Sample records for cell freeze liquid

  1. Freezing of Coulomb liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.


    Recent progress in the theory of liquid-solid coexistence as approached from the liquid phase in systems with Coulomb forces is reviewed. Main attention is given to (i) Wigner crystallization of the electron gas in the degenerate and classical limits, and (ii) localization of bond particles leading to freezing in a pseudoclassical liquid-state version of the bond-charge model for elemental semiconductors. These models serve to illustrate crystallization driven by pure Coulomb repulsions and crystallization resulting from the interplay of attraction and repulsions in multicomponent systems, respectively. (author). 29 refs, 4 figs

  2. Optimization of the freezing process for hematopoietic progenitor cells: effect of precooling, initial dimethyl sulfoxide concentration, freezing program, and storage in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen on in vitro white blood cell quality. (United States)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J; Setroikromo, Airies C; Kraan, Marcha; Gkoumassi, Effimia; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny


    Adding dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) causes an exothermic reaction, potentially affecting their viability. The freezing method might also influence this. The aim was to investigate the effect of 1) precooling of DMSO and plasma (D/P) and white blood cell (WBC)-enriched product, 2) DMSO concentration of D/P, 3) freezing program, and 4) storage method on WBC quality. WBC-enriched product without CD34+ cells was used instead of HPCs. This was divided into six or eight portions. D/P (20 or 50%; precooled or room temperature [RT]) was added to the WBC-enriched product (precooled or RT), resulting in 10% DMSO, while monitoring temperature. The product was frozen using controlled-rate freezing ("fast-rate" or "slow-rate") and placed in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen. After thawing, WBC recovery and viability were determined. Temperature increased most for precooled D/P to precooled WBC-enriched product, without influence of 20 or 50% D/P, but remained for all variations below 30°C. WBC recovery for both freezing programs was more than 95%. Recovery of WBC viability was higher for slow-rate freezing compared to fast-rate freezing (74% vs. 61%; p Effect of precooling D/P or WBC-enriched product and of storage in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen was marginal. Based on these results, precooling is not necessary. Fifty percent D/P is preferred over 20% D/P. Slow-rate freezing is preferred over fast-rate freezing. For safety reasons storage in vapor-phase nitrogen is preferred over storage in liquid nitrogen. Additional testing using real HPCs might be necessary. © 2014 AABB.

  3. Liquid carbon: structure near the freezing line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghiringhelli, L.M.; Los, J.H.; Meijer, E.J.; Fasolino, A.; Frenkel, D.


    We present a detailed analysis of the structure of liquid carbon near the freezing line. The results are obtained by molecular simulation using a recently developed state-of-the-art bond order potential. We find that along the melting line the liquid is predominantly threefold coordinated up to

  4. Freezing of liquid alkali metals as screened ionic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badirkhan, Z.; Rovere, M.; Tosi, M.P.


    The relationship between Wigner crystallization of the classical ionic plasma and the liquid-solid transition of alkali metals is examined within the density wave theory of freezing. Freezing of the classical plasma on a rigid neutralizing background into the bcc structure is first re-evaluated, in view of recent progress in the determination of its thermodynamic functions by simulation and of the known difficulties of the theory relating to the order parameter at the (200) star of reciprocal lattice vectors. Freezing into the fcc structure is also considered in this context and found to be unfavoured. On allowing for long-wavelength deformability of the background, the ensuing appearance of a volume change on freezing into the bcc structure is accompanied by reduced stability of the fluid phase and by an increase in the entropy of melting. Freezing of alkali metals into the bcc structure is next evaluated, taking their ionic pair structure as that of an ionic plasma reference fluid screened by conduction electrons and asking that the correct ionic coupling strength at liquid-solid coexistence should be approximately reproduced. The ensuring values of the volume and entropy changes across the phase transition, as estimated from the theory by two alternative routes, are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The order parameters of the phase transition, excepting the (200) one, conform rather closely to a Gaussian behaviour and yield a Lindemann ratio in reasonable agreement with the empirical value for melting of bcc crystals. It is suggested that ionic ordering at the (200) star in the metal may be (i) assisted by medium range ordering in the conduction electrons, as indicated by differences in X-ray and neutron diffraction intensities from the liquid, and/or (ii) quite small in the hot bcc solid. Such a possible premelting behaviour of bcc metals should be worth testing experimentally by diffraction. (author). 48 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Inactivation of Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder meat by liquid freezing. (United States)

    Ohnishi, Takahiro; Akuzawa, Sayuri; Furusawa, Hiroko; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko


    Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder meat was inactivated using 3 distinct freezing methods:liquid freezing for 5 min, air blast freezing at -30℃ for 5 h, and -80℃ for 1 h. The fracture curve of olive flounder meat subjected to liquid freezing resembled that of meat stored at 4℃, indicating that the structure of olive flounder muscle was well preserved. In contrast, air blast freezing induced the disappearance of the fracture point in the fracture curve, indicating that there was deterioration in the meat quality. Liquid freezing preserved the transparency of olive flounder meat to the same degree as that of meat stored at 4°C. However, air blast freezing induced meat cloudiness. These results indicate that liquid freezing can be used for K. septempunctata inactivation without affecting the meat quality.

  6. Deformed liquid marbles: Freezing drop oscillations with powders

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy


    In this work we show that when a liquid drop impacts onto a fine-grained hydrophobic powder, the final form of the drop can be very different from the spherical form with which it impacts. In all cases, the drop rebounds due to the hydrophobic nature of the powder. However, we find that above a critical impact speed, the drop undergoes a permanent deformation to a highly non-spherical shape with a near-complete coverage of powder, which then freezes the drop oscillations during rebound. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen preserves bulk dissolved organic matter concentrations, but not its composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieme, Lisa; Graeber, Daniel; Kaupenjohann, Martin


    -freezing with liquid nitrogen) on DOM concentrations measured as organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and on spectroscopic properties of DOM from different terrestrial ecosystems (forest and grassland). Fresh and differently frozen throughfall, stemflow, litter leachate and soil solution samples were analyzed for DOC......Freezing can affect concentrations and spectroscopic properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water samples. Nevertheless, water samples are regularly frozen for sample preservation. In this study we tested the effect of different freezing methods (standard freezing at −18 °C and fast...... concentrations, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence excitation–emission matrices combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen prevented a significant decrease of DOC concentrations observed after freezing at −18 °C. Nonetheless, the share of PARAFAC components 1 (EXmax...

  8. Charge-charge liquid structure factor and the freezing of alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.; Tosi, M.P.


    The peak height of the charge-charge liquid structure factor Ssub(QQ) in molten alkali halides is proposed as a criterion for freezing. Available data on molten alkali chlorides, when extrapolated to the freezing point suggests Ssub(QQ)sup(max) approximately 5. (author)

  9. Proline: A Novel Cryoprotectant for the Freeze Preservation of Cultured Cells of Zea mays L (United States)

    Withers, Lyndsey A.; King, Patrick J.


    Proline is an effective cryoprotectant for the storage of cultured cells of Zea mays L. in liquid N2. Increased freeze tolerance can be achieved by pregrowth for 3 to 4 days in medium containing proline. Cells cryoprotected with proline have an increased recovery potential when compared with cells cryoprotected with dimethylsulfoxide and glycerol. They also show a reduced postthaw viability loss and greater tolerance of a range of postthaw culture conditions. It is suggested that the mechanism of action of proline may be similar to that in its putative role of conferring protection against natural stresses. It may be protecting the cell against solution effects caused by dehydration during freezing. These findings are discussed in relation to other freeze tolerance enhancing treatments. PMID:16661033

  10. Sensitivity of liquid clouds to homogenous freezing parameterizations. (United States)

    Herbert, Ross J; Murray, Benjamin J; Dobbie, Steven J; Koop, Thomas


    Water droplets in some clouds can supercool to temperatures where homogeneous ice nucleation becomes the dominant freezing mechanism. In many cloud resolving and mesoscale models, it is assumed that homogeneous ice nucleation in water droplets only occurs below some threshold temperature typically set at -40°C. However, laboratory measurements show that there is a finite rate of nucleation at warmer temperatures. In this study we use a parcel model with detailed microphysics to show that cloud properties can be sensitive to homogeneous ice nucleation as warm as -30°C. Thus, homogeneous ice nucleation may be more important for cloud development, precipitation rates, and key cloud radiative parameters than is often assumed. Furthermore, we show that cloud development is particularly sensitive to the temperature dependence of the nucleation rate. In order to better constrain the parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation laboratory measurements are needed at both high (>-35°C) and low (<-38°C) temperatures. Homogeneous freezing may be significant as warm as -30°CHomogeneous freezing should not be represented by a threshold approximationThere is a need for an improved parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation.

  11. Freezing Point Determination of Water–Ionic Liquid Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yanrong; Meyer, Anne S.; Nie, Yi


    of water. On the basis of the cryoscopicbehavior recorded, the solid phases formed at higher IL contents werepresumed to be hydrates of the form IL·nH2O. The HOEtpyBr+H2O and HOEtmimBr+H2O systems formed simple eutectic systems. The eutectic points werefound to be at a water mole fraction of 0.617 and 219.......841 K in thefirst system and at a water mole fraction of 0.657 and 202.565 K inthe second system. Water activities in aqueous IL solutions were predictedby COSMO-RS and COSMO-SAC and compared to water activities derivedfrom the experimentally determined freezing points. The COSMO-RS predictionswere...... closer to the experimental water activities than the COSMO-SACpredictions. The experimental results indicate that the freezing pointsof IL+H2O systems are affected by the nature of both cationsand anions. However, according to the COSMO-RS excess enthalpy predictionresults, the anions have a relatively...

  12. Enhanced resolution of membranes in cultured cells by cryoimmobilization and freeze-substitution. (United States)

    Wild, P; Schraner, E M; Adler, H; Humbel, B M


    Investigations of cellular processes demand immediate arresting of the process at any given time and excellent retention of cellular material and excellent visibility of membranes. To achieve this goal we used cryofixation to arrest cellular processes instantly and tested diverse freeze-substitution protocols. Madin-Darby kidney cells and Vero cells were grown on carbon-coated sapphire disks. For cryofixation the sapphire disks covered with a cell monolayer were injected with the aid of a guillotine into liquid propane or ethane or a mixture of both cooled by liquid nitrogen. Freezing of the cryogen was prevented by using a partially insulated cylinder and by vigorous stirring that results in a substantial decrement of the freezing point of the cryogen. Cell monolayers can be cryofixed successfully using the guillotine in a safety hood at ambient temperature and humidity or at 37 degrees C and 45% humidity. The freezing unit can also be placed in a laminar flow for working under biohazard conditions. For visualizing cell membranes at high contrast and high resolution, cells were substituted in the presence of various concentrations of glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide and the temperature was raised to diverse final temperatures. Substitution for 4 hours at -90 degrees C in anhydrous acetone containing 0.25% anhydrous glutaraldehyde and 0.5% osmium tetroxide followed by a temperature rise of 5 degrees C/hour to 0 degrees C and final incubation for 1 hour at 0 degrees C resulted in high contrast and excellent visibility of subcellular components at the level of the membrane bilayer. The high spatial and temporal resolution makes this methodology an excellent tool for studying cell membrane-bound processes, such as virus-cell interactions. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. A fuel freezing model for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor hypothetical core disruptive accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, F.R.; Erdman, C.; Wayne, D.


    A proposed fuel freezing mechanism for molten UO2 fuel penetrating a steel channel was investigated in the course of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor hypothetical core disruptiv accident safety studies. The fuel crust deposited on an underlying melting steel wall was analyzed as being subjected to two stresses one due to the pressure difference between the flowing fuel and the stagnant molten steel layer, and the other resulting from the temperature variation through the crust thickness. Analyses based on the proposed freezing mechanism and comparisons with fuel freezing experiments confirmed that fuel freezing occurs in three modes. For initially low steel wall temperatures, the fuel crust was stable and grew to occlude the channel. At high steel wall temperatures (above 1070 K), instantaneous wall melting leading to steel entrainment was calculated to occur with final penetration depending on the refreezing of the entrained steel. Between these two extremes, the stress developed within the crust at the steel melting front exceeds the critical buckling value, the crust ruptures, and steel is injected into the fuel flow. Freezing is dominated by the fuel/steel mixture. The theoretical penetration distances and freezing times were in good agreement with the experimental results with no more than 20% error involved.

  14. A model of freezing foods with liquid nitrogen using special functions (United States)

    Rodríguez Vega, Martín.


    A food freezing model is analyzed analytically. The model is based on the heat diffusion equation in the case of cylindrical shaped food frozen by liquid nitrogen; and assuming that the thermal conductivity of the cylindrical food is radially modulated. The model is solved using the Laplace transform method, the Bromwich theorem, and the residue theorem. The temperature profile in the cylindrical food is presented as an infinite series of special functions. All the required computations are performed with computer algebra software, specifically Maple. Using the numeric values of the thermal and geometric parameters for the cylindrical food, as well as the thermal parameters of the liquid nitrogen freezing system, the temporal evolution of the temperature in different regions in the interior of the cylindrical food is presented both analytically and graphically. The duration of the liquid nitrogen freezing process to achieve the specified effect on the cylindrical food is computed. The analytical results are expected to be of importance in food engineering and cooking engineering. As a future research line, the formulation and solution of freezing models with thermal memory is proposed.

  15. Liquid structure and freezing of the two-dimensional classical electron fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballone, P.; Pastore, G.; Rovere, M.; Tosi, M.P.


    Accurate theoretical results are reported for the pair correlation function of the classical two-dimensional electron liquid with r -1 interactions at strong coupling. The approach involves an evaluation of the bridge diagram corrections to the hypernetted-chain approximation, the role of low dimensionality being evident, relative to the case of the three-dimensional classical plasma, in an enhanced sensitivity to long range correlations. The liquid structure results are utilized in a density-wave theory of first-order freezing into the triangular lattice, the calculated coupling strength at freezing being in reasonable agreement with computer simulation results and with data on electron films on a liquid-He surface. The stability of the triangular electron lattice against deformation into a body-centered rectangular lattice is also discussed. (author)

  16. [Optimization of lyophilization procedures for freeze-drying of human red blood cells]. (United States)

    Chen, Lin-feng; Liu, Jing-han; Wang, De-qing; Ouyang, Xi-lin; Zhuang, Yuan; Che, Ji; Yu, Yang; Li, Hui


    To investigate the different parameters of the lyophilization procedures that affect the recovery of the rehydrated red blood cells (RBCs). Human RBCs loaded in tubes were cooled with 4 different modes and subjected to water bath at 25 degrees celsius;. The morphological changes of the RBCs were observed to assess the degree of vitrification, and the specimens were placed in the freeze-dryer with the temperature set up at 40, -50, -60, -70 and -80 degrees celsius;. The rates of temperature rise of the main and secondary drying in the lyophilization procedures were compared, and the water residue in the specimens was determined. The protectant did not show ice crystal in the course of freezing and thawing. No significant difference was found in the recovery rate of the rehydrated RBCs freeze-dried at the minimum temperature of -70 degrees celsius; and -80 degrees celsius; (P > 0.05). The E procedure resulted in the maximum recovery of the RBCs (83.14% ± 9.55%) and Hb (85.33% ± 11.42%), showing significant differences from the other groups(P < 0.01 or 0.05). The recovery of the RBCs showed a positive correlation to the water residue in the samples. Fast cooling in liquid nitrogen and shelf precooling at -70 degrees celsius; with a moderate rate of temperature rise in lyophylization and a start dry temperature close to the shelf equilibrium temperature produce optimal freeze-drying result of human RBCs.

  17. Generalized structural theory of freezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussouff, M.


    The first-principles order parameter theory of freezing, proposed in an earlier work, has been successful in yielding quantitative agreement with known freezing parameters for monoatomic liquids forming solids with one atom per unit cell. A generalization of this theory is presented here to include the effects of a basis set of many atoms per unit cell. The basic equations get modified by the 'density structure factors' fsub(i) which arise from the density variations within the unit cell. Calculations are presented for the important case of monoatomic liquids freezing into hexagonal close packed solids. It is concluded that all freezing transitions can be described by using structural correlations in the liquid instead of the pair potential; and that the three body correlations are important in deciding the type of solid formed after freezing. (author)

  18. Two-step freezing of hybridoma cells in 96-well microculture plates. (United States)

    Pĕknicová, J; Kristofová, H


    Stabile hybridoma cells, colonies of hybridoma cells 14 days after fusion of immune spleen and myeloma cells, myeloma cells and fibroblasts cultured in 96-well microculture plates were frozen by the method of two-step freezing. The culture medium was aspirated, and 50 microliter of the medium containing a cryoprotectant (5% dimethyl sulphoxide) was added for 10 min at room temperature. The plates were put into microtene bags, placed at -25 degrees C in a freezer for 30 min and then stored at -100 degrees C in liquid nitrogen vapour. Plates with cells were thawed rapidly in a 50 degree C water bath. After thawing the hybrid cells were viable and continued to produce the specific antibody.

  19. Nanoscale capillary freezing of ionic liquids confined between metallic interfaces and the role of electronic screening (United States)

    Comtet, Jean; Niguès, Antoine; Kaiser, Vojtech; Coasne, Benoit; Bocquet, Lydéric; Siria, Alessandro


    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are new materials with fundamental importance for energy storage and active lubrication. They are unusual liquids, which challenge the classical frameworks of electrolytes, whose behaviour at electrified interfaces remains elusive, with exotic responses relevant to their electrochemical activity. Using tuning-fork-based atomic force microscope nanorheological measurements, we explore here the properties of confined RTILs, unveiling a dramatic change of the RTIL towards a solid-like phase below a threshold thickness, pointing to capillary freezing in confinement. This threshold is related to the metallic nature of the confining materials, with more metallic surfaces facilitating freezing. This behaviour is interpreted in terms of the shift of the freezing transition, taking into account the influence of the electronic screening on RTIL wetting of the confining surfaces. Our findings provide fresh views on the properties of confined RTIL with implications for their properties inside nanoporous metallic structures, and suggests applications to tune nanoscale lubrication with phase-changing RTILs, by varying the nature and patterning of the substrate, and application of active polarization.

  20. Nanoscale capillary freezing of ionic liquids confined between metallic interfaces and the role of electronic screening. (United States)

    Comtet, Jean; Niguès, Antoine; Kaiser, Vojtech; Coasne, Benoit; Bocquet, Lydéric; Siria, Alessandro


    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are new materials with fundamental importance for energy storage and active lubrication. They are unusual liquids, which challenge the classical frameworks of electrolytes, whose behaviour at electrified interfaces remains elusive, with exotic responses relevant to their electrochemical activity. Using tuning-fork-based atomic force microscope nanorheological measurements, we explore here the properties of confined RTILs, unveiling a dramatic change of the RTIL towards a solid-like phase below a threshold thickness, pointing to capillary freezing in confinement. This threshold is related to the metallic nature of the confining materials, with more metallic surfaces facilitating freezing. This behaviour is interpreted in terms of the shift of the freezing transition, taking into account the influence of the electronic screening on RTIL wetting of the confining surfaces. Our findings provide fresh views on the properties of confined RTIL with implications for their properties inside nanoporous metallic structures, and suggests applications to tune nanoscale lubrication with phase-changing RTILs, by varying the nature and patterning of the substrate, and application of active polarization.

  1. Improvement In Rabbit Corneal Cell Suspension Viability After Freezing With Gingko Biloba Extrakt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Aktan


    Full Text Available We investigated whether the addition of Gingko Biloba extract (EGb 761 to rabbit corneal epithelial medium before cell freezing improved cell viability after freezing then thawing. After removal of corneas, they were treated with enzymes and the corneal epithelium was prepared as a single cell suspension in freezing media with or without EGb 761. After freezing for two weeks then thawing, a higher cell viability was found in the cornea cell suspensions which had been frozen pretreated with EGb 761 in the media. The improvement with corneal cell viability with EGb 761 pretreatment is postulated to be based on the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract.

  2. Liquid direct correlation function, singlet densities and the theory of freezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.; Tosi, M.P.


    We have examined the solutions for the singlet density rho(r) in the hierarchical equation connecting rho(r) with the liquid direct correlation function c(r). In addition to the homogeneous solution rho(r)=rhosub(liquid), we exhibit a periodic solution which can co-exist with the liquid solution. If the defining equation for this is linearized, we recover the bifurcation condition of Lovett and Buff. We stress the difference between the two treatments as that between first and second-order transitions. It turns out that the treatment presented here leads to the same periodic density as that derived, using the hypernetted chain approximation, by Ramakrishnan and Yussouff in their theory of freezing. Invoking that approximation is shown thereby to be inessential. (author)

  3. Liquid fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorii L. Soloveichik


    Full Text Available The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  4. Liquid fuel cells. (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L


    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  5. Liquid fuel cells (United States)


    Summary The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented. PMID:25247123

  6. Mathematical prediction of freezing times of bovine semen in straws placed in static vapor over liquid nitrogen. (United States)

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J


    A widespread practice in cryopreservation is to freeze spermatozoa by suspending the straws in stagnant nitrogen vapor over liquid nitrogen (N(2)V/LN(2)) for variable periods of time before plunging into liquid nitrogen (-196°C) for indefinite storage. A mathematical heat transfer model was developed to predict freezing times (phase change was considered) required for bull semen and extender packaged in 0.5ml plastic straws and suspended in static liquid nitrogen vapor. Thermophysical properties (i.e. thermal conductivity, specific heat, density, initial freezing temperature) of bovine semen and extender as a function of temperature were determined considering the water change of phase. The non-stationary heat transfer partial differential equations with variable properties (nonlinear mathematical problem) were numerically solved considering in series thermal resistances (semen suspension-straw) and the temperature profiles were obtained for both semen suspension and plastic straw. It was observed both the external heat transfer coefficient in stagnant nitrogen vapor and its temperature (controlled by the distance from the surface of liquid nitrogen to the straw) affected freezing times. The accuracy of the model to estimate freezing times of the straws was further confirmed by comparing with experimental literature data. Results of this study will be useful to select "safe" holding times of bull semen in plastic straws placed N(2)V/LN(2) to ensure that complete freezing of the sample has occurred in the nitrogen vapor and avoid cryodamage when plunging in LN(2). Freezing times predicted by the numerical model can be applied to optimize freezing protocols of bull semen in straws. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Freeze-drying technology: A separation technique for liquid nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrave, J.A.; Efurd, D.W.; Banar, J.C.


    Freeze-drying technology (FDT) has been around for several decades as a separation technology. Most commonly, FDT is associated with the processing of food, but the largest industrial-scale use of FDT is in the pharmaceutical industry. Through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with BOC Edwards Calumatic, we are demonstrating the feasibility of FDT as a waste minimization and pollution prevention technology. This is a novel and innovative application of FDT. In addition, we plan to demonstrate that the freeze-dried residue is an ideal feed material for ceramic stabilization of radioactive waste and excess fissile material. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of FDT for the separation of complex radioactive and nonradioactive materials, including liquids, slurries, and sludges containing a wide variety of constituents in which the separation factors are >10 8 . This is the first application of FDT in which the condensate is of primary importance. Our focus is applying this technology to the elimination of radioactive liquid discharges from facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and within the U.S. Department of Energy complex; however, successful demonstration will lead to nuclear industry-wide applications

  8. Freeze drying of red blood cells: the use of directional freezing and a new radio frequency lyophilization device. (United States)

    Arav, Amir; Natan, Dity


    Red blood cell (RBC) units are administered routinely into patients expressing a wide range of acute and chronic conditions (e.g., anemia, traumatic bleeding, chronic diseases, and surgery). The modern blood banking system has been designed to answer this need and assure a continuous, high quality blood supply to patients. However, RBCs units can be stored under hypothermic conditions for only up to 42 days, which leads to periodic shortages. Cryopreservation can solve these shortages, but current freezing methods employ high glycerol concentrations, which need to be removed and the cells washed prior to transfusion, resulting in a long (more than 1 hour) and cumbersome washing step. Thus, frozen RBCs have limited use in acute and trauma situations. In addition, transportation of frozen samples is complicated and costly. Freeze drying (lyophilization) of RBCs has been suggested as a solution for these problems, since it will allow for a low weight sample to be stored at room temperature, but reaching this goal is not a simple task. We studied the effect of different solutions (IMT2 and IMT3) containing trehalose and antioxidants or trehalose and human serum albumin, respectively, on freezing/thawing and freeze drying of RBCs. In addition, we evaluated the effect of cells concentrations and cooling rates on the post thaw and post rehydration recoveries of the RBCs. Finally, we developed a new radio frequency (RF) lyophilization device for a more rapid and homogeneous sublimation process of the frozen RBCs samples. Recovery and free Hb were measured as well as oxygen association/dissociation and cell's deformability. We found that IMT3 (0.3 M trehalose and 10% HSA) solution that was directionally frozen at a rapid interface velocity of 1 mm/sec (resulting in a cooling rate of 150°C/min) yielded the best results (better than IMT2 solution and slow interface velocity). Freeze thawing gave 100% survival, while freeze drying followed by rehydration with 20% dextran-40k

  9. Transient warming events occurring after freezing impairs umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells functionality. (United States)

    Chabot, Dominique; Tremblay, Tony; Paré, Isabelle; Bazin, Renée; Loubaki, Lionel


    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown promising results for the treatment of refractory acute graft-versus-host disease. While safety of MSC infusion has been demonstrated, the use of cryopreserved MSCs in clinical trials has raised concerns regarding the retention of their functional activity. This has led to the recommendation by experts in the field to use freshly harvested MSCs, even though this approach is much less practical from a logistic point of view. In the present study, we revisited the impact of cryopreservation on MSC functionality and addressed the possibility that warming events on frozen cells rather than cryopreservation per se could impact MSC functionality. Following controlled-rate freezing to -130°C, umbilical cord-derived MSCs were left at room temperature (RT) for 2-10 min or on dry ice for 10 min, before being transferred into liquid nitrogen (LqN 2 ). MSCs of each group were subsequently tested (viability, functionality and cellular damage) and compared with their freshly harvested counterparts. We demonstrated that freshly harvested MSCs as well as cryopreserved MSCs that were left on dry ice following step-down freezing have comparable viability, functionality and integrity. In contrast, cryopreserved MSCs that were left at RT before being transferred into LqN 2 were functionally impaired and showed cellular damage upon thawing even though they exhibited high viability. Warming events after freezing and not cryopreservation per se significantly impair MSC functionality, indicating that cryopreserved MSCs can be an advantageous alternative to freshly harvested cells for therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The anti-cell death FNK protein protects cells from death induced by freezing and thawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Kentaro; Asoh, Sadamitsu; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Ozaki, Daiya; Yamagata, Kumi; Ito, Hiromoto; Ohta, Shigeo


    The FNK protein, constructed from anti-apoptotic Bcl-x L with enhanced activity, was fused with the protein transduction domain (PTD) of the HIV/Tat protein to mediate the delivery of FNK into cells. The fusion protein PTD-FNK was introduced into chondrocytes in isolated articular cartilage-bone sections, cultured neurons, and isolated bone marrow mononuclear cells to evaluate its ability to prevent cell death induced by freezing and thawing. PTD-FNK protected the cells from freeze-thaw damage in a concentration-dependent manner. Addition of PTD-FNK with conventional cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide and hydroxyethyl starch) increased surviving cell numbers around 2-fold compared with controls treated only with the cryoprotectants. Notably, PTD-FNK allowed CD34 + cells among bone marrow mononuclear cells to survive more efficiently (12-fold more than the control cells) from two successive freeze-thaw cycles. Thus, PTD-FNK prevented cell death induced by freezing and thawing, suggesting that it provides for the successful cryopreservation of biological materials

  11. Concurrent freezing and sublimation of a liquid-saturated porous slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyanathan, N.; Shamsundar, N.


    In this paper analytical models are formulated for describing heat and mass transport during concurrent freezing and sublimation of a one-dimensional liquid-saturated porous slab. The models are based on transient heat transfer in the frozen and wet regions, and quasi-steady heat and mass transfer in the dried region. The enthalpy method in conjunction with a fully implicit finite-difference scheme is employed to obtain the solution in the frozen and wet regions. A quasi-steady solution is used in the dried region. The governing equations are nondimensionalized and parametric studies are performed. The results indicate that the Luikov number, the ambient vapor pressure, and the heat transfer Biot number are important parameters. The results also confirm that the sublimation interface temperature may show significant variations, in contrast to earlier studies in which it was assumed constant

  12. Early Mars was wet but not warm: Erosion, fluvial features, liquid water habitats, and life below freezing (United States)

    Mckay, C. P.; Davis, W. L.


    There is considerable evidence that Mars had liquid water early in its history and possibly at recurrent interval. It has generally been assumed that this implied that the climate was warmer as a result of a thicker CO2 atmosphere than at the present. However, recent models suggest that Mars may have had a thick atmosphere but may not have experienced mean annual temperatures above freezing. In this paper we report on models of liquid water formation and maintenance under temperatures well below freezing. Our studies are based on work in the north and south polar regions of Earth. Our results suggest that early Mars did have a thick atmosphere but precipitation and hence erosion was rare. Transient liquid water, formed under temperature extremes and maintained under thick ice covers, could account for the observed fluvial features. The main difference between the present climate and the early climate was that the total surface pressure was well above the triple point of water.

  13. Cryopreservation of putative pre-pubertal bovine spermatogonial stem cells by slow freezing. (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Jung; Lee, Yong-An; Kim, Bang-Jin; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Byung-Gak; Kang, Hyun-Gu; Jung, Sang-Eun; Choi, Sun-Ho; Schmidt, Jonathan A; Ryu, Buom-Yong


    Development of techniques for the preservation of mammalian spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is a critical step in commercial application of SSC based technologies, including species preservation, amplification of agriculturally valuable germ lines, and human fertility preservations. The objective of this study was to develop an efficient cryopreservation protocol for preservation of bovine SSCs using a slow freezing technique. To maximize the efficiency of SSC cryopreservation, the effects of various methods (tissue vs. cell freezing) and cryoprotective agents (trehalose, sucrose, and polyethylene glycol [PEG]) were tested. Following thawing, cells were enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia by differential plating and evaluated for recovery rate, proliferation capacity, and apoptosis. Additionally, putative stem cell activity was assessed using SSC xenotransplantation. The recovery rate, and proliferation capacity of undifferentiated spermatogonia were significantly greater for germ cells frozen using tissue freezing methods compared to cell freezing methods. Cryopreservation in the presence of 200 mM trehalose resulted in significantly greater recovery rate, proliferation capacity, and apoptosis of germ cells compared to control. Furthermore, cryopreservation using the tissue freezing method in the presence of 200 mM trehalose resulted in the production of colonies of donor-derived germ cells after xenotransplantation into recipient mouse testes, indicating putative stem cell function. Collectively, these data indicate that cryopreservation using tissue freezing methods in the presence of 200 mM trehalose is an efficient cryopreservation protocol for bovine SSCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  15. Preliminary study on the freeze-drying of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells* (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-zhi; Qian, Huan; Wang, Zhen; Fan, Ju-li; Zhou, Qian; Chen, Guang-ming; Li, Rui; Fu, Shan; Sun, Jie


    Long-term preservation and easy transportation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) will facilitate their application in medical treatment and bioengineering. A pilot study on the freeze-drying of hBM-MSCs was carried out. hBM-MSCs were loaded with trehalose. The glass transition temperature of the freeze-drying suspension was measured to provide information for the cooling and primary drying experiment. After freeze-drying, various rehydration processes were tested. The highest recovery rate of hBM-MSCs was (69.33±13.08)%. Possible methods to improve freeze-drying outcomes are discussed. In conclusion, the present study has laid a foundation for the freeze-drying hBM-MSCs. PMID:21043058

  16. Low energy recycling of ionic liquids via freeze crystallization during cellulose spinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yanrong; Meyer, Anne S.; Nie, Yi


    A new method for recycling ionic liquids (ILs) from a cellulose spinning process is suggested. The method involves the combination of freeze crystallization and evaporation of H2O from IL + H2O mixtures to recycle the ILs. Processes with EmimAc and EmimDep were used as references to develop this IL...... recycling method. EmimAc + 12.5 wt% H2O and EmimDep + 4 wt% H2O were selected for a quantitative mass and energy analysis of the cellulose spinning and IL recycling process (the maximal initial H2O levels in the ILs + H2O mixtures for cellulose dissolution were determined experimentally). The energy......Dep recycling. We also show that compared to a classical Lyocell fiber production method using N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) as solvent, use of ILs is energy saving in itself. Hence, significantly less H2O is required in the cellulose spinning process with ILs than with NMMO, and in turn less H2O has...

  17. The effects of freezing, storage, and thawing on cell compartment integrity and ultrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P


    The effects of slow freezing and thawing on enzyme compartmentalization and ultrastructure were studied in rat liver slices frozen in dry ice, isopentane/ethanol-dry ice, or liquid nitrogen, and stored at -80 degrees C for 1-14 days. Non-frozen slices served as controls. Frozen liver slices were...

  18. An improved model for nucleation-limited ice formation in living cells during freezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingru Yi

    Full Text Available Ice formation in living cells is a lethal event during freezing and its characterization is important to the development of optimal protocols for not only cryopreservation but also cryotherapy applications. Although the model for probability of ice formation (PIF in cells developed by Toner et al. has been widely used to predict nucleation-limited intracellular ice formation (IIF, our data of freezing Hela cells suggest that this model could give misleading prediction of PIF when the maximum PIF in cells during freezing is less than 1 (PIF ranges from 0 to 1. We introduce a new model to overcome this problem by incorporating a critical cell volume to modify the Toner's original model. We further reveal that this critical cell volume is dependent on the mechanisms of ice nucleation in cells during freezing, i.e., surface-catalyzed nucleation (SCN and volume-catalyzed nucleation (VCN. Taken together, the improved PIF model may be valuable for better understanding of the mechanisms of ice nucleation in cells during freezing and more accurate prediction of PIF for cryopreservation and cryotherapy applications.

  19. Cryopreservation of Endothelial Cells in Various Cryoprotective Agents and Media - Vitrification versus Slow Freezing Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim von Bomhard

    Full Text Available Vitrification of endothelial cells (MHECT-5 has not previously been compared with controlled slow freezing methods under standardized conditions. To identify the best cryopreservation technique, we evaluated vitrification and standardized controlled-rate -1°C/minute cell freezing in a -80°C freezer and tested four cryoprotective agents (CPA, namely dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, ethylene glycol (EG, propylene glycol (PG, and glycerol (GLY, and two media, namely Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium Ham's F-12 (DMEMand K+-modified TiProtec (K+TiP, which is a high-potassium-containing medium. Numbers of viable cells in proliferation were evaluated by the CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (Promega Corporation, Mannheim, Germany. To detect the exact frozen cell number per cryo vial, DNA content was measured by using Hoechst 33258 dye prior to analysis. Thus, results could be evaluated unconstrained by absolute cell number. Thawed cells were cultured in 25 cm2 cell culture flasks to confluence and examined daily by phase contrast imaging. With regard to cell recovery immediately after thawing, DMSO was the most suitable CPA combined with K+TiP in vitrification (99 ±0.5% and with DMEM in slow freezing (92 ±1.6%. The most viable cells in proliferation after three days of culture were obtained in cells vitrificated by using GLY with K+TiP (308 ±34% and PG with DMEM in slow freezing (280 ±27%.

  20. Ultrastructural and nuclear antigen preservation after high-pressure freezing/freeze-substitution and low-temperature LR White embedding of HeLa cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strádalová, Vendula; Kyselá, Katarína; Hozák, Pavel

    Roč. 130, - ( 2008 ), s. 1047-1052 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520704; GA MŠk LC545; GA MŠk 2B06063; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/05/H023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Cryofixation * Freeze substitution * High-presszre freezing Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2008

  1. A novel particle engineering technology to enhance dissolution of poorly water soluble drugs: spray-freezing into liquid. (United States)

    Rogers, True L; Nelsen, Andrew C; Hu, Jiahui; Brown, Judith N; Sarkari, Marazban; Young, Timothy J; Johnston, Keith P; Williams, Robert O


    A novel cryogenic spray-freezing into liquid (SFL) process was developed to produce microparticulate powders consisting of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) molecularly embedded within a pharmaceutical excipient matrix. In the SFL process, a feed solution containing the API was atomized beneath the surface of a cryogenic liquid such that the liquid-liquid impingement between the feed and cryogenic liquids resulted in intense atomization into microdroplets, which were frozen instantaneously into microparticles. The SFL micronized powder was obtained following lyophilization of the frozen microparticles. The objective of this study was to develop a particle engineering technology to produce micronized powders of the hydrophobic drug, danazol, complexed with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) and to compare these SFL micronized powders to inclusion complex powders produced from other techniques, such as co-grinding of dry powder mixtures and lyophilization of bulk solutions. Danazol and HPbetaCD were dissolved in a water/tetrahydrofuran cosolvent mixture prior to SFL processing or slow freezing. Identical quantities of the API and HPbetaCD used in the solutions were co-ground in a mortar and pestle and blended to produce a co-ground physical mixture for comparison. The powder samples were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy, surface area analysis, and dissolution testing. The results provided by DSC, XRD, and FTIR suggested the formation of inclusion complexes by both slow-freezing and SFL. However, the specific surface area was significantly higher for the latter. Dissolution results suggested that equilibration of the danazol/HPbetaCD solution prior to SFL processing was required to produce the most soluble conformation of the resulting inclusion complex following SFL. SFL micronized powders exhibited better dissolution

  2. The contribution of apoptosis and necrosis in freezing injury of sea urchin embryonic cells. (United States)

    Boroda, Andrey V; Kipryushina, Yulia O; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Odintsova, Nelly A


    Sea urchins have recently been reported to be a promising tool for investigations of oxidative stress, UV light perturbations and senescence. However, few available data describe the pathway of cell death that occurs in sea urchin embryonic cells after cryopreservation. Our study is focused on the morphological and functional alterations that occur in cells of these animals during the induction of different cell death pathways in response to cold injury. To estimate the effect of cryopreservation on sea urchin cell cultures and identify the involved cell death pathways, we analyzed cell viability (via trypan blue exclusion test, MTT assay and DAPI staining), caspase activity (via flow cytometry and spectrophotometry), the level of apoptosis (via annexin V-FITC staining), and cell ultrastructure alterations (via transmission electron microscopy). Using general caspase detection, we found that the level of caspase activity was low in unfrozen control cells, whereas the number of apoptotic cells with activated caspases rose after freezing-thawing depending on cryoprotectants used, also as the number of dead cells and cells in a late apoptosis. The data using annexin V-binding assay revealed a very high apoptosis level in all tested samples, even in unfrozen cells (about 66%). Thus, annexin V assay appears to be unsuitable for sea urchin embryonic cells. Typical necrotic cells with damaged mitochondria were not detected after freezing in sea urchin cell cultures. Our results assume that physical cell disruption but not freezing-induced apoptosis or necrosis is the predominant reason of cell death in sea urchin cultures after freezing-thawing with any cryoprotectant combination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cell growth and resistance of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161 following freezing, drying and freeze-dried storage are differentially affected by fermentation conditions. (United States)

    Velly, H; Fonseca, F; Passot, S; Delacroix-Buchet, A; Bouix, M


    To investigate the effects of fermentation parameters on the cell growth and on the resistance to each step of the freeze-drying process of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161, a natural cheese isolate, using a response surface methodology. Cells were cultivated at different temperatures (22, 30 and 38°C) and pH (5·6, 6·2 and 6·8) and were harvested at different growth phases (0, 3 and 6 h of stationary phase). Cultivability and acidification activity losses of Lc. lactis were quantified after freezing, drying, 1 and 3 months of storage at 4 and 25°C. Lactococcus lactis was not damaged by freezing but was sensitive to drying and to ambient temperature storage. Moreover, the fermentation temperature and the harvesting time influenced the drying resistance of Lc. lactis. Lactococcus lactis cells grown in a whey-based medium at 32°C, pH 6·2 and harvested at late stationary phase exhibited both an optimal growth and the highest resistance to freeze-drying and storage. A better insight on the individual and interaction effects of fermentation parameters made it possible the freeze-drying and storage preservation of a sensitive strain of technological interest. Evidence on the particularly damaging effect of the drying step and the high-temperature storage is presented. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. MAS1H NMR Probes Freezing Point Depression of Water and Liquid-Gel Phase Transitions in Liposomes. (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; van der Wel, Patrick C A


    The lipid bilayer typical of hydrated biological membranes is characterized by a liquid-crystalline, highly dynamic state. Upon cooling or dehydration, these membranes undergo a cooperative transition to a rigidified, more-ordered, gel phase. This characteristic phase transition is of significant biological and biophysical interest, for instance in studies of freezing-tolerant organisms. Magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy allows for the detection and characterization of the phase transitions over a wide temperature range. In this study we employ MAS 1 H NMR to probe the phase transitions of both solvent molecules and different hydrated phospholipids, including tetraoleoyl cardiolipin (TOCL) and several phosphatidylcholine lipid species. The employed MAS NMR sample conditions cause a previously noted substantial reduction in the freezing point of the solvent phase. The effect on the solvent is caused by confinement of the aqueous solvent in the small and densely packed MAS NMR samples. In this study we report and examine how the freezing point depression also impacts the lipid phase transition, causing a ssNMR-observed reduction in the lipids' melting temperature (T m ). The molecular underpinnings of this phenomenon are discussed and compared with previous studies of membrane-associated water phases and the impact of membrane-protective cryoprotectants. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Freezing point and solid-liquid interfacial free energy of Stockmayer dipolar fluids: a molecular dynamics simulation study. (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Apte, Pankaj A; Morris, James R; Zeng, Xiao Cheng


    Stockmayer fluids are a prototype model system for dipolar fluids. We have computed the freezing temperatures of Stockmayer fluids at zero pressure using three different molecular-dynamics simulation methods, namely, the superheating-undercooling method, the constant-pressure and constant-temperature two-phase coexistence method, and the constant-pressure and constant-enthalpy two-phase coexistence method. The best estimate of the freezing temperature (in reduced unit) for the Stockmayer (SM) fluid with the dimensionless dipole moment μ*=1, √2, √3 is 0.656 ± 0.001, 0.726 ± 0.002, and 0.835 ± 0.005, respectively. The freezing temperature increases with the dipolar strength. Moreover, for the first time, the solid-liquid interfacial free energies γ of the fcc (111), (110), and (100) interfaces are computed using two independent methods, namely, the cleaving-wall method and the interfacial fluctuation method. Both methods predict that the interfacial free energy increases with the dipole moment. Although the interfacial fluctuation method suggests a weaker interfacial anisotropy, particularly for strongly dipolar SM fluids, both methods predicted the same trend of interfacial anisotropy, i.e., γ100 > γ110 > γ111.

  6. Freezing tolerance of sea urchin embryonic cells: Differentiation commitment and cytoskeletal disturbances in culture. (United States)

    Odintsova, Nelly A; Ageenko, Natalya V; Kipryushina, Yulia O; Maiorova, Mariia A; Boroda, Andrey V


    This study focuses on the freezing tolerance of sea urchin embryonic cells. To significantly reduce the loss of physiological activity of these cells that occurs after cryopreservation and to study the effects of ultra-low temperatures on sea urchin embryonic cells, we tested the ability of the cells to differentiate into spiculogenic or pigment directions in culture, including an evaluation of the expression of some genes involved in pigment differentiation. A morphological analysis of cytoskeletal disturbances after freezing in a combination of penetrating (dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol) and non-penetrating (trehalose and polyvinylpyrrolidone) cryoprotectants revealed that the distribution pattern of filamentous actin and tubulin was similar to that in the control cultures. In contrast, very rare spreading cells and a small number of cells with filamentous actin and tubulin were detected after freezing in the presence of only non-penetrating cryoprotectants. The largest number of pigment cells was found in cultures frozen with trehalose or trehalose and dimethyl sulfoxide. The ability to induce the spicule formation was lost in the cells frozen only with non-penetrating cryoprotectants, while it was maximal in cultures frozen in a cryoprotective mixture containing both non-penetrating and penetrating cryoprotectants (particularly, when ethylene glycol was present). Using different markers for cell state assessment, an effective cryopreservation protocol for sea urchin cells was developed: three-step freezing with a low cooling rate (1-2°C/min) and a combination of non-penetrating and penetrating cryoprotectants made it possible to obtain a high level of cell viability (up to 65-80%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Freezing and post-thaw apoptotic behaviour of cells in the presence of palmitoyl nanogold particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumala, Sreedhar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Forman, Julianne M [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Louisiana State University and Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Monroe, W Todd [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Louisiana State University and Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Devireddy, Ram V [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the freezing response of HeLa and Jurkat cells in the presence of commercially available nanoparticles, NPs (Palmitoyl Nanogold[reg], Nanoprobes). The cells were incubated with NPs for either 5 min or 3 h, and a calorimeter technique was then used to generate the volumetric shrinkage response during freezing at 20 deg. C min{sup -1}. Concomitantly, we also examined the effect of a commonly used cryoprotectant, dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO (10% v/v ratio) on the freezing response of HeLa and Jurkat cells. By fitting a model of water transport to the experimentally determined volumetric shrinkage data, the reference hydraulic conductivity, L{sub pg} ({mu}m/min-atm) and activation energy, E{sub Lp} (kcal mol{sup -1}) were obtained. For HeLa cells, the values of L{sub pg} ranged from 0.08 to 0.23 {mu}m/min-atm, while E{sub Lp} ranged from 10.9 to 37.4 kcal mol{sup -1}. For Jurkat cells these parameter values ranged from 0.05 to 0.16 {mu}m/min-atm and 9.5 to 35.9 kcal mol{sup -1}. A generic optimal cooling rate equation was then used to predict the optimal rates of freezing HeLa and Jurkat cells in the presence and absence of DMSO and NPs. The post-thaw viability and apoptotic response of HeLa and Jurkat cells was further investigated by cooling cells at three rates in the presence and absence of DMSO and NPs using a commercially available controlled rate freezer. Jurkat cells treated in this manner demonstrated an increase in their adhesive properties after 18 h incubation and adhered strongly to the bottom of the culture plate. This observation prevented further analysis of Jurkat apoptotic and necrotic post-thaw responses. There was no significant effect of NPs or DMSO alone on HeLa cell viability prior to freezing. The post-thaw results from HeLa cells show that the NPs increased the measured post-freeze apoptotic response when cooled at 1 deg. C min{sup -1}, suggesting a possible therapeutic use of NPs in cryodestructive procedures.

  8. The effect of isochoric freezing on mammalian cells in an extracellular phosphate buffered solution. (United States)

    Preciado, J; Rubinsky, B


    Isochoric (constant volume) freezing has been recently suggested as a new method for cell and organ preservation. As a first step in studying the effect of isochoric freezing on mammalian cells, Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells (MDCK), were frozen in an isochoric system, in a simple extracellular phosphate buffered solution to -10 °C (96.5 MPa), - 15 °C (162 MPa) and -20 °C (205 MPa) for 60 and 120 min. Cell membrane integrity and cell metabolism were studied with a Live/Dead cell vitality assay and flow cytometry. We found that cell survival decreases with an increase in pressure (lower temperatures) and time of exposure. For example, 60% of cells survived 60 min at - 10 °C and only 18% survived 120 min at this temperature. Negligible survival was measured at - 20 °C. This study may serve as the baseline towards further research on techniques to optimize the effects of isochoric freezing on living biological matter. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. GMP cryopreservation of large volumes of cells for regenerative medicine: active control of the freezing process. (United States)

    Massie, Isobel; Selden, Clare; Hodgson, Humphrey; Fuller, Barry; Gibbons, Stephanie; Morris, G John


    Cryopreservation protocols are increasingly required in regenerative medicine applications but must deliver functional products at clinical scale and comply with Good Manufacturing Process (GMP). While GMP cryopreservation is achievable on a small scale using a Stirling cryocooler-based controlled rate freezer (CRF) (EF600), successful large-scale GMP cryopreservation is more challenging due to heat transfer issues and control of ice nucleation, both complex events that impact success. We have developed a large-scale cryocooler-based CRF (VIA Freeze) that can process larger volumes and have evaluated it using alginate-encapsulated liver cell (HepG2) spheroids (ELS). It is anticipated that ELS will comprise the cellular component of a bioartificial liver and will be required in volumes of ∼2 L for clinical use. Sample temperatures and Stirling cryocooler power consumption was recorded throughout cooling runs for both small (500 μL) and large (200 mL) volume samples. ELS recoveries were assessed using viability (FDA/PI staining with image analysis), cell number (nuclei count), and function (protein secretion), along with cryoscanning electron microscopy and freeze substitution techniques to identify possible injury mechanisms. Slow cooling profiles were successfully applied to samples in both the EF600 and the VIA Freeze, and a number of cooling and warming profiles were evaluated. An optimized cooling protocol with a nonlinear cooling profile from ice nucleation to -60°C was implemented in both the EF600 and VIA Freeze. In the VIA Freeze the nucleation of ice is detected by the control software, allowing both noninvasive detection of the nucleation event for quality control purposes and the potential to modify the cooling profile following ice nucleation in an active manner. When processing 200 mL of ELS in the VIA Freeze-viabilities at 93.4% ± 7.4%, viable cell numbers at 14.3 ± 1.7 million nuclei/mL alginate, and protein secretion at 10.5 ± 1.7

  10. Effect of Glycerol, as Cryoprotectant in the Encapsulation and Freeze Drying of Microspheres Containing Probiotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Lelia Pop


    Full Text Available It is reported that probiotics provide several health benefits as they help in maintaining a good balance and composition of intestinal flora, and increase the resistance against invasion of pathogens. Ensuring adequate dosages of probiotics at the time of consumption is a challenge, because several factors during processing and storage affect the viability of probiotic organisms. Major emphasis has been given to protect the microorganisms with the help of encapsulation technique, by addition of different protectants. In this study, probiotic cells (Bifidobacterium lactis 300B were entrapped in alginate/pullulan microspheres. In the encapsulation formula glycerol was used as cryoprotectant in the freeze drying process for long time storage. It was observed that the survival of Bifidobacterium lactis 300B when encapsulated without cryoprotectant was higher than the formula with glycerol in the fresh obtained microspheres. The addition of glycerol was in order to reduce the deep freezing and freeze drying damages. In the chosen formulations, glycerol did not proved protection for the entrapped probiotic cells in the freeze drying process, for which the use of glycerol as cryoprotectant for alginate/pullulan Bifidobacterium lactis 300B entrapment is not recommended.

  11. Effects of freezing conditions on quality changes in blueberries. (United States)

    Cao, Xuehui; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhao, Dongyu; Zhu, Danshi; Li, Jianrong


    freezing preservation is one of the most effective methods used to maintain flavour and nutritional value of fruit. The effects of different freezing conditions, -20 °C, -40 °C, -80 °C, and immersion in liquid nitrogen on quality changes of freeze-thawed blueberries were studied in this research. The water distribution estimates of blueberries were measured based on low-field NMR analysis. The pectin content, drip loss, and fruit texture were also detected to evaluate quality changes in samples. freezing curves of blueberry showed super-cooling points at -20 °C and -40 °C, while super-cooling points were not observed at -80 °C or in liquid nitrogen. After freeze-thaw treatment, the relaxation time of the cell wall water (T 21 ), cytoplasm water and extracellular space (T 22 ), and vacuole water (T 23 ) were significantly shortened compared to fresh samples, which suggested a lower liquidity. Although the freezing speed for samples immersed in liquid nitrogen was faster than other treatments, samples treated at -80 °C showed better qualities on vacuole water holding, drip loss, and original pectin content retention. this study contributed to understanding how freezing temperature affects qualities of blueberries. The super-fast freezing rate might injure fruit, and a proper freezing rate could better preserve blueberries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Cryo-scanning electron microscopic study on freezing behavior of xylem ray parenchyma cells in hardwood species (United States)

    Fujikawa; Kuroda


    Differential thermal analysis (DTA) has indicated that xylem ray parenchyma cells (XRPCs) of hardwood species adapt to freezing of apoplastic water either by deep supercooling or by extracellular freezing, depending upon the species. DTA studies indicated that moderately cold hardy hardwood species exhibiting deep supercooling in the XRPCs were limited in latitudinal distribution within the -40 degrees C isotherm, while very hardy hardwood species exhibiting extracellular freezing could distribute in colder areas beyond the -40 degrees C isotherm. Predictions based on the results of DTA, however, indicate that XRPCs exhibiting extracellular freezing may appear not only in very hardy woody species native to cold areas beyond the -40 degrees C isotherm but also in less hardy hardwood species native to tropical and subtropical zones as well as in a small number of moderately hardy hardwood species native to warm temperate zones. Cryo-scanning electron microscopic (cryo-SEM) studies on the freezing behavior of XRPCs have revealed some errors in DTA. These errors are originated mainly due to the overlap between exotherms produced by freezing of water in apoplastic spaces (high temperature exotherms, HTEs) and exotherms produced by freezing of intracellular water of XRPCs by breakdown of deep supercooling (low temperature exotherms, LTEs), as well as to the shortage of LTEs produced by intracellular freezing of XRPCs. In addition, DTA results are significantly affected by cooling rates employed. Further, cryo-SEM observations, which revealed the true freezing behavior of XRPCs, changed the previous knowledge of freezing behavior of XRPCs that had been obtained by freeze-substitution and transmission electron microscopic studies. Cryo-SEM results, in association with results obtained from DTA that were reconfirmed or changed by observation using a cryo-SEM, revealed a clear tendency of the freezing behavior of XRPCs in hardwood species to change with changes in the

  13. Fundamental aspects of the freezing of cells, with emphasis on mammalian ova and embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, P.


