurotransmitters, the extracellular matrix, and cellular components. As illustrated by proteoglycans, a major component of the extracellular matrix, the NSPC, niche provides temporal and spatial regulation of NSPC behaviors. The factors that control NSPC behavior are vital to understand as we attempt to modulate normal neural development and repair. Furthermore, an improved understanding of how these factors regulate cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, crucial for malignancy, may reveal novel anti-tumor strategies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental and Functional Control of Natural Killer Cells by Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are effective in combating infections and tumors and as such are tempting for adoptive transfer therapy. However, they are not homogeneous but can be divided into three main subsets, including cytotoxic, tolerant, and regulatory NK cells, with disparate phenotypes and functions in diverse tissues. The development and functions of such NK cells are controlled by various cytokines, such as fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FL, kit ligand (KL, interleukin (IL-3, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, transforming growth factor-β, and common-γ chain family cytokines, which operate at different stages by regulating distinct signaling pathways. Nevertheless, the specific roles of each cytokine that regulates NK cell development or that shapes different NK cell functions remain unclear. In this review, we attempt to describe the characteristics of each cytokine and the existing protocols to expand NK cells using different combinations of cytokines and feeder cells. A comprehensive understanding of the role of cytokines in NK cell development and function will aid the generation of better efficacy for adoptive NK cell treatment.

  17. In Vivo Functional Selection Identifies Cardiotrophin-1 as a Cardiac Engraftment Factor for Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Francesca; Ruozi, Giulia; Falcione, Antonella; Doimo, Sara; Dal Ferro, Matteo; Lesizza, Pierluigi; Zentilin, Lorena; Banks, Lawrence; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro

    2017-10-17

    Transplantation of cells into the infarcted heart has significant potential to improve myocardial recovery; however, low efficacy of cell engraftment still limits therapeutic benefit. Here, we describe a method for the unbiased, in vivo selection of cytokines that improve mesenchymal stromal cell engraftment into the heart both in normal conditions and after myocardial infarction. An arrayed library of 80 secreted factors, including most of the currently known interleukins and chemokines, were individually cloned into adeno-associated viral vectors. Pools from this library were then used for the batch transduction of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells ex vivo, followed by intramyocardial cell administration in normal and infarcted mice. Three weeks after injection, vector genomes were recovered from the few persisting cells and identified by sequencing DNA barcodes uniquely labeling each of the tested cytokines. The most effective molecule identified by this competitive engraftment screening was cardiotrophin-1, a member of the interleukin-6 family. Intracardiac injection of mesenchymal stromal cells transiently preconditioned with cardiotrophin-1 preserved cardiac function and reduced infarct size, parallel to the persistence of the transplanted cells in the healing hearts for at least 2 months after injection. Engraftment of cardiotrophin-1-treated mesenchymal stromal cells was consequent to signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-mediated activation of the focal adhesion kinase and its associated focal adhesion complex and the consequent acquisition of adhesive properties by the cells. These results support the feasibility of selecting molecules in vivo for their functional properties with adeno-associated viral vector libraries and identify cardiotrophin-1 as a powerful cytokine promoting cell engraftment and thus improving cell therapy of the infarcted myocardium. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. [Functional properties of taste bud cells. Mechanisms of afferent neurotransmission in Type II taste receptor cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, R A

    2013-01-01

    Taste Bud cells are heterogeneous in their morphology and functionality. These cells are responsible for sensing a wide variety of substances and for associating detected compounds with a different taste: bitter, sweet, salty, sour and umami. Today we know that each of the five basic tastes corresponds to distinct cell populations organized into three basic morpho-functional cell types. In addition, some receptor cells of the taste bud demonstrate glia-related functions. In this article we expand on some properties of these three morphological receptor cell types. Main focus is devoted to the Type II cells and unusual mechanism for afferent neurotransmission in these cells. Taste cells of the Type II consist of three populations detecting bitter, sweet and umami tastes, and, thus, evoke a serious scientific interest.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated functional tooth regeneration in swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Sonoyama

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration is a promising approach for regenerative medicine for a wide range of applications. Here we report a new population of stem cells isolated from the root apical papilla of human teeth (SCAP, stem cells from apical papilla. Using a minipig model, we transplanted both human SCAP and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs to generate a root/periodontal complex capable of supporting a porcelain crown, resulting in normal tooth function. This work integrates a stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration strategy, engineered materials for structure, and current dental crown technologies. This hybridized tissue engineering approach led to recovery of tooth strength and appearance.

  20. Human CD8 T cells generated in vitro from hematopoietic stem cells are functionally mature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zúñiga-Pflücker Juan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T cell development occurs within the highly specialized thymus. Cytotoxic CD8 T cells are critical in adaptive immunity by targeting virally infected or tumor cells. In this study, we addressed whether functional CD8 T cells can be generated fully in vitro using human umbilical cord blood (UCB hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs in coculture with OP9-DL1 cells. Results HSC/OP9-DL1 cocultures supported the differentiation of CD8 T cells, which were TCR/CD3hi CD27hi CD1aneg and thus phenotypically resembled mature functional CD8 single positive thymocytes. These in vitro-generated T cells also appeared to be conventional CD8 cells, as they expressed high levels of Eomes and low levels of Plzf, albeit not identical to ex vivo UCB CD8 T cells. Consistent with the phenotypic and molecular characterization, upon TCR-stimulation, in vitro-generated CD8 T cells proliferated, expressed activation markers (MHC-II, CD25, CD38, secreted IFN-γ and expressed Granzyme B, a cytotoxic T-cell effector molecule. Conclusion Taken together, the ability to direct human hematopoietic stem cell or T-progenitor cells towards a mature functional phenotype raises the possibility of establishing cell-based treatments for T-immunodeficiencies by rapidly restoring CD8 effector function, thereby mitigating the risks associated with opportunistic infections.

  1. Expression of Siglec-11 by human and chimpanzee ovarian stromal cells, with uniquely human ligands: implications for human ovarian physiology and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Chow, Renee; Deng, Liwen; Anderson, Dan; Weidner, Noel; Godwin, Andrew K; Bewtra, Chanda; Zlotnik, Albert; Bui, Jack; Varki, Ajit; Varki, Nissi

    2011-01-01

    Siglecs (Sialic acid-binding Immunoglobulin Superfamily Lectins) are cell surface signaling receptors of the I-type lectin group that recognize sialic acid-bearing glycans. CD33-related-Siglecs are a subset with expression primarily in cells of hematopoietic origin and functional relevance to immune reactions. Earlier we reported a human-specific gene conversion event that markedly changed the coding region for the extracellular domain of Siglec-11, associated with human-specific expression in microglia (Hayakawa T, Angata T, Lewis AL, Mikkelsen TS, Varki NM, Varki A. 2005. A human-specific gene in microglia. Science. 309:1693). Analyzing human gene microarrays to define new patterns of expression, we observed high levels of SIGLEC11 transcript in the ovary and adrenal cortex. Thus, we examined human and chimpanzee tissues using a well-characterized anti-Siglec-11 mouse monoclonal antibody. Although adrenal expression was variable and confined to infiltrating macrophages in capillaries, ovarian expression of Siglec-11 in both humans and chimpanzees was on fibroblasts, the first example of Siglec expression on mesenchyme-derived stromal cells. Cytokines from such ovarian stromal fibroblasts play important roles in follicle development and ovulation. Stable transfection of SIGLEC11 into a primary human ovarian stromal fibroblast cell line altered the secretion of growth-regulated oncogene α, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-7, transforming growth factor β1 and tumor necrosis factor-α, cytokines involved in ovarian physiology. Probing for Siglec-11 ligands revealed distinct and strong mast cell expression in human ovaries, contrasting to diffuse stromal ligands in chimpanzee ovaries. Interestingly, there was a trend of increased Siglec-11 expression in post-menopausal ovaries compared with pre-menopausal ones. Siglec-11 expression was also found on human ovarian stromal tumors and in polycystic ovarian syndrome, a human-specific disease. These results indicate potential

  2. A unique role of the cholera toxin A1-DD adjuvant for long-term plasma and memory B cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemark, Mats; Bergqvist, Peter; Stensson, Anneli; Holmberg, Anna; Mattsson, Johan; Lycke, Nils Y

    2011-02-01

    Adjuvants have traditionally been appreciated for their immunoenhancing effects, whereas their impact on immunological memory has largely been neglected. In this paper, we have compared three mechanistically distinct adjuvants: aluminum salts (Alum), Ribi (monophosphoryl lipid A), and the cholera toxin A1 fusion protein CTA1-DD. Their influence on long-term memory development was dramatically different. Whereas a single immunization i.p. with 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl (NP)-chicken γ-globulin and adjuvant stimulated serum anti-NP IgG titers that were comparable at 5 wk, CTA1-DD-adjuvanted responses were maintained for >16 mo with a half-life of anti-NP IgG ∼36 wk, but DD dose-dependent increase in germinal center (GC) size and numbers was found, with >60% of splenic B cell follicles hosting GC at an optimal CTA1-DD dose. Roughly 7% of these GC were NP specific. This GC-promoting effect correlated well with the persistence of long-term plasma cells in the bone marrow and memory B cells in the spleen. CTA1-DD also facilitated increased somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation of NP-specific IgG Abs in a dose-dependent fashion, hence arguing that large GC not only promotes higher Ab titers but also high-quality Ab production. Adoptive transfer of splenic CD80(+), but not CD80(-), B cells, at 1 y after immunization demonstrated functional long-term anti-NP IgG and IgM memory cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report to specifically compare and document that adjuvants can differ considerably in their support of long-term immune responses. Differential effects on the GC reaction appear to be the basis for these differences.

  3. Apoptosis-Inducing-Factor-Dependent Mitochondrial Function Is Required for T Cell but Not B Cell Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milasta, Sandra; Dillon, Christopher P; Sturm, Oliver E; Verbist, Katherine C; Brewer, Taylor L; Quarato, Giovanni; Brown, Scott A; Frase, Sharon; Janke, Laura J; Perry, S Scott; Thomas, Paul G; Green, Douglas R

    2016-01-19

    The role of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) in promoting cell death versus survival remains controversial. We report that the loss of AIF in fibroblasts led to mitochondrial electron transport chain defects and loss of proliferation that could be restored by ectopic expression of the yeast NADH dehydrogenase Ndi1. Aif-deficiency in T cells led to decreased peripheral T cell numbers and defective homeostatic proliferation, but thymic T cell development was unaffected. In contrast, Aif-deficient B cells developed and functioned normally. The difference in the dependency of T cells versus B cells on AIF for function and survival correlated with their metabolic requirements. Ectopic Ndi1 expression rescued homeostatic proliferation of Aif-deficient T cells. Despite its reported roles in cell death, fibroblasts, thymocytes and B cells lacking AIF underwent normal death. These studies suggest that the primary role of AIF relates to complex I function, with differential effects on T and B cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmour, Peter S.; O'Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder; Pilling, James E.; Sanganee, Hitesh; Wada, Hiroki; Courtney, Paul F.; Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A.; Escott, K. Jane

    2013-01-01

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH 1–34 or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis and

  5. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, Peter S., E-mail: Peter.Gilmour@astrazeneca.com [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); O' Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Pilling, James E. [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Sanganee, Hitesh [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Wada, Hiroki [R and I IMed, AstraZeneca R and D, Molndal (Sweden); Courtney, Paul F. [DMPK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A. [Safety Assessment, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Escott, K. Jane [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH{sub 1–34} or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis

  6. Usher protein functions in hair cells and photoreceptors

    OpenAIRE

    Cosgrove, Dominic; Zallocchi, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    The 10 different genes associated with the deaf/blind disorder, Usher syndrome, encode a number of structurally and functionally distinct proteins, most expressed as multiple isoforms/protein variants. Functional characterization of these proteins suggests a role in stereocilia development in cochlear hair cells, likely owing to adhesive interactions in hair bundles. In mature hair cells, homodimers of the Usher cadherins, cadherin 23 and protocadherin 15, interact to form a structural fiber,...

  7. Microculture system for studying monolayers of functional beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobersen, M J; Scharff, J E; Notkins, A L

    1980-04-01

    A method is described for growing monolayers of newborn rat beta-cells in microculture trays. After disruption of the pancreas with collagenase, islets were isolated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, trypsinized to obtain individual cells, and plated in 96-well tissue culture trays. The cells were incubated for the first 3 days in growth medium containing 0.1 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine to promote monolayer formation. The cultures could be maintained in a functional state, as defined by their responsiveness to known modulators of insulin secretion, for at least 2 weeks. As few as 1 X 10(3) islet cells/well gave results that were reproducible within +/- 10%. It is suggested that the microculture system for islet cells might prove to be a rapid and reproducible screening technique for studying drugs, viruses, or other agents that affect beta-cell function.

  8. Diacylglycerol kinases in T cell tolerance and effector function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley S Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs are a family of enzymes that regulate the relative levels of diacylglycerol (DAG and phosphatidic acid (PA in cells by phosphorylating DAG to produce PA. Both DAG and PA are important second messengers cascading T cell receptor (TCR signal by recruiting multiple effector molecules such as RasGRP1, PKC, and mTOR. Studies have revealed important physiological functions of DGKs in the regulation of receptor signaling and the development and activation of immune cells. In this review, we will focus on recent progresses in our understanding of two DGK isoforms,  and , in CD8 T effector and memory cell differentiation, regulatory T cell development and function, and invariant NKT cell development and effector lineage differentiation.

  9. Potential of bursa-immigrated hematopoietic precursor cells to differentiate to functional B and T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.T.; Alexander, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The potential of hematopoietic precursor cells, recently immigrated into the 13- and 14-day-old embryonic bursa, to migrate to the thymus and to differentiate to functional T cells was investigated. Chromosomally marked cell populations obtained from 13- and 14-day-old embryonic bursas were transferred i.v. to 780 R γ-irradiated chick embryos of equivalent age. When appropriate chimeras were examined at 4 to 12 weeks after cell transfer, donor cells were found to proliferate primarily in the bursa. Significant donor cell influx into the thymus was not detected. In correlation with these findings, Con A- and PHA-responsive T cells in thymus and spleen cell cultures of recipients remained of host origin whereas the number of anti-CIg responsive B cells of donor type increased gradually in the spleens of recipients. An initial lag period preceded the accumulation of functional donor B cells in the spleens of recipients, despite the predominant presence of dividing donor cells in the bursa. This suggests that the transferred bursal cell population required substantially longer to mature and emigrate from the bursa as functional B cells than the host cell population remaining in the irradiated bursas at time of cell transfer. The failure to detect significant influx of donor cells into the thymus and their failure to differentiate to functional T cells suggest that the recently bursa-immigrated hematopoietic stem cells of 13- and 14-day-old embryos may not be pluripotential cells, but rather cells already committed to the B cell line of differentiation

  10. Unique properties of Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Riparbelli

    2013-09-01

    The primary cilium is an essential organelle required for animal development and adult homeostasis that is found on most animal cells. The primary cilium contains a microtubule-based axoneme cytoskeleton that typically grows from the mother centriole in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle as a membrane-bound compartment that protrudes from the cell surface. A unique system of bidirectional transport, intraflagellar transport (IFT, maintains the structure and function of cilia. While the axoneme is dynamic, growing and shrinking at its tip, at the same time it is very stable to the effects of microtubule-targeting drugs. The primary cilia found on Drosophila spermatocytes diverge from the general rules of primary cilium biology in several respects. Among these unique attributes, spermatocyte cilia assemble from all four centrioles in an IFT-independent manner in G2 phase, and persist continuously through two cell divisions. Here, we show that Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia are extremely sensitive to microtubule-targeting drugs, unlike their mammalian counterparts. Spermatocyte cilia and their axonemes fail to assemble or be maintained upon nocodazole treatment, while centriole replication appears unperturbed. On the other hand, paclitaxel (Taxol, a microtubule-stabilizing drug, disrupted transition zone assembly and anchoring to the plasma membrane while causing spermatocyte primary cilia to grow extensively long during the assembly/elongation phase, but did not overtly affect the centrioles. However, once assembled to their mature length, spermatocyte cilia appeared unaffected by Taxol. The effects of these drugs on axoneme dynamics further demonstrate that spermatocyte primary cilia are endowed with unique assembly properties.

  11. Unimpaired dendritic cell functions in MVP/LRP knockout mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossink, MH; Groot, de J.; Zon, van A; Franzel-Luiten, E; Schoester, M.; Scheffer, G.L.; Sonneveld, P.; Scheper, R.J.; Wiemer, EA

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) act as mobile sentinels of the immune system. By stimulating T lymphocytes, DCs are pivotal for the initiation of both T- and B-cell-mediated immune responses. Recently, ribonucleoprotein particles (vaults) were found to be involved in the development and/or function of human

  12. Ascorbate regulates haematopoietic stem cell function and leukaemogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathocleous, Michalis; Meacham, Corbin E; Burgess, Rebecca J; Piskounova, Elena; Zhao, Zhiyu; Crane, Genevieve M; Cowin, Brianna L; Bruner, Emily; Murphy, Malea M; Chen, Weina; Spangrude, Gerald J; Hu, Zeping; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Morrison, Sean J

    2017-09-28

    Stem-cell fate can be influenced by metabolite levels in culture, but it is not known whether physiological variations in metabolite levels in normal tissues regulate stem-cell function in vivo. Here we describe a metabolomics method for the analysis of rare cell populations isolated directly from tissues and use it to compare mouse haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to restricted haematopoietic progenitors. Each haematopoietic cell type had a distinct metabolic signature. Human and mouse HSCs had unusually high levels of ascorbate, which decreased with differentiation. Systemic ascorbate depletion in mice increased HSC frequency and function, in part by reducing the function of Tet2, a dioxygenase tumour suppressor. Ascorbate depletion cooperated with Flt3 internal tandem duplication (Flt3 ITD ) leukaemic mutations to accelerate leukaemogenesis, through cell-autonomous and possibly non-cell-autonomous mechanisms, in a manner that was reversed by dietary ascorbate. Ascorbate acted cell-autonomously to negatively regulate HSC function and myelopoiesis through Tet2-dependent and Tet2-independent mechanisms. Ascorbate therefore accumulates within HSCs to promote Tet activity in vivo, limiting HSC frequency and suppressing leukaemogenesis.

  13. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and Leydig cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, U.N.; Jorgensen, N.; Rajpert-De, Meyts E.

    2008-01-01

    Fertility among human beings appear to be on the decline in many Western countries, and part of the explanation may be decreasing male fecundity. A hypothesis has been put forward that decreasing semen quality may be associated with a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), a spectrum of disorders...... originating in early foetal life. TDS comprises various aspects of impaired gonadal development and function, including testicular cancer. A growing body of evidence, including animal models and research in human beings, points to lifestyle factors and endocrine disrupters as risk factors for TDS. We present...

  14. Lipids as tumoricidal components of human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET): unique and shared effects on signaling and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, James C S; Storm, Petter; Rydström, Anna; Bowen, Ben; Alsin, Fredrik; Sullivan, Louise; Ambite, Inès; Mok, K H; Northen, Trent; Svanborg, Catharina

    2013-06-14

    Long-chain fatty acids are internalized by receptor-mediated mechanisms or receptor-independent diffusion across cytoplasmic membranes and are utilized as nutrients, building blocks, and signaling intermediates. Here we describe how the association of long-chain fatty acids to a partially unfolded, extracellular protein can alter the presentation to target cells and cellular effects. HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a tumoricidal complex of partially unfolded α-lactalbumin and oleic acid (OA). As OA lacks independent tumoricidal activity at concentrations equimolar to HAMLET, the contribution of the lipid has been debated. We show by natural abundance (13)C NMR that the lipid in HAMLET is deprotonated and by chromatography that oleate rather than oleic acid is the relevant HAMLET constituent. Compared with HAMLET, oleate (175 μm) showed weak effects on ion fluxes and gene expression. Unlike HAMLET, which causes metabolic paralysis, fatty acid metabolites were less strongly altered. The functional overlap increased with higher oleate concentrations (500 μm). Cellular responses to OA were weak or absent, suggesting that deprotonation favors cellular interactions of fatty acids. Fatty acids may thus exert some of their essential effects on host cells when in the deprotonated state and when presented in the context of a partially unfolded protein.

  15. High Glucose Aggravates the Detrimental Effects of Pancreatic Stellate Cells on Beta-Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. We here assess the effects of PSCs on β-cell function and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Materials and Methods. PSCs were transplanted into Wistar and Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats. Sixteen weeks after transplantation, β-cell function, apoptosis, and islet fibrosis were assessed. In vitro the effects of PSCs conditioned medium (PSCs-CM and/or high concentration of glucose on INS-1 cell function was assessed by measuring insulin secretion, INS-1 cell survival, apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress associated CHOP expression. Results. PSCs transplantation exacerbated the impaired β-cell function in GK rats, but had no significant effects in Wistar rats. In vitro, PSCs-CM caused impaired INS-1 cell viability and insulin secretion and increased apoptosis, which were more pronounced in the presence of high glucose. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that PSCs induce β-cell failure in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Roquin Paralogs Differentially Regulate Functional NKT Cell Subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Christoph; Vahl, J Christoph; Bortoluzzi, Sabrina; Heger, Klaus D; Fischer, Julius C; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Peschel, Christian; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc

    2017-04-01

    NKT cells represent a small subset of glycolipid-recognizing T cells that are heavily implicated in human allergic, autoimmune, and malignant diseases. In the thymus, precursor cells recognize self-glycolipids by virtue of their semi-invariant TCR, which triggers NKT cell lineage commitment and maturation. During their development, NKT cells are polarized into the NKT1, NKT2, and NKT17 subsets, defined through their cytokine-secretion patterns and the expression of key transcription factors. However, we have largely ignored how the differentiation into the NKT cell subsets is regulated. In this article, we describe the mRNA-binding Roquin-1 and -2 proteins as central regulators of murine NKT cell fate decisions. In the thymus, T cell-specific ablation of the Roquin paralogs leads to a dramatic expansion of NKT17 cells, whereas peripheral mature NKT cells are essentially absent. Roquin-1/2-deficient NKT17 cells show exaggerated lineage-specific expression of nearly all NKT17-defining proteins tested. We show through mixed bone marrow chimera experiments that NKT17 polarization is mediated through cell-intrinsic mechanisms early during NKT cell development. In contrast, the loss of peripheral NKT cells is due to cell-extrinsic factors. Surprisingly, Roquin paralog-deficient NKT cells are, in striking contrast to conventional T cells, compromised in their ability to secrete cytokines. Altogether, we show that Roquin paralogs regulate the development and function of NKT cell subsets in the thymus and periphery. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Generation of Functional Thymic Epithelium from Human Embryonic Stem Cells that Supports Host T Cell Development

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Audrey V.; Russ, Holger A.; Khan, Imran S.; LaFlam, Taylor N.; Metzger, Todd C.; Anderson, Mark S.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Inducing immune tolerance to prevent rejection is a key step toward successful engraftment of stem-cell-derived tissue in a clinical setting. Using human pluripotent stem cells to generate thymic epithelial cells (TECs) capable of supporting T cell development represents a promising approach to reach this goal; however, progress toward generating functional TECs has been limited. Here, we describe a robust in vitro method to direct differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into th...

  18. Microfluidics as a functional tool for cell mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanapalli, Siva A; Duits, Michel H G; Mugele, Frieder

    2009-01-05

    Living cells are a fascinating demonstration of nature's most intricate and well-coordinated micromechanical objects. They crawl, spread, contract, and relax-thus performing a multitude of complex mechanical functions. Alternatively, they also respond to physical and chemical cues that lead to remodeling of the cytoskeleton. To understand this intricate coupling between mechanical properties, mechanical function and force-induced biochemical signaling requires tools that are capable of both controlling and manipulating the cell microenvironment and measuring the resulting mechanical response. In this review, the power of microfluidics as a functional tool for research in cell mechanics is highlighted. In particular, current literature is discussed to show that microfluidics powered by soft lithographic techniques offers the following capabilities that are of significance for understanding the mechanical behavior of cells: (i) Microfluidics enables the creation of in vitro models of physiological environments in which cell mechanics can be probed. (ii) Microfluidics is an excellent means to deliver physical cues that affect cell mechanics, such as cell shape, fluid flow, substrate topography, and stiffness. (iii) Microfluidics can also expose cells to chemical cues, such as growth factors and drugs, which alter their mechanical behavior. Moreover, these chemical cues can be delivered either at the whole cell or subcellular level. (iv) Microfluidic devices offer the possibility of measuring the intrinsic mechanical properties of cells in a high throughput fashion. (v) Finally, microfluidic methods provide exquisite control over drop size, generation, and manipulation. As a result, droplets are being increasingly used to control the physicochemical environment of cells and as biomimetic analogs of living cells. These powerful attributes of microfluidics should further stimulate novel means of investigating the link between physicochemical cues and the biomechanical

  19. Folic acid functionalized surface highlights 5-methylcytosine-genomic content within circulating tumor cells

    KAUST Repository

    Malara, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Although the detection of methylated cell free DNA represents one of the most promising approaches for relapse risk assessment in cancer patients, the low concentration of cell-free circulating DNA constitutes the biggest obstacle in the development of DNA methylation-based biomarkers from blood. This paper describes a method for the measurement of genomic methylation content directly on circulating tumor cells (CTC), which could be used to deceive the aforementioned problem. Since CTC are disease related blood-based biomarkers, they result essential to monitor tumor\\'s stadiation, therapy, and early relapsing lesions. Within surface\\'s bio-functionalization and cell\\'s isolation procedure standardization, the presented approach reveals a singular ability to detect high 5-methylcytosine CTC-subset content in the whole CTC compound, by choosing folic acid (FA) as transducer molecule. Sensitivity and specificity, calculated for FA functionalized surface (FA-surface), result respectively on about 83% and 60%. FA-surface, allowing the detection and characterization of early metastatic dissemination, provides a unique advance in the comprehension of tumors progression and dissemination confirming the presence of CTC and its association with high risk of relapse. This functionalized surface identifying and quantifying high 5-methylcytosine CTC-subset content into the patient\\'s blood lead significant progress in cancer risk assessment, also providing a novel therapeutic strategy.© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hua Kun, E-mail: hua@uow.edu.au

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells.