    The problem in cryobiology is how to cool cells to -196/sup 0/C and return them to normal temperatures without killing them. One important factor is the presence of a protective additive like glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide. Mammalian cells rarely survive freezing to below -40/sup 0/C in its absence. In the presence of an additive, survival is critically dependent on the cooling rate. Supraoptimal rates and suboptimal rates are both damaging. Death at supraoptimal rates is the result of the formation of intracellular ice and its recrystallization during warming. Death at suboptimal rates is a consequence of the major alterations in aqueous solutions produced by ice formation. The chief effects are a major reduction in the fraction of the solution remaining unfrozen at a given temperature and a major increase in the solute concentration of that fraction. The introduction of molar concentrations of additive greatly reduces both the fraction frozen and the concentration of electrolytes in the unfrozen channels and in the cell interior. Usually, freezing either kills cells outright or it results in survivors that retain full capacity to function. But there is the possibility that in some cases survivors may in fact be impaired genetically or physiologically. All evidence indicates that genetic damage does not occur. But there are clear examples in which freezing does induce nonlethal physiological damage. (ERB)

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Liquid by Quick Freezing Into Ice Using Nd-YAG Laser-Induced Atmospheric Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Infrawan Yulianto Ichwan


    Full Text Available A new approach of quantitative analysis of liquid sample using laser ablation technique was developed. The liquid was immediately freezed using the mixture of dry ice and alcohol in weight ratio of 95% : 5%. As a result, an increase of the repulsion force from the sample surface will enable the generation of the laser-induced shock wave plasma which was difficult to carry out on liquid surface. The ice sample was then irradiated using Nd-YAG laser operated in its fundamental wavelength. In order to increase the signal to background ratio and to obtain a sharp atomic line spectra, helium gas was used instead of air. Dynamic characterization of the spatially integrated time profile of the Cu I 521.8 nm, Cu I 510.5 nm and Ha lines shows a shock excitation stage and cooling stage which is corresponded to our shock wave model even when the plasma was generated under atmospheric gas pressure. Further study of the time profile averaged temperature of the atmospheric plasma also shows an increase of temperature during the shock excitation stage followed by diminution of temperature during the cooling stage. An application of this technique was then applied to quantitative analysis of several liquid samples. A linear calibration curve which intercept at 0 point was obtained for all of the elements investigated in this study such as sodium, potassium, lithium, copper, silver, lead and aluminum. A detection limit of around 1 ppm was found for the above element. This new technique will contribute to a great extent of laser atomic emission spectrochemical analysis for liquid samples.

  15. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandlikar, Satish G. [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Lu, Zijie [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Rao, Navalgund [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Sergi, Jacqueline [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Rath, Cody [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); McDade, Christopher [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Trabold, Thomas [General Motors, Honeoye Falls, NY (United States); Owejan, Jon [General Motors, Honeoye Falls, NY (United States); Gagliardo, Jeffrey [General Motors, Honeoye Falls, NY (United States); Allen, Jeffrey [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Yassar, Reza S. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Medici, Ezequiel [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Herescu, Alexandru [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)


    In this program, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), General Motors (GM) and Michigan Technological University (MTU) have focused on fundamental studies that address water transport, accumulation and mitigation processes in the gas diffusion layer and flow field channels of the bipolar plate. These studies have been conducted with a particular emphasis on understanding the key transport phenomena which control fuel cell operation under freezing conditions.

  16. A modified differential scanning calorimetry for determination of cell volumetric change during the freezing process. (United States)

    Luo, Dawei; Han, Xu; He, Liqun; Cui, Xiangdong; Cheng, Shuxia; Lu, Caicheng; Liu, Jianghan; Gao, Dayong


    A modified analytical and experimental method using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was developed to determine the cell volume change during the freezing process. Two cell types were used in the study: human platelets and erythrocytes (red blood cells). Isotonic cell suspensions with different cytocrits were prepared and used in the DSC experiments. Low cooling rates were used to avoid intracellular ice formation. Cell suspensions were cooled from room temperature to -40 degrees C. Latent heat release from the freezing of cell suspensions was shown to be a linear function of cytocrit. From slope and intercept of the linear function, cell volume change was determined based on a developed theoretical model. From experimental data and theoretical analyses, it was revealed that (a) the final volume of a human platelet at -40 degrees C was 33.7% of its isotonic volume, and 15.2% of the original (at isotonic condition) intracellular water remained unfrozen inside platelets, and (b) the final volume of human erythrocyte at -40 degrees C was 50.0% of its isotonic volume, and 30.3% of the original intracellular water was kept inside cells as residual unfrozen water.

  17. DEA1, a circadian- and cold-regulated tomato gene, protects yeast cells from freezing death. (United States)

    Weyman, Philip D; Pan, Zhiqiang; Feng, Qin; Gilchrist, David G; Bostock, Richard M


    Cold and freezing damage to plants can be mitigated by inducible factors during an acclimation period. DEA1 is a circadian-regulated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene with sequence similarity to EARLI1, an Arabidopsis thaliana gene that confers cold protection. To investigate whether DEA1 was responsive to environmental variables such as cold, cold-treated tomatoes were analyzed for DEA1 expression. DEA1 transcript accumulated in response to cold, and the rapidity of the cold-induced transcript accumulation was regulated by the circadian rhythm. To test whether DEA1 could protect cells from freezing damage, we transformed the yeast, Pichia pastoris, with an inducible DEA1 construct. Yeast cells transformed with the gene survived freezing at a significantly higher rate than control strains and a strain expressing the LacZ gene. Transgenic tomato plants over-expressing or knocking down DEA1 transcript levels did not have an altered phenotype with respect to cold- or pathogen-susceptibility relative to control plants.

  18. Cryo-scanning electron microscopic study on freezing behaviors of tissue cells in dormant buds of larch (Larix kaempferi). (United States)

    Endoh, Keita; Kasuga, Jun; Arakawa, Keita; Ito, Toshiaki; Fujikawa, Seizo


    The freezing behavior of dormant buds in larch, especially at the cellular level, was examined by a Cryo-SEM. The dormant buds exhibited typical extraorgan freezing. Extracellular ice crystals accumulated only in basal areas of scales and beneath crown tissues, areas in which only these living cells had thick walls unlike other tissue cells. By slow cooling (5 degrees C/day) of dormant buds to -50 degrees C, all living cells in bud tissues exhibited distinct shrinkage without intracellular ice formation detectable by Cryo-SEM. However, the recrystallization experiment of these slowly cooled tissue cells, which was done by further freezing of slowly cooled buds with LN and then rewarming to -20 degrees C, confirmed that some of the cells in the leaf primordia, shoot primordia and apical meristem, areas in which cells had thin walls and in which no extracellular ice accumulated, lost freezable water with slow cooling to -30 degrees C, indicating ability of these cells to adapt by extracellular freezing, whereas other cells in these tissues retained freezable water with slow cooling even to -50 degrees C, indicating adaptation of these cells by deep supercooling. On the other hand, all cells in crown tissues and in basal areas of scales, areas in which cells had thick walls and in which large masses of ice accumulated, had the ability to adapt by extracellular freezing. It is thought that the presence of two types of cells exhibiting different freezing adaptation abilities within a bud tissue is quite unique and may reflect sophisticated freezing adaptation mechanisms in dormant buds.

  19. A Vivens Ex Vivo Study on the Synergistic Effect of Electrolysis and Freezing on the Cell Nucleus. (United States)

    Lugnani, Franco; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Marcuzzo, Thomas; Bottin, Cristina; Mikus, Paul; Guenther, Enric; Klein, Nina; Rubinsky, Liel; Stehling, Michael K; Rubinsky, Boris


    Freezing-cryosurgery, and electrolysis-electrochemical therapy (EChT), are two important minimally invasive surgery tissue ablation technologies. Despite major advantages they also have some disadvantages. Cryosurgery cannot induce cell death at high subzero freezing temperatures and requires multiple freeze thaw cycles, while EChT requires high concentrations of electrolytic products-which makes it a lengthy procedure. Based on the observation that freezing increases the concentration of solutes (including products of electrolysis) in the frozen region and permeabilizes the cell membrane to these products, this study examines the hypothesis that there could be a synergistic effect between freezing and electrolysis in their use together for tissue ablation. Using an animal model we refer to as vivens ex vivo, which may be of value in reducing the use of animals for experiments, combined with a Hematoxylin stain of the nucleus, we show that there are clinically relevant protocols in which the cell nucleus appears intact when electrolysis and freezing are used separately but is affected by certain combinations of electrolysis and freezing.

  20. Freeze-fracture shadow-casting (FreSCA) cryo-SEM as a tool to investigate the wetting of micro- and nanoparticles at liquid-liquid interfaces. (United States)

    Isa, Lucio


    Since the seminal work of Pickering and Ramsden more than a century ago, adsorption of solid micro- and nanoparticles at the interface between two fluids has been recognized as a means to enormously improve emulsion stability against coalescence. Despite their long-standing use in a vast range of practical applications, several key issues regarding the behavior of small objects at liquid interfaces still remain unresolved. In particular, current techniques fail to investigate the properties of individual particles smaller than 500 nm. An exception to this scenario is a technique that we have recently developed, based on freeze-fracture cryo-SEM, which for the first time makes it possible to measure the wetting properties of single nanoscale objects through a metal shadow-casting protocol. In this work we present additional details and results which showcase the potential of this novel tool as the benchmark for in situ characterization of particles at interfaces.

  1. Transport phenomena during freezing of adipose tissue derived adult stem cells. (United States)

    Thirumala, Sreedhar; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Devireddy, Ram V


    In the present study a well-established differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) technique is used to measure the water transport phenomena during freezing of stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and adipose tissue derived adult stem (ADAS) cells at different passages (Passages 0 and 2). Volumetric shrinkage during freezing of adipose derived cells was obtained at a cooling rate of 20 degrees C/min in the presence of extracellular ice and two different, commonly used, cryoprotective agents, CPAs (10% DMSO and 10% Glycerol). The adipose derived cells were modeled as spheres of 50 microm diameter with an osmotically inactive volume (Vb) of 0.6Vo, where Vo is the isotonic cell volume. By fitting a model of water transport to the experimentally obtained volumetric shrinkage data, the "best-fit" membrane permeability parameters (reference membrane permeability to water, Lpg or Lpg[cpa] and the activation energy, ELp or ELp[cpa]) were determined. The "best-fit" membrane permeability parameters for adipose derived cells in the absence and presence of CPAs ranged from: Lpg=23.1-111.5x10(-15) m3/Ns (0.135-0.652 microm/min-atm) and ELp=43.1-168.8 kJ/mol (9.7-40.4 kcal/mol). Numerical simulations of water transport were then performed under a variety of cooling rates (5-100 degrees C/min) using the experimentally determined membrane permeability parameters. And finally, the simulation results were analyzed to predict the optimal rates of freezing adipose derived cells in the presence and absence of CPAs. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Accumulation of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate Helps Bacterial Cells to Survive Freezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Obruca

    Full Text Available Accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB seems to be a common metabolic strategy adopted by many bacteria to cope with cold environments. This work aimed at evaluating and understanding the cryoprotective effect of PHB. At first a monomer of PHB, 3-hydroxybutyrate, was identified as a potent cryoprotectant capable of protecting model enzyme (lipase, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bacterial cells (Cupriavidus necator against the adverse effects of freezing-thawing cycles. Further, the viability of the frozen-thawed PHB accumulating strain of C. necator was compared to that of the PHB non-accumulating mutant. The presence of PHB granules in cells was revealed to be a significant advantage during freezing. This might be attributed to the higher intracellular level of 3-hydroxybutyrate in PHB accumulating cells (due to the action of parallel PHB synthesis and degradation, the so-called PHB cycle, but the cryoprotective effect of PHB granules seems to be more complex. Since intracellular PHB granules retain highly flexible properties even at extremely low temperatures (observed by cryo-SEM, it can be expected that PHB granules protect cells against injury from extracellular ice. Finally, thermal analysis indicates that PHB-containing cells exhibit a higher rate of transmembrane water transport, which protects cells against the formation of intracellular ice which usually has fatal consequences.

  3. Accumulation of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Helps Bacterial Cells to Survive Freezing (United States)

    Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Mravec, Filip; Hrubanova, Kamila; Samek, Ota; Kucera, Dan; Benesova, Pavla; Marova, Ivana


    Accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) seems to be a common metabolic strategy adopted by many bacteria to cope with cold environments. This work aimed at evaluating and understanding the cryoprotective effect of PHB. At first a monomer of PHB, 3-hydroxybutyrate, was identified as a potent cryoprotectant capable of protecting model enzyme (lipase), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and bacterial cells (Cupriavidus necator) against the adverse effects of freezing-thawing cycles. Further, the viability of the frozen–thawed PHB accumulating strain of C. necator was compared to that of the PHB non-accumulating mutant. The presence of PHB granules in cells was revealed to be a significant advantage during freezing. This might be attributed to the higher intracellular level of 3-hydroxybutyrate in PHB accumulating cells (due to the action of parallel PHB synthesis and degradation, the so-called PHB cycle), but the cryoprotective effect of PHB granules seems to be more complex. Since intracellular PHB granules retain highly flexible properties even at extremely low temperatures (observed by cryo-SEM), it can be expected that PHB granules protect cells against injury from extracellular ice. Finally, thermal analysis indicates that PHB-containing cells exhibit a higher rate of transmembrane water transport, which protects cells against the formation of intracellular ice which usually has fatal consequences. PMID:27315285

  4. Generalized correlation of latent heats of vaporization of coal liquid model compounds between their freezing points and critical points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, A.; Kobuyashi, R.; Mayee, J.W.


    Based on Pitzer's three-parameter corresponding states principle, the authors have developed a correlation of the latent heat of vaporization of aromatic coal liquid model compounds for a temperature range from the freezing point to the critical point. An expansion of the form L = L/sub 0/ + /sub 1/ is used for the dimensionless latent heat of vaporization. This model utilizes a nonanalytic functional form based on results derived from renormalization group theory of fluids in the vicinity of the critical point. A simple expression for the latent heat of vaporization L = D/sub 1/epsilon /SUP 0.3333/ + D/sub 2/epsilon /SUP 0.8333/ + D/sub 4/epsilon /SUP 1.2083/ + E/sub 1/epsilon + E/sub 2/epsilon/sup 2/ + E/sub 3/epsilon/sup 3/ is cast in a corresponding states principle correlation for coal liquid compounds. Benzene, the basic constituent of the functional groups of the multi-ring coal liquid compounds, is used as the reference compound in the present correlation. This model works very well at both low and high reduced temperatures approaching the critical point (0.02 < epsilon = (T /SUB c/ - T)/(T /SUB c/- 0.69)). About 16 compounds, including single, two, and three-ring compounds, have been tested and the percent root-mean-square deviations in latent heat of vaporization reported and estimated through the model are 0.42 to 5.27%. Tables of the coefficients of L/sub 0/ and L/sub 1/ are presented. The contributing terms of the latent heat of vaporization function are also presented in a table for small increments of epsilon.

  5. Processing Adipose-Rich Mohs Samples: A Comparative Study of Effectiveness of Pretreatment With Liquid Nitrogen Versus Flash Freezing Spray. (United States)

    Reserva, Jeave; Kozel, Zachary; Krol, Cindy; Speiser, Jodi; Adams, William; Tung, Rebecca


    Processing of adipose-rich Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) specimens poses challenges that may preclude complete margin evaluation. In this setting, the value of additional freezing methods using various cooling agents has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study is to compare the frozen section quality of high-adipose Mohs specimens processed without additional cooling treatments versus those pretreated with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (TFE) or liquid nitrogen (LN2). A set of 3 sections were each taken from 24 adipose-rich Mohs micrographic surgery specimens. A section from each set was subjected to either no additional cooling treatment (control), two 10-second pulse sprays of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, or three 2-second pulse sprays of LN2. After staining, 2 blinded raters evaluated slide quality based on the presence or absence of the following features: margin completeness, nuclear clearing, epidermal or adipose folding, holes, or venetian blind-like artifacts. Pretreatment of the sample with LN2 produced a significantly (P < 0.001) greater number of high-quality slides (19/24) compared to pretreatment with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (1/24) and no additional treatment (0/24). The adjunctive use of LN2 spray before tissue embedding circumvents the challenges of processing "thick" (high-adipose) specimens and facilitates the production of high-quality frozen section slides during Mohs micrographic surgery.

  6. Cell surface damage and morphological changes in Oenococcus oeni after freeze-drying and incubation in synthetic wine. (United States)

    Bravo-Ferrada, Bárbara Mercedes; Gonçalves, Sónia; Semorile, Liliana; Santos, Nuno C; Brizuela, Natalia; Elizabeth Tymczyszyn, E; Hollmann, Axel


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of freeze-drying in the presence of trehalose as a cryoprotectant, followed by incubation in synthetic wine, on surface damage, viability and l-malic acid consumption of the oenological strain Oenococcus oeni UNQOe 73.2. After freeze-drying, no significant differences were observed in the number of viable cells (for both acclimated and non-acclimated cultures) respect to the fresh culture. In contrast, loss of viability was observed after wine incubation for 24 h, being acclimated freeze-dried cells the best conditions for this. After the preservation process, small changes in cell morphology were observed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The Zeta potential and AFM showed that 24 h of wine incubation was enough to induce several cell surface modifications. Plate count data allowed us to establish that surface damage is an important factor for loss of viability, regardless of the acclimation treatment. Although the number of surviving O. oeni cells decreased dramatically after incubation in synthetic wine for 15 days, the consumption of l-malic acid was higher than 70%, with freeze-dried cells showing a better performance than fresh cultures. These results demonstrate that O. oeni freeze-dried cultures could be applied to direct wine inoculation, to conduct malolactic fermentation, maintaining its technological properties and reducing the time and costs of the winemaking process. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Effect of chemical fixatives on accurate preservation of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis structure in cells prepared by freeze-substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, L.L.; Beveridge, T.J.


    Five chemical fixatives were evaluated for their ability to accurately preserve bacterial ultrastructure during freeze-substitution of select Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis strains. Radioisotopes were specifically incorporated into the peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, and nucleic acids of E. coli SFK11 and W7 and into the peptidoglycan and RNA of B. subtilis 168 and W23. The ease of extraction of radiolabels, as assessed by liquid scintillation counting during all stages of processing for freeze-substitution, was used as an indicator of cell structural integrity and retention of cellular chemical composition. Subsequent visual examination by electron microscopy was used to confirm ultrastructural conformation. The fixatives used were: 2% (wt/vol) osmium tetroxide and 2% (wt/vol) uranyl acetate; 2% (vol/vol) glutaraldehyde and 2% (wt/vol) uranyl acetate; 2% (vol/vol) acrolein and 2% (wt/vol) uranyl acetate; 2% (wt/vol) gallic acid; and 2% (wt/vol) uranyl acetate. All fixatives were prepared in a substitution solvent of anhydrous acetone. Extraction of cellular constituents depended on the chemical fixative used. A combination of 2% osmium tetroxide-2% uranyl acetate or 2% gallic acid alone resulted in optimum fixation as ascertained by least extraction of radiolabels. In both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, high levels of radiolabel were detected in the processing fluids in which 2% acrolein-2% uranyl acetate, 2% glutaraldehyde-2% uranyl acetate, or 2% uranyl acetate alone were used as fixatives. Ultrastructural variations were observed in cells freeze-substituted in the presence of different chemical fixatives. We recommend the use of osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate in acetone for routine freeze-substitution of eubacteria, while gallic acid is recommended for use when microanalytical processing necessitates the omission of osmium

  8. A freeze-dried graphene counter electrode enhances the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Kai-Hsiang; Wang, Hong-Wen, E-mail:


    A flexible graphene/polyimide (PI) counter electrode without a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) layer has been fabricated for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) applications. The flexible counter electrode consists of polyimide double-sided tape as a substrate beneath a graphene film acting as the conductive and catalytic layer. Chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on the PI electrode (rGO-PI) shows comparable catalytic activity to that of the reference sputtered platinum/FTO counter electrodes (Sputter-Pt/FTO). A DSSC with a freeze-dried rGO-PI (FD-rGO-PI) counter electrode shows an overall conversion efficiency (η) of 5.45%, while that of the conventional Sputter-Pt/FTO electrode is 5.52%. The DSSC with a thermally dried rGO-PI (Gel-rGO-PI) counter electrode (not freeze-dried) exhibits a smooth morphology and much poorer performance (η = 1.61%). Field emission scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry measurements demonstrate that the FD-rGO-PI electrode possesses a porous structure, numerous edges, minimum charge-transfer resistance and a higher electrocatalytic activity toward the I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −} redox couple than that of the Gel-rGO-PI electrode. The high electrocatalytic activity, facile preparation procedure, absence of FTO, and material flexibility render the FD-rGO-PI electrode an ideal alternative to conventional DSSC counter electrodes. - Highlights: • Highly rough and conductive graphene-based counter electrode is synthesized. • The characteristics of graphene surface by freeze drying are different. • The graphene counter electrode exhibits comparable performance to that of sputtered Pt one.

  9. Neutron Computed Tomography of Freeze/thaw Phenomena in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew M. Mech; Jack Brenizer; Kenan Unlu; A.K. Heller


    This report summarizes the final year's progress of the three-year NEER program. The overall objectives of this program were to 1) design and construct a sophisticated hight-resolution neutron computed tomography (NCT) facility, 2) develop novel and sophisticated liquid water and ice quantification analysis software for computed tomography, and 3) apply the advanced software and NCT capability to study liquid and ice distribution in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) under cold-start conditions. These objectives have been accomplished by the research team, enabling a new capability for advanced 3D image quantification with neutron imaging for fuel cell and other applications. The NCT water quantification methodology and software will greatly add to the capabilities of the neutron imaging community, and the quantified liquid water and ice distribution provided by its application to PEFCs will enhance understanding and guide design in the fuel cell community.

  10. Conoscopy of chiral smectic liquid crystal cells




    PUBLISHED The conoscopic method for investigating the optical properties of a liquid crystal cell is studied with the aim of determining the effects of the approximations used in the calculation on the results. We confirm that the chiral liquid crystal cell forming a helical structure can be regarded as a single biaxial plate for analyzing the conoscopic image only if the helical pitch is less than several multiples of the wavelength of light. This approximation implies that the square of ...

  11. Air-Cooled Stack Freeze Tolerance Freeze Failure Modes and Freeze Tolerance Strategies for GenDriveTM Material Handling Application Systems and Stacks Final Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, David, W.


    Air-cooled stack technology offers the potential for a simpler system architecture (versus liquid-cooled) for applications below 4 kilowatts. The combined cooling and cathode air allows for a reduction in part count and hence a lower cost solution. However, efficient heat rejection challenges escalate as power and ambient temperature increase. For applications in ambient temperatures below freezing, the air-cooled approach has additional challenges associated with not overcooling the fuel cell stack. The focus of this project was freeze tolerance while maintaining all other stack and system requirements. Through this project, Plug Power advanced the state of the art in technology for air-cooled PEM fuel cell stacks and related GenDrive material handling application fuel cell systems. This was accomplished through a collaborative work plan to improve freeze tolerance and mitigate freeze-thaw effect failure modes within innovative material handling equipment fuel cell systems designed for use in freezer forklift applications. Freeze tolerance remains an area where additional research and understanding can help fuel cells to become commercially viable. This project evaluated both stack level and system level solutions to improve fuel cell stack freeze tolerance. At this time, the most cost effective solutions are at the system level. The freeze mitigation strategies developed over the course of this project could be used to drive fuel cell commercialization. The fuel cell system studied in this project was Plug Power's commercially available GenDrive platform providing battery replacement for equipment in the material handling industry. The fuel cell stacks were Ballard's commercially available FCvelocity 9SSL (9SSL) liquid-cooled PEM fuel cell stack and FCvelocity 1020ACS (Mk1020) air-cooled PEM fuel cell stack.

  12. Freeze-dried EchiTAb+ICP antivenom formulated with sucrose is more resistant to thermal stress than the liquid formulation stabilized with sorbitol. (United States)

    Herrera, María; Segura, Álvaro; Sánchez, Adriana; Sánchez, Andrés; Vargas, Mariángela; Villalta, Mauren; Harrison, Robert A; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo


    EchiTAb + ICP is a pan-African antivenom used for the treatment of snakebite envenomation in rural sub-Saharan African communities, where the cold chain can be difficult to maintain. To develop a formulation of EchiTAb + ICP that can be distributed and stored without refrigeration, we submitted three different formulations of EchiTAb + ICP: control (i.e. liquid antivenom formulated without stabilizer), liquid antivenom stabilized with sorbitol, and freeze-dried antivenom formulated with sucrose, to an accelerated stability study (i.e. 38 ± 2 °C and 75% relative humidity for 6 months). We analyzed changes in color, residual humidity, reconstitution time (for freeze-dried preparation), pH, osmolality, total protein concentration, antibody monomers content, turbidity, bacterial endotoxins, and pre-clinical neutralizing efficacy of the lethal effect of Echis ocellatus venom at 0, 3 and 6 months. In the control formulation, instability was evidenced by the development of a yellow coloration and an increment in aggregation and turbidity, without change in its neutralizing activity. The sorbitol-stabilized formulation did not develop marked aggregation or turbidity, but instability was evidenced by the development of yellow coloration and a drop in the neutralizing potency. The freeze-dried formulation maintained its neutralizing potency and did not show marked signs of instability, thus indicating that freeze-drying could confer EchiTAb + ICP with improved thermal stability required for distribution and storage at room temperature in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extracellular freezing in leaves of freezing-sensitive species. (United States)

    Ashworth, Edward N; Pearce, Roger S


    Low-temperature scanning-electron microscopy was used to study the freezing of leaves of five species that have no resistance to freezing: bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and corn (Zea mays L.). In the leaves of the four dicotyledonous species, ice was extracellular and the cells of all tissues were collapsed. In contrast, in maize leaves ice was extracellular in the mesophyll, and these cells were collapsed, but the epidermal and bundle-sheath cells apparently retained their original shapes and volume. It is concluded that the leaves of the freezing-sensitive dicotyledonous species tested were killed by cellular dehydration induced by extracellular freezing, and not by intracellular freezing. Freezing injury in maize leaves apparently resulted from a combination of freezing-induced cellular dehydration of some cells and intracellular ice formation in epidermal and bundle-sheath cells.

  14. Cryopreservation of chicken primordial germ cells by vitrification and slow freezing: A comparative study. (United States)

    Tonus, C; Connan, D; Waroux, O; Vandenhove, B; Wayet, J; Gillet, L; Desmecht, D; Antoine, N; Ectors, F J; Grobet, L


    In the present study, we compare a classical slow freezing (SLF) method and an aseptic vitrification (Vitrif) technique to cryopreserve a stable primordial germ cell (PGCs) line issued from the Ardennaise chicken breed. Viability immediately after warming was close to 80% and did not differ between the two cryopreservation methods. Proliferation tended to be slower for both cryopreservation methods compared with controls, but the difference was significant only for Vitrif. No difference was found between the two methods after flow cytometry analysis of stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 expression and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on several factors related to PGC phenotype. After 1 week in culture, all cryopreserved cells reached controls' main morphologic and expanding (viability/proliferation) features. However, SLF generated more unwanted cells clusters than Vitrif. After injection of the PGCs into recipient embryos, vitrified PGCs reported a clear, yet not significant, tendency to colonize the gonad at a higher rate than slow frozen PGCs. SLF in cryovials remains simple, inexpensive, and less technically demanding than Vitrif. Nevertheless, the intrinsic advantages of our aseptic Vitrif method and the present study suggest that this should be considered as safer than classical SLF for cryopreserving chicken PGCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors enable freezing of human red blood cells with reduced glycerol concentrations. (United States)

    Capicciotti, Chantelle J; Kurach, Jayme D R; Turner, Tracey R; Mancini, Ross S; Acker, Jason P; Ben, Robert N


    In North America, red blood cells (RBCs) are cryopreserved in a clinical setting using high glycerol concentrations (40% w/v) with slow cooling rates (~1°C/min) prior to storage at -80°C, while European protocols use reduced glycerol concentrations with rapid freezing rates. After thawing and prior to transfusion, glycerol must be removed to avoid intravascular hemolysis. This is a time consuming process requiring specialized equipment. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) such as β-PMP-Glc and β-pBrPh-Glc have the ability to prevent ice recrystallization, a process that contributes to cellular injury and decreased cell viability after cryopreservation. Herein, we report that addition of 110 mM β-PMP-Glc or 30 mM β-pBrPh-Glc to a 15% glycerol solution increases post-thaw RBC integrity by 30-50% using slow cooling rates and emphasize the potential of small molecule IRIs for the preservation of cells.

  16. Comparison of powder produced by evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution (EPAS) and spray freezing into liquid (SFL) technologies using novel Z-contrast STEM and complimentary techniques. (United States)

    Vaughn, Jason M; Gao, Xiaoxia; Yacaman, Miguel-Jose; Johnston, Keith P; Williams, Robert O


    The objective of this study was to compare the properties of particles formed by nucleation and polymer stabilization (e.g. evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution (EPAS)) versus rapid freezing (e.g. spray freezing into liquid (SFL)). Powders formed by EPAS and SFL, composed of danazol and PVP K-15 in a 1:1 ratio, were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), contact angle determination, dissolution, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), BET specific surface area, and Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Large differences in particle morphologies and properties were observed and explained in terms of the particle formation mechanisms. Both techniques produced amorphous powders with high T(g) and low contact angle values. However, STEM analysis showed highly porous bicontinuous nanostructured 30nm particles connected by narrow bridges for SFL versus aggregated 500 nm primary particles for EPAS. The combination of STEM and other characterization techniques indicates solid solutions were formed for the SFL powders consistent with rapid freezing. In contrast, the EPAS particle cores are enriched in hydrophobic API and the outer surface is enriched in the hydrophilic polymer, with less miscibility than in the SFL powders. Consequently, dissolution rates are faster for the SFL particles, although both techniques enhanced dissolution rates of the API.

  17. Pore architecture and cell viability on freeze dried 3D recombinant human collagen-peptide (RHC)–chitosan scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Aimei; Deng, Aipeng [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Yang, Yang [Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Gao, Lihu; Zhong, Zhaocai [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Yang, Shulin, E-mail: [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)


    Pore architecture of 3D scaffolds used in tissue engineering plays a critical role in the maintenance of cell survival, proliferation and further promotion of tissue regeneration. We investigated the pore size and structure, porosity, swelling as well as cell viability of a series of recombinant human collagen-peptide–chitosan (RHCC) scaffolds fabricated by lyophilization. In this paper, freezing regime containing a final temperature of freezing (T{sub f}) and cooling rates was applied to obtain scaffolds with pore size ranging from 100 μm to 120 μm. Other protocols of RHC/chitosan suspension concentration and ratio modification were studied to produce more homogenous and appropriate structural scaffolds. The mean pore size decreased along with the decline of T{sub f} at a slow cooling rate of 0.7 °C/min; a more rapid cooling rate under 5 °C/min resulted to a smaller pore size and more homogenous microstructure. High concentration could reduce pore size and lead to thick well of scaffold, while improved the ratio of RHC, lamellar and fiber structure coexisted with cellular pores. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded on these manufactured scaffolds, the cell viability represented a negative correlation to the pore size. This study provides an alternative method to fabricate 3D RHC–chitosan scaffolds with appropriate pores for potential tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Fabrication of recombinant human collagen-chitosan scaffolds by freezing drying • Influence of freeze drying protocols on lyophilized scaffolds • Pore size, microstructure, porosity, swelling and cell viability were compared. • The optimized porous scaffold is suitable for cell (HUVEC) seeding.

  18. Microbial stratification structure within cathodic biofilm of the microbial fuel cell using the freezing microtome method. (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Lu, Yaobin; Luo, Haiping; Liu, Guangli; Zhang, Renduo


    The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial stratification structure within cathodic biofilm of the microbial fuel cell (MFC) using the freezing microtome method. Experiments were conducted in a single-chamber air-cathode MFC with 0.8g/L maltodextrin as substrate for ∼30d operation. The maximum power density was 945±10mW/m 2 in the MFC. Maltodextrin resulted in the relative abundance of Candidatus Saccharibacteria of 37.0% in the anodic biofilm. Different bacterial communities were identified in different layers within the cathodic biofilm. The relative abundance of Enterococcus was 3.7%, 10.5%, and 1.6% in the top (100-150μm), middle (50-100μm), and bottom (0-50μm) layers, respectively. Higher bacterial viability was observed within the top and bottom layers of the cathodic biofilm. Understanding the stratification of bacterial community in cathodic biofilm should be important to control the cathodic biofilm in the MFC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors mitigate red blood cell lysis during freezing, transient warming and thawing. (United States)

    Briard, Jennie G; Poisson, Jessica S; Turner, Tracey R; Capicciotti, Chantelle J; Acker, Jason P; Ben, Robert N


    During cryopreservation, ice recrystallization is a major cause of cellular damage. Conventional cryoprotectants such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol function by a number of different mechanisms but do not mitigate or control ice recrystallization at concentrations utilized in cryopreservation procedures. In North America, cryopreservation of human red blood cells (RBCs) utilizes high concentrations of glycerol. RBC units frozen under these conditions must be subjected to a time-consuming deglycerolization process after thawing in order to remove the glycerol to recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) that are effective cryoprotectants for human RBCs, resulting in 70-80% intact RBCs using only 15% glycerol and slow freezing rates. These compounds are capable of reducing the average ice crystal size of extracellular ice relative to a 15% glycerol control validating the positive correlation between a reduction in ice crystal size and increased post-thaw recovery of RBCs. The most potent IRI from this study is also capable of protecting frozen RBCs against the large temperature fluctuations associated with transient warming.

  20. Subzero water permeability parameters and optimal freezing rates for sperm cells of the southern platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus. (United States)

    Pinisetty, D; Huang, C; Dong, Q; Tiersch, T R; Devireddy, R V


    This study reports the subzero water transport characteristics (and empirically determined optimal rates for freezing) of sperm cells of live-bearing fishes of the genus Xiphophorus, specifically those of the southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus. These fishes are valuable models for biomedical research and are commercially raised as ornamental fish for use in aquariums. Water transport during freezing of X. maculatus sperm cell suspensions was obtained using a shape-independent differential scanning calorimeter technique in the presence of extracellular ice at a cooling rate of 20 degrees C/min in three different media: (1) Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) without cryoprotective agents (CPAs); (2) HBSS with 14% (v/v) glycerol, and (3) HBSS with 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The sperm cell was modeled as a cylinder with a length of 52.35 microm and a diameter of 0.66 microm with an osmotically inactive cell volume (Vb) of 0.6 V0, where V0 is the isotonic or initial cell volume. This translates to a surface area, SA to initial water volume, WV ratio of 15.15 microm(-1). By fitting a model of water transport to the experimentally determined volumetric shrinkage data, the best fit membrane permeability parameters (reference membrane permeability to water at 0 degrees C, Lpg or Lpg [cpa] and the activation energy, E(Lp) or E(Lp) [cpa]) were found to range from: Lpg or Lpg [cpa] = 0.0053-0.0093 microm/minatm; E(Lp) or E(Lp) [cpa] = 9.79-29.00 kcal/mol. By incorporating these membrane permeability parameters in a recently developed generic optimal cooling rate equation (optimal cooling rate, [Formula: see text] where the units of B(opt) are degrees C/min, E(Lp) or E(Lp) [cpa] are kcal/mol, L(pg) or L(pg) [cpa] are microm/minatm and SA/WV are microm(-1)), we determined the optimal rates of freezing X. maculatus sperm cells to be 28 degrees C/min (in HBSS), 47 degrees C/min (in HBSS+14% glycerol) and 36 degrees C/min (in HBSS+10% DMSO). Preliminary empirical

  1. Serum-free freezing media support high cell quality and excellent ELISPOT assay performance across a wide variety of different assay protocols. (United States)

    Filbert, Helene; Attig, Sebastian; Bidmon, Nicole; Renard, Bernhard Y; Janetzki, Sylvia; Sahin, Ugur; Welters, Marij J P; Ottensmeier, Christian; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Britten, Cedrik M


    Robust and sensitive ELISPOT protocols are commonly applied concomitant with the development of new immunotherapeutics. Despite the knowledge that individual serum batches differ in their composition and may change properties over time, serum is still commonly used in immunologic assays. Commercially available serum batches are expensive, limited in quantity and need to be pretested for suitability in immunologic assays, which is a laborious process. The aim of this study was to test whether serum-free freezing media can lead to high cell viability and favorable performance across multiple ELISPOT assay protocols. Thirty-one laboratories from ten countries participated in a proficiency panel organized by the Cancer Immunotherapy Immunoguiding Program to test the influence of different freezing media on cell quality and immunologic function. Each center received peripheral blood mononuclear cells which were frozen in three different media. The participants were asked to quantify antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses against model antigens using their locally established IFN-gamma ELISPOT protocols. Self-made and commercially available serum-free freezing media led to higher cell viability and similar cell recovery after thawing and resting compared to freezing media supplemented with human serum. Furthermore, the test performance as determined by (1) background spot production, (2) replicate variation, (3) frequency of detected antigen-specific spots and (4) response detection rate was similar for serum and serum-free conditions. We conclude that defined and accessible serum-free freezing media should be recommended for freezing cells stored for subsequent ELISPOT analysis.

  2. Freeze-dried plasma enhances clot formation and inhibits fibrinolysis in the presence of tissue plasminogen activator similar to pooled liquid plasma. (United States)

    Huebner, Benjamin R; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Hunter B; Sauaia, Angela; Stettler, Gregory; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Hansen, Kirk; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C


    Systemic hyperfibrinolysis is an integral part of trauma-induced coagulopathy associated with uncontrolled bleeding. Recent data suggest that plasma-first resuscitation attenuates hyperfibrinolysis; however, the availability, transport, storage, and administration of plasma in austere environments remain challenging and have limited its use. Freeze-dried plasma (FDP) is a potential alternative due to ease of storage, longer shelf life, and efficient reconstitution. FDP potentially enhances clot formation and resists breakdown better than normal saline (NS) and albumin and similar to liquid plasma. Healthy volunteers underwent citrated blood draw followed by 50% dilution with NS, albumin, pooled plasma (PP), or pooled freeze-dried plasma (pFDP). Citrated native and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)-challenge (75 ng/mL) thrombelastography were done. Proteins in PP, pFDP, and albumin were analyzed by mass spectroscopy. pFDP and PP had superior clot-formation rates (angle) and clot strength (maximum amplitude) compared with NS and albumin in t-PA-challenge thrombelastographies (angle: pFDP, 67.9 degrees; PP, 67.8 degrees; NS, 40.6 degrees; albumin, 35.8 degrees; maximum amplitude: pFDP, 62.4 mm; PP, 63.5 mm; NS, 44.8 mm; albumin, 41.1 mm). NS and albumin dilution increased susceptibility to t-PA-induced hyperfibrinolysis compared with pFDP and PP (NS, 62.4%; albumin, 62.6%; PP, 8.5%; pFDP, 6.7%). pFDP was similar to PP in the attenuation of t-PA-induced fibrinolysis. Most proteins (97%) were conserved during the freeze-dry process, with higher levels in 12% of pFDP proteins compared with PP. pFDP enhances clot formation and attenuates hyperfibrinolysis better than NS and albumin and is a potential alternative to plasma resuscitation in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock. © 2017 AABB.

  3. Conoscopy of chiral smectic liquid crystal cells. (United States)

    Song, Jang-Kun; Vij, J K; Sadashiva, B K


    The conoscopic method for investigating the optical properties of a liquid crystal cell is studied with the aim of determining the effects of the approximations used in the calculation on the results. We confirm that the chiral liquid crystal cell forming a helical structure can be regarded as a single biaxial plate for analyzing the conoscopic image only if the helical pitch is less than several multiples of the wavelength of light. This approximation implies that the square of the refractive index along a direction is averaged over all the layers. An incorrectly chosen value for one of the principal refractive indices to be used in the analysis of the conoscopic data can lead to an incorrect conclusion, especially for the case when the wavelength dispersion of the refractive index is neglected. A thicker cell and a longer wavelength of the incident light can minimize these limitations of the conoscopic method. We propose a novel simulation method to find the molecular distribution in a liquid crystal cell based on the average-refractive-index approximation and the conoscopic data. This is shown to be a fast, more efficient, and useful method for estimating the director distributions.

  4. Freeze-thaw lysates of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells induce differentiation of functionally competent regulatory T cells from memory T cells. (United States)

    Finney, Olivia C; Lawrence, Emma; Gray, Alice P; Njie, Madi; Riley, Eleanor M; Walther, Michael


    In addition to naturally occurring regulatory T (nTreg) cells derived from the thymus, functionally competent Treg cells can be induced in vitro from peripheral blood lymphocytes in response to TCR stimulation with cytokine costimulation. Using these artificial stimulation conditions, both naïve as well as memory CD4(+) T cells can be converted into induced Treg (iTreg) cells, but the cellular origin of such iTreg cells in vivo or in response to more physiologic stimulation with pathogen-derived antigens is less clear. Here, we demonstrate that a freeze/thaw lysate of Plasmodium falciparum schizont extract (PfSE) can induce functionally competent Treg cells from peripheral lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner without the addition of exogenous costimulatory factors. The PfSE-mediated induction of Treg cells required the presence of nTreg cells in the starting culture. Further experiments mixing either memory or naïve T cells with antigen presenting cells and CFSE-labeled Treg cells identified CD4(+) CD45RO(+) CD25(-) memory T cells rather than Treg cells as the primary source of PfSE-induced Treg cells. Taken together, these data suggest that in the presence of nTreg cells, PfSE induces memory T cells to convert into iTreg cells that subsequently expand alongside PfSE-induced effector T cells. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A freeze-fracture study on the developing satellite cells of spinal ganglia in the chick embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Ferraz de Carvalho


    Full Text Available A freeze-fracture analysis of the satellite cells of spinal ganglia of the chick embryo was performed in 8 successive stages of development, from the 5th incubation day to hatching. The characteristic laminar disposition of the cells were first observed on the 7th day. Tight junctions were found at the 20th incubation day. Small groups or irregular aggregates of particles, but not gap junctions, were described on the 7th and 8th days. Pinocytotic vesicles were pointed out in the different stages considered.

  6. Freeze substitution in 3 hours or less. (United States)

    McDonald, K L; Webb, R I


    Freeze substitution is a process for low temperature dehydration and fixation of rapidly frozen cells that usually takes days to complete. New methods for freeze substitution have been developed that require only basic laboratory tools: a platform shaker, liquid nitrogen, a metal block with holes for cryotubes and an insulated container such as an ice bucket. With this equipment, excellent freeze substitution results can be obtained in as little as 90 min for cells of small volume such as bacteria and tissue culture cells. For cells of greater volume or that have significant diffusion barriers such as cuticles or thick cell walls, one can extend the time to 3 h or more with dry ice. The 3-h method works well for all manner of specimens, including plants and Caenorhabditis elegans as well as smaller samples. Here, we present the basics of the techniques and some results from Nicotiana leaves, C. elegans adult worms, Escherichia coli and baby hamster kidney tissue culture cells. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2011 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. Evaluation of sericin as a fetal bovine serum-replacing cryoprotectant during freezing of human mesenchymal stromal cells and human osteoblast-like cells. (United States)

    Verdanova, Martina; Pytlik, Robert; Kalbacova, Marie Hubalek


    A reliable, cryoprotective, xeno-free medium suitable for different cell types is highly desirable in regenerative medicine. There is danger of infection or allergic reaction with the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS), making it problematic for medical applications. The aim of the present study was to develop an FBS-free cryoprotective medium for human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs; primary cells) and immortalized human osteoblasts (SAOS-2 cell line). Furthermore, we endeavored to eliminate or reduce the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the medium. Sericin, a sticky protein derived from the silkworm cocoon, was investigated as a substitute for FBS and DMSO in the freezing medium. Cell viability (24 hours after thawing, both hMSC and SAOS-2) and colony-forming ability (2 weeks after thawing, only for hMSCs) were both determined. The FBS-free medium with 1% sericin in 10% DMSO was found to be a suitable freezing medium for primary hMSCs, in contrast to immortalized human osteoblasts. Surprisingly, the storage of hMSCs in a cultivation medium with only 10% DMSO also provided satisfactory results. Any drop in DMSO concentration led to significantly worse survival of cells, with little improvement in hMSC survival in the presence of sericin. Thus, sericin may substitute for FBS in the freezing medium for primary hMSCs, but cannot substitute for DMSO.

  8. How Is the Freezing Point of a Binary Mixture of Liquids Related to the Composition? A Guided Inquiry Experiment (United States)

    Hunnicutt, Sally S.; Grushow, Alexander; Whitnell, Rob


    The principles of process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) are applied to a binary solid-liquid mixtures experiment. Over the course of two learning cycles, students predict, measure, and model the phase diagram of a mixture of fatty acids. The enthalpy of fusion of each fatty acid is determined from the results. This guided inquiry…

  9. Liquid Redox Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells


    Yu, Ze


    This thesis focuses on liquid redox electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A liquid redox electrolyte, as one of the key constituents in DSCs, typically consists of a redox mediator, additives and a solvent. This thesis work concerns all these three aspects of liquid electrolytes, aiming through fundamental insights to enhance the photovoltaic performances of liquid DSCs. Initial attention has been paid to the iodine concentration effects in ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolytes. I...

  10. Comparison of methods of high-pressure freezing and automated freeze-substitution of suspension cells combined with LR White embedding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobol, Margaryta; Philimonenko, Vlada; Hozák, Pavel


    Roč. 134, č. 6 (2010), s. 631-641 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520704; GA MŠk 2B06063; GA MŠk LC545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cryofixation * automated freeze-substitution * LR White Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.727, year: 2010

  11. Microfabricated Nanofluidic cells for in situ liquid TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laganà, Simone

    of this PhD project is to improve the technologies behind liquid cell TEM by developing a novel and robust liquid cell device able to increase the control over the liquid layer thickness, essential for good imaging conditions. A new type of nanofluidic cell has been created with an architecture based...... on wafer bonding of Atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 on Si3N4 membranes. With the improved liquid layer thickness control, we use the devices to measure the electron mean free path in water which is a fundamental aspect of TEM studies, and present the high-resolution TEM capabilities of the nanofluidic...... cell. Furthermore, the first findings on nanoparticle (NP) growth in this particular nanochannel system are presented that also opens up for new types of liquid cell studies with laminar flow. These results demonstrate the capability of the novel nanofluidic cell to provide ultra-thin liquid layers...

  12. Fluctuations and freezing in a one-dimensional liquid: Hg/sub 3-delta/AsF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axe, J.D.


    Many papers deal quite properly with systems at their critical dimensionality, d*. In such systems the competing forces between organization and disorder are nearly equally balanced and the analysis of the resulting situation requires some subtlety. Not surprisingly, the situation is somewhat simplified when the dimensionality falls below d*. For ordinary translational ordering of fluids (i.e., crystallization), d*=2. The properties of certain quasi-one-dimensional systems are explored, which since they are effectively below d*, resist the conventional crystalline order until abnormally low temperatures, and assume instead a state which is likened to a 1-dimensional liquid

  13. Tissue Triage and Freezing for Models of Skeletal Muscle Disease (United States)

    Meng, Hui; Janssen, Paul M.L.; Grange, Robert W.; Yang, Lin; Beggs, Alan H.; Swanson, Lindsay C.; Cossette, Stacy A.; Frase, Alison; Childers, Martin K.; Granzier, Henk; Gussoni, Emanuela; Lawlor, Michael W.


    Skeletal muscle is a unique tissue because of its structure and function, which requires specific protocols for tissue collection to obtain optimal results from functional, cellular, molecular, and pathological evaluations. Due to the subtlety of some pathological abnormalities seen in congenital muscle disorders and the potential for fixation to interfere with the recognition of these features, pathological evaluation of frozen muscle is preferable to fixed muscle when evaluating skeletal muscle for congenital muscle disease. Additionally, the potential to produce severe freezing artifacts in muscle requires specific precautions when freezing skeletal muscle for histological examination that are not commonly used when freezing other tissues. This manuscript describes a protocol for rapid freezing of skeletal muscle using isopentane (2-methylbutane) cooled with liquid nitrogen to preserve optimal skeletal muscle morphology. This procedure is also effective for freezing tissue intended for genetic or protein expression studies. Furthermore, we have integrated our freezing protocol into a broader procedure that also describes preferred methods for the short term triage of tissue for (1) single fiber functional studies and (2) myoblast cell culture, with a focus on the minimum effort necessary to collect tissue and transport it to specialized research or reference labs to complete these studies. Overall, this manuscript provides an outline of how fresh tissue can be effectively distributed for a variety of phenotypic studies and thereby provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for pathological studies related to congenital muscle disease. PMID:25078247

  14. Effect of different freezing rates during cryopreservation of rat mesenchymal stem cells using combinations of hydroxyethyl starch and dimethylsulfoxide (United States)


    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are increasingly used as therapeutic agents as well as research tools in regenerative medicine. Development of technologies which allow storing and banking of MSC with minimal loss of cell viability, differentiation capacity, and function is required for clinical and research applications. Cryopreservation is the most effective way to preserve cells long term, but it involves potentially cytotoxic compounds and processing steps. Here, we investigate the effect of decreasing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) concentrations in cryosolution by substituting with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) of different molecular weights using different freezing rates. Post-thaw viability, phenotype and osteogenic differentiation capacity of MSCs were analysed. Results The study confirms that, for rat MSC, cryopreservation effects need to be assessed some time after, rather than immediately after thawing. MSCs cryopreserved with HES maintain their characteristic cell surface marker expression as well as the osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential. HES alone does not provide sufficient cryoprotection for rat MSCs, but provides good cryoprotection in combination with DMSO, permitting the DMSO content to be reduced to 5%. There are indications that such a combination would seem useful not just for the clinical disadvantages of DMSO but also based on a tendency for reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity of rat MSC cryopreserved with high DMSO concentration. HES molecular weight appears to play only a minor role in its capacity to act as a cryopreservation solution for MSC. The use of a ‘straight freeze’ protocol is no less effective in maintaining post-thaw viability of MSC compared to controlled rate freezing methods. Conclusion A 5% DMSO / 5% HES solution cryopreservation solution using a ‘straight freeze’ approach can be recommended for rat MSC. PMID:22889198

  15. A tissue snap-freezing apparatus without sacrificial cryogens (United States)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; Jagga, Sahil; Holland, Harry; ter Brake, Marcel


    Molecular technologies in cancer diagnosis require a fresh and frozen tissue, which is obtained by means of snap-freezing. Currently, coolants such as solid carbon dioxide and liquid nitrogen are used to preserve good morphology of the tissue. Using these coolants, snap freezing of tissues for diagnostic and research purposes is often time consuming, laborious, even hazardous and not user friendly. For that reason snap-freezing is not routinely applied at the location of biopsy acquisition. Furthermore, the influence of optimal cooling rate and cold sink temperature on the viability of the cells is not well known. In this paper, a snap-freezing apparatus powered by a small cryocooler is presented that will allow bio-medical research of tissue freezing methods and is safe to use in a hospital. To benchmark this apparatus, cooldown of a standard aluminum cryo-vial in liquid nitrogen is measured and the cooling rate is about -25 K/s between 295 K and 120 K. Sufficient cooling rate is obtained by a forced convective helium gas flow through a gap formed between the cryo-vial and a cold surface and is therefore chosen as the preferred cooling method. A conceptual design of the snap-apparatus with forced flow is discussed in this paper.

  16. Effects of various freezing containers for vitrification freezing on mouse oogenesis. (United States)

    Kim, Ji Chul; Kim, Jae Myeoung; Seo, Byoung Boo


    In the present study, various freezing containers were tested for mouse embryos of respective developmental stages; embryos were vitrified and then their survival rate and developmental rate were monitored. Mouse two cell, 8 cell, and blastula stage embryos underwent vitrification freezing-thawing and then their recovery rate, survival rate, development rate, and hatching rate were investigated. EM-grid, OPS, and cryo-loop were utilized for vitrification freezing-thawing of mouse embryos. It was found that recovery rate and survival rate were higher in the group of cryo-loop compared to those of EM-grid (p containers on vitrified embryos of respective developmental stages; it was demonstrated that higher developmental rate was shown in more progressed (or developed) embryos with more blastomeres. There was however, no difference in embryonic development rate was shown amongst containers. Taken together, further additional studies are warranted with regards to 1) manipulation techniques of embryos for various vitrification freezing containers and 2) preventive measures against contamination via liquid nitrogen.

  17. Impregnation of leather during "freeze-drying"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storch, Mikkel; Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Dorte; Hovmand, Ida


    Freeze-drying is a recognized method for the preservation of waterlogged objects. Naturally, freeze-drying has also been used for waterlogged archaeological leather often after treatment with Na2.EDTA and impregnation with PEG; but the treated leather sometimes suffers from “excessive drying......” becoming too stiff and brittle. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a conventional freeze-drying method against an alternative freeze-drying method that preserves the natural moisture content of the leather. Both new and archaeological waterlogged leather were included in the study...... suggest that the process which takes place within the leather during the freeze-drying in not actual freeze-drying, but rather a sophisticated way of distributing the impregnating agent. The pure ice phase freezes out, but the impregnating agent remains liquid as the temperature does not become low enough...

  18. The JPL Direct Methanol Liquid-feed PEM Fuel Cell (United States)

    Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.


    Recently, there has been a breakthrough in fuel cell technology in the Energy Storage Systems Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with the develpment of a direct methanol, liquid-feed, solid polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell... The methanol liquid-feed, solid polymer electrolyte (PEM) design has numerous system level advantages over the gas-feed design. These include:...

  19. Aspergillus niger whole-cell catalyzed synthesis of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in ionic liquids. (United States)

    Rajapriya, Govindaraju; Morya, Vivek Kumar; Mai, Ngoc Lan; Koo, Yoon-Mo


    Synthesis of caffeic acid ester essentially requires an efficient esterification process to produce various kinds of medicinally important ester derivatives. In the present study, a comprehensive and comparative analysis of whole-cell catalyzed caffeic acid esters production in ionic liquids (ILs) media was performed. Olive oil induced mycelial mass of halotolerant Aspergillus niger (A.niger) EXF 4321 was freeze dried and used as a catalyst. To ensure maximum solubilization of caffeic acid for highest substrate loading several ILs were screened and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim][Tf 2 N]) was found to have the maximum solubility and favoured for enzymatic activity of freeze dried mycelia. The whole-cell catalyzed synthesis of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) conditions were optimized and bioconversion up to 84% was achieved at a substrate molar ratio of 1:20 (caffeic acid:2-phenyl ethanol), 30°C for 12h. Results obtained during this study were encouraging and helpful to design a bioreactor system to produce caffeic acid derived esters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Propylene Glycol-Mitigated Freeze/Thaw Agglomeration of a Frozen Liquid nOMV Vaccine Formulation by Static Light Scattering and Micro-Flow Imaging. (United States)

    Mensch, Christopher D; Davis, Harrison B; Blue, Jeffrey T


    The purpose of this work was to investigate the susceptibility of an aluminum adjuvant and an aluminum-adjuvanted native outer membrane vesicle (nOMV) vaccine formulation to freeze/thaw-induced agglomeration using static light scattering and micro-flow Imaging analysis; and to evaluate the use of propylene glycol as a vaccine formulation excipient by which freeze/thaw-induced agglomeration of a nOMV vaccine formulation could be mitigated. Our results indicate that including 7% v/v propylene glycol in an nOMV containing aluminum adjuvanted vaccine formulation, mitigates freeze/thaw-induced agglomeration. We evaluated the effect of freeze-thawing on an aluminum adjuvant and an aluminum adjuvanted native outer membrane vesicle (nOMV) vaccine formulation. Specifically, we characterized the freeze/thaw-induced agglomeration through the use of static light scattering, micro-flow imaging, and cryo-electron microscopy analysis. Further, we evaluated the use of 0-9% v/v propylene glycol as an excipient which could be included in the formulation for the purpose of mitigating the agglomeration induced by freeze/thaw. The results indicate that using 7% v/v propylene glycol as a formulation excipient is effective at mitigating agglomeration of the nOMV vaccine formulation, otherwise induced by freeze-thawing. © PDA, Inc. 2015.

  1. Thermal analysis of ice and glass transitions in insects that do and do not survive freezing. (United States)

    Rozsypal, Jan; Moos, Martin; Šimek, Petr; Koštál, Vladimír


    Some insects rely on the strategy of freeze tolerance for winter survival. During freezing, extracellular body water transitions from the liquid to solid phase and cells undergo freeze-induced dehydration. Here we present results of a thermal analysis (from differential scanning calorimetry) of ice fraction dynamics during gradual cooling after inoculative freezing in variously acclimated larvae of two drosophilid flies, Drosophila melanogaster and Chymomyza costata. Although the species and variants ranged broadly between 0 and close to 100% survival of freezing, there were relatively small differences in ice fraction dynamics. For instance, the maximum ice fraction (IF max ) ranged between 67.9 and 77.7% total body water (TBW). The C. costata larvae showed statistically significant phenotypic shifts in parameters of ice fraction dynamics (melting point and IF max ) upon entry into diapause, cold-acclimation, and feeding on a proline-augmented diet. These differences were mostly driven by colligative effects of accumulated proline (ranging between 6 and 487 -1 TBW) and other metabolites. Our data suggest that these colligative effects per se do not represent a sufficient mechanistic explanation for high freeze tolerance observed in diapausing, cold-acclimated C. costata larvae. Instead, we hypothesize that accumulated proline exerts its protective role via a combination of mechanisms. Specifically, we found a tight association between proline-induced stimulation of glass transition in partially-frozen body liquids (vitrification) and survival of cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Thermodynamics of freezing and melting


    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Costigliola, Lorenzo; Bailey, Nicholas; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, Jeppe C.


    Although the freezing of liquids and melting of crystals are fundamental for many areas of the sciences, even simple properties like the temperature?pressure relation along the melting line cannot be predicted today. Here we present a theory in which properties of the coexisting crystal and liquid phases at a single thermodynamic state point provide the basis for calculating the pressure, density and entropy of fusion as functions of temperature along the melting line, as well as the variatio...

  3. Jamming and liquidity in 3D cancer cell aggregates (United States)

    Oswald, Linda; Grosser, Steffen; Lippoldt, Jürgen; Pawlizak, Steve; Fritsch, Anatol; KäS, Josef A.

    Traditionally, tissues are treated as simple liquids, which holds for example for embryonic tissue. However, recent experiments have shown that this picture is insufficient for other tissue types, suggesting possible transitions to solid-like behavior induced by cellular jamming. The coarse-grained self-propelled Voronoi (SPV) model predicts such a transition depending on cell shape which is thought to arise from an interplay of cell-cell adhesion and cortical tension. We observe non-liquid behavior in 3D breast cancer spheroids of varying metastatic potential and correlate single cell shapes, single cell dynamics and collective dynamic behavior of fusion and segregation experiments via the SPV model.

  4. Fast analysis of phthalates in freeze-dried baby foods by ultrasound-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-ion trap/mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale; Notardonato, Ivan


    This paper is focused on the determination of phthalates (PAEs), compounds "plausibly" endocrine disruptors, in baby food products by means of a method based on ultrasound-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with GC-IT/MS (UVALLME-GC-IT/MS). Particularly, the whole procedure allows the determination of six phthalates such as DMP, DEP, DBP, iBcEP, BBP and DEHP. After dissolution of 0.1g product sample and addition of anthracene as Internal Standard, 250μL of n-heptane are used as extraction solvent. The solution, held for 5min on the vortex mixer and for 6min in an ultrasonic bath at 100W for favoring the solvent dispersion and consequently the analyte extraction, is centrifuged at 4000rpm for 30min. About 100μL of heptane are recovered and 1μL is injected into the GC-IT/MS. All the analytical parameters investigated are deeply discussed: under the best conditions, the percentage recoveries range between 96.2 and 109.2% with an RSD ≤10.5% whereas the Limit of Detections (LODs) and the Limit of Quantifications (LOQs) are below 11 and 20ngg -1 , respectively, for all the PAEs except for iBcEP (23 and 43ngg -1 , respectively). The linear dynamic range of this procedure is between 10 and 5000ngg -1 with R 2 ≥0.92. The method has been applied to real commercial freeze-dried samples (chicken and turkey meats) available on the Italian pharmaceutical market: three PAEs were preliminary identified, i.e. DEP (14ngg -1 ), DBP (11ngg -1 ) and DEHP (64ngg -1 ). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Preservation of flavor in freeze dried green beans (United States)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Davis, D.


    Before freeze drying, green beans are heated to point at which their cell structure is altered. Beans freeze dried with altered cell structure have improved rehydration properties and retain color, flavor, and texture.

  6. Quantification of Intracellular Ice Formation and Recrystallization During Freeze-Thaw Cycles and Their Relationship with the Viability of Pig Iliac Endothelium Cells. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Gang; Shu, Zhiquan; Niu, Dan; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhou, Ping; Cao, Yunxia; Gao, Dayong


    Quantitative evaluation of the inherent correlation between cell cryoinjuries and intracellular ice formation (IIF) together with recrystallization (IIR) is of primary importance for both optimization of biopreservation and cryotherapy. The objective of this study is to thoroughly explore the roles of IIF on cell viability by using pig iliac endothelium cells (PIECs) as model cells during freezing and thawing. The experimental results indicated that both the probabilities of IIF (PIF) and IIR (PIR) increased along with the increase of cooling rates (p < 0.05) during the freeze-thaw cycles at cooling rates of 40, 60, 80, 100, and 150°C/min and the same warming rates of 100°C/min in phosphate-buffered saline-based solutions with or without 1 M DMSO. Viability evaluation with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide double staining showed that most of the cells were killed (viability <20%) by the abovementioned freeze-thaw cycles, which indicated that the cooling rates investigated were all too rapid since large amounts of IIF and IIR were introduced. Another interesting phenomenon is that the presence of a low concentration of DMSO (1 M) tends to improve cell viability while increasing the PIF and PIR during freezing/thawing, contrary to the common belief that larger PIF corresponds to greater cryoinjury. This may be attributed to the intrinsic protection effect of DMSO by reduction of solution injury or other potential injuries. These findings may be of potential application value for both cryopreservation and cryosurgery by providing helpful additions to the existing studies on investigation of cryoinjuries of PIECs.

  7. Development of Tetrapolar Conductivity Cell for Liquid Measurement Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Anas


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of a liquid measuring instrumentation using the popular tetrapolar electrode configuration. The system consists of four-electrode ring shape using Cromium metal plate and a small measurement. The developed instrument is calibrated with the help of prepared saline solution prepared in lab. A liquid of known parameter is placed inside the measurement cell and current is injected through excitation electrode with certain frequency and voltage drop is measured across electrode potential terminals. From this voltages and cell constant value, the conductivity, resistivity and impedance of the measured liquid could be determined with acceptable accuracy with more than 96 % compared to the standard measurement.

  8. Vapor Pressure Plus: An Experiment for Studying Phase Equilibria in Water, with Observation of Supercooling, Spontaneous Freezing, and the Triple Point (United States)

    Tellinghuisen, Joel


    Liquid-vapor, solid-vapor, and solid-liquid-vapor equilibria are studied for the pure substance water, using modern equipment that includes specially fabricated glass cells. Samples are evaporatively frozen initially, during which they typically supercool to -5 to -10 [degrees]C before spontaneously freezing. Vacuum pumping lowers the temperature…

  9. Evaluation of freeze-substitution and conventional embedding protocols for routine electron microscopic processing of eubacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, L.L.; Beveridge, T.J.


    Freeze-substitution and more conventional embedding protocols were evaluated for their accurate preservation of eubacterial ultrastructure. Radioisotopes were specifically incorporated into the RNA, DNA, peptidoglycan, and lipopolysaccharide of two isogenic derivatives of Escherichia coli K-12 as representative gram-negative eubacteria and into the RNA and peptidoglycan of Bacillus subtilis strains 168 and W23 as representative gram-positive eubacteria. Radiolabeled bacteria were processed for electron microscopy by conventional methods with glutaraldehyde fixation, osmium tetroxide postfixation, dehydration in either a graded acetone or ethanol series, and infiltration in either Spurr or Epon 812 resin. A second set of cells were simultaneously freeze-substituted by plunge-freezing in liquid propane, substituting in anhydrous acetone containing 2% (wt/vol) osmium tetroxide, and 2% (wt/vol) uranyl acetate, and infiltrating in Epon 812. Extraction of radiolabeled cell components was monitored by liquid scintillation counting at all stages of processing to indicate retention of cell labels. Electron microscopy was also used to visually confirm ultrastructural integrity. Radiolabeled nucleic acid and wall components were extracted by both methods. In conventionally embedded specimens, dehydration was particularly damaging, with ethanol-dehydrated cells losing significantly more radiolabeled material during dehydration and subsequent infiltration than acetone-treated cells. For freeze-substituted specimens, postsubstitution washes in acetone were the most deleterious step for gram-negative cells, while infiltration was more damaging for gram-positive cells

  10. A Theory of Immersion Freezing (United States)

    Barahona, Donifan


    Immersion freezing is likely involved in the initiation of precipitation and determines to large extent the phase partitioning in convective clouds. Theoretical models commonly used to describe immersion freezing in atmospheric models are based on the classical nucleation theory which however neglects important interactions near the immersed particle that may affect nucleation rates. This work introduces a new theory of immersion freezing based on two premises. First, immersion ice nucleation is mediated by the modification of the properties of water near the particle-liquid interface, rather than by the geometry of the ice germ. Second, the same mechanism that leads to the decrease in the work of germ formation also decreases the mobility of water molecules near the immersed particle. These two premises allow establishing general thermodynamic constraints to the ice nucleation rate. Analysis of the new theory shows that active sites likely trigger ice nucleation, but they do not control the overall nucleation rate nor the probability of freezing. It also suggests that materials with different ice nucleation efficiency may exhibit similar freezing temperatures under similar conditions but differ in their sensitivity to particle surface area and cooling rate. Predicted nucleation rates show good agreement with observations for a diverse set of materials including dust, black carbon and bacterial ice nucleating particles. The application of the new theory within the NASA Global Earth System Model (GEOS-5) is also discussed.

  11. Liquid-Feed Methanol Fuel Cell With Membrane Electrolyte (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao; Narayanan, S. R.; Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Vamos, Eugene


    Fuel cell generates electricity from direct liquid feed stream of methanol/water solution circulated in contact with anode, plus direct gaseous feed stream of air or oxygen in contact with cathode. Advantages include relative simplicity and elimination of corrosive electrolytic solutions. Offers potential for reductions in size, weight, and complexity, and for increases in safety of fuel-cell systems.

  12. Parametric Design Studies on a Direct Liquid Feed Fuel Cell (United States)

    Frank, H. A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Nakamura, B.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.


    Parametric design studies were carried out on a direct methanol liquid feed fuel cell employing 1 M MeOH fuel, air and oxygen as oxidant in a 2 inch x 2 inch cell employing polymeric electrolyte membranes. Measurements include voltage-current output parameters, methanol crossover rate, and impedance as a function of several design and operational variables. Design variables are described.

  13. Modeling water transport in liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells (United States)

    Liu, Wenpeng; Wang, Chao-Yang

    Proper water management in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is very critical and complicated because of many interacting physicochemical phenomena. Among these, the liquid saturation in the cathode side is believed to have a very strong effect on water crossover through the membrane, a key parameter to determine water balance between the anode and cathode. In this paper, based on an interfacial liquid coverage model implemented in a three-dimensional (3D) two-phase DMFC model, the liquid saturation variations in the cathode are examined in detail and their effects on the net water transport coefficient through the membrane discussed.

  14. Biophysical characteristics of cells cultured on cholesteryl ester liquid crystals. (United States)

    Soon, Chin Fhong; Omar, Wan Ibtisam Wan; Berends, Rebecca F; Nayan, Nafarizal; Basri, Hatijah; Tee, Kian Sek; Youseffi, Mansour; Blagden, Nick; Denyer, Morgan Clive Thomas


    This study aimed at examining the biophysical characteristics of human derived keratinocytes (HaCaT) cultured on cholesteryl ester liquid crystals (CELC). CELC was previously shown to improve sensitivity in sensing cell contractions. Characteristics of the cell integrin expressions and presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on the liquid crystals were interrogated using various immunocytochemical techniques. The investigation was followed by characterization of the chemical properties of the liquid crystals (LC) after immersion in cell culture media using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface morphology of cells adhered to the LC was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Consistent with the expressions of the integrins α2, α3 and β1, extracellular matrix proteins (laminin, collagen type IV and fibronectin) were found secreted by the HaCaT onto CELC and these proteins were also secreted by cells cultured on the glass substrates. FTIR analysis of the LC revealed the existence of spectrum assigned to cholesterol and ester moieties that are essential compounds for the metabolizing activities of keratinocytes. The immunostainings indicated that cell adhesion on the LC is mediated by self-secreted ECM proteins. As revealed by the AFM imaging, the constraint in cell membrane spread on the LC leads to the increase in cell surface roughness and thickness of cell membrane. The biophysical expressions of cells on biocompatible CELC suggested that CELC could be a new class of biological relevant material. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A patient with squamous cell carcinoma developing as a secondary cancer after radiation therapy and carbon dioxide snow-freezing therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Miki, Hirotoshi; Yokoyama, Toshiya; Katori, Nobutada


    We report on a 59-year-old male who developed skin cancer many years after receiving radiation therapy and carbon dioxide snow-freezing therapy. About 50 years ago, the patient underwent radiation therapy and carbon dioxide snow-freezing therapy for nevus of the Ota of the left buccal region, the orbital region, and the forehead (fractional dose and total dose unknown). About 6 months prior to evaluation at this hospital, the patient noted tumor growth on the skin in the areas previously treated, and protruding lesions were observed on the left buccal region, the orbital region, and the forehead. Histopathological examination showed squamous cell carcinoma. At surgery, protruding lesions and scar tissue were completely excised, and split-thickness skin graft was used in the areas of skin loss. After 2 years of follow-up, no local recurrence or metastasis has been observed. (author)

  16. Scanning x-ray microscopy of living and freeze-dried blood cells in two vanadium-rich ascidian species, Phallusia mammillata and Ascidia sydneiensis samea. (United States)

    Ueki, Tatsuya; Takemoto, Kuniko; Fayard, Barbara; Salomé, Murielle; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Kihara, Hiroshi; Susini, Jean; Scippa, Silvia; Uyama, Taro; Michibata, Hitoshi


    Some ascidians (sea squirts) accumulate the transitional metal vanadium in their blood cells at concentrations of up to 350 mM, about 10(7) times its concentration found in seawater. There are approximately 10 different types of blood cell in ascidians. The identity of the true vanadium-containing blood cell (vanadocyte) is controversial and little is known about the subcellular distribution of vanadium. A scanning x-ray microscope installed at the ID21 beamline of the European Synchroton Radiation Facility to visualize vanadium in ascidian blood cells. Without fixation, freezing or staining realized the visualization of vanadium localized in living signet ring cells and vacuolated amoebocytes of two vanadium-rich ascidian species, Phallusia mammillata and Ascidia sydneiensis samea. A combination of transmission and fluorescence images of signet ring cells suggested that in both species the vacuoles contain vanadium.

  17. A cryopreservative procedure for storing cultivated and uncultivated amniotic fluid cells in liquid nitrogen.


    Pentz, S; Hörler, H


    The cryopreservation of cultured and uncultured amniotic fluid cells is of special importance in prenatal diagnosis. The freezing procedure presented gave a cell recovery of about 95% for cultivated human amniotic fluid cells combined with a rapid appearance of mitosis after inoculation.

  18. Study of freezing-point depression of selected food extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Fumihiko [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Agricultural Systems Engineering; Murata, Satoshi; Habara, Kazuhiro; Amaratunga, K.S.P. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering


    The phenomenon of freezing-point depression that accompanies the solute concentration of selected food extracts was investigated to reveal the characteristics of solid-liquid phase equilibrium. The freezing curves of various food extracts did not exhibit ideal solution behavior in the higher concentration range. The experimental data were fitted to new freezing-point depression equations by the method of nonlinear least squares, and the results clearly indicated that the calculated freezing points at various concentrations were in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, by using the determined parameters, the freezing ratio and the activation coefficient were derived.

  19. Applicable technical method for lower temperature freeze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryo-fixation and freeze substitution followed by microscopy are commonly used sample preparation methods for visualizing the morphology of intracellular organelles. Freeze substitution is an especially important preparative step because it enables the preservation of intracellular structures in cryo-fixed cells close to the ...

  20. A comparison study on the behavior of human endometrial stem cell-derived osteoblast cells on PLGA/HA nanocomposite scaffolds fabricated by electrospinning and freeze-drying methods. (United States)

    Namini, Mojdeh Salehi; Bayat, Neda; Tajerian, Roxana; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Azami, Mahmoud; Irani, Shiva; Jangjoo, Saranaz; Shirian, Sadegh; Ai, Jafar


    An engineered tissue structure is an artificial scaffold combined with cells and signaling factors. Among various polymers, the polylactide-co-glycolide/hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HA) has attracted much attention due to their optimal properties. The aim of this study was to study the behavior of human endometrial stem cell (hEnSC)-derived osteoblast cells cultured on PLGA/HA nanocomposite scaffolds. hEnSCs were isolated and exposed to osteogenic media for 21 days. Differentiated cells were cultured on PLGA/HA synthetic scaffolds. The PLGA/HA-based nanocomposite scaffolds were fabricated using either electrospinning or freeze-drying methods. Behavior of the cells was evaluated a week after seeding hEnSC-derived osteoblast-like cells on these scaffolds. Osteogenesis was investigated in terms of alkaline phosphatase activity, gene expression, immunocytochemistry (ICC), proliferation, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, scaffold properties, such as pore size and morphology of the cells, onto the scaffolds were evaluated using SEM. Furthermore, biocompatibility of these scaffolds was confirmed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazoyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The matrix mineralization was proved by alizarin red staining, and the osteogenic media-treated cultures positively expressed osteocalcin and osteopontin markers. Moreover, qRT-PCR results confirmed the positive gene expression of osteopontin and osteonectin in the differentiated osteoblast-like cells. The results of behavior assessment of the cultured cells on electrospinning and freeze-dried scaffolds showed that the behavior of the cultured cells on the freeze-dried PLGA/HA scaffolds was significantly better than the electrospinning PLGA/HA scaffolds. It has been shown that the freeze-dried PLGA/HA nanocomposite scaffolds can appropriately support the attachment and proliferation of the differentiated osteoblast cells and are a suitable candidate for bone tissue engineering.

  1. Physiological alterations in UV-irradiated cells: liquid holding recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao, B.R.


    The biochemical and physiological alterations that occur in ultraviolet irradiated cells, during liquid holding have been studied. Incubation in buffer acts not to interfer directly with the mechanic repairs but by promoting metabolic alterations that would block some irreversible and lethal physiological responses. (L.M.J.) [pt

  2. A review of liquid metal anode solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This review discusses recent advances in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC variant that uses liquid metal electrodes (anodes with the advantage of greater fuel tolerance and the ability to operate on solid fuel. Key features of the approach are discussed along with the technological and research challenges that need to be overcome for scale-up and commercialisation.

  3. Smectic liquid crystal cell with heat pulse and laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mash, D.H.


    A method of operating a homeotropically aligned smectic liquid crystal cell in which the cell is turned from a clear to a scattering state by illumination with an intense flash of light after which a focused laser beam is scanned across the layer to leave clear tracks where homeotropic alignment has been restored thereby producing a display providing, in projection, bright lines on a dark background

  4. Anti-cancer efficacy of nonthermal plasma dissolved in a liquid, liquid plasma in heterogeneous cancer cells (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Hoan; Park, Hyung Jun; Yang, Sang Sik; Choi, Kyeong Sook; Lee, Jong-Soo


    The therapeutic potential of nonthermal plasma for cancer treatment has been reported recently. The heterogeneity of cancer cells need to be addressed to design effective anticancer treatments. Here, we show that treatment with nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma dissolved in a liquid (liquid plasma) induces oxidative stress in heterogeneous populations of cancer cells and ultimately kills these cells via apoptosis, regardless of genetic status, e.g., mutations in p53 and other DNA-damage-response genes. We found that liquid plasma markedly increased the concentration of intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), reflecting an influx from the extracellular milieu. Liquid plasma contributed to mitochondrial accumulation of ROS and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential with consequent cell death. Healthy normal cells, however, were hardly affected by the liquid-plasma treatment. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine blocked liquid-plasma-induced cell death. A knockdown of CuZn-superoxide dismutase or Mn-SOD enhanced the plasma-induced cell death, whereas expression of exogenous CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD, or catalase blocked the cell death. These results suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by ROS production is a key contributor to liquid-plasma-induced apoptotic cell death, regardless of genetic variation. Thus, liquid plasma may have clinical applications, e.g., the development of therapeutic strategies and prevention of disease progression despite tumor heterogeneity.

  5. Liquid Biopsy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. (United States)

    Molina-Vila, Miguel A; Mayo-de-Las-Casas, Clara; Giménez-Capitán, Ana; Jordana-Ariza, Núria; Garzón, Mónica; Balada, Ariadna; Villatoro, Sergi; Teixidó, Cristina; García-Peláez, Beatriz; Aguado, Cristina; Catalán, María José; Campos, Raquel; Pérez-Rosado, Ana; Bertran-Alamillo, Jordi; Martínez-Bueno, Alejandro; Gil, María-de-Los-Llanos; González-Cao, María; González, Xavier; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Viteri, Santiago; Karachaliou, Niki; Rosell, Rafael


    Liquid biopsy analyses are already incorporated in the routine clinical practice in many hospitals and oncology departments worldwide, improving the selection of treatments and monitoring of lung cancer patients. Although they have not yet reached its full potential, liquid biopsy-based tests will soon be as widespread as "standard" biopsies and imaging techniques, offering invaluable diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive information. This review summarizes the techniques available for the isolation and analysis of circulating free DNA and RNA, exosomes, tumor-educated platelets, and circulating tumor cells from the blood of cancer patients, presents the methodological challenges associated with each of these materials, and discusses the clinical applications of liquid biopsy testing in lung cancer.

  6. Influence of dough freezing on Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.


    Full Text Available The need to freeze dough is increasing in bakery production. Frozen dough can be stored for a long time without quality change. The capacity of bakery production can be increased in this way, and in the same time, the night shifts can be decreased. Yeast cells can be damaged by freezing process resulting in poor technological quality of dough after defrostation (longer fermentation of dough. The influence of frozen storage time of dough on survival percentage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Dough samples were taken after 1, 7, 14 and 28 days of frozen storage at -20°C. After defrosting, at room temperature, samples were taken from the surface and the middle part of dough (under aseptic conditions, and the percentage of living S. cerevisiae cells was determined. During frozen storage of dough, the number of living S. cerevisiae decreased. After 28 days of frozen storage, the percentage of live cells on the surface and inside the dough was 53,1% and 54,95%, respectively. The addition of k-carragenan to dough increased the percentage of living cells in the middle part of dough up to 64,63%. Pure cultures, isolated from survived S. cerevisia cells in frozen dough by agar plates method (Koch's method, were multiplied in optimal liquid medium for yeasts. The content of cytochromes in S. cerevisiae cells was determined by spectrophotometric method. The obtained results showed that the content of cytochromes in survived S. cerevisiae cells was not affected by dough freezing process. Growth rate and fermentative activity (Einchor's method were determined in multiplied cells.

  7. Effects of freezing on soil temperature, freezing front propagation and moisture redistribution in peat: laboratory investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Nagare


    Full Text Available There are not many studies that report water movement in freezing peat. Soil column studies under controlled laboratory settings can help isolate and understand the effects of different factors controlling freezing of the active layer in organic covered permafrost terrain. In this study, four peat Mesocosms were subjected to temperature gradients by bringing the Mesocosm tops in contact with sub-zero air temperature while maintaining a continuously frozen layer at the bottom (proxy permafrost. Soil water movement towards the freezing front (from warmer to colder regions was inferred from soil freezing curves, liquid water content time series and from the total water content of frozen core samples collected at the end of freezing cycle. A substantial amount of water, enough to raise the upper surface of frozen saturated soil within 15 cm of the soil surface at the end of freezing period appeared to have moved upwards during freezing. Diffusion under moisture gradients and effects of temperature on soil matric potential, at least in the initial period, appear to drive such movement as seen from analysis of freezing curves. Freezing front (separation front between soil zones containing and free of ice propagation is controlled by latent heat for a long time during freezing. A simple conceptual model describing freezing of an organic active layer initially resembling a variable moisture landscape is proposed based upon the results of this study. The results of this study will help in understanding, and ultimately forecasting, the hydrologic response of wetland-dominated terrain underlain by discontinuous permafrost.

  8. A tissue snap-freezing apparatus without sacrificial cryogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; Jagga, Sahil; Holland, Harry; ter Brake, H.J.M.


    Molecular technologies in cancer diagnosis require a fresh and frozen tissue, which is obtained by means of snap-freezing. Currently, coolants such as solid carbon dioxide and liquid nitrogen are used to preserve good morphology of the tissue. Using these coolants, snap freezing of tissues for

  9. Novel materials for fuel cells operating on liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. C. Sequeira


    Full Text Available Towards commercialization of fuel cell products in the coming years, the fuel cell systems are being redefined by means of lowering costs of basic elements, such as electrolytes and membranes, electrode and catalyst materials, as well as of increasing power density and long-term stability. Among different kinds of fuel cells, low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are of major importance, but their problems related to hydrogen storage and distribution are forcing the development of liquid fuels such as methanol, ethanol, sodium borohydride and ammonia. In respect to hydrogen, methanol is cheaper, easier to handle, transport and store, and has a high theoretical energy density. The second most studied liquid fuel is ethanol, but it is necessary to note that the highest theoretically energy conversion efficiency should be reached in a cell operating on sodium borohydride alkaline solution. It is clear that proper solutions need to be developed, by using novel catalysts, namely nanostructured single phase and composite materials, oxidant enrichment technologies and catalytic activity increasing. In this paper these main directions will be considered.

  10. Freezing for Love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Katherine; Kroløkke, Charlotte


    their eggs. Our analysis draws on semi-structured interviews with 16 women from the Midwest and East Coast regions of the USA who froze their eggs. Rather than freezing to balance career choices and ‘have it all’, the women in this cohort were largely ‘freezing for love’ and in the hope of having their ‘own...

  11. Direct liquid methanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (United States)

    Liu, Mingfei; Peng, Ranran; Dong, Dehua; Gao, Jianfeng; Liu, Xingqin; Meng, Guangyao

    Anode coking problem of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) when using hydrocarbon fuels has been the major barrier for the practice and commercialization of well-developed high performance SOFC. In this work, based on fuels consideration, we chose liquid methanol as the candidate fuel for SOFC with the configuration of NiO/SDC-SDC-SSC/SDC. For comparison, traditional fuels, hydrogen and ammonia, were tested. With methanol as fuel, the maximum power densities were 698, 430 and 223 mW cm -2 at 650, 600 and 550 °C, respectively, which were higher than that with ammonia and lower than that of hydrogen. The electrochemical properties of the cells with the three fuels were investigated by AC impedance spectroscopy. The long-term stability of the cell with methanol, methane and ethanol were also studied at a constant output voltage of 0.5 V.

  12. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell (United States)

    Masel, Richard I [Champaign, IL; Zhu, Yimin [Urbana, IL; Kahn, Zakia [Palatine, IL; Man, Malcolm [Vancouver, CA


    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  13. Freeze drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.


    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser

  14. Computational investigation of surface freezing in a molecular model of water. (United States)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G


    Water freezes in a wide variety of low-temperature environments, from meteors and atmospheric clouds to soil and biological cells. In nature, ice usually nucleates at or near interfaces, because homogenous nucleation in the bulk can only be observed at deep supercoolings. Although the effect of proximal surfaces on freezing has been extensively studied, major gaps in understanding remain regarding freezing near vapor-liquid interfaces, with earlier experimental studies being mostly inconclusive. The question of how a vapor-liquid interface affects freezing in its vicinity is therefore still a major open question in ice physics. Here, we address this question computationally by using the forward-flux sampling algorithm to compute the nucleation rate in a freestanding nanofilm of supercooled water. We use the TIP4P/ice force field, one of the best existing molecular models of water, and observe that the nucleation rate in the film increases by seven orders of magnitude with respect to bulk at the same temperature. By analyzing the nucleation pathway, we conclude that freezing in the film initiates not at the surface, but within an interior region where the formation of double-diamond cages (DDCs) is favored in comparison with the bulk. This, in turn, facilitates freezing by favoring the formation of nuclei rich in cubic ice, which, as demonstrated by us earlier, are more likely to grow and overcome the nucleation barrier. The films considered here are ultrathin because their interior regions are not truly bulk-like, due to their subtle structural differences with the bulk.

  15. Sintering of a freeze-dried 10 mol% Y2O3-stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotoson, A.; Paulus, M.


    After presenting the results of freeze drying a sulfate solution, the authors describe a preparation process in which the freeze-drying technique by addition of a suspension of stabilized zirconia in the liquid solution before freeze-drying. This process breaks the polymeric chains, increases the green density of the compact, and decreases the sintering temperature. The mechanisms involved are discussed

  16. Distributed hydrophone array based on liquid crystal cell (United States)

    Brodzeli, Zourab; Ladouceur, Francois; Silvestri, Leonardo; Michie, Andrew; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Guo, Grace Qi; Pozhidaev, Eugene P.; Kiselev, Alexei D.


    We describe a fibre optic hydrophone array system that could be used for underwater acoustic surveillance applications e.g. military, counter terrorist and customs authorities in protecting ports and harbors, offshore production facilities or coastal approaches as well as various marine applications. In this paper we propose a new approach to underwater sonar systems using voltage-controlled Liquid Crystals (LC) and simple multiplexing method. The proposed method permits measurements of sound under water at multiple points along an optical fibre using low cost components (LC cells), standard single mode fibre, without complex interferometric measurement techniques, electronics or demodulation software.

  17. Using Peltier cells to study solid-liquid-vapour transitions and supercooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torzo, Giacomo; Soletta, Isabella; Branca, Mario


    We propose an apparatus for teaching experimental thermodynamics in undergraduate introductory courses, using thermoelectric modules and a real-time data acquisition system. The device may be made at low cost, still providing an easy approach to the investigation of liquid-solid and liquid-vapour phase transitions and of metastable states (supercooling). The thermoelectric module (a technological evolution of the thermocouple) is by itself an interesting subject that offers a clear example of both thermo-electric (Seebeck effect) and electro-thermal (Peltier effect) energy transformation. We report here some cooling/heating measurements for several liquids and mixtures, including water, salt/water, ethanol/water and sodium acetate, showing how to evaluate the phenomena of freezing point depression and elevation, and how to evaluate the water latent heat

  18. Normal freezing of ideal ternary systems of the pseudobinary type (United States)

    Li, C. H.


    Perfect liquid mixing but no solid diffusion is assumed in normal freezing. In addition, the molar compositions of the freezing solid and remaining liquid, respectively, follow the solidus and liquidus curves of the constitutional diagram. For the linear case, in which both the liquidus and solidus are perfectly straight lines, the normal freezing equation giving the fraction solidified at each melt temperature and the solute concentration profile in the frozen solid was determined as early as 1902, and has since been repeatedly published. Corresponding equations for quadratic, cubic or higher-degree liquidus and solidus lines have also been obtained. The equation of normal freezing for ideal ternary liquid solutions solidified into ideal solid solutions of the pseudobinary type is given. Sample computations with the use of this new equation were made and are given for the Ga-Al-As system.

  19. Tris-egg yolk-glycerol (TEY) extender developed for freezing dog semen is a good option to cryopreserve bovine epididymal sperm cells. (United States)

    Lopes, G; Soares, L; Ferreira, P; Rocha, A


    Cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa is often performed after shipping the excised testis-epididymis complexes, under refrigeration, to a specialized laboratory. However, epididymal spermatozoa can be collected immediately after excision of the epididymis and sent extended and refrigerated to a laboratory for cryopreservation. In this experiment, we evaluated the effect of both methods of cold storage bovine epididymal spermatozoa as well as of two different extenders on spermatozoa characteristics after freeze-thawing. For that, spermatozoa collected from the caudae epididymis of 19 bulls were extended and cryopreserved in either AndroMed(®) or a Tris-egg yolk (TEY)-based extender. Cryopreservation of sperm cells was performed immediately after castration (Group A, n = 9) or after cold storage for 24 h diluted in the two extenders and (Group B, n = 9) and also after cold storage for 24 h within the whole epididymis (Group C, n = 10). Sperm subjective progressive motility (light microscopy), plasma membrane integrity (hypoosmotic swelling test) and sperm viability (eosin-nigrosin) were evaluated. In vitro fertilization and culture (IVF) was performed to assess the blastocyst rate. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed on post-thaw sperm parameters between samples from Group A, B and C. TEY extended samples presented a higher (p sperm, than those extended in AndroMed(®) . Blastocyst rate after IVF differed only (p epididymal sperm can be shipped chilled overnight either within the epididymal tail or after dilution without deleterious effect on post-thaw sperm quality. TEY extender was more suitable for cold storage and freezing bovine epididymal sperm, than the commercial extender AndroMed®. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Liquid-Cell Electron Microscopy of Adsorbed Polymers. (United States)

    Nagamanasa, Kandula Hima; Wang, Huan; Granick, Steve


    Individual macromolecules of polystyrene sulfonate and poly(ethylene oxide) are visualized with nanometer resolution using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of aqueous solutions with and without added salt, trapped in liquid pockets between creased graphene sheets. Successful imaging with 0.3 s per frame is enabled by the sluggish mobility of the adsorbed molecules. This study finds, validating others, that an advantage of this graphene liquid-cell approach is apparently to retard sample degradation from incident electrons, in addition to minimizing background scattering because graphene windows are atomically thin. Its new application here to polymers devoid of metal-ion labeling allows the projected sizes and conformational fluctuations of adsorbed molecules and adsorption-desorption events to be analyzed. Confirming the identification of the observed objects, this study reports statistical analysis of datasets of hundreds of images for times up to 100 s, with variation of the chemical makeup of the polymer, the molecular weight of the polymer, and the salt concentration. This observation of discrete polymer molecules in solution environment may be useful generally, as the findings are obtained using an ordinary TEM microscope, whose kind is available to many researchers routinely. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Control of crystal growth in water purification by directional freeze crystallization (United States)

    Conlon, William M. (Inventor)


    A Directional Freeze Crystallization system employs an indirect contact heat exchanger to freeze a fraction of liquid to be purified. The unfrozen fraction is drained away and the purified frozen fraction is melted. The heat exchanger must be designed in accordance with a Growth Habit Index to achieve efficient separation of contaminants. If gases are dissolved in the liquid, the system must be pressurized.

  2. No Correlates for Somatic Motility in Freeze-Fractured Hair-Cell Membranes of Lizards and Birds (United States)

    Köppl, C.; Forge, A.; Manley, G. A.


    It is not known whether active processes in mammals and non-mammals are due to the same underlying mechanism. To address this, we studied the size and density of particles in hair-cell membranes in mammals, in a lizard, the Tokay gecko, and in a bird, the barn owl. We surmised that if the prominent particles described in mammalian outer-hair-cell membranes are responsible for cochlear motility, a similar occurrence in non-mammalian hair cells would argue for similar mechanisms. Particle densities differed, however, substantially from those of mammals, suggesting that non-mammals have no membrane-based motility.

  3. Freeze-fracture of infected plant leaves in ethanol for scanning electron microscopic study of fungal pathogens. (United States)

    Moore, Jayma A; Payne, Scott A


    Fungi often are found within plant tissues where they cannot be visualized with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). We present a simple way to reveal cell interiors while avoiding many common causes of artifact. Freeze-fracture of leaf tissue using liquid nitrogen during the 100% ethanol step of the dehydration process just before critical point drying is useful in exposing intracellular fungi to the SEM.

  4. Diffusivity measurements in some organic solvents by a gas-liquid diaphragm cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, R.J.; Littel, R.J.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria


    A diaphragm cell has been developed for the measurement of diffusion coefficients of gases In liquids. The diaphragm cell is operated batchwise with respect to both gas and liquid phases, and the diffusion process Is followed by means of the gas pressure decrease which is recorded by means of a

  5. Diffusivity Measurements in Some Organic Solvents by a Gas-Liquid Diaphragm Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, Rob J.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van


    A diaphragm cell has been developed for the measurement of diffusion coefficients of gases in liquids. The diaphragm cell is operated batchwise with respect to both gas and liquid phases, and the diffusion process is followed by means of the gas pressure decrease which is recorded by means of a

  6. Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive (United States)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek


    An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

  7. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Colloidal Nanocrystal Growth Mechanisms using Graphene Liquid Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuk, Jong Min; Park, Jungwon; Ercius, Peter; Kim, Kwanpyo; Hellebusch, Danny J.; Crommie, Michael F.; Lee, Jeong Yong; Zettl, A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    We introduce a new type of liquid cell for in-situ electron microscopy based upon entrapment of a liquid film between layers of graphene. We employ this cell to achieve high-resolution imaging of colloidal platinum nanocrystal growth. The ability to directly image and resolve critical steps at atomic resolution provides new insights into nanocrystal coalescence and reshaping during growth.

  8. Numerical Prediction of the Intracellular ICE Formation Zone during Cryosurgery on a Nodular Basal Cell Carcinoma Using Liquid Nitrogen Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sun


    Full Text Available Cryosurgery is a surgical technique that employs freezing to destroy target tumor tissue. While the main objective during a cryosurgical procedure is to ensure tissue destruction within the cryolesion, the greatest challenge is how to spare the surrounding healthy tissues from cryoablation. In this work, a historical review of the field of cryosurgery is presented followed by a theoretical study where a mathematical model is developed for cryosurgery on a basal cell carcinoma (BCC using liquid nitrogen (LN2 spray. The model takes into consideration the anatomic structure of skin tissue and the irregular geometry of BCC. In particular, a methodology for quantitatively determining the extent of the intracellular ice formation (IIF zone based on the tissue temperature and cooling rate (CR is proposed, which can directly relate to the necrosis of the cancer cells after cryosurgery. The model is then used to analyze formation of the IIF zone during cryosurgery on a BCC and quantification is provided for the volume of the final IIF zone. A parametric study is also carried out to investigate the effect of various protocol parameters on the final IIF zone. The results should be useful for dermatologists for pre-treatment surgery planning.

  9. Biological activity and mechanical stability of sol-gel-based biofilters using the freeze-gelation technique for immobilization of Rhodococcus ruber. (United States)

    Pannier, Angela; Mkandawire, Martin; Soltmann, Ulrich; Pompe, Wolfgang; Böttcher, Horst


    Biofilters with long lifetime and high storage stability are very important for bioremediation processes to ensure the readiness at the occurrence of sudden contaminations. By using the freeze-gelation technique, living cells can be immobilized within a mechanically and chemically stable ceramic-like matrix. Due to a freeze-drying step, the embedded microorganisms are converted into a preserved form. In that way, they can be stored under dry conditions, which comply better with storage, transport, and handling requirements. Thus, in contrast to other immobilization techniques, there is no need for storage in liquid or under humid atmosphere. The biological activity, mechanical strength, and the structure of the biologically active ceramic-like composites (biocers) produced by freeze gelation have been investigated by using the phenol-degrading bacteria Rhodococcus ruber as model organism. Samples of freeze-gelation biocers have been investigated after defined storage periods, demonstrating nearly unchanged mechanical strength of the immobilization matrix as well as good storage stability of the activity of the immobilized cells over several months of storage at 4 °C. Repeated-batch tests demonstrated further that the freeze-gelation biocers can be repeatedly used over a period of more than 12 months without losing its bioactivity. Thus, these results show that freeze-gelation biocers have high potential of being scaled up from laboratory test systems to applications in real environment because of their long bioactivity as well as mechanical stability.

  10. Polymerization with freezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L


    Irreversible aggregation processes involving reactive and frozen clusters are investigated using the rate equation approach. In aggregation events, two clusters join irreversibly to form a larger cluster; additionally, reactive clusters may spontaneously freeze. Frozen clusters do not participate in merger events. Generally, freezing controls the nature of the aggregation process, as demonstrated by the final distribution of frozen clusters. The cluster mass distribution has a power-law tail, F k ∼k -γ , when the freezing process is sufficiently slow. Different exponents, γ = 1 and 3, are found for the constant and the product aggregation rates, respectively. For the latter case, the standard polymerization model, either no gels, or a single gel, or even multiple gels, may be produced

  11. [Social freezing - the male perspective]. (United States)

    Gromoll, J; Tüttelmann, F; Kliesch, S


    In Germany there is an emerging trend for postponing parenthood due to non-medical, sociocultural reasons. This clearly impacts on the reproductive success due to an age-dependent decrease in fertility. Thus, strategies and techniques are currently discussed which could preserve the female fertility status, among which social freezing (cryopreservation of oocytes) for later fertilization is the most realistic one; however, while there is an intensive discussion on the procedure and timing of oocyte cryopreservation, virtually no attention has been paid to the male side and the aging effects on the male germ cells. To evaluate the risk paternal age poses for the integrity of germ cells. For this review a literature search using PubMed, data from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany, the German in vitro fertilization (IVF) register as well as own data were used. Sperm cell integrity is clearly affected by age both at the genetic as well as at the epigenetic levels. The estimated mutation rate for spermatozoa doubles every 16.5 years. Monogenic and multifactorial diseases are strongly associated with paternal age. Men aged >40 years have an increased risk of passing age-related mutations to their children. Cryopreservation of spermatozoa is an option for men who postpone planning a family. Genetic counseling is recommended for couples undertaking social freezing and a male age of >40 years.

  12. A new portable device for automatic controlled-gradient cryopreservation of blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Albeck, G; Hansen, B


    , which has proved suitable for field conditions. We report here the development and testing of a similar micro-controller regulated device, allowing unattended and automatic controlled-gradient cell freezing. The equipment exploits the temperature gradient present between the liquid N2 surface......Protection of the functional integrity of mononuclear cells stored in liquid N2 requires careful control of the freezing procedure. Consequently, optimal quality of cryopreserved cells is usually assured by freezing according to a specified time-temperature gradient generated by computer-controlled...... freezing devices. While such equipment offers large capacity and secures maximum survival and functional integrity of the lymphocytes upon thawing, it is quite costly and strictly stationary. We have previously developed and tested an alternative, manual device for controlled-gradient lymphocyte freezing...

  13. Design of a blood-freezing system for leukemia research (United States)

    Williams, T. E.; Cygnarowicz, T. A.


    Leukemia research involves the use of cryogenic freezing and storage equipment. In a program being carried out at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), bone marrow (white blood cells) was frozen using a standard cryogenic biological freezer. With this system, it is difficult to maintain the desired rate of freezing and repeatability from sample to sample. A freezing system was developed that satisfies the requirements for a repeatable, constant freezing rate. The system was delivered to NIC and is now operational. This report describes the design of the major subsystems, the analyses, the operating procedure, and final system test results.

  14. A comparative study of mouse embryo freeze-preservation including the examination of a thermoelectric freezing device. (United States)

    Schiewe, M C; Schmidt, P M; Wildt, D E


    In Study 1 over 2000 4- to 8-cell mouse embryos were randomly pooled and assigned to 1 of 12 treatment groups. A 2 X 2 X 3 factorial design was used to analyze two types of cryoprotectant/post-thaw (PT) dilutions (dimethyl sulfoxide [Me2SO]/stepwise dilution versus glycerol/sucrose dilution), two storage containers (glass ampoules versus plastic straws), and three cooling treatments. Two commercial, controlled-rate freezing machines were examined, employing either nitrogen gas (Planer) or thermoelectric (Glacier) cooling. Embryos were cooled slowly (0.5 degrees C/min) to -35 or -80 degrees C and then cooled rapidly by transfer into liquid nitrogen (LN2). Thawed embryos were cultured for 24 hr after which developmental stage, post-thaw survival (PTS), embryo degeneration rate (EDR), quality grade (QG), and fluorescein diacetate viability grade (VG) were assessed. Overall, PTS and EDR were similar (P greater than 0.05) among the three freezing unit/plunge temperature treatments. Cumulative results of container and cryoprotectant/PT dilution treatments consistently demonstrated greater PTS, QG, and VG ratings and lower EDR values when embryos were frozen in ampoules using glycerol/sucrose dilution. Embryos treated with Me2SO/stepwise dilution were particularly sensitive to freezing damage when stored in plastic straws and plunged into LN2 at -35 degrees C. Study 2 was directed at determining whether Study 1 methods for diluting Me2SO-protected embryos markedly affected PTS rates. Post-thaw culture percentages were no different (P greater than 0.05) for four- to eight-cell Me2SO-treated embryos frozen in ampoules (using the forced-LN2 device), thawed, and diluted either conventionally in reduced concentrations of Me2SO or in the sucrose treatment normally accorded glycerolated embryos.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Accelerated storage testing of freeze-dried Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    storage and it would be useful to increase culture viability during storage. The viability of freeze-dried. P. fluorescens ... assessment of viable cells, while the residual water content is omitted (Hernandez et al., 2009). The ..... Effects of micronization on viability andthermotolerance of probiotic freeze-dried cultures. Int. Dairy J.

  16. Freezing and Food Safety (United States)

    ... Page ] Enzymes Enzyme activity can lead to the deterioration of food quality. Enzymes present in animals, vegetables, and fruit ... slows the enzyme activity that takes place in foods. It does not halt ... deterioration. This is called "blanching." For successful freezing, blanch ...

  17. Administrative Freezing of Capital Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropacheva A. V.


    Full Text Available The author estimates administrative freezing of capital construction as a type of punishment for violating laws in this sphere. The article provides the mechanism of freezing of capital construction as a serious alternative for fine sanctions

  18. Dye-sensitized solar cells using ionic liquids as redox mediator (United States)

    Denizalti, Serpil; Ali, Abdulrahman Khalaf; Ela, Çağatay; Ekmekci, Mesut; Erten-Ela, Sule


    In this research, the influence of ionic liquid on the conversion efficiency, incident photons to converted electrons (IPCE) and performance of fabricated solar cell was investigated using various ionic liquids. Ionic liquids with different substituents and ions were prepared and used as redox mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Ionic liquids were characterized 1H and 13C NMR spectra. We practically investigated the performance of ionic liquid salts were used as the mobile ions and found that the efficiencies of DSSCs were increased up to 40% comparing commercial electrolyte system. The ionic liquid compounds were incorporated in DSSCs to obtain an efficient charge transfer, solving the corrosion problem of platinum layer in counter electrode compared to commercial electrolyte.

  19. Freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria. (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernanda; Cenard, Stéphanie; Passot, Stéphanie


    Lactic acid bacteria are of great importance for the food and biotechnology industry. They are widely used as starters for manufacturing food (e.g., yogurt, cheese, fermented meats, and vegetables) and probiotic products, as well as for green chemistry applications. Freeze-drying or lyophilization is a convenient method for preservation of bacteria. By reducing water activity to values below 0.2, it allows long-term storage and low-cost distribution at suprazero temperatures, while minimizing losses in viability and functionality. Stabilization of bacteria via freeze-drying starts with the addition of a protectant solution to the bacterial suspension. Freeze-drying includes three steps, namely, (1) freezing of the concentrated and protected cell suspension, (2) primary drying to remove ice by sublimation, and (3) secondary drying to remove unfrozen water by desorption. In this chapter we describe a method for freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria at a pilot scale, thus allowing control of the process parameters for maximal survival and functionality recovery.

  20. Responses of Lithium-Modified Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/Output Balance and Observation of Freeze-Lining Formation During the Heat Balance Shift (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark


    In the aluminum electrolysis process, new industrial aluminum/electricity power markets demand a new cell technology to extend the cell heat balance and amperage operating window of smelters by shifting the steady states. The current work investigates the responses of lithium-modified bath system when the input/output balance is shifted in a laboratory analogue to the industrial heat balance shift. Li2CO3 is added to the cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 system as a bath modifier. A freeze deposit is formed on a `cold finger' dipped into the bath and investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The macro- and micro-structure of the freeze lining varies with the bath superheat (bath temperature minus bath liquidus temperature) and an open crystalline layer with entrapped liquid dominates the freeze thickness. Compared with the cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 bath system, the lithium-modified bath freeze is more sensitive to the heat balance shift. This freeze investigation provides primary information to understand the variation of the side ledge in an industrial cell when the lithium-modified bath system is used.

  1. Multiple Glass Transitions and Freezing Events of Aqueous Citric Acid (United States)


    Calorimetric and optical cryo-microscope measurements of 10–64 wt % citric acid (CA) solutions subjected to moderate (3 K/min) and slow (0.5 and 0.1 K/min) cooling/warming rates and also to quenching/moderate warming between 320 and 133 K are presented. Depending on solution concentration and cooling rate, the obtained thermograms show one freezing event and from one to three liquid–glass transitions upon cooling and from one to six liquid–glass and reverse glass–liquid transitions, one or two freezing events, and one melting event upon warming of frozen/glassy CA/H2O. The multiple freezing events and glass transitions pertain to the mother CA/H2O solution itself and two freeze-concentrated solution regions, FCS1 and FCS2, of different concentrations. The FCS1 and FCS2 (or FCS22) are formed during the freezing of CA/H2O upon cooling and/or during the freezing upon warming of partly glassy or entirely glassy mother CA/H2O. The formation of two FCS1 and FCS22 regions during the freezing upon warming to our best knowledge has never been reported before. Using an optical cryo-microscope, we are able to observe the formation of a continuous ice framework (IF) and its morphology and reciprocal distribution of IF/(FCS1 + FCS2). Our results provide a new look at the freezing and glass transition behavior of aqueous solutions and can be used for the optimization of lyophilization and freezing of foods and biopharmaceutical formulations, among many other applications where freezing plays a crucial role. PMID:25482069

  2. Radioactive liquid waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Osamu; Kitamura, Masahiro.


    In a radioactive liquid waste processing device comprising a freeze-drying vessel for freezing and then vacuum drying acidic liquid wastes containing radioactive materials and a cold trap condensing steams evaporated in the freeze-drying vessel, a dust collecting electrode of an electric dust collector is disposed in the freeze-drying vessel for capturing fine solid particles and inorganic salts in steams. With such a constitution, upon sublimation of the water content contained in a freezing product of an acidic solution, since fine solid particles and inorganic salts entrained by steams are collected by the dust collecting electrode, radioactive materials entrained by recovered steams are almost eliminated, decontamination efficiency of the liquid waste processing device can be increased. Further, heat for the sublimation can be supplied to the solution-freezing product by a radiation heat caused by electric discharge of the dust collecting electrode, thereby enabling to eliminate the heater which was unnecessary so far. (T.M.)

  3. Freezing-induced deformation of biomaterials in cryomedicine (United States)

    Ozcelikkale, Altug

    Cryomedicine utilizes low temperature treatments of biological proteins, cells and tissues for cryopreservation, materials processing and cryotherapy. Lack of proper understanding of cryodamage that occurs during these applications remains to be the primary bottleneck for development of successful tissue cryopreservation and cryosurgery procedures. An engineering approach based on a view of biological systems as functional biomaterials can help identify, predict and control the primary cryodamage mechanisms by developing an understanding of underlying freezing-induced biophysical processes. In particular, freezing constitutes the main structural/mechanical origin of cryodamage and results in significant deformation of biomaterials at multiple length scales. Understanding of these freezing-induced deformation processes and their effects on post-thaw biomaterial functionality is currently lacking but will be critical to engineer improved cryomedicine procedures. This dissertation addresses this problem by presenting three separate but related studies of freezing-induced deformation at multiple length scales including nanometer-scale protein fibrils, single cells and whole tissues. A combination of rigorous experimentation and computational modeling is used to characterize post-thaw biomaterial structure and properties, predict biomaterial behavior and assess its post-thaw biological functionality. Firstly, freezing-induced damage on hierarchical extracellular matrix structure of collagen is investigated at molecular, fibril and matrix levels. Results indicate to a specific kind of fibril damage due to freezing-induced expansion of intrafibrillar fluid. This is followed by a study of freezing-induced cell and tissue deformation coupled to osmotically driven cellular water transport. Computational and semi empirical modeling of these processes indicate that intracellular deformation of the cell during freezing is heterogeneous and can interfere with cellular water

  4. Cryogenic freezing of fresh date fruits for quality preservation during frozen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alhamdan


    Full Text Available Fresh date fruits, especially Barhi cultivar, are favored and widely consumed at the Khalal maturity stage (first color edible stage. These fruits are seasonal and perishable and there is a need for extending their shelf life. This study evaluates two different freezing methods, namely cryogenic freezing using liquid nitrogen and conventional deep freezing on preserving the quality and stability of date fruits (cv. Barhi at Khalal maturity stage. Fresh date fruits (cv. Barhi at Khalal stage were frozen utilizing the two methods. The produced frozen dates were stored under frozen storage conditions for nine months (at −20 °C and −40 °C for the conventional and cryogenic freezing, respectively. Color values, textural properties (hardness, elasticity, chewiness and resilience, and nutrition attributes (enzymes and sugars for fresh dates before freezing and for the frozen dates were measured every three months during the frozen storage. Color values of the frozen dates were affected by the freezing method and the frozen storage period. There are substantial differences in the quality of the frozen fruits in favor of cryogenic freezing compared to the conventional slow freezing. The results revealed a large disparity between the times of freezing of the two methods. The freezing time accounted to 10 min in the cryogenic freezing method, whereas it was 1800 min for the conventional slow freezing system.