  1. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

  2. Dendritic cell maturation: functional specialization through signaling specificity and transcriptional programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalod, Marc; Chelbi, Rabie; Malissen, Bernard; Lawrence, Toby

    2014-05-16

    Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of both protective immune responses and tolerance to self-antigens. Soon after their discovery in lymphoid tissues by Steinman and Cohn, as cells with the unique ability to prime naïve antigen-specific T cells, it was realized that DC can exist in at least two distinctive states characterized by morphological, phenotypic and functional changes-this led to the description of DC maturation. It is now well appreciated that there are several subsets of DC in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues of mammals, and these cells show remarkable functional specialization and specificity in their roles in tolerance and immunity. This review will focus on the specific characteristics of DC subsets and how their functional specialization may be regulated by distinctive gene expression programs and signaling responses in both steady-state and in the context of inflammation. In particular, we will highlight the common and distinctive genes and signaling pathways that are associated with the functional maturation of DC subsets. © 2014 The Authors.

  3. Neisseria meningitidis expressing lgtB lipopolysaccharide targets DC-SIGN and modulates dendritic cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeghs, Liana; van Vliet, Sandra J; Uronen-Hansson, Heli; van Mourik, Andries; Engering, Anneke; Sanchez-Hernandez, Martha; Klein, Nigel; Callard, Robin; van Putten, Jos P M; van der Ley, Peter; van Kooyk, Yvette; van de Winkel, Jan G J

    2006-02-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been identified as a major determinant of dendritic cell (DC) function. Here we report that one of a series of meningococcal mutants with defined truncations in the lacto-N-neotetraose outer core of the LPS exhibited unique strong adhesion and internalization properties towards DC. These properties were mediated by interaction of the GlcNAc(beta1-3)-Gal(beta1-4)-Glc-R oligosaccharide outer core of lgtB LPS with the dendritic-cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) lectin receptor. Activation of DC-SIGN with this novel oligosaccharide ligand skewed T-cell responses driven by DC towards T helper type 1 activity. Thus, the use of lgtB LPS may provide a powerful instrument to selectively induce the desired arm of the immune response and potentially increase vaccine efficacy.

  4. Lung function after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlving, Hilde Hylland; Larsen Bang, Cæcilie; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in pulmonary function (PF) has been reported in up to 85% of pediatric patients during the first year after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Our understanding of the etiology for this decrease in lung function is, however, sparse. The aim of this study was to describe PF...

  5. Functional heterogeneity and heritability in CHO cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah L; Lovelady, Clare S; Grainger, Rhian K; Racher, Andrew J; Young, Robert J; James, David C

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we address the hypothesis that it is possible to exploit genetic/functional variation in parental Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell populations to isolate clonal derivatives that exhibit superior, heritable attributes for biomanufacturing--new parental cell lines which are inherently more "fit for purpose." One-hundred and ninety-nine CHOK1SV clones were isolated from a donor CHOK1SV parental population by limiting dilution cloning and microplate image analysis, followed by primary analysis of variation in cell-specific proliferation rate during extended deep-well microplate suspension culture of individual clones to accelerate genetic drift in isolated cultures. A subset of 100 clones were comparatively evaluated for transient production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody (Mab) and green fluorescent protein following transfection of a plasmid vector encoding both genes. The heritability of both cell-specific proliferation rate and Mab production was further assessed using a subset of 23 clones varying in functional capability that were subjected to cell culture regimes involving both cryopreservation and extended sub-culture. These data showed that whilst differences in transient Mab production capability were not heritable per se, clones exhibiting heritable variation in specific proliferation rate, endocytotic transfectability and N-glycan processing were identified. Finally, for clonal populations most "evolved" by extended sub-culture in vitro we investigated the relationship between cellular protein biomass content, specific proliferation rate and cell surface N-glycosylation. Rapid-specific proliferation rate was inversely correlated to CHO cell size and protein content, and positively correlated to cell surface glycan content, although substantial clone-specific variation in ability to accumulate cell biomass was evident. Taken together, our data reveal the dynamic nature of the CHO cell functional genome and the potential to evolve and

  6. Differential Reliance on Lipid Metabolism as a Salvage Pathway Underlies Functional Differences of T Cell Subsets in Poor Nutrient Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ecker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: T cells compete with malignant cells for limited nutrients within the solid tumor microenvironment. We found that effector memory CD4 T cells respond distinctly from other T cell subsets to limiting glucose and can maintain high levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ production in a nutrient-poor environment. Unlike naive (TN or central memory T (TCM cells, effector memory T (TEM cells fail to upregulate fatty acid synthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and reductive glutaminolysis in limiting glucose. Interference of fatty acid synthesis in naive T cells dramatically upregulates IFN-γ, while increasing exogenous lipids in media inhibits production of IFN-γ by all subsets, suggesting that relative ratio of fatty acid metabolism to glycolysis is a direct predictor of T cell effector activity. Together, these data suggest that effector memory T cells are programmed to have limited ability to synthesize and metabolize fatty acids, which allows them to maintain T cell function in nutrient-depleted microenvironments. : Ecker et al. distinguish unique metabolic and functional properties of naive and memory T cell subsets during glucose limitation. During glucose starvation, T cells begin to differentially rely on fatty acid synthesis and glutamine utilization to survive. Unexpectedly, reliance on fatty acid synthesis alters the ability to produce IFN-γ. Keywords: lipid droplets, IFN-γ, oxidative phosphorylation, reductive glutaminolysis, serum-free media, naive T cell, glycolysis, effector memory T cell, fatty acid synthesis

  7. Widespread immunological functions of mast cells: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Feyerabend, Thorsten B

    2012-07-27

    Immunological functions of mast cells are currently considered to be much broader than the original role of mast cells in IgE-driven allergic disease. The spectrum of proposed mast cell functions includes areas as diverse as the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses, protective immunity against viral, microbial, and parasitic pathogens, autoimmunity, tolerance to graft rejection, promotion of or protection from cancer, wound healing, angiogenesis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, and others. The vast majority of in vivo mast cell data have been based on mast cell-deficient Kit mutant mice. However, work in new mouse mutants with unperturbed Kit function, which have a surprisingly normal immune system, has failed to corroborate some key immunological aspects, formerly attributed to mast cells. Here, we consider the implications of these recent developments for the state of the field as well as for future work, aiming at deciphering the physiological functions of mast cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Curcumin Modulates Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cell-Derived Exosomal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Carlos J. Diaz; Lynch, James C.; Leaf, Patrick; Gonda, Amber; Ferguson Bennit, Heather R.; Griffiths, Duncan; Wall, Nathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has the highest mortality rates of all cancer types. One potential explanation for the aggressiveness of this disease is that cancer cells have been found to communicate with one another using membrane-bound vesicles known as exosomes. These exosomes carry pro-survival molecules and increase the proliferation, survival, and metastatic potential of recipient cells, suggesting that tumor-derived exosomes are powerful drivers of tumor progression. Thus, to successfully address and eradicate pancreatic cancer, it is imperative to develop therapeutic strategies that neutralize cancer cells and exosomes simultaneously. Curcumin, a turmeric root derivative, has been shown to have potent anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. Recent studies have suggested that exosomal curcumin exerts anti-inflammatory properties on recipient cells. However, curcumin’s effects on exosomal pro-tumor function have yet to be determined. We hypothesize that curcumin will alter the pro-survival role of exosomes from pancreatic cancer cells toward a pro-death role, resulting in reduced cell viability of recipient pancreatic cancer cells. The main objective of this study was to determine the functional alterations of exosomes released by pancreatic cancer cells exposed to curcumin compared to exosomes from untreated pancreatic cancer cells. We demonstrate, using an in vitro cell culture model involving pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2, that curcumin is incorporated into exosomes isolated from curcumin-treated pancreatic cancer cells as observed by spectral studies and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, curcumin is delivered to recipient pancreatic cancer cells via exosomes, promoting cytotoxicity as demonstrated by Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy as well as AlamarBlue and Trypan blue exclusion assays. Collectively, these data suggest that the efficacy of curcumin may be enhanced in pancreatic cancer cells through

  9. Regulatory function of a novel population of mouse autoantigen-specific Foxp3 regulatory T cells depends on IFN-gamma, NO, and contact with target cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyndi Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both naturally arising Foxp3(+ and antigen-induced Foxp3(- regulatory T cells (Treg play a critical role in regulating immune responses, as well as in preventing autoimmune diseases and graft rejection. It is known that antigen-specific Treg are more potent than polyclonal Treg in suppressing pathogenic immune responses that cause autoimmunity and inflammation. However, difficulty in identifying and isolating a sufficient number of antigen-specific Treg has limited their use in research to elucidate the mechanisms underlying their regulatory function and their potential role in therapy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a novel class II MHC tetramer, we have isolated a population of CD4(+ Foxp3(- T cells specific for the autoantigen glutamic acid decarboxylase p286-300 peptide (NR286 T cells from diabetes-resistant non-obese resistant (NOR mice. These Foxp3(- NR286 T cells functioned as Treg that were able to suppress target T cell proliferation in vitro and inhibit type 1 diabetes in animals. Unexpected results from mechanistic studies in vitro showed that their regulatory function was dependent on not only IFN-gamma and nitric oxide, but also on cell contact with target cells. In addition, separating NR286 Treg from target T cells in transwell assays abolished both production of NO and suppression of target T cells, regardless of whether IFN-gamma was produced in cell cultures. Therefore, production of NO, not IFN-gamma, was cell contact dependent, suggesting that NO may function downstream of IFN-gamma in mediating regulatory function of NR286 Treg. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies identified a unique population of autoantigen-specific Foxp3(- Treg that can exert their regulatory function dependent on not only IFN-gamma and NO but also cell contact with target cells.

  10. Function of bunching segment in multi-cell RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xingfan; Xu Zhou Liu Xisan

    2001-01-01

    With a bunching segment and a shortened first cell, the 4 + 1/2 cell RF gun produced in CAEP has been proved experimentally to be effective in reducing electron back bombardment. The analysis of the electric field distribution and electron motion in bunching segment of multi-cell RF gun is presented. The electron capture efficiency and electron trajectory with different initial phase are calculated using Runge-Kutta method. The function of the bunching segment is discussed. The calculated parameters of the 4 + 1/2 cell RF gun agree well with the experimental results

  11. Heterogeneity of functional properties of Clone 66 murine breast cancer cells expressing various stem cell phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Farrell, Tracy; Sharma, Gayatri; McGuire, Timothy R; O'Kane, Barbara; Sharp, J Graham

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer grows, metastasizes and relapses from rare, therapy resistant cells with a stem cell phenotype (cancer stem cells/CSCs). However, there is a lack of studies comparing the functions of CSCs isolated using different phenotypes in order to determine if CSCs are homogeneous or heterogeneous. Cells with various stem cell phenotypes were isolated by sorting from Clone 66 murine breast cancer cells that grow orthotopically in immune intact syngeneic mice. These populations were compared by in vitro functional assays for proliferation, growth, sphere and colony formation; and in vivo limiting dilution analysis of tumorigenesis. The proportion of cells expressing CD44(high)CD24(low/neg), side population (SP) cells, ALDH1(+), CD49f(high), CD133(high), and CD34(high) differed, suggesting heterogeneity. Differences in frequency and size of tumor spheres from these populations were observed. Higher rates of proliferation of non-SP, ALDH1(+), CD34(low), and CD49f(high) suggested properties of transit amplifying cells. Colony formation was higher from ALDH1(-) and non-SP cells than ALDH1(+) and SP cells suggesting a progenitor phenotype. The frequency of clonal colonies that grew in agar varied and was differentially altered by the presence of Matrigel™. In vivo, fewer cells with a stem cell phenotype were needed for tumor formation than "non-stem" cells. Fewer SP cells were needed to form tumors than ALDH1(+) cells suggesting further heterogeneities of cells with stem phenotypes. Different levels of cytokines/chemokines were produced by Clone 66 with RANTES being the highest. Whether the heterogeneity reflects soluble factor production remains to be determined. These data demonstrate that Clone 66 murine breast cancer cells that express stem cell phenotypes are heterogeneous and exhibit different functional properties, and this may also be the case for human breast cancer stem cells.

  12. Phenotypic and functional plasticity of cells of innate immunity: macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, Stephen J; Borregaard, Niels; Wynn, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoietic cells, including lymphoid and myeloid cells, can develop into phenotypically distinct 'subpopulations' with different functions. However, evidence indicates that some of these subpopulations can manifest substantial plasticity (that is, undergo changes in their phenotype and function......). Here we focus on the occurrence of phenotypically distinct subpopulations in three lineages of myeloid cells with important roles in innate and acquired immunity: macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils. Cytokine signals, epigenetic modifications and other microenvironmental factors can substantially...... and, in some cases, rapidly and reversibly alter the phenotype of these cells and influence their function. This suggests that regulation of the phenotype and function of differentiated hematopoietic cells by microenvironmental factors, including those generated during immune responses, represents...

  13. Phenotypic and functional plasticity of cells of innate immunity: macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, Stephen J; Borregaard, Niels; Wynn, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    ). Here we focus on the occurrence of phenotypically distinct subpopulations in three lineages of myeloid cells with important roles in innate and acquired immunity: macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils. Cytokine signals, epigenetic modifications and other microenvironmental factors can substantially......Hematopoietic cells, including lymphoid and myeloid cells, can develop into phenotypically distinct 'subpopulations' with different functions. However, evidence indicates that some of these subpopulations can manifest substantial plasticity (that is, undergo changes in their phenotype and function...... and, in some cases, rapidly and reversibly alter the phenotype of these cells and influence their function. This suggests that regulation of the phenotype and function of differentiated hematopoietic cells by microenvironmental factors, including those generated during immune responses, represents...

  14. Cell-Intrinsic Roles for Autophagy in Modulating CD4 T Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Jacquin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The catabolic process of autophagy plays important functions in inflammatory and immune responses by modulating innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Over the last decade, a cell-intrinsic role for autophagy in modulating CD4 T cell functions and differentiation was revealed. After the initial observation of autophagosomes in effector CD4 T cells, further work has shown that not only autophagy levels are modulated in CD4 T cells in response to environmental signals but also that autophagy critically affects the biology of these cells. Mouse models of autophagy deletion in CD4 T cells have indeed shown that autophagy is essential for CD4 T cell survival and homeostasis in peripheral lymphoid organs. Furthermore, autophagy is required for CD4 T cell proliferation and cytokine production in response to T cell receptor activation. Recent developments have uncovered that autophagy controls CD4 T cell differentiation and functions. While autophagy is required for the maintenance of immunosuppressive functions of regulatory T cells, it restrains the differentiation of TH9 effector cells, thus limiting their antitumor and pro-inflammatory properties. We will here discuss these findings that collectively suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting autophagy could be exploited for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  15. Uniqueness in time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, P.

    1981-01-01

    According to P. Janich a clock is defined as an apparatus in which a point ( hand ) is moving uniformly on a straight line ( path ). For the definition of uniformly first the scaling (as a constant ratio of velocities) is defined without clocks. Thereafter the uniqueness of the time measurement can be proved using the prove of scaling of all clocks. But the uniqueness can be defined without scaling, as it is pointed out here. (orig.) [de

  16. [Cell-derived microparticles unveil their fibrinolytic and proteolytic function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeuvre, Loïc; Angles-Cano, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (MP) are membrane microvesicles, 0.1-1 microm in size, shed by cells following activation or during apoptosis in a variety of pathological conditions. MPs released by blood cells or by vascular endothelial cells display molecular signatures that allow their identification and functional characterization. In addition, they provide tissue factor (TF) and a procoagulant phospholipid surface. Therefore, at present, the most strongly established applied research on MPs is their procoagulant activity as a determinant of thrombotic risk in various clinical conditions. Previous studies have indicated that MPs derived from malignant cells express matrix metalloproteinases, urokinase and its receptor (uPA/uPAR) that, in the presence of plasminogen, may act in concert to degrade extracellular matrix proteins. Recently, it was shown that MPs from TNFa-stimulated endothelial cells served as a surface for interaction with plasminogen and its conversion into plasmin by the uPA/uPAR system expressed at their surface. This capacity of MPs to promote plasmin generation confers them a new profibrinolytic and proteolytic function that may be of relevance in fibrinolysis, cell migration, angiogenesis, dissemination of malignant cells, cell detachment and apoptosis.

  17. Bacterial Signaling Nucleotides Inhibit Yeast Cell Growth by Impacting Mitochondrial and Other Specifically Eukaryotic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Hesketh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inducibly synthesize the prokaryotic signaling nucleotides cyclic di-GMP (cdiGMP, cdiAMP, and ppGpp in order to characterize the range of effects these nucleotides exert on eukaryotic cell function during bacterial pathogenesis. Synthetic genetic array (SGA and transcriptome analyses indicated that, while these compounds elicit some common reactions in yeast, there are also complex and distinctive responses to each of the three nucleotides. All three are capable of inhibiting eukaryotic cell growth, with the guanine nucleotides exhibiting stronger effects than cdiAMP. Mutations compromising mitochondrial function and chromatin remodeling show negative epistatic interactions with all three nucleotides. In contrast, certain mutations that cause defects in chromatin modification and ribosomal protein function show positive epistasis, alleviating growth inhibition by at least two of the three nucleotides. Uniquely, cdiGMP is lethal both to cells growing by respiration on acetate and to obligately fermentative petite mutants. cdiGMP is also synthetically lethal with the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR inhibitor hydroxyurea. Heterologous expression of the human ppGpp hydrolase Mesh1p prevented the accumulation of ppGpp in the engineered yeast and restored cell growth. Extensive in vivo interactions between bacterial signaling molecules and eukaryotic gene function occur, resulting in outcomes ranging from growth inhibition to death. cdiGMP functions through a mechanism that must be compensated by unhindered RNR activity or by functionally competent mitochondria. Mesh1p may be required for abrogating the damaging effects of ppGpp in human cells subjected to bacterial infection.

  18. Ras proteins have multiple functions in vegetative cells of Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolourani, Parvin; Spiegelman, George; Weeks, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    During the aggregation of Dictyostelium cells, signaling through RasG is more important in regulating cyclic AMP (cAMP) chemotaxis, whereas signaling through RasC is more important in regulating the cAMP relay. However, RasC is capable of substituting for RasG for chemotaxis, since rasG⁻ cells are only partially deficient in chemotaxis, whereas rasC⁻/rasG⁻ cells are totally incapable of chemotaxis. In this study we have examined the possible functional overlap between RasG and RasC in vegetative cells by comparing the vegetative cell properties of rasG⁻, rasC⁻, and rasC⁻/rasG⁻ cells. In addition, since RasD, a protein not normally found in vegetative cells, is expressed in vegetative rasG⁻ and rasC⁻/rasG⁻ cells and appears to partially compensate for the absence of RasG, we have also examined the possible functional overlap between RasG and RasD by comparing the properties of rasG⁻ and rasC⁻/rasG⁻ cells with those of the mutant cells expressing higher levels of RasD. The results of these two lines of investigation show that RasD is capable of totally substituting for RasG for cytokinesis and growth in suspension, whereas RasC is without effect. In contrast, for chemotaxis to folate, RasC is capable of partially substituting for RasG, but RasD is totally without effect. Finally, neither RasC nor RasD is able to substitute for the role that RasG plays in regulating actin distribution and random motility. These specificity studies therefore delineate three distinct and none-overlapping functions for RasG in vegetative cells.

  19. Altered effector function of peripheral cytotoxic cells in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corne Jonathan M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting evidence that perforin and granzymes are important mediators in the lung destruction seen in COPD. We investigated the characteristics of the three main perforin and granzyme containing peripheral cells, namely CD8+ T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK; CD56+CD3- cells and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated and cell numbers and intracellular granzyme B and perforin were analysed by flow cytometry. Immunomagnetically selected CD8+ T lymphocytes, NK (CD56+CD3- and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells were used in an LDH release assay to determine cytotoxicity and cytotoxic mechanisms were investigated by blocking perforin and granzyme B with relevant antibodies. Results The proportion of peripheral blood NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells in smokers with COPD (COPD subjects was significantly lower (0.6% than in healthy smokers (smokers (2.8%, p +CD3- cells from COPD subjects were significantly less cytotoxic than in smokers (16.8% vs 51.9% specific lysis, p +CD3+ cells (16.7% vs 52.4% specific lysis, p +CD3- and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells from smokers and HNS. Conclusion In this study, we show that the relative numbers of peripheral blood NK (CD56+CD3- and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells in COPD subjects are reduced and that their cytotoxic effector function is defective.

  20. Human lung mast cells modulate the functions of airway smooth muscle cells in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhouri, H; Hollins, F; Moir, L M; Brightling, C E; Armour, C L; Hughes, J M

    2011-09-01

    Activated mast cell densities are increased on the airway smooth muscle in asthma where they may modulate muscle functions and thus contribute to airway inflammation, remodelling and airflow obstruction. To determine the effects of human lung mast cells on the secretory and proliferative functions of airway smooth muscle cells from donors with and without asthma. Freshly isolated human lung mast cells were stimulated with IgE/anti-IgE. Culture supernatants were collected after 2 and 24 h and the mast cells lysed. The supernatants/lysates were added to serum-deprived, subconfluent airway smooth muscle cells for up to 48 h. Released chemokines and extracellular matrix were measured by ELISA, proliferation was quantified by [(3) H]-thymidine incorporation and cell counting, and intracellular signalling by phospho-arrays. Mast cell 2-h supernatants reduced CCL11 and increased CXCL8 and fibronectin production from both asthmatic and nonasthmatic muscle cells. Leupeptin reversed these effects. Mast cell 24-h supernatants and lysates reduced CCL11 release from both muscle cell types but increased CXCL8 release by nonasthmatic cells. The 24-h supernatants also reduced asthmatic, but not nonasthmatic, muscle cell DNA synthesis and asthmatic cell numbers over 5 days through inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol (PI3)-kinase pathways. However, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, IL-4 and IL-13 were not involved in reducing the proliferation. Mast cell proteases and newly synthesized products differentially modulated the secretory and proliferative functions of airway smooth muscle cells from donors with and without asthma. Thus, mast cells may modulate their own recruitment and airway smooth muscle functions locally in asthma. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Neuron-NG2 Cell Synapses: Novel Functions for Regulating NG2 Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Kun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NG2 cells are a population of CNS cells that are distinct from neurons, mature oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. These cells can be identified by their NG2 proteoglycan expression. NG2 cells have a highly branched morphology, with abundant processes radiating from the cell body, and express a complex set of voltage-gated channels, AMPA/kainate, and GABA receptors. Neurons notably form classical and nonclassical synapses with NG2 cells, which have varied characteristics and functions. Neuron-NG2 cell synapses could fine-tune NG2 cell activities, including the NG2 cell cycle, differentiation, migration, and myelination, and may be a novel potential therapeutic target for NG2 cell-related diseases, such as hypoxia-ischemia injury and periventricular leukomalacia. Furthermore, neuron-NG2 cell synapses may be correlated with the plasticity of CNS in adulthood with the synaptic contacts passing onto their progenies during proliferation, and synaptic contacts decrease rapidly upon NG2 cell differentiation. In this review, we highlight the characteristics of classical and nonclassical neuron-NG2 cell synapses, the potential functions, and the fate of synaptic contacts during proliferation and differentiation, with the emphasis on the regulation of the NG2 cell cycle by neuron-NG2 cell synapses and their potential underlying mechanisms.