  5. Physical Chemistry of the Freezing Process of Atmospheric Aqueous Drops. (United States)

    Bogdan, Anatoli; Molina, Mario J


    In supercooled aqueous solutions, ice nucleation is the initial stage of the freezing process. In this paper, we present experimental results that indicate that during the freezing of aqueous solutions, freeze-induced phase separation (FIPS) into pure ice and a freeze-concentrated solution (FCS) takes place. Our observations involve the use of an optical cryo-microscope (OC-M) to record images and movies. The results visually indicate for the first time that there are two freezing processes for (NH 4 ) 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 /H 2 O solutions: (i) contact freezing, as is the case for pure water drops, and (ii) the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process, which is the growth of frozen drops (ice) at the expense of liquid ones. We also present OC-M images of frozen micrometer-scaled H 2 SO 4 /H 2 O drops that support our previous finding that freezing of these solutions generates mixed-phase particles, namely an ice core coated with a FCS. These results are relevant for atmospheric as well as for pharmaceutical sciences.

  6. Relating Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Performance to Measurements in a Liquid Half Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christoffer Mølleskov; Tynelius, Oskar; Lund-Olesen, Torsten


    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) could act as a replacement for batteries in low power electronics. For instance, micro—DMFC’s could be used to power hearing instruments[1]. The power output of a DMFC is limited by the sluggish kinetics of both the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) on the anode...... and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode. Thus far, to achieve high power densities with a single cell, the catalyst loadings have been increased much as possible (20 mg/cm2 PtRu/C on anode and 4 mg/cm2 Pt/C on cathode). More active catalysts would yield higher power densities which in turn would...... to extract the catalyst activity from a fuel cell measurement. In this work, we attempt to narrow the gap between fuel cell testing and liquid half-cell measurements. First, by placing a custom reference electrode within the fuel cell, we can determine the potential at the anode and cathode under in...

  7. Tracking Traction Force Changes of Single Cells on the Liquid Crystal Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Fhong Soon


    Full Text Available Cell migration is a key contributor to wound repair. This study presents findings indicating that the liquid crystal based cell traction force transducer (LCTFT system can be used in conjunction with a bespoke cell traction force mapping (CTFM software to monitor cell/surface traction forces from quiescent state in real time. In this study, time-lapse photo microscopy allowed cell induced deformations in liquid crystal coated substrates to be monitored and analyzed. The results indicated that the system could be used to monitor the generation of cell/surface forces in an initially quiescent cell, as it migrated over the culture substrate, via multiple points of contact between the cell and the surface. Future application of this system is the real-time assaying of the pharmacological effects of cytokines on the mechanics of cell migration.

  8. Investigating the use of in situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguy, Amanda [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Engineering nanoparticles with desired shape-dependent properties is the key to many applications in nanotechnology. Although many synthetic procedures exist to produce anisotropic gold nanoparticles, the dynamics of growth are typically unknown or hypothetical. In the case of seed-mediated growth in the presence of DNA into anisotropic nanoparticles, it is not known exactly how DNA directs growth into specific morphologies. A series of preliminary experiments were carried out to contribute to the investigation of the possible mechanism of DNA-mediated growth of gold nanoprisms into gold nanostars using liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Imaging in the liquid phase was achieved through the use of a liquid cell platform and liquid cell holder that allow the sample to be contained within a “chip sandwich” between two electron transparent windows. Ex situ growth experiments were performed using Au-T30 NPrisms (30-base thymine oligonucleotide-coated gold nanoprisms) that are expected to grow into gold nanostars. Growth to form these nanostars were imaged using TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and liquid cell STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy). An attempt to perform in situ growth experiments with the same Au-T30 nanoprisms revealed challenges in obtaining desired morphology results due to the environmental differences within the liquid cell compared to the ex situ environment. Different parameters in the experimental method were explored including fluid line set up, simultaneous and alternating reagent addition, and the effect of different liquid cell volumes to ensure adequate flow of reagents into the liquid cell. Lastly, the binding affinities were compared for T30 and A30 DNA incubated with gold nanoparticles using zeta potential measurements, absorption spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). It was previously reported thymine bases have a lower binding affinity to gold surfaces than adenine

  9. Speckle noise suppression using a helix-free ferroelectric liquid crystal cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, A L; Andreeva, T B; Kompanets, I N [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zalyapin, N V [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' (Russian Federation)


    We have studied the method for suppressing speckle noise in patterns produced by a laser based on a fast-response electro-optical cell with a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) in which helicoid is absent, i.e., compensated for. The character of smectic layer deformation in an electric field is considered along with the mechanism of spatially inhomogeneous phase modulation of a laser beam passing through the cell which is accompanied by the destruction of phase relations in the beam. Advantages of a helix-free FLC cell are pointed out as compared to helical crystal cells studied previously. (liquid crystal devices)

  10. Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles. (United States)

    Cook, G; Reshetnyak, V Yu; Ziolo, R F; Basun, S A; Banerjee, P P; Evans, D R


    The electrical Freedericksz transition characteristics of planar aligned liquid crystal cells doped with harvested single ferroelectric domain 9 nm nanoparticles of BaTiO(3) have been measured. We demonstrate for the first time that the electrical pre-history of the cells imparts significant polarity sensitivity to the Freedericksz characteristics. The presence of harvested single domain ferroelectric nanoparticles enables cells to be programmably semi-permanently polarized. This reduces or increases the Freedericksz transition threshold by 0.8 V, depending on the polarity of the applied voltage, giving a net 1.6 V Freedericksz threshold asymmetry for 8 mum thick cells filled with TL205 liquid crystal.

  11. Adapting and Modifying the Apparatus for Students to Accurately Determine the Freezing Point of a Solvent and Solution (United States)

    Li, Shirong; Guo, Jianzhong; Wang, Kewang; Chen, Lin; Hu, Daodao; Bai, Yunshan


    An improved apparatus for measuring freezing points has been developed. Compared to the traditional Beckmann freezing point instrument, the improved one overcame prior difficulties with solidification of liquid and made the solid-liquid equilibrium reversible with heat compensation from a heating tube. The reliability and accuracy were carefully…

  12. Sandwich-cell-type bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing liquid crystalline phthalocyanine (United States)

    Nakata, Yuya; Usui, Toshiki; Nishikawa, Yuki; Nekelson, Fabien; Shimizu, Yo; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori


    Sandwich-cell-type bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing the liquid crystalline phthalocyanine, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2), have been fabricated and their photovoltaic properties have been studied. The short-circuit current (J SC) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) depended on the blend ratio of donor and acceptor molecules, and the maximum performance, such as J SC of 3.4 mA/cm2 and PCE of 0.67%, was demonstrated, when the blend ratio of the acceptor was 10 mol %. The photovoltaic properties were discussed by taking the relationship between the column axis direction of C6PcH2 and the carrier mobility in the active layer into consideration.

  13. Freeze-dried live attenuated smallpox vaccine prepared in cell culture "LC16-KAKETSUKEN": Post-marketing surveillance study on safety and efficacy compliant with Good Clinical Practice. (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yasumasa; Fujii, Tatsuya; Kanatani, Yasuhiro; Shinmura, Yasuhiko; Yokote, Hiroyuki; Hashizume, So


    In Japan, production of smallpox vaccine LC16m8 (named LC16-KAKETSUKEN) was restarted and was determined to be maintained as a national stockpile in March 2002. To conduct a post-marketing surveillance study of the vaccination of freeze-dried live attenuated smallpox vaccine prepared in cell culture LC16-KAKETSUKEN using attenuated vaccinia strain LC16m8. The study complied with Good Clinical Practice, focusing on a comparison between primary vaccinees and re-vaccinees. 268 personnel (261 males and 7 females) of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force were inoculated with LC16-KAKETSUKEN and thereafter adverse events and efficacy were evaluated. Among 268 vaccinee participants, the following vaccinees showed adverse events, none serious: 53 of 196 primary vaccinees (without previous smallpox vaccination), 4 of 71 re-vaccinees (with previous smallpox vaccination) and 1 vaccinee with unknown previous vaccination history. A breakdown of adverse events observed in this study (total 268 vaccinees) showed the following minor or mild adverse events: 52 (19.4%) swelling of axillary lymph node, 4 (1.5%) fever, 2 (0.7%) fatigue, 1 (0.4%) of rash, 14 (5.2%) erythema at the inoculation site, 1 (0.4%) swelling at the inoculation site and 1 (0.4%) autoinoculation. The incidence of adverse events for primary vaccinees (53/196; 27.0%) was significantly higher than for re-vaccinees (4/71; 5.6%). However, the proportion of vaccine take was significantly higher for primary vaccinees (185/196; 94.4%) than for re-vaccinees (58/71; 81.7%). Although the proportion of vaccine take of re-vaccinees was significantly lower than for primary vaccinees due to preexisting immunity by previous vaccination, no significant difference was found in neutralizing antibody titers between primary vaccinees and re-vaccinees at 1, 4 and 7 months after LC16-KAKETSUKEN vaccination. The present post-marketing surveillance study compliant with Good Clinical Practice demonstrated the efficacy and safety of the

  14. Preliminary report on a novel straw semen freezing method for ram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A straw (0.25ml French) semen freezing method for ram spermatozoa using a temperartre controlled stainless steel plate is described to possibly replace the conventional static liquid nitrogen vapour freezing method. 'n Strooitjie (0.25ml Franse) semenvriesmetode vir ramspermatosoa deur gebruikmaking van 'n ...

  15. Anhydrobiosis and Freezing-Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGill, Lorraine; Shannon, Adam; Pisani, Davide


    Panagrolaimus strains from tropical, temperate, continental and polar habitats and we analysed their phylogenetic relationships. We found that several other Panagrolaimus isolates can also survive freezing when fully hydrated and that tissue extracts from these freezing-tolerant nematodes can inhibit the growth...... Pennsylvania, USA. Ancestral state reconstructions show that anhydrobiosis evolved deep in the phylogeny of Panagrolaimus. The early-diverging Panagrolaimus lineages are strongly anhydrobiotic but weakly freezing-tolerant, suggesting that freezing tolerance is most likely a derived trait. The common ancestors...

  16. Acid-Fast Staining and Petroff Hausser Chamber Counting of Mycobacterial Cells in Liquid Suspension


    Treuer, Robin; Haydel, Shelley E.


    Accurate and rapid cell counts of mycobacterial species in culture are difficult to obtain. Here, a method using modified Kinyoun acid-fast staining was adapted for use with a Petroff-Hausser sperm and bacteria cell counting chamber by using a liquid suspension staining technique. Cell counts obtained by this method were compared to viable cell counts by agar plate counting, revealing accurate correlation.

  17. Freezing on a sphere (United States)

    Guerra, Rodrigo E.; Kelleher, Colm P.; Hollingsworth, Andrew D.; Chaikin, Paul M.


    The best understood crystal ordering transition is that of two-dimensional freezing, which proceeds by the rapid eradication of lattice defects as the temperature is lowered below a critical threshold. But crystals that assemble on closed surfaces are required by topology to have a minimum number of lattice defects, called disclinations, that act as conserved topological charges—consider the 12 pentagons on a football or the 12 pentamers on a viral capsid. Moreover, crystals assembled on curved surfaces can spontaneously develop additional lattice defects to alleviate the stress imposed by the curvature. It is therefore unclear how crystallization can proceed on a sphere, the simplest curved surface on which it is impossible to eliminate such defects. Here we show that freezing on the surface of a sphere proceeds by the formation of a single, encompassing crystalline ‘continent’, which forces defects into 12 isolated ‘seas’ with the same icosahedral symmetry as footballs and viruses. We use this broken symmetry—aligning the vertices of an icosahedron with the defect seas and unfolding the faces onto a plane—to construct a new order parameter that reveals the underlying long-range orientational order of the lattice. The effects of geometry on crystallization could be taken into account in the design of nanometre- and micrometre-scale structures in which mobile defects are sequestered into self-ordered arrays. Our results may also be relevant in understanding the properties and occurrence of natural icosahedral structures such as viruses.

  18. Freezing on a sphere. (United States)

    Guerra, Rodrigo E; Kelleher, Colm P; Hollingsworth, Andrew D; Chaikin, Paul M


    The best understood crystal ordering transition is that of two-dimensional freezing, which proceeds by the rapid eradication of lattice defects as the temperature is lowered below a critical threshold. But crystals that assemble on closed surfaces are required by topology to have a minimum number of lattice defects, called disclinations, that act as conserved topological charges-consider the 12 pentagons on a football or the 12 pentamers on a viral capsid. Moreover, crystals assembled on curved surfaces can spontaneously develop additional lattice defects to alleviate the stress imposed by the curvature. It is therefore unclear how crystallization can proceed on a sphere, the simplest curved surface on which it is impossible to eliminate such defects. Here we show that freezing on the surface of a sphere proceeds by the formation of a single, encompassing crystalline 'continent', which forces defects into 12 isolated 'seas' with the same icosahedral symmetry as footballs and viruses. We use this broken symmetry-aligning the vertices of an icosahedron with the defect seas and unfolding the faces onto a plane-to construct a new order parameter that reveals the underlying long-range orientational order of the lattice. The effects of geometry on crystallization could be taken into account in the design of nanometre- and micrometre-scale structures in which mobile defects are sequestered into self-ordered arrays. Our results may also be relevant in understanding the properties and occurrence of natural icosahedral structures such as viruses.

  19. The Freezing Point Depression Law in Physical Chemistry. (United States)

    Franzen, Hugo F.


    Suggests a change in physical chemistry courses to use a slightly more complicated but significantly more useful generalization of the simple freezing point depression law. Lists reasons for the change and presents the treatment of solid-liquid equilibria where solid-solution is allowed. Provides a mathematical treatment. (MVL)

  20. Picoliter Drop-On-Demand Dispensing for Multiplex Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy. (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph P; Parent, Lucas R; Cantlon, Joshua; Eickhoff, Holger; Bared, Guido; Evans, James E; Gianneschi, Nathan C


    Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM) provides a unique insight into the dynamics of nanomaterials in solution. Controlling the addition of multiple solutions to the liquid cell remains a key hurdle in our ability to increase throughput and to study processes dependent on solution mixing including chemical reactions. Here, we report that a piezo dispensing technique allows for mixing of multiple solutions directly within the viewing area. This technique permits deposition of 50 pL droplets of various aqueous solutions onto the liquid cell window, before assembly of the cell in a fully controlled manner. This proof-of-concept study highlights the great potential of picoliter dispensing in combination with LCTEM for observing nanoparticle mixing in the solution phase and the creation of chemical gradients.

  1. Picoliter Drop-On-Demand Dispensing for Multiplex Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Joseph P.; Parent, Lucas R.; Cantlon, Joshua; Eickhoff, Holger; Bared, Guido; Evans, James E.; Gianneschi, Nathan C.



    Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM) provides a unique insight into the dynamics of nanomaterials in solution. Controlling the addition of multiple solutions to the liquid cell remains a key hurdle in our ability to increase throughput and to study processes dependent on solution mixing including chemical reactions. Here, we report that a piezo dispensing technique allows for mixing of multiple solutions directly within the viewing area. This technique permits deposition of 50 pL droplets of various aqueous solutions onto the liquid cell window, before assembly of the cell in a fully controlled manner. This proof-of-concept study highlights the great potential of picoliter dispensing in combination with LCTEM for observing nanoparticle mixing in the solution phase and the creation of chemical gradients.

  2. Miniaturized cavity ring-down detection in a liquid flow cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahnev, B.; van der Sneppen, L.; Wiskerke, A.E.; Ariese, F.; Gooijer, C.; Ubachs, W.M.G.


    A novel method for applying cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the liquid phase, compatible with LC analyses, is presented. The core of the setup is a home-built cavity ring-down flow cell (cell volume 12 μL) that is constructed using a silicon rubber spacer, which is clamped leak-tight between two

  3. Cast iron freezing mechanisms (United States)

    Lillybeck, N. P.; Smith, James E., Jr.


    This task focused on liquid phase sintering and infiltration studies of refractory metals and metal composites. Particular emphases was placed on those powered metal compacts which produce liquid alloys in sintering. For this class of materials, heating to a two phase region causes the constituent components to react, forming an alloy liquid which must wet the solid phase. Densification is initially driven by the free energy effects which cause rapid rearrangement. Further densification occurs by evaporation and condensation, surface diffusion, bulk flow, and volume diffusion.

  4. The Direct Methanol Liquid-Feed Fuel Cell (United States)

    Halpert, Gerald


    Until the early 1990's the idea of a practical direct methanol fuel cell from transportation and other applications was just that, an idea. Several types of fuel cells that operate under near ambient conditions were under development.

  5. Protein Nanosheet Mechanics Controls Cell Adhesion and Expansion on Low-Viscosity Liquids. (United States)

    Kong, Dexu; Megone, William; Nguyen, Khai D Q; Di Cio, Stefania; Ramstedt, Madeleine; Gautrot, Julien E


    Adherent cell culture typically requires cell spreading at the surface of solid substrates to sustain the formation of stable focal adhesions and assembly of a contractile cytoskeleton. However, a few reports have demonstrated that cell culture is possible on liquid substrates such as silicone and fluorinated oils, even displaying very low viscosities (0.77 cSt). Such behavior is surprising as low viscosity liquids are thought to relax much too fast (cell spreading and proliferation at the surface of low viscosity liquids are enabled by the self-assembly of mechanically strong protein nanosheets at these interfaces. We propose that this phenomenon results from the denaturation of globular proteins, such as albumin, in combination with the coupling of surfactant molecules to the resulting protein nanosheets. We use interfacial rheology and atomic force microscopy indentation to characterize the mechanical properties of protein nanosheets and associated liquid-liquid interfaces. We identify a direct relationship between interfacial mechanics and the association of surfactant molecules with proteins and polymers assembled at liquid-liquid interfaces. In addition, our data indicate that cells primarily sense in-plane mechanical properties of interfaces, rather than relying on surface tension to sustain spreading, as in the spreading of water striders. These findings demonstrate that bulk and nanoscale mechanical properties may be designed independently, to provide structure and regulate cell phenotype, therefore calling for a paradigm shift for the design of biomaterials in regenerative medicine.

  6. Membrane protein stoichiometry studied in intact mammalian cells using liquid-phase electron microscopy. (United States)

    DE Jonge, N


    Receptor membrane proteins in the plasma membranes of cells respond to extracellular chemical signals by conformational changes, spatial redistribution, and (re-)assembly into protein complexes, for example, into homodimers (pairs of the same protein type). The functional state of the proteins can be determined from information about how subunits are assembled into protein complexes. Stoichiometric information about the protein complex subunits, however, is generally not obtained from intact cells but from pooled material extracted from many cells, resulting in a lack of fundamental knowledge about the functioning of membrane proteins. First, functional states may dramatically differ from cell to cell on account of cell heterogeneity. Second, extracting the membrane proteins from the plasma membrane may lead to many artefacts. Liquid-phase scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), in short liquid STEM, is a new technique capable of determining the locations of individual membrane proteins within the intact plasma membranes of cells in liquid. Many tens of whole cells can readily be imaged. It is possible to analyse the stoichiometry of membrane proteins in single cells while accounting for heterogenic cell populations. Liquid STEM was used to image epidermal growth factor receptors in whole COS7 cells. A study of the dimerisation of the HER2 protein in breast cancer cells revealed the presence of rare cancer cells in which HER2 was in a different functional state than in the bulk cells. Stoichiometric information about receptors is essential not only for basic science but also for biomedical application because they present many important pharmaceutical targets. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. Effect of rapid freezing-thawing techniques on the sperm parameters and ultrastructure of Chinese Taihang black goat spermatozoa. (United States)

    Shi, Liguang; Ren, Youshe; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Xun, Wenjuan; Yue, Wenbin; Zhang, Chunxiang; Yang, Rujie


    Supercooling sperm in liquid nitrogen vapour is a feasible and economic technique for the practical production. The study aimed to reveal the negative effects of this rapid freezing and thawing processes on Taihang black goat spermatozoa and to find out the changing of spermatozoa motility and ultrastructure by using CASA and TEM. Qualified semen samples, which collected from twenty Chinese Taihang black goats using artificial vagina were pooled and investigated the kinematics parameters and ultrastructural morphology. The results showed that freezing-thawing caused a significant reduction in the spermatozoon total motility (P<0.001), in rapid and medium cell numbers (P<0.001) and motility parameters (VAP, VSL, VCL, ALH and BCF) (P<0.01). Immotile spermatozoa number was increased significantly after freezing-thawing (P<0.001). In the ultrastructural analysis, the shape with a sperm nucleus characterized by ruptures, bend and deformity was observed. The plasma membranes were broken, and nucleoplasm erupted. The mitochondria in the middle piece were disturbed by partial absence or additional accumulations. Swelling, coiling, vacuolization and structural disorganization of mitochondria were also observed. In conclusion, Freezing-thawing procedure has a detrimental effect on motility, membrane integrity and mitochondria of goat spermatozoa. Transmission electron microscopy provides an intuitive observation to investigate deformity spermatozoa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Safety circuit for detecting conducting liquid in a cell under surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazandjoglou, J.


    The present invention can be applied for the surveillance of gloveboxes for which it is imperious to detect any water leak as soon as it occurs accidently. The safety and detection circuit comprises a liquid detector which consists of two electrodes. Each electrode has two connector wires connected in an electronic circuit. This circuit includes a first MOSFET which is non-conducting when no liquid or no failure in its connections is present. This first transistor is connected to a second MOSFET, conducting when no liquid or no failure in its connections is present, delivers current to an alarm, signaling and monitoring relay of a cell under surveillance [fr

  9. Freeze Protection in Gas Holders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Duursma, Gail

    In cold weather, the water seals of gasholders need protection from freez- ing to avoid compromising the seal. These holders have a large reservoir of “tank water” at the base which is below ground. At present freeze- protection is achieved by external heating of the seal water which is in a slot...

  10. Seasonal Variation in the Hepatoproteome of the Dehydration- and Freeze-Tolerant Wood Frog, Rana sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Costanzo


    Full Text Available Winter’s advent invokes physiological adjustments that permit temperate ectotherms to cope with stresses such as food shortage, water deprivation, hypoxia, and hypothermia. We used liquid chromatography (LC in combination with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS quantitative isobaric (iTRAQ™ peptide mapping to assess variation in the abundance of hepatic proteins in summer- and winter-acclimatized wood frogs (Rana sylvatica, a northerly-distributed species that tolerates extreme dehydration and tissue freezing during hibernation. Thirty-three unique proteins exhibited strong seasonal lability. Livers of winter frogs had relatively high levels of proteins involved in cytoprotection, including heat-shock proteins and an antioxidant, and a reduced abundance of proteins involved in cell proliferation, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. They also exhibited altered levels of certain metabolic enzymes that participate in the biochemical reorganization associated with aphagia and reliance on energy reserves, as well as the freezing mobilization and post-thaw recovery of glucose, an important cryoprotective solute in freezing adaptation.

  11. Phenome data - Freeze-thaw stress - DGBY | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us DGBY Phenome data - Freeze-thaw stress Data detail Data name Phenome data - Freeze-thaw stress... DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00953-006 Description of data contents Yeasts used in bread making are exposed to freeze-thaw stress...were components of vacuolar H + -ATPase. Next, the cross-sensitivity of the freeze-thaw-sensitive mutants to oxidative stress... and to cell wall stress was studied; both of these are environmental closely related to freeze-thaw stress. The results showed that defects in the functions of va

  12. Method of reprocessing nuclear fuel using vacuum freeze-drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Katsuyuki; Kondo, Isao.


    Solutions of plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate, spent solvents and liquid wastes separated by the treatment in the solvent extractant steps in the wet processing steps of re-processing plants or fuel fabrication plants are processed by means of freeze-drying under vacuum. Then, the solutions of plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate are separated into nitrates and liquid condensates and the spent solvents are freeze-dried. Thus, they are separated into tri-n-butyl phosphate, diester, monoester and n-dodecane and the liquid wastes are processed by means of freeze-drying and separated into liquids and residues. In this way, since sodium carbonate, etc. are not used, the amount of resultant liquid wastes is reduced and sodium is not contained in liquid wastes sent to an asphalt solidification step and a vitrification step, the processing steps can be simplified. (S.T.)

  13. A Structural Study of Escherichia coli Cells Using an In Situ Liquid Chamber TEM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Wang


    Full Text Available Studying cell microstructures and their behaviors under living conditions has been a challenging subject in microbiology. In this work, in situ liquid chamber TEM was used to study structures of Escherichia coli cells in aqueous solutions at a nanometer-scale resolution. Most of the cells remained intact under electron beam irradiation, and nanoscale structures were observed during the TEM imaging. The analysis revealed structures of pili surrounding the E. coli cells; the movements of the pili in the liquid were also observed during the in situ tests. This technology also allowed the observation of features of the nucleoid in the E. coli cells. Overall, in situ TEM can be applied as a valuable tool to study real-time microscopic structures and processes in microbial cells residing in native aqueous solutions.

  14. Calcium-dependent freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis involves membrane resealing via synaptotagmin SYT1. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Kawamura, Yukio; Minami, Anzu; Uemura, Matsuo


    Plant freezing tolerance involves the prevention of lethal freeze-induced damage to the plasma membrane. We hypothesized that plant freezing tolerance involves membrane resealing, which, in animal cells, is accomplished by calcium-dependent exocytosis following mechanical disruption of the plasma membrane. In Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts, extracellular calcium enhanced not only freezing tolerance but also tolerance to electroporation, which typically punctures the plasma membrane. However, calcium did not enhance survival when protoplasts were exposed to osmotic stress that mimicked freeze-induced dehydration. Calcium-dependent freezing tolerance was also detected with leaf sections in which ice crystals intruded into tissues. Interestingly, calcium-dependent freezing tolerance was inhibited by extracellular addition of an antibody against the cytosolic region of SYT1, a homolog of synaptotagmin known to be a calcium sensor that initiates exocytosis. This inhibition indicates that the puncture allowing the antibody to flow into the cytoplasm occurs during freeze/thawing. Thus, we propose that calcium-dependent freezing tolerance results from resealing of the punctured site. Protoplasts or leaf sections isolated from Arabidopsis SYT1-RNA interference (RNAi) plants lost calcium-dependent freezing tolerance, and intact SYT1-RNAi plants had lower freezing tolerance than control plants. Taken together, these findings suggest that calcium-dependent freezing tolerance results from membrane resealing and that this mechanism involves SYT1 function.

  15. Ionic liquids and ionic liquid acids with high temperature stability for fuel cell and other high temperature applications, method of making and cell employing same (United States)

    Angell, C Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Broadview Heights, OH; Belieres, Jean-Philippe [Chandler, AZ; Yoshizawa, Masahiro [Tokyo, JP


    Disclosed are developments in high temperature fuel cells including ionic liquids with high temperature stability and the storage of inorganic acids as di-anion salts of low volatility. The formation of ionically conducting liquids of this type having conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems is described. The stability of the di-anion configuration is shown to play a role in the high performance of the non-corrosive proton-transfer ionic liquids as high temperature fuel cell electrolytes. Performance of simple H.sub.2(g) electrolyte/O.sub.2(g) fuel cells with the new electrolytes is described. Superior performance both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above C. are achieved. Both neutral proton transfer salts and the acid salts with HSO.sup.-.sub.4 anions, give good results, the bisulphate case being particularly good at low temperatures and very high temperatures. The performance of all electrolytes is improved by the addition of a small amount of involatile base of pK.sub.a value intermediate between those of the acid and base that make the bulk electrolyte. The preferred case is the imidazole-doped ethylammonium hydrogensulfate which yields behavior superior in all respects to that of the industry standard phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  16. The effects of liquid crystal-based composite substrates on cell functional responses of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells by mechano-regulatory process. (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Shang, Yupan; Zhang, Jiaqing; Cheang, Lek Hang; Zeng, Xiaoli; Tu, Mei


    Physical properties of extracellular matrix, including elasticity and microstructure, have been considered as important factors inducing stem cell differentiation. This study developed a novel type of liquid crystal-based matrix by combining the elastic property of polyurethane with viscoelastic liquid crystal to generate a soft elastic response resembling physical microenvironment of stem cell niche, and explored the mechano-driving cell behaviors. Addition of varying liquid crystal concentration (10 wt%, 30 wt% and 50 wt%) had great effects on surface morphology and elastic modulus of liquid crystal/ polyurethane composite substrates. Changes in microstructure and elastic modulus of the substrates could cause intense cell responses that influenced cell properties, including proliferation, adhesion, and osteogenic differentiation. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) cultured on both liquid crystal-10/polyurethane and liquid crystal-30/polyurethane substrates exhibited higher viability, more actin filament, and larger spreading area while liquid crystal-50/polyurethane substrates seemed not to favor cell attachment and spreading. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition were significantly improved with hUC-MSCs on both liquid crystal-10/ polyurethane and liquid crystal-30/ polyurethane substrates, and the maximal alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in liquid crystal-10/ polyurethane while the lowest in liquid crystal-50/ polyurethane. Osteopontin was upregulated to a high level in both liquid crystal-10/ polyurethane and liquid crystal-30/ polyurethane groups after 14 days culturing; the maximal expression of osteocalcin and related transcription factor 2 were found in liquid crystal-10/ polyurethane group on day 21. Our findings revealed that hUC-MSCs could intensely sense the bioactive patterns and soft-matter feature of liquid crystal domains and subsequently modulated cell behaviors, which may prove useful in

  17. Power generation in fuel cells using liquid methanol and hydrogen peroxide (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor)


    The invention is directed to an encapsulated fuel cell including a methanol source that feeds liquid methanol (CH.sub.3 OH) to an anode. The anode is electrical communication with a load that provides electrical power. The fuel cell also includes a hydrogen peroxide source that feeds liquid hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2 O.sub.2) to the cathode. The cathode is also in communication with the electrical load. The anode and cathode are in contact with and separated by a proton-conducting polymer electrolyte membrane.

  18. Flexoelectric-Induced Voltage Shift in Hybrid Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Hongyu; Xuan Li; Ye Wenjiang; Zhang Zhidong


    Flexoelectric-induced voltage shift in a weak anchoring hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal cell is investigated theoretically. Based on the elastic theory of liquid crystal and the variation method, the equations for the bulk and the boundary of the cell are derived. By computer simulation, the dependence of the shift voltage on the sum of the flexoelectric coefficients and the anchoring energy strength is obtained. As a result, a novel method to determine the sum of the flexoelectric coefficients by measuring the shift voltage is put forward. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  19. Investigation of the Influence of Heat Balance Shifts on the Freeze Microstructure and Composition in Aluminum Smelting Bath System: Cryolite-CaF2-AlF3-Al2O3 (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Fallah-Mehrjardi, Ata; Shishin, Denis; Jak, Evgueni; Dorreen, Mark; Taylor, Mark


    In an aluminum electrolysis cell, the side ledge forms on side walls to protect it from the corrosive cryolitic bath. In this study, a series of laboratory analogue experiments have been carried out to investigate the microstructure and composition of side ledge (freeze linings) at different heat balance steady states. Three distinct layers are found in the freeze linings formed in the designed Cryolite-CaF2-AlF3-Al2O3 electrolyte system: a closed (columnar) crystalline layer, an open crystalline layer, and a sealing layer. This layered structure changes when the heat balance is shifted between different steady states, by melting or freezing the open crystalline layer. Phase chemistry of the freeze lining is studied in this paper to understand the side ledge formation process upon heat balance shifts. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) is used to characterize the microstructure and compositions of distinct phases existing in the freeze linings, which are identified as cryolite, chiolite, Ca-cryolite, and alumina. A freeze formation mechanism is further developed based on these microstructural/compositional investigations and also thermodynamic calculations through the software—FactSage. It is found that entrapped liquid channels exist in the open crystalline layer, assisting with the mass transfer between solidified crystals and bulk molten bath.

  20. Liquid Fluoride Salt Experimentation Using a Small Natural Circulation Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Heatherly, Dennis Wayne [ORNL; Williams, David F [ORNL; Elkassabgi, Yousri M. [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Caja, Joseph [Electrochemical Systems, Inc.; Caja, Mario [ORNL; Jordan, John [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Salinas, Roberto [Texas A& M University, Kingsville


    A small molten fluoride salt experiment has been constructed and tested to develop experimental techniques for application in liquid fluoride salt systems. There were five major objectives in developing this test apparatus: Allow visual observation of the salt during testing (how can lighting be introduced, how can pictures be taken, what can be seen) Determine if IR photography can be used to examine components submerged in the salt Determine if the experimental configuration provides salt velocity sufficient for collection of corrosion data for future experimentation Determine if a laser Doppler velocimeter can be used to quantify salt velocities. Acquire natural circulation heat transfer data in fluoride salt at temperatures up to 700oC All of these objectives were successfully achieved during testing with the exception of the fourth: acquiring velocity data using the laser Doppler velocimeter. This paper describes the experiment and experimental techniques used, and presents data taken during natural circulation testing.

  1. A multi-slice sliding cell technique for diffusion measurements in liquid metals (United States)

    Zhong, Langxiang; Hu, Jinliang; Geng, Yongliang; Zhu, Chunao; Zhang, Bo


    The long capillary and shear-cell techniques are traditionally used for diffusion measurements in liquid metals. Inspired by the idea of the shear-cell method, we have built a multi-slice sliding cell device for inter-diffusion measurements in liquid metals. The device is designed based on a linear sliding movement rather than a rotational shearing as used in the traditional shear-cell method. Compared with the normal shear-cell method, the present device is a more compact setup thus easier to handle. Also, it is expected to be easier to monitor with X-rays or neutrons if used in in situ experiments. A series of benchmark time-dependent diffusion experiments in Al-Cu melts carried out with the present technique reveal that accurate diffusion constants can be achieved only after a sufficient time. For short annealing times, the initial shearing process causing convective flow dominates the measurement and leads to an increase of the measured diffusion coefficient by a factor three. The diffusion data obtained for Al-Cu liquids are consistent with the most accurate data measured by the in situ X-ray radiography method under well controlled conditions of no temperature gradient or other perturbation. High accuracy and easy handling as well as superior adaptability make the present technique suitable for diffusion studies in liquid metals.

  2. Freeze-drying and related preparation techniques for biological microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, R.; Wroblewski, J.; Anniko, M.; Edstroem, L.P.


    An X-ray microanalytical and morphological investigation has been carried out on rapidly frozen, freeze-dried or freeze-substituted tissues. A comparison was made between different embedding and polymerization procedures following freeze-substitution and freeze-drying. The investigation also included an analysis of specimens infiltrated, embedded and polymerized by ultraviolet irradiation at low temperatures with Lowicryl HM20. The morphological preservation of Lowicryl embedded tissue was adequate for the identification of different cell structures like nuclei, mitochondria, lysosomes and different types of endoplasmic reticulum. X-ray microanalytical investigation of low temperature embedded material displayed an elemental composition of cells and organelles similar to that found in freeze-dried cyosections. Compared with freeze-dried cryosections, low temperature embedded material could be sectioned for light microscopy and area of interest chosen for further thin sectioning. This is of great importance in work with tissues with complicated morphology and heterogenous cell populations

  3. Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Thomas


    This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

  4. Isolation of mouse respiratory epithelial cells and exposure to experimental cigarette smoke at air liquid interface. (United States)

    Lam, Hilaire C; Choi, Augustine M K; Ryter, Stefan W


    Pulmonary epithelial cells can be isolated from the respiratory tract of mice and cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI) as a model of differentiated respiratory epithelium. A protocol is described for isolating and exposing these cells to mainstream cigarette smoke (CS), in order to study epithelial cell responses to CS exposure. The protocol consists of three parts: the isolation of airway epithelial cells from mouse trachea, the culturing of these cells at air-liquid interface (ALI) as fully differentiated epithelial cells, and the delivery of calibrated mainstream CS to these cells in culture. The ALI culture system allows the culture of respiratory epithelia under conditions that more closely resemble their physiological setting than ordinary liquid culture systems. The study of molecular and lung cellular responses to CS exposure is a critical component of understanding the impact of environmental air pollution on human health. Research findings in this area may ultimately contribute towards understanding the etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other tobacco-related diseases, which represent major global health problems.

  5. Optoacoustic laser monitoring of cooling and freezing of tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, Kirill V; Larina, I V; Motamedi, M; Esenaliev, R O


    Real-time monitoring of cooling and freezing of tissues, cells, and other biological objects with a high spatial and time resolution, which is necessary for selective destruction of cancer and benign tumours during cryotherapy, as well as for preventing any damage to the structure and functioning of biological objects in cryobiology, is considered. The optoacoustic method, based on the measurement and analysis of acoustic waves induced by short laser pulses, is proposed for monitoring the cooling and freezing of the tissue. The effect of cooling and freezing on the amplitude and time profile of acoustic signals generated in real tissues and in a model object is studied. The experimental results indicate that the optoacoustic laser technique can be used for real-time monitoring of cooling and freezing of biological objects with a submillimeter spatial resolution and a high contrast. (laser biology and medicine)

  6. Freezing in porous media: Phase behavior, dynamics and transport phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettlaufer, John S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)


    This research was focused on developing the underlying framework for the mechanisms that control the nature of the solidification of a broad range of porous media. To encompass the scope of porous media under consideration we considered material ranging from a dilute colloidal suspension to a highly packed saturated host matrix with a known geometry. The basic physical processes that occur when the interstitial liquid phase solidifies revealed a host of surprises with a broad range of implications from geophysics to materials science and engineering. We now understand that ostensibly microscopic films of unfrozen liquid control both the equilibrium and transport properties of a highly packed saturated host matrix as well as a rather dilute colloidal suspension. However, our description of the effective medium behavior in these settings is rather different and this sets the stage for the future research based on our past results. Once the liquid phase of a saturated relatively densely packed material is frozen, there is a rich dynamical behavior of particles for example due to the directed motion driven by thermomolecular pressure gradients or the confined Brownian motion of the particles. In quite striking contrast, when one freezes a dilute suspension the behavior can be rather more like that of a binary alloy with the particles playing the role of a ``solute''. We probed such systems quantitatively by (i) using X ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne (ii) studying the Argonne cell in the laboratory using optical microscopy and imagery (because it is not directly visible while in the vacuum can). (3) analyzed the general transport phenomena within the framework of both irreversible thermodynamics and alloy solidification and (4) applied the results to the study of the redistribution of solid particles in a frozen interstitial material. This research has gone a long way

  7. Positron probe to study the freezing of nanodroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, P.K.


    Positron is an excellent in situ probe to study the phase behavior of fluid confined in nanodomains. The study of phase behavior (freezing/melting) of nano confined fluid or nanodroplet has great relevance in fundamental research as well as applications in nano-tribology, nanofabrication, membrane separation, interfacial adhesion and lubrication. It is seen that the properties of freezing/melting of nanodroplets are different from their bulk behavior due to the combined effects of finite size, surface force, surface anisotropy, pore disorder and reduced dimensionality. We have used positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) to study the freezing/melting behavior of different organic liquids like benzene, ethylene glycol and isopropanol confined in nanopores of ZSM5 zeolite and silica gel

  8. The rationale for liquid biopsy in colorectal cancer: a focus on circulating tumor cells. (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Paola; Raimondi, Cristina; Nicolazzo, Chiara; Carletti, Raffaella; di Gioia, Cira; Gradilone, Angela; Cortesi, Enrico


    Capturing circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and/or circulating tumor DNA from blood, which represents a precious source of biological material derived from both primary and metastatic tumors, has been named a 'liquid biopsy'. While the circulating tumor DNA might be more representative of the bulk of the metastatic tumor, CTCs are thought to reflect more of the metastases-initiating cells. Consequently, a liquid biopsy made of tumor cells and tumor DNA that is able to track cancer evolution, as a fingerprint of the patient's individual tumor, and is easy to perform at every stage of the disease course, sounds attractive. This article mainly focuses on the applications of CTCs to track tumor dynamics in real time using colorectal cancer as a model system. The analysis of viable CTCs at DNA, RNA and protein levels, as well as their expansion in vitro, may allow deep investigation of the features of metastases-initiating cells.



    Soham Shukla


    Among the various methods of drying, this article has mentioned only one most important method, “Freeze drying”. This method is mainly used for the drying of thermo labile materials. This method works on the principle of sublimation. This method is divided into 3 steps for its better understanding; these are Freezing, Primary drying, and secondary drying. There are many advantages and disadvantages of this method, but still this is the most useful drying method nowadays.

  10. Accelerated redox reaction between chromate and phenolic pollutants during freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Jinjung; Kim, Jaesung [Department of Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 24252 (Korea, Republic of); Vetráková, Ľubica [Department of Chemistry and Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Seo, Jiwon [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Heger, Dominik [Department of Chemistry and Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Lee, Changha [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho-Il [Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), Incheon 21990 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kitae, E-mail: [Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), Incheon 21990 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungwon, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 24252 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) was significantly accelerated during freezing. • Accelerated redox conversion in ice is ascribed to the freeze concentration effect. • 4-CP, Cr(VI), and protons are concentrated in the liquid brine by freezing. • Redox conversions of various phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) were significant in ice. • Freezing-accelerated redox conversion was observed in real polluted water. - Abstract: The redox reaction between 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and chromate (Cr(VI)) (i.e., the simultaneous oxidation of 4-CP by Cr(VI) and reduction of Cr(VI) by 4-CP) in ice (i.e., at −20 °C) was compared with the corresponding reaction in water (i.e., at 25 °C). The redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI), which was negligible in water, was significantly accelerated in ice. This accelerated redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) in ice is ascribed to the freeze concentration effect occurring during freezing, which excludes solutes (i.e., 4-CP and Cr(VI)) and protons from the ice crystals and subsequently concentrates them in the liquid brine. The concentrations of Cr(VI) and protons in the liquid brine were confirmed by measuring the optical image and the UV–vis absorption spectra of cresol red (CR) as a pH indicator of frozen solution. The redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) was observed in water when the concentrations of 4-CP/protons or Cr(VI)/protons increased by 100/1000-fold. These results corroborate the freeze concentration effect as the reason for the accelerated redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) in ice. The redox conversion of various phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) and 4-CP/Cr(VI) in real wastewater was successfully achieved in ice, which verifies the environmental relevance and importance of freezing-accelerated redox conversion of phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) in cold regions.

  11. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy to study the freezing behavior of plant tissues. (United States)

    Fujikawa, Seizo; Endoh, Keita


    A cryo-scanning electron microscope (cryo-SEM) is a valuable tool for observing bulk frozen samples to monitor freezing responses of plant tissues and cells. Here, essential processes of a cryo-SEM to observe freezing behaviors of plant tissue cells are described.

  12. Effect of freezing on rabbit cultured chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R Filgueiras


    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of freezing on chondrocytes maintained in culture, aiming the establishment of a cell bank for future application as heterologous implant. Chondrocytes extracted from joint cartilage of nine healthy New Zealand White rabbits were cultivated and frozen with the cryoprotector 5% dimethylsulfoxide for six months. Phenotypic and scanning electron microscopy analyses were carried out to identify morphological and functional differences between fresh and thawed cells. After enzymatic digestion, a total of 4.8x10(5cells per rabbit were obtained. Fresh chondrocytes showed a high mitotic rate and abundant matrix was present up to 60 days of culture. Loss of phenotypic stability was notable in the thawed chondrocytes, with a low labeling of proteoglycans and weak immunostaining of type II collagen. The present study showed important loss of chondrocyte viability under the freezing conditions. For future in vivo studies of heterologous implant, these results suggests that a high number of cells should be implanted in the host site in order to achieve an adequate number of viable cells. Furthermore, the chondrocytes should be implanted after two weeks of culture, when the highest viability rate is found

  13. The freezing process of continuously sprayed water droplets on the superhydrophobic silicone acrylate resin coating surface (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Xu, Ke; Wu, Yao; Lan, Binhuan; Jiang, Xingliang; Shu, Lichun


    This study conducted experiments on freezing process of water droplets on glass slides covered with superhydrophobic coatings under the continuous water spray condition in the artificial climatic chamber which could simulate low temperature and high humidity environments. The freezing mechanism and freezing time of water droplets under the condition of continuous spray were observed by the microscope and were compared with those of the single static droplet. Then, differences of freezing process between continuously sprayed droplets and single static droplet were analyzed. Furthermore, the effects of static contact angle (CA), contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and roughness of the superhydrophobic coating surface on the freezing time of continuously sprayed droplets were explored. Results show that the freezing process of the continuously sprayed droplets on the superhydrophobic coating started with the homogeneous nucleation at gas-liquid interfaces. In addition, the temperature difference between the location near the solid-liquid interface and the location near the gas-liquid interface was the key factor that influenced the ice crystallization mechanism of water droplets. Moreover, with the larger CA, the smaller CAH and the greater roughness of the surface, droplets were more likely to roll down the surface and the freezing duration on the surface was delayed. Based on the findings, continuous water spray is suggested in the anti-icing superhydrophobic coatings research.

  14. Cryoprotectant-free freezing of the goat epididymal sperm. (United States)

    Katanbafzadeh, H; Barati, F; Tabandeh, M


    Cryoprotectant free approach successfully removed the impact of physical and chemical damages in preserving human sperm in a vitrification protocol. There is no any report on this technology in farm animal sperm freezing. The aim of the present study was to find the efficacy of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC; 1 mg per 60 million) and sucrose (0.1 and 0.2 M) on freezing of the goat epididymal sperm. Caudal epididymides (n=5 pairs) were dissected, incised and incubated in the Tris-BSA solution for 15 min, followed by swim-up at room temperature. Sperm was loaded in 0.25 mL French straws and cooled on nitrogen vapor for 3 min then immersed in liquid nitrogen and remained for 48 h. Then the straws thawed by immersing in 37 degree C waterbath for 30 sec and analyzed. The results showed the impact of freezing on the goat epididymal sperm motility, viability and DNA fragmentation that were improved by incorporation of CLC and sucrose (0.2 M). In conclusion, the goat epididymal sperm was frozen in a cryoprotectant-free freezing model. CLC and 0.4 M sucrose protected the goat epididymal sperm against freezing-induced damages.

  15. Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (United States)


    fitted with a Xe bulb and fiber-optic light guide fixture. The absolute spectral irradiance and power output of the solar simulator was captured with a...dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), invented by Michael Grätzel and Brian O’Regan in 1991 (1). As described in their original Nature paper “A Low-Cost...The co-sensitizer dye, an equimolar mix of the two dyes, offered the broadest and highest absorbance of incident light , and thus was used as the

  16. Traveling waves in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, A.V.; Vakulenko, A.A.


    We have described a novel reorientation mechanism in the form of the traveling waves, under influence of an external electric field, directed parallel to both glass plates, which occur in the twisted nematic cell (TNC). It is found that the slowest velocity of the traveling front is proportional to the field strength, and, approximately, in three times higher than the front velocity corresponding to the non-traveling solution. The value of the critical electric field E cr which may excite the traveling waves in the TNC in π times less than the value of the threshold electric field E th corresponding to the untwisted geometry

  17. Successful long-term preservation of rat sperm by freeze-drying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Kaneko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Freeze-drying sperm has been developed as a new preservation method where liquid nitrogen is no longer necessary. An advantage of freeze-drying sperm is that it can be stored at 4 °C and transported at room temperature. Although the successful freeze-drying of sperm has been reported in a number of animals, the possibility of long-term preservation using this method has not yet been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Offspring were obtained from oocytes fertilized with rat epididymal sperm freeze-dried using a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA adjusted to pH 8.0. Tolerance of testicular sperm to freeze-drying was increased by pre-treatment with diamide. Offspring with normal fertility were obtained from oocytes fertilized with freeze-dried epididymal sperm stored at 4 °C for 5 years. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Sperm with -SS- cross-linking in the thiol-disulfide of their protamine were highly tolerant to freeze-drying, and the fertility of freeze-dried sperm was maintained for 5 years without deterioration. This is the first report to demonstrate the successful freeze-drying of sperm using a new and simple method for long-term preservation.

  18. Fabrication of Monolithic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using Ionic Liquid Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito


    Full Text Available To improve the durability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, monolithic DSCs with ionic liquid electrolyte were studied. Deposited by screen printing, a carbon layer was successfully fabricated that did not crack or peel when annealing was employed beforehand. Optimized electrodes exhibited photovoltaic characteristics of 0.608 V open-circuit voltage, 6.90 cm−2 mA short-circuit current, and 0.491 fill factor, yielding 2.06% power conversion efficiency. The monolithic DSC using ionic liquid electrolyte was thermally durable and operated stably for 1000 h at 80°C.

  19. The feasibility of using particle-in-cell technique for modeling liquid crystal devices (United States)

    Leung, Wing Ching


    Liquid crystal materials are used in a variety of electronic devices, but the dynamical behavior of such devices is still not clearly understood. The primary reason for this is that there is a lack of rigorous models for a theoretical treatment for the devices. For the first time we demonstrate here the feasibility of treating such liquid crystal devices using the particle- in-cell (PIC) simulation technique. In a PIC simulation model, the liquid crystal medium is represented by a certain number of particles, each particle representing a fairly large number of real molecules in the medium. The dynamical behavior of the medium is obtained by solving the equations of motions of the particles in self- consistent appropriate fields. The motions may include both translation (flow) and rotation. By neglecting the translational motion and the conductive effects of the materials in this first innovative effort, 1- and 2- dimensional PIC codes, including viscous, electric, and elastic torques affecting the rotation of molecules, are developed for modeling a parallel-plate capacitor cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal material. Using these codes we reproduce the well known phenomenon of Fredericksz transition. Our simulations yield results in excellent agreement with the available analytical results on the threshold voltage for the Fredericksz transition. In addition, we are able to reveal the dynamical behavior of liquid crystal molecules in the device as the material undergoes the Fredericksz transition in response to an applied voltage across the liquid crystal cell. By using the 2-dimensional PIC code to simulate a segmented electrode cell, like those used in liquid crystal devices for optical gratings, the simulation results show the formation and dynamics of the defect walls. The defect wall joins the regions of the material having topologically different orientations. We found that the defect wall is associated with a large gradient in the polarization vector P

  20. Intermediate Temperature Hybrid Fuel Cell System for the Conversion of Natural to Electricity and Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Theodore [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    This goal of this project was to develop a new hybrid fuel cell technology that operates directly on natural gas or biogas to generate electrical energy and to produce ethane or ethylene from methane, the main component of natural gas or biogas, which can be converted to a liquid fuel or high-value chemical using existing process technologies. By taking advantage of the modularity and scalability of fuel cell technology, this combined fuel cell/chemical process technology targets the recovery of stranded natural gas available at the well pad or biogas produced at waste water treatment plants and municipal landfills by converting it to a liquid fuel or chemical. By converting the stranded gas to a liquid fuel or chemical, it can be cost-effectively transported to market thus allowing the stranded natural gas or biogas to be monetized instead of flared, producing CO2, a greenhouse gas, because the volumes produced at these locations are too small to be economically recovered using current gas-to-liquids process technologies.

  1. Electro-optical characteristics of a liquid crystal cell with graphene electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nune H. Hakobyan


    Full Text Available In liquid crystal devices (LCDs the indium tin oxide (ITO films are traditionally used as transparent and conductive electrodes. However, today, due to the development of multichannel optical communication, the need for flexible LCDs and multilayer structures has grown. For this application ITO films cannot be used in principle. For this problem, graphene (an ultrathin material with unique properties, e.g., high optical transparency, chemical inertness, excellent conductivity is an excellent candidate. In this work, the electro-optical and dynamic characteristics of a liquid crystal (LC cell with graphene and ITO transparent conducting layers are investigated. To insure uniform thickness of the LC layer, as well as the same orientation boundary conditions, a hybrid LC cell containing graphene and ITO conductive layers has been prepared. The characteristics of LC cells with both types of conducting layers were found to be similar, indicating that graphene can be successfully used as a transparent conductive layer in LC devices.

  2. Rethinking liquid biopsy: Microfluidic assays for mobile tumor cells in human body fluids. (United States)

    Neoh, Kuang Hong; Hassan, Ayon Ahmed; Chen, Anqi; Sun, Yukun; Liu, Peng; Xu, Kai-Feng; Wong, Alice S T; Han, Ray P S


    Traditionally, liquid biopsy is a blood test involving the harvesting of tumor materials from peripheral blood. Tumor cells from non-blood body fluids have always been clinically available in cytological examinations but limited for use in differential diagnosis due to the low sensitivity of conventional cytopathology. With the recent significant progress in microfluidic and downstream molecular technologies, liquid biopsies have now evolved to include harvesting tumor cells and DNA fragments in all kinds of non-blood body fluids. This expansion into general body fluids presages the notion that liquid biopsy could soon be used in competition, as well as, in complementarity with tissue biopsy. Preliminary research of fluid-harvested tumor materials to spot early-stage tumors, monitor disease progression for metastasis and recurrence, and detect chemoresistance have been reported. To reflect the propagation of tumor cells in non-blood body fluids, we introduced the term Mobile Tumor Cells (MTCs), in lieu of the widely accepted term of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) resident in the bloodstream. Our review starts with a discussion on the clinical significance of MTCs, followed by a presentation of microfluidic techniques for MTC capture and various strategies for their identification. Hopefully, the phenotypic and genomic data acquired from harvested MTCs can be used to guide and improve cancer treatment decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fundamentals of freeze-drying. (United States)

    Nail, Steven L; Jiang, Shan; Chongprasert, Suchart; Knopp, Shawn A


    Given the increasing importance of reducing development time for new pharmaceutical products, formulation and process development scientists must continually look for ways to "work smarter, not harder." Within the product development arena, this means reducing the amount of trial and error empiricism in arriving at a formulation and identification of processing conditions which will result in a quality final dosage form. Characterization of the freezing behavior of the intended formulation is necessary for developing processing conditions which will result in the shortest drying time while maintaining all critical quality attributes of the freeze-dried product. Analysis of frozen systems was discussed in detail, particularly with respect to the glass transition as the physical event underlying collapse during freeze-drying, eutectic mixture formation, and crystallization events upon warming of frozen systems. Experiments to determine how freezing and freeze-drying behavior is affected by changes in the composition of the formulation are often useful in establishing the "robustness" of a formulation. It is not uncommon for seemingly subtle changes in composition of the formulation, such as a change in formulation pH, buffer salt, drug concentration, or an additional excipient, to result in striking differences in freezing and freeze-drying behavior. With regard to selecting a formulation, it is wise to keep the formulation as simple as possible. If a buffer is needed, a minimum concentration should be used. The same principle applies to added salts: If used at all, the concentration should be kept to a minimum. For many proteins a combination of an amorphous excipient, such as a disaccharide, and a crystallizing excipient, such as glycine, will result in a suitable combination of chemical stability and physical stability of the freeze-dried solid. Concepts of heat and mass transfer are valuable in rational design of processing conditions. Heat transfer by conduction

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Spartina pectinata in Response to Freezing Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyoungju Nah

    Full Text Available Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata, a perennial C4 grass native to the North American prairie, has several distinctive characteristics that potentially make it a model crop for production in stressful environments. However, little is known about the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass despite its unique freezing stress tolerance. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to explore the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass in response to freezing stress at -5°C for 5 min and 30 min. We used a RNA-sequencing method to assemble the S. pectinata leaf transcriptome and performed gene-expression profiling of the transcripts under freezing treatment. Six differentially expressed gene (DEG groups were categorized from the profiling. In addition, two major consecutive orders of gene expression were observed in response to freezing; the first being the acute up-regulation of genes involved in plasma membrane modification, calcium-mediated signaling, proteasome-related proteins, and transcription regulators (e.g., MYB and WRKY. The follow-up and second response was of genes involved in encoding the putative anti-freezing protein and the previously known DNA and cell-damage-repair proteins. Moreover, we identified the genes involved in epigenetic regulation and circadian-clock expression. Our results indicate that freezing response in S. pectinata reflects dynamic changes in rapid-time duration, as well as in metabolic, transcriptional, post-translational, and epigenetic regulation.

  5. Enhanced protein internalization and efficient endosomal escape using polyampholyte-modified liposomes and freeze concentration


    Ahmed, Sana; Fujita, Satoshi; Matsumura, Kazuaki


    Here we show a new strategy for efficient freeze concentration-mediated cytoplasmic delivery of proteins, obtained via the endosomal escape property of polyampholyte-modified liposomes. The freeze concentration method successfully induces the efficient internalization of proteins simply by freezing cells with protein and nanocarrier complexes. However, the mechanism of protein internalization remains unclear. Here, we designed a novel protein delivery carrier by modifying liposomes through in...

  6. Investigating design criteria to build a performing microbial fuel cell running on swine liquid manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.Y.; Hogue, R.; Dube, P.; Jeanne, T.; Levesque, A. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Theriault, R.; Kaliaguine, S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)


    This paper reported on a study that examined the bacterial and electro-chemical phenomena that takes place in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) operating on swine liquid manure as fuel. An MFC converts the available energy in a bioconvertible substrate directly into electricity while decreasing its chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, a first single chamber MFC operating on swine liquid manure was constructed based on a literature review. Various support media filling the anodic chamber were tested in an effort to optimize the surface area on which bacteria may develop according to the hypothesis that large bacteria concentration will improve energy production and reduce treatment time. Bacterial communities extracted from the selected support media were analyzed using molecular technologies such as DNA extraction, PCR amplification, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning and sequencing. The analyses showed that only a few bacteria species coming from raw liquid manure were responsible for electrical activities.

  7. A three-cell liquid hydrogen target for an extended focal plane polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanov, L.B.; Chesny, P.; Gheller, J.M.; Guillier, G.; Ladygin, V.P.; Theure, Ph.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.


    This article describes the design and working principle of a three-cell liquid hydrogen target produced for the high-energy deuteron polarimeter HYPOM. This target uses liquid helium as a cooling agent. After a general description of the apparatus, tests and operating modes are thoroughly explained. In particular the air controlled self-regulation of helium flow in the cryostat to stabilize the liquid hydrogen level is presented. The main feature of this target is the simplicity of the design as well as its safeness towards any incident. Results of cooling down, filling up of the target and stabilization regime were processed during one experiment of physics at synchrotron Saturne II. (orig.)

  8. Cycling performance of lithium polymer cells assembled by in situ polymerization of a non-flammable ionic liquid monomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won


    Highlights: • Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by in situ polymerization of ionic liquid in the lithium polymer cells. • Flammability of the electrolyte was significantly reduced by polymerizing electrolyte containing a non-flammable ionic liquid monomer. • The cells assembled with polymeric ionic liquid-based electrolytes exhibited reversible cycling behavior with good capacity retention. -- Abstract: Lithium polymer cells composed of a lithium negative electrode and a LiCoO 2 positive electrode were assembled with a gel polymer electrolyte obtained by in situ polymerization of an electrolyte solution containing an ionic liquid monomer with vinyl groups. The polymerization of the electrolyte solution containing the non-flammable ionic liquid monomer resulted in a significant reduction of the flammability of the gel polymer electrolytes. The lithium polymer cell assembled with the stable gel polymer electrolyte delivered a discharge capacity of 134.3 mAh g −1 at ambient temperature and exhibited good capacity retention

  9. Electronic cigarette liquid increases inflammation and virus infection in primary human airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Wu

    Full Text Available The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes is rapidly increasing in the United States, especially among young people since e-cigarettes have been perceived as a safer alternative to conventional tobacco cigarettes. However, the scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes on the lung is extremely limited. The major goal of our current study is to determine if e-cigarette use alters human young subject airway epithelial functions such as inflammatory response and innate immune defense against respiratory viral (i.e., human rhinovirus, HRV infection.We examined the effects of e-cigarette liquid (e-liquid on pro-inflammatory cytokine (e.g., IL-6 production, HRV infection and host defense molecules (e.g., short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1, SPLUNC1 in primary human airway epithelial cells from young healthy non-smokers. Additionally, we examined the role of SPLUNC1 in lung defense against HRV infection using a SPLUNC1 knockout mouse model. We found that nicotine-free e-liquid promoted IL-6 production and HRV infection. Addition of nicotine into e-liquid further amplified the effects of nicotine-free e-liquid. Moreover, SPLUNC1 deficiency in mice significantly increased lung HRV loads. E-liquid inhibited SPLUNC1 expression in primary human airway epithelial cells. These findings strongly suggest the deleterious health effects of e-cigarettes in the airways of young people. Our data will guide future studies to evaluate the impact of e-cigarettes on lung health in human populations, and help inform the public about potential health risks of e-cigarettes.

  10. Solar desalination by freezing and distillation (United States)

    Kvajic, G.

    It is noted that among seawater desalination processes the absorption-freeze vapor compression processes based on the thermal heat pump, although untested commercially and still in the development stage, appears technically and economically an attractive application of low-grade (exergy) solar heat. The distillation processes proposed here may be conveniently powered by low-grade solar heat (from flat plate solar collectors). It is expected that the scaling problem will be insignificant in comparison with that encountered in the conventional multistage flash process. The novel feature here is the use of enlarged capacity for heat exchange between distillate and brine via latent heat of solid-liquid phase change of a suitable hydrophobic intermediate heat transfer material.

  11. Applications and Mechanisms of Ionic Liquids in Whole-Cell Biotransformation (United States)

    Fan, Lin-Lin; Li, Hong-Ji; Chen, Qi-He


    Ionic liquids (ILs), entirely composed of cations and anions, are liquid solvents at room temperature. They are interesting due to their low vapor pressure, high polarity and thermostability, and also for the possibility to fine-tune their physicochemical properties through modification of the chemical structures of their cations or anions. In recent years, ILs have been widely used in biotechnological fields involving whole-cell biotransformations of biodiesel or biomass, and organic compound synthesis with cells. Research studies in these fields have increased from the past decades and compared to the typical solvents, ILs are the most promising alternative solvents for cell biotransformations. However, there are increasing limitations and new challenges in whole-cell biotransformations with ILs. There is little understanding of the mechanisms of ILs’ interactions with cells, and much remains to be clarified. Further investigations are required to overcome the drawbacks of their applications and to broaden their application spectrum. This work mainly reviews the applications of ILs in whole-cell biotransformations, and the possible mechanisms of ILs in microbial cell biotransformation are proposed and discussed. PMID:25007820

  12. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration


    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Sahlin, Simon Lennart; Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Kær, Søren Knudsen


    The present work describes the ongoing development of high temperature PEM fuel cell systems fuelled by steam reformed methanol. Various fuel cell system solutions exist, they mainly differ depending on the desired fuel used. Hightemperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells offer the possibility of using liquid fuels such as methanol, due to the increased robustness of operating at higher temperatures (160-180oC). Using liquid fuels such as methanol removes the high volume demands of compressed hydroge...

  13. Microstructure study of a material on the basis of YSZ obtained be freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizea, A.; Abrudeanu, M.; Petot, C.; Petot Ervas, G.


    Freeze-drying is a dehydration proceeding of the products in a frozen state, which is based on the ice sublimation process. It is a method, which leads to a very good homogeneity of the products and it allows obtaining very fine powders, which directs to reducing the sintering temperature. Freeze drying always supposes three stages: - freezing, sublimation and absorption of the residual water. The preparation of ZrO 20.91 Y 2 O 30.09 samples proceeds through the following stages: - a. solution preparation; b. solution spraying (into small droplets in liquid nitrogen); c. freeze drying processing; d. calcination of the freeze dried powder; e. powder compacting; f. sintering at four different temperature. The different structure of samples with different density are characterized on basis of micrographs. The results of these analyses are presented, discussed and explained through the chemical composition of the samples

  14. A new portable device for automatic controlled-gradient cryopreservation of blood mononuclear cells. (United States)

    Hviid, L; Albeck, G; Hansen, B; Theander, T G; Talbot, A


    Protection of the functional integrity of mononuclear cells stored in liquid N2 requires careful control of the freezing procedure. Consequently, optimal quality of cryopreserved cells is usually assured by freezing according to a specified time-temperature gradient generated by computer-controlled freezing devices. While such equipment offers large capacity and secures maximum survival and functional integrity of the lymphocytes upon thawing, it is quite costly and strictly stationary. We have previously developed and tested an alternative, manual device for controlled-gradient lymphocyte freezing, which has proved suitable for field conditions. We report here the development and testing of a similar micro-controller regulated device, allowing unattended and automatic controlled-gradient cell freezing. The equipment exploits the temperature gradient present between the liquid N2 surface and the neck in an ordinary liquid N2 refrigerator. The lymphocyte samples are placed in a small elevator, which is moved through the N2 gas phase by a stepper motor. Time and temperature are measured at regular intervals, and the position of the samples adjusted to ensure that the actual measurements closely match encoded ideal values. Results of assays of the functional integrity and phenotypic composition of human mononuclear cells frozen by the new system were comparable to those obtained when using cells frozen by a commercially available, stationary cell-freezing equipment, or fresh autologous cell samples tested in parallel. Furthermore, there was a good correlation between functional and phenotypic data obtained using frozen and autologous fresh samples of mononuclear cells. The equipment described is low weight and has low N2 consumption, and is thus suitable for the collection and cryopreservation of lymphocytes under field conditions. Furthermore, the technique provides an inexpensive alternative for researchers with a limited requirement for the simultaneous freezing of

  15. Assessing storage of stability and mercury reduction of freeze-dried Pseudomonas putida within different types of lyoprotectant (United States)

    Azoddein, Abdul Aziz Mohd; Nuratri, Yana; Azli, Faten Ahada Mohd; Bustary, Ahmad Bazli


    Pseudomonas putida is a potential strain in biological treatment to remove mercury contained in the effluent of petrochemical industry due to its mercury reductase enzyme that able to reduce ionic mercury to elementary mercury. Freeze-dried P. putida allows easy, inexpensive shipping, handling and high stability of the product. This study was aimed to freeze dry P. putida cells with addition of lyoprotectant. Lyoprotectant was added into the cells suspension prior to freezing. Dried P. putida obtained was then mixed with synthetic mercury. Viability of recovery P. putida after freeze dry was significantly influenced by the type of lyoprotectant. Among the lyoprotectants, tween 80/ sucrose was found to be the best lyoprotectant. Sucrose was able to recover more than 78% (6.2E+09 CFU/ml) of the original cells (7.90E+09CFU/ml) after freeze dry and able to retain 5.40E+05 viable cells after 4 weeks storage at 4 °C without vacuum. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) pre-treated freeze dried cells and broth pre-treated freeze dried cells after the freeze-dry process recovered more than 64% (5.0 E+09CFU/ml) and >0.1% (5.60E+07CFU/ml). Freeze-dried P. putida cells in PEG and broth cannot survive after 4 weeks storage. Freeze dry also does not really change the pattern of growth P. putida but extension of lag time was found 1 hour after 3 weeks of storage. Additional time was required for freeze-dried P. putida cells to recover before introducing freeze-dried cells to more complicated condition such as mercury solution. The maximum mercury reduction of PEG pre-treated freeze-dried cells after freeze dry and after storage of 3 weeks was 17.91 %. The maximum of mercury reduction of tween 80/sucrose pre-treated freeze-dried cells after freeze dry and after storage 3 weeks was 25.03%. Freeze dried P. putida was found to have lower mercury reduction compare to the fresh P. putida that has been grown in agar. Result from this study may be beneficial and useful as initial reference before

  16. Compression Freezing Kinetics of Water to Ice VII (United States)

    Gleason, A. E.; Bolme, C. A.; Galtier, E.; Lee, H. J.; Granados, E.; Dolan, D. H.; Seagle, C. T.; Ao, T.; Ali, S.; Lazicki, A.; Swift, D.; Celliers, P.; Mao, W. L.


    Time-resolved x-ray diffraction (XRD) of compressed liquid water shows transformation to ice VII in 6 nsec, revealing crystallization rather than amorphous solidification during compression freezing. Application of classical nucleation theory indicates heterogeneous nucleation and one-dimensional (e.g., needlelike) growth. These first XRD data demonstrate rapid growth kinetics of ice VII with implications for fundamental physics of diffusion-mediated crystallization and thermodynamic modeling of collision or impact events on ice-rich planetary bodies.

  17. Gas/liquid sensing via chemotaxis of Euglena cells confined in an isolated micro-aquarium. (United States)

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Lee, Jeesoo; Song, Simon; Hara, Masahiko; Maeda, Mizuo


    We demonstrate on-chip gas/liquid sensing by using the chemotaxis of live bacteria (Euglena gracilis) confined in an isolated micro-aquarium, and gas/liquid permeation through porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The sensing chip consisted of one closed micro-aquarium and two separated bypass microchannels along the perimeter of the micro-aquarium. Test gas/liquid and reference samples were introduced into the two individual microchannels separately, and the gas/liquid permeated through the PDMS walls and dissolved in the micro-aquarium water, resulting in a chemical concentration gradient in the micro-aquarium. By employing the closed micro-aquarium isolated from sample flows, we succeeded in measuring the chemotaxis of Euglena for a gas substance quantitatively, which cannot be achieved with the conventional flow-type or hydro-gel-type microfluidic devices. We found positive (negative) chemotaxis for CO2 concentrations below (above) 15%, with 64 ppm as the minimum concentration affecting the cells. We also observed chemotaxis for ethanol and H2O2. By supplying culture medium via the microchannels, the Euglena culture remained alive for more than 2 months. The sensing chip is thus useful for culturing cells and using them for environmental toxicity/nutrition studies by monitoring their motion.

  18. Freeze-in through portals

    CERN Document Server

    Blennow, Mattias; Zaldivar, Bryan


    The popular freeze-out paradigm for Dark Matter (DM) production, relies on DM-baryon couplings of the order of the weak interactions. However, different search strategies for DM have failed to provide a conclusive evidence of such (non-gravitational) interactions, while greatly reducing the parameter space of many representative models. This motivates the study of alternative mechanisms for DM genesis. In the freeze-in framework, the DM is slowly populated from the thermal bath while never reaching equilibrium. In this work, we analyse in detail the possibility of producing a frozen-in DM via a mediator particle which acts as a portal. We give analytical estimates of different freeze-in regimes and support them with full numerical analyses, taking into account the proper distribution functions of bath particles. Finally, we constrain the parameter space of generic models by requiring agreement with DM relic abundance observations.

  19. A new portable device for automatic controlled-gradient cryopreservation of blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Albeck, G; Hansen, B


    -controlled freezing devices. While such equipment offers large capacity and secures maximum survival and functional integrity of the lymphocytes upon thawing, it is quite costly and strictly stationary. We have previously developed and tested an alternative, manual device for controlled-gradient lymphocyte freezing......, which has proved suitable for field conditions. We report here the development and testing of a similar micro-controller regulated device, allowing unattended and automatic controlled-gradient cell freezing. The equipment exploits the temperature gradient present between the liquid N2 surface...

  20. Freezing Damage to Isolated Tomato Fruit Mitochondria as Modified by Cryoprotective Agents and Storage Temperature 1 (United States)

    Dickinson, David B.; Misch, M. Joan; Drury, Robert E.


    Isolated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Kc 146) fruit mitochondria could be stored successfully in the frozen state without a cryoprotective agent if the mitochondria were frozen quickly by immersion in liquid nitrogen and later thawed quickly at 30 C. Criteria of freezing damage were rate of respiration, adenosine diphosphate to oxygen ratio, and respiratory control ratio. Marked reduction in respiration and loss of respiratory control occurred when mitochondria were transferred from liquid nitrogen to −5, −10, or −18 C for 15 minutes prior to thawing at 30 C. Dimethylsulfoxide (5%) prevented freezing damage when mitochondria were incubated at −5 C but did not prevent freezing damage at −10 or −18 C. Isolated tomato mitochondria show promise as a model system for studying the nature of freezing damage and the mode of action of cryo-protective agents. PMID:16657434

  1. Freezing damage to isolated tomato fruit mitochondria as modified by cryoprotective agents and storage temperature. (United States)

    Dickinson, D B; Misch, M J; Drury, R E


    Isolated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Kc 146) fruit mitochondria could be stored successfully in the frozen state without a cryoprotective agent if the mitochondria were frozen quickly by immersion in liquid nitrogen and later thawed quickly at 30 C. Criteria of freezing damage were rate of respiration, adenosine diphosphate to oxygen ratio, and respiratory control ratio. Marked reduction in respiration and loss of respiratory control occurred when mitochondria were transferred from liquid nitrogen to -5, -10, or -18 C for 15 minutes prior to thawing at 30 C. Dimethylsulfoxide (5%) prevented freezing damage when mitochondria were incubated at -5 C but did not prevent freezing damage at -10 or -18 C. Isolated tomato mitochondria show promise as a model system for studying the nature of freezing damage and the mode of action of cryo-protective agents.

  2. Time-resolved sign-dependent switching in a hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taphouse, T S; Cornford, S L; Birkett, J E; Sambles, J R


    An optical waveguide technique is used to determine the director tilt profile across a hybrid aligned nematic (HAN) liquid crystal cell, in which the optical response is dependent on the sign of the applied voltage. Two physical models are shown that fit the equilibrium experimental data, but with alternative explanations for this sign dependence. Models with either a flexoelectric coefficient of 2.25x10 -11 C m -1 or a bound surface charge of 12.2 μC m -2 are shown that fit this equilibrium data. In an attempt to resolve this degeneracy sign-dependent switching data are analysed. However, neither model can explain these switching data, which are affected by slow transients of ∼100 ms which are believed to be due to the motion of free ions in the liquid crystal. From the form of these slow transients, it is suggested that the equilibrium position of the ions is next to a cell substrate

  3. A new cryosurgical device for controlled freezing. (United States)

    Rabin, Y; Coleman, R; Mordohovich, D; Ber, R; Shitzer, A


    A new cryosurgical device was developed in this study to facilitate examination of factors affecting the outcome of cryotreatment. Special emphasis was placed on the control of the cooling rate at the freezing front. In the new computer-controlled cryosurgical device, the controlling variable is the cryoprobe temperature, which is calculated to ensure prespecified cooling rates at the freezing front. Details of the new cryodevice, results of a validation test, and the system characteristics are presented in Part I of this study. In this part of the study initial results of 13 in vivo experimental cryotreatments, including histological observations, are presented. The in vivo pilot investigations include the normal, healthy skin and the underlying skeletal muscle of the thighs in rabbits. Using low cooling rate-controlled freezing, the new cryosurgical device is demonstrated here as an effective surgical tool. An in vivo temperature measurement technique is employed based on miniature thermocouples and X-ray images. Thermal analysis of the heat transfer in the cryotreated tissue is presented, based on the temperature measurements and on numerical heat transfer simulations. Cryotreated tissue was extracted either immediately or 4 or 7 days following the procedure. The histological observations on the skeletal muscle of the 4- and 7-day postcryoinjury were not substantially different. The effective penetration depth of the cryolesion was in the range of 5-15 mm, possibly extending up to 25 mm, depending on the specific area treated and operating parameters. The cryotreatment resulted in complete destruction of cells in the skin followed by rapid replacement by epithelial cells. Histological responses to cryotreatment of skeletal muscle were similar to those resulting from a range of traumatic episodes, e.g., crush damage. It was also found that most of the blood vessels in the cryotreated region remained intact without histological evidence of extravasation of

  4. Raman spectral signatures of cervical exfoliated cells from liquid-based cytology samples (United States)

    Kearney, Padraig; Traynor, Damien; Bonnier, Franck; Lyng, Fiona M.; O'Leary, John J.; Martin, Cara M.


    It is widely accepted that cervical screening has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer worldwide. The primary screening test for cervical cancer is the Papanicolaou (Pap) test, which has extremely variable specificity and sensitivity. There is an unmet clinical need for methods to aid clinicians in the early detection of cervical precancer. Raman spectroscopy is a label-free objective method that can provide a biochemical fingerprint of a given sample. Compared with studies on infrared spectroscopy, relatively few Raman spectroscopy studies have been carried out to date on cervical cytology. The aim of this study was to define the Raman spectral signatures of cervical exfoliated cells present in liquid-based cytology Pap test specimens and to compare the signature of high-grade dysplastic cells to each of the normal cell types. Raman spectra were recorded from single exfoliated cells and subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. The study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy can identify biochemical signatures associated with the most common cell types seen in liquid-based cytology samples; superficial, intermediate, and parabasal cells. In addition, biochemical changes associated with high-grade dysplasia could be identified suggesting that Raman spectroscopy could be used to aid current cervical screening tests.

  5. Effect of chiral photosensitive liquid crystalline dopants on theperformance of organic solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iwan, A.; Boharewicz, B.; Tazbir, I.; Hamplová, Věra; Bubnov, Alexej


    Roč. 104, Feb (2015), s. 53-60 ISSN 0038-1101 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13PL041; GA ČR GA13-14133S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14007 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101204 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : organic solar cell * composite with liquid crystal Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2015

  6. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) sperm morphometry and function after repeated freezing and thawing. (United States)

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Esteso, M C; Pradiee, J; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; O'Brien, E; Lopez-Sebastián, A; Martínez-Nevado, E; Delclaux, M; Fernández-Morán, J; Zhihe, Z


    This work examines the effects of subsequent cycles of freezing-thawing on giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) sperm morphometry and function, and assesses whether density-gradient centrifugation (DGC) can increase the number of freezing-thawing cycles this sperm can withstand. A sperm sample was collected by electroejaculation from a mature giant panda and subjected to five freezing-thawing cycles. Although repeated freezing-thawing negatively affected (P 60% of the sperm cells in both treatments showed acrosome integrity even after the fifth freezing cycle. In fresh semen, the sperm head length was 4.7 μm, the head width 3.6 μm, area 14.3 μm(2) and perimeter length 14.1 μm. The present results suggest that giant panda sperm trends to be resistant to repeated freezing-thawing, even without DGC selection. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Antiproliferative Effects of Tetrabuthylammonium Chloride Ionic Liquid on HCT 8 Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Dumitrescu


    Full Text Available The ionic liquids have attracted a great of attention in the scientific community due to their potential pharmaceutical such as antimicrobial. In this paper, the main objective was the assessment of the cytotoxic effect of tetrabutylammonium chloride against HCT 8 human colon carcinoma cell line. The cells were cultured in 75 cm2 culture flasks  using RPMI medium supplemented with 10% inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS, penicillin (100 IU/mL and streptomycin (100 μg/mL and maintained at 37 °C and 5% CO2. Before achieving viability test, the cells were harvested using trypsin solution (0.25%. Then, the cells were seeded in 24 – well plates at a density of 5 x 105 cells/mL in 100 µL medium/well in order to reach confluence. After 24 h, the medium was replaced with fresh medium containing different concentrations of ionic liquid, respectively, 0.085, 0.17, 0.34, 0.68 and 1.36 mg /mL. Control group contained cells without treatment. Cell proliferation kinetics have been studied at 24 and 48 h after IL treatment, following trypsinization and counting total cells per plate by using a Trypan blue dye and a hemocytometer. Data obtained from the growth kinetics assay shows that the tetrabutylammonium chloride (TBAC had an inhibitory effect on the growth of cells in a concentration dependent manner. The maximum inhibitory effect on HCT 8 cells it was obtained at 1.36 mg TBAC/mL.

  8. Feasibility study on the use of liquid crystal/dye cells for digital signage (United States)

    Itaya, Shunsuke; Azumi, Nada Dianah B. M.; Ohta, Masamichi; Ozawa, Shintaro; Fujieda, Ichiro


    Elongated dye molecules orient themselves with surrounding liquid crystal molecules. We propose to incorporate such a guest-host cell in a screen of a projection display. This configuration might be applied for digital signage to be installed on building walls. Dual-mode operation is realized by the bias applied to the cell. In display-mode, the dye molecules are oriented in parallel to the substrate of the cell. When excited by ultra-violet light, photoluminescence (PL) is generated. Because it is mostly perpendicular to the long axis of the molecule, it exits the cell efficiently. In powerharvesting mode, they are oriented vertically. The PL generated by ambient light is directed to edge surfaces where solar cells are mounted. In experiment, we fabricated a cell with commonly-available materials (coumarin 6 and a nematic liquid crystal). Anti-parallel alignment condition was adopted. We recorded PL spectra from the cell for the two excitation conditions. First, the center of the cell was irradiated by a 1.69mW blue laser beam. Second, the whole cell was uniformly exposed to the light from a fluorescent lamp at illuminance of 800lx. From the measured spectra for these cases, the contrast of luminance is calculated to be 3.2 ×105 . This factor is improved to 5 7.5×105 by attaching a polarizer sheet on the cell surface. The optical power reaching its edge surfaces is measured and it roughly agrees with the prediction by a simple model neglecting self-absorption. Development of phosphor materials with a large Stokes shift is desired to boost performance of the proposed system.

  9. Self-assembled polyelectrolyte nanorings observed by liquid-cell AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menchaca, J-Luis; Flores, Hector; Cuisinier, Frederic; Perez, ElIas


    Self-assembled polyelectrolyte nanorings formed by polyelectrolytes are presented for the first time in this work. They are formed by poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfanate) (PSS) during the two first steps of the formation of the self-assembled polyelectrolyte films (SAPFs). These are formed on a negatively charged glass surface and observed by an in situ liquid-cell AFM technique, which has recently been introduced as an alternative technique to follow polyelectrolyte multilayer formation without drying effects (Menchaca et al 2003 Colloids Surf. A 222 185). Nanoring formation strongly depends on the preparation method and parameters such as polyelectrolyte filtration, air and CO 2 presence during SAPFs formation and buffer solution. A necessary condition to obtain nanorings is that polyelectrolyte solutions have to be filtered prior to injection into the liquid-cell AFM. The outer diameter of nanorings can be varied from hundreds of nanometres to microns by changing these parameters. Nanorings are stable in the liquid cell for hours but they disappear on contact with air. Additionally, carbonate ions seem to be mainly responsible for the formation of this novel structure

  10. Annealing effect in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing liquid crystalline phthalocyanine (United States)

    Ohmori, Masashi; Fukui, Hitoshi; Dao, Quang-Duy; Kumada, Taishi; Fujii, Akihiko; Shimizu, Yo; Ozaki, Masanori


    The effect of annealing on bulk heterojunction solar cells utilizing the liquid crystalline phthalocyanine, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2), fabricated using various solvents was studied. In the solar cells fabricated using chloroform, the power conversion efficiency was enhanced from 1.2 to 2.5% by thermal annealing at 75 °C, near the glass-transition temperature of the bulk heterojunction film. We discuss the effects of annealing on the photovoltaic properties by considering the exciton dissociation and carrier transport efficiencies obtained from photoluminescence spectra, X-ray diffraction measurement, and atomic force microscope observation.

  11. Structure of polarization-resolved conoscopic patterns of planar oriented liquid crystal cells (United States)

    Kiselev, A. D.; Vovk, R. G.


    The geometry of distributions of the polarization of light in conoscopic patterns of planar oriented nematic and cholesteric liquid crystal (LC) cells is described in terms of the polarization singularities including C-points (points of circular polarization) and L lines (lines of linear polarization). Conditions for the formation of polarization singularities ( C-points) in an ensemble of conoscopic patterns parametrized by the polarization azimuth and ellipticity of the incident light wave have been studied. A characteristic feature of these conditions is selectivity with respect to the polarization parameters of the incident light wave. The polarization azimuth and ellipticity are determining parameters for nematic and cholesteric LC cells, respectively.

  12. Changes in freezing point of blood and milk during dehydration and rehydration in lactating cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, M.; Rasmussen, M.D.; Nielsen, Mette Olaf


    We studied the influence of short-term changes in water intake in 4 lactating Holstein cows on diurnal fluctuation of packed cell volume (PCV), freezing point of blood (FP blood), freezing point of milk ( FP milk), and the relationship between changes in FP blood and FP milk. The experiment lasted...

  13. Three-Dimensional Microstructure of Biological Tissues during Freezing and Thawing (United States)

    Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Horimizu, Takashi; Kataori, Akinobu; Kajigaya, Hiroshi

    Three-dimensional behavior of ice crystals and cells during the freezing and thawing of biological tissues was investigated microscopically in real time by using a confocal laser scanning microscope(CLSM) and a fluorescent dye, acridine orange (AO). Fresh tender meat (2nd pectoral muscles) of chicken was stained with the AO in physiological saline to distinguish ice crystals and cells by their different colors, and then frozen and thawed under two different thermal protocols: a) slow-cooling and rapid-warming and b) rapid-cooling and rapid-warming. The CLSM noninvasively produced optical tomograms of the tissues to clarify the pattern of freezing, morphology of ice crystals in the tissues, and the interaction between ice crystals and cells. Also, the tissues were morphologically investigated by pathological means after the freezing and thawing. Typical freezing pattern during the slow-cooling was extracellular-freezing, and those during the rapid-cooling were extracellular-freezing and intracellular freezing with a lot of fine ice crystals in the cells. Cracks caused by the extracellular and intracellular ice crystals remained in the muscle tissues after the thawing. The results obtained by using the CLSM/dye method were consistent with pathologically morphological changes in the tissues through freezing and thawing.

  14. High-performance liquid-catalyst fuel cell for direct biomass-into-electricity conversion. (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Deng, Yulin


    Herein, we report high-performance fuel cells that are catalyzed solely by polyoxometalate (POM) solution without any solid metal or metal oxide. The novel design of the liquid-catalyst fuel cells (LCFC) changes the traditional gas-solid-surface heterogeneous reactions to liquid-catalysis reactions. With this design, raw biomasses, such as cellulose, starch, and even grass or wood powders can be directly converted into electricity. The power densities of the fuel cell with switchgrass (dry powder) and bush allamanda (freshly collected) are 44 mW cm(-2) and 51 mW cm(-2) respectively. For the cellulose-based biomass fuel cell, the power density is almost 3000 times higher than that of cellulose-based microbial fuel cells. Unlike noble-metal catalysts, POMs are tolerant to most organic and inorganic contaminants. Therefore, almost any raw biomass can be used directly to produce electricity without prior purification. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. In vitro comparison of the efficacy of TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB in combination with freeze-dried bone allografts for induction of osteogenic differentiation in MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. (United States)

    Vahabi, Surena; Torshabi, Maryam; Esmaeil Nejad, Azadeh


    Predictable regeneration of alveolar bone defects has always been a challenge in implant dentistry. Bone allografts are widely used bone substitutes with controversial osteoinductive activity. This in vitro study aimed to assess the osteogenic potential of some commercially available freeze-dried bone allografts supplemented with human recombinant platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor beta-1. Cell viability, mineralization, and osteogenic gene expression of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were compared among the allograft alone, allograft/platelet-derived growth factor-BB, allograft/transforming growth factor beta-1, and allograft/platelet-derived growth factor-BB/transforming growth factor beta-1 groups. The methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and alizarin red staining were performed, respectively, for assessment of cell viability, differentiation, and mineralization at 24-72 h post treatment. The allograft with greater cytotoxic effect on MG-63 cells caused the lowest differentiation among the groups. In comparison with allograft alone, allograft/transforming growth factor beta-1, and allograft/transforming growth factor beta-1/platelet-derived growth factor-BB caused significant upregulation of bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin osteogenic mid-late marker genes, and resulted in significantly higher amounts of calcified nodules especially in mineralized non-cytotoxic allograft group. Supplementation of platelet-derived growth factor-BB alone in 5 ng/mL concentration had no significant effect on differentiation or mineralization markers. According to the results, transforming growth factor beta-1 acts synergistically with bone allografts to enhance the osteogenic differentiation potential. Therefore, this combination may be useful for rapid transformation of undifferentiated cells into bone-forming cells for bone regeneration. However, platelet-derived growth factor

  16. The genetic characteristics in cytology and plant physiology of two wheat (Triticum aestivum) near isogenic lines with different freezing tolerances. (United States)

    Wang, Wenqiang; Hao, Qunqun; Wang, Wenlong; Li, Qinxue; Wang, Wei


    Freezing tolerance in taft plants relied more upon an ABA-independent- than an ABA-dependent antifreeze signaling pathway. Two wheat (Triticum aestivum) near isogenic lines (NIL) named tafs (freezing sensitivity) and taft (freezing tolerance) were isolated in the laboratory and their various cytological and physiological characteristics under freezing conditions were studied. Proplastid, cell membrane, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were less damaged by freezing treatment in taft than tafs plants. Chlorophyll, ATP, and thylakoid membrane protein contents were significantly higher, but malondialdehyde content was significantly lower in taft than tafs plants under freezing condition. Antioxidant capacity, as indicated by reactive oxygen species accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activity, and the relative gene expression were significantly greater in taft than tafs plants. Soluble sugars and abscisic acid (ABA) contents were significantly higher in taft plants than in tafs plants under both normal and freezing conditions. The upregulated expression levels of certain freezing tolerance-related genes were greater in taft than tafs plants under freezing treatment. The addition of sodium tungstate, an ABA synthesis inhibitor, led to only partial freezing tolerance inhibition in taft plants and the down-regulated expression of some ABA-dependent genes. Thus, both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent signaling pathways are involved in the freezing tolerance of taft plants. At the same time, freezing tolerance in taft plants relied more upon an ABA-independent- than an ABA-dependent antifreeze signaling pathway.

  17. Enhancing osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells by immobilizing RGD onto liquid crystal substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Shaopeng; Yang, Xiaohui; Li, Wenqiang; Du, Lin; Zeng, Rong; Tu, Mei


    To understand the effects of GRGDF modification on MC3T3-E1 cell behavior, we cultured these cells onto a biomimetic liquid crystalline matrix modified with GRGDF peptide (OPC-GA-RGD). Successful immobilization of GRGDF on the liquid crystalline surface was verified by fluorescent labeling, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). OPC-GA-RGDs retained its liquid crystalline feature after surface modification. The RGD-immobilized OPC substrate was hardly beneficial to initial cell adhesion but could support long-term cell survival. The enhancement in cell proliferation did not correlate with RGD density. The lower GRGDF density immobilized on the liquid crystalline OPC matrix (OPC-GA-RGD3) promoted cell adhesion, proliferation, ALP expression level and mineralization, suggesting that both the viscoelasticity-based mechanical stimuli and receptor/ligand-based biochemical cue synergistically modulate MC3T3-E1 cell behavior. - Highlight: • A novel type of GRGDF-immobilized liquid crystalline matrices was fabricated and served as a substrate for the in vitro culture of MC3T3-E1 cells. • The lower RGD density might provide a better condition for initial cell adhesion and proliferation, up-regulation of ALP expression levels, and mineralization. • The intrinsic liquid crystalline feature of OPC matrix, instead of RGD efficiency, promoted initial cell adhesion. • Properties of the liquid crystalline OPC matrix together with the stable receptor-ligand binging synergistically modulated MC3T3-E1 cell behavior.

  18. Topological structure in polarization resolved conoscopic patterns for nematic liquid crystal cells (United States)

    Buinyi, Igor O.; Denisenko, Vladimir G.; Soskin, Marat S.


    We investigate the polarization structure of coherent light, produced by a convergent light beam transmitted through nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells with different director configurations. Employing solutions to the transmission problem for the case when plane wave propagates through an anisotropic layer, we analyze the arrangement of the topological elements, such as polarization singularities (C points with circular polarization and L lines with linear polarization), saddle points and extrema of polarization azimuth. We observe transformations of the topological structure under the variation of the incident light ellipticity and represent it by corresponding trajectories of topological elements in three-dimensional space. For the cells with uniform and non-uniform director configuration we describe the processes of creation/annihilation of C point pairs, which can be controlled precisely in the case of the cell with non-uniform director. Our experimental measurements for the homeotropically oriented NLC cells are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  19. A fast-freezing device with a retractable environmental chamber, suitable for kinetic cryo-electron microscopy studies. (United States)

    Trachtenberg, S


    The design and construction of a fast-freezing device are described. A polycarbonate chamber, in which the humidity and temperature are controlled by microprocessors, slides on a robust chassis guided by ball or Teflon bushings. In its freezing position, the chamber rests on top of the cryogen vessel. The specimen is therefore frozen directly from the experimental conditions within the chamber without exposure to the external environment. After freezing, the chamber, but not the specimen, rises automatically, vacating space for handling the specimen. The chamber, the shutter, and the specimen are all driven pneumatically at an adjustable speed of up to approximately 10 m s-1 and coordinated by either pneumatic or electronic logical gates. Provisions are made for automatic blotting, spraying, and flashing. The chamber is compatible with a liquid nitrogen-cooled copper block assembly for impact (slam) freezing for freeze-substitution and freeze-fracture. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  20. Freezing of ionic melts into a superionic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.; Tosi, M.P.


    With the specific case of BaCl 2 in mind, for which neutron diffraction data is available, we have studied the theory of freezing of an ionic melt into a superionic phase. The idea underlying the theory presented here is that the rather highly ordered cation assembly in molten BaCl 2 revealed by the neutron experiment, leads to cation sub-lattice freezing with the usual volume change associated with the first-order phase transition. This has two effects on the anions: (i) it imposes a volume change and (ii) it modulates the number density of the anions from its homogeneous form above the freezing temperature. Explicitly, this modulation is calculated in linear response approximation in terms of (i) the Fourier components of the density in the cation sub-lattice and (ii) the liquid direct correlation functions csub(Ba-Cl) and csub(Cl-Cl). This treatment shows that the freezing transition is a balance between the free energy increase associated with the ordering of the singlet densities of anions and cations and the decrease due to the volume contraction. Taking the volume change from experiment, the modulation of the singlet densities at the first reciprocal lattice vector can be estimated. (author)

  1. Analysis of an active tubular liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Faghri, Amir


    A two-dimensional, two-phase, non-isothermal model was developed for an active, tubular, liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The liquid-gas, two-phase mass transport in the porous anode and cathode was formulated based on the multi-fluid approach in the porous media. The two-phase mass transport in the anode and cathode channels was modeled using the drift-flux and the homogeneous mist-flow models, respectively. Water and methanol crossovers through the membrane were considered due to the effects of diffusion, electro-osmotic drag, and convection. The model enabled a numerical investigation of the effects of various operating parameters, such as current density, methanol flow rate, and oxygen flow rate, on the mass and heat transport characteristics in the tubular DMFC. It was shown that by choosing a proper tube radius and distance between the adjacent cells, a tubular DMFC stack can achieve a much higher energy density compared to its planar counterpart. The results also showed that a large anode flow rate is needed in order to avoid severe blockage of liquid methanol to the anode electrode due to the gas accumulation in the channel. Besides, lowering the flow rate of either the methanol solution or air can lead to a temperature increase along the flow channel. The methanol and water crossovers are nearly independent of the methanol flow rate and the air flow rate.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Conductivity of Meat During Freezing (United States)

    Shinbayeva, A.; Arkharov, I.; Aldiyarov, A.; Drobyshev, A.; Zhubaniyazova, M.; Kurnosov, V.


    The cryogenic technologies of processing and storage of agricultural products are becoming increasingly indispensable in the food industry as an important factor of ensuring food safety. One of such technologies is the shock freezing of meat, which provides a higher degree of preservation of the quality of frozen products in comparison with traditional technologies. The thermal conductivity of meat is an important parameter influencing the energy consumption in the freezing process. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of beef. The measurements were taken by using a specially designed measurement cell, which allows covering the temperature range from 80 to 300 K.

  3. Fusion of liposomes with the plasma membrane of epithelial cells: Fate of incorporated lipids as followed by freeze fracture and autoradiography of plastic sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoll, G.; Burger, K.N.J.; Bron, R.; van Meer, G.; Verkleij, A.J.


    The fusion of liposomes with the plasma membrane of influenza virus-infected monolayers of an epithelial cell line, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (van Meer et al., 1985. Biochemistry, 24: 3593-3602), has been analyzed by morphological techniques. The distribution of liposomal lipids over the

  4. Solid-oxide fuel cell operated on in situ catalytic decomposition products of liquid hydrazine (United States)

    Gu, Hongxia; Ran, Ran; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping; Ahn, Jeongmin

    Hydrazine was examined as a fuel for a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that employed a typical nickel-based anode. An in situ catalytic decomposition of hydrazine at liquid state under room temperature and ambient pressure before introducing to the fuel cell was developed by applying a Ba 0.5Sr 0.5Co 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ (BSCF) oxide catalyst. Catalytic testing demonstrated that liquid N 2H 4 can be decomposed to gaseous NH 3 and H 2 at a favorable rate and at a temperature as low as 20 °C and H 2 selectivity reaching values as high as 10% at 60 °C. Comparable fuel cell performance was observed using either the in situ decomposition products of hydrazine or pure hydrogen as fuel. A peak power density of ∼850 mW cm -2 at 900 °C was obtained with a typical fuel cell composed of scandia-stabilized zirconia and La 0.8Sr 0.2MnO 3 cathode. The high energy and power density, easy storage and simplicity in fuel delivery make it highly attractive for portable applications.

  5. Effect of Freezing on Spermatozoa from Tigaie Rams Belonging to the Mountain Ecotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Miclea


    Full Text Available Our aim was to study the influence of freezing on the viability and frequency of abnormalities in frozen ram spermatozoa. Sperm was collected form 20 rams belonging to the mountain ecotype of the Tigaie breed using the artificial vagina technique and volume and motility were assessed. Afterward it was diluted with Tryladil (1:4 supplemented with 20% egg yolk and heated at 37°C. Subsequently the temperature decreased at a rate of 0.2°C/minute until reaching 4°C and an equilibration time of 2 hours followed. During this time the diluted sperm was packaged in 0.25 ml straws. After sealing these were kept 6 cm above liquid nitrogen level for 13 minutes (- 120°C and then plunged into nitrogen. Volume, motility and concentration were assessed before freezing. After thawing sperm morphology was assessed using Hancock’s method and at the same time the endurance (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes and HOST tests were performed. The highest motility (0.40 was graded at 30 minutes. It could be correlated with the increased percentage of HOST positive spermatozoa, 27.78%. The percentage of abnormal spermatozoa was also high (47.89%, 38.44% of them having acrosome flaws. Cryopreservation has a negative effect on the characteristics of sperm cells from Tigaie rams belonging to the mountain ecotype.

  6. Freeze and Thaw of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Results in Loss of CD62L Expression and a Reduced Capacity to Protect against Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Florek

    Full Text Available The adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs in murine models of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT has been shown to protect recipient mice from lethal acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD and this approach is being actively investigated in human clinical trials. Here, we examined the effects of cryopreservation on Tregs. We found that freeze and thaw of murine and human Tregs is associated with reduced expression of L-selectin (CD62L, which was previously established to be an important factor that contributes to the in vivo protective effects of Tregs. Frozen and thawed murine Tregs showed a reduced capacity to bind to the CD62L binding partner MADCAM1 in vitro as well as an impaired homing to secondary lymphoid organs in vivo. Upon adoptive transfer frozen and thawed Tregs failed to protect against lethal GVHD compared with fresh Tregs in a murine model of allogeneic HCT across major histocompatibility barriers. In summary, the direct administration of adoptively transferred frozen and thawed Tregs adversely affects their immunosuppressive potential which is an important factor to consider in the clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapies.

  7. LSA Large Area Silicon Sheet Task. Continuous Liquid Feed Czochralski Growth. [for solar cell fabrication (United States)

    Fiegl, G.


    The design and development of equipment and processes to demonstrate continuous growth of crystals by the Czochralski method suitable for producing single silicon crystals for use in solar cells is presented. The growth of at least 150 kg of mono silicon crystal, 150 mm in diameter is continuous from one growth container. A furnace with continuous liquid replenishment of the growth crucible, accomplished by a meltdown system with a continuous solid silicon feed mechanism and a liquid transfer system, with associated automatic feedback controls is discussed. Due to the silicon monoxide build up in the furnace and its retarding effect on crystal growth the furnace conversion for operation in the low pressure range is described. Development of systems for continuous solid recharging of the meltdown chamber for various forms of poly silicon is described.

  8. Investigating the use of in situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy to explore DNA-mediated gold nanoparticle growth (United States)

    Nguy, Amanda

    Engineering nanoparticles with desired shape-dependent properties is the key to many applications in nanotechnology. Although many synthetic procedures exist to produce anisotropic gold nanoparticles, the dynamics of growth are typically unknown or hypothetical. In the case of seed-mediated growth in the presence of DNA into anisotropic nanoparticles, it is not known exactly how DNA directs growth into specific morphologies. A series of preliminary experiments were carried out to contribute to the investigation of the possible mechanism of DNA-mediated growth of gold nanoprisms into gold nanostars using liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Imaging in the liquid phase was achieved through the use of a liquid cell platform and liquid cell holder that allow the sample to be contained within a “chip sandwich” between two electron transparent windows. Ex situ growth experiments were performed using Au-T30 NPrisms (30-base thymine oligonucleotide-coated gold nanoprisms) that are expected to grow into gold nanostars. Growth to form these nanostars were imaged using TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and liquid cell STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy). An attempt to perform in situ growth experiments with the same Au-T30 nanoprisms revealed challenges in obtaining desired morphology results due to the environmental differences within the liquid cell compared to the ex situ environment. Different parameters in the experimental method were explored including fluid line set up, simultaneous and alternating reagent addition, and the effect of different liquid cell volumes to ensure adequate flow of reagents into the liquid cell. Lastly, the binding affinities were compared for T30 and A30 DNA incubated with gold nanoparticles using zeta potential measurements, absorption spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). It was previously reported thymine bases have a lower binding affinity to gold surfaces than

  9. Influence of the freezing method on the changes that occur in grape samples after frozen storage. (United States)

    Santesteban, Luis G; Miranda, Carlos; Royo, José B


    Sample freezing is frequently used in oenological laboratories as a compromise solution to increase the number of samples that can be analysed, despite the fact that some grape characteristics are known to change after frozen storage. However, freezing is usually performed using standard freezers, which provide a slow freezing. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether blast freezing would decrease the impact of standard freezing on grape composition. Grape quality parameters were assessed in fresh and in frozen stored samples that had been frozen using three different procedures: standard freezing and blast freezing using either a blast freezer or an ultra-freezer. The implications of frozen storage in grape samples reported in earlier research were observed for the three freezing methods evaluated. Although blast freezing improved repeatability for the most problematic parameters (tartaric acidity, TarA; total phenolics, TP), the improvement was not important from a practical point of view. However, TarA and TP were relatively repeatable among the three freezing procedures, which suggests that freezing had an effect on these parameters independently of the method used . According to our results, the salification potential of the must is probably implied in the changes observed for TarA, whereas for TP the precipitation of protoanthocyanins after association with cell wall material is hypothesized to cause the lack of repeatability between fresh and frozen grapes. Blast freezing would not imply a great improvement if implemented in oenological laboratories, at least for the parameters included in this study. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of a liquid formulation of hydroxyurea in children with sickle cell anemia. (United States)

    Estepp, Jeremie H; Melloni, Chiara; Thornburg, Courtney D; Wiczling, Paweł; Rogers, Zora; Rothman, Jennifer A; Green, Nancy S; Liem, Robert; Brandow, Amanda M; Crary, Shelley E; Howard, Thomas H; Morris, Maurine H; Lewandowski, Andrew; Garg, Uttam; Jusko, William J; Neville, Kathleen A


    Hydroxyurea (HU) is a crucial therapy for children with sickle cell anemia, but its off-label use is a barrier to widespread acceptance. We found HU exposure is not significantly altered by liquid vs capsule formulation, and weight-based dosing schemes provide consistent exposure. HU is recommended for all children starting as young as 9 months of age with sickle cell anemia (SCA; HbSS and HbSβspan(0) thalassemia); however; a paucity of pediatric data exists regarding the pharmacokinetics (PK) or the exposure-response relationship of HU. This trial aimed to characterize the PK of HU in children and to evaluate and compare the bioavailability of a liquid vs capsule formulation. This multicenter; prospective; open-label trial enrolled 39 children with SCA who provided 682 plasma samples for PK analysis following administration of HU. Noncompartmental and population PK models are described. We report that liquid and capsule formulations of HU are bioequivalent; weight-based dosing schemes provide consistent drug exposure; and age-based dosing schemes are unnecessary. These data support the use of liquid HU in children unable to swallow capsules and in those whose weight precludes the use of fixed capsule formulations. Taken with existing safety and efficacy literature; these findings should encourage the use of HU across the spectrum of age and weight in children with SCA; and they should facilitate the expanded use of HU as recommended in the National Heart; Lung; and Blood Institute guidelines for individuals with SCA. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. Diffraction-unlimited optical imaging of unstained living cells in liquid by electron beam scanning of luminescent environmental cells. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hideki T; Kasaya, Takeshi; Takemura, Taro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Yasuda, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Hiroshi


    An environmental cell with a 50-nm-thick cathodoluminescent window was attached to a scanning electron microscope, and diffraction-unlimited near-field optical imaging of unstained living human lung epithelial cells in liquid was demonstrated. Electrons with energies as low as 0.8 - 1.2 kV are sufficiently blocked by the window without damaging the specimens, and form a sub-wavelength-sized illumination light source. A super-resolved optical image of the specimen adhered to the opposite window surface was acquired by a photomultiplier tube placed below. The cells after the observation were proved to stay alive. The image was formed by enhanced dipole radiation or energy transfer, and features as small as 62 nm were resolved.

  12. Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Pem Fuel Cells (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.


    The performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using various types of Nafion membranes as the solid polymer electrolyte have been studied. The rate of fuel crossover and electrical performance has been measured for cells with Nafion membranes of various thicknesses and equivalent weights. The crossover rate is found to decrease with increasing thickness and applied current. The dependence of crossover rate on current density can be understood in terms of a simple linear diffusion model which suggests that the crossover rate can be influenced by the electrode structure in addition to the membrane. The studies suggest that Nafion EW 1500 is a very promising alternate to Nafion EW 1100 for direct methanol fuel cells.

  13. State transitions and physicochemical aspects of cryoprotection and stabilization in freeze-drying of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). (United States)

    Pehkonen, K S; Roos, Y H; Miao, S; Ross, R P; Stanton, C


    The frozen and dehydrated state transitions of lactose and trehalose were determined and studied as factors affecting the stability of probiotic bacteria to understand physicochemical aspects of protection against freezing and dehydration of probiotic cultures. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was frozen (-22 or -43 degrees C), freeze-dried and stored under controlled water vapour pressure (0%, 11%, 23% and 33% relative vapour pressure) conditions. Lactose, trehalose and their mixture (1 : 1) were used as protective media. These systems were confirmed to exhibit relatively similar state transition and water plasticization behaviour in freeze-concentrated and dehydrated states as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Ice formation and dehydrated materials were studied using cold-stage microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Trehalose and lactose-trehalose gave the most effective protection of cell viability as observed from colony forming units after freezing, dehydration and storage. Enhanced cell viability was observed when the freezing temperature was -43 degrees C. State transitions of protective media affect ice formation and cell viability in freeze-drying and storage. Formation of a maximally freeze-concentrated matrix with entrapped microbial cells is essential in freezing prior to freeze-drying. Freeze-drying must retain a solid amorphous state of protectant matrices. Freeze-dried matrices contain cells entrapped in the protective matrices in the freezing process. The retention of viability during storage seems to be controlled by water plasticization of the protectant matrix and possibly interactions of water with the dehydrated cells. Highest cell viability was obtained in glassy protective media. This study shows that physicochemical properties of protective media affect the stability of dehydrated cultures. Trehalose and lactose may be used in combination, which is particularly important for the stabilization of probiotic bacteria in dairy

  14. Holographic binary grating liquid crystal cells fabricated by one-step exposure of photocrosslinkable polymer liquid crystalline alignment substrates to a polarization interference ultraviolet beam. (United States)

    Kawai, Kotaro; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Noda, Kohei; Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi


    Holographic binary grating liquid crystal (LC) cells, in which the optical anisotropy was rectangularly modulated even as the grating was fabricated using holographic exposure, were fabricated by one-step polarization holographic exposure of an empty glass cell, the interior of which was coated with a photocrosslinkable polymer LC (PCLC). The present study is of great significance in that three types of holographic binary grating LC cells containing twisted alignments can be fabricated by simultaneous exposure of two PCLC substrates to the UV interference beams, which are sinusoidally modulated. The polarization conversion properties of the diffracted beams are explained well by theoretical analysis based on Jones calculus.