  2. Isolation and functional aspects of free luteal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luborsky, J.L.; Berhrman, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of luteal cell isolation employ enzymatic treatment of luteal tissue with collagenase and deoxyribonuclease. Additional enzymes such as hyaluronidase or Pronase are also used in some instances. Isolated luteal cells retain the morphological characteristics of steroid secreting cells after isolation. They contain mitochondria, variable amounts of lipid droplets, and an extensive smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Isolated luteal cells have been used in numerous studies to examine the regulation of steriodogenesis by luteinizing hormone (LH). LH receptor binding studies were employed to quantitate specific properties of hormone-receptor interaction in relation to cellular function. Binding of [ 125 I]LH to bovine luteal cells and membranes was compared and it was concluded that the enzymatic treatment used to isolate cells did not change the LH receptor binding kinetics

  3. Functional cell mediated lympholysis I. Description of the assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeken, N.E.; Thompson, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    The anamnestic response by human bi-directional (BD) mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC) to restimulation by cells of the original stimulating type is generally strikingly reduced as compared to that of standard one-way cultures. This difference was shown not to be related to a change in kinetics nor was it due to exhaustion of the media or soluble factors since fresh media did not ameliorate the effect nor were supernatants from BD cultures found to be suppressive. The relative inhibition was also not reversed by removal of the allogeneic cells by phenotype specific antiserum. Cytotoxic tests with donor and responder specific antisera revealed that the cells bearing that phenotype were dramatically reduced in BD as compared to one-way cultures. Thus, the diminished secondary response appears to be due to cytotoxic elimination of the responder cells. This allogeneic cytotoxicity is dependent on non-T, phagocytic, adherent cells. The phenomenon is called Functional Cell Mediated Lympholysis (F-CML). (author)

  4. Digoxin reveals a functional connection between HIV-1 integration preference and T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Melamed, Anat; Anderson, Ian; Planas, Delphine; Lee, Chen-Hsuin; Kriston-Vizi, Janos; Ketteler, Robin; Merritt, Andy; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Ancuta, Petronela; Bangham, Charles R M; Fassati, Ariberto

    2017-07-01

    HIV-1 integrates more frequently into transcribed genes, however the biological significance of HIV-1 integration targeting has remained elusive. Using a selective high-throughput chemical screen, we discovered that the cardiac glycoside digoxin inhibits wild-type HIV-1 infection more potently than HIV-1 bearing a single point mutation (N74D) in the capsid protein. We confirmed that digoxin repressed viral gene expression by targeting the cellular Na+/K+ ATPase, but this did not explain its selectivity. Parallel RNAseq and integration mapping in infected cells demonstrated that digoxin inhibited expression of genes involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Analysis of >400,000 unique integration sites showed that WT virus integrated more frequently than N74D mutant within or near genes susceptible to repression by digoxin and involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Two main gene networks down-regulated by the drug were CD40L and CD38. Blocking CD40L by neutralizing antibodies selectively inhibited WT virus infection, phenocopying digoxin. Thus the selectivity of digoxin depends on a combination of integration targeting and repression of specific gene networks. The drug unmasked a functional connection between HIV-1 integration and T-cell activation. Our results suggest that HIV-1 evolved integration site selection to couple its early gene expression with the status of target CD4+ T-cells, which may affect latency and viral reactivation.

  5. Digoxin reveals a functional connection between HIV-1 integration preference and T-cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zhyvoloup

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 integrates more frequently into transcribed genes, however the biological significance of HIV-1 integration targeting has remained elusive. Using a selective high-throughput chemical screen, we discovered that the cardiac glycoside digoxin inhibits wild-type HIV-1 infection more potently than HIV-1 bearing a single point mutation (N74D in the capsid protein. We confirmed that digoxin repressed viral gene expression by targeting the cellular Na+/K+ ATPase, but this did not explain its selectivity. Parallel RNAseq and integration mapping in infected cells demonstrated that digoxin inhibited expression of genes involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Analysis of >400,000 unique integration sites showed that WT virus integrated more frequently than N74D mutant within or near genes susceptible to repression by digoxin and involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Two main gene networks down-regulated by the drug were CD40L and CD38. Blocking CD40L by neutralizing antibodies selectively inhibited WT virus infection, phenocopying digoxin. Thus the selectivity of digoxin depends on a combination of integration targeting and repression of specific gene networks. The drug unmasked a functional connection between HIV-1 integration and T-cell activation. Our results suggest that HIV-1 evolved integration site selection to couple its early gene expression with the status of target CD4+ T-cells, which may affect latency and viral reactivation.

  6. Plant parasitic nematode effectors target host defence and nuclear functions to establish feeding cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël eQuentin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes are microscopic worms, the most damaging species of which have adopted a sedentary lifestyle within their hosts. These obligate endoparasites have a biotrophic relationship with plants, in which they induce the differentiation of root cells into hypertrophied, multinucleate feeding cells. Effectors synthesised in the oesophageal glands of the nematode are injected into the plant cells via the syringe-like stylet and play a key role in manipulating the host machinery. The establishment of specialized feeding cells requires these effectors to modulate many aspects of plant cell morphogenesis and physiology, including defence responses. This cell reprogramming requires changes to host nuclear processes. Some proteins encoded by parasitism genes target host nuclei. Several of these proteins were immunolocalised within feeding cell nuclei or shown to interact with host nuclear proteins. Comparative genomics and functional analyses are gradually revealing the roles of nematode effectors. We describe here these effectors and their hypothesised roles in the unique feeding behaviour of these pests.

  7. Overexpression of neurofilament H disrupts normal cell structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szebenyi, Gyorgyi; Smith, George M.; Li, Ping; Brady, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    Studying exogenously expressed tagged proteins in live cells has become a standard technique for evaluating protein distribution and function. Typically, expression levels of experimentally introduced proteins are not regulated, and high levels are often preferred to facilitate detection. However, overexpression of many proteins leads to mislocalization and pathologies. Therefore, for normative studies, moderate levels of expression may be more suitable. To understand better the dynamics of intermediate filament formation, transport, and stability in a healthy, living cell, we inserted neurofilament heavy chain (NFH)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion constructs in adenoviral vectors with tetracycline (tet)-regulated promoters. This system allows for turning on or off the synthesis of NFH-GFP at a selected time, for a defined period, in a dose-dependent manner. We used this inducible system for live cell imaging of changes in filament structure and cell shape, motility, and transport associated with increasing NFH-GFP expression. Cells with low to intermediate levels of NFH-GFP were structurally and functionally similar to neighboring, nonexpressing cells. In contrast, overexpression led to pathological alterations in both filament organization and cell function. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Folic acid functionalized surface highlights 5-methylcytosine-genomic content within circulating tumor cells

    KAUST Repository

    Malara, Natalia; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Limongi, Tania; Asande, Monica; Trunzo, Valentina; Cojoc, Gheorghe; Raso, Cinzia; Candeloro, Patrizio; Perozziello, Gerardo; Raimondo, Raffaella; De Vitis, Stefania; Roveda, Laura; Renne, Maria; Prati, Ubaldo; Mollace, Vincenzo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    Although the detection of methylated cell free DNA represents one of the most promising approaches for relapse risk assessment in cancer patients, the low concentration of cell-free circulating DNA constitutes the biggest obstacle in the development of DNA methylation-based biomarkers from blood. This paper describes a method for the measurement of genomic methylation content directly on circulating tumor cells (CTC), which could be used to deceive the aforementioned problem. Since CTC are disease related blood-based biomarkers, they result essential to monitor tumor's stadiation, therapy, and early relapsing lesions. Within surface's bio-functionalization and cell's isolation procedure standardization, the presented approach reveals a singular ability to detect high 5-methylcytosine CTC-subset content in the whole CTC compound, by choosing folic acid (FA) as transducer molecule. Sensitivity and specificity, calculated for FA functionalized surface (FA-surface), result respectively on about 83% and 60%. FA-surface, allowing the detection and characterization of early metastatic dissemination, provides a unique advance in the comprehension of tumors progression and dissemination confirming the presence of CTC and its association with high risk of relapse. This functionalized surface identifying and quantifying high 5-methylcytosine CTC-subset content into the patient's blood lead significant progress in cancer risk assessment, also providing a novel therapeutic strategy.© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Unique battery with a multi-functional, physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and a method making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J.; Sears, Devin N.; Smith, Luis J.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a unique battery having a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and method of making the same. The Applicant's invented battery employs a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode that acts as a separator, electrolyte, and electrode, within the same monolithic structure. The chemical composition, physical arrangement of molecules, and physical geometry of the pores play a role in the sequestration and conduction of ions. In one preferred embodiment, ions are transported via the ion-hoping mechanism where the oxygens of the Al2O3 wall are available for positive ion coordination (i.e. Li+). This active membrane-electrode composite can be adjusted to a desired level of ion conductivity by manipulating the chemical composition and structure of the pore wall to either increase or decrease ion conduction.

  10. Abnormal red cell structure and function in neuroacanthocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith C A Cluitmans

    Full Text Available Panthothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN belongs to a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders known as neuroacanthocytosis (NA. This genetically heterogeneous group of diseases is characterized by degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia and by the presence of deformed red blood cells with thorny protrusions, acanthocytes, in the circulation.The goal of our study is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this aberrant red cell morphology and the corresponding functional consequences. This could shed light on the etiology of the neurodegeneration.We performed a qualitative and semi-quantitative morphological, immunofluorescent, biochemical and functional analysis of the red cells of several patients with PKAN and, for the first time, of the red cells of their family members.We show that the blood of patients with PKAN contains not only variable numbers of acanthocytes, but also a wide range of other misshapen red cells. Immunofluorescent and immunoblot analyses suggest an altered membrane organization, rather than quantitative changes in protein expression. Strikingly, these changes are not limited to the red blood cells of PKAN patients, but are also present in the red cells of heterozygous carriers without neurological problems. Furthermore, changes are not only present in acanthocytes, but also in other red cells, including discocytes. The patients' cells, however, are more fragile, as observed in a spleen-mimicking device.These morphological, molecular and functional characteristics of red cells in patients with PKAN and their family members offer new tools for diagnosis and present a window into the pathophysiology of neuroacanthocytosis.

  11. Baculovirus IE2 Stimulates the Expression of Heat Shock Proteins in Insect and Mammalian Cells to Facilitate Its Proper Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Hsuan; Wei, Sung-Chan; Lo, Huei-Ru; Chao, Yu-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Baculoviruses have gained popularity as pest control agents and for protein production in insect systems. These viruses are also becoming popular for gene expression, tissue engineering and gene therapy in mammalian systems. Baculovirus infection triggers a heat shock response, and this response is crucial for its successful infection of host insect cells. However, the viral protein(s) or factor(s) that trigger this response are not yet clear. Previously, we revealed that IE2-an early gene product of the baculovirus-could form unique nuclear bodies for the strong trans-activation of various promoters in mammalian cells. Here, we purified IE2 nuclear bodies from Vero E6 cells and investigated the associated proteins by using mass spectrometry. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were found to be one of the major IE2-associated proteins. Our experiments show that HSPs are greatly induced by IE2 and are crucial for the trans-activation function of IE2. Interestingly, blocking both heat shock protein expression and the proteasome pathway preserved the IE2 protein and its nuclear body structure, and revived its function. These observations reveal that HSPs do not function directly to assist the formation of the nuclear body structure, but may rather protect IE2 from proteasome degradation. Aside from functional studies in mammalian cells, we also show that HSPs were stimulated and required to determine IE2 protein levels, in insect cells infected with baculovirus. Upon inhibiting the expression of heat shock proteins, baculovirus IE2 was substantially suppressed, resulting in a significantly suppressed viral titer. Thus, we demonstrate a unique feature in that IE2 can function in both insect and non-host mammalian cells to stimulate HSPs, which may be associated with IE2 stabilization and lead to the protection of the its strong gene activation function in mammalian cells. On the other hand, during viral infection in insect cells, IE2 could also strongly stimulate HSPs and

  12. Functional Properties of Human Stem Cell-Derived Neurons in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Weick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-derived neurons from various source materials present unique model systems to examine the fundamental properties of central nervous system (CNS development as well as the molecular underpinnings of disease phenotypes. In order to more accurately assess potential therapies for neurological disorders, multiple strategies have been employed in recent years to produce neuronal populations that accurately represent in vivo regional and transmitter phenotypes. These include new technologies such as direct conversion of somatic cell types into neurons and glia which may accelerate maturation and retain genetic hallmarks of aging. In addition, novel forms of genetic manipulations have brought human stem cells nearly on par with those of rodent with respect to gene targeting. For neurons of the CNS, the ultimate phenotypic characterization lies with their ability to recapitulate functional properties such as passive and active membrane characteristics, synaptic activity, and plasticity. These features critically depend on the coordinated expression and localization of hundreds of ion channels and receptors, as well as scaffolding and signaling molecules. In this review I will highlight the current state of knowledge regarding functional properties of human stem cell-derived neurons, with a primary focus on pluripotent stem cells. While significant advances have been made, critical hurdles must be overcome in order for this technology to support progression toward clinical applications.

  13. Biogenesis and function of T cell-derived exosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Alonso

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are a particular type of extracellular vesicle, characterized by their endosomal origin as intraluminal vesicles present in large endosomes with a multivesicular structure. After these endosomes fuse with the plasma membrane, exosomes are secreted into the extracellular space. The ability of exosomes to carry and selectively deliver bioactive molecules (e.g., lipids, proteins and nucleic acids confers on them the capacity to modulate the activity of receptor cells, even if these cells are located in distant tissues or organs. Since exosomal cargo depends on cell type, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the biochemical composition of exosomes is fundamental to a comprehensive view of exosome function. Here, we review the latest advances concerning exosome function and biogenesis in T cells, with particular focus on the mechanism of protein sorting at multivesicular endosomes. Exosomes secreted by specific T-cell subsets can modulate the activity of immune cells, including other T-cell subsets. Ceramide, tetraspanins and MAL have been revealed to be important in exosome biogenesis by T cells. These molecules, therefore, constitute potential molecular targets for artificially modulating exosome production and, hence, the immune response for therapeutic purposes.

  14. Function and Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complicated disorder and largely attributable to dyslipidaemia and chronic inflammation. Despite therapeutic advances over past decades, atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Due to their capability of immunomodulation and tissue regeneration, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have evolved as an attractive therapeutic agent in various diseases including atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidences support the protective role of MSCs in all stages of atherosclerosis. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of MSCs including their characteristics such as molecular markers, tissue distribution, migratory property, immune-modulatory competence, etc. We also summarize MSC functions in animal models of atherosclerosis. MSC transplantation is able to modulate cytokine and chemokine secretion, reduce endothelial dysfunction, promote regulatory T cell function, decrease dyslipidemia, and stabilize vulnerable plaques during atherosclerosis development. In addition, MSCs may migrate to lesions where they develop into functional cells during atherosclerosis formation. Finally, the perspectives of MSCs in clinical atherosclerosis therapy are discussed.

  15. Activated NKT cells imprint NK-cell differentiation, functionality and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Peggy; Trittel, Stephanie; May, Tobias; Cicin-Sain, Luka; Chambers, Benedict J; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    NK cells represent a vital component of the innate immune system. The recent discoveries demonstrating that the functionality of NK cells depends on their differentiation and education status underscore their potential as targets for immune intervention. However, to exploit their full potential, a detailed understanding of the cellular interactions involved in these processes is required. In this regard, the cross-talk between NKT cells and NK cells needs to be better understood. Our results provide strong evidence for NKT cell-induced effects on key biological features of NK cells. NKT-cell activation results in the generation of highly active CD27(high) NK cells with improved functionality. In this context, degranulation activity and IFNγ production were mainly detected in the educated subset. In a mCMV infection model, we also demonstrated that NKT-cell stimulation induced the generation of highly functional educated and uneducated NK cells, crucial players in viral control. Thus, our findings reveal new fundamental aspects of the NKT-NK cell axis that provide important hints for the manipulation of NK cells in clinical settings. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. XIAP reverses various functional activities of FRNK in endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sunyoung; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Chi, Sung-Gil; Park, Heonyong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► FRNK domain is recruited into focal adhesion (FA), controlling endothelial cell adhesion. ► XIAP binds the FRNK domain of FAK. ► XIAP inhibits recruitment of FRNK into Fas and FRNK-promoted cell adhesion. ► XIAP plays a key role in vascular functions of FRNK or FRNK domain-mediated vascular functions of FAK. -- Abstract: In endothelial cells, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, and shear-stimulated activation of MAPK. We recently found that FAK is recruited into focal adhesion (FA) sites through interactions with XIAP (X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) and activated by Src kinase in response to shear stress. In this study, we examined which domain(s) of FAK is(are) important for various vascular functions such as FA recruiting, XIAP-binding and shear stress-stimulated ERK activation. Through a series of experiments, we determined that the FRNK domain is recruited into FA sites and promotes endothelial cell adhesion. Interestingly, XIAP knockdown was shown to reduce FA recruitment of FRNK and the cell adhesive effect of FRNK. In addition, we found that XIAP interacts with FRNK, suggesting cross-talk between XIAP and FRNK. We also demonstrated that FRNK inhibits endothelial cell migration and shear-stimulated ERK activation. These inhibitory effects of FRNK were reversed by XIAP knockdown. Taken together, we can conclude that XIAP plays a key role in vascular functions of FRNK or FRNK domain-mediated vascular functions of FAK.

  17. Alternative mitochondrial functions in cell physiopathology: beyond ATP production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowaltowski A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that mitochondria are the main site for ATP generation within most tissues. However, mitochondria also participate in a surprising number of alternative activities, including intracellular Ca2+ regulation, thermogenesis and the control of apoptosis. In addition, mitochondria are the main cellular generators of reactive oxygen species, and may trigger necrotic cell death under conditions of oxidative stress. This review concentrates on these alternative mitochondrial functions, and their role in cell physiopathology.

  18. Studies on catecholamine function in human fat cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Lena

    1996-01-01

    Catecholamine function in human fat cells Lena Hellström, Centre for Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, S-141 86 Huddinge, Sweden Human adipose tissue is a heterogeneous organ as regards metabolism. The effects of catecholamines, the main lipolytic hormones in man vary considerably in different regions. Fat cell lipolysis also changes in a number of physiological and pathophysiological states...

  19. Stem Cell Antigen-1 in Skeletal Muscle Function

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Harold S.; Samad, Tahmina; Cholsiripunlert, Sompob; Khalifian, Saami; Gong, Wenhui; Ritner, Carissa; Aurigui, Julian; Ling, Vivian; Wilschut, Karlijn J.; Bennett, Stephen; Hoffman, Julien; Oishi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is a member of the Ly-6 multigene family encoding highly homologous, glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins. Sca-1 is expressed on muscle-derived stem cells and myogenic precursors recruited to sites of muscle injury. We previously reported that inhibition of Sca-1 expression stimulated myoblast proliferation in vitro and regulated the tempo of muscle repair in vivo. Despite its function in myoblast expansion during muscle repair, a role for Sca-1...

  20. Invariant NKT cells: regulation and function during viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Juno

    Full Text Available Natural killer T cells (NKT cells represent a subset of T lymphocytes that express natural killer (NK cell surface markers. A subset of NKT cells, termed invariant NKT cells (iNKT, express a highly restricted T cell receptor (TCR and respond to CD1d-restricted lipid ligands. iNKT cells are now appreciated to play an important role in linking innate and adaptive immune responses and have been implicated in infectious disease, allergy, asthma, autoimmunity, and tumor surveillance. Advances in iNKT identification and purification have allowed for the detailed study of iNKT activity in both humans and mice during a variety of chronic and acute infections. Comparison of iNKT function between non-pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV infection models and chronic HIV-infected patients implies a role for iNKT activity in controlling immune activation. In vitro studies of influenza infection have revealed novel effector functions of iNKT cells including IL-22 production and modulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, but ex vivo characterization of human iNKT cells during influenza infection are lacking. Similarly, as recent evidence suggests iNKT involvement in dengue virus pathogenesis, iNKT cells may modulate responses to a number of emerging pathogens. This Review will summarize current knowledge of iNKT involvement in responses to viral infections in both human and mouse models and will identify critical gaps in knowledge and opportunities for future study. We will also highlight recent efforts to harness iNKT ligands as vaccine adjuvants capable of improving vaccination-induced cellular immune responses.

  1. Probing isoform-specific functions of polypeptide GalNAc-transferases using zinc finger nuclease glycoengineered SimpleCells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Kong, Yun

    2012-01-01

    to include proteome-wide discovery of unique functions of individual GalNAc-Ts. We used the GalNAc-T2 isoform implicated in dyslipidemia and the human HepG2 liver cell line to demonstrate unique functions of this isoform. We confirm that GalNAc-T2-directed site-specific O-glycosylation inhibits proprotein...... activation of the lipase inhibitor ANGPTL3 in HepG2 cells and further identify eight O-glycoproteins exclusively glycosylated by T2 of which one, ApoC-III, is implicated in dyslipidemia. Our study supports an essential role for GalNAc-T2 in lipid metabolism, provides serum biomarkers for GalNAc-T2 enzyme...

  2. Thermo-responsive cell culture carrier: Effects on macrophage functionality and detachment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennert, Knut; Nitschke, Mirko; Wallert, Maria; Keune, Natalie; Raasch, Martin; Lorkowski, Stefan; Mosig, Alexander S

    2017-01-01

    Harvesting cultivated macrophages for tissue engineering purposes by enzymatic digestion of cell adhesion molecules can potentially result in unintended activation, altered function, or behavior of these cells. Thermo-responsive polymer is a promising tool that allows for gentle macrophage detachment without artificial activation prior to subculture within engineered tissue constructs. We therefore characterized different species of thermo-responsive polymers for their suitability as cell substrate and to mediate gentle macrophage detachment by temperature shift. Primary human monocyte- and THP-1-derived macrophages were cultured on thermo-responsive polymers and characterized for phagocytosis and cytokine secretion in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. We found that both cell types differentially respond in dependence of culture and stimulation on thermo-responsive polymers. In contrast to THP-1 macrophages, primary monocyte-derived macrophages showed no signs of impaired viability, artificial activation, or altered functionality due to culture on thermo-responsive polymers compared to conventional cell culture. Our study demonstrates that along with commercially available UpCell carriers, two other thermo-responsive polymers based on poly(vinyl methyl ether) blends are attractive candidates for differentiation and gentle detachment of primary monocyte-derived macrophages. In summary, we observed similar functionality and viability of primary monocyte-derived macrophages cultured on thermo-responsive polymers compared to standard cell culture surfaces. While this first generation of custom-made thermo-responsive polymers does not yet outperform standard culture approaches, our results are very promising and provide the basis for exploiting the unique advantages offered by custom-made thermo-responsive polymers to further improve macrophage culture and recovery in the future, including the covalent binding of signaling molecules and the reduction of

  3. Glucose metabolism regulates T cell activation, differentiation and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Steve Palmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system is equipped to eliminate both tumors and pathogenic microorganisms. It requires a series of complex and coordinated signals to drive the activation, proliferation and differentiation of appropriate T cell subsets. It is now established that changes in cellular activation are coupled to profound changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, emerging evidence now suggest that specific metabolic alterations associated with distinct T cell subsets may be ancillary to their differentiation and influential in their immune functions. The Warburg effect originally used to describe a phenomenon in which most cancer cells relied on aerobic glycolysis for their growth is a key process that sustain T cell activation and differentiation. Here we review how different aspects of metabolism in T cells influence their functions, focusing on the emerging role of key regulators of glucose metabolism such as HIF-1α. A thorough understanding of the role of metabolism in T cell function could provide insights into mechanisms involved in inflammatory-mediated conditions, with the potential for developing novel therapeutic approaches to treat these diseases.

  4. Functional cell types in taste buds have distinct longevities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Perea-Martinez

    Full Text Available Taste buds are clusters of polarized sensory cells embedded in stratified oral epithelium. In adult mammals, taste buds turn over continuously and are replenished through the birth of new cells in the basal layer of the surrounding non-sensory epithelium. The half-life of cells in mammalian taste buds has been estimated as 8-12 days on average. Yet, earlier studies did not address whether the now well-defined functional taste bud cell types all exhibit the same lifetime. We employed a recently developed thymidine analog, 5-ethynil-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU to re-evaluate the incorporation of newly born cells into circumvallate taste buds of adult mice. By combining EdU-labeling with immunostaining for selected markers, we tracked the differentiation and lifespan of the constituent cell types of taste buds. EdU was primarily incorporated into basal extragemmal cells, the principal source for replenishing taste bud cells. Undifferentiated EdU-labeled cells began migrating into circumvallate taste buds within 1 day of their birth. Type II (Receptor taste cells began to differentiate from EdU-labeled precursors beginning 2 days after birth and then were eliminated with a half-life of 8 days. Type III (Presynaptic taste cells began differentiating after a delay of 3 days after EdU-labeling, and they survived much longer, with a half-life of 22 days. We also scored taste bud cells that belong to neither Type II nor Type III, a heterogeneous group that includes mostly Type I cells, and also undifferentiated or immature cells. A non-linear decay fit described these cells as two sub-populations with half-lives of 8 and 24 days respectively. Our data suggest that many post-mitotic cells may remain quiescent within taste buds before differentiating into mature taste cells. A small number of slow-cycling cells may also exist within the perimeter of the taste bud. Based on their incidence, we hypothesize that these may be progenitors for Type III cells.

  5. Functional cell types in taste buds have distinct longevities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Nagai, Takatoshi; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are clusters of polarized sensory cells embedded in stratified oral epithelium. In adult mammals, taste buds turn over continuously and are replenished through the birth of new cells in the basal layer of the surrounding non-sensory epithelium. The half-life of cells in mammalian taste buds has been estimated as 8-12 days on average. Yet, earlier studies did not address whether the now well-defined functional taste bud cell types all exhibit the same lifetime. We employed a recently developed thymidine analog, 5-ethynil-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) to re-evaluate the incorporation of newly born cells into circumvallate taste buds of adult mice. By combining EdU-labeling with immunostaining for selected markers, we tracked the differentiation and lifespan of the constituent cell types of taste buds. EdU was primarily incorporated into basal extragemmal cells, the principal source for replenishing taste bud cells. Undifferentiated EdU-labeled cells began migrating into circumvallate taste buds within 1 day of their birth. Type II (Receptor) taste cells began to differentiate from EdU-labeled precursors beginning 2 days after birth and then were eliminated with a half-life of 8 days. Type III (Presynaptic) taste cells began differentiating after a delay of 3 days after EdU-labeling, and they survived much longer, with a half-life of 22 days. We also scored taste bud cells that belong to neither Type II nor Type III, a heterogeneous group that includes mostly Type I cells, and also undifferentiated or immature cells. A non-linear decay fit described these cells as two sub-populations with half-lives of 8 and 24 days respectively. Our data suggest that many post-mitotic cells may remain quiescent within taste buds before differentiating into mature taste cells. A small number of slow-cycling cells may also exist within the perimeter of the taste bud. Based on their incidence, we hypothesize that these may be progenitors for Type III cells.

  6. Defective immunoregulatory T-cell function in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, T.; Ozer, H.; Henderson, E.S.; Dadey, B.; Nussbaum-Blumenson, A.; Barcos, M.

    1981-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) of B-cell origin results in the malignant proliferation of small immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes. There is currently a controversy in the literature regarding both the ability of this leukemic population to differentiate into mature plasma cells, as well as the ability of apparently normal T cells from these patients to regulate allogeneic B-cell differentiation. In the present study we have examined the lymphocytes of CLL patients in various clinical stages of their disease and with different surface phenotypes of their leukemic B-cell population. Our results show that leukemic CLL B cells from all 20 patients (including one patient with a monoclonal IgM paraprotein and another with a monoclonal IgG paraprotein) are incapable of further differentiation even in the absence of suppressor T cells and the presence of helper T lymphocytes. This lack of capacity to differentiate is unaffected by clinical stage, by therapy, or by the phenotype of the malignant population. Since the leukemic B population did not suppress normal allogeneic B-cell differentiation, the maturation deficit is evidently intrinsic to the leukemic clone rather than a result of activity of non-T suppressor cells. T helper function was also variably depressed in the blood of some patients with CLL, and this depression did not correlate with clinical stage, with therapy, or with the degree of lymphocytosis. Dysfunction of radiosensitive T suppressor cells was found to be the most consistent regulatory deficit of CLL T cells. Each of 11 patients whose leukemic cell population was of the μdelta, μα, or μ phenotype had both helper and suppressor cell defects

  7. From embryonic stem cells to functioning germ cells: science, clinical and ethical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatpongsan, Sorapop

    2007-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells have been well recognized as cells having a versatile potential to differentiate into all types of cells in the body including germ cells. There are many research studies focusing on the differentiation processes and protocols to derive various types of somatic cells from embryonic stem cells. However, germ cells have unique differentiation process and developmental pathway compared with somatic cells. Consequently, they will require different differentiation protocols and special culture techniques. More understanding and established in vitro systems for gametogenesis will greatly contribute to further progression of knowledge and technology in germ cell biology, reproductive biology and reproductive medicine. Moreover if oocytes can be efficiently produced in vitro, this will play an important role on progression in nuclear transfer and nuclear reprogramming technology. The present article will provide concise review on past important discoveries, current ongoing studies and future views of this challenging research area. An ethical perspective has also been proposed to give comprehensive summary and viewpoint for future clinical application.

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Intact Flagella of Procyclic Trypanosoma brucei Cells Identifies Novel Flagellar Proteins with Unique Sub-localization and Dynamics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subota, Ines; Julkowska, Daria; Vincensini, Laetitia; Reeg, Nele; Buisson, Johanna; Blisnick, Thierry; Huet, Diego; Perrot, Sylvie; Santi-Rocca, Julien; Duchateau, Magalie; Hourdel, Véronique; Rousselle, Jean-Claude; Cayet, Nadège; Namane, Abdelkader; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Bastin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are complex organelles made of hundreds of proteins of highly variable structures and functions. Here we report the purification of intact flagella from the procyclic stage of Trypanosoma brucei using mechanical shearing. Structural preservation was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy that showed that flagella still contained typical elements such as the membrane, the axoneme, the paraflagellar rod, and the intraflagellar transport particles. It also revealed that flagella severed below the basal body, and were not contaminated by other cytoskeletal structures such as the flagellar pocket collar or the adhesion zone filament. Mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 751 proteins with high confidence, including 88% of known flagellar components. Comparison with the cell debris fraction revealed that more than half of the flagellum markers were enriched in flagella and this enrichment criterion was taken into account to identify 212 proteins not previously reported to be associated to flagella. Nine of these were experimentally validated including a 14-3-3 protein not yet reported to be associated to flagella and eight novel proteins termed FLAM (FLAgellar Member). Remarkably, they localized to five different subdomains of the flagellum. For example, FLAM6 is restricted to the proximal half of the axoneme, no matter its length. In contrast, FLAM8 is progressively accumulating at the distal tip of growing flagella and half of it still needs to be added after cell division. A combination of RNA interference and Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching approaches demonstrated very different dynamics from one protein to the other, but also according to the stage of construction and the age of the flagellum. Structural proteins are added to the distal tip of the elongating flagellum and exhibit slow turnover whereas membrane proteins such as the arginine kinase show rapid turnover without a detectible polarity. PMID:24741115

  9. Proteomic analysis of intact flagella of procyclic Trypanosoma brucei cells identifies novel flagellar proteins with unique sub-localization and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subota, Ines; Julkowska, Daria; Vincensini, Laetitia; Reeg, Nele; Buisson, Johanna; Blisnick, Thierry; Huet, Diego; Perrot, Sylvie; Santi-Rocca, Julien; Duchateau, Magalie; Hourdel, Véronique; Rousselle, Jean-Claude; Cayet, Nadège; Namane, Abdelkader; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Bastin, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Cilia and flagella are complex organelles made of hundreds of proteins of highly variable structures and functions. Here we report the purification of intact flagella from the procyclic stage of Trypanosoma brucei using mechanical shearing. Structural preservation was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy that showed that flagella still contained typical elements such as the membrane, the axoneme, the paraflagellar rod, and the intraflagellar transport particles. It also revealed that flagella severed below the basal body, and were not contaminated by other cytoskeletal structures such as the flagellar pocket collar or the adhesion zone filament. Mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 751 proteins with high confidence, including 88% of known flagellar components. Comparison with the cell debris fraction revealed that more than half of the flagellum markers were enriched in flagella and this enrichment criterion was taken into account to identify 212 proteins not previously reported to be associated to flagella. Nine of these were experimentally validated including a 14-3-3 protein not yet reported to be associated to flagella and eight novel proteins termed FLAM (FLAgellar Member). Remarkably, they localized to five different subdomains of the flagellum. For example, FLAM6 is restricted to the proximal half of the axoneme, no matter its length. In contrast, FLAM8 is progressively accumulating at the distal tip of growing flagella and half of it still needs to be added after cell division. A combination of RNA interference and Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching approaches demonstrated very different dynamics from one protein to the other, but also according to the stage of construction and the age of the flagellum. Structural proteins are added to the distal tip of the elongating flagellum and exhibit slow turnover whereas membrane proteins such as the arginine kinase show rapid turnover without a detectible polarity. © 2014 by The

  10. Angiocrine functions of organ-specific endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Shahin; Butler, Jason M; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Preface Endothelial cells lining blood vessel capillaries are not just passive conduits for delivering blood. Tissue-specific endothelium establish specialized vascular niches that deploy specific sets of growth factors, known as angiocrine factors, which actively participate in inducing, specifying, patterning, and guiding organ regeneration and maintaining homeostasis and metabolism. Angiocrine factors upregulated in response to injury orchestrates self-renewal and differentiation of tissue-specific repopulating resident stem and progenitor cells into functional organs. Uncovering the precise mechanisms whereby physiological-levels of angiocrine factors are spatially and temporally produced, and distributed by organotypic endothelium to repopulating cells, will lay the foundation for driving organ repair without scarring. PMID:26791722

  11. Antigen Availability Shapes T Cell Differentiation and Function during Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguche, Albanus O; Musvosvi, Munyaradzi; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Plumlee, Courtney R; Mearns, Helen; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Smit, Erica; Abrahams, Deborah; Rozot, Virginie; Dintwe, One; Hoff, Søren T; Kromann, Ingrid; Ruhwald, Morten; Bang, Peter; Larson, Ryan P; Shafiani, Shahin; Ma, Shuyi; Sherman, David R; Sette, Alessandro; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia S; McKinney, Denise M; Maecker, Holden; Hanekom, Willem A; Hatherill, Mark; Andersen, Peter; Scriba, Thomas J; Urdahl, Kevin B

    2017-06-14

    CD4 T cells are critical for protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the cause of tuberculosis (TB). Yet to date, TB vaccine candidates that boost antigen-specific CD4 T cells have conferred little or no protection. Here we examined CD4 T cell responses to two leading TB vaccine antigens, ESAT-6 and Ag85B, in Mtb-infected mice and in vaccinated humans with and without underlying Mtb infection. In both species, Mtb infection drove ESAT-6-specific T cells to be more differentiated than Ag85B-specific T cells. The ability of each T cell population to control Mtb in the lungs of mice was restricted for opposite reasons: Ag85B-specific T cells were limited by reduced antigen expression during persistent infection, whereas ESAT-6-specific T cells became functionally exhausted due to chronic antigenic stimulation. Our findings suggest that different vaccination strategies will be required to optimize protection mediated by T cells recognizing antigens expressed at distinct stages of Mtb infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The first venomous crustacean revealed by transcriptomics and functional morphology: remipede venom glands express a unique toxin cocktail dominated by enzymes and a neurotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Björn M; Blanke, Alexander; Richter, Sandy; Alvarez, Fernando; Bleidorn, Christoph; Jenner, Ronald A

    2014-01-01

    Animal venoms have evolved many times. Venomous species are especially common in three of the four main groups of arthropods (Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Hexapoda), which together represent tens of thousands of species of venomous spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and hymenopterans. Surprisingly, despite their great diversity of body plans, there is no unambiguous evidence that any crustacean is venomous. We provide the first conclusive evidence that the aquatic, blind, and cave-dwelling remipede crustaceans are venomous and that venoms evolved in all four major arthropod groups. We produced a three-dimensional reconstruction of the venom delivery apparatus of the remipede Speleonectes tulumensis, showing that remipedes can inject venom in a controlled manner. A transcriptomic profile of its venom glands shows that they express a unique cocktail of transcripts coding for known venom toxins, including a diversity of enzymes and a probable paralytic neurotoxin very similar to one described from spider venom. We screened a transcriptomic library obtained from whole animals and identified a nontoxin paralog of the remipede neurotoxin that is not expressed in the venom glands. This allowed us to reconstruct its probable evolutionary origin and underlines the importance of incorporating data derived from nonvenom gland tissue to elucidate the evolution of candidate venom proteins. This first glimpse into the venom of a crustacean and primitively aquatic arthropod reveals conspicuous differences from the venoms of other predatory arthropods such as centipedes, scorpions, and spiders and contributes valuable information for ultimately disentangling the many factors shaping the biology and evolution of venoms and venomous species.

  13. Functionalized scaffolds to control dental pulp stem cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Evandro; Silva, Adriana F.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging understanding about interactions between stem cells, scaffolds and morphogenic factors has accelerated translational research in the field of dental pulp tissue engineering. Dental pulp stem cells constitute a sub-population of cells endowed with self-renewal and multipotency. Dental pulp stem cells seeded in biodegradable scaffolds and exposed to dentin-derived morphogenic signals give rise to a pulp-like tissue capable of generating new dentin. Notably, dentin-derived proteins are sufficient to induce dental pulp stem cell differentiation into odontoblasts. Ongoing work is focused on developing ways of mobilizing dentin-derived proteins and disinfecting the root canal of necrotic teeth without compromising the morphogenic potential of these signaling molecules. On the other hand, dentin by itself does not appear to be capable of inducing endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells, despite the well known presence of angiogenic factors in dentin. This is particularly relevant in the context of dental pulp tissue engineering in full root canals, where access to blood supply is limited to the apical foramina. To address this challenge, scientists are looking at ways to use the scaffold as a controlled release device for angiogenic factors. The aim of this manuscript is to present and discuss current strategies to functionalize injectable scaffolds and customize them for dental pulp tissue engineering. The long-term goal of this work is to develop stem cell-based therapies that enable the engineering of functional dental pulps capable of generating new tubular dentin in humans. PMID:24698691

  14. Oct4 targets regulatory nodes to modulate stem cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl A Campbell

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are characterized by two defining features, the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into highly specialized cell types. The POU homeodomain transcription factor Oct4 (Pou5f1 is an essential mediator of the embryonic stem cell state and has been implicated in lineage specific differentiation, adult stem cell identity, and cancer. Recent description of the regulatory networks which maintain 'ES' have highlighted a dual role for Oct4 in the transcriptional activation of genes required to maintain self-renewal and pluripotency while concomitantly repressing genes which facilitate lineage specific differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism by which Oct4 mediates differential activation or repression at these loci to either maintain stem cell identity or facilitate the emergence of alternate transcriptional programs required for the realization of lineage remains to be elucidated. To further investigate Oct4 function, we employed gene expression profiling together with a robust statistical analysis to identify genes highly correlated to Oct4. Gene Ontology analysis to categorize overrepresented genes has led to the identification of themes which may prove essential to stem cell identity, including chromatin structure, nuclear architecture, cell cycle control, DNA repair, and apoptosis. Our experiments have identified previously unappreciated roles for Oct4 for firstly, regulating chromatin structure in a state consistent with self-renewal and pluripotency, and secondly, facilitating the expression of genes that keeps the cell poised to respond to cues that lead to differentiation. Together, these data define the mechanism by which Oct4 orchestrates cellular regulatory pathways to enforce the stem cell state and provides important insight into stem cell function and cancer.

  15. Usher protein functions in hair cells and photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Dominic; Zallocchi, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    The 10 different genes associated with the deaf/blind disorder, Usher syndrome, encode a number of structurally and functionally distinct proteins, most expressed as multiple isoforms/protein variants. Functional characterization of these proteins suggests a role in stereocilia development in cochlear hair cells, likely owing to adhesive interactions in hair bundles. In mature hair cells, homodimers of the Usher cadherins, cadherin 23 and protocadherin 15, interact to form a structural fiber, the tip link, and the linkages that anchor the taller stereocilia's actin cytoskeleton core to the shorter adjacent stereocilia and the elusive mechanotransduction channels, explaining the deafness phenotype when these molecular interactions are perturbed. The conundrum is that photoreceptors lack a synonymous mechanotransduction apparatus, and so a common theory for Usher protein function in the two neurosensory cell types affected in Usher syndrome is lacking. Recent evidence linking photoreceptor cell dysfunction in the shaker 1 mouse model for Usher syndrome to light-induced protein translocation defects, combined with localization of an Usher protein interactome at the periciliary region of the photoreceptors suggests Usher proteins might regulate protein trafficking between the inner and outer segments of photoreceptors. A distinct Usher protein complex is trafficked to the ribbon synapses of hair cells, and synaptic defects have been reported in Usher mutants in both hair cells and photoreceptors. This review aims to clarify what is known about Usher protein function at the synaptic and apical poles of hair cells and photoreceptors and the prospects for identifying a unifying pathobiological mechanism to explain deaf/blindness in Usher syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural and functional analysis of a microbial mat ecosystem from a unique permanent hypersaline inland lake: ‘La Salada de Chiprana’ (NE Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonkers, Henk M.; Ludwig, Rebecca; De Wit, Rutger

    2003-01-01

    The benthic microbial mat community of the only permanent hypersaline natural inland lake of Western Europe, ‘La Salada de Chiprana’, northeastern Spain, was structurally and functionally analyzed. The ionic composition of the lake water is characterized by high concentrations of magnesium...

  17. Linking stem cell function and growth pattern of intestinal organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalheim, Torsten; Quaas, Marianne; Herberg, Maria; Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Kerner, Christiane; Loeffler, Markus; Aust, Gabriela; Galle, Joerg

    2018-01-15

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) require well-defined signals from their environment in order to carry out their specific functions. Most of these signals are provided by neighboring cells that form a stem cell niche, whose shape and cellular composition self-organize. Major features of this self-organization can be studied in ISC-derived organoid culture. In this system, manipulation of essential pathways of stem cell maintenance and differentiation results in well-described growth phenotypes. We here provide an individual cell-based model of intestinal organoids that enables a mechanistic explanation of the observed growth phenotypes. In simulation studies of the 3D structure of expanding organoids, we investigate interdependences between Wnt- and Notch-signaling which control the shape of the stem cell niche and, thus, the growth pattern of the organoids. Similar to in vitro experiments, changes of pathway activities alter the cellular composition of the organoids and, thereby, affect their shape. Exogenous Wnt enforces transitions from branched into a cyst-like growth pattern; known to occur spontaneously during long term organoid expansion. Based on our simulation results, we predict that the cyst-like pattern is associated with biomechanical changes of the cells which assign them a growth advantage. The results suggest ongoing stem cell adaptation to in vitro conditions during long term expansion by stabilizing Wnt-activity. Our study exemplifies the potential of individual cell-based modeling in unraveling links between molecular stem cell regulation and 3D growth of tissues. This kind of modeling combines experimental results in the fields of stem cell biology and cell biomechanics constituting a prerequisite for a better understanding of tissue regeneration as well as developmental processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pretransplantation recipient regulatory T cell suppressive function predicts delayed and slow graft function after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Tri J P; Fryml, Elise; Sahakian, Sossy K; Liu, Shuqing; Michel, Rene P; Lipman, Mark L; Mucsi, Istvan; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Tchervenkov, Jean I; Paraskevas, Steven

    2014-10-15

    Delayed graft function (DGF) and slow graft function (SGF) are a continuous spectrum of ischemia-reperfusion-related acute kidney injury (AKI) that increases the risk for acute rejection and graft loss after kidney transplantation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical in transplant tolerance and attenuate murine AKI. In this prospective observational cohort study, we evaluated whether pretransplantation peripheral blood recipient Treg frequency and suppressive function are predictors of DGF and SGF after kidney transplantation. Deceased donor kidney transplant recipients (n=53) were divided into AKI (n=37; DGF, n=10; SGF, n=27) and immediate graft function (n=16) groups. Pretransplantation peripheral blood CD4CD25FoxP3 Treg frequency was quantified by flow cytometry. Regulatory T-cell suppressive function was measured by suppression of autologous effector T-cell proliferation by Treg in co-culture. Pretransplantation Treg suppressive function, but not frequency, was decreased in AKI recipients (Paccounting for the effects of cold ischemic time and donor age, Treg suppressive function discriminated DGF from immediate graft function recipients in multinomial logistic regression (odds ratio, 0.77; Pfunction is a potential independent pretransplantation predictor of DGF and SGF.

  19. Left ventricular systolic function in sickle cell anaemia: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Left ventricular systolic function, sickle cell anaemia, echocardiographic evaluation, adult Nigerian patients. ..... Quadratic .505. -0.390. 12.231. 8.587 .001*. Cubic .510. -0.180. 8.264. 8.619 .001*. This relationship was further evaluated by means of scat- ter plots and subsequently by regression analysis. The.

  20. Sexual function 1-year after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noerskov, K. H.; Schjødt, I.; Syrjala, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with short and long-term toxicities that can result in alterations in sexual functioning. The aims of this prospective evaluation were to determine: (1) associations between HSCT and increased sexual dysfunction...

  1. Microfluidics as a functional tool for cell mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; Vanapalli Veera, V.S.A.R.; Duits, Michael H.G.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2009-01-01

    Living cells are a fascinating demonstration of nature’s most intricate and well-coordinated micromechanical objects. They crawl, spread, contract, and relax—thus performing a multitude of complex mechanical functions. Alternatively, they also respond to physical and chemical cues that lead to

  2. The vitamin D receptor and T cell function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eKongsbak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin D receptor (VDR is a nuclear, ligand-dependent transcription factor that in complex with hormonally active vitamin D, 1,25(OH2D3, regulates the expression of more than 900 genes involved in a wide array of physiological functions. The impact of 1,25(OH2D3-VDR signaling on immune function has been the focus of many recent studies as a link between 1,25(OH2D3 and sus-ceptibility to various infections and to development of a variety of inflammatory diseases has been suggested. It is also becoming increasingly clear that microbes slow down immune reactivity by dysregulating the VDR ultimately to increase their chance of survival. Immune modulatory therapies that enhance VDR expression and activity are therefore considered in the clinic today to a greater extent. As T cells are of great importance for both protective immunity and development of inflammatory diseases a variety of studies have been engaged investigating the impact of VDR ex-pression in T cells and found that VDR expression and activity plays an important role in both T cell development, differentiation and effector function. In this review we will analyze current know-ledge of VDR regulation and function in T cells and discuss its importance for immune activity.

  3. Lifelong dietary intervention does not affect hematopoietic stem cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazare, Seka; Ausema, Albertina; Reijne, Aaffien C; van Dijk, Gertjan; van Os, Ronald; de Haan, Gerald

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo a profound functional decline during normal aging. Because caloric or dietary restriction has been shown to delay multiple aspects of the aging process in many species, we explored the consequences of lifelong caloric restriction, or conversely, lifelong

  4. Reduced fetal androgen exposure compromises Leydig cell function in adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerds, K.J.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of normal fetal development can influence functioning of organs and cells in adulthood. Circumstantial evidence suggests that subtle reductions in fetal androgen production may be the cause of adult male reproductive disorders due to reduced testosterone production. The mechanisms through

  5. Liver Function In Patients With Homozygous Sickle Cell Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the sensitive ELISA technique, 213 patients with sickle cell anemia (112 males and 101 females) aged 6 months to 18 years were screened for Hepatitis B infection using Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to Hepatitis B core antigen. A biochemical evaluation of liver function was carried out on all ...

  6. Biomaterials that promote cell-cell interactions enhance the paracrine function of MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Taimoor H; Mooney, David J; Duda, Georg N; Geissler, Sven

    2017-09-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that play crucial roles during tissue regeneration. Whether this paracrine function is influenced by the properties of biomaterials in general, and those used for cell delivery in particular, largely remains unexplored. Here, we investigated if three-dimensional culture in distinct microenvironments - nanoporous hydrogels (mean pore size ∼5 nm) and macroporous scaffolds (mean pore size ∼120 μm) - affects the secretion pattern of MSCs, and consequently leads to differential paracrine effects on target progenitor cells such as myoblasts. We report that compared to MSCs encapsulated in hydrogels, scaffold seeded MSCs show an enhanced secretion profile and exert beneficial paracrine effects on various myoblast functions including migration and proliferation. Additionally, we show that the heightened paracrine effects of scaffold seeded cells can in part be attributed to N-cadherin mediated cell-cell interactions during culture. In hydrogels, this physical interaction between cells is prevented by the encapsulating matrix. Functionally blocking N-cadherin negatively affected the secretion profile and paracrine effects of MSCs on myoblasts, with stronger effects observed for scaffold seeded compared to hydrogel encapsulated cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that the therapeutic potency of MSCs can be enhanced by biomaterials that promote cell-cell interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional implications of plasma membrane condensation for T cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Rentero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The T lymphocyte plasma membrane condenses at the site of activation but the functional significance of this receptor-mediated membrane reorganization is not yet known. Here we demonstrate that membrane condensation at the T cell activation sites can be inhibited by incorporation of the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC, which is known to prevent the formation of raft-like liquid-ordered domains in model membranes. We enriched T cells with 7KC, or cholesterol as control, to assess the importance of membrane condensation for T cell activation. Upon 7KC treatment, T cell antigen receptor (TCR triggered calcium fluxes and early tyrosine phosphorylation events appear unaltered. However, signaling complexes form less efficiently on the cell surface, fewer phosphorylated signaling proteins are retained in the plasma membrane and actin restructuring at activation sites is impaired in 7KC-enriched cells resulting in compromised downstream activation responses. Our data emphasizes lipids as an important medium for the organization at T cell activation sites and strongly indicates that membrane condensation is an important element of the T cell activation process.

  8. Ion channel expression patterns in glioblastoma stem cells with functional and therapeutic implications for malignancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Pollak

    Full Text Available Ion channels and transporters have increasingly recognized roles in cancer progression through the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and death. Glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs are a source of tumor formation and recurrence in glioblastoma multiforme, a highly aggressive brain cancer, suggesting that ion channel expression may be perturbed in this population. However, little is known about the expression and functional relevance of ion channels that may contribute to GSC malignancy. Using RNA sequencing, we assessed the enrichment of ion channels in GSC isolates and non-tumor neural cell types. We identified a unique set of GSC-enriched ion channels using differential expression analysis that is also associated with distinct gene mutation signatures. In support of potential clinical relevance, expression of selected GSC-enriched ion channels evaluated in human glioblastoma databases of The Cancer Genome Atlas and Ivy Glioblastoma Atlas Project correlated with patient survival times. Finally, genetic knockdown as well as pharmacological inhibition of individual or classes of GSC-enriched ion channels constrained growth of GSCs compared to normal neural stem cells. This first-in-kind global examination characterizes ion channels enriched in GSCs and explores their potential clinical relevance to glioblastoma molecular subtypes, gene mutations, survival outcomes, regional tumor expression, and experimental responses to loss-of-function. Together, the data support the potential biological and therapeutic impact of ion channels on GSC malignancy and provide strong rationale for further examination of their mechanistic and therapeutic importance.