  15. Cryoprotectant-free ultra-rapid freezing of human spermatozoa in cryogenic vials. (United States)

    Zhu, J; Jin, R-T; Wu, L-M; Johansson, L; Guo, T-H; Liu, Y-S; Tong, X-H


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-rapid freezing (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen) on human spermatozoa in cryogenic vials (≥0.5 ml) at different concentrations of sucrose. After swim-up, the sperm suspensions (N = 58) were diluted with sperm preparation medium and divided into six aliquots: swim-up (fresh), conventional freezing group (slow freezing) and four ultra-rapid freezing groups containing sucrose at different concentrations (0.15 m, 0.20 m, 0.25 m and 0.30 m). Sperm motility, progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, DNA stability and acrosome integrity of fresh and cooled-warmed spermatozoa were analysed. The progressive motility, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa in the 0.20 m sucrose group were significantly higher than those of the slow freezing group (47.5 ± 6.8% versus 36.4 ± 8.7%, 73.2 ± 6.9% versus 63.9 ± 6.3%, 53.7 ± 10.0% versus 35.9 ± 9.7% respectively, P 0.05 respectively) between the 0.20 m sucrose and the slow freezing group. No differences were found between the ultra-rapid and slow freezing group at the other concentrations of sucrose. Our findings suggest that the method of ultra-rapid freezing of human spermatozoa in cryogenic vials with a solution containing 0.20 m sucrose results in recovery of spermatozoon of superior qualities. In contrast to slow freezing, the ultra-rapid freezing technique of human spermatozoa seems to reduce cryoinjuries and maintain important physiological characteristics of the spermatozoa after warming. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Critical Radius of Supercooled Water Droplets: On the Transition toward Dendritic Freezing. (United States)

    Buttersack, Tillmann; Bauerecker, Sigurd


    The freezing of freely suspended supercooled water droplets with a diameter of bigger than a few micrometers splits into two rather different freezing stages. Within the first very fast dendritic freezing stage a spongy network ice with an ice portion of less than one-third forms and more than two-thirds of liquid water remain. In the present work the distribution of the ice portion in the droplet directly after the dendritic freezing phase as well as the evolution of the ice and temperature distribution has been investigated in dependence of the most relevant parameters as droplet diameter, dendritic freezing velocity (which correlates with the supercooling) and heat transfer coefficient to the surroundings (which correlates with the relative droplet velocity compared to the ambient air and with the droplet size). For this purpose on the experimental side acoustically levitated droplets in climate chambers have been investigated in combination with high-speed cameras. The obtained results have been used for finite element method (FEM) simulations of the dendritic freezing phase under consideration of the beginning second, much slower heat-transfer dominated freezing phase. A theoretical model covering 30 layers and 5 shells of the droplet has been developed which allows one to describe the evolution of both freezing phases at the same time. The simulated results are in good agreement with experimental as well as with calculated results exploiting the heat balance equation. The most striking result of this work is the critical radius of the droplet which describes the transition of one-stage freezing of the supercooled water droplet toward the thermodynamically forced dendritical two-stage freezing in which the droplet cannot sufficiently get rid of the formation heat anymore. Depending on the parameters named above this critical radius was found to be in the range of 0.1 to 1 μm by FEM simulation.

  17. Medical and social egg freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lallemant, Camille; Vassard, Ditte; Andersen, Anders Nyboe


    INTRODUCTION: Until recently, limited options for preserving fertility in order to delay childbearing were available. Although egg freezing and successful thawing is now possible, it remains unclear to what extent women are aware of the availability of this technique, their attitudes towards its ...... planning. Reassurance regarding its efficacy appears more important than its potential adverse effects on their health or that of future children, or the costs of the procedure....

  18. PHBV/PLLA-based composite scaffolds fabricated using an emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique for bone tissue engineering: surface modification and in vitro biological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, Naznin; Wang Min


    Tissue engineering combines living cells with biodegradable materials and/or bioactive components. Composite scaffolds containing biodegradable polymers and nanosized osteoconductive bioceramic with suitable properties are promising for bone tissue regeneration. In this paper, based on blending two biodegradable and biocompatible polymers, namely poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) with incorporated nano hydroxyapatite (HA), three-dimensional composite scaffolds with controlled microstructures and an interconnected porous structure, together with high porosity, were fabricated using an emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique. The influence of various parameters involved in the emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique was studied for the fabrication of good-quality polymer scaffolds based on PHBV polymers. The morphology, mechanical properties and crystallinity of PHBV/PLLA and HA in PHBV/PLLA composite scaffolds and PHBV polymer scaffolds were studied. The scaffolds were coated with collagen in order to improve wettability. During in vitro biological evaluation study, it was observed that SaOS-2 cells had high attachment on collagen-coated scaffolds. Significant improvement in cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity for HA-incorporated composite scaffolds was observed due to the incorporation of HA. After 3 and 7 days of culture on all scaffolds, SaOS-2 cells also had normal morphology and growth. These results indicated that PHBV/PLLA-based scaffolds fabricated via an emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique were favorable sites for osteoblastic cells and are promising for the applications of bone tissue engineering.

  19. Toward protic ionic liquid and organic ionic plastic crystal electrolytes for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Usman Ali; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Pringle, Jennifer M.


    Highlights: ► Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells that can operate above 120 °C, without humidification, would be much more commercially viable. ► Protic ionic liquids and organic ionic plastic crystals are showing increasing promise as anhydrous proton conductors in fuel cells. ► Here we review the recent progress in these two areas. - Abstract: There is increasing demand for the development of anhydrous proton conducting electrolytes, most notably to allow the development of fuel cells that can operate at temperatures above 120 °C, without the need for constant and controlled humidification. The emerging field of protic ionic liquids (PILs) represents a promising new direction for this research and the development of these materials has made significant progress in recent years. In a related but as yet little-explored avenue, proton conducting organic ionic plastic crystals offer the potential advantage of providing a solid state matrix for anhydrous proton conductivity. Here we discuss the recent progress in these areas and identify the key challenges for future research.

  20. Toward a tandem gallium phosphide on silicon solar cell through liquid phase epitaxy growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotulak, Nicole A.; Diaz, Martin; Barnett, Allen; Opila, Robert L.


    Three layers of GaP were epitaxially grown on Si(111) using liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) to demonstrate a path to fabrication of a GaP/Si tandem solar cell. Utilizing a Sn melt with Bi, Mg, and Si additives, direct epitaxial growth on a Si substrate occurred. This was followed by two further epitaxial growths, eliminating Si in the melt, with each layer decreasing in Si concentration. Scanning electron and optical microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy were performed in order to determine the characteristics of the growth layers. A fourth layer growth of GaP was attempted utilizing a Ga melt, and the existing structure was able to withstand contact with Ga without dissolution. Epitaxial layers of GaP with a decrease in Si concentration from 10-15% to 6%, then to less than 3%, were accomplished, thereby demonstrating a path to fabrication of a GaP/Si tandem cell using LPE. - Highlights: • A path to a GaP/Si tandem solar cell device was developed using liquid phase epitaxy. • Due to the high solubility of Si in GaP, multiple layers of GaP were grown. • Each epitaxial layer required the development of specific growth conditions

  1. The emerging roles of NGS-based liquid biopsy in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Zhang


    Full Text Available Abstract The treatment paradigm of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC has evolved into oncogene-directed precision medicine. Identifying actionable genomic alterations is the initial step towards precision medicine. An important scientific progress in molecular profiling of NSCLC over the past decade is the shift from the traditional piecemeal fashion to massively parallel sequencing with the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS. Another technical advance is the development of liquid biopsy with great potential in providing a dynamic and comprehensive genomic profiling of NSCLC in a minimally invasive manner. The integration of NGS with liquid biopsy has been demonstrated to play emerging roles in genomic profiling of NSCLC by increasing evidences. This review summarized the potential applications of NGS-based liquid biopsy in the diagnosis and treatment of NSCLC including identifying actionable genomic alterations, tracking spatiotemporal tumor evolution, dynamically monitoring response and resistance to targeted therapies, and diagnostic value in early-stage NSCLC, and discussed emerging challenges to overcome in order to facilitate clinical translation in future.

  2. Membraneless laminar flow cell for electrocatalytic CO2 reduction with liquid product separation (United States)

    Monroe, Morgan M.; Lobaccaro, Peter; Lum, Yanwei; Ager, Joel W.


    The production of liquid fuel products via electrochemical reduction of CO2 is a potential path to produce sustainable fuels. However, to be practical, a separation strategy is required to isolate the fuel-containing electrolyte produced at the cathode from the anode and also prevent the oxidation products (i.e. O2) from reaching the cathode. Ion-conducting membranes have been applied in CO2 reduction reactors to achieve this separation, but they represent an efficiency loss and can be permeable to some product species. An alternative membraneless approach is developed here to maintain product separation through the use of a laminar flow cell. Computational modelling shows that near-unity separation efficiencies are possible at current densities achievable now with metal cathodes via optimization of the spacing between the electrodes and the electrolyte flow rate. Laminar flow reactor prototypes were fabricated with a range of channel widths by 3D printing. CO2 reduction to formic acid on Sn electrodes was used as the liquid product forming reaction, and the separation efficiency for the dissolved product was evaluated with high performance liquid chromatography. Trends in product separation efficiency with channel width and flow rate were in qualitative agreement with the model, but the separation efficiency was lower, with a maximum value of 90% achieved.

  3. Process analysis of a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell system (United States)

    Andrian, Stefanie v.; Meusinger, Josefin

    Recently, a greatly increasing interest in solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) for a range of applications has been observed. The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) based on a PEFC uses methanol directly for electric power generation and promises technical advantages, for example, for power trains. This study analyses the interaction between a DMFC stack fed with a liquid aqueous methanol solution and the peripheral system equipment. A simulation model of a DMFC system for mobile applications (from methanol to net electricity) is presented to calculate system efficiencies on the basis of thermodynamic engineering calculations. Based on the simulation calculations, useful operating requirements can be specified. To optimise the performance of DMFC systems, it is necessary to consider the operational characteristics of all the components required in the system. There are worldwide activities to improve the performance of a DMFC stack, which depends on numerous operating parameters. But it is not sufficient to optimise only the current/potential curves of the fuel cell without taking all the consequences for the system into consideration. The results of the computer simulation presented here emphasise the difficulties in improving fuel cell performance without decreasing system efficiency and describes the consequences for the system's operation conditions. Priorities are additionally set concerning the heat management of the fuel cell stack. In the case of liquid fuel supply, the water crossover through the membrane and the ensuing vapourisation at the cathode side impairs the thermal balance. Key operating parameters, which influence these effects, are pressure, temperature, air flow and methanol permeation rate.

  4. Vapours of US and EU Market Leader Electronic Cigarette Brands and Liquids Are Cytotoxic for Human Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela Putzhammer

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to provide toxicological data on e-cigarette vapours of different e-cigarette brands and liquids from systems viewed as leaders in the e-cigarette market and to compare e-cigarette vapour toxicity to the toxicity of conventional strong high-nicotine cigarette smoke. Using an adapted version of a previously constructed cigarette smoke constituent sampling device, we collected the hydrophilic fraction of e-cigarette vapour and exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs to the mixture of compounds present in the vapour of 4 different single-use e-cigarettes, 6 different liquid vapours produced by the same refillable e-cigarette, and one e-cigarette with an exchangeable liquid cartridge. After incubation of cells with various concentrations and for various periods of time we analysed cell death induction, proliferation rates, the occurrence of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species, cell morphology, and we also measured e-cigarette heating coil temperatures. Overall, conventional cigarette smoke extract showed the most severe impact on endothelial cells. However, some e-cigarette vapour extracts showed high cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, and alterations in cell morphology, which were comparable to conventional high-nicotine cigarettes. The vapours generated from different liquids using the same e-cigarette show substantial differences, pointing to the liquids as an important source for toxicity. E-cigarette vapour-mediated induction of oxidative stress was significant in one out of the 11 analysed vapours. There is a high variability in the acute cytotoxicity of e-cigarette vapours depending on the liquid and on the e-cigarettes used. Some products showed toxic effects close to a conventional high-nicotine cigarette. Liquid nicotine, menthol content, and the formation of acute intracellular reactive oxygen species do not seem to be the central elements in e-cigarette vapour toxicity.

  5. A dose-controlled system for air-liquid interface cell exposure and application to zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferron George A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineered nanoparticles are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and their toxicological effects on human health, as well as on the ecosystem, have become a concern. Since initial contact with nanoparticles occurs at the epithelium in the lungs (or skin, or eyes, in vitro cell studies with nanoparticles require dose-controlled systems for delivery of nanoparticles to epithelial cells cultured at the air-liquid interface. Results A novel air-liquid interface cell exposure system (ALICE for nanoparticles in liquids is presented and validated. The ALICE generates a dense cloud of droplets with a vibrating membrane nebulizer and utilizes combined cloud settling and single particle sedimentation for fast (~10 min; entire exposure, repeatable (2. The cell-specific deposition efficiency is currently limited to 0.072 (7.2% for two commercially available 6-er transwell plates, but a deposition efficiency of up to 0.57 (57% is possible for better cell coverage of the exposure chamber. Dose-response measurements with ZnO nanoparticles (0.3-8.5 μg/cm2 showed significant differences in mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-8 and oxidative stress (HO-1 markers when comparing submerged and air-liquid interface exposures. Both exposure methods showed no cellular response below 1 μg/cm2 ZnO, which indicates that ZnO nanoparticles are not toxic at occupationally allowed exposure levels. Conclusion The ALICE is a useful tool for dose-controlled nanoparticle (or solute exposure of cells at the air-liquid interface. Significant differences between cellular response after ZnO nanoparticle exposure under submerged and air-liquid interface conditions suggest that pharmaceutical and toxicological studies with inhaled (nano-particles should be performed under the more realistic air-liquid interface, rather than submerged cell conditions.

  6. The cytoplasmic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase of saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for resistance to freeze-thaw stress. Generation of free radicals during freezing and thawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, J I; Grant, C M; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    superoxide dismutase to compensate for the lack of the cytoplasmic enzyme. Free radicals generated as a result of freezing and thawing were detected in cells directly using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with either alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone or 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide as spin...... the sod1 mutant could be made more resistant by treatment with the superoxide anion scavenger MnCl2, or by freezing in the absence of oxygen, or by the generation of a rho0 petite. Increased expression of SOD2 conferred freeze-thaw tolerance on the sod1 mutant indicating the ability of the mitochondrial...

  7. Reorientational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid-crystal cells near the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature. (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Shan; Jiang, I-Min; Huang, Chi-Yen; Shih, Chia-Chi


    We address the reorientational optical nonlinearity of homogeneously aligned neamtic liquid-crystal (NLC) cells. The propagation of light in NLC cells depend strongly on temperature. At a temperature approaching the clearing point, an undulating beam and multifocal points are observed in the NLC cell by use of a polarizing optical microscope. Using a conoscopic technique, we observed novel consecutive concentric and parabolic patterns projected onto a screen. Optical energy is considered to compete with thermal energy to affect NLC's orientation and to generate singularities in the steady state. A model of the configuration of the liquid crystal's orientation is proposed.

  8. Reorientational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid-crystal cells near the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Shan; Jiang, I.-Min; Huang, Chi-Yen; Shih, Chia-Chi


    We address the reorientational optical nonlinearity of homogeneously aligned neamtic liquid-crystal (NLC) cells. The propagation of light in NLC cells depend strongly on temperature. At a temperature approaching the clearing point, an undulating beam and multifocal points are observed in the NLC cell by use of a polarizing optical microscope. Using a conoscopic technique, we observed novel consecutive concentric and parabolic patterns projected onto a screen. Optical energy is considered to compete with thermal energy to affect NLC's orientation and to generate singularities in the steady state. A model of the configuration of the liquid crystal's orientation is proposed.

  9. Retention of Ascorbic Acid and Solid Concentration via Centrifugal Freeze Concentration of Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orellana-Palma


    Full Text Available Freeze concentration of liquid foods produces high-quality concentrates while retaining the heat-labile compounds found in fresh samples. Centrifugal freeze concentration is a cryoconcentration method assisted by an external force, centrifugation, to enhance the separation of concentrate from the ice. When applying centrifugal freeze concentration to orange juice, after the third cryoconcentration cycle, the ascorbic acid content in the concentrate showed retention close to 70% of the initial value. After the third cycle, the solutes in the concentrate increased 4 times the initial value of the fresh sample with 70% efficiency. The color evaluation showed that the final concentrated fraction was darker than the fresh juice. The centrifugal freeze concentration in orange juice was effective for obtaining a high-quality concentrate with a higher concentration of solids and ascorbic acid retention.

  10. Sperm preservation by freeze-drying for the conservation of wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Kaneko

    Full Text Available Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of "freeze-drying zoo" to conserve wild animals.

  11. Sperm Preservation by Freeze-Drying for the Conservation of Wild Animals (United States)

    Kaneko, Takehito; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Hidefusa; Onuma, Manabu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho


    Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4°C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of “freeze-drying zoo” to conserve wild animals. PMID:25409172

  12. Sperm preservation by freeze-drying for the conservation of wild animals. (United States)

    Kaneko, Takehito; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Hidefusa; Onuma, Manabu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho


    Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of "freeze-drying zoo" to conserve wild animals.

  13. Coupled electro-thermal field in a high current electrolysis cell or liquid metal batteries (United States)

    Cai, Liwei; Ni, Haiou; Lu, Gui-Min; Yu, Jian-Guo


    Coupled electro-thermal field exists widely in chemical batteries and electrolysis industry. In this study, a three-dimensional numerical model, which is based on the finite-element software ANSYS, has been built to simulate the electro-thermal field in a magnesium electrolysis cell. The adjustment of the relative position of the anode and cathode can change the energy consumption of the magnesium electrolysis process significantly. Besides, the current intensity has a nonlinear effect on heat balance, and the effects of heat transfer coefficients, electrolysis and air temperature on the heat balance have been released to maintain the thermal stability in a magnesium electrolysis cell. The relationship between structure as well as process parameters and electro-thermal field has been obtained and the simulation results can provide experience for the scale-up design in liquid metal batteries. PMID:29515848

  14. Alternative generation of well-aligned uniform lying helix texture in a cholesteric liquid crystal cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hua Yu


    Full Text Available This work demonstrates a simple approach for obtaining a well-aligned uniform lying helix (ULH texture and a tri-bistable feature at ambient temperature in a typical 90°-twisted cell filled with a short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal. This ULH texture is obtained at room temperature from initially field-induced helix-free homeotropic state by gradually decreasing the applied voltage. Depending on the way and rate of reducing the voltage, three stable states (i.e., Grandjean planar, focal conic, and ULH are generated and switching between any two of them is realized. Moreover, the electrical operation of the cell in the ULH state enables the tunability in phase retardation via the deformation of the ULH. The observations made in this work may be useful for applications such as tunable phase modulators and energy-efficient photonic devices.

  15. Coupled electro-thermal field in a high current electrolysis cell or liquid metal batteries. (United States)

    Sun, Ze; Cai, Liwei; Ni, Haiou; Lu, Gui-Min; Yu, Jian-Guo


    Coupled electro-thermal field exists widely in chemical batteries and electrolysis industry. In this study, a three-dimensional numerical model, which is based on the finite-element software ANSYS, has been built to simulate the electro-thermal field in a magnesium electrolysis cell. The adjustment of the relative position of the anode and cathode can change the energy consumption of the magnesium electrolysis process significantly. Besides, the current intensity has a nonlinear effect on heat balance, and the effects of heat transfer coefficients, electrolysis and air temperature on the heat balance have been released to maintain the thermal stability in a magnesium electrolysis cell. The relationship between structure as well as process parameters and electro-thermal field has been obtained and the simulation results can provide experience for the scale-up design in liquid metal batteries.

  16. A Janus-paper PDMS platform for air-liquid interface cell culture applications (United States)

    Rahimi, Rahim; Ochoa, Manuel; Donaldson, Amy; Parupudi, Tejasvi; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Khademhosseini, Ali; Ghaemmaghami, Amir; Ziaie, Babak


    A commercially available Janus paper with one hydrophobic (polyethylene-coated) face and a hygroscopic/hydrophilic one is irreversibly bonded to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate incorporating microfluidic channels via corona discharge surface treatment. The bond strength between the polymer-coated side and PDMS is characterized as a function of corona treatment time and annealing temperature/time. A maximum strength of 392 kPa is obtained with a 2 min corona treatment followed by 60 min of annealing at 120 °C. The water contact angle of the corona-treated polymer side decreases with increased discharge duration from 98° to 22°. The hygroscopic/hydrophilic side is seeded with human lung fibroblast cells encapsulated in a methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogel to show the potential of this technology for nutrient and chemical delivery in an air-liquid interface cell culture.

  17. Angular structure of light polarization and singularities in transmittance of nematic liquid crystal cells (United States)

    Kiselev, Alexei D.; Vovk, Roman G.; Buinyi, Igor O.; Soskin, Marat S.


    We study the angular structure of polarization of light transmitted through a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell by analyzing the polarization state as a function of the incidence angles. Our theoretical results are obtained by evaluating the Stokes parameters that characterize the polarization state of plane waves propagating through the NLC layer at varying direction of incidence. Using the Stokes polarimetry technique we carried out the measurements of the polarization resolved conoscopic patterns emerging after the homeotropically aligned NLC cell illuminated by the convergent light beam. The resulting polarization resolved angular patterns are described both theoretically and experimentally in terms of the polarization singularities such as C-points (points of circular polarization) and L-lines (lines of linear polarization). When the ellipticity of the incident light varies, the angular patterns are found to undergo transformations involving the processes of creation and annihilation of the C-points.

  18. Reformulation of hot cells, review of operational procedures and liquid waste storage of CELESTE I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilo, Ruth L.; Cohen, Victor H.; Lainetti, Paulo Ernesto O.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C.; Forbicini, Christina A.L.G.O.; Forbicini, Sergio


    During the last decades IPEN has accomplished several research programs related to the domain of the nuclear fuel cycle. Among such programs it could be pointed out the development of uranium and plutonium recovering from irradiated fuels. Initially were performed bench experiments and, after the definition of the main parameters, the process was developed in biological protected cell (hot cells). In spite of the severe budget constraints, the review of the procedures and the verification of the equipment component operationally permitted the operators recycling and the established operational experience preservation. The liquid wastes generated during the development period were safely stored. This paper presents a brief developing historical as well as description of the review activities procedures. (author)

  19. A three-dimensional mathematical model for liquid-fed direct methanol fuel cells (United States)

    Ge, Jiabin; Liu, Hongtan

    A three-dimensional, single-phase, multi-component mathematical model has been developed for a liquid-fed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The traditional continuity, momentum, and species conservation equations are coupled with electrochemical kinetics in both the anode and cathode catalyst layer. At the anode side, the liquid phase is considered, and at the cathode side only the gas phase is considered. Methanol crossover due to both diffusion and electro-osmotic drag from the anode to the cathode is taken into consideration and the effect is incorporated into the model using a mixed-potential at the cathode. A finite-volume-based CFD technique is used to develop the in-house numerical code and the code is successfully used to simulate the fuel cell performance as well as the multi-component behavior in a DMFC. The modeling results of polarization curves compare well with our experimental data. Subsequently, the model is used to study the effects of methanol crossover, the effects of porosities of the diffusion layer and the catalyst layer, the effects of methanol flow rates, and the effects of the channel shoulder widths.

  20. Treatment of Mineral Oil Refinery Wastewater in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Ionic Liquid Based Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Addi


    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are an environmentally friendly technology that can recover electricity directly from several wastes at ambient temperatures. This work explores the use of mineral oil refinery wastewater as feedstock in single-chamber air-cathode MFC devices. A polymer inclusion membrane based on the ionic liquid methyltrioctylammonium chloride, [MTOA+][Cl−], at a concentration of 70% w/w, was used as separator, showing a good efficiency in power production and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal. The power and the chemical oxygen demand removal reached values of 45 mW/m3 and over 80%, respectively. The evolution of other parameters of the wastewater including nitrites, phosphates and sulphates were also studied. Kjeldahl nitrogen and sulphates were significantly reduced during MFC operation. The results show that mineral oil refinery wastewater can be used as feedstock in air breathing cathode-microbial fuel cells based on polymer ionic liquid inclusion membranes. This configuration could represent a good alternative for wastewater depuration while producing energy during the process.

  1. Performance of PEM Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol-Air Fuel Cells (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.


    A direct methanol-air fuel cell operating at near atmospheric pressure, low-flow rate air, and at temperatures close to 60oC would tremendously enlarge the scope of potential applications. While earlier studies have reported performance with oxygen, the present study focuses on characterizing the performance of a PEM liquid feed direct methanol-air cell consisting of components developed in house. These cells employ Pt-Ru catalyst in the anode, Pt at the cathode and Nafion 117 as the PEM. The effect of pressure, flow rate of air and temperature on cell performance has been studied. With air, the performance level is as high as 0.437 V at 300 mA/cm2 (90oC, 20 psig, and excess air flow) has been attained. Even more significant is the performance level at 60oC, 1 atm and low flow rates of air (3-5 times stoichiometric), which is 0.4 V at 150 mA/cm2. Individual electrode potentials for the methanol and air electrode have been separated and analyzed. Fuel crossover rates and the impact of fuel crossover on the performance of the air electrode have also been measured. The study identifies issues specific to the methanol-air fuel cell and provides a basis for improvement strategies.

  2. Liquid biopsy in non-small cell lung cancer: a key role in the future of personalized medicine? (United States)

    Pi, Can; Zhang, Ming-Feng; Peng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Yi-Chen; Xu, Chong-Rui; Zhou, Qing


    Liquid biopsies, especially the analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), as a novel and non-invasive method for the diagnosis and monitoring of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have already been implemented in clinical settings. The majority of ctDNA is released from apoptotic or necrotic tumor cells, thus reflecting the genetic profile of a tumor. Numerous studies have reported a high concordance in mutation profiles derived from liquid biopsy and tissue biopsy, especially in driver genes. Liquid biopsy could overcome the clonal heterogeneity of tumour biopsy, as it provides a single snapshot of a tumour tissue. Moreover, non-invasiveness is the biggest advantage for liquid biopsy, and the procedure can be repeatedly performed during the treatment for the purpose of monitoring. Therefore, ctDNA could act as a potential complementary method for tissue biopsies in diagnosis, prognostic, treatment response and resistance. Areas covered: This review summarizes the recent advancements in liquid biopsy with a focus on NSCLC, including its applications and technologies associated with assessing ctDNA. The authors conclude the review by discussing the challenges associated with liquid biopsy. Expert commentary: The analysis of ctDNA represents a promising method for liquid biopsy, which will be a novel and potentially complementary method in diagnosis, treatment and prognostic in NSCLC at all stages.

  3. Experimental investigations on liquid water removal from the gas diffusion layer by reactant flow in a PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Kui; Li, Xianguo [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Park, Jaewan [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Davis One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States)


    The cross flow from channel to channel through gas diffusion layer (GDL) under the land could play an important role for water removal in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. In this study, characteristics of liquid water removal from GDL have been investigated experimentally, through measuring unsteady pressure drop in a cell which has the GDL initially wet with liquid water. The thickness of GDL is carefully controlled by inserting various thicknesses of metal shims between the plates. It has been found that severe compression of GDL could result in excessive pressure drop from channel inlet to channel outlet. Removing liquid water from GDL by cross flow is difficult for GDL with high compression levels and for low inlet air flow rates. However, effective water removal can still be achieved at high compression levels of GDL if the inlet air flow rate is high. Based on different compressed GDL thicknesses, different GDL porosities and permeabilities were calculated and their effects on the characteristics of liquid water removal from GDL were evaluated. Visualization of liquid water transport has been conducted by using transparent flow channel, and liquid water removal from GDL under the land was observed for all the tested inlet air flow rates, which confirms that cross flow is practically effective to remove the liquid water accumulated in GDL under the land area. (author)

  4. Analysis of host-cell proteins in biotherapeutic proteins by comprehensive online two-dimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry


    Doneanu, Catalin E; Xenopoulos, Alex; Fadgen, Keith; Murphy, Jim; Skilton, St. John; Prentice, Holly; Stapels, Martha; Chen, Weibin


    Assays for identification and quantification of host-cell proteins (HCPs) in biotherapeutic proteins over 5 orders of magnitude in concentration are presented. The HCP assays consist of two types: HCP identification using comprehensive online two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (2D-LC/MS), followed by high-throughput HCP quantification by liquid chromatography, multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MRM). The former is described as a “discovery” assa...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozłowicz


    Full Text Available Model samples of carrageenan gels based on water, milk and juice were air-blast frozen and frozen by immersion in glycol and in liquid nitrogen. The gel freezing rate was determined on the basis of the kinetics of freezing. Carrageenan gel samples were characterized by evaluation of its thawing drip loss and hardness determined with compression and penetration tests. Freezing in liquid nitrogen ensured the highest freezing rates. Thawing drip loss of gels significantly depended on the carrageenan content, pH of the solution, freezing method and freezing rate. The resulting relationships are linear functions with high determination coefficients. The results of compression and penetration tests prove the significant effect of the carrageenan content and pH on gel hardness. The higher carrageenan content in a sample, the higher compression force and penetration of the gel. Gel freezing resulted in lower hardness. Freezing conditions had a significant effect on the properties tested. The correlation between compression forces and penetration depending on the carrageenan content and the freezing method was described using regression equations with high determination coefficients. Gels based on milk and juice with 2.2% carrageenan content are recommended for immersion freezing at rates above 5.0 cm·h-1.

  6. The Use of High Pressure Freezing and Freeze Substitution to Study Host-Pathogen Interactions in Fungal Diseases of Plants (United States)

    Mims, C. W.; Celio, Gail J.; Richardson, Elizabeth A.


    This article reports on the use of high pressure freezing followed by freeze substitution (HPF/FS) to study ultrastructural details of host pathogen interactions in fungal diseases of plants. The specific host pathogen systems discussed here include a powdery mildew infection of poinsettia and rust infections of daylily and Indian strawberry. The three pathogens considered here all attack the leaves of their hosts and produce specialized hyphal branches known as haustoria that invade individual host cells without killing them. We found that HPF/FS provided excellent preservation of both haustoria and host cells for all three host pathogen systems. Preservation of fungal and host cell membranes was particularly good and greatly facilitated the detailed study of host pathogen interfaces. In some instances, HPF/FS provided information that was not available in samples prepared for study using conventional chemical fixation. On the other hand, we did encounter various problems associated with the use of HPF/FS. Examples included freeze damage of samples, inconsistency of fixation in different samples, separation of plant cell cytoplasm from cell walls, breakage of cell walls and membranes, and splitting of thin sections. However, we believe that the outstanding preservation of ultrastructural details afforded by HPF/FS significantly outweighs these problems and we highly recommend the use of this fixation protocol for future studies of fungal host-plant interactions.

  7. Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Scheffler


    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as “reduced-risk” nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5–8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5–5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  8. Sequential Strangeness Freeze-out (United States)

    Bellwied, Rene


    I will describe the latest results from lattice QCD pertaining to a potential flavour hierarchy in the hadronic freeze-out from the QCD crossover region. I will compare these results to a variety of improved hadronic resonance gas calculations and to experimental data of fluctuations of net-charge, net-proton and net-kaon multiplicity distributions, which serve as a proxy for the susceptibilities of conserved quantum numbers on the lattice. I will conclude that there is intriguing evidence for a flavour dependent freezeout, and I will suggest expansions to the experimental program at RHIC and the LHC that could potentially demonstrate the impact of a flavour separation during hadronization.

  9. Fuel cells using ionic liquids as electrolyte and operating at room temperature; Celulas de combustivel utilizando como eletrolito liquidos ionicos e operando a temperatura ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botton, Janine Padilha; Souza, Roberto Fernando de; Goncalves, Reinaldo Simoes; Dupont, Jairton [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail:


    The room temperature imidazolium based ionic liquids, such as 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMI.BF4) are outstanding electrolytes for fuel cells. A 67% overall cell efficiency is achieve using these liquids as supporting electrolytes for a commercially available alkaline fuel cell (AFC) at room temperature operating with air and hydrogen at atmospheric pressure. (author)

  10. DNA comet assay to identify different freezing temperatures of irradiated liver chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Renato C.; Mozeika, Michel A.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Marchioni, Eric


    The cold chain is a succession of steps which maintain the food at low temperature. The thawed food never be frozen again and the best solution being to consume it quickly to avoid the microorganism growth which causes decay and nutrients damage. One of most important point is that freezing process, unlike irradiation, do not destroy microorganisms, only inactive them as long as they remain in a frozen state. The Comet Assay is an original test used to detect irradiated foods that's recognize the DNA damage and can then be used to control the overall degradation of the food and in a certain extend to evaluate the damage caused by irradiation, different forms of freeze and storage time on liver chicken cells. Different freezing temperatures were used, deep freeze -196 deg C and slow freeze -10 deg C. Samples were irradiated in a 60 Co irradiator with 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy radiation doses. Fast freezing technique induces a low percent of DNA degradation comparing to slow freezing technique. This procedure could be a good choose to chicken freezing processing. (author)

  11. The vulnerability to freezing-induced xylem cavitation of Larrea tridentata (Zygophyllaceae) in the Chihuahuan desert. (United States)

    Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Pockman, William T


    The temperature dependence of freezing-induced xylem cavitation was studied in a Chihuahuan desert population of Larrea tridentata (Zygophyllaceae). Field measurements of wood temperature and xylem embolism were combined with anatomical studies and laboratory measurements of embolism in stem and root samples frozen under controlled conditions. Our laboratory experiments corroborated the previously observed relationship between minimum freezing temperature and embolism. The area of the low-temperature exotherms produced during the freezing treatments was correlated with the resulting embolism, suggesting that the freezing of water inside parenchyma cells is associated with the occurrence of xylem embolism. In the laboratory experiments, embolism in stems increased only at temperatures below -14°C. Although this meant that the studied population was more resistant to freezing-induced xylem embolism than a previously studied population from the Sonoran desert, the impact of freezing was nevertheless greater because of much lower environmental temperatures. This result suggests that dieback associated with periodic extreme freezes may contribute to limiting the present distribution of L. tridentata in central New Mexico. Although laboratory experiments showed that root xylem embolism increased after freezing to less negative minimum temperatures than stems (significant effects at T = -7°C), root embolism in the field was lower than shoot embolism in accordance with measured soil temperatures throughout the study.

  12. Method for Making a Fuel Cell (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L. (Inventor); Setlock, John A. (Inventor); Farmer, Serene C. (Inventor)


    The invention is a novel solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack comprising individual bi-electrode supported fuel cells in which an electrolyte layer is supported between porous electrodes. The porous electrodes may be made from graded pore ceramic tape that has been created by the freeze cast method followed by freeze-drying. Each piece of graded pore tape later becomes a graded pore electrode scaffold that, subsequent to sintering, is made into either an anode or a cathode. The electrode scaffold comprising the anode includes a layer of liquid metal. The pores of the electrode scaffolds gradually increase in diameter as the layer extends away from the electrolyte layer. As a result of this diameter increase, any forces that would tend to pull the liquid metal away from the electrolyte are reduced while maintaining a diffusion path for the fuel. Advantageously, the fuel cell of the invention may utilize a hydrocarbon fuel without pre-processing to remove sulfur.

  13. Well-plate freeze-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Rantanen, Jukka; Grohganz, Holger


    Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well...... no significant edge effect was found for any of the quality attributes analyzed. Conclusion: Freeze-drying in well-plates was found to be a suitable and representative high throughput platform for formulation screening....

  14. Development of high-power electrodes for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (United States)

    Lim, C.; Wang, C. Y.

    Based upon Nafion 112 membrane, membrane-electrode assemblies for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were fabricated by using a novel method of modified Nafion solution and tape-casting, with unsupported Pt-Ru as an anode catalyst and carbon supported 40 wt.% Pt as a cathode catalyst. The amounts of catalyst loading were controlled to be 4 mg/cm 2 in the anode and 1.3 mg/cm 2 in the cathode. Morphological characteristics of anode and cathode were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A time-delayed activation effect was found in single cell tests and attributed to time-dependent wetting behavior of Nafion polymers within both catalyst layers. A high compression of the single cell leads to a remarkable decrease in diffusion-limiting current density, caused by hydrophilic broken fibers and cleavage-like defects generated during excessive compression of the cell. A maximum power density of 0.21 W/cm 2 is achieved in 2 M CH 3OH solution at 90 °C under the operating condition of non-pressurized anode side and non-humidified air pressurized to 15 psi.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E.


    Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure HO due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80°C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

  16. Conical evaporator and liquid-return wick model for vapor anode, multi-tube AMTEC cells (United States)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.


    A detailed, 2-D thermal-hydraulic model for conical and flat evaporators and the liquid sodium return artery in PX-type AMTEC cells was developed, which predicts incipient dryout at the evaporator wick surface. Results obtained at fixed hot and cold side temperatures showed that the flat evaporator provided a slightly lower vapor pressure, but reached the capillary limit at higher temperature. The loss of performance due to partial recondensation over up to 20% of the wick surface of the deep conical evaporators was offset by the larger surface area available for evaporation, providing a slightly higher vapor pressure. Model results matched the PX-3A cell's experimental data of electrical power output, but the predicted temperature of the cell's conical evaporator was consistently ~50 K above measurements. A preliminary analysis indicated that sodium vapor leakage in the cell (through microcracks in the BASE tubes' walls or brazes) may explain the difference between predicted and measured evaporator temperatures in PX-3A. .

  17. Hybrid Graphene-Polyoxometalates Nanofluids as Liquid Electrodes for Dual Energy Storage in Novel Flow Cells. (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P; Rueda-Garcia, Daniel; Marchante, Carlos; Benages, Raul; Gomez-Romero, Pedro


    Solid Hybrid materials abound. But flowing versions of them are new actors in the materials science landscape and in particular for energy applications. This paper presents a new way to deliver nanostructured hybrid materials for energy storage, namely, in the form of nanofluids. We present here the first example of a hybrid electroactive nanofluid (HENFs) combining capacitive and faradaic energy storage mechanisms in a single fluid material. This liquid electrode is composed of reduced graphene oxide and polyoxometalates (rGO-POMs) forming a stable nanocomposite for electrochemical energy storage in novel Nanofluid Flow Cells. Two graphene based hybrid materials (rGO-phosphomolybdate, rGO-PMo 12 and rGO-phosphotungstate, rGO-PW 12 ) were synthesized and dispersed with the aid of a surfactant in 1 M H 2 SO 4 aqueous electrolyte to yield highly stable hybrid electroactive nanofluids (HENFs) of low viscosity which were tested in a home-made flow cell under static and continuous flowing conditions. Remarkably, even low concentration rGO-POMs HENFs (0.025 wt%) exhibited high specific capacitances of 273 F/g(rGO-PW 12 ) and 305 F/g(rGO-PMo 12 ) with high specific energy and specific power. Moreover, rGO-POM HENFs show excellent cycling stability (∼95 %) as well as Coulombic efficiency (∼77-79 %) after 2000 cycles. Thus, rGO-POM HENFs effectively behave as real liquid electrodes with excellent properties, demonstrating the possible future application of HENFs for dual energy storage in a new generation of Nanofluid Flow Cells. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Fundamental Technical Elements of Freeze-fracture/Freeze-etch in Biological Electron Microscopy (United States)

    Freeze-fracture/freeze-etch describes a process whereby specimens, typically biological or nanomaterial in nature, are frozen, fractured, and replicated to generate a carbon/platinum "cast" intended for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Specimens are subjected to u...

  19. Freeze dehydration of milk using microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souda, K.B.; Akyel, C.; Bilgen, E.


    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on heat and mass transfer during a microwave freeze dehydration process. An experimental system and procedure was developed to freeze dry milk. A 2500-W microwave system with an appropriate wave guide was set up and instrumented, and a procedure was experimentally developed to obtain milk powder first by freezing milk and then dehydrating it at low pressure using microwave energy. An unsteady-state analysis was used to derive a one-dimensional mathematical model of the freeze dehydration process in a microwave electromagnetic field

  20. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 14: Electrical characteristics of Hughes liquid phase epitaxy gallium arsenide solar cells as a function of intensity, temperature and irradiation (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.


    Electrical characteristics of liquid phase epitaxy, P/N gallium aluminum arsenide solar cells are presented in graphical and tabular format as a function of solar illumination intensity and temperature. The solar cells were exposed to 1 MeV electron fluences of, respectively, 0, one hundred trillion, one quadrillion, and ten quadrillion e/sq cm.

  1. Magneto-responsive liquid crystalline elastomer nanocomposites as potential candidates for dynamic cell culture substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Posada, Stephany; Mora-Navarro, Camilo; Ortiz-Bermudez, Patricia; Torres-Lugo, Madeline [Department of Chemical Engineering, Call Box 9000, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); McElhinny, Kyle M.; Evans, Paul G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 1509 University Avenue, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Calcagno, Barbara O. [Department of General Engineering, Call Box 9000, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Acevedo, Aldo, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Call Box 9000, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez PR 00681 (Puerto Rico)


    Recently, liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) have been proposed as active substrates for cell culture due to their potential to attach and orient cells, and impose dynamic mechanical signals through the application of external stimuli. In this report, the preparation of anisotropic and oriented nematic magnetic-sensitized LCEs with iron oxide nanoparticles, and the evaluation of the effect of particle addition at low concentrations on the resultant structural, thermal, thermo-mechanical, and mechanical properties is presented. Phase transformations produced by heating in alternating magnetic fields were investigated in LCEs in contact with air, water, and a common liquid cell culture medium was also evaluated. The inclusion of nanoparticles into the elastomers displaced the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition, without affecting the nematic structure as evidenced by similar values of the order parameter, while reducing the maximum thermomechanical deformations. Remote and reversible deformations of the magnetic LCEs were achieved through the application of alternating magnetic fields, which induces the nematic–isotropic phase transition through nanoparticle heat generation. Formulation parameters can be modified to allow for remote actuation at values closer to the human physiological temperature range and within the range of deformations that can affect the cellular behavior of fibroblasts. Finally, a collagen surface treatment was performed to improve compatibility with NIH-3T3 fibroblast cultures, which enabled the attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts on substrates with and without magnetic particles under quiescent conditions. The LCEs developed in this work, which are able to deform and experience stress changes by remote contact-less magnetic stimulation, may allow for further studies on the effect of substrate morphology changes and dynamic mechanical properties during in vitro cell culture. - Highlights: • Magnetic LCE nanocomposites were

  2. Freezing and thawing of processed meat in an industrial freezing tunnel


    Glaucio Antonio Marini; Eduarda Molardi Bainy; Marcelo Kaminski Lenzi; Marcos Lúcio Corazza


    Freezing is a commonly used preservation method in the meat industry. The understanding of the product behavior during the freezing process can assist in a better process management and quality control. This work reports the study of freezing and thawing of three types of processed meat in order to determine process parameters in an industrial forced‑air freezing tunnel at ‑30oC. Chicken sausages (frankfurter type), mortadela (bologna type) and mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) were st...

  3. effect of non-volatile solute on the freezing point of malonic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    and pestle were washed with liquid soap, rinsed with distilled water and then soaked in 10% HNO3 solution for 24 hrs (Todorovi et al 2001). They were then washed with .... concluded that addition of non-volatile solute decreases the freezing point of a solvent and the depression is directly proportional to the amount of.

  4. How to best freeze liver samples to perform the in vivo mammalian alkaline comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Enciso Gadea


    None of the different methods used was capable of giving good results, except immersing the liver samples in liquid nitrogen, followed by Jackson’s et al. (2013 thawing protocol, suggesting that the thawing process may be as critical as the freezing process. To sum up, these results highlight the importance of deepening the possibility to perform the comet assay with frozen tissue.

  5. A direct methanol fuel cell system with passive fuel delivery based on liquid surface tension (United States)

    Yang, Yuming; Liang, Yung C.

    The existing direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) systems are fed with a fixed concentration of fuel, which are either a diluted methanol solution or an active fuel delivery driven by an attached active pump. Both approaches limit the power conversion density or degrade the overall efficiency of the DMFC system significantly. Such disadvantages become more severe in small-scale DMFCs, which require a high conversion efficiency and a small physical space suitable for portable electronics. In this paper, passive fuel delivery based on a surface tension driving mechanism was designed and integrated in a laboratory-made prototype to achieve consumption depending on fuel concentration and power-free fuel delivery. Unidirectional methanol-to-water smooth flow is achieved through the capillaries of a Teflon PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) membrane based on the difference in liquid surface tension. The prototype was demonstrated to exhibit a better polarization performance and to last for an extended operating time compared to conventional DMFCs. Its high efficiency and load regulation performance were also demonstrated in contrast to an active DMFC supplied with a constant concentration fuel. The fuel delivery driven by the liquid surface tension effect demonstrated here is believed to be more applicable for future small-scale DMFCs for portable electronics.

  6. Two-beam energy exchange in a hybrid photorefractive-flexoelectric liquid-crystal cell. (United States)

    Reshetnyak, V Yu; Pinkevych, I P; Cook, G; Evans, D R; Sluckin, T J


    We develop a semiquantitative theory to describe the experimentally observed energy gain when two light beams intersect in hybrid organic-inorganic photorefractives. These systems consist of a nematic liquid-crystal (LC) layer placed between two photorefractive windows. A periodic space-charge field is induced by the interfering light beams in the photorefractive windows. The field penetrates into the LC, interacting with the nematic director and giving rise to a diffraction grating. LC flexoelectricity is the principal physical mechanism driving the grating structure. Each light beam diffracts from the induced grating, leading to an apparent energy gain and loss within each beam. The LC optics is described in the Bragg regime. In the theory the exponential gain coefficient is a product of a beam interference term, a flexoelectricity term and a space-charge term. The theory has been compared with results of an experimental study on hybrid cells filled with the LC mixture TL 205. Experimentally the energy gain is maximal at much lower grating wave numbers than is predicted by naïve theory. However, if the director reorientation is cubic rather than linear in the space-charge field term, then good agreement between theory and experiment can be achieved using only a single fitting parameter. We provide a semiquantitative argument to justify this nonlinearity in terms of electric-field-induced local phase separation between different components of the liquid crystal.

  7. Comparative study of polymer and liquid electrolytes in quantum dot sensitized solar cells (United States)

    Poudyal, Uma; Wang, Wenyong

    We present the study of CdS/CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) in which Zn2SnO4\\ nanowires on the conductive glass are used as photoanode. The CdS/CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are deposited in the Zn2SnO4 photoanode by the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. CdS is first deposited on the nanowires after which it is further coated with 5 cycles of CdSe QDs. Finally, ZnS is coated on the QDs as a passivation layer. The QD sensitized photoanode are then used to assemble a solar device with the polymer and liquid electrolytes. The Incident Photon to Current Efficiency (IPCE) spectra are obtained for the CdS/CdSe coated nanowires. Further, a stability test of these devices is performed, using the polymer and liquid electrolytes, which provides insight to determine the better working electrolyte in the CdS/CdSe QDSSCs. Department of Energy.

  8. Liquid eutectic GaIn as an alternative electrode for PTB7:PCBM organic solar cells (United States)

    Thanh Hau Pham, Viet; Kieu Trinh, Thanh; Tam Nguyen Truong, Nguyen; Park, Chinho


    Conventional vacuum deposition process of aluminum (Al) is costly, time-consuming and difficult to apply to the large-scale production of organic photovoltaic devices (OPV). This paper reports a vacuum-free fabrication process of poly[[4,8-bis(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thienophenediyl]:[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PTB7:PCBM) bulk heterojunction organic solar cell with liquid eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn) electrode as an alternative to the common Al electrode. The insertion of a thin poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) layer after depositing organic photoactive layer could help prevent the diffusion of liquid EGaIn into the active layer and allow the deposition of the EGaIn electrode. The PEO interfacial layer was formed by spin-coating from a mixed solvent of alcohol and water. Among different alcohol+water (methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, n-propanol, isopropanol, and isobutanol) mixed solvent tested, the n-propanol+water mixed solvent showed the greatest enhancement to the performance of OPVs. The improved device performance was attributed to the reactivity of mixed solvent n-propanol+water toward the surface of PTB7:PCBM active layer, which could help optimize surface morphology.

  9. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [of freeze dried foods (United States)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.


    Methods which produce freeze dried foods of improved quality were examined with emphasis on storage stability. Specific topics discussed include: microstructure of freeze dried systems, investigation of structural changes in freeze dried systems, artificial food matrices, osmotic preconcentration to yield improved quality freeze dried fruits, and storage stability of osmotically preconcentrated freeze dried fruits.

  10. Planar anchoring strength and pitch measurements in achiral and chiral chromonic liquid crystals using 90-degree twist cells. (United States)

    McGinn, Christine K; Laderman, Laura I; Zimmermann, Natalie; Kitzerow, Heinz-S; Collings, Peter J


    Chromonic liquid crystals are formed by molecules that spontaneously assemble into anisotropic structures in water. The ordering unit is therefore a molecular assembly instead of a molecule as in thermotropic liquid crystals. Although it has been known for a long time that certain dyes, drugs, and nucleic acids form chromonic liquid crystals, only recently has enough knowledge been gained on how to control their alignment so that studies of their fundamental liquid crystal properties can be performed. In this article, a simple method for producing planar alignment of the nematic phase in chromonic liquid crystals is described, and this in turn is used to create twisted nematic structures of both achiral and chiral chromonic liquid crystals. The optics of 90-degree twist cells allows the anchoring strength to be measured in achiral systems, which for this alignment technique is quite weak, about 3×10(-7) J/m(2) for both disodium cromoglycate and Sunset Yellow FCF. The addition of a chiral amino acid to the system causes the chiral nematic phase to form, and similar optical measurements in 90-degree twist cells produce a measurement of the intrinsic pitch of the chiral nematic phase. From these measurements, the helical twisting power for L-alanine is found to be (1.1±0.4)×10(-2) μm(-1) wt%(-1) for 15 wt% disodium cromoglycate.

  11. Freeze-drying microscopy in mathematical modeling of a biomaterial freeze-drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Figueiredo Borgognoni


    Full Text Available Transplantation brings hope for many patients. A multidisciplinary approach on this field aims at creating biologically functional tissues to be used as implants and prostheses. The freeze-drying process allows the fundamental properties of these materials to be preserved, making future manipulation and storage easier. Optimizing a freeze-drying cycle is of great importance since it aims at reducing process costs while increasing product quality of this time-and-energy-consuming process. Mathematical modeling comes as a tool to help a better understanding of the process variables behavior and consequently it helps optimization studies. Freeze-drying microscopy is a technique usually applied to determine critical temperatures of liquid formulations. It has been used in this work to determine the sublimation rates of a biological tissue freeze-drying. The sublimation rates were measured from the speed of the moving interface between the dried and the frozen layer under 21.33, 42.66 and 63.99 Pa. The studied variables were used in a theoretical model to simulate various temperature profiles of the freeze-drying process. Good agreement between the experimental and the simulated results was found.A prática da transplantação traz esperança para muitos pacientes. Uma visão multidisciplinar nessa área visa à produção de tecidos biológicos para serem utilizados como implantes e próteses. A liofilização é um processo de secagem que preserva características essenciais desses materiais, facilitando sua manipulação e armazenamento. A liofilização é um processo que requer muito tempo e energia e sua otimização é muito importante, pois permite reduzir custos de processo melhorando a qualidade do produto. A modelagem matemática é uma ferramenta que permite descrever o comportamento do produto durante o processo e, consequentemente, auxilia os estudos de otimização. Microscopia óptica acoplada à liofilização, uma t

  12. The Design and Performance of a PEFC at a Temperature Below Freezing (United States)

    Hishinuma, Yukio; Chikahisa, Takemi; Kagami, Fumio; Ogawa, Tomohiro

    At temperatures below freezing, air humidity becomes lower and produced water at the cathode freezes on the surface of catalyst, and it is difficult to start a PEFC (Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell) at a cold district. The object of the work is to study the performance of the fuel cell below the freezing point by experiments and simulation. To investigate the characteristics of the starting of a temperature below freezing the performance of a single cell was measured at temperatures from -3 to -25°C and pressures from 1 to 2 atm. The results of the experiments and simulation indicate that the performance of a PEFC decreases at higher current densities and pressures, and lower cell temperatures because of ice more produced on the reactive area of the cathode. To maintain the cell performance below freezing point, it is effective to adjust the current densities and gas flow rate to balance the produced and removed water. However at -5°C, heat generated in the fuel cell is effective to warm the cell and make self-starting possible. These results shows that it is necessary to heat the cell with an additional heat source in order to start the fuel cell below -5°C.

  13. Glass-sandwich-type organic solar cells utilizing liquid crystalline phthalocyanine (United States)

    Usui, Toshiki; Nakata, Yuya; De Romeo Banoukepa, Gilles; Fujita, Kento; Nishikawa, Yuki; Shimizu, Yo; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori


    Glass-sandwich-type organic solar cells utilizing liquid crystalline phthalocyanine, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2), have been fabricated and their photovoltaic properties have been studied. The short-circuit current density (J sc) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) depend on the C6PcH2 layer thickness, and the maximum performance, such as a J sc of 7.1 mA/cm2 and a PCE of 1.64%, was demonstrated for a device having a 420-nm-thick C6PcH2 layer. We examined the photovoltaic properties from the viewpoint of the C6PcH2-layer electrical conductance, based on the distribution of the column-axis direction.

  14. Liquid crystal cell for space-borne laser rangefinder to space mission applications (United States)

    Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.; Jaroszewicz, L.; Raszewski, Z.; Soms, L.; Piecek, W.; Perkowski, P.; Kędzierski, J.; Dąbrowski, R.; Olifierczuk, M.; Garbat, K.; Miszczyk, E.


    Liquid crystal cell (LCC) for space-borne laser rangefinder to space mission applications was developed, manufactured and tested under cooperation between Military University of Technology (MUT) in Poland and Vavilov State Optical Institute (Vavilov SOI) in Russia. LCC operates in twisted nematic mode, commutating the polarization plane of a laser beam working at 1.064 μm and the energy density not smaller than 0,15 J/cm2 at the pulse duration about 8 ns. The transmission of LCC is not smaller than 95% at the aperture diameter not less than 15 mm. Switching on and switching off times in a 2.5-μm thick LCC driven by voltage of 10 V are not larger than 0.7 ms and 7 ms, respectively, in the operating temperature range from 20°C to 40°C. The LCCs developed in MUT were positively tested under space requirements in Vavilov SOI.