  9. Ion channel expression patterns in glioblastoma stem cells with functional and therapeutic implications for malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Julia; Rai, Karan G; Funk, Cory C; Arora, Sonali; Lee, Eunjee; Zhu, Jun; Price, Nathan D; Paddison, Patrick J; Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Rostomily, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    Ion channels and transporters have increasingly recognized roles in cancer progression through the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and death. Glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) are a source of tumor formation and recurrence in glioblastoma multiforme, a highly aggressive brain cancer, suggesting that ion channel expression may be perturbed in this population. However, little is known about the expression and functional relevance of ion channels that may contribute to GSC malignancy. Using RNA sequencing, we assessed the enrichment of ion channels in GSC isolates and non-tumor neural cell types. We identified a unique set of GSC-enriched ion channels using differential expression analysis that is also associated with distinct gene mutation signatures. In support of potential clinical relevance, expression of selected GSC-enriched ion channels evaluated in human glioblastoma databases of The Cancer Genome Atlas and Ivy Glioblastoma Atlas Project correlated with patient survival times. Finally, genetic knockdown as well as pharmacological inhibition of individual or classes of GSC-enriched ion channels constrained growth of GSCs compared to normal neural stem cells. This first-in-kind global examination characterizes ion channels enriched in GSCs and explores their potential clinical relevance to glioblastoma molecular subtypes, gene mutations, survival outcomes, regional tumor expression, and experimental responses to loss-of-function. Together, the data support the potential biological and therapeutic impact of ion channels on GSC malignancy and provide strong rationale for further examination of their mechanistic and therapeutic importance.

  10. Infected cell protein 0 functional domains and their coordination in herpes simplex virus replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen that establishes latent infection in ganglia neurons. Its unique life cycle requires a balanced “conquer and compromise” strategy to deal with the host anti-viral defenses. One of HSV-1 α (immediate early) gene products, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), is a multifunctional protein that interacts with and modulates a wide range of cellular defensive pathways. These pathways may locate in different cell compartments, which then migrate or exchange factors upon stimulation, for the purpose of a concerted and effective defense. ICP0 is able to simultaneously attack multiple host pathways by either degrading key restrictive factors or modifying repressive complexes. This is a viral protein that contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase, translocates among different cell compartments and interacts with major defensive complexes. The multiple functional domains of ICP0 can work independently and at the same time coordinate with each other. Dissecting the functional domains of ICP0 and delineating the coordination of these domains will help us understand HSV-1 pathogenicity as well as host defense mechanisms. This article focuses on describing individual ICP0 domains, their biochemical properties and their implication in HSV-1 infection. By putting individual domain functions back into the picture of host anti-viral defense network, this review seeks to elaborate the complex interactions between HSV-1 and its host. PMID:26870669

  11. Microbial community composition of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea provides insight into functional adaption to a unique environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthig, Till; Yum, Lauren K; Kremb, Stephan G; Roik, Anna; Voolstra, Christian R

    2017-03-17

    Microbes associated with deep-sea corals remain poorly studied. The lack of symbiotic algae suggests that associated microbes may play a fundamental role in maintaining a viable coral host via acquisition and recycling of nutrients. Here we employed 16 S rRNA gene sequencing to study bacterial communities of three deep-sea scleractinian corals from the Red Sea, Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus typus. We found diverse, species-specific microbiomes, distinct from the surrounding seawater. Microbiomes were comprised of few abundant bacteria, which constituted the majority of sequences (up to 58% depending on the coral species). In addition, we found a high diversity of rare bacteria (taxa at 90% of all bacteria). Interestingly, we identified anaerobic bacteria, potentially providing metabolic functions at low oxygen conditions, as well as bacteria harboring the potential to degrade crude oil components. Considering the presence of oil and gas fields in the Red Sea, these bacteria may unlock this carbon source for the coral host. In conclusion, the prevailing environmental conditions of the deep Red Sea (>20 °C, <2 mg oxygen L -1 ) may require distinct functional adaptations, and our data suggest that bacterial communities may contribute to coral functioning in this challenging environment.

  12. Microbial community composition of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea provides insight into functional adaption to a unique environment

    KAUST Repository

    Röthig, Till

    2017-03-17

    Microbes associated with deep-sea corals remain poorly studied. The lack of symbiotic algae suggests that associated microbes may play a fundamental role in maintaining a viable coral host via acquisition and recycling of nutrients. Here we employed 16 S rRNA gene sequencing to study bacterial communities of three deep-sea scleractinian corals from the Red Sea, Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus typus. We found diverse, species-specific microbiomes, distinct from the surrounding seawater. Microbiomes were comprised of few abundant bacteria, which constituted the majority of sequences (up to 58% depending on the coral species). In addition, we found a high diversity of rare bacteria (taxa at <1% abundance comprised >90% of all bacteria). Interestingly, we identified anaerobic bacteria, potentially providing metabolic functions at low oxygen conditions, as well as bacteria harboring the potential to degrade crude oil components. Considering the presence of oil and gas fields in the Red Sea, these bacteria may unlock this carbon source for the coral host. In conclusion, the prevailing environmental conditions of the deep Red Sea (>20 °C, <2 mg oxygen L−1) may require distinct functional adaptations, and our data suggest that bacterial communities may contribute to coral functioning in this challenging environment.

  13. Integration of spectral domain optical coherence tomography with microperimetry generates unique datasets for the simultaneous identification of visual function and retinal structure in ophthalmological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulen, Peter; Gallimore, Gary; Vincent, Ryan D.; Sabates, Nelson R.; Sabates, Felix N.

    2011-06-01

    Conventional perimeters are used routinely in various eye disease states to evaluate the central visual field and to quantitatively map sensitivity. However, standard automated perimetry proves difficult for retina and specifically macular disease due to the need for central and steady fixation. Advances in instrumentation have led to microperimetry, which incorporates eye tracking for placement of macular sensitivity values onto an image of the macular fundus thus enabling a precise functional and anatomical mapping of the central visual field. Functional sensitivity of the retina can be compared with the observed structural parameters that are acquired with high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography and by integration of scanning laser ophthalmoscope-driven imaging. Findings of the present study generate a basis for age-matched comparison of sensitivity values in patients with macular pathology. Microperimetry registered with detailed structural data performed before and after intervention treatments provides valuable information about macular function, disease progression and treatment success. This approach also allows for the detection of disease or treatment related changes in retinal sensitivity when visual acuity is not affected and can drive the decision making process in choosing different treatment regimens and guiding visual rehabilitation. This has immediate relevance for applications in central retinal vein occlusion, central serous choroidopathy, age-related macular degeneration, familial macular dystrophy and several other forms of retina related visual disability.

  14. Single-Cell Transcriptomics and Fate Mapping of Ependymal Cells Reveals an Absence of Neural Stem Cell Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Prajay T; Stratton, Jo A; Stykel, Morgan Gail; Abbasi, Sepideh; Sharma, Sandeep; Mayr, Kyle A; Koblinger, Kathrin; Whelan, Patrick J; Biernaskie, Jeff

    2018-05-03

    Ependymal cells are multi-ciliated cells that form the brain's ventricular epithelium and a niche for neural stem cells (NSCs) in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). In addition, ependymal cells are suggested to be latent NSCs with a capacity to acquire neurogenic function. This remains highly controversial due to a lack of prospective in vivo labeling techniques that can effectively distinguish ependymal cells from neighboring V-SVZ NSCs. We describe a transgenic system that allows for targeted labeling of ependymal cells within the V-SVZ. Single-cell RNA-seq revealed that ependymal cells are enriched for cilia-related genes and share several stem-cell-associated genes with neural stem or progenitors. Under in vivo and in vitro neural-stem- or progenitor-stimulating environments, ependymal cells failed to demonstrate any suggestion of latent neural-stem-cell function. These findings suggest remarkable stability of ependymal cell function and provide fundamental insights into the molecular signature of the V-SVZ niche. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evolutionary cell biology: functional insight from "endless forms most beautiful".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elisabeth; Zerr, Kelly; Tsaousis, Anastasios; Dorrell, Richard G; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-12-15

    In animal and fungal model organisms, the complexities of cell biology have been analyzed in exquisite detail and much is known about how these organisms function at the cellular level. However, the model organisms cell biologists generally use include only a tiny fraction of the true diversity of eukaryotic cellular forms. The divergent cellular processes observed in these more distant lineages are still largely unknown in the general scientific community. Despite the relative obscurity of these organisms, comparative studies of them across eukaryotic diversity have had profound implications for our understanding of fundamental cell biology in all species and have revealed the evolution and origins of previously observed cellular processes. In this Perspective, we will discuss the complexity of cell biology found across the eukaryotic tree, and three specific examples of where studies of divergent cell biology have altered our understanding of key functional aspects of mitochondria, plastids, and membrane trafficking. © 2015 Richardson et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Regulation of T cell differentiation and function by EZH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THEODOROS KARANTANOS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2, one of the polycomb group (PcG proteins, is the catalytic subunit of Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2 and induces the trimethylation of the histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3 promoting epigenetic gene silencing. EZH2 contains a SET domain promoting the methyltransferase activity while the three other protein components of PRC2, namely EED, SUZ12 and RpAp46/48 induce compaction of the chromatin permitting EZH2 enzymatic activity. Numerous studies highlight the role of this evolutionary conserved protein as a master regulator of differentiation in humans involved in the repression of the homeotic (Hox gene and the inactivation of X-chromosome. Through its effects in the epigenetic regulation of critical genes, EZH2 has been strongly linked to cell cycle progression, stem cell pluripotency and cancer biology. Most recently, EZH2 has been associated with hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thymopoiesis and lymphopoiesis. Several studies have evaluated the role of EZH2 in the regulation of T cell differentiation and plasticity as well as its implications in the development of autoimmune diseases and graft versus host disease (GvHD. In this review we will briefly summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of EZH2 in the regulation of T cell differentiation, effector function and homing in the tumor microenvironment and we will discuss possible therapeutic targeting of EZH2 in order to alter T cell immune functions.

  17. Functional somatostatin receptors on a rat pancreatic acinar cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viguerie, N.; Tahiri-Jouti, N.; Esteve, J.P.; Clerc, P.; Logsdon, C.; Svoboda, M.; Susini, C.; Vaysse, N.; Ribet, A.

    1988-01-01

    Somatostatin receptors from a rat pancreatic acinar cell line, AR4-2J, were characterized biochemically, structurally, and functionally. Binding of 125 I-[Tyr 11 ]Somatostatin to AR4-2J cells was saturable, exhibiting a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a maximal binding capacity of 258 ± 20 fmol/10 6 cells. Somatostatin receptor structure was analyzed by covalently cross-linking 125 I-[Tyr 11 ]somatostatin to its plasma membrane receptors. Gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of cross-linked proteins revealed a peptide containing the somatostatin receptor. Somatostatin inhibited vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) formation in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of somatostatin that caused half-maximal inhibition of cAMP formation was close to the receptor affinity for somatostatin. Pertussis toxin pretreatment of AR4-2J cells prevented somatostatin inhibition of VIP-stimulated cAMP formation as well as somatostatin binding. The authors conclude that AR4-2J cells exhibit functional somatostatin receptors that retain both specificity and affinity of the pancreatic acinar cell somatostatin receptors and act via the pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein N i to inhibit adenylate cyclase

  18. Versatile functional roles of horizontal cells in the retinal circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Taro; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Sugita, Yuko; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kuwahara, Ryusuke; Tachibana, Masao; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2017-07-17

    In the retinal circuit, environmental light signals are converted into electrical signals that can be decoded properly by the brain. At the first synapse of the visual system, information flow from photoreceptors to bipolar cells is modulated by horizontal cells (HCs), however, their functional contribution to retinal output and individual visual function is not fully understood. In the current study, we investigated functional roles for HCs in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) response properties and optokinetic responses by establishing a HC-depleted mouse line. We observed that HC depletion impairs the antagonistic center-surround receptive field formation of RGCs, supporting a previously reported HC function revealed by pharmacological approaches. In addition, we found that HC loss reduces both the ON and OFF response diversities of RGCs, impairs adjustment of the sensitivity to ambient light at the retinal output level, and alters spatial frequency tuning at an individual level. Taken together, our current study suggests multiple functional aspects of HCs crucial for visual processing.

  19. Fatty Acids, Lipid Mediators, and T-Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anja J.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E. M.; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5 years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research. PMID:25352844

  20. Pancreatic cancer cell lines as patient-derived avatars: genetic characterisation and functional utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Erik S; Balaji, Uthra; Mannakee, Brian; Vail, Paris; Eslinger, Cody; Moxom, Christopher; Mansour, John; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K

    2018-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a therapy recalcitrant disease with the worst survival rate of common solid tumours. Preclinical models that accurately reflect the genetic and biological diversity of PDAC will be important for delineating features of tumour biology and therapeutic vulnerabilities. 27 primary PDAC tumours were employed for genetic analysis and development of tumour models. Tumour tissue was used for derivation of xenografts and cell lines. Exome sequencing was performed on the originating tumour and developed models. RNA sequencing, histological and functional analyses were employed to determine the relationship of the patient-derived models to clinical presentation of PDAC. The cohort employed captured the genetic diversity of PDAC. From most cases, both cell lines and xenograft models were developed. Exome sequencing confirmed preservation of the primary tumour mutations in developed cell lines, which remained stable with extended passaging. The level of genetic conservation in the cell lines was comparable to that observed with patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Unlike historically established PDAC cancer cell lines, patient-derived models recapitulated the histological architecture of the primary tumour and exhibited metastatic spread similar to that observed clinically. Detailed genetic analyses of tumours and derived models revealed features of ex vivo evolution and the clonal architecture of PDAC. Functional analysis was used to elucidate therapeutic vulnerabilities of relevance to treatment of PDAC. These data illustrate that with the appropriate methods it is possible to develop cell lines that maintain genetic features of PDAC. Such models serve as important substrates for analysing the significance of genetic variants and create a unique biorepository of annotated cell lines and xenografts that were established simultaneously from same primary tumour. These models can be used to infer genetic and empirically determined

  1. Cell-type specific roles for PTEN in establishing a functional retinal architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cantrup

    Full Text Available The retina has a unique three-dimensional architecture, the precise organization of which allows for complete sampling of the visual field. Along the radial or apicobasal axis, retinal neurons and their dendritic and axonal arbors are segregated into layers, while perpendicular to this axis, in the tangential plane, four of the six neuronal types form patterned cellular arrays, or mosaics. Currently, the molecular cues that control retinal cell positioning are not well-understood, especially those that operate in the tangential plane. Here we investigated the role of the PTEN phosphatase in establishing a functional retinal architecture.In the developing retina, PTEN was localized preferentially to ganglion, amacrine and horizontal cells, whose somata are distributed in mosaic patterns in the tangential plane. Generation of a retina-specific Pten knock-out resulted in retinal ganglion, amacrine and horizontal cell hypertrophy, and expansion of the inner plexiform layer. The spacing of Pten mutant mosaic populations was also aberrant, as were the arborization and fasciculation patterns of their processes, displaying cell type-specific defects in the radial and tangential dimensions. Irregular oscillatory potentials were also observed in Pten mutant electroretinograms, indicative of asynchronous amacrine cell firing. Furthermore, while Pten mutant RGC axons targeted appropriate brain regions, optokinetic spatial acuity was reduced in Pten mutant animals. Finally, while some features of the Pten mutant retina appeared similar to those reported in Dscam-mutant mice, PTEN expression and activity were normal in the absence of Dscam.We conclude that Pten regulates somal positioning and neurite arborization patterns of a subset of retinal cells that form mosaics, likely functioning independently of Dscam, at least during the embryonic period. Our findings thus reveal an unexpected level of cellular specificity for the multi-purpose phosphatase, and

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Factors Restore Function to Human Frataxin-Deficient Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Kevin; Dey, Rimi; Cook, Amelia; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2017-08-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is an inherited neurological disorder characterised by mitochondrial dysfunction and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. At present, no therapy has been shown to reduce disease progression. Strategies being trialled to treat Friedreich's ataxia include drugs that improve mitochondrial function and reduce oxidative injury. In addition, stem cells have been investigated as a potential therapeutic approach. We have used siRNA-induced knockdown of frataxin in SH-SY5Y cells as an in vitro cellular model for Friedreich's ataxia. Knockdown of frataxin protein expression to levels detected in patients with the disorder was achieved, leading to decreased cellular viability, increased susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, dysregulation of key anti-oxidant molecules and deficiencies in both cell proliferation and differentiation. Bone marrow stem cells are being investigated extensively as potential treatments for a wide range of neurological disorders, including Friedreich's ataxia. The potential neuroprotective effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were therefore studied using our frataxin-deficient cell model. Soluble factors secreted by mesenchymal stem cells protected against cellular changes induced by frataxin deficiency, leading to restoration in frataxin levels and anti-oxidant defences, improved survival against oxidative stress and stimulated both cell proliferation and differentiation down the Schwann cell lineage. The demonstration that mesenchymal stem cell-derived factors can restore cellular homeostasis and function to frataxin-deficient cells further suggests that they may have potential therapeutic benefits for patients with Friedreich's ataxia.

  3. A novel culture method reveals unique neural stem/progenitors in mature porcine iris tissues that differentiate into neuronal and rod photoreceptor-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, Lars N; Lea, Daniel; Matsushita, Tamami; Takeda, Taka-Aki; Taketani, Shigeru; Araki, Masasuke

    2017-11-15

    Iris neural stem/progenitor cells from mature porcine eyes were investigated using a new protocol for tissue culture, which consists of dispase treatment and Matrigel embedding. We used a number of culture conditions and found an intense differentiation of neuronal cells from both the iris pigmented epithelial (IPE) cells and the stroma tissue cells. Rod photoreceptor-like cells were also observed but mostly in a later stage of culture. Neuronal differentiation does not require any additives such as fetal bovine serum or FGF2, although FGF2 and IGF2 appeared to promote neural differentiation in the IPE cultures. Furthermore, the stroma-derived cells were able to be maintained in vitro indefinitely. The evolutionary similarity between humans and domestic pigs highlight the potential for this methodology in the modeling of human diseases and characterizing human ocular stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural and functional analysis of a microbial mat ecosystem from a unique permanent hypersaline inland lake: 'La Salada de Chiprana' (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkers, Henk M; Ludwig, Rebecca; Wit, Rutger; Pringault, Olivier; Muyzer, Gerard; Niemann, Helge; Finke, Niko; Beer, Dirk

    2003-05-01

    The benthic microbial mat community of the only permanent hypersaline natural inland lake of Western Europe, 'La Salada de Chiprana', northeastern Spain, was structurally and functionally analyzed. The ionic composition of the lake water is characterized by high concentrations of magnesium and sulfate, which were respectively 0.35 and 0.5 M at the time of sampling while the total salinity was 78 g l(-1). Community composition was analyzed by microscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pigment analyses and by studying culturable bacteria from different functional groups. Therefore, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was applied on most probable number (MPN) dilution cultures. Microscopy revealed that a thin layer of Chloroflexus-like bacteria overlaid various cyanobacteria-dominated layers each characterized by different morphotypes. DGGE analysis of MPN dilution cultures from distinct mat layers showed that various phylotypes of anoxygenic phototrophic, aerobic heterotrophic, colorless sulfur-, and sulfate-reducing bacteria were present. The mats were furthermore functionally studied and attention was focussed on the relationship between oxygenic primary production and the flow of carbon through the microbial community. Microsensor techniques, porewater and sediment photopigment analysis were applied in order to estimate oxygenic photosynthetic rates, daily dynamics of (in)organic carbon porewater concentration and migration behavior of phototrophs. Chiprana microbial mats produced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) both during the day and night. It was estimated that 14% of the mats gross photosynthetic production and 49% of the mats net photosynthetic production diffused out of the mat in the form of low molecular mass fatty acids, although these compounds made up only 2% of the total DOC pool. The high flux of dissolved fatty acids from the microbial mat to the water column may explain why in this system Chloroflexus-like bacteria

  5. Modulation of antigen presenting cell functions during chronic HPV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abate Assefa Bashaw

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV infect basal keratinocytes, where in some individuals they evade host immune responses and persist. Persistent HR-HPV infection of the cervix causes precancerous neoplasia that can eventuate in cervical cancer. Dendritic cells (DCs are efficient in priming/cross-priming antigen-specific T cells and generating antiviral and antitumor cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. However, HR-HPV have adopted various immunosuppressive strategies, with modulation of DC function crucial to escape from the host adaptive immune response. HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins alter recruitment and localization of epidermal DCs, while soluble regulatory factors derived from HPV-induced hyperplastic epithelium change DC development and influence initiation of specific cellular immune responses. This review focuses on current evidence for HR-HPV manipulation of antigen presentation in dendritic cells and escape from host immunity.

  6. Cell Adhesion Molecules and Ubiquitination—Functions and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homrich, Mirka; Gotthard, Ingo; Wobst, Hilke; Diestel, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily represent the biggest group of cell adhesion molecules. They have been analyzed since approximately 40 years ago and most of them have been shown to play a role in tumor progression and in the nervous system. All members of the Ig superfamily are intensively posttranslationally modified. However, many aspects of their cellular functions are not yet known. Since a few years ago it is known that some of the Ig superfamily members are modified by ubiquitin. Ubiquitination has classically been described as a proteasomal degradation signal but during the last years it became obvious that it can regulate many other processes including internalization of cell surface molecules and lysosomal sorting. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the ubiquitination of cell adhesion molecules of the Ig superfamily and to discuss its potential physiological roles in tumorigenesis and in the nervous system. PMID:26703751

  7. Lattices with unique complements

    CERN Document Server

    Saliĭ, V N

    1988-01-01

    The class of uniquely complemented lattices properly contains all Boolean lattices. However, no explicit example of a non-Boolean lattice of this class has been found. In addition, the question of whether this class contains any complete non-Boolean lattices remains unanswered. This book focuses on these classical problems of lattice theory and the various attempts to solve them. Requiring no specialized knowledge, the book is directed at researchers and students interested in general algebra and mathematical logic.

  8. Amelioration of NK cell function driven by Vα24+ invariant NKT cell activation in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoda, Tomonori; Yamasaki, Satoru; Hidaka, Michihiro; Kawano, Fumio; Abe, Yu; Suzuki, Kenshi; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Shimizu, Kanako; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro

    2018-02-01

    NK cells represent a first line of immune defense, but are progressively dysregulated in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. To restore and facilitate their antitumor effect, NK cells are required in sufficient quantities and must be stimulated. We initially assessed the proportions of NKT and NK cells in 34 MM patients. The frequencies of both in PBMC populations correlated with those in BMMNCs irrespective of low BMMNC numbers. We then assessed the adjunctive effect of stimulating NKT cells with CD1d and α-GalCer complexes on the NK cells. The expression of NKG2D on CD56 dim CD16 + NK cells and DNAM-1 on CD56 bright CD16 - NK cells increased after NKT cell activation. Apparently, NK cell-mediated anti-tumor effects were dependent on NKG2D and DNAM-1 ligands on myeloma cells. Thus, NK cell function in patients could be ameliorated, beyond the effect of immunosuppression, by NKT cell activation. This NKT-driven NK cell therapy could represent a potential new treatment modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolism of murine TH 17 cells: Impact on cell fate and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Solt, Laura A

    2016-04-01

    An effective adaptive immune response relies on the ability of lymphocytes to rapidly act upon a variety of insults. In T lymphocytes, this response includes cell growth, clonal expansion, differentiation, and cytokine production, all of which place a significant energy burden on the cell. Recent evidence shows that T-cell metabolic reprogramming is an essential component of the adaptive immune response and specific metabolic pathways dictate T-cell fate decisions, including the development of TH 17 versus T regulatory (Treg) cells. TH 17 cells have garnered significant attention due to their roles in the pathology of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Attempts to characterize TH 17 cells have demonstrated that they are highly dynamic, adjusting their function to environmental cues, which dictate their metabolic program. In this review, we highlight recent data demonstrating the impact of cellular metabolism on the TH 17/Treg balance and present factors that mediate TH 17-cell metabolism. Some examples of these include the differential impact of the mTOR signaling complexes on T-helper-cell differentiation, hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) promotion of glycolysis to favor TH 17-cell development, and ACC1-dependent de novo fatty acid synthesis favoring TH 17-cell development over Treg cells. Finally, we discuss the potential therapeutic options and the implications of modulating TH 17-cell metabolism for the treatment of TH 17-mediated diseases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Unique Aspects of Cryptochrome in Chronobiology and Metabolism, Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction, and Regeneration: Research into Cysteine414-Alanine Mutant CRY1

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Okano

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochrome proteins (CRYs), which can bind noncovalently to cofactor (chromophore) flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), occur widely among organisms. CRYs play indispensable roles in the generation of circadian rhythm in mammals. Transgenic mice (Tg mice), ubiquitously expressing mouse CRY1 having a mutation in which cysteine414 (the zinc-binding site of CRY1) being replaced with alanine, display unique phenotypes in their circadian rhythms. Moreover, male Tg mice exhibit symptoms of diabetes...

  11. Development of Functional Microfold (M Cells from Intestinal Stem Cells in Primary Human Enteroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Rouch

    Full Text Available Intestinal microfold (M cells are specialized epithelial cells that act as gatekeepers of luminal antigens in the intestinal tract. They play a critical role in the intestinal mucosal immune response through transport of viruses, bacteria and other particles and antigens across the epithelium to immune cells within Peyer's patch regions and other mucosal sites. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated that M cells are generated from Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs, and that infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases M cell formation. However, it is not known whether and how these findings apply to primary human small intestinal epithelium propagated in an in vitro setting.Human intestinal crypts were grown as monolayers with growth factors and treated with recombinant RANKL, and assessed for mRNA transcripts, immunofluorescence and uptake of microparticles and S. Typhimurium.Functional M cells were generated by short-term culture of freshly isolated human intestinal crypts in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. RANKL stimulation of the monolayer cultures caused dramatic induction of the M cell-specific markers, SPIB, and Glycoprotein-2 (GP2 in a process primed by canonical WNT signaling. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a pseudopod phenotype of GP2-positive M cells that preferentially take up microparticles. Furthermore, infection of the M cell-enriched cultures with the M cell-tropic enteric pathogen, S. Typhimurium, led to preferential association of the bacteria with M cells, particularly at lower inoculum sizes. Larger inocula caused rapid induction of M cells.Human intestinal crypts containing ISCs can be cultured and differentiate into an epithelial layer with functional M cells with characteristic morphological and functional properties. This study is the first to demonstrate that M cells can be induced to form from primary human intestinal epithelium, and that S. Typhimurium preferentially infect these cells in an

  12. Von Economo Neurons and Fork Cells: A Neurochemical Signature Linked to Monoaminergic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Anke A; Lin, Li-Chun; Nana, Alissa L; Gaus, Stephanie E; Seeley, William W

    2018-01-01

    The human anterior cingulate and frontoinsular cortices are distinguished by 2 unique Layer 5 neuronal morphotypes, the von Economo neurons (VENs) and fork cells, whose biological identity remains mysterious. Insights could impact research on diverse neuropsychiatric diseases to which these cells have been linked. Here, we leveraged the Allen Brain Atlas to evaluate mRNA expression of 176 neurotransmitter-related genes and identified vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit θ (GABRQ), and adrenoreceptor α-1A (ADRA1A) expression in human VENs, fork cells, and a minority of neighboring Layer 5 neurons. We confirmed these results using immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization. VMAT2 and GABRQ expression was absent in mouse cerebral cortex. Although VMAT2 is known to package monoamines into synaptic vesicles, in VENs and fork cells its expression occurs in the absence of monoamine-synthesizing enzymes or reuptake transporters. Thus, VENs and fork cells may possess a novel, uncharacterized mode of cortical monoaminergic function that distinguishes them from most other mammalian Layer 5 neurons. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Neoexpression of a functional primary cilium in colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanche Sénicourt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hedgehog (HH signaling pathway is involved in the maintenance of numerous cell types both during development and in the adult. Often deregulated in cancers, its involvement in colorectal cancer has come into view during the last few years, although its role remains poorly defined. In most tissues, the HH pathway is highly connected to the primary cilium (PC, an organelle that recruits functional components and regulates the HH pathway. However, normal epithelial cells of the colon display an inactive HH pathway and lack a PC. In this study, we report the presence of the PC in adenocarcinoma cells of primary colorectal tumors at all stages. Using human colorectal cancer cell lines we found a clear correlation between the presence of the PC and the expression of the final HH effector, GLI1, and provide evidence of a functional link between the two by demonstrating the recruitment of the SMO receptor to the membrane of the primary cilium. We conclude that the primary cilium directly participates in the HH pathway in colorectal cancer cells.

  14. Ouabain modulates cell contacts as well as functions that depend on cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larre, Isabel; Contreras, Ruben G; Cereijido, Marcelino

    2011-01-01

    Ouabain, a toxic of vegetal origin used for centuries to treat heart failure, has recently been demonstrated to have an endogenous counterpart, most probably ouabain itself, which behaves as a hormone. Therefore, the challenge now is to discover the physiological role of hormone ouabain. We have recently shown that it modulates cell contacts such as gap junctions, which communicate neighboring cells, as well as tight junctions (TJs), which are one of the two differentiated features of epithelial cells, the other being apical/basolateral polarity. The importance of cell contacts can be hardly overestimated, since the most complex object in the universe, the brain, assembles itself depending on what cells contacts what other(s) how, when, and how is the molecular composition and special arrangement of the contacts involved. In the present chapter, we detail the protocols used to demonstrate the effect of ouabain on the molecular structure and functional properties of one of those cell-cell contacts: the TJ.

  15. Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier function determines cell stemness and metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoran; Kan, Quancheng; Fan, Zhirui; Li, Yaqing; Ji, Yasai; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Mingzhi; Grigalavicius, Mantas; Berge, Viktor; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; M. Nesland, Jahn; Suo, Zhenhe

    2017-01-01

    One of the remarkable features of cancer cells is aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the “Warburg Effect”, in which cells rely preferentially on glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as the main energy source even in the presence of high oxygen tension. Cells with dysfunctional mitochondria are unable to generate sufficient ATP from mitochondrial OXPHOS, and then are forced to rely on glycolysis for ATP generation. Here we report our results in a prostate cancer cell line in which the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) gene was knockout. It was discovered that the MPC1 gene knockout cells revealed a metabolism reprogramming to aerobic glycolysis with reduced ATP production, and the cells became more migratory and resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In addition, the MPC1 knockout cells expressed significantly higher levels of the stemness markers Nanog, Hif1α, Notch1, CD44 and ALDH. To further verify the correlation of MPC gene function and cell stemness/metabolic reprogramming, MPC inhibitor UK5099 was applied in two ovarian cancer cell lines and similar results were obtained. Taken together, our results reveal that functional MPC may determine the fate of metabolic program and the stemness status of cancer cells in vitro. PMID:28624784

  16. Restoration of heart functions using human embryonic stem cells derived heart muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepstein, Lior; Kehat, Izhak

    2005-02-01

    Extract: Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology and specifically in the areas of stem cell biology and tissue engineering have paved the way for the development of a new field in biomedicine, regenerative medicine. This exciting approach seeks to develop new biological solutions, using the mobilization of endogenous stem cells or delivery of exogenous cells to replace or modify the function of diseased, absent, or malfunctioning tissue. The adult heart represents an attractive candidate for these emerging technologies, since adult cardiomyocytes have limited regenerative capacity. Thus, any significant heart cell loss or dysfunction, such as occurs during heart attack, is mostly irreversible and may lead to the development of progressive heart failure, one of the leading causes of world-wide morbidity and mortality. Similarly, dysfunction of the specialized electrical conduction system within the heart may result in inefficient rhythm initiation or impulse conduction, leading to significant slowing of the heart rate, usually requiring the implantation of a permanent electronic pacemaker. Replacement of the dysfunctional myocardium (heart muscle) by implantation of external heart muscle cells is emerging as a novel paradigm for restoration of the myocardial electromechanical properties, but has been significantly hampered by the paucity of cell sources for human heart cells and by the relatively limited evidence for functional integration between grafted and host cells. The recently described human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines may provide a possible solution for the aforementioned cell sourcing problem.

  17. Neurogenic and non neurogenic functions of endogenous neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eButti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis is a lifelong process that occurs in two main neurogenic niches of the brain, namely in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG in the hippocampus. In the 1960s, studies on adult neurogenesis have been hampered by the lack of established phenotypic markers. The precise tracing of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs was therefore, not properly feasible. After the (partial identification of those markers, it was the lack of specific tools that hindered a proper experimental elimination and tracing of those cells to demonstrate their terminal fate and commitment. Nowadays, irradia-tion, cytotoxic drugs as well as genetic tracing/ablation procedures have moved the field forward and increased our understanding of neurogenesis processes in both physiological and pathological conditions. Newly formed NPC progeny from the SVZ can replace granule cells in the olfactory bulbs of rodents, thus contributing to orchestrate sophisticated odour behaviour. SGZ-derived new granule cells, instead, integrate within the DG where they play an essential role in memory functions. Furthermore, converging evidence claim that endogenous NPCs not only exert neurogenic functions, but might also have non-neurogenic homeostatic functions by the release of different types of neuroprotective molecules. Remarkably, these non-neurogenic homeostatic functions seem to be necessary, both in healthy and diseased conditions, for example for preventing or limiting tissue damage. In this review, we will discuss the neurogenic and the non-neurogenic functions of adult NPCs both in physiological and pathological conditions.

  18. Core functions of the Web-of-Cells control scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evenblij, Berend; Rikos, Evangelos; Heussen, Kai

    In order to maintain frequency (balancing) and voltage control in the future power system, the ELECTRA Web-of-Cells (WoC) control scheme introduces six high-level use cases, which are Balance Restoration Control (BRC), Frequency Containment Control (FCC), Inertia Response Power Control (IRPC), Ba......), Balance Steering Control (BSC), Primary Voltage Control (PVC) and Post Primary Voltage Control (PPVC). This document presents the detailed description of the core functions that are needed and sufficient for controlling the grid in a Web-of-Cells architecture....

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells generate distinct functional hybrids in vitro via cell fusion or entosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottile, Francesco; Aulicino, Francesco; Theka, Ilda; Cosma, Maria Pia

    2016-11-09

    Homotypic and heterotypic cell-to-cell fusion are key processes during development and tissue regeneration. Nevertheless, aberrant cell fusion can contribute to tumour initiation and metastasis. Additionally, a form of cell-in-cell structure called entosis has been observed in several human tumours. Here we investigate cell-to-cell interaction between mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). MSCs represent an important source of adult stem cells since they have great potential for regenerative medicine, even though they are also involved in cancer progression. We report that MSCs can either fuse forming heterokaryons, or be invaded by ESCs through entosis. While entosis-derived hybrids never share their genomes and induce degradation of the target cell, fusion-derived hybrids can convert into synkaryons. Importantly we show that hetero-to-synkaryon transition occurs through cell division and not by nuclear membrane fusion. Additionally, we also observe that the ROCK-actin/myosin pathway is required for both fusion and entosis in ESCs but only for entosis in MSCs. Overall, we show that MSCs can undergo fusion or entosis in culture by generating distinct functional cellular entities. These two processes are profoundly different and their outcomes should be considered given the beneficial or possible detrimental effects of MSC-based therapeutic applications.

  20. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jinghua; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  1. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jinghua [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Jianyun [Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Feixue [Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Organ Development and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliue@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  2. Unimpaired dendritic cell functions in MVP/LRP knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossink, Marieke H; de Groot, Jan; van Zon, Arend; Fränzel-Luiten, Erna; Schoester, Martijn; Scheffer, George L; Sonneveld, Pieter; Scheper, Rik J; Wiemer, Erik A C

    2003-09-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) act as mobile sentinels of the immune system. By stimulating T lymphocytes, DCs are pivotal for the initiation of both T- and B-cell-mediated immune responses. Recently, ribonucleoprotein particles (vaults) were found to be involved in the development and/or function of human DCs. To further investigate the role of vaults in DCs, we examined the effects of disruption of the major vault protein (MVP/LRP) on the development and antigen-presenting capacity of DCs, using our MVP/LRP knockout mouse model. Mononuclear bone marrow cells were isolated from wild-type and knockout mice and stimulated to differentiate to DCs. Like human DCs, the wild-type murine DC cultures strongly expressed MVP/LRP. Nevertheless, the MVP/LRP-deficient DCs developed normally and showed similar expression levels of several DC surface markers. No differences were observed in in vitro studies on the antigen uptake and presenting capacities of the wild-type and MVP/LRP knockout DCs. Moreover, immunization of the MVP/LRP-deficient mice with several T-cell antigens led to responses similar to those observed in the wild-type mice, indicating that the in vivo DC migration and antigen-presentation capacities are intact. Moreover, no differences were observed in the induction of the T cell-dependent humoral responses and orally induced peripheral T-cell tolerance. In conclusion, vaults are not required for primary DC functions. Their abundance in DCs may, however, still reflect basic roles in myeloid cell proliferation and DC development.

  3. Functional dysregulation of stem cells during aging: a focus on skeletal muscle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prat, Laura; Sousa-Victor, Pedro; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2013-09-01

    Aging of an organism is associated with the functional decline of tissues and organs, as well as a sharp decline in the regenerative capacity of stem cells. A prevailing view holds that the aging rate of an individual depends on the ratio of tissue attrition to tissue regeneration. Therefore, manipulations that favor the balance towards regeneration may prevent or delay aging. Skeletal muscle is a specialized tissue composed of postmitotic myofibers that contract to generate force. Satellite cells are the adult stem cells responsible for skeletal muscle regeneration. Recent studies on the biology of skeletal muscle and satellite cells in aging have uncovered the critical impact of systemic and niche factors on stem cell functionality and demonstrated the capacity of aged satellite cells to rejuvenate and increase their regenerative potential when exposed to a youthful environment. Here we review the current literature on the coordinated relationship between cell extrinsic and intrinsic factors that regulate the function of satellite cells, and ultimately determine tissue homeostasis and repair during aging, and which encourage the search for new anti-aging strategies. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  4. A Unique Model System for Tumor Progression in GBM Comprising Two Developed Human Neuro-Epithelial Cell Lines with Differential Transforming Potential and Coexpressing Neuronal and Glial Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Shiras

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms involved in tumor progression from a low-grade astrocytoma to the most malignant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM have been hampered due to lack of suitable experimental models. We have established a model of tumor progression comprising of two cell lines derived from the same astrocytoma tumor with a set of features corresponding to low-grade glioma (as in HNGC-1 and high-grade GBM (as in HNGC-2. The HNGC-1 cell line is slowgrowing, contact-inhibited, nontumorigenic, and noninvasive, whereas HNGC-2 is a rapidly proliferating, anchorage-independent, highly tumorigenic, and invasive cell line. The proliferation of cell lines is independent of the addition of exogenous growth factors. Interestingly, the HNGC-2 cell line displays a near-haploid karyotype except for a disomy of chromosome 2. The two cell lines express the neuronal precursor and progenitor markers vimentin, nestin, MAP-2, and NFP160, as well as glial differentiation protein S100μ. The HNGC-1 cell line also expresses markers of mature neurons like Tuj1 and GFAP, an astrocytic differentiation marker, hence contributing toward a more morphologically differentiated phenotype with a propensity for neural differentiation in vitro. Additionally, overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor and c-erbB2, and loss of fibronectin were observed only in the HNGC-2 cell line, implicating the significance of these pathways in tumor progression. This in vitro model system assumes importance in unraveling the cellular and molecular mechanisms in differentiation, transformation, and gliomagenesis.

  5. Requirement for CD4 T Cell Help in Generating Functional CD8 T Cell Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, Devon J.; Shen, Hao

    2003-04-01

    Although primary CD8 responses to acute infections are independent of CD4 help, it is unknown whether a similar situation applies to secondary responses. We show that depletion of CD4 cells during the recall response has minimal effect, whereas depletion during the priming phase leads to reduced responses by memory CD8 cells to reinfection. Memory CD8 cells generated in CD4+/+ mice responded normally when transferred into CD4-/- hosts, whereas memory CD8 cells generated in CD4-/- mice mounted defective recall responses in CD4+/+ adoptive hosts. These results demonstrate a previously undescribed role for CD4 help in the development of functional CD8 memory.

  6. Phenotypic, ultra-structural, and functional characterization of bovine peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Sei

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are multi-functional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets directly ex vivo, without further in vitro manipulation. Multi-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that three DC subsets could be identified. Bovine plasmacytoid DC were phenotypically identified by a unique pattern of cell surface protein expression including CD4, exhibited an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, efficiently internalized and degraded exogenous antigen, and were the only peripheral blood cells specialized in the production of type I IFN following activation with Toll-like receptor (TLR agonists. Conventional DC were identified by expression of a different pattern of cell surface proteins including CD11c, MHC class II, and CD80, among others, the display of extensive dendritic protrusions on their plasma membrane, expression of very high levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, efficient internalization and degradation of exogenous antigen, and ready production of detectable levels of TNF-alpha in response to TLR activation. Our investigations also revealed a third novel DC subset that may be a precursor of conventional DC that were MHC class II+ and CD11c-. These cells exhibited a smooth plasma membrane with a rounded nucleus, produced TNF-alpha in response to TLR-activation (albeit lower than CD11c+ DC, and were the least efficient in internalization/degradation of exogenous antigen. These studies define three bovine blood DC subsets with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics which can be analyzed during immune responses to pathogens and vaccinations of cattle.

  7. Mast-Cell-Derived TNF Amplifies CD8+ Dendritic Cell Functionality and CD8+ T Cell Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dudeck

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are critical promoters of adaptive immunity in the contact hypersensitivity model, but the mechanism of allergen sensitization is poorly understood. Using Mcpt5-CreTNFFL/FL mice, we show here that the absence of TNF exclusively in mast cells impaired the expansion of CD8+ T cells upon sensitization and the T-cell-driven adaptive immune response to elicitation. T cells primed in the absence of mast cell TNF exhibited a diminished efficiency to transfer sensitization to naive recipients. Specifically, mast cell TNF promotes CD8+ dendritic cell (DC maturation and migration to draining lymph nodes. The peripherally released mast cell TNF further critically boosts the CD8+ T-cell-priming efficiency of CD8+ DCs, thereby linking mast cell effects on T cells to DC modulation. Collectively, our findings identify the distinct potential of mast cell TNF to amplify CD8+ DC functionality and CD8+ T-cell-dominated adaptive immunity, which may be of great importance for immunotherapy and vaccination approaches.

  8. Loss of circulating CD4 T cells with B cell helper function during chronic HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Boswell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between follicular T helper cells (TFH and B cells in the lymph nodes and spleen has a major impact on the development of antigen-specific B cell responses during infection or vaccination. Recent studies described a functional equivalent of these cells among circulating CD4 T cells, referred to as peripheral TFH cells. Here, we characterize the phenotype and in vitro B cell helper activity of peripheral TFH populations, as well as the effect of HIV infection on these populations. In co-culture experiments we confirmed CXCR5+ cells from HIV-uninfected donors provide help to B cells and more specifically, we identified a CCR7(highCXCR5(highCCR6(highPD-1(high CD4 T cell population that secretes IL-21 and enhances isotype-switched immunoglobulin production. This population is significantly decreased in treatment-naïve, HIV-infected individuals and can be recovered after anti-retroviral therapy. We found impaired immunoglobulin production in co-cultures from HIV-infected individuals and found no correlation between the frequency of peripheral TFH cells and memory B cells, or with neutralization activity in untreated HIV infection in our cohort. Furthermore, we found that within the peripheral TFH population, the expression level of TFH-associated genes more closely resembles a memory, non-TFH population, as opposed to a TFH population. Overall, our data identify a heterogeneous population of circulating CD4 T cells that provides in vitro help to B cells, and challenges the origin of these cells as memory TFH cells.

  9. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: Development, functions, and role in atherosclerotic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry A Chistiakov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs are a specialized subset of DCs that links innate and adaptive immunity. They sense viral and bacterial pathogens and release high levels of Type I interferons (IFN-I in response to infection. pDCs were shown to contribute to inflammatory responses in the steady state and in pathology. In atherosclerosis, pDCs are involved in priming vascular inflammation and atherogenesis through production of IFN-I and chemokines that attract inflammatory cells to inflamed sites. pDCs also contribute to the proinflammatory activation of effector T cells, cytotoxic T cells, and conventional DCs. However, tolerogenic populations of pDCs are found that suppress atherosclerosis-associated inflammation through down-regulation of function and proliferation of proinflammatory T cell subsets and induction of regulatory T cells with potent immunomodulatory properties. Notably, atheroprotective tolerogenic DCs could be induced by certain self-antigens or bacterial antigens that suggests for great therapeutic potential of these DCs for development of DC-based anti-atherogenic vaccines.

  10. Calcium exchange, structure, and function in cultured adult myocardial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, G.A.; Frank, J.S.; Rich, T.L.; Orner, F.B.

    1987-01-01

    Cells digested from adult rat heart and cultured for 14 days demonstrate all the structural elements, in mature form, associated with the process of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. The transverse tubular (TT) system is well developed with an extensive junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (JSR). In nonphosphate-containing buffer contraction of the cells is lost as rapidly as zero extracellular Ca concentration ([Ca] 0 ) solution is applied and a negative contraction staircase is produced on increase of stimulation frequency. Structurally and functionally the cells have the characteristics of adult cells in situ. 45 Ca exchange and total 45 Ca measurement in N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES)-buffered perfusate define three components of cellular Ca: 1) a rapidly exchangeable component accounting for 36% of total Ca, 2) a slowly exchangeable component (t/sub 1/2/ 53 min) accounting for 7% total Ca, and 3) the remaining 57% cellular Ca is inexchangeable (demonstrates no significant exchange within 60 min). The slowly exchangeable component can be increased 10-fold within 60 min by addition of phosphate to the perfusate. The Ca distribution and exchange characteristics are little different from those of 3-day cultures of neonatal rat heart previously studied. The results suggest that the cells are representative of adult cells in situ and that both sarcolemmal-bound and sarcoplasmic reticular Ca contribute to the component of Ca that is rapidly exchangeable

  11. Focusing on neuronal cell-type specific mechanisms for brain circuit organization, function and dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Li

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian brain circuits consist of dynamically interconnected neurons with characteristic morphology, physiology, connectivity and genetics which are often called neuronal cell types. Neuronal cell types have been considered as building blocks of brain circuits, but knowledge of how neuron types or subtypes connect to and interact with each other to perform neural computation is still lacking. Such mechanistic insights are critical not only to our understanding of normal brain functions, such as perception, motion and cognition, but also to brain disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Schizophrenia and epilepsy, to name a few. Thus it is necessary to carry out systematic and standardized studies on neuronal cell-type specific mechanisms for brain circuit organization and function, which will provide good opportunities to bridge basic and clinical research. Here based on recent technology advancements, we discuss the strategy to target and manipulate specific populations of neuronsin vivo to provide unique insights on how neuron types or subtypes behave, interact, and generate emergent properties in a fully connected brain network. Our approach is highlighted by combining transgenic animal models, targeted electrophysiology and imaging with robotics, thus complete and standardized mapping ofin vivo properties of genetically defined neuron populations can be achieved in transgenic mouse models, which will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for brain disorders.

  12. Functional Differences in Engineered Myocardium from Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived versus Neonatal Cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feinberg, Adam W.; Ripplinger, Crystal M.; van der Meer, Peter; Sheehy, Sean P.; Domian, Ibrahim; Chien, Kenneth R.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes represent unique tools for cell-and tissue-based regenerative therapies, drug discovery and safety, and studies of fundamental heart-failure mechanisms. However, the degree to which stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes compare to mature cardiomyocytes is often debated.

  13. Fibronectin and Kupffer cell function in fulminant hepatic failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imawari, M.; Hughes, R.D.; Gove, C.D.; Williams, R.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between plasma fibronectin, in vitro plasma opsonic activity, which measures the biological activity of fibronectin, and in vivo Kupffer cell function, as assessed by the systemic clearance of microaggregated [ 125 I]albumin, were determined simultaneously in 15 patients with fulminant hepatic failure and 12 normal subjects. Both the plasma fibronectin and plasma opsonic activity were significantly reduced in patients with fulminant hepatic failure, while the systemic clearance of microaggregated albumin was decreased. There was a significant correlation between plasma fibronectin and the plasma opsonic activity on admission, but no correlation could be detected between either parameter and the clearance of microaggregated albumin. A gelatin-derived plasma expander was shown to block the plasma opsonic activity both in vitro and in vivo. The low plasma fibronectin and decreased clearance of microaggregated albumin in fulminant hepatic failure reflect different aspects of the overall impairment of Kupffer cell function

  14. Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria: Unique Microorganisms with Exceptional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria defy many microbiological concepts and share numerous properties with both eukaryotes and archaea. Among their most intriguing characteristics are their compartmentalized cell plan and archaeon-like cell wall. Here we review our current knowledge about anammox cell biology. The anammox cell is divided into three separate compartments by bilayer membranes. The anammox cell consists of (from outside to inside) the cell wall, paryphoplasm, riboplasm, and anammoxosome. Not much is known about the composition or function of both the anammox cell wall and the paryphoplasm compartment. The cell wall is proposed to be proteinaceous and to lack both peptidoglycan and an outer membrane typical of Gram-negative bacteria. The function of the paryphoplasm is unknown, but it contains the cell division ring. The riboplasm resembles the standard cytoplasmic compartment of other bacteria; it contains ribosomes and the nucleoid. The anammoxosome occupies most of the cell volume and is a so-called “prokaryotic organelle” analogous to the eukaryotic mitochondrion. This is the site where the anammox reaction takes place, coupled over the curved anammoxosome membrane, possibly giving rise to a proton motive force and subsequent ATP synthesis. With these unique properties, anammox bacteria are food for thought concerning the early evolution of the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. PMID:22933561

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Display Impaired Function in Inhibiting Th17 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs possess multipotent and immunomodulatory properties and are suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of immune-related diseases. This study explored the function of bone marrow MSCs from rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, focusing on immunomodulatory effects. RA MSCs showed decreased proliferative activity and aberrant migration capacity. No significant differences were observed in cytokine profiles between RA and control MSCs. The effects of RA MSCs on proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and distribution of specific CD4+ T cell subtypes (Th17, Treg, and Tfh cells were investigated. RA MSCs appeared to be indistinguishable from controls in suppressing PBMC proliferation, decreasing the proportion of Tfh cells, and inducing the polarization of Treg cells. However, the capacity to inhibit Th17 cell polarization was impaired in RA MSCs, which was related to the low expression of CCL2 in RA MSCs after coculture with CD4+ T cells. These findings indicated that RA MSCs display defects in several important biological activities, especially the capacity to inhibit Th17 cell polarization. These functionally impaired MSCs may contribute to the development of RA disease.