  15. Polyoxymetalate liquid-catalyzed polyol fuel cell and the related photoelectrochemical reaction mechanism study (United States)

    Wu, Weibing; Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Deng, Yulin


    A novel design of liquid catalyzed fuel cell (LCFC), which uses polyoxometalates (POMs) as the photocatalyst and charge carrier has been reported previously. In this paper, the adaptability of biomass fuels (e.g., glycerol and glucose) to the LCFC and corresponding cell performance were studied in detail here. An interesting finding that greatly differs from conventional fuel cell is that high molecular weight fuels rather than small molecule fuels (e.g., methanol and ethylene glycol) are favored by the novel LCFC with respect to the power densities. The power output of LCFC strongly depends on the number and structure of hydroxyl groups in the biomass fuels. The evidence of UV-Vis and 1H NMR spectra shows that the preassociation between POM and alcohol fuels, which determines the photoelectrochemical reaction pathway of POM, is enhanced as the number of hydroxyl increases. Experimental results also demonstrate that more hydroxyl groups in the molecules lead to faster photoelectrochemical reaction between POM and fuels, higher reduction degree of POM, and further higher power output of LCFC. Our study reveals that biomass-based polyhydroxyl compounds such as starch, hemicellulose and cellulose are potential high-performance fuels for LCFC.

  16. Optimum operating strategies for liquid-fed direct methanol fuel cells (United States)

    Jeong, Ilyong; Kim, Jiyong; Pak, Sejin; Nam, Suk Woo; Moon, Il

    This study focuses on optimum operating strategies for liquid-fed direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) to minimize methanol consumption. A mathematical model is developed and verified with experimental data from the literature using the parameter estimation method. The model consists of a set of differential and algebraic equations and makes it possible to describe zero initial hold-up conditions. Based on the model, steady-state simulation results are obtained and explain the dependence on the feed concentration of key variables such as cell voltage, cell power density, overpotentials of both electrodes, and methanol crossover ratio. Dynamic simulation results are also presented to check the transient behaviour of a DMFC operated from start-up to shut-down. Dynamic optimization allows determination of the optimum transient strategies of feed concentration required to maximize the fuel efficiency. With six scenarios of power density load, it is demonstrated that the optimum transient strategies depend heavily on both the load of power density and the number of control actions. The main advantage of these approaches is to reduce fuel consumption and, ultimately, to enable DMFCs to be operated more efficiently.

  17. Nanotechnology-Based Strategies for Early Cancer Diagnosis Using Circulating Tumor Cells as a Liquid Biopsy. (United States)

    Huang, Qinqin; Wang, Yin; Chen, Xingxiang; Wang, Yimeng; Li, Zhiqiang; Du, Shiming; Wang, Lianrong; Chen, Shi


    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells that shed from a primary tumor and circulate in the bloodstream. As a form of "tumor liquid biopsy", CTCs provide important information for the mechanistic investigation of cancer metastasis and the measurement of tumor genotype evolution during treatment and disease progression. However, the extremely low abundance of CTCs in the peripheral blood and the heterogeneity of CTCs make their isolation and characterization major technological challenges. Recently, nanotechnologies have been developed for sensitive CTC detection; such technologies will enable better cell and molecular characterization and open up a wide range of clinical applications, including early disease detection and evaluation of treatment response and disease progression. In this review, we summarize the nanotechnology-based strategies for CTC isolation, including representative nanomaterials (such as magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, silicon nanopillars, nanowires, nanopillars, carbon nanotubes, dendrimers, quantum dots, and graphene oxide) and microfluidic chip technologies that incorporate nanoroughened surfaces and discuss their key challenges and perspectives in CTC downstream analyses, such as protein expression and genetic mutations that may reflect tumor aggressiveness and patient outcome.

  18. Understanding dielectrophoretic trapping of neuronal cells: modelling electric field, electrode-liquid interface and fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heida, T.; Rutten, W.L.C.; Marani, E.


    By application of dielectrophoresis neuronal cells can be trapped successfully. Several trapping experiments have been performed using a quadrupole electrode structure at different amplitudes (1, 3, and 5 V pp ) and frequencies (10-50 MHz). Due to the high conductivity of the suspending medium negative dielectrophoretic forces are created. The dielectrophoretic force is determined by the gradient of the electric field. However, the electrode-liquid interfaces are responsible for decreased electric field strengths, and thus decreased field gradients, inside the medium, especially at lower frequencies. Circuit modelling is used to determine the frequency-dependent electric field inside the medium. The creation of an electric field in high conductivity of the medium results in local heating, which in turn induces fluid flow. This flow also drives the neurons and was found to enhance the trapping effect of the dielectrophoretic force. With the use of finite element modelling, this aspect was investigated. The results show that the dielectrophoretic force is dominating just above the substrate. When the upward dielectrophoretic force is large enough to levitate the cells, they may be dragged along with the fluid flow. The result is that more cells may be trapped than expected on the basis of dielectrophoresis alone. (author)

  19. Anhydrobiosis and freezing-tolerance: adaptations that facilitate the establishment of Panagrolaimus nematodes in polar habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine M McGill

    Full Text Available Anhydrobiotic animals can survive the loss of both free and bound water from their cells. While in this state they are also resistant to freezing. This physiology adapts anhydrobiotes to harsh environments and it aids their dispersal. Panagrolaimus davidi, a bacterial feeding anhydrobiotic nematode isolated from Ross Island Antarctica, can survive intracellular ice formation when fully hydrated. A capacity to survive freezing while fully hydrated has also been observed in some other Antarctic nematodes. We experimentally determined the anhydrobiotic and freezing-tolerance phenotypes of 24 Panagrolaimus strains from tropical, temperate, continental and polar habitats and we analysed their phylogenetic relationships. We found that several other Panagrolaimus isolates can also survive freezing when fully hydrated and that tissue extracts from these freezing-tolerant nematodes can inhibit the growth of ice crystals. We show that P. davidi belongs to a clade of anhydrobiotic and freezing-tolerant panagrolaimids containing strains from temperate and continental regions and that P. superbus, an early colonizer at Surtsey island, Iceland after its volcanic formation, is closely related to a species from Pennsylvania, USA. Ancestral state reconstructions show that anhydrobiosis evolved deep in the phylogeny of Panagrolaimus. The early-diverging Panagrolaimus lineages are strongly anhydrobiotic but weakly freezing-tolerant, suggesting that freezing tolerance is most likely a derived trait. The common ancestors of the davidi and the superbus clades were anhydrobiotic and also possessed robust freezing tolerance, along with a capacity to inhibit the growth and recrystallization of ice crystals. Unlike other endemic Antarctic nematodes, the life history traits of P. davidi do not show evidence of an evolved response to polar conditions. Thus we suggest that the colonization of Antarctica by P. davidi and of Surtsey by P. superbus may be examples of recent

  20. Anhydrobiosis and freezing-tolerance: adaptations that facilitate the establishment of Panagrolaimus nematodes in polar habitats. (United States)

    McGill, Lorraine M; Shannon, Adam J; Pisani, Davide; Félix, Marie-Anne; Ramløv, Hans; Dix, Ilona; Wharton, David A; Burnell, Ann M


    Anhydrobiotic animals can survive the loss of both free and bound water from their cells. While in this state they are also resistant to freezing. This physiology adapts anhydrobiotes to harsh environments and it aids their dispersal. Panagrolaimus davidi, a bacterial feeding anhydrobiotic nematode isolated from Ross Island Antarctica, can survive intracellular ice formation when fully hydrated. A capacity to survive freezing while fully hydrated has also been observed in some other Antarctic nematodes. We experimentally determined the anhydrobiotic and freezing-tolerance phenotypes of 24 Panagrolaimus strains from tropical, temperate, continental and polar habitats and we analysed their phylogenetic relationships. We found that several other Panagrolaimus isolates can also survive freezing when fully hydrated and that tissue extracts from these freezing-tolerant nematodes can inhibit the growth of ice crystals. We show that P. davidi belongs to a clade of anhydrobiotic and freezing-tolerant panagrolaimids containing strains from temperate and continental regions and that P. superbus, an early colonizer at Surtsey island, Iceland after its volcanic formation, is closely related to a species from Pennsylvania, USA. Ancestral state reconstructions show that anhydrobiosis evolved deep in the phylogeny of Panagrolaimus. The early-diverging Panagrolaimus lineages are strongly anhydrobiotic but weakly freezing-tolerant, suggesting that freezing tolerance is most likely a derived trait. The common ancestors of the davidi and the superbus clades were anhydrobiotic and also possessed robust freezing tolerance, along with a capacity to inhibit the growth and recrystallization of ice crystals. Unlike other endemic Antarctic nematodes, the life history traits of P. davidi do not show evidence of an evolved response to polar conditions. Thus we suggest that the colonization of Antarctica by P. davidi and of Surtsey by P. superbus may be examples of recent "ecological fitting

  1. Polystyrene-block-Poly(ionic liquid) Copolymers as Work Function Modifiers in Inverted Organic Photovoltaic Cells. (United States)

    Park, Jong Baek; Isik, Mehmet; Park, Hea Jung; Jung, In Hwan; Mecerreyes, David; Hwang, Do-Hoon


    Interfacial layers play a critical role in building up the Ohmic contact between electrodes and functional layers in organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells. These layers are based on either inorganic oxides (ZnO and TiO 2 ) or water-soluble organic polymers such as poly[(9,9-dioctyl-2,7-fluorene)-alt-(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)] and polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE). In this work, we have developed a series of novel poly(ionic liquid) nonconjugated block copolymers for improving the performance of inverted OPV cells by using them as work function modifiers of the indium tin oxide (ITO) cathode. Four nonconjugated polyelectrolytes (n-CPEs) based on polystyrene and imidazolium poly(ionic liquid) (PSImCl) were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The ratio of hydrophobic/hydrophilic block copolymers was varied depending on the ratio of polystyrene to the PSImCl block. The ionic density, which controls the work function of the electrode by forming an interfacial dipole between the electrode and the block copolymers, was easily tuned by simply changing the PSImCl molar ratio. The inverted OPV device with the ITO/PS 29 -b-PSImCl 60 cathode achieved the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.55% among the synthesized block copolymers, exhibiting an even higher PCE than that of the reference OPV device with PEIE (7.30%). Furthermore, the surface properties of the block copolymers films were investigated by contact angle measurements to explore the influence of the controlled hydrophobic/hydrophilic characters on the device performances.

  2. Confined photovoltaic fields in a photo-responsive liquid crystal test cell (United States)

    Habibpourmoghadam, Atefeh; Jiao, Lin; Omairat, Faissal; Evans, Dean R.; Lucchetti, Liana; Reshetnyak, Viktor; Lorenz, Alexander


    Exciting experimental results on the response properties of hybridized photo responsive liquid crystal test cells are reported, where iron doped lithium niobate substrates were used to photo generate electric fields and indium tin oxide coated cover glasses were used to confine these photo generated fields in a liquid crystal layer. Samples were investigated in a modified inverted optical polarizing microscope with white probe light (crossed polarizers) and exposed with a Gaussian laser beam focused to a small spot (14 μm FWHM). Test cells filled with nematic LC showed homeotropic director alignment. Upon exposure, this alignment was maintained at the exposure spot center and the LC director was selectively realigned in a surrounding single ring. This ring had a thickness of a few microns and its diameter increased with increasing exposure intensity (112 μm at 0.7 mW, 204 μm at 1.1 mW). This characteristic director realignment was traced back to the optically generated electric field distributions by simulations. In samples filled with chiral nematic LC, uniformly standing helix alignment was found. Textural transitions were induced at the focus position, which again led to the formation of well-defined circular defects. We could show that these defects can be permanently stored within the chiral nematic LC. Polarized optical microscopy of a rotated sample revealed that a point like defect with +1 topological charge was enclosed in each of these defects. Photovoltaic fields generated in small lithium niobate particles dispersed in a LC were found to cause promising optical responses and particle movement.

  3. The possibility for formation of macro-cell corrosion in a liquid with low electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, M.


    The possibility of electrochemical corrosion of carbon steel at the rate of 3.25 x 10 -5 A/cm 2 in water was examined under the conditions present during an accidental pipe rupture at the Mihama nuclear power plant: liquid conductivity, 7.5 μS/cm; dissolved oxygen concentration, 5 ppb or less; pH 8.6∝9.3; ferrous ion concentration, 20 ppb or less; temperature, 142 C. The corrosion rate of iron in a micro-cell with a dissolved oxygen reduction cathode was estimated to be only 1/400 of the preceding rate. On the other hand, that in a micro-cell with a hydrogen ion reduction cathode was estimated to be as high as 1/10 of the preceding rate, that is, 3.25 x 10 -6 A/cm 2 . Two important factors may have influenced the corrosion rate: the remarkable wall thinning, which must have been the direct cause of the rupture of the pipe, was located close to, and downstream from, an orifice; and, the water temperature was in the range at which carbon steel makes a transition from the active to the passive state. Taking these facts into consideration, it appears possible that micro-cells with different corrosion rates might be generated and integrated into a macro-cell, where the iron dissolution rate might be accelerated to as much as 10 times that of the micro-cell. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Advanced control of liquid water region in diffusion media of polymer electrolyte fuel cells through a dimensionless number (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Chen, Ken S.


    In the present work, a three-dimension (3-D) model of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is employed to investigate the complex, non-isothermal, two-phase flow in the gas diffusion layer (GDL). Phase change in gas flow channels is explained, and a simplified approach accounting for phase change is incorporated into the fuel cell model. It is found that the liquid water contours in the GDL are similar along flow channels when the channels are subject to two-phase flow. Analysis is performed on a dimensionless parameter Da0 introduced in our previous paper [Y. Wang and K. S. Chen, Chemical Engineering Science 66 (2011) 3557-3567] and the parameter is further evaluated in a realistic fuel cell. We found that the GDL's liquid water (or liquid-free) region is determined by the Da0 number which lumps several parameters, including the thermal conductivity and operating temperature. By adjusting these factors, a liquid-free GDL zone can be created even though the channel stream is two-phase flow. Such a liquid-free zone is adjacent to the two-phase region, benefiting local water management, namely avoiding both severe flooding and dryness.

  5. Effect of the Freezing Step in the Stability and Bioactivity of Protein-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Upon Lyophilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonte, Pedro; Andrade, Fernanda; Azevedo, Cláudia


    PURPOSE: The freezing step in lyophilization is the most determinant for the quality of biopharmaceutics. Using insulin as model of therapeutic protein, our aim was to evaluate the freezing effect in the stability and bioactivity of insulin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles. The performance of trehalose......, sucrose and sorbitol as cryoprotectants was evaluated. METHODS: Cryoprotectants were co-encapsulated with insulin into PLGA nanoparticles and lyophilized using an optimized cycle with freezing at -80°C, in liquid nitrogen, or ramped cooling at -40°C. Upon lyophilization, the stability of protein structure...

  6. Estimation of the freezing point of concentrated fruit juices for application in freeze concentration


    Auleda Amorós, Josep Maria; Raventós Santamaria, Mercè; Sánchez Machado, José; Hernández Yáñez, Eduard


    In freeze concentration operations the fluids remain at temperatures below 0 °C. For a good study of this concentration operation is very important to know the values of freezing point. The aim of this work was to establish a model that predicts the freezing point of fruit juices at various concentrations within the range of interest for freeze concentration (10–40 °Brix). The model proposed relates the freezing point of a juice with the concentrations of main sugars present in the juice: suc...

  7. A comparison between freezing methods for the cryopreservation of stallion spermatozoa. (United States)

    Clulow, J R; Mansfield, L J; Morris, L H A; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C


    The effects of sperm freezing concentration (40 x 10(6)mL(-1) vs. 400 x 10(6)mL(-1)), straw size (0.25 mL vs. 0.5 mL) and freezing method (liquid nitrogen vapour in a Styrofoam box vs. programmable freezing machine) were evaluated in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experimental design using 3 split ejaculates from each of 4 stallions. Immediately after thawing, the total motility and forward progressive motility of spermatozoa frozen at a concentration of 40 x 10(6)mL(-1) was higher than for spermatozoa frozen at 400 x 10(6)mL(-1). No significant differences were observed in the semen parameters assessed after cryopreservation in either 0.25 or 0.5 mL straws. However, the programmable freezer provided a more consistent and reliable freezing rate than liquid nitrogen vapour. We conclude that an effective protocol for the cryopreservation of stallion spermatozoa at low concentrations would include concentrations of 40 x 10(6)mL(-1) in 0.25 mL straws using a programmable freezer. This freezing protocol would be suitable for emerging sperm technologies such as sex-preselection of stallion spermatozoa as the sorting process yields only low numbers of spermatozoa in a small volume available for either immediate insemination or cryopreservation.

  8. Monitoring the Freezing Point of Buffalo Milk. (United States)

    Pesce, Antonella; Salzano, Caterina; De Felice, Anna; Garofalo, Francesca; Liguori, Salvatore; De Santo, Annunziata; Palermo, Pierpaolo; Guarino, Achille


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic freezing point of buffalo milk. Bulk milk samples were collected from buffalo and cattle farms in Caserta area from 2008 to 2014. The analysis involved a total of 1886 buffalo milk samples and 1711 bovine milk samples. These were also tested for fat, protein and lactose contents by means of infrared spectrometry. The freezing point was determined by means of a thermistor cryoscope. Data underwent statistical analysis. Our research showed an average freezing point of -0.528°C for buffalo milk and -0.522°C for bovine milk. Given the lack of data on the freezing point of buffalo milk, our study provides the first indication of a basic freezing point of the milk of this species in Italy.

  9. Cryopreservation of human oocytes, zygotes, embryos and blastocysts: A comparison study between slow freezing and ultra rapid (vitrification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani Al-Azawi


    Full Text Available Preservation of female genetics is currently done primarily by means of oocyte and embryo cryopreservation. The field has seen much progress during its four-decade history, progress driven predominantly by research in humans. It can also be done by preservation of ovarian tissue or entire ovary for transplantation, followed by oocyte harvesting or natural fertilization. Two basic cryopreservation techniques rule the field, slow-rate freezing, the first to be developed and vitrification which in recent years, has gained a foothold. The slow-rate freezing method previously reported had low survival and pregnancy rates, along with the high cost of cryopreservation. Although there are some recent data indicating better survival rates, cryopreservation by the slow freezing method has started to discontinue. Vitrification of human embryos, especially at early stages, became a more popular alternative to the slow rate freezing method due to reported comparable clinical and laboratory outcomes. In addition, vitrification is relatively simple, requires no expensive programmable freezing equipment, and uses a small amount of liquid nitrogen for freezing. Moreover, oocyte cryopreservation using vitrification has been proposed as a solution to maintain women’s fertility by serving and freezing their oocytes at the optimal time. The aim of this research is to compare slow freezing and vitrification in cryopreservation of oocytes, zygotes, embryos and blastocysts during the last twelve years. Therefore, due to a lot of controversies in this regard, we tried to achieve an exact idea about the subject and the best technique used.

  10. Transient freezing behavior in photophobic responses of Euglena gracilis investigated in a microfluidic device. (United States)

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Lee, Jeesoo; Song, Simon; Maeda, Mizuo


    We found that the transient freezing behavior in photophobic responses of Euglena gracilis is a good indicator of the metabolic status of the cells. The transient blue light photophobic responses of E. gracilis cells were investigated on-chip using a new measurement, 'trace momentum' (TM), to evaluate their swimming activity quantitatively in real time. When blue light of intensity >30 mW cm(-2) was repeatedly switched on and off, a large negative spike in the TM was observed at the onset of the 'blue-light-off' phase. Single-cell trace analysis at a blue light intensity of 40 mW cm(-2) showed that 48% (on average, n = 15) of tumbling Euglena cells ceased activity ('freezing') for 2-30 s at the onset of blue-light-off before commencing forward motion in a straight line (termed 'straightforward swimming'), while 45% smoothly commenced straightforward swimming without delay. The proportion of freezing Euglena cells depended on the blue light intensity (only 20% at 20 mW cm(-2)). When the cells were stimulated by four blue light pulses at the higher intensity, without pre-exposure, the transient freezing behavior was more prominent but, on repeating the stimuli after an 80 min interval in red light, the same cells did not freeze. This shows that the metabolism of the cells had changed to anti-freezing during the interval. The relationship between the interval time with/without light irradiation and the blue light adaptation was elucidated experimentally. The origin of the freezing behavior is considered to be a shortage of a metabolic substance that promotes smooth switching of flagellum movement from in situ rotation mode to a straightforward swimming mode. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  11. A sealable ultrathin window sample cell for the study of liquids by means of soft X-ray spectroscopy (United States)

    Grötzsch, D.; Streeck, C.; Nietzold, C.; Malzer, W.; Mantouvalou, I.; Nutsch, A.; Dietrich, P.; Unger, W.; Beckhoff, B.; Kanngießer, B.


    A new sample cell concept for the analysis of liquids or solid-liquid interfaces using soft X-ray spectroscopy is presented, which enables the complete sealing of the cell as well as the transport into vacuum via, for example, a load-lock system. The cell uses pressure monitoring and active as well as passive pressure regulation systems, thereby facilitating the full control over the pressure during filling, sealing, evacuation, and measurement. The cell design and sample preparation as well as the crucial sealing procedure are explained in detail. As a first proof-of-principle experiment, successful nitrogen K-edge fluorescence yield near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure experiments of a biomolecular solution are presented. For this purpose, it is shown that the careful evaluation of all involved parameters, such as window type or photon flux, is desirable for optimizing the experimental result.

  12. Lignin monomer composition affects Arabidopsis cell-wall degradability after liquid hot water pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladisch Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignin is embedded in the plant cell wall matrix, and impedes the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks. To investigate whether enzymatic digestibility of cell wall materials can be improved by altering the relative abundance of the two major lignin monomers, guaiacyl (G and syringyl (S subunits, we compared the degradability of cell wall material from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana with a mutant line and a genetically modified line, the lignins of which are enriched in G and S subunits, respectively. Results Arabidopsis tissue containing G- and S-rich lignins had the same saccharification performance as the wild type when subjected to enzyme hydrolysis without pretreatment. After a 24-hour incubation period, less than 30% of the total glucan was hydrolyzed. By contrast, when liquid hot water (LHW pretreatment was included before enzyme hydrolysis, the S-lignin-rich tissue gave a much higher glucose yield than either the wild-type or G-lignin-rich tissue. Applying a hot-water washing step after the pretreatment did not lead to a further increase in final glucose yield, but the initial hydrolytic rate was doubled. Conclusions Our analyses using the model plant A. thaliana revealed that lignin composition affects the enzymatic digestibility of LHW pretreated plant material. Pretreatment is more effective in enhancing the saccharification of A. thaliana cell walls that contain S-rich lignin. Increasing lignin S monomer content through genetic engineering may be a promising approach to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of biomass to biofuel conversion.

  13. Beam coupling in hybrid photorefractive inorganic-cholesteric liquid crystal cells: Impact of optical rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetnyak, V. Yu.; Pinkevych, I. P.; Sluckin, T. J.; Cook, G.; Evans, D. R.


    We develop a theoretical model to describe two-beam energy exchange in a hybrid photorefractive inorganic-cholesteric cell. A cholesteric layer is placed between two inorganic substrates. One of the substrates is photorefractive (Ce:SBN). Weak and strong light beams are incident on the hybrid cell. The interfering light beams induce a periodic space-charge field in the photorefractive window. This penetrates into the cholesteric liquid crystal (LC), inducing a diffraction grating written on the LC director. In the theory, the flexoelectric mechanism for electric field-director coupling is more important than the LC static dielectric anisotropy coupling. The LC optics is described in the Bragg regime. Each beam induces two circular polarized waves propagating in the cholesteric cell with different velocities. The model thus includes optical rotation in the cholesteric LC. The incident light beam wavelength can fall above, below, or inside the cholesteric gap. The theory calculates the energy gain of the weak beam, as a result of its interaction with the pump beam within the diffraction grating. Theoretical results for exponential gain coefficients are compared with experimental results for hybrid cells filled with cholesteric mixture BL038/CB15 at different concentrations of chiral agent CB15. Reconciliation between theory and experiment requires the inclusion of a phenomenological multiplier in the magnitude of the director grating. This multiplier is cubic in the space-charge field, and we provide a justification of the q-dependence of the multiplier. Within this paradigm, we are able to fit theory to experimental data for cholesteric mixtures with different spectral position of cholesteric gap relative to the wavelength of incident beams, subject to the use of some fitting parameters

  14. Topological events in polarization resolved angular patterns of nematic liquid crystal cells at varying ellipticity of incident wave


    Kiselev, Alexei D.; Vovk, Roman G.


    We study the angular structure of polarization of light transmitted through a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell by analyzing the polarization state as a function of the incidence angles and the polarization of the incident wave. The polarization resolved angular patterns emerging after the NLC cell illuminated by the convergent light beam are described in terms of the polarization singularities such as C-points (points of circular polarization) and L-lines (lines of linear polarization). For ...

  15. Effect of freeze-thaw cycles on greenhouse gas fluxes from peat soils (United States)

    Oh, H. D.; Rezanezhad, F.; Markelov, I.; McCarter, C. P. R.; Van Cappellen, P.


    The ongoing displacement of climate zones by global warming is increasing the frequency and intensity of freeze-thaw cycles in middle and high latitude regions, many of which are dominated by organic soils such as peat. Repeated freezing and thawing of soils changes their physical properties, geochemistry, and microbial community structure, which together govern the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. In this presentation, we focus on how freeze-thaw cycles influence greenhouse gas fluxes from peat using a newly developed experimental soil column system that simulates realistic soil temperature profiles during freeze-thaw cycles. We measured the surface and subsurface changes to gas and aqueous phase chemistry to delineate the diffusion pathways and quantify soil greenhouse gas fluxes during freeze-thaw cycles using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as a conservative tracer. Three peat columns were assembled inside a temperature controlled chamber with different soil structures. All three columns were packed with 40 cm of undisturbed, slightly decomposed peat, where the soil of two columns had an additional 10 cm layer on top (one with loose Sphagnum moss and one with an impermeable plug). The results indicate that the release of SF6 and CO2 gas from the soil surface was influenced by the recurrent development of a physical ice barrier, which prevented gas exchange between the soil and atmosphere during freezing conditions. With the onset of thawing a pulse of SF6 and CO2 occurred, resulting in a flux of 3.24 and 2095.52 µmol/m2h, respectively, due to the build-up of gases in the liquid-phase pore space during freezing. Additionally, we developed a model to determine the specific diffusion coefficients for each peat column. These data allow us to better predict how increased frequency and intensity of freeze-thaw cycles will affect greenhouse gas emissions in northern peat soils.

  16. Directly Observing Micelle Fusion and Growth in Solution by Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parent, Lucas R. [Department; amp, Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States; Bakalis, Evangelos [Dipartimento; Ramírez-Hernández, Abelardo [Materials; Institute; Kammeyer, Jacquelin K. [Department; amp, Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States; Park, Chiwoo [Department; de Pablo, Juan [Materials; Institute; Zerbetto, Francesco [Dipartimento; Patterson, Joseph P. [Department; amp, Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States; Laboratory; Gianneschi, Nathan C. [Department; amp, Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States


    Amphiphilic small molecules and polymers form commonplace nanoscale macromolecular compartments and bilayers, and as such are truly essential components in all cells and in many cellular processes. The nature of these architectures, including their formation, phase changes, and stimuli-response behaviors, is necessary for the most basic functions of life, and over the past half-century, these natural micellar structures have inspired a vast diversity of industrial products, from biomedicines to detergents, lubricants, and coatings. The importance of these materials and their ubiquity have made them the subject of intense investigation regarding their nanoscale dynamics with increasing interest in obtaining sufficient temporal and spatial resolution to directly observe nanoscale processes. However, the vast majority of experimental methods involve either bulk-averaging techniques including light, neutron, and X-ray scattering, or are static in nature including even the most advanced cryogenic transmission electron microscopy techniques. Here, we employ in situ liquid-cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM) to directly observe the evolution of individual amphiphilic block copolymer micellar nanoparticles in solution, in real time with nanometer spatial resolution. These observations, made on a proof-of-concept bioconjugate polymer amphiphile, revealed growth and evolution occurring by unimer addition processes and by particle-particle collision-and-fusion events. The experimental approach, combining direct LCTEM observation, quantitative analysis of LCTEM data, and correlated in silico simulations, provides a unique view of solvated soft matter nanoassemblies as they morph and evolve in time and space, enabling us to capture these phenomena in solution.

  17. Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, J.E.


    Micro-sized microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are miniature energy harvesters that use bacteria to convert biomass from liquids into usable power. The key challenge is transitioning laboratory test beds into devices capable of producing high power using readily available fuel sources. Here, we present a pragmatic step toward advancing MFC applications through the fabrication of a uniquely mobile and inexpensive micro-sized device that can be fueled with human saliva. The 25-ll MFC was fabricated with graphene, a two-dimensional atomic crystal-structured material, as an anode for efficient current generation and with an air cathode for enabling the use of the oxygen present in air, making its operation completely mobile and free of the need for laboratory chemicals. With saliva as a fuel, the device produced higher current densities (1190 Am-3) than any previous aircathode micro-sized MFCs. The use of the graphene anode generated 40 times more power than that possible using a carbon cloth anode. Additional tests were performed using acetate, a conventional organic material, at high organic loadings that were comparable to those in saliva, and the results demonstrated a linear relationship between the organic loading and current. These findings open the door to saliva-powered applications of this fuel cell technology for Lab-on-a-Chip devices or portable point-of-care diagnostic devices. 2014 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved 1884-4057/14.

  18. Pressurized liquid extraction of Aglaonema sp. iminosugars: Chemical composition, bioactivity, cell viability and thermal stability. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, S; Martín-Ortiz, A; Carrero-Carralero, C; Ramos, S; Sanz, M L; Soria, A C


    Pressurized liquid extraction of Aglaonema sp. iminosugars has been optimized. A single cycle under optimal conditions (80mg, 100°C, 2min) was enough to extract ⩾96% of most iminosugars. Further incubation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5h removed coextracted interfering low molecular weight carbohydrates from extracts of different Aglaonema cultivars. A complete characterization of these extracts was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: three iminosugars were tentatively identified for the first time; α-homonojirimycin and 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-d-mannitol were the major iminosugars determined. α-Glucosidase inhibition activity, cell viability and thermal stability of Aglaonema extracts were also evaluated. Extracts with IC50 for α-glucosidase activity in the 0.010-0.079mgmL(-1) range showed no decrease of Caco-2 cell viability at concentrations lower than 125μgmL(-1) and were stable at 50°C for 30days. These results highlight the potential of Aglaonema extracts as a source of bioactives to be used as functional ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulmonary delivery of an inulin-stabilized influenza subunit vaccine prepared by spray-freeze drying induces systemic, mucosal humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses in BALB/c mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorij, J-P.; Saluja, V.; Petersen, A.H.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Huckriede, A.; Frijlink, H.W.


    In this study pulmonary vaccination with a new influenza subunit vaccine powder was evaluated. Vaccine powder was produced by spray-freeze drying (SFD) using the oligosaccharide inulin as stabilizer. Immune responses after pulmonary vaccination of BALB/c mice with vaccine powder were determined and

  20. Development of Three-Layer Simulation Model for Freezing Process of Food Solution Systems (United States)

    Kaminishi, Koji; Araki, Tetsuya; Shirakashi, Ryo; Ueno, Shigeaki; Sagara, Yasuyuki

    A numerical model has been developed for simulating freezing phenomena of food solution systems. The cell model was simplified to apply to food solution systems, incorporating with the existence of 3 parts such as unfrozen, frozen and moving boundary layers. Moreover, the moving rate of freezing front model was also introduced and calculated by using the variable space network method proposed by Murray and Landis (1957). To demonstrate the validity of the model, it was applied to the freezing processes of coffee solutions. Since the model required the phase diagram of the material to be frozen, the initial freezing temperatures of 1-55 % coffee solutions were measured by the DSC method. The effective thermal conductivity for coffee solutions was determined as a function of temperature and solute concentration by using the Maxwell - Eucken model. One-dimensional freezing process of 10 % coffee solution was simulated based on its phase diagram and thermo-physical properties. The results were good agreement with the experimental data and then showed that the model could accurately describe the change in the location of the freezing front and the distributions of temperature as well as ice fraction during a freezing process.

  1. Freezing lines of colloidal Yukawa spheres. II. Local structure and characteristic lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gapinski, Jacek, E-mail:; Patkowski, Adam [Molecular Biophysics Division, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); NanoBioMedical Center, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Nägele, Gerhard [Institute of Complex Systems (ICS-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)


    Using the Rogers-Young (RY) integral equation scheme for the static pair correlation functions combined with the liquid-phase Hansen-Verlet freezing rule, we study the generic behavior of the radial distribution function and static structure factor of monodisperse charge-stabilized suspensions with Yukawa-type repulsive particle interactions at freezing. In a related article, labeled Paper I [J. Gapinski, G. Nägele, and A. Patkowski, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024507 (2012)], this hybrid method was used to determine two-parameter freezing lines for experimentally controllable parameters, characteristic of suspensions of charged silica spheres in dimethylformamide. A universal scaling of the RY radial distribution function maximum is shown to apply to the liquid-bcc and liquid-fcc segments of the universal freezing line. A thorough analysis is made of the behavior of characteristic distances and wavenumbers, next-neighbor particle coordination numbers, osmotic compressibility factor, and the Ravaché-Mountain-Streett minimum-maximum radial distribution function ratio.

  2. Theory and numerical application of subsurface flow and transport for transient freezing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.D.


    Protective barriers are being investigated for the containment of radioactive waste within subsurface environments. Predicting the effectiveness of cryogenic barriers and near-surface barriers in temperate or arctic climates requires capabilities for numerically modeling subsurface flow and transport for freezing soil conditions. A predictive numerical model is developed herein to simulate the flow and transport of radioactive solutes for three-phase (water-ice-air) systems under freezing conditions. This physically based model simulates the simultaneous flow of water, air, heat, and radioactive solutes through variably saturated and variably frozen geologic media. Expressions for ice (frozen water) and liquid water saturations as functions of temperature, interfacial pressure differences, and osmotic potential are developed from nonhysteretic versions of the Brooks and Corey and van Genuchten functions for soil moisture retention. Aqueous relative permeability functions for variably saturated and variably frozen geologic media are developed from the Mualem and Burdine theories for predicting relative permeability of unsaturated soil. Soil deformations, caused by freezing and melting transitions, are neglected. Algorithms developed for predicting ice and liquid water saturations and aqueous-phase permeabilities were incorporated into the finite-difference based numerical simulator STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases). Application of the theory is demonstrated by the solution of heat and mass transport in a horizontal cylinder of partially saturated porous media with differentially cooled ends, with the colder end held below the liquid water freezing point. This problem represents an essential capability for modeling cryogenic barriers in variably saturated geologic media

  3. Initial boost release of transforming growth factor-β3 and chondrogenesis by freeze-dried bioactive polymer scaffolds. (United States)

    Krüger, Jan Philipp; Machens, Isabel; Lahner, Matthias; Endres, Michaela; Kaps, Christian


    In cartilage regeneration, bio-activated implants are used in stem and progenitor cell-based microfracture cartilage repair procedures. Our aim was to analyze the chondrogenic potential of freeze-dried resorbable polymer-based polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds bio-activated with transforming growth factor-β3 (TGFB3) on human subchondral mesenchymal progenitor cells known from microfracture. Progenitor cells derived from femur heads were cultured in the presence of freeze-dried TGFB3 in high-density pellet culture and in freeze-dried TGFB3-PGA scaffolds for chondrogenic differentiation. Progenitor cell cultures in PGA scaffolds as well as pellet cultures with and without continuous application of TGFB3 served as controls. Release studies showed that freeze-dried TGFB3-PGA scaffolds facilitate a rapid, initial boost-like release of 71.5% of TGFB3 in the first 10 h. Gene expression analysis and histology showed induction of typical chondrogenic markers like type II collagen and formation of cartilaginous tissue in TGFB3-PGA scaffolds seeded with subchondral progenitor cells and in pellet cultures stimulated with freeze-dried TGFB3. Chondrogenic differentiation in freeze-dried TGFB3-PGA scaffolds was comparable to cultures receiving TGFB3 continuously, while non-stimulated controls did not show chondrogenesis during prolonged culture for 14 days. These results suggest that bio-activated, freeze-dried TGFB3-PGA scaffolds have chondrogenic potential and are a promising tool for stem cell-mediated cartilage regeneration.

  4. Novel impedance cell for low conductive liquids: determination of bulk and interface contributions. (United States)

    Becchi, Marta; Callegaro, Luca; Durbiano, Francesca; D'Elia, Vincenzo; Strigazzi, Alfredo


    A plane capacitor cell with variable gap has been designed in order to detect the complex permittivity of low conductive liquids (up to 500 microS/cm) and the impedance of the sample-electrode interface. The novelty of the cell consists of the simultaneous presence of the field uniformity ensured by a guard ring, an adjustable gap between 300 microm and 6.75 mm (the electrode axial motion avoiding any rotation), and the immersion of the capacitor in the sample reservoir. The size of the capacitor electrodes and the gap values have been tested via the capacitance detection of the in-air cell at 1 kHz. The sample measurements have been performed by scanning the frequency range between 15 Hz and 2 MHz at four different capacitor gap values. In the paper a method to directly extract the bulk complex permittivity and the interface impedance versus frequency is presented. It is based on the assumption that the interface contribution is independent of the electrode gap, as confirmed (within the measurement accuracy) from measurements on all samples investigated. As samples of interest, we have chosen two certified electrolytic conductivity standards, KCl aqueous solutions having conductivity traceable to SI units; and two polymer latex aqueous dispersions of microspheres. Regarding KCl solutions, the conductivity measurements are compatible with the reference values within the specified uncertainty; the measured permittivities are consistent with the literature. For all samples, we have recovered the expected result that the interface impedance mainly affects the low frequency range (f<10 kHz).

  5. Fundamental investigation of foam flow in a liquid-filled Hele-Shaw cell. (United States)

    Osei-Bonsu, Kofi; Shokri, Nima; Grassia, Paul


    The relative immobility of foam in porous media suppresses the formation of fingers during oil displacement leading to a more stable displacement which is desired in various processes such as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) or soil remediation practices. Various parameters may influence the efficiency of foam-assisted oil displacement such as properties of oil, the permeability and heterogeneity of the porous medium and physical and chemical characteristics of foam. In the present work, we have conducted a comprehensive series of experiments using customised Hele-Shaw cells filled with either water or oil to describe the effects of foam quality, permeability of the cell as well as the injection rate on the apparent viscosity of foam which is required to investigate foam displacement. Our results reveal the significant impact of foam texture and bubble size on the foam apparent viscosity. Foams with smaller bubble sizes have a higher apparent viscosity. This statement only applies (strictly speaking) when the foam quality is constant. However, wet foams with smaller bubbles may have lower apparent viscosity compared to dry foams with larger bubbles. Furthermore, our results show the occurrence of more stable foam-water fronts as foam quality decreases. Besides, the complexity of oil displacement by foam as well as its destabilizing effects on foam displacement has been discussed. Our results extend the physical understanding of foam-assisted liquid displacement in Hele-Shaw cell which is a step towards understanding the foam flow behaviour in more complex systems such as porous media. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring leachables from single-use bioreactor bags for mammalian cell culture by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Dorival-García, N; Bones, J


    A method for the identification of leachables in chemically defined media for CHO cell culture using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and UHPLC-MS is described. A Box-Behnken design of experiments (DoE) approach was applied to obtain the optimum extraction conditions of the target analytes. Performance of DLLME as extraction technique was studied by comparison of two commercial chemically defined media for CHO cell culture. General extraction conditions for any group of leachables, regardless of their specific chemical functionalities can be applied and similar optimum conditions were obtained with the two media. Extraction efficiency and matrix effects were determined. The method was validated using matrix-matched standard calibration followed by recovery assays with spiked samples. Finally, cell culture media was incubated in 7 single use bioreactors (SUBs) from different vendors and analysed. TBPP was not detected in any of the samples, whereas DtBP and TBPP-ox were found in all samples, with bDtBPP detected in six SUBs. This method can be used for early identification of non-satisfactory SUB films for cultivation of CHO cell lines for biopharmaceutical production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein freeze concentration and micro-segregation analysed in a temperature-controlled freeze container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Roessl


    Full Text Available To examine effects of varied freezing conditions on the development of spatial heterogeneity in the frozen protein solution, macroscopic freeze concentration and micro-segregation of bovine serum albumin (BSA were investigated in a temperature-controlled 200-ml freeze container. Freezing to −40 °C promoted formation of protein concentration gradients (69–114 μg ml−1 in frozen samples taken from 12 different freezer positions, whereby slow freezing in 4 h or longer facilitated the evolution of strong spatial heterogeneities and caused local concentration increases by 1.15-fold relative to the initial protein concentration (100 μg ml−1. To visualize protein micro-segregation during phase separation, BSA was conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy was used to localize and size the freeze-concentrated protein regions. Slow freezing resulted in distinctly fewer and larger protein domains in the frozen bulk than fast freezing. Surface stress on the protein during freezing would therefore be minimized at low cooling rates; microscopic freeze concentration would however be highest under these conditions, potentially favoring protein aggregation.

  8. Recycling of Indium From CIGS Photovoltaic Cells: Potential of Combining Acid-Resistant Nanofiltration with Liquid-Liquid Extraction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Y.S.; Niewersch, C.; Lenz, M.; Corvini, P.F.X.; Schäffer, A.; Wintgens, T.


    Electronic consumer products such as smartphones, TV, computers, light-emitting diodes, and photovoltaic cells crucially depend on metals and metalloids. So-called “urban mining” considers them as secondary resources since they may contain precious elements at concentrations many times higher than

  9. The liquid biodiesel extracted from pranajiwa (Sterculia Foetida) seeds as fuel for direct biofuel-solid oxide fuel cell (United States)

    Rahmawati, Fitria; Syahputra, Rahmat J. E.; Yuniastuti, Endang; Prameswari, Arum P.; Nurcahyo, I. F.


    This research applied the liquid biodiesel extracted from Pranajiwa seeds (biodiesel-p) as fuel in Intermediate Temperature-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, IT-SOFC, with an operational temperature of 400 - 600°C. FTIR analysis of the liquid biodiesel found that the liquid consist of some functional groups. By comparing the spectrum with the commercial biosolar as produced by Pertamina, Indonesia, it is found that there are differenet peaks at a wavenumber of 3472.98; 1872.00; and 724.30 cm-1. It indicates the presence of alcoholo molecules. Composite of Samarium doped-Ceria, SDC, with sodium carbonate, NaCO3, was used as the electrolyte, and it is named as NSDC. Meanwhile, the composite of NSDC with catalyst powder of LNC, producing NSDC-L was used as a cathode and as an anode. The liquid fuel vapourized at 150 °C before come into the fuel cell, and it was reformed inside the fuel cell tube which was set up at 400, 500, and 600 °C. The measurement found that the highest Open Circuite Voltage is 0.57 volt and the power density of 1.7 at 500 °C.

  10. Hot big bang or slow freeze? (United States)

    Wetterich, C.


    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze - a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple ;crossover model; without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space-time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  11. Study of the conditions necessary for propane-jet freezing of fresh biological tissues without detectable ice formation. (United States)

    Haggis, G H


    The performance of a commercial double-propane-jet freezer (Balzers QFD 101) has been assessed, for rapid freezing of fresh tissues in freeze-etch work. Samples of diaphragm muscle and intestinal villi were frozen between copper sheets, with a spacer to give 20-30 microns thickness of tissue. Fracture cuts were made with the Balzers BAF 400 freeze-etch microtome within 5-10 microns of a freezing face (i.e. a tissue face in contact with the copper sheets of the frozen sandwich). After some modifications to the QFD 101, replicas showing no evidence of ice were obtained of muscle cells, although for intestinal epithelial cells some evidence of ice formation was found. Infiltration with 5% glycerol or dimethylsulphoxide improves the depth of good freezing. Results and problems arising from such infiltration are briefly discussed.

  12. Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.


    The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

  13. High-resolution quantitative imaging of subcellular morphology and cell refractometry in a liquid environment via endogenous mechanism (United States)

    Edward, Kert; Farahi, Faramarz


    Biological cells are composed primarily of water; and as such are challenging to image without staining since the induced intensity modulation of transmitted or reflected light is typically insufficient to permit acceptable contrast for optical imaging. This issue may be resolved with the aid of exogenous contrast agents, but this often has a deleterious effect on the cell and precludes in vivo imaging. A unique approach to this problem is afforded by the phase contrast microscope in which optical-path differences in transmitted light is exploited as a contrast mechanism for qualitative imaging. In recent years however, several quantitative phase imaging techniques have been developed which allow for diffraction limited endogenous-contrast imaging with excellent temporal resolution. We hereby present a laser scanning technique for quantitative phase imaging which achieves sub-diffraction limited resolution at the expense of temporal resolution. This instrument is based on a stabilized fiber interfometer which is incorporated into a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) for tri-modal imaging. Our latest results will focus on modifications made to this system to facilitate imaging in a liquid environment. A simple approach for achieving stable shear-force feedback operation in a liquid will be presented. Acquired high resolution images of white blood cells revealed detailed sub-cellular features. Images of fibroblast cells in air and in a liquid environment confirm the efficacy of the feedback operation in a liquid. Moreover, we demonstrate cell refractometry capability without the need for ad hoc modifications. These results clearly highlight the unique potential of this instrument for the study of living cells.

  14. Biofabrication of morphology improved cadmium sulfide nanoparticles using Shewanella oneidensis bacterial cells and ionic liquid: For toxicity against brain cancer cell lines. (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Siyuan; Ding, Yiming; Zhu, Qiang; Zhang, Nijia; Yu, Shuqing


    The present work determines the anticancer activity of bio-mediated synthesized cadmium sulfide nanoparticles using the ionic liquid and bacterial cells (Shewanella oneidensis). Bacterial cells have been exposed to be important resources that hold huge potential as ecofriendly, cost-effective, evading toxic of dangerous chemicals and the alternative of conventional physiochemical synthesis. The Shewanella oneidensis is an important kind of metal reducing bacterium, known as its special anaerobic respiratory and sulfate reducing capacity. The crystalline nature, phase purity and surface morphology of biosynthesized cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersive spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy. The use of imidazolium based ionic liquids as soft templating agent for controlling self-assembly and crystal growth direction of metal sulfide nanoparticles has also advanced as an important method. The microscopic techniques showed that the nanoparticles are designed on the nano form and have an excellent spherical morphology, due to the self-assembled mechanism of ionic liquid assistance. The antitumor efficiency of the cadmium sulfide nanoparticles was investigated against brain cancer cell lines using rat glioma cell lines. The effectively improved nano-crystalline and morphological structure of CdS nanoparticles in the presence of IL exhibit excellent cytotoxicity and dispersion ability on the cell shape is completely spread out showing a nice toxic environment against cancer cells. The cytotoxicity effect of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles was discussed with a diagrammatic representation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effects of six substances on the growth and freeze-drying of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. (United States)

    Chen, He; Huang, Jie; Shi, Xiaoyu; Li, Yichao; Liu, Yu


    The efficacy of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus as starter cultures for the dairy industry depends largely on the number of viable and active cells. Freeze-drying is the most convenient and successful method to preserve the bacterial cells. However, not all strains survived during freeze-drying. The effects of six substances including NaCl, sorbitol, mannitol, mannose, sodium glutamate, betaine added to the MRS medium on the growth and freeze-drying survival rate and viable counts of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were studied through a single-factor test and Plackett-Burman design. Subsequently, the optimum freeze-drying conditions of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were determined. Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus survival rates were up to the maximum of 42.7%, 45.4%, 23.6%, while the concentrations of NaCl, sorbitol, sodium glutamate were 0.6%, 0.15%, 0.09%, respectively. In the optimum concentration, the viable counts in broth is 6.1, 6.9, 5.13 (×108 CFU/mL), respectively; the viable counts in freeze-drying power are 3.09, 5.2, 2.7 (×1010 CFU/g), respectively. Three antifreeze factors including NaCl, sorbitol, sodium glutamate have a positive effect on the growth and freeze-drying of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The results are beneficial for developing Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

  16. Ultrasound assisted immersion freezing of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L.). (United States)

    Xin, Ying; Zhang, Min; Adhikari, Benu


    The aim of this study was to research the ultrasound-assisted freezing (UAF) of broccoli. CaCl2 solution was used as freezing medium. The comparative advantage of using UAF over normal freezing on the freezing time, cell-wall bound calcium to total calcium ratio, textural properties, color, drip loss and L-ascorbic acid contents was evaluated. The application of UAF at selected acoustic intensity with a range of 0.250-0.412 W/cm(2) decreased the freezing time and the loss of cell-wall bound calcium content. Compared to normal freezing, the values of textural properties, color, L-ascorbic acid content were better preserved and the drip loss was significantly minimized by the application of UAF. However, when outside that range of acoustic intensity, the quality of the ultrasound-assisted frozen broccoli was inferior compared to that of the normally frozen samples. Selected the appropriate acoustic intensity was very important for the application of UAF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Breeding of Freeze-tolerant Yeast and the Mechanisms of Stress-tolerance (United States)

    Hino, Akihiro

    Frozen dough method have been adopted in the baking industry to reduce labor and to produce fresh breads in stores. New freeze-tolerant yeasts for frozen dough preparations were isolated from banana peel and identified. To obtain strains that have fermentative ability even after several months of frozen storage in fermented dough, we attempted to breed new freeze-tolerantstrain. The hybrid between S.cerevisiae, which is a isolated freeze-tolerant strain, and a strain isolated from bakers' yeast with sexual conjugation gave a good quality bread made from frozen dough method. Freeze-tolerant strains showed higher surviving and trehalose accumulating abilities than freeze-sensitive strains. The freeze tolerance of the yeasts was associated with the basal amount of intracellular trehalose after rapid degradation at the onset of the prefermentation period. The complicated metabolic pathway and the regulation system of trehalose in yeast cells are introduced. The trehalose synthesis may act as a metabolic buffer system which contribute to maintain the intracellular inorganic phosphate and as a feedback regulation system in the glycolysis. However, it is not known enough how the trehalose protects yeast cells from stress.

  18. Tailorable Porous Ceramics via Freeze Casting (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Freeze casting of ceramics is a novel technique used to produce porous materials. The process involves solidifying a solvent in a ceramic slurry to produce a frozen...

  19. Freezing and refrigerated storage in fisheries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, W. A


    ...; the factors affecting cold storage conditions, etc. In addition, the publication describes the methods used to calculate cold storage refrigeration loads as well as the costs of freezing and cold storage...

  20. Global Annual Freezing and Thawing Indices (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The total annual freezing and thawing indices are defined as the cumulative number of degree-days when air temperatures are below and above zero degrees Celsius. The...

  1. Nanosize Copper Dispersed Ionic Liquids As an Electrolyte of New Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Lin Chen


    Full Text Available To enhance the electrical conductivity of the electrolyte for a newly developed dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC, metallic copper (Cu encapsulated within the carbon shell (Cu@C nanoparticles dispersed in a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL (e.g., [bmim+][PF6−] has been studied in the present work. By the pulsed-field gradient spin-echo NMR method, the self-diffusion coefficients of cations and anions of the RTIL have been determined. The self-diffusion coefficient of the [bmim+] cations in the RTIL dispersed with 0.08% of Cu@C nanoparticles is increased by 35%. The electrical conductivity of the Cu@C dispersed RTIL is also increased by 65% (1.0 → 2.3 ms/cm. It is very clear the nanosize Cu@C dispersed RTIL with a relatively greater diffusion coefficient and electrical conductivity can be a very effective electrolyte especially utilized in DSSCs.

  2. LDRD Final Report - In Operando Liquid Cell TEM Characterization of Nickel-Based Electrocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    A commercial electrochemistry stage for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was tested to determine whether to purchase one for the microscopes at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). Deposition of a nickel-based electrocatalyst was pursued as a material system for the purpose of testing the stage. The stage was found to be problematic with recurring issues in the electrical connections and vacuum sealing, which has thus far precluded a systematic investigation of the original material system. However, the electrochemical cells purchased through this FS will allow the Lawrence Fellow (Nielsen) to continue testing the stage. Furthermore, discussions with a second vendor, which released a similar electrochemical TEM stage during the course of this FS, have resulted in an upcoming longterm loan of their stage at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) for testing. In addition, low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements on nickel-bearing electrolyte solutions led to a broader EELS investigation of solvents and salt solutions. These measurements form the basis of a manuscript in preparation on EELS measurements of the liquid phase.

  3. Freezing tolerance of conifer seeds and germinants. (United States)

    Hawkins, B J; Guest, H J; Kolotelo, D


    Survival after freezing was measured for seeds and germinants of four seedlots each of interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmannii complex), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Donn). Effects of eight seed treatments on post-freezing survival of seeds and germinants were tested: dry, imbibed and stratified seed, and seed placed in a growth chamber for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 days in a 16-h photoperiod and a 22/17 degrees C thermoperiod. Survival was related to the water content of seeds and germinants, germination rate and seedlot origin. After freezing for 3 h at -196 degrees C, dry seed of most seedlots of interior spruce, Douglas-fir and western red cedar had 84-96% germination, whereas lodgepole pine seedlots had 53-82% germination. Freezing tolerance declined significantly after imbibition in lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and interior spruce seed (western red cedar was not tested), and mean LT50 of imbibed seed of these species was -30, -24.5 and -20 degrees C, respectively. Freezing tolerance continued to decline to a minimum LT50 of -4 to -7 degrees C after 10 days in a growth chamber for interior spruce, Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine, or after 15 days for western red cedar. Minimum freezing tolerance was reached at the stage of rapid hypocotyl elongation. In all species, a slight increase in freezing tolerance of germinants was observed once cotyledons emerged from the seed coat. The decrease in freezing tolerance during the transition from dry to germinating seed correlated with increases in seed water content. Changes in freezing tolerance between 10 and 30 days in the growth chamber were not correlated with seedling water content. Within a species, seedlots differed significantly in freezing tolerance after 2 or 5 days in the growth chamber. Because all seedlots of interior spruce and lodgepole pine germinated quickly, there was no correlation

  4. Freezing pattern and frost killing temperature of apple (Malus domestica) wood under controlled conditions and in nature. (United States)

    Pramsohler, Manuel; Hacker, Jürgen; Neuner, Gilbert


    The freezing pattern and frost killing temperatures of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) xylem were determined by differential thermal analysis and infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA). Results from detached or attached twigs in controlled freezing experiments and during natural field freezing of trees were compared. Non-lethal freezing of apoplastic water in apple xylem as monitored during natural winter frosts in the field occurred at -1.9 ± 0.4 °C and did not change seasonally. The pattern of whole tree freezing was variable and specific to the environmental conditions. On detached twigs high-temperature freezing exotherms (HTEs) occurred 2.8 K below the temperature observed under natural frosts in the field with a seasonal mean of -4.7 ± 0.5 °C. Microporous apple xylem showed freezing without a specific pattern within a few seconds in IDTA images during HTEs, which is in contrast to macroporous xylem where a 2D freezing pattern mirrors anatomical structures. The pith tissue always remained unfrozen. Increasing twig length increased ice nucleation temperature; for increased twig diameter the effect was not significant. In attached twigs frozen in field portable freezing chambers, HTEs were recorded at a similar mean temperature (-4.6 ± 1.0 °C) to those for detached twigs. Upon lethal intracellular freezing of apple xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) low-temperature freezing exotherms (LTEs) can be recorded. Low-temperature freezing exotherms determined on detached twigs varied significantly between a winter minimum of -36.9 °C and a summer maximum -12.7 °C. Within the temperature range wherein LTEs were recorded by IDTA in summer (-12.7 ± 0.5 to -20.3 ± 1.1 °C) various tiny clearly separated discontinuous freezing events could be detected similar to that in other species with contrasting XPC anatomy. These freezing events appeared to be initially located in the primary and only later in the secondary xylem. During the LTE no

  5. Monitoring the Freezing Point of Buffalo Milk


    Pesce, Antonella; Salzano, Caterina; De Felice, Anna; Garofalo, Francesca; Liguori, Salvatore; De Santo, Annunziata; Palermo, Pierpaolo; Guarino, Achille


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic freezing point of buffalo milk. Bulk milk samples were collected from buffalo and cattle farms in Caserta area from 2008 to 2014. The analysis involved a total of 1886 buffalo milk samples and 1711 bovine milk samples. These were also tested for fat, protein and lactose contents by means of infrared spectrometry. The freezing point was determined by means of a thermistor cryoscope. Data underwent statistical analysis. Our research showed an aver...

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of a Gel-Type Electrolyte with Ionic Liquid Added for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-Yan Shi


    Full Text Available This study intends to develop the electrolyte needed in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Moreover, three different ionic liquids in different molalities are added to the gel-type electrolyte. Experimental results show that the DSSC composed of the gel-type electrolyte with no ionic liquid added can acquire 4.13% photoelectric conversion efficiency. However, the DSSC composed of the gel-type electrolyte with 0.4 M of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride added has an open-circuit voltage of 810 mV, a short-circuit current density of 9.56 mA/cm2, and photoelectric conversion efficiency reaching 4.89%. Comparing this DSSC with the DSSC with no ionic liquid added, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can be enhanced by 18.4%. As to durability, the DSSC composed of the gel-type electrolyte with ionic liquid added still has a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 3.28% on the 7th day after it is stored in an enclosed space and maintains 0.72% efficiency on the 14th day. When the proposed DSSC is compared with the DSSC prepared by using a liquid-type electrolyte, the durability of its photoelectric conversion efficiency can be increased by 7 times.

  7. A novel deep eutectic solvent-based ionic liquid used as electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhong, Huei-Ru; Wong, David Shan-Hill; Wan, Chi-Chao; Wang, Yung-Yun [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, 101 Guang Fu Road, Section 2, Hsin-chu, Taiwan 30013 (China); Wei, Tzu-Chien [Tripod Technology Corporation, Hsin-chu, Taiwan 30013 (China)


    We utilize a quaternary ammonium salt-derivative ionic liquid called G.CI which is a eutectic mixture of glycerol and choline iodide as electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells. Such eutectic compound belongs to a new series of ionic liquid called deep eutectic solvents (DES), which possess many outstanding features compared to the traditional imidazolium-based ionic liquids including cheap raw materials, simple preparation procedures and better biocompatibility. Current-voltage characteristics of the G.CI/PMII-based binary electrolytes stand at 0.533 V on V{sub oc}, 12.0 mA cm{sup -2} on J{sub sc}, 0.582 on fill factor, and 3.88% cell efficiency under AM 1.5, 100 mW/cm{sup 2} illuminations. The comparable cell performance together with all the above advantages makes G.CI as a strong candidate for future electrolyte development for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). (author)

  8. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration:Proceedings CD


    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Sahlin, Simon Lennart; Justesen, Kristian Kjær


    The present work describes the ongoing development of high temperature PEM fuel cell systems fuelled by steam reformed methanol. Various fuel cell system solutions exist, they mainly differ depending on the desired fuel used. Hightemperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells offer the possibility of using liquid fuels such as methanol, due to the increased robustness of operating at higher temperatures (160-180oC). Using liquid fuels such as methanol removes the high volume demands of compressed hydroge...

  9. Bulk water freezing dynamics on superhydrophobic surfaces (United States)

    Chavan, S.; Carpenter, J.; Nallapaneni, M.; Chen, J. Y.; Miljkovic, N.


    In this study, we elucidate the mechanisms governing the heat-transfer mediated, non-thermodynamic limited, freezing delay on non-wetting surfaces for a variety of characteristic length scales, Lc (volume/surface area, 3 mm commercial superhydrophobic spray coatings, showing a monotonic increase in freezing time with coating thickness. The added thermal resistance of thicker coatings was much larger than that of the nanoscale superhydrophobic features, which reduced the droplet heat transfer and increased the total freezing time. Transient finite element method heat transfer simulations of the water slab freezing process were performed to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient at the substrate-water/ice interface during freezing, and shown to be in the range of 1-2.5 kW/m2K for these experiments. The results shown here suggest that in order to exploit the heat-transfer mediated freezing delay, thicker superhydrophobic coatings must be deposited on the surface, where the coating resistance is comparable to the bulk water/ice conduction resistance.

  10. Surface NH2-rich nanoparticles: Solidifying ionic-liquid electrolytes and improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (United States)

    Fang, Yanyan; Ma, Pin; Fu, Nianqing; Zhou, Xiaowen; Fang, Shibi; Lin, Yuan


    The surface properties of nanoparticles have a significant influence on the properties of the gel electrolytes. Herein, the surface NH2-rich nanoparticle (A-SiO2), with a tightening network, is synthesized by silanizing SiO2 nanoparticles with pre-polymerized aminopropyltriethoxysilane, which is further employed to prepare ionic-liquid gel electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The addition of a small amount of A-SiO2 can effectively solidify the ionic-liquid, whereas a large number of NH2 groups on the SiO2 surface leads to a large negative shift of the TiO2 conduction band edge, and can react with I3- in the form of a Lewis complex, resulting in an increase in the concentration of I- and a decrease in the concentration of I3- in the electrolyte. In addition, the ionic-liquid gel electrolyte possesses thixotropic behavior, which allows it to easily penetrate into the inner part of the TiO2 mesoporous film. As a result, large improvements of the photovoltage from 695 mV to 785 mV and of the photocurrent from 13.3 mA cm-2 to 14.9 mA cm-2 are achieved. This leads to significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency, from 6.2% to 8.1%, for the cell with A-SiO2 compared to that of the pristine ionic-liquid electrolyte.

  11. Drying characteristics of pumpkin ( Cucurbita moschata) slices in convective and freeze dryer (United States)

    Caliskan, Gulsah; Dirim, Safiye Nur


    This study was intended to determine the drying and rehydration kinetics of convective and freeze dried pumpkin slices (0.5 × 3.5 × 0.5 cm). A pilot scale tray drier (at 80 ± 2 °C inlet temperature, 1 m s-1 air velocity) and freeze drier (13.33 kPa absolute pressure, condenser temperature of -48 ± 2 °C) were used for the drying experiments. Drying curves were fitted to six well-known thin layer drying models. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to evaluate the parameters of the selected models by using statistical software SPSS 16.0 (SPSS Inc., USA). For the convective and freeze drying processes of pumpkin slices, the highest R2 values, and the lowest RMSE as well as χ2 values were obtained from Page model. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) of the convective and freeze dried pumpkin slices were obtained from the Fick's diffusion model, and they were found to be 2.233 × 10-7 and 3.040 × 10-9 m2s-1, respectively. Specific moisture extraction rate, moisture extraction rate, and specific energy consumption values were almost twice in freeze drying process. Depending on the results, moisture contents and water activity values of pumpkin slices were in acceptable limits for safe storage of products. The rehydration behaviour of [at 18 ± 2 and 100 ± 2 °C for 1:25, 1:50, 1:75, 1:100, and 1:125 solid:liquid ratios (w:w)] dried pumpkin slices was determined by Peleg's model with the highest R2. The highest total soluble solid loss of pumpkin slices was observed for the rehydration experiment which performed at 1:25 solid: liquid ratio (w:w). Rehydration ratio of freeze dried slices was found 2-3 times higher than convective dried slices.

  12. Analysis of endocrine disruptor compounds in marine sediments by in cell clean up-pressurized liquid extraction-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination. (United States)

    Salgueiro-González, N; Turnes-Carou, I; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D


    A less time-, solvent- and sorbent-consuming analytical methodology for the determination of bisphenol A and alkylphenols (4-tert-octylphenol, 4-octylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol, nonylphenol) in marine sediment was developed and validated. The method was based on selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) with a simultaneous in cell clean up combined with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative mode (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The SPLE extraction conditions were optimized by a Plackett-Burman design followed by a central composite design. Quantitation was performed by standard addition curves in order to correct matrix effects. The analytical features of the method were satisfactory: relative recoveries varied between 94 and 100% and repeatability and intermediate precision were MQL) ranged between 0.17 (4-n-nonylphenol) and 4.01 ng g(-1) dry weight (nonylphenol). Sensitivity, selectivity, automaticity and fastness are the main advantages of this green methodology. As an application, marine sediment samples from Galicia coast (NW of Spain) were analysed. Nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol were measured in all samples at concentrations between 20.1 and 1409 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. Sediment toxicity was estimated and no risk to aquatic biota was found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Peltier Cells to Study Solid-Liquid-Vapour Transitions and Supercooling (United States)

    Torzo, Giacomo; Soletta, Isabella; Branca, Mario


    We propose an apparatus for teaching experimental thermodynamics in undergraduate introductory courses, using thermoelectric modules and a real-time data acquisition system. The device may be made at low cost, still providing an easy approach to the investigation of liquid-solid and liquid-vapour phase transitions and of metastable states…

  14. Direct molecular-level characterization of different heterogeneous freezing modes on mica - Part 1 (United States)

    Abdelmonem, Ahmed


    The mechanisms behind heterogeneous ice nucleation are of fundamental importance to the prediction of the occurrence and properties of many cloud types, which influence climate and precipitation. Aerosol particles act as cloud condensation and freezing nuclei. The surface-water interaction of an ice nucleation particle plays a major, not well explored, role in its ice nucleation ability. This paper presents a real-time molecular-level comparison of different freezing modes on the surface of an atmospherically relevant mineral surface (mica) under varying supersaturation conditions using second-harmonic generation spectroscopy. Two sub-deposition nucleation modes were identified (one- and two-stage freezing). The nonlinear signal at the water-mica interface was found to drop following the formation of a thin film on the surface regardless of (1) the formed phase (liquid or ice) and (2) the freezing path (one or two step), indicating similar molecular structuring. The results also revealed a transient phase of ice at water-mica interfaces during freezing, which has a lifetime of around 1 min. Such information will have a significant impact on climate change, weather modification, and the tracing of water in hydrosphere studies.

  15. Drying of α-amylase by spray drying and freeze-drying - a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Jesus


    Full Text Available This study is aimed at comparing two traditional methods of drying of enzymes and at verifying the efficiency of each one and their advantages and disadvantages. The experiments were performed with a laboratory spray dryer and freeze-dryer using α-amylase as the model enzyme. An experimental design in star revealed that spray drying is mainly influenced by the inlet air temperature and feed flow rate, which were considered to be the main factors influencing the enzymatic activity and water activity; the long period of material exposure to high temperatures causes a partial activity loss. In the experiments of freeze drying, three methods of freezing were used (freezer, acetone and dry ice, and liquid nitrogen and samples subsequently freeze-dried for times ranging between 0-24 hours. The product obtained from the two techniques showed high enzymatic activity and low water activity. For the drying of heat-resistant enzymes, in which the product to be obtained does not have high added value, spray drying may be more economically viable because, in the freeze drying process, the process time can be considered as a limiting factor when choosing a technique.

  16. Freeze-drying behaviour of pasteurized whole egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melike Sakin; Merve Samli; Gizem Kor, A.; Figen Kaymak-Ertekin


    Because it provides full nutritional and certain desirable functional attributes, egg products are widely used as ingredients in many food products. Dried egg is especially valuable for being stable, easily mixable and having a long shelf life. It is necessary to know the effects of drying conditions onto the moisture removal behaviour and the functional properties of the powder product, to serve the egg powder as an alternative. An experimental study was conducted to achieve an understanding of the freeze-drying behaviour of pasteurized whole egg having 24% dry solids. In order to determine the moisture removal behaviour; the percent moisture loss (w/w), the average moisture content and the drying rates were obtained, the drying curves were developed and total drying times were determined, also the movement of the dry-wet boundary between the frozen layer and the dry porous layer formed by sublimation of ice crystals were investigated during a complete process. The physical properties of pasteurized whole egg such as; colour, water activity (a w ), the morphological structure (through SEM analysis) and functional properties (foam stability and dissolubility) were determined. The net colour change (ΔE) was about 22, independent of layer thickness. The water activity decreased to 0.22 at the end of drying. The SEM images of freeze-dried and slightly milled egg powder samples at magnification levels of 500 and 1000 showed the porous structure caused by sublimation of ice crystals generated within the egg structure during air blast freezing. The dissolubility and foaming capacity of powder egg were observed to be lower compared to those of pasteurized liquid egg. (author)

  17. Equilibrium theory of molecular fluids: Structure and freezing transitions (United States)

    Ram, Jokhan


    In this article we review equilibrium theory of molecular fluids which includes structure and freezing transitions. The application of the theory to evaluate the pair correlation functions using Integral Equation methods and Computer Simulations have been discussed. Freezing of classical complex fluids based on the density functional approach is also discussed and compare a variety of its versions. Transitions discussed are sensitive to the value of direct correlation functions of the effective liquid which is required as an input information in the theory. Accurate evaluation of pair correlation functions is emphasized. Calculation of these correlation functions which pose problems in the case of ordered phases is discussed. The pair correlation functions of the ordered phase, which are supposed to be made up of two contributions, one that preserves the symmetry of the isotropic phase and a second that breaks it, are discussed. A new free-energy functional developed for an inhomogeneous system that contains both symmetry conserved and symmetry broken parts of the direct pair correlation function is discussed. The most useful three dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) and its extension done recently by many workers is discussed. Application of this theory to a large variety of complex systems in combination with the density functional theory method implemented in the Amsterdam density functional software package is discussed. Coupling of the 3D-RISM salvation theory with molecular dynamics in the Amber molecular dynamics package is also given. The importance of the density functional theory for the study of the structure and phase behaviour of hard polyhedral is also discussed. The dynamical density functional and its generalized form applied for many important class of problems such as binary mixture, anisotropic particles dynamics of freezing and wetting, colloidal samples, particle self diffusion in complex environment, colloidal sedimentation

  18. Formation of Platinum Catalyst on Carbon Black Using an In‐Liquid Plasma Method for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Show


    Full Text Available Platinum (Pt catalyst was formed on the surface of carbon black using an in‐liquid plasma method. The formed Pt catalyst showed the average particle size of 4.1 nm. This Pt catalyst was applied to a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. The PEMFC showed an open voltage of 0.85 V and a maximum output power density of 216 mW/cm2.

  19. A Review on Current Status of Stability and Knowledge on Liquid Electrolyte-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sauvage


    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to gather the current background in materials development and provide the reader with an accurate image of today’s knowledge regarding the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. This contribution highlights the literature from the 1970s to the present day on nanostructured TiO2, dye, Pt counter electrode, and liquid electrolyte for which this review is focused on.

  20. Freezing the Master Production Schedule Under Rolling Planning Horizons


    V. Sridharan; William L. Berry; V. Udayabhanu


    The stability of the Master Production Schedule (MPS) is a critical issue in managing production operations with a Material Requirements Planning System. One method of achieving stability is to freeze some portion or all of the MPS. While freezing the MPS can limit the number of schedule changes, it can also produce an increase in production and inventory costs. This paper examines three decision variables in freezing the MPS: the freezing method, the freeze interval length, and the planning ...

  1. How important are internal temperature gradients in french straws during freezing of bovine sperm in nitrogen vapor? (United States)

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J


    The subject of present work was to predict internal temperature gradients developed during freezing of bovine sperm diluted in extender, packaged in 0.5 ml French plastic straws and suspended in static liquid nitrogen vapor at -100 degree C. For this purpose, a mathematical heat transfer model previously developed to predict freezing times (phase change was considered) of semen/extender packaged in straw was extended to predict internal temperature gradients during the cooling/freezing process. Results showed maximum temperature differences between the centre and the periphery of semen/extender "liquid" column was 1.5 degree C for an external heat transfer coefficient, h = 15 W per (m(2) K), and only 0.5 degree C for h = 5 W per (m(2) K). It is concluded that if a thermocouple wire were inserted in a 0.5 ml plastic straw to monitor the freezing process in nitrogen vapor, its radial position would have little importance since expected internal gradients may be safely neglected. This finding facilitates the interpretation of freezing rates in 0.5 ml plastic straws immersed in nitrogen vapor over liquid nitrogen, a widely used method for cryopreservation of bovine spermatozoa.

  2. Novel composite membranes based on PBI and dicationic ionic liquids for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooshyari, Khadijeh; Javanbakht, Mehran; Adibi, Mina


    Two types of innovative composite membranes based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) containing dicationic ionic liquid 1,3-di(3-methylimidazolium) propane bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (PDC 3 ) and monocationic ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PMC 6 ) are prepared as electrolyte for high temperature fuel cells applications under anhydrous conditions. The analyses of results display promising characteristics such as high proton conductivity and thermal stability. Moreover the fuel cell performance of PA doped PDC 3 composite membranes is enhanced in comparison with PA doped PMC 6 and PA doped PBI membranes at high temperatures. Dicationic ionic liquid with high number of charge carriers provides well-developed ionic channels which form facile pathways and considerably develop the anhydrous proton conductivity. The highest proton conductivity of 81 mS/cm is achieved for PA doped PDC 3 composite membranes with PBI/IL mole ratio: 4 at 180 °C. A power density of 0.44 W/cm 2 is obtained at 0.5 V and 180 °C for PA doped PDC 3 composite membranes, which proves that these developed composite membranes can be considered as most promising candidates for high temperature fuel cell applications with enhanced proton conductivity.

  3. Influence of Freezing and Storage Procedure on Human Urine Samples in NMR-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Luy


    Full Text Available It is consensus in the metabolomics community that standardized protocols should be followed for sample handling, storage and analysis, as it is of utmost importance to maintain constant measurement conditions to identify subtle biological differences. The aim of this work, therefore, was to systematically investigate the influence of freezing procedures and storage temperatures and their effect on NMR spectra as a potentially disturbing aspect for NMR-based metabolomics studies. Urine samples were collected from two healthy volunteers, centrifuged and divided into aliquots. Urine aliquots were frozen either at −20 °C, on dry ice, at −80 °C or in liquid nitrogen and then stored at −20 °C, −80 °C or in liquid nitrogen vapor phase for 1–5 weeks before NMR analysis. Results show spectral changes depending on the freezing procedure, with samples frozen on dry ice showing the largest deviations. The effect was found to be based on pH differences, which were caused by variations in CO2 concentrations introduced by the freezing procedure. Thus, we recommend that urine samples should be frozen at −20 °C and transferred to lower storage temperatures within one week and that freezing procedures should be part of the publication protocol.

  4. Dynamic states of swimming bacteria in a nematic liquid crystal cell with homeotropic alignment (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Tovkach, Oleh; Golovaty, Dmitry; Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.


    Flagellated bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis exhibit effective mechanisms for swimming in fluids and exploring the surrounding environment. In isotropic fluids such as water, the bacteria change swimming direction through the run-and-tumble process. Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) have been introduced recently as an anisotropic environment in which the direction of preferred orientation, the director, guides the bacterial trajectories. In this work, we describe the behavior of bacteria B. subtilis in a homeotropic LCLC geometry, in which the director is perpendicular to the bounding plates of a shallow cell. We demonstrate that the bacteria are capable of overcoming the stabilizing elastic forces of the LCLC and swim perpendicularly to the imposed director (and parallel to the bounding plates). The effect is explained by a finite surface anchoring of the director at the bacterial body; the role of surface anchoring is analyzed by numerical simulations of a rod realigning in an otherwise uniform director field. Shear flows produced by a swimming bacterium cause director distortions around its body, as evidenced both by experiments and numerical simulations. These distortions contribute to a repulsive force that keeps the swimming bacterium at a distance of a few micrometers away from the bounding plates. The homeotropic alignment of the director imposes two different scenarios of bacterial tumbling: one with an 180° reversal of the horizontal velocity and the other with the realignment of the bacterium by two consecutive 90° turns. In the second case, the angle between the bacterial body and the imposed director changes from 90° to 0° and then back to 90° the new direction of swimming does not correlate with the previous swimming direction.

  5. Detector cell based on plastic liquid-core waveguides suitable for aqueous solutions: one-to-two decades improved detection limits in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooijer, C.; de Beer, T.; Bader, A.N.; van Iperen, D.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Hoornweg, G.Ph.


    A new type of detector cell is presented, which is designed to improve concentration detection limits in conventional-size reversed-phase column liquid chromatography (LC) with ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption detection. It is based on a recently developed plastic liquid-core waveguide (LCW),

  6. Photoregenerative I−/I3− couple as a liquid cathode for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yadong; Ai, Xinping; Tu, Wenmao; Pan, Mu


    A photoassisted oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) through I−/I3− redox couple was investigated for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cathode reaction. The I−/I3−-based liquid cathode was used to replace conventional oxygen cathode, and its discharge product I− was regenerated to I3− by photocatalytic oxidation with the participation of oxygen. This new and innovative approach may provide a strategy to eliminate the usage of challenging ORR electrocatalysts, resulting in an avenue for developing low-cost and high-efficiency PEM fuel cells. PMID:25348812

  7. Effect of gold nano-particles on switch-on voltage and relaxation frequency of nematic liquid crystal cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Inam


    Full Text Available We report the observation of large changes in the electro-optical properties of nematic liquid crystal (NLC due to inclusion of small concentration of 10 nm diameter gold nanoparticles (GNPs. It is observed that GNPs lower switch-on voltage and also lower the relaxation frequency with applied voltage (AC field to NLC cell. These studies of GNP doped NLC cell have been done using optical interferometry and capacity measurement by impedance analyzer. The change in threshold voltage and relaxation frequency by doping GNPs in NLC is explained theoretically.

  8. Cell damage and recovery in cryopreserved microphytobenthic diatoms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mitbavkar, S.; Anil, A.C.

    either directly introduced the incubated samples into liquid nitrogen [13] or con- trolled the freezing rate at ¡1°Cmin ¡1 [10] or ¡15 °C min ¡1 [9] prior to their immersion in liquid nitrogen. The two species of pennate diatoms, A. coVeae- formis and N... observations at regular intervals showed that the cells recovered in the presence of Me 2 SO wherein the contracted chloroplast showed a grad- ual increase in size, Wnally regaining the normal size and structure (Fig. 3e–g). The cells in case III con- trol did...

  9. Effective freezing rate for semen cryopreservation in endangered Mediterranean brown trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma) inhabiting the Biferno river (South Italy). (United States)

    Iaffaldano, Nicolaia; Di Iorio, Michele; Manchisi, Angelo; Esposito, Stefano; Gibertoni, Pier Paolo


    This study was designed to determine: (i) the in vitro effects of different freezing rates on post-thaw semen quality of Mediterranean brown trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma) from the Biferno river; and (ii) the in vivo fertilization and hatching percentage of freezing rate giving rise to the best post-thaw semen quality. Pooled semen samples were diluted 1:3 (v:v) in a freezing extender composed of 300 mM glucose, 10% egg yolk and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The extended semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and frozen at different heights above the liquid nitrogen surface (1, 5 or 10 cm) for 10 min to give three different freezing rates. Semen samples were thawed at 30°C for 10 s. The variables assessed after thawing were sperm motility, duration of motility and viability. Our results clearly indicate a significant effect of freezing rate on post-thaw semen quality. Semen frozen 5 cm above the liquid nitrogen surface showed the best quality after freezing/thawing. Based on these in vitro data, 2 groups of 200 eggs were fertilized with fresh semen or semen frozen 5 cm above the liquid nitrogen surface. Fertilization and hatching rates recorded for eggs fertilized with frozen semen were significantly lower (25.4% and 22.5%, respectively) than the ones obtained using fresh semen (87.8% and 75.5%, respectively). An effective freezing protocol will allow for the creation of a sperm cryobank to recover the original population of Mediterranean brown trout in the Biferno river.

  10. Modeling efficiency and water balance in PEM fuel cell systems with liquid fuel processing and hydrogen membranes (United States)

    Pearlman, Joshua B.; Bhargav, Atul; Shields, Eric B.; Jackson, Gregory S.; Hearn, Patrick L.

    Integrating PEM fuel cells effectively with liquid hydrocarbon reforming requires careful system analysis to assess trade-offs associated with H 2 production, purification, and overall water balance. To this end, a model of a PEM fuel cell system integrated with an autothermal reformer for liquid hydrocarbon fuels (modeled as C 12H 23) and with H 2 purification in a water-gas-shift/membrane reactor is developed to do iterative calculations for mass, species, and energy balances at a component and system level. The model evaluates system efficiency with parasitic loads (from compressors, pumps, and cooling fans), system water balance, and component operating temperatures/pressures. Model results for a 5-kW fuel cell generator show that with state-of-the-art PEM fuel cell polarization curves, thermal efficiencies >30% can be achieved when power densities are low enough for operating voltages >0.72 V per cell. Efficiency can be increased by operating the reformer at steam-to-carbon ratios as high as constraints related to stable reactor temperatures allow. Decreasing ambient temperature improves system water balance and increases efficiency through parasitic load reduction. The baseline configuration studied herein sustained water balance for ambient temperatures ≤35 °C at full power and ≤44 °C at half power with efficiencies approaching ∼27 and ∼30%, respectively.

  11. Comparison of three-dimensional printing and vacuum freeze-dried techniques for fabricating composite scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Kai; Li, Ruixin; Jiang, Wenxue; Sun, Yufu; Li, Hui


    In this study, the performances of different preparation methods of the scaffolds were analyzed for chondrocyte tissue engineering. Silk fibroin/collagen (SF/C) was fabricated using a vacuum freeze-dried technique and by 3D printing. The porosity, water absorption expansion rates, mechanical properties, and pore sizes of the resulting materials were evaluated. The proliferation and metabolism of the cells was detected at different time points using an MTT assay. Cell morphologies and distributions were observed by histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The porosity, water absorption expansion rate, and Young’s modulus of the material obtained via 3D printing were significantly higher than those obtained by the freeze-dried method, while the pore size did not differ significantly between the two methods. MTT assay results showed that the metabolism of cells seeded on the 3D printed scaffolds was more viable than the metabolism on the freeze-dried material. H&E staining of the scaffolds revealed that the number of cells in the 3D printed scaffold was higher in comparison to a similar measurement on the freeze-dried material. Consequently, stem cells grew well inside the 3D printed scaffolds, as measured by SEM, while the internal structure of the freeze-dried scaffold was disordered. Compared with the freeze-dried technique, the 3D printed scaffold exhibited better overall performance and was more suitable for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/collagen was fabricated using 3D printing. • Physical characterization and Cell compatibility were compared. • 3D printed scaffold exhibited better overall performance.

  12. Comparison of three-dimensional printing and vacuum freeze-dried techniques for fabricating composite scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Kai [Tianjin First Center Hospital, No. 24 Fukang Road, Tianjin, TJ 300192 (China); Li, Ruixin [Institute of Medical Equipment, Academy of Military and Medical Sciences, No. 106, Wandong Street, Hedong District, Tianjin 300000 (China); Jiang, Wenxue, E-mail: [Tianjin First Center Hospital, No. 24 Fukang Road, Tianjin, TJ 300192 (China); Sun, Yufu [Tianjin First Center Hospital, No. 24 Fukang Road, Tianjin, TJ 300192 (China); Li, Hui [Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, No. 154 Anshan Road, Tianjin, TJ 300052 (China)


    In this study, the performances of different preparation methods of the scaffolds were analyzed for chondrocyte tissue engineering. Silk fibroin/collagen (SF/C) was fabricated using a vacuum freeze-dried technique and by 3D printing. The porosity, water absorption expansion rates, mechanical properties, and pore sizes of the resulting materials were evaluated. The proliferation and metabolism of the cells was detected at different time points using an MTT assay. Cell morphologies and distributions were observed by histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The porosity, water absorption expansion rate, and Young’s modulus of the material obtained via 3D printing were significantly higher than those obtained by the freeze-dried method, while the pore size did not differ significantly between the two methods. MTT assay results showed that the metabolism of cells seeded on the 3D printed scaffolds was more viable than the metabolism on the freeze-dried material. H&E staining of the scaffolds revealed that the number of cells in the 3D printed scaffold was higher in comparison to a similar measurement on the freeze-dried material. Consequently, stem cells grew well inside the 3D printed scaffolds, as measured by SEM, while the internal structure of the freeze-dried scaffold was disordered. Compared with the freeze-dried technique, the 3D printed scaffold exhibited better overall performance and was more suitable for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/collagen was fabricated using 3D printing. • Physical characterization and Cell compatibility were compared. • 3D printed scaffold exhibited better overall performance.

  13. The freezing of water bonded in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain studied by means protons magnetic relaxation method; Zamarzanie wody zwiazanej w ziarnach pszenicy (Triticum aestivum L.) badane metoda relaksacji magnetycznej dla protonow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranczyk, H.; Jasinski, G. [Inst. Fizyki, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Strzalka, K. [Inst. Biologii Molekularnej, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)


    Some biological aspects of water freezing in the wheat grain have been studied using NMR methods. Measuring of the relaxation times for freezing and liquid water shown absence of T{sub 2}{approx}100 {mu}s and T{sub 2}{approx}1 ms separated components what pointed for some different way of water bonding. 7 refs, 12 figs, 2 tabs.

  14. Scholarly Research Program. Delivery Order 0007: Characterization of Ionic Liquids as Fuel Cell Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keitz, Thomas L; Katovic, Vladimir; Davidson, Amanda


    The object of this work was to synthesize the room temperature ionic liquids, EMImBF4, BMImBF4 and BMPBETI, and to study the electrochemical behavior of ethanol in these electrolytes on the Pt electrode...

  15. Photovoltaic Field-Induced Self-Phase Modulation in Liquid Crystal Cells (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carns, Jennifer L; Cook, Gary; Saleh, Mohammad A; Serak, Svetlana V; Tabiryan, Nelson V; Basun, Sergei A; Evans, Dean R


    We show that photovoltaic fields generated internally in LiNbO3:Fe substrates are capable of efficiently reorienting liquid crystal molecules leading to new concepts of optically addressable light modulators...

  16. SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 Aides in Resilience to Salt and Drought in Freezing-Sensitive Tomato. (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Hersh, Hope Lynn; Benning, Christoph


    SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 (SFR2) is crucial for protecting chloroplast membranes following freezing in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). It has been shown that SFR2 homologs are present in all land plants, including freezing-sensitive species, raising the question of SFR2 function beyond freezing tolerance. Similar to freezing, salt and drought can cause dehydration. Thus, it is hypothesized that in freezing-sensitive plants SFR2 may play roles in their resilience to salt or drought. To test this hypothesis, SlSFR2 RNAi lines were generated in the cold/freezing-sensitive species tomato (Solanum lycopersicum [M82 cv]). Hypersensitivity to salt and drought of SlSFR2-RNAi lines was observed. Higher tolerance of wild-type tomatoes was correlated with the production of trigalactosyldiacylglycerol, a product of SFR2 activity. Tomato SFR2 in vitro activity is Mg 2+ -dependent and its optimal pH is 7.5, similar to that of Arabidopsis SFR2, but the specific activity of tomato SFR2 in vitro is almost double that of Arabidopsis SFR2. When salt and drought stress were applied to Arabidopsis, no conditions could be identified at which SFR2 was induced prior to irreversibly impacting plant growth, suggesting that SFR2 protects Arabidopsis primarily against freezing. Discovery of tomato SFR2 function in drought and salt resilience provides further insights into general membrane lipid remodeling-based stress tolerance mechanisms and together with protection against freezing in freezing-resistant plants such as Arabidopsis, it adds lipid remodeling as a possible target for the engineering of abiotic stress-resilient crops. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Recovery and storage method for radioactive iodine by vacuum freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Katsuyuki; Ouchi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Toru.


    After scrubbing off-gas formed in a re-processing process for spent nuclear fuels, scrubbing liquids after use are subjected, as they are or with addition of additives, to a precipitating treatment. Then, liquid wastes containing radioactive iodine was subjected to freeze-drying treatment by freeze-drying under vacuum to recover radioactive iodine as iodine compounds. Off-gas scrubbing is conducted by using a sodium hydroxide solution and copper or silver ions may be added as additives in the precipitating treatment. Recovered iodine compounds containing radioactive iodine are solidified, either directly or after formulating into a composition of naturally existing iodine-containing ores by means of high pressure pressing into ores. This can prevent radioactive iodine 1 29I of long half-decay time from diffusing into the circumference and store the radioactive iodine stably for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  18. The big freeze may be over: a contracting universe for cryopreservation? (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J


    According to current cosmological theory, the universe will continue to expand indefinitely. If so, it should cool eventually reaching temperatures too cold to sustain life. This theory is commonly referred to as heat-death or the big freeze. Putting aside this potentially unpleasant scenario, unlikely in the lifetime of current readers (about 10 × E + 2500 years from now), freezing, in contrast, has played an important role in hematopoietic cell autotransplants for disease such as plasma cell myeloma and lymphomas. Let us consider how.

  19. Influence of freezing skin grapes to extract phenolic compounds during red wine maceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegria M.


    Full Text Available Wine quality depends on phenolic and aromatic compounds that are mainly located in skins and seeds of grapes and can be better extracted if suitable extraction technologies are applied. An increase in extractability has impact in the mouth feel, color and age ability of the wines. Using liquid or solid CO2 is a way to promote the breakdown of the cells membranes and enhance extraction of these compounds and protecting grapes and wine from oxidation. The main goal was to test the impact of solid CO2 addition to destemmed grapes with a new CO2 dispenser equipment in order to freeze the berry skins and improve the phenolic extraction in an economic and sustainable way in cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir. The experiment designed for both cultivars was a treatment with CO2 addition and a control without CO2 addition each one with three replicates. Destemmed grapes submitted to carbonic snow reached temperature of the skins between − 1 and − 4 °C during four minutes under equipment treatment. The consumption of carbon dioxide was estimated around 0.3(kg ⋅kg−1CO2 per berries. Wines of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir from fresh grapes and frozen grapes were made and were being compared in phenolic composition and sensory attributes.

  20. Effect of dielectric permittivity on the performance of polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) electrolyte dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) (United States)

    Kamarudin, Muhammad A. A.; Khan, Ammar A.; Qasim, Malik M.; Wilkinson, Timothy D.


    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are a type of organic solar cell often cited for their high efficiency and easy fabrication. Recent studies have shown that modification of the standard liquid electrolyte DSSC architecture by the changing one of the components or the addition of additives often results in the improvement in one of the photovoltaic parameters and hence the overall efficiency. Here we explore a dielectric liquid crystal material which is a known insulator but possesses a high degree of order and optical anisotropy. In the presence of an applied electric field, the equilibrium of positive and negative charges are displaced in opposite directions. In this work, different mixtures with different dielectric anisotropies ranging from negative, zero and positive are formulated. These mixtures are then used to prepare polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) electrolytes and subsequently DSSC devices based on these PDLC electrolytes are fabricated. The morphology of the PDLC is observed through polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and the electrical/photovoltaic characterizations are performed through current density-voltage (J-V) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  1. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing. (United States)

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J


    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).

  2. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.


    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe

  3. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterich, C.


    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  4. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich


    Full Text Available We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  5. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S


    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  6. Influence of the magnetic and laser fields on the director structures of a ferrocholesteric liquid crystal in homeotropic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, Emil; Bena, Eleonora-Rodica


    We study the influence of the magnetic and laser fields on the director structures of a ferrocholesteric liquid crystal in homeotropic cells. Using the analytical method based on the Euler-Lagrange equations, we find a correlation between the fields intensities and the confinement ratio r=d/p, (d is the cell thickness and p is the cholesteric pitch) at the limit of the transition from the homeotropic alignment to the translationally invariant configuration (TIC) with uniform in plane twist. We discuss this correlation as a function of the sign of the magnetic and dielectric anisotropies. If both anisotropies are positive and the magnetic field and the laser beam are perpendicular to the cell walls, the magnetic field preserves the homeotropic alignment while the laser beam pushes the system towards the TIC. The control parameters of the transition are the laser beam intensity and the confinement ratio. If the magnetic anisotropy is negative and the dielectric one is positive both fields concur in driving the system towards the TIC. The spinodal surface separating the metastable homeotropic configuration from the instable TIC is an ellipsoid whose halfaxes are smaller that in the case of a pure liquid crystal by a factor depending on the material constants and the cell thickness. We find also the total twist angle across the sample witch can be varied between a lower and an upper limit by changing the light intensity or the magnetic field strength. Our results can be useful in designing magneto-optical devices

  7. Flexoelectric instability and a spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking in a nematic liquid crystal cell with asymmetric boundary conditions. (United States)

    Palto, S P; Mottram, N J; Osipov, M A


    Using both numerical simulations and an approximate analytical theory we describe a flexoelectric-induced instability in a thin nematic liquid crystal layer with asymmetric boundary conditions subjected to an applied electric field. The dependence of the threshold value of the electric field on principal material parameters of the nematic liquid crystal and the director distribution in different regions of the cell have been studied in detail numerically. The results have been compared with a simple analytical theory that enables us to obtain explicit expressions for the threshold electric field and the period of modulation above the threshold. It has been found that in the hybrid aligned nematic cell with homeotropic anchoring on one surface and planar homogeneous anchoring on the other surface, a periodic flexoelectric-induced domain structure appears, above a critical threshold, with a chiral director distribution. The director rotates about the alignment axis when moving along a perpendicular direction in the plane of the cell. The absolute value of the threshold field has been found to depend on the direction of the field due to the initial symmetry of the hybrid aligned cell and the presence of flexoelectricity.

  8. Numerical Study of Liquid Sloshing on Anti-sloshing Device Using Open Cell Metal Foams in Oil Tank (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Qu, Z. G.; Tao, W. Q.; Lu, T. J.


    A new baffle structure design named open-cell metal foams baffle for anti-sloshing device in oil tank is presented in this study. Numerical simulation study on the liquid sloshing with various baffles is carried out using FLUENT with the volume-of-fluid (VOF) model. Four types of baffles were studied, namely non-baffle (type A), conventional parallel-baffle (type B), cross-baffle (type C) and open- cell metal foams baffles (type D). The oil velocity distribution, centroid and oil occupancy in the sloshing process is revealed in the case of vehicle speeding up and turning respectively. It is found that type D reduce velocity of oil, increase the value of oil occupancy in the suction pipe entrance of the oil tank and lower the centroid of oil obviously comparing with the other types. As for the same open-cell metal foam pore density, lower open-cell metal foam porosity has much better effect of inhibition of liquid sloshing, but there is little deviation among different porosity for the absolute value. Moreover, according to the same porosity, the oil centroid can be lowered obviously with the increase of pore density. The results of type D show practical significance and referable guideline for baffles design to improve the safety and stability of vehicle.

  9. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles reduce the survival rate of osteocytes in bone-tendon constructs without affecting the mechanical properties of tendons. (United States)

    Suto, Kaori; Urabe, Ken; Naruse, Kouji; Uchida, Kentaro; Matsuura, Terumasa; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Suto, Mitsutoshi; Nemoto, Noriko; Kamiya, Kentaro; Itoman, Moritoshi


    Frozen bone-patellar tendon bone allografts are useful in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as the freezing procedure kills tissue cells, thereby reducing immunogenicity of the grafts. However, a small portion of cells in human femoral heads treated by standard bone-bank freezing procedures survive, thus limiting the effectiveness of allografts. Here, we characterized the survival rates and mechanisms of cells isolated from rat bones and tendons that were subjected to freeze-thaw treatments, and evaluated the influence of these treatments on the mechanical properties of tendons. After a single freeze-thaw cycle, most cells isolated from frozen bone appeared morphologically as osteocytes and expressed both osteoblast- and osteocyte-related genes. Transmission electron microscopic observation of frozen cells using freeze-substitution revealed that a small number of osteocytes maintained large nuclei with intact double membranes, indicating that these osteocytes in bone matrix were resistant to ice crystal formation. We found that tendon cells were completely killed by a single freeze-thaw cycle, whereas bone cells exhibited a relatively high survival rate, although survival was significantly reduced after three freeze-thaw cycles. In patella tendons, the ultimate stress, Young's modulus, and strain at failure showed no significant differences between untreated tendons and those subjected to five freeze-thaw cycles. In conclusion, we identified that cells surviving after freeze-thaw treatment of rat bones were predominantly osteocytes. We propose that repeated freeze-thaw cycles could be applied for processing bone-tendon constructs prior to grafting as the treatment did not affect the mechanical property of tendons and drastically reduced surviving osteocytes, thereby potentially decreasing allograft immunogenecity.

  10. Freezing of water droplets colliding with kaolinite particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Erik Anders; Delval, Christophe Eric Ludovic; Freiherr von Und zu Hessberg, P J H


    Contact freezing of single supercooled water droplets colliding with kaolinite dust particles has been investigated. The experiments were performed with droplets levitated in an electrodynamic balance at temperatures from 240 to 268 K. Under dry conditions freezing 5 was observed to occur below 249...... K, while a freezing threshold of 267 K was observed at high relative humidity. The effect of relative humidity is attributed to an influence on the contact freezing process for the kaolinite-water droplet system, and it is not related to the lifetime of the droplets in the electrodynamic balance...... studies to describe freezing rates are appropriate for kaolinite aerosol particles. Mechanisms for contact freezing are briefly discussed....

  11. Cryoprotectant Production in Freeze-Tolerant Wood Frogs Is Augmented by Multiple Freeze-Thaw Cycles. (United States)

    Larson, Don J; Barnes, Brian M


    Ice nucleation across the skin of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) rapidly induces endogenous production of glucose, a cryoprotectant necessary for freeze tolerance. In laboratory studies of freeze tolerance, wood frogs are cooled slowly, often at -0.05°C h(-1), to facilitate high cryoprotectant production and survival. Under natural conditions in Alaska, however, wood frogs accumulate maximal tissue glucose concentrations while cooling at much faster rates, -0.35° to -1.6°C h(-1), and in addition undergo multiple successive freeze-thaw cycles before remaining frozen for the winter. We examined whether simulating these ecologically relevant cooling rates and repeated freeze-thaw events in captive wood frogs results in the high glucose concentrations found in naturally frozen wood frogs. We found that over successive freezing and thawing events, glucose concentrations increased stepwise in all measured tissues. Short thawing periods did not result in a statistically significant decline of glucose concentrations. Wood frogs that experienced three freeze-thaw events had fresh weight glucose concentrations that approached values found in tissues of wood frogs frozen in natural conditions. Laboratory wood frogs survive frozen for 2 mo, while wood frogs frozen under natural conditions survive frozen for up to 7 mo at temperatures below -18°C. We hypothesize that repeated freeze-thaw cycles with rapid cooling and warming rates allow for greater survival in Alaskan wood frogs through enhanced cryoprotectant production.

  12. Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Analysis and Cytotoxicity ofAsparagus adscendensRoots against Human Cancer Cell Lines. (United States)

    Khan, Kashif Maqbool; Nahar, Lutfun; Mannan, Abdul; Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Ghazanfar Ali; Al-Groshi, Afaf; Evans, Andrew; Dempster, Nicola M; Ismail, Fyaz M D; Sarker, Satyajit D


    Asparagus adscendens Roxb. (Asparagaceae), is native to the Himalayas. This plant has been used in the prevention and effective treatment of various forms of cancers. This paper reports, for the first time, on the cytotoxicity of the methanol (MeOH) extract of the roots of A. adscendens and its solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractions against four human carcinoma cell lines and LC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis of the SPE fractions. Finely powdered roots of A. adscendens were macerated in methanol and extracted through SPE using gradient solvent system (water: methanol) proceeded for analysis on LC-ESI-QTOF-MS and cytotoxicity against four human carcinoma cell lines: breast (MCF7), liver (HEPG2), lung (A549), and urinary bladder (EJ138), using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assay. The MeOH extract and four SPE fractions exhibited cytotoxicity against all cell lines with the IC 50 values ranging from 6 to 79 μg/mL. As observed in other Asparagus species, the presence of saponins and sapogenins in the SPE fractions was evident in the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data. It is reasonable to assume that the cytotoxicity of the MeOH extract of the roots of A. adscendens and its SPE fractions, at least partly, due to the presence of saponins and their aglycones. This suggests that A. adscendens could be exploited as a potential source of cytotoxic compounds with putative anticancer potential. The MeOH extract and all solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractions exhibited various levels of cytotoxicity against all cell lines with the IC 50 values ranging from 6 to 79 μg/mLThe presence of saponins and sapogenins in the SPE fractions was evident in the Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry dataDue to the presence of saponins and their aglycones, suggest that A. adscendens could be exploited as a potential source of cytotoxic compounds with putative anticancer potential. Abbreviation used: SPE: Solid-phase extraction, MCF7: Breast cancer cell line

  13. Drought increases freezing tolerance of both leaves and xylem of Larrea tridentata. (United States)

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Pockman, William T


    Drought and freezing are both known to limit desert plant distributions, but the interaction of these stressors is poorly understood. Drought may increase freezing tolerance in leaves while decreasing it in the xylem, potentially creating a mismatch between water supply and demand. To test this hypothesis, we subjected Larrea tridentata juveniles grown in a greenhouse under well-watered or drought conditions to minimum temperatures ranging from -8 to -24 °C. We measured survival, leaf retention, gas exchange, cell death, freezing point depression and leaf-specific xylem hydraulic conductance (k₁). Drought-exposed plants exhibited smaller decreases in gas exchange after exposure to -8 °C compared to well-watered plants. Drought also conferred a significant positive effect on leaf, xylem and whole-plant function following exposure to -15 °C; drought-exposed plants exhibited less cell death, greater leaf retention, higher k₁ and higher rates of gas exchange than well-watered plants. Both drought-exposed and well-watered plants experienced 100% mortality following exposure to -24 °C. By documenting the combined effects of drought and freezing stress, our data provide insight into the mechanisms determining plant survival and performance following freezing and the potential for shifts in L. tridentata abundance and range in the face of changing temperature and precipitation regimes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Impact of aerosol and freezing level on orographic clouds: A sensitivity study (United States)

    Xiao, Hui; Yin, Yan; Chen, Qian; Zhao, Pengguo


    The response of clouds and precipitation to changes in aerosol properties is variable with the ambient meteorological conditions, which is important for the distribution of water resources, especially in mountain regions. In this study, a detailed bin microphysics scheme is coupled into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to investigate how orographic clouds and precipitation respond to changes in aerosols under different thermodynamic profiles. The model results suggest that when the initial aerosol number concentration changes from a clean continental background (4679 cm- 3) to a polluted urban environment (23,600 cm- 3), the accumulated surface precipitation amount can be increased up to 14% mainly due to the enhanced riming process which results from more droplets of 10-30 μm in diameter. When the freezing level is lowered from 2.85 km to 0.9 km (above 1000 hPa level), the growth of ice-phase particles via riming process is enhanced, leading to more precipitation. However, the response of surface precipitation amount to increase in aerosol particle concentration is not linear with lowering freezing level, and there is a maximum precipitation enhancement caused by aerosols (about 14%) as the freezing level is at 1.4 km. Further sensitivity tests show that, the response of riming growth to increase in aerosol particle concentration becomes more significant with lowering the freezing level, but this effect becomes less significant as the freezing level is further lowered due to the limited liquid water. Moreover, the growth of raindrops through collision and coalescence is suppressed with lowering freezing level, due to the shorter distance between the melting level and the ground.

  15. Rheological behaviour, freezing curve, and density of coffee solutions at temperatures close to freezing


    Hernández Yáñez, Eduard; Moreno, Fabian Leonardo; Raventós Santamaria, Mercè; Santamaría, N.; Acosta, J.; Pirachican, Oscar; Torres, L.; Ruiz Pardo, Yolanda


    The physical properties of coffee solutions were determined for temperatures close to the freezing point. Rheological behaviour, freezing curve, density, and their relationship between coffee mass fraction and Brix degrees were determined for coffee mass fractions between 5 and 50% (wet basis) in the -6 to 20 degrees C temperature interval. Values of viscosity varied from 1.99 to 1037 mPa center dot s and values of density from 1000 to 1236 kg center dot m(-3). The freezing curve was generate...

  16. The influence of an external electric field on the propagation of light waves in cholesteric liquid crystal cells (United States)

    Aksenova, E. V.; Karetnikov, A. A.; Kovshik, A. P.; Krainyukov, E. S.; Svanidze, A. V.


    The specific features of light transmission in a cholesteric liquid crystal (LC) cell with a director rotated by 90° have been investigated. In this structure, where a light wave is incident at a large angle with respect to the LC surface, the light is reflected (refracted) in the LC layer near the opposite boundary. It is shown that the application of an electric field changes the character of extraordinary wave refraction, as a result of which light starts passing through a cell. The transmission threshold voltage is determined, and its dependence on the angle of incidence of light is obtained. The dependence of the transmitted-light intensity on the voltage across the cell is obtained as well. The same dependences are also derived by numerical calculations with allowance for the turning points and extinction.

  17. Substrate Dependence of the Freezing Dynamics of Supercooled Water Films: A High-Speed Optical Microscope Study. (United States)

    Pach, E; Rodriguez, L; Verdaguer, A


    The freezing of supercooled water films on different substrates was investigated using a high-speed camera coupled to an optical microscope, obtaining details of the freezing process not described in the literature before. We observed the two well known freezing stages (fast dendritic growth and slow freezing of the water liquid left after the dendritic growth), but we separated the process into different phenomena that were studied separately: two-dimensional dendrite growth on the substrate interface, vertical dendrite growth, formation and evolution of ice domains, trapping of air bubbles and freezing of the water film surface. We found all of these processes to be dependent on both the supercooling temperature and the substrate used. Ice dendrite (or ice front) growth during the first stage was found to be dependent on thermal properties of the substrate but could not be unequivocally related to them. Finally, for low supercooling, a direct relationship was observed between the morphology of the dendrites formed in the first stage, which depends on the substrate, and the roughness and the shape of the surface of the ice, when freezing of the film was completed. This opens the possibility of using surfaces and coatings to control ice morphology beyond anti-icing properties.

  18. The Arabidopsis RCC1 Family Protein TCF1 Regulates Freezing Tolerance and Cold Acclimation through Modulating Lignin Biosynthesis. (United States)

    Ji, Hongtao; Wang, Youning; Cloix, Catherine; Li, Kexue; Jenkins, Gareth I; Wang, Shuangfeng; Shang, Zhonglin; Shi, Yiting; Yang, Shuhua; Li, Xia


    Cell water permeability and cell wall properties are critical to survival of plant cells during freezing, however the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that a specifically cold-induced nuclear protein, Tolerant to Chilling and Freezing 1 (TCF1), interacts with histones H3 and H4 and associates with chromatin containing a target gene, blue-copper-binding protein (BCB), encoding a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein that regulates lignin biosynthesis. Loss of TCF1 function leads to reduced BCB transcription through affecting H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 levels within the BCB gene, resulting in reduced lignin content and enhanced freezing tolerance. Furthermore, plants with knocked-down BCB expression (amiRNA-BCB) under cold acclimation had reduced lignin accumulation and increased freezing tolerance. The pal1pal2 double mutant (lignin content reduced by 30% compared with WT) also showed the freezing tolerant phenotype, and TCF1 and BCB act upstream of PALs to regulate lignin content. In addition, TCF1 acts independently of the CBF (C-repeat binding factor) pathway. Our findings delineate a novel molecular pathway linking the TCF1-mediated cold-specific transcriptional program to lignin biosynthesis, thus achieving cell wall remodeling with increased freezing tolerance.

  19. The Arabidopsis RCC1 Family Protein TCF1 Regulates Freezing Tolerance and Cold Acclimation through Modulating Lignin Biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Ji

    Full Text Available Cell water permeability and cell wall properties are critical to survival of plant cells during freezing, however the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that a specifically cold-induced nuclear protein, Tolerant to Chilling and Freezing 1 (TCF1, interacts with histones H3 and H4 and associates with chromatin containing a target gene, blue-copper-binding protein (BCB, encoding a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein that regulates lignin biosynthesis. Loss of TCF1 function leads to reduced BCB transcription through affecting H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 levels within the BCB gene, resulting in reduced lignin content and enhanced freezing tolerance. Furthermore, plants with knocked-down BCB expression (amiRNA-BCB under cold acclimation had reduced lignin accumulation and increased freezing tolerance. The pal1pal2 double mutant (lignin content reduced by 30% compared with WT also showed the freezing tolerant phenotype, and TCF1 and BCB act upstream of PALs to regulate lignin content. In addition, TCF1 acts independently of the CBF (C-repeat binding factor pathway. Our findings delineate a novel molecular pathway linking the TCF1-mediated cold-specific transcriptional program to lignin biosynthesis, thus achieving cell wall remodeling with increased freezing tolerance.

  20. Photo-driven liquid crystal cell with high sensitivity. Possibility of being used in place neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Tonghua [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)


    It is possible to use the photo-driven liquid cristal cell with high sensitivity for imaging plane neutron detector (IP-ND). As display screen, it has the advantage that it is used online and can display the different intensity distribution of neutron beam directly. The key to utilize the photo-driven liquid crystal cell is that it must have high sensitivity, which means a lower threshold driving UV intensity and faster rise-time. In order to increase the sensitivity, we use two ways: pre-rubbing of the command surface and application of an assisting critical in-plane mode electric field. The results show that the rise time (4s) under a weak UV intensity of 0.5 mw cm