  16. Down-regulation of the antisense mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) is a unique vulnerability of cancer cells and a potential target for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaurre, Soledad; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Burzio, Verónica A; Briones, Macarena; Villota, Claudio; Villegas, Jaime; Echenique, Javiera; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Araya, Mariela; Borgna, Vincenzo; Socías, Teresa; Lopez, Constanza; Avila, Rodolfo; Burzio, Luis O

    2014-09-26

    Hallmarks of cancer are fundamental principles involved in cancer progression. We propose an additional generalized hallmark of malignant transformation corresponding to the differential expression of a family of mitochondrial ncRNAs (ncmtRNAs) that comprises sense and antisense members, all of which contain stem-loop structures. Normal proliferating cells express sense (SncmtRNA) and antisense (ASncmtRNA) transcripts. In contrast, the ASncmtRNAs are down-regulated in tumor cells regardless of tissue of origin. Here we show that knockdown of the low copy number of the ASncmtRNAs in several tumor cell lines induces cell death by apoptosis without affecting the viability of normal cells. In addition, knockdown of ASncmtRNAs potentiates apoptotic cell death by inhibiting survivin expression, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family. Down-regulation of survivin is at the translational level and is probably mediated by microRNAs generated by dicing of the double-stranded stem of the ASncmtRNAs, as suggested by evidence presented here, in which the ASncmtRNAs are bound to Dicer and knockdown of the ASncmtRNAs reduces reporter luciferase activity in a vector carrying the 3'-UTR of survivin mRNA. Taken together, down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs constitutes a vulnerability or Achilles' heel of cancer cells, suggesting that the ASncmtRNAs are promising targets for cancer therapy. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Down-regulation of the Antisense Mitochondrial Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) Is a Unique Vulnerability of Cancer Cells and a Potential Target for Cancer Therapy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaurre, Soledad; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Burzio, Verónica A.; Briones, Macarena; Villota, Claudio; Villegas, Jaime; Echenique, Javiera; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Araya, Mariela; Borgna, Vincenzo; Socías, Teresa; Lopez, Constanza; Avila, Rodolfo; Burzio, Luis O.

    2014-01-01

    Hallmarks of cancer are fundamental principles involved in cancer progression. We propose an additional generalized hallmark of malignant transformation corresponding to the differential expression of a family of mitochondrial ncRNAs (ncmtRNAs) that comprises sense and antisense members, all of which contain stem-loop structures. Normal proliferating cells express sense (SncmtRNA) and antisense (ASncmtRNA) transcripts. In contrast, the ASncmtRNAs are down-regulated in tumor cells regardless of tissue of origin. Here we show that knockdown of the low copy number of the ASncmtRNAs in several tumor cell lines induces cell death by apoptosis without affecting the viability of normal cells. In addition, knockdown of ASncmtRNAs potentiates apoptotic cell death by inhibiting survivin expression, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family. Down-regulation of survivin is at the translational level and is probably mediated by microRNAs generated by dicing of the double-stranded stem of the ASncmtRNAs, as suggested by evidence presented here, in which the ASncmtRNAs are bound to Dicer and knockdown of the ASncmtRNAs reduces reporter luciferase activity in a vector carrying the 3′-UTR of survivin mRNA. Taken together, down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs constitutes a vulnerability or Achilles' heel of cancer cells, suggesting that the ASncmtRNAs are promising targets for cancer therapy. PMID:25100722

  18. novel insights into spatial and functional organization in the cell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NOVEL INSIGHTS INTO SPATIAL AND FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION IN THE CELL NUCLEUS · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22.

  19. Super-resolution microscopy in studying neuroendocrine cell function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneka eBost

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen a tremendous development in high resolution microscopy techniques giving rise to acronyms such as TIRFM, SIM, PALM, STORM, and STED. The goal of all these techniques is to overcome the physical resolution barrier of light microscopy in order to resolve precise protein localization and possibly their interaction in cells. Neuroendocrine cell function is to secrete hormones and peptides on demand. This fine-tuned multi-step process is mediated by a large array of proteins. Here, we review the new microscopy techniques used to obtain high resolution and how they have been applied to increase our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in neuroendocrine cell secretion. Further the limitations of these methods are discussed and insights in possible new applications are provided.

  20. Cell-selective metabolic labeling of biomolecules with bioorthogonal functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ran; Hong, Senlian; Chen, Xing

    2013-10-01

    Metabolic labeling of biomolecules with bioorthogonal functionalities enables visualization, enrichment, and analysis of the biomolecules of interest in their physiological environments. This versatile strategy has found utility in probing various classes of biomolecules in a broad range of biological processes. On the other hand, metabolic labeling is nonselective with respect to cell type, which imposes limitations for studies performed in complex biological systems. Herein, we review the recent methodological developments aiming to endow metabolic labeling strategies with cell-type selectivity. The cell-selective metabolic labeling strategies have emerged from protein and glycan labeling. We envision that these strategies can be readily extended to labeling of other classes of biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. B Cells and B Cell Blasts Withstand Cryopreservation While Retaining Their Functionality for Producing Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Fecher

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In individuals who have once developed humoral immunity to an infectious/foreign antigen, the antibodies present in their body can mediate instant protection when the antigen re-enters. Such antigen-specific antibodies can be readily detected in the serum. Long term humoral immunity is, however, also critically dependent on the ability of memory B cells to engage in a secondary antibody response upon re-exposure to the antigen. Antibody molecules in the body are short lived, having a half-life of weeks, while memory B cells have a life span of decades. Therefore, the presence of serum antibodies is not always a reliable indicator of B cell memory and comprehensive monitoring of humoral immunity requires that both serum antibodies and memory B cells be assessed. The prevailing view is that resting memory B cells and B cell blasts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC cannot be cryopreserved without losing their antibody secreting function, and regulated high throughput immune monitoring of B cell immunity is therefore confined to—and largely limited by—the need to test freshly isolated PBMC. Using optimized protocols for freezing and thawing of PBMC, and four color ImmunoSpot® analysis for the simultaneous detection of all immunoglobulin classes/subclasses we show here that both resting memory B cells and B cell blasts retain their ability to secrete antibody after thawing, and thus demonstrate the feasibility of B cell immune monitoring using cryopreserved PBMC.

  2. B Cells and B Cell Blasts Withstand Cryopreservation While Retaining Their Functionality for Producing Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecher, Philipp; Caspell, Richard; Naeem, Villian; Karulin, Alexey Y; Kuerten, Stefanie; Lehmann, Paul V

    2018-05-31

    In individuals who have once developed humoral immunity to an infectious/foreign antigen, the antibodies present in their body can mediate instant protection when the antigen re-enters. Such antigen-specific antibodies can be readily detected in the serum. Long term humoral immunity is, however, also critically dependent on the ability of memory B cells to engage in a secondary antibody response upon re-exposure to the antigen. Antibody molecules in the body are short lived, having a half-life of weeks, while memory B cells have a life span of decades. Therefore, the presence of serum antibodies is not always a reliable indicator of B cell memory and comprehensive monitoring of humoral immunity requires that both serum antibodies and memory B cells be assessed. The prevailing view is that resting memory B cells and B cell blasts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cannot be cryopreserved without losing their antibody secreting function, and regulated high throughput immune monitoring of B cell immunity is therefore confined to-and largely limited by-the need to test freshly isolated PBMC. Using optimized protocols for freezing and thawing of PBMC, and four color ImmunoSpot ® analysis for the simultaneous detection of all immunoglobulin classes/subclasses we show here that both resting memory B cells and B cell blasts retain their ability to secrete antibody after thawing, and thus demonstrate the feasibility of B cell immune monitoring using cryopreserved PBMC.

  3. Primary Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma of the Uterus Manifesting as a Leiomyoma: A Unique Presentation with Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Dewar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of uterine corpus in a 70-years old woman who presented with symptoms of increased urinary frequency and sense of bloating. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI findings were suggestive of a degenerating intramural fibroid. Histological examination of tissue samples obtained during hysteroscopy showed diffuse infiltration of fibrous stroma by atypical enlarged mononuclear cells. Immunohistochemical studies were consistent with the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.Further imaging studies showed no evidence of lymphoma outside the uterus. To our knowledge,this represents the first welldocumented case of primary uterine lymphoma presenting as a leiomyoma on imaging studies.

  4. Pectin: cell biology and prospects for functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willats, W G; McCartney, L; Mackie, W; Knox, J P

    2001-09-01

    Pectin is a major component of primary cell walls of all land plants and encompasses a range of galacturonic acid-rich polysaccharides. Three major pectic polysaccharides (homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan-I and rhamnogalacturonan-II) are thought to occur in all primary cell walls. This review surveys what is known about the structure and function of these pectin domains. The high degree of structural complexity and heterogeneity of the pectic matrix is produced both during biosynthesis in the endomembrane system and as a result of the action of an array of wall-based pectin-modifying enzymes. Recent developments in analytical techniques and in the generation of anti-pectin probes have begun to place the structural complexity of pectin in cell biological and developmental contexts. The in muro de-methyl-esterification of homogalacturonan by pectin methyl esterases is emerging as a key process for the local modulation of matrix properties. Rhamnogalacturonan-I comprises a highly diverse population of spatially and developmentally regulated polymers, whereas rhamnogalacturonan-II appears to be a highly conserved and stable pectic domain. Current knowledge of biosynthetic enzymes, plant and microbial pectinases and the interactions of pectin with other cell wall components and the impact of molecular genetic approaches are reviewed in terms of the functional analysis of pectic polysaccharides in plant growth and development.

  5. Glomerular function in sickle cell disease patients during crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderibigbe, A; Arije, A; Akinkugbe, O O

    1994-06-01

    An 8 month prospective study was carried out in 20 adult sickle cell disease (SCD) patients 16 sickle cell anaemia (Hbss) and 4 sickle cell Hbc disease (Hbsc); who had vaso-occlusive crises within the study period to determine the extent of the effect of sickle cell crisis on glomerular function in SCD patients during crisis. The male: female ratio was 1:57 and their mean age was 21.1 +/- 7.9 years. Creatinine clearance (CCr), as an index of glomerular function, was determined at the pre-crisis, crisis, 2 and 4 weeks post-crisis and at the end of the study period. The mean values of their CCr dropped from 113.37 +/- 33.80mls/min at pre-crisis stage to 96.39 +/- 30.13mls/min during crisis (p pre-crisis stage (p > 0.05). It is concluded that glomerular dysfunction in SCD patients during crisis is potentially reversible.

  6. Precursors of executive function in infants with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Alexandra M; Telfer, Paul T; Kirkham, Fenella J; de Haan, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    Executive dysfunction occurs in sickle cell anemia, but there are few early data. Infants with sickle cell anemia (n = 14) and controls (n = 14) performed the "A-not-B" and Object Retrieval search tasks, measuring precursors of executive function at 9 and 12 months. Significant group differences were not found. However, for the A-not-B task, 7 of 11 sickle cell anemia infants scored in the lower 2 performance categories at 9 months, but only 1 at 12 months (P = .024); controls obtained scores at 12 months that were statistically comparable to the scores they had already obtained at 9 months. On the Object Retrieval task, 9- and 12-month controls showed comparable scores, whereas infants with sickle cell anemia continued to improve (P = .027); at 9 months, those with lower hemoglobin oxygen saturation passed fewer trials (R s = 0.670, P = .024) and took longer to obtain the toy (R s = -0.664, P = .013). Subtle delays in acquiring developmental skills may underlie abnormal executive function in childhood.

  7. Evaluation of cell viability and functionality in vessel-like bioprintable cell-laden tubular channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yin; Zhang, Yahui; Martin, James A; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2013-09-01

    Organ printing is a novel concept recently introduced in developing artificial three-dimensional organs to bridge the gap between transplantation needs and organ shortage. One of the major challenges is inclusion of blood-vessellike channels between layers to support cell viability, postprinting functionality in terms of nutrient transport, and waste removal. In this research, we developed a novel and effective method to print tubular channels encapsulating cells in alginate to mimic the natural vascular system. An experimental investigation into the influence on cartilage progenitor cell (CPCs) survival, and the function of printing parameters during and after the printing process were presented. CPC functionality was evaluated by checking tissue-specific genetic marker expression and extracellular matrix production. Our results demonstrated the capability of direct fabrication of cell-laden tubular channels by our newly designed coaxial nozzle assembly and revealed that the bioprinting process could induce quantifiable cell death due to changes in dispensing pressure, coaxial nozzle geometry, and biomaterial concentration. Cells were able to recover during incubation, as well as to undergo differentiation with high-level cartilage-associated gene expression. These findings may not only help optimize our system but also can be applied to biomanufacturing of 3D functional cellular tissue engineering constructs for various organ systems.

  8. Proteome analysis of functionally differentiated bovine (Bos indicus) mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk

    KAUST Repository

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh

    2013-10-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end in alveoli. Terminally differentiated mammary epithelial cells (MECs) constitute the innermost layer of aveoli. They are milk-secreting cuboidal cells that secrete milk proteins during lactation. Little is known about the expression profile of proteins in the metabolically active MECs during lactation or their functional role in the lactation process. In the present investigation, we have reported the proteome map of MECs in lactating cows using 2DE MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. MECs were isolated from milk using immunomagnetic beads and confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2DE-MS/MS based approaches led to identification of 431 and 134 proteins, respectively, with a total of 497 unique proteins. Proteins identified in this study were clustered into functional groups using bioinformatics tools. Pathway analysis of the identified proteins revealed 28 pathways (p < 0.05) providing evidence for involvement of various proteins in lactation function. This study further provides experimental evidence for the presence of many proteins that have been predicted in annotated bovine genome. The data generated further provide a set of bovine MEC-specific proteins that will help the researchers to understand the molecular events taking place during lactation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Steady state peripheral blood provides cells with functional and metabolic characteristics of real hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdieu, Antonin; Avalon, Maryse; Lapostolle, Véronique; Ismail, Sadek; Mombled, Margaux; Debeissat, Christelle; Guérinet, Marianne; Duchez, Pascale; Chevaleyre, Jean; Vlaski-Lafarge, Marija; Villacreces, Arnaud; Praloran, Vincent; Ivanovic, Zoran; Brunet de la Grange, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are located in the bone marrow, also circulate in cord and peripheral blood. Despite high availability, HSCs from steady state peripheral blood (SSPB) are little known and not used for research or cell therapy. We thus aimed to characterize and select HSCs from SSPB by a direct approach with a view to delineating their main functional and metabolic properties and the mechanisms responsible for their maintenance. We chose to work on Side Population (SP) cells which are highly enriched in HSCs in mouse, human bone marrow, and cord blood. However, no SP cells from SSBP have as yet been characterized. Here we showed that SP cells from SSPB exhibited a higher proliferative capacity and generated more clonogenic progenitors than non-SP cells in vitro. Furthermore, xenotransplantation studies on immunodeficient mice demonstrated that SP cells are up to 45 times more enriched in cells with engraftment capacity than non-SP cells. From a cell regulation point of view, we showed that SP activity depended on O 2 concentrations close to those found in HSC niches, an effect which is dependent on both hypoxia-induced factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Moreover SP cells displayed a reduced mitochondrial mass and, in particular, a lower mitochondrial activity compared to non-SP cells, while they exhibited a similar level of glucose incorporation. These results provided evidence that SP cells from SSPB displayed properties of very primitive cells and HSC, thus rendering them an interesting model for research and cell therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Human Trophoblast Cell Functions In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trophoblast cell dysfunction is involved in many disorders during pregnancy such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Few treatments exist, however, that target improving trophoblast cell function. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs are capable of self-renewing, can undergo multilineage differentiation, and have homing abilities; in addition, they have immunomodulatory effects and paracrine properties and thus are a prospective source for cell therapy. To identify whether hUCMSCs can regulate trophoblast cell functions, we treated trophoblast cells with hUCMSC supernatant or cocultured them with hUCMSCs. Both treatments remarkably enhanced the migration and invasion abilities of trophoblast cells and upregulated their proliferation ability. At a certain concentration, hUCMSCs also modulated hCG, PIGF, and sEndoglin levels in the trophoblast culture medium. Thus, hUCMSCs have a positive effect on trophoblast cellular functions, which may provide a new avenue for treatment of placenta-related diseases during pregnancy.

  11. A Cell Culture Approach to Optimized Human Corneal Endothelial Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartakova, Alena; Kuzmenko, Olga; Alvarez-Delfin, Karen; Kunzevitzky, Noelia J.; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Cell-based therapies to replace corneal endothelium depend on culture methods to optimize human corneal endothelial cell (HCEC) function and minimize endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EnMT). Here we explore contribution of low-mitogenic media on stabilization of phenotypes in vitro that mimic those of HCECs in vivo. Methods HCECs were isolated from cadaveric donor corneas and expanded in vitro, comparing continuous presence of exogenous growth factors (“proliferative media”) to media without those factors (“stabilizing media”). Identity based on canonical morphology and expression of surface marker CD56, and function based on formation of tight junction barriers measured by trans-endothelial electrical resistance assays (TEER) were assessed. Results Primary HCECs cultured in proliferative media underwent EnMT after three to four passages, becoming increasingly fibroblastic. Stabilizing the cells before each passage by switching them to a media low in mitogenic growth factors and serum preserved canonical morphology and yielded a higher number of cells. HCECs cultured in stabilizing media increased both expression of the identity marker CD56 and also tight junction monolayer integrity compared to cells cultured without stabilization. Conclusions HCECs isolated from donor corneas and expanded in vitro with a low-mitogenic media stabilizing step before each passage demonstrate more canonical structural and functional features and defer EnMT, increasing the number of passages and total canonical cell yield. This approach may facilitate development of HCEC-based cell therapies. PMID:29625488

  12. Ultrastructure, inferred porosity, and gram-staining character of Methanospirillum hungatei filament termini describe a unique cell permeability for this archaeobacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beveridge, T.J.; Sprott, G.D.; Whippey, P.

    1991-01-01

    By light microscopy, Methanospirillum hungatei GP1 stains gram positive at the terminal ends of each multicellular filament and gram negative at all regions in between. This phenomenon was studied further by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of Gram-stained cells, using a platinum compound to replace Gram's iodine. Crystal violet-platinum precipitates could be found only in the terminal cells of each filament, which suggested that the multilamellar plugs at the filament ends were involved with stain penetration. When sheaths were isolated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-dithiothreitol treatment, the end plugs could be ejected and their layers could be separated from one another by 0.1 M NaOH treatment. Each plug consisted of at least three individual layers; two were particulate and possessed 14.0-nm particles hexagonally arranged on their surfaces with a spacing of a = b = 18.0 nm, whereas the other was a netting of 12.5-nm holes with spacings and symmetry identical to those of the particulate layers. Optical diffraction and computer image reconstruction were used to clarify the structures of each layer in an intact plug and to provide a high-resolution image of their interdigitated structures. The holes through this composite were three to six times larger than those through the sheath. Accordingly, we propose that the terminal plugs of M. hungatei allow the access of larger solutes than does the sheath and that this is the reason why the end cells of each filament stain gram positive whereas more internal cells are gram negative. Intuitively, since the cell spacers which partition the cells from one another along the filament contain plugs identical in structure to terminal plugs, the diffusion of large solutes for these cells would be unidirectional along the filament-cell axis

  13. Advanced manufacturing of microdisk vaccines for uniform control of material properties and immune cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qin; Zhang, Peipei; Zeng, Xiangbin; Tostanoski, Lisa H; Jewell, Christopher M

    2017-12-19

    The continued challenges facing vaccines in infectious disease and cancer highlight a need for better control over the features of vaccines and the responses they generate. Biomaterials offer unique advantages to achieve this goal through features such as controlled release and co-delivery of antigens and adjuvants. However, many synthesis strategies lead to particles with heterogeneity in diameter, shape, loading level, or other properties. In contrast, advanced manufacturing techniques allow precision control of material properties at the micro- and nano-scale. These capabilities in vaccines and immunotherapies could allow more rational design to speed efficient design and clinical translation. Here we employed soft lithography to generate polymer microdisk vaccines with uniform structures and tunable compositions of vaccine antigens and toll like receptor agonists (TLRas) that serve as molecular adjuvants. Compared to conventional PLGA particles formed by emulsion, microdisks provided a dramatic improvement in the consistency of properties such as diameter. During culture with primary dendritic cells (DCs) from mice, microdisks were internalized by the cells without toxicity, while promoting co-delivery of antigen and TLRa to the same cell. Analysis of DC surface activation markers by flow cytometry revealed microdisk vaccines activated dendritic cells in a manner that depended on the level of TLRa, while antigen processing and presentation depended on the amount of antigen in the microdisks. Together, this work demonstrates the use of advanced manufacturing techniques to produce uniform vaccines that direct DC function depending on the composition in the disks.

  14. Interactions and effects of BSA-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes on different cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzi, Laura; Tardani, Franco; La Mesa, Camillo; Bonincontro, Adalberto; Bianco, Alberto; Risuleo, Gianfranco

    2016-04-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great promise in several biomedical contexts, spanning from drug delivery to tissue regeneration. Thanks to their unique size-related properties, single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) are particularly interesting in these fields. However, their use in nanomedicine requires a clear demonstration of their safety in terms of tissue damage, toxicity and pro-inflammatory response. Thus, a better understanding of the cytotoxicity mechanisms, the cellular interactions and the effects that these materials have on cell survival and on biological membranes is an important first step for an appropriate assessment of their biocompatibility. In this study we show how bovine serum albumin (BSA) is able to generate homogeneous and stable dispersions of SWCNTs (BSA-CNTs), suggesting their possible use in the biomedical field. On the other hand, this study wishes to shed more light on the impact and the interactions of protein-stabilized SWCNTs with two different cell types exploiting multidisciplinary techniques. We show that BSA-CNTs are efficiently taken up by cells. We also attempt to describe the effect that the interaction with cells has on the dielectric characteristics of the plasma membrane and ion flux using electrorotation. We then focus on the BSA-CNTs’ acute toxicity using different cellular models. The novel aspect of this work is the evaluation of the membrane alterations that have been poorly investigated to date.

  15. Acute Malaria Induces PD1+CTLA4+ Effector T Cells with Cell-Extrinsic Suppressor Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sophia Mackroth

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In acute Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum malaria, the pro- and anti-inflammatory immune pathways must be delicately balanced so that the parasitemia is controlled without inducing immunopathology. An important mechanism to fine-tune T cell responses in the periphery is the induction of coinhibitory receptors such as CTLA4 and PD1. However, their role in acute infections such as P. falciparum malaria remains poorly understood. To test whether coinhibitory receptors modulate CD4+ T cell functions in malaria, blood samples were obtained from patients with acute P. falciparum malaria treated in Germany. Flow cytometric analysis showed a more frequent expression of CTLA4 and PD1 on CD4+ T cells of malaria patients than of healthy control subjects. In vitro stimulation with P. falciparum-infected red blood cells revealed a distinct population of PD1+CTLA4+CD4+ T cells that simultaneously produced IFNγ and IL10. This antigen-specific cytokine production was enhanced by blocking PD1/PDL1 and CTLA4. PD1+CTLA4+CD4+ T cells were further isolated based on surface expression of PD1 and their inhibitory function investigated in-vitro. Isolated PD1+CTLA4+CD4+ T cells suppressed the proliferation of the total CD4+ population in response to anti-CD3/28 and plasmodial antigens in a cell-extrinsic manner. The response to other specific antigens was not suppressed. Thus, acute P. falciparum malaria induces P. falciparum-specific PD1+CTLA4+CD4+ Teffector cells that coproduce IFNγ and IL10, and inhibit other CD4+ T cells. Transient induction of regulatory Teffector cells may be an important mechanism that controls T cell responses and might prevent severe inflammation in patients with malaria and potentially other acute infections.

  16. Schwann Cell Glycogen Selectively Supports Myelinated Axon Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angus M; Evans, Richard D; Black, Joel; Ransom, Bruce R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Interruption of energy supply to peripheral axons is a cause of axon loss. We determined if glycogen was present in mammalian peripheral nerve, and if it supported axon conduction during aglycemia. Methods We used biochemical assay and electron microscopy to determine the presence of glycogen, and electrophysiology to monitor axon function. Results Glycogen was present in sciatic nerve, its concentration varying directly with ambient [glucose]. Electron microscopy detected glycogen granules primarily in myelinating Schwann cell cytoplasm and these diminished after exposure to aglycemia. During aglycemia, conduction failure in large myelinated axons (A fibers) mirrored the time-course of glycogen loss. Latency to CAP failure was directly related to nerve glycogen content at aglycemia onset. Glycogen did not benefit the function of slow-conducting, small diameter unmyelinated axons (C fibers) during aglycemia. Blocking glycogen breakdown pharmacologically accelerated CAP failure during aglycemia in A fibers, but not in C fibers. Lactate was as effective as glucose in supporting sciatic nerve function, and was continuously released into the extracellular space in the presence of glucose and fell rapidly during aglycemia. Interpretation Our findings indicated that glycogen is present in peripheral nerve, primarily in myelinating Schwann cells, and exclusively supports large diameter, myelinated axon conduction during aglycemia. Available evidence suggests that peripheral nerve glycogen breaks down during aglycemia and is passed, probably as lactate, to myelinated axons to support function. Unmyelinated axons are not protected by glycogen and are more vulnerable to dysfunction during periods of hypoglycemia. PMID:23034913

  17. Gene function in early mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Pearl A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the genes that drive embryonic stem cell differentiation. However, such knowledge is necessary if we are to exploit the therapeutic potential of stem cells. To uncover the genetic determinants of mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC differentiation, we have generated and analyzed 11-point time-series of DNA microarray data for three biologically equivalent but genetically distinct mESC lines (R1, J1, and V6.5 undergoing undirected differentiation into embryoid bodies (EBs over a period of two weeks. Results We identified the initial 12 hour period as reflecting the early stages of mESC differentiation and studied probe sets showing consistent changes of gene expression in that period. Gene function analysis indicated significant up-regulation of genes related to regulation of transcription and mRNA splicing, and down-regulation of genes related to intracellular signaling. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genes showing the largest expression changes were more likely to have originated in metazoans. The probe sets with the most consistent gene changes in the three cell lines represented 24 down-regulated and 12 up-regulated genes, all with closely related human homologues. Whereas some of these genes are known to be involved in embryonic developmental processes (e.g. Klf4, Otx2, Smn1, Socs3, Tagln, Tdgf1, our analysis points to others (such as transcription factor Phf21a, extracellular matrix related Lama1 and Cyr61, or endoplasmic reticulum related Sc4mol and Scd2 that have not been previously related to mESC function. The majority of identified functions were related to transcriptional regulation, intracellular signaling, and cytoskeleton. Genes involved in other cellular functions important in ESC differentiation such as chromatin remodeling and transmembrane receptors were not observed in this set. Conclusion Our analysis profiles for the first time gene expression at a very early stage of m

  18. Functional characteristics of parvalbumin- and cholecystokinin-expressing basket cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Marlene; Elgueta, Claudio

    2012-02-15

    Cortical neuronal network operations depend critically on the recruitment of GABAergic interneurons and the properties of their inhibitory output signals. Recent evidence indicates a marked difference in the signalling properties of two major types of perisomatic inhibitory interneurons, the parvalbumin- and the cholecystokinin-containing basket cells. Parvalbumin-expressing basket cells are rapidly recruited by excitatory synaptic inputs, generate high-frequency trains of action potentials, discharge single action potentials phase-locked to fast network oscillations and provide fast, stable and timed inhibitory output onto their target cells. In contrast, cholecystokinin-containing basket cells are recruited in a less reliable manner, discharge at moderate frequencies with single action potentials weakly coupled to the phases of fast network oscillations and generate an asynchronous, fluctuating and less timed inhibitory output. These signalling modes are based on cell type-dependent differences in the functional and plastic properties of excitatory input synapses, integrative qualities and in the kinetics and dynamics of inhibitory output synapses. Thus, the two perisomatic inhibitory interneuron types operate with different speed and precision and may therefore contribute differently to the operations of neuronal networks.

  19. Regulation of T Cell Differentiation and Function by EZH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantanos, Theodoros; Christofides, Anthos; Bardhan, Kankana; Li, Lequn; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A.

    2016-01-01

    The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), one of the polycomb-group proteins, is the catalytic subunit of Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and induces the trimethylation of the histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) promoting epigenetic gene silencing. EZH2 contains a SET domain promoting the methyltransferase activity, while the three other protein components of PRC2, namely EED, SUZ12, and RpAp46/48, induce compaction of the chromatin permitting EZH2 enzymatic activity. Numerous studies highlight the role of this evolutionary conserved protein as a master regulator of differentiation in humans involved in the repression of the homeotic gene and the inactivation of X-chromosome. Through its effects in the epigenetic regulation of critical genes, EZH2 has been strongly linked to cell cycle progression, stem cell pluripotency, and cancer biology, being currently at the cutting edge of research. Most recently, EZH2 has been associated with hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thymopoiesis and lymphopoiesis. Several studies have evaluated the role of EZH2 in the regulation of T cell differentiation and plasticity as well as its implications in the development of autoimmune diseases and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of EZH2 in the regulation of the differentiation and function of T cells focusing on possible applications in various immune-mediated conditions, including autoimmune disorders and GVHD. PMID:27199994

  20. Coniferyl aldehyde attenuates radiation enteropathy by inhibiting cell death and promoting endothelial cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ye-Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Son, Yeonghoon; Jang, Jun-Ho; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kim, Sung-Ho; Ko, Young-Gyo; Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Hae-June

    2015-01-01

    Radiation enteropathy is a common complication in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiation-induced intestinal injury could be alleviated by coniferyl aldehyde (CA), an HSF1-inducing agent that increases cellular HSP70 expression. We systemically administered CA to mice with radiation enteropathy following abdominal irradiation (IR) to demonstrate the protective effects of CA against radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury. CA clearly alleviated acute radiation-induced intestinal damage, as reflected by the histopathological data and it also attenuated sub-acute enteritis. CA prevented intestinal crypt cell death and protected the microvasculature in the lamina propria during the acute and sub-acute phases of damage. CA induced HSF1 and HSP70 expression in both intestinal epithelial cells and endothelial cells in vitro. Additionally, CA protected against not only the apoptotic cell death of both endothelial and epithelial cells but also the loss of endothelial cell function following IR, indicating that CA has beneficial effects on the intestine. Our results provide novel insight into the effects of CA and suggest its role as a therapeutic candidate for radiation-induced enteropathy due to its ability to promote rapid re-proliferation of the intestinal epithelium by the synergic effects of the inhibition of cell death and the promotion of endothelial cell function.

  1. Generation of inner ear organoids containing functional hair cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Karl R; Nie, Jing; Longworth-Mills, Emma; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lee, Jiyoon; Holt, Jeffrey R; Hashino, Eri

    2017-06-01

    The derivation of human inner ear tissue from pluripotent stem cells would enable in vitro screening of drug candidates for the treatment of hearing and balance dysfunction and may provide a source of cells for cell-based therapies of the inner ear. Here we report a method for differentiating human pluripotent stem cells to inner ear organoids that harbor functional hair cells. Using a three-dimensional culture system, we modulate TGF, BMP, FGF, and WNT signaling to generate multiple otic-vesicle-like structures from a single stem-cell aggregate. Over 2 months, the vesicles develop into inner ear organoids with sensory epithelia that are innervated by sensory neurons. Additionally, using CRISPR-Cas9, we generate an ATOH1-2A-eGFP cell line to detect hair cell induction and demonstrate that derived hair cells exhibit electrophysiological properties similar to those of native sensory hair cells. Our culture system should facilitate the study of human inner ear development and research on therapies for diseases of the inner ear.

  2. Control of epithelial cell function by interleukin-22-producing RORγt+ innate lymphoid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanos, Stephanie L; Vonarbourg, Cedric; Mortha, Arthur; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    It is rapidly emerging that the defence system of innate lymphocytes is more diverse than previously recognized. In addition to natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, and natural helper cells have now been identified. LTi cells are developmentally dependent on the orphan transcription factor RORγt and instruct lymph node development during embryogenesis. More recently, it has become evident, that in addition to their role for lymph organ development, LTi cells are also potent producers of cytokines such as interleukin-22 (IL-22) and IL-17 in adult mice. In addition to LTi cells, another RORγt-dependent innate lymphocyte subset co-expressing RORγt and NK cell receptors (NKRs) has been identified. These NKR+ RORγt+ cells are also potent producers of IL-22 but it is unclear whether they are part of the NK cell or LTi cell lineage. This review will highlight recent progress in understanding development and function of innate IL-22-producing lymphocyte subsets. PMID:21391996

  3. Unique genetic profiles from cerebrospinal fluid cell-free DNA in leptomeningeal metastases of EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer: a new medium of liquid biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y S; Jiang, B Y; Yang, J J; Zhang, X C; Zhang, Z; Ye, J Y; Zhong, W Z; Tu, H Y; Chen, H J; Wang, Z; Xu, C R; Wang, B C; Du, H J; Chuai, S; Han-Zhang, H; Su, J; Zhou, Q; Yang, X N; Guo, W B; Yan, H H; Liu, Y H; Yan, L X; Huang, B; Zheng, M M; Wu, Y L

    2018-04-01

    Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) are more frequent in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Due to limited access to leptomeningeal lesions, the purpose of this study was to explore the potential role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a source of liquid biopsy in patients with LM. Primary tumor, CSF, and plasma in NSCLC with LM were tested by next-generation sequencing. In total, 45 patients with suspected LM underwent lumbar puncture, and those with EGFR mutations diagnosed with LM were enrolled. A total of 28 patients were enrolled in this cohort; CSF and plasma were available in 26 patients, respectively. Driver genes were detected in 100% (26/26), 84.6% (22/26), and 73.1% (19/26) of samples comprising CSF cell-free DNA (cfDNA), CSF precipitates, and plasma, respectively; 92.3% (24/26) of patients had much higher allele fractions in CSF cfDNA than the other two media. Unique genetic profiles were captured in CSF cfDNA compared with those in plasma and primary tissue. Multiple copy number variations (CNVs) were mainly identified in CSF cfDNA, and MET copy number gain identified in 47.8% (11/23) of patients was the most frequent one, while other CNVs included ERBB2, KRAS, ALK, and MYC. Moreover, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of TP53 was identified in 73.1% (19/26) CSF cfDNA, which was much higher than that in plasma (2/26, 7.7%; P liquid biopsy medium for LM in EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

  4. Real-Time Tracking of BODIPY-C12 Long-Chain Fatty Acid in Human Term Placenta Reveals Unique Lipid Dynamics in Cytotrophoblast Cells.

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    Kevin Kolahi

    Full Text Available While the human placenta must provide selected long-chain fatty acids to support the developing fetal brain, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the transport process. We tracked the movement of the fluorescently labeled long-chain fatty acid analogue, BODIPY-C12, across the cell layers of living explants of human term placenta. Although all layers took up the fatty acid, rapid esterification of long-chain fatty acids and incorporation into lipid droplets was exclusive to the inner layer cytotrophoblast cells rather than the expected outer syncytiotrophoblast layer. Cytotrophoblast is a progenitor cell layer previously relegated to a repair role. As isolated cytotrophoblasts differentiated into syncytialized cells in culture, they weakened their lipid processing capacity. Syncytializing cells suppress previously active genes that regulate fatty-acid uptake (SLC27A2/FATP2, FABP4, ACSL5 and lipid metabolism (GPAT3, LPCAT3. We speculate that cytotrophoblast performs a previously unrecognized role in regulating placental fatty acid uptake and metabolism.

  5. A unique polysaccharide purified from Hericium erinaceus mycelium prevents oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in human gastric mucosa epithelium cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxing; Kanako, Nakajima; Zhang, Yanqiu; Xiao, Xulang; Gao, Qipin; Tetsuya, Konishi

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) has been used both as a traditional Chinese medicine and home remedy for treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastritis. EP-1, a purified polysaccharide isolated from HE mycelium, has recently been identified as the active component responsible for HE anti-gastritis activity. Because oxidative stress has been implicated as a pathogenic cause of gastritis and gastric ulcers, EP-1 antioxidant properties were systematically examined in vitro using the human gastric mucosal epithelial cell line, GES-1. Results showed that EP-1 possessed higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 2-3 times higher ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide and hydroxyl radicals than a hot water extract of commercially available HE fruiting body. A crude mycelial polysaccharide (CMPS) extract of HE, from which EP-1 was purified, showed slightly stronger radical scavenging activity and ORAC than EP-1, with the exception of DPPH-scavenging activity. Antioxidant activities of these extracts were further studied using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-abused GES-1 cells; EP-1 dose-dependently preserved cell viability of abused cells as assessed via MTT assay. Moreover, FACS analysis revealed that EP-1 prevented H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting activation of apoptotic cellular signals within mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways. CMPS also prevented H2O2-induced oxidative stress, but to a lesser degree than did EP-1, even though CMPS exhibited comparable or stronger in vitro antioxidant activity than did EP-1.

  6. Intersection of transfer cells with phloem biology – broad evolutionary trends, function and induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity eAndriunas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Transfer cells (TCs are ubiquitous throughout the plant kingdom. Their unique ingrowth wall labyrinths, supporting a plasma membrane enriched in transporter proteins, provides these cells with an enhanced membrane transport capacity for resources. In certain plant species, TCs have been shown to function to facilitate phloem loading and/or unloading at cellular sites of intense resource exchange between symplasmic/apoplasmic compartments. Within the phloem, the key cellular locations of TCs are leaf minor veins of collection phloem and stem nodes of transport phloem. In these locations, companion and phloem parenchyma cells trans-differentiate to a TC morphology consistent with facilitating loading and re-distribution of resources respectively. At a species level, occurrence of TCs is significantly higher in transport than in collection phloem. TCs are absent from release phloem but occur within post-sieve element unloading pathways and particularly at interfaces between generations of developing Angiosperm seeds. Experimental accessibility of seed TCs has provided opportunities to investigate their inductive signaling, regulation of ingrowth wall formation and membrane transport function. This review uses this information base to explore current knowledge of phloem transport function and inductive signaling for phloem-associated TCs. The functional role of collection phloem and seed TCs is supported by definitive evidence, but no such information is available for stem node TCs that present an almost intractable experimental challenge. There is an emerging understanding of inductive signals and signaling pathways responsible for initiating trans-differentiation to a TC morphology in developing seeds. However, scant information is available to comment on a potential role for inductive signals that induce seed TCs, in regulating induction of phloem-associated TCs. Biotic phloem invaders have been used as a model to speculate on involvement of

  7. Intersection of transfer cells with phloem biology—broad evolutionary trends, function, and induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriunas, Felicity A.; Zhang, Hui-Ming; Xia, Xue; Patrick, John W.; Offler, Christina E.

    2013-01-01

    Transfer cells (TCs) are ubiquitous throughout the plant kingdom. Their unique ingrowth wall labyrinths, supporting a plasma membrane enriched in transporter proteins, provides these cells with an enhanced membrane transport capacity for resources. In certain plant species, TCs have been shown to function to facilitate phloem loading and/or unloading at cellular sites of intense resource exchange between symplasmic/apoplasmic compartments. Within the phloem, the key cellular locations of TCs are leaf minor veins of collection phloem and stem nodes of transport phloem. In these locations, companion and phloem parenchyma cells trans-differentiate to a TC morphology consistent with facilitating loading and re-distribution of resources, respectively. At a species level, occurrence of TCs is significantly higher in transport than in collection phloem. TCs are absent from release phloem, but occur within post-sieve element unloading pathways and particularly at interfaces between generations of developing Angiosperm seeds. Experimental accessibility of seed TCs has provided opportunities to investigate their inductive signaling, regulation of ingrowth wall formation and membrane transport function. This review uses this information base to explore current knowledge of phloem transport function and inductive signaling for phloem-associated TCs. The functional role of collection phloem and seed TCs is supported by definitive evidence, but no such information is available for stem node TCs that present an almost intractable experimental challenge. There is an emerging understanding of inductive signals and signaling pathways responsible for initiating trans-differentiation to a TC morphology in developing seeds. However, scant information is available to comment on a potential role for inductive signals (auxin, ethylene and reactive oxygen species) that induce seed TCs, in regulating induction of phloem-associated TCs. Biotic phloem invaders have been used as a model to

  8. The oligodendroglial precursor cell line Oli-neu represents a cell culture system to examine functional expression of the mouse gap junction gene connexin29 (Cx29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Christoph Söhl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential gap junction forming mouse connexin29 (Cx29 protein is concomitantly expressed with connexin32 (Cx32 in peripheral myelin forming Schwann cells and together with both Cx32 and connexin47 (Cx47 in oligodendrocytes of the CNS. To study the genomic structure and functional expression of Cx29, either primary cells or cell culture systems might be selected, from which the latter are easier to cultivate. Both structure and expression of Cx29 is still not fully understood. In the mouse sciatic nerve, brain and the oligodendroglial precursor cell line Oli-neu the Cx29 gene is processed in two transcript isoforms both harbouring a unique reading frame. In contrast to Cx32 and Cx47, only Cx29 protein is abundantly expressed in undifferentiated as well as differentiated Oli-neu cells but the absence of Etbr dye transfer after microinjection concealed the function of Cx29 mediated gap junction communication between those cells. Although HeLa cells stably transfected with Cx29 or Cx29-eGFP neither demonstrated any permeability for Lucifer yellow nor for neurobiotin, blocking of Etbr uptake from the media by gap junction blockers does suppose a role of Cx29 in hemi-channel function. Thus, we conclude that, due to its high abundance of Cx29 expression and its reproducible culture conditions, the oligodendroglial precursor cell line Oli-neu might constitute an appropriate cell culture system to study molecular mechanisms or putative extracellular stimuli to functionally open Cx29 channels or hemi-channels.

  9. Efficient generation of functional pancreatic β-cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shigeharu G; Fukuda, Satsuki; Takeda, Fujie; Nashiro, Kiyoko; Shimoda, Masayuki; Okochi, Hitoshi

    2017-02-01

    Insulin-secreting cells have been generated from human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by mimicking developmental processes. However, these cells do not always secrete glucose-responsive insulin, one of the most important characteristics of pancreatic β-cells. We focused on the importance of endodermal differentiation from human iPSCs in order to obtain functional pancreatic β-cells. A six-stage protocol was established for the differentiation of human iPSCs to pancreatic β-cells using defined culture media without feeders or serum. The effects of CHIR99021, a selective glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor, were examined in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2, activin, and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (FAB) during definitive endodermal induction by immunostaining for SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 17 (SOX17) and Forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2). Insulin secretion was compared between the last stage of monolayer culture and spheroid culture conditions. Cultured cells were transplanted under kidney capsules of streptozotocin-diabetic non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency mice, and blood glucose levels were measured once a week. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed 4 and 12 weeks after transplantation. Addition of CHIR99021 (3 μmol/L) in the presence of FAB for 2 days improved endodermal cell viability, maintaining the high SOX17-positive rate. Spheroid formation after the endocrine progenitor stage showed more efficient insulin secretion than did monolayer culture. After cell transplantation, diabetic mice had lower blood glucose levels, and islet-like structures were detected in vivo. Functional pancreatic β-cells were generated from human iPSCs. Induction of definitive endoderm and spheroid formation may be key steps for producing these cells. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. The genetics of hair-cell function in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, Teresa

    2017-09-01

    Our ears are remarkable sensory organs, providing the important senses of balance and hearing. The complex structure of the inner ear, or 'labyrinth', along with the assorted neuroepithelia, have evolved to detect head movements and sounds with impressive sensitivity. The rub is that the inner ear is highly vulnerable to genetic lesions and environmental insults. According to National Institute of Health estimates, hearing loss is one of the most commonly inherited or acquired sensorineural diseases. To understand the causes of deafness and balance disorders, it is imperative to understand the underlying biology of the inner ear, especially the inner workings of the sensory receptors. These receptors, which are termed hair cells, are particularly susceptible to genetic mutations - more than two dozen genes are associated with defects in this cell type in humans. Over the past decade, a substantial amount of progress has been made in working out the molecular basis of hair-cell function using vertebrate animal models. Given the transparency of the inner ear and the genetic tools that are available, zebrafish have become an increasingly popular animal model for the study of deafness and vestibular dysfunction. Mutagenesis screens for larval defects in hearing and balance have been fruitful in finding key components, many of which have been implicated in human deafness. This review will focus on the genes that are required for hair-cell function in zebrafish, with a particular emphasis on mechanotransduction. In addition, the generation of new tools available for the characterization of zebrafish hair-cell mutants will be discussed.

  11. Diesel-Enriched Particulate Matter Functionally Activates Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael; Karp, Matthew; Killedar, Smruti; Bauer, Stephen M.; Guo, Jia; Williams, D'Ann; Breysse, Patrick; Georas, Steve N.; Williams, Marc A.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have associated exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) with exacerbations of asthma. It is unknown how different sources of PM affect innate immunity. We sought to determine how car- and diesel exhaust–derived PM affects dendritic cell (DC) activation. DC development was modeled using CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. Airborne PM was collected from exhaust plenums of Fort McHenry Tunnel providing car-enriched particles (CEP) and diesel-enriched particles (DEP). DC were stimulated for 48 hours with CEP, DEP, CD40-ligand, or lipopolysaccharide. DC activation was assessed by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and standard culture techniques. DEP increased uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran (a model antigen) by DC. Diesel particles enhanced cell-surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules (e.g., CD40 [P < 0.01] and MHC class II [P < 0.01]). By contrast, CEP poorly affected antigen uptake and expression of cell surface molecules, and did not greatly affect cytokine secretion by DC. However, DEP increased production of TNF, IL-6, and IFN-γ (P < 0.01), IL-12 (P < 0.05), and vascular endothelial growth factor (P < 0.001). In co-stimulation assays of PM-exposed DC and alloreactive CD4+ T cells, both CEP and DEP directed a Th2-like pattern of cytokine production (e.g., enhanced IL-13 and IL-18 and suppressed IFN-γ production). CD4+ T cells were not functionally activated on exposure to either DEP or CEP. Car- and diesel-enriched particles exert a differential effect on DC activation. Our data support the hypothesis that DEP (and to a lesser extent CEP) regulate important functional aspects of human DC, supporting an adjuvant role for this material. PMID:17630318

  12. Glucose metabolite patterns as markers of functional differentiation in freshly isolated and cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerman, J.T.; Bartley, J.C.; Bissel, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In the mammary gland of non-ruminant animals, glucose is utilized in a characteristic and unique way during lacation. By measuring the incorporation of glucose carbon from [U- 14 C]glucose into intermediary metabolitees and metabolic products in mammary epithelia cells from virgin, pregnant, and lacating mice, we domonstrate that glucose metabolite patterns can be used to recognize stages of differentiated function. For these cells, the rates of synthesis of glycogen and lactose, the ratio of lactate to alanine, and the ratio of citrate to malate are important parameters in identifying the degree of expression of differentiation. We further show that these patterns can be used as markers to determine the differentiated state of cultured mammary epithelial cells. Cells maintained on plastic substrates lose their distinctive glucose metabolite patterns while those on floating collagen gels do not. Cells isolated from pregnant mice and cultured on collagen gels have a pattern similar to that of their freshly isolated counter-parts. When isolated from lacating mice, the metabolite patterns of cells cultured on collagen gels are different from that of the cells of origin, and resembles that of freshly isolated cells from pregnant mice. Our findings suggest that the floating collagen gels under the culture conditions used in these experiments provide an environment for the functional expression of the pregnant state, while additional factors are needed for the expression of the lactating state

  13. Repertoire Development and the Control of Cytotoxic/Effector Function in Human γδ T Cells

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    Elizabeth M. Urban

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available T cells develop into two major populations distinguished by their T cell receptor (TCR chains. Cells with the αβ TCR generally express CD4 or CD8 lineage markers and mostly fall into helper or cytotoxic/effector subsets. Cells expressing the alternate γδ TCR in humans generally do not express lineage markers, do not require MHC for antigen presentation, and recognize nonpeptidic antigens. We are interested in the dominant Vγ2Vδ2+ T cell subset in human peripheral blood and the control of effector function in this population. We review the literature on γδ T cell generation and repertoire selection, along with recent work on CD56 expression and defining a cytotoxic/effector lineage within the phosphoantigen-reactive Vγ2Vδ2 cells. A unique mechanism for MHC-independent repertoire selection is linked to the control of effector function that is vital to the role for γδ T cells in tumor surveillance. Better understanding of these mechanisms will improve our ability to exploit this population for tumor immunotherapy.

  14. Bosutinib, dasatinib, imatinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib differentially affect the vascular molecular pathways and functionality of human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover-Proaktor, Ayala; Granot, Galit; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Pasvolsky, Oren; Shapira, Saar; Raz, Oshrat; Raanani, Pia; Leader, Avi

    2018-05-09

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), nilotinib, ponatinib, and dasatinib (but not bosutinib or imatinib), are associated with vascular adverse events (VAEs) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Though the mechanism is inadequately understood, an effect on vascular cells has been suggested. We investigated the effect of imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, and ponatinib on tube formation, cell viability, and gene expression of human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found a distinct genetic profile in HUVECs treated with dasatinib, ponatinib, and nilotinib compared to bosutinib and imatinib, who resembled untreated samples. However, unique gene expression and molecular pathway alterations were detected between dasatinib, ponatinib, and nilotinib. Angiogenesis/blood vessel-related pathways and HUVEC function (tube formation/viability) were adversely affected by dasatinib, ponatinib, and nilotinib but not by imatinib or bosutinib. These results correspond to the differences in VAE profiles of these TKIs, support a direct effect on vascular cells, and provide direction for future research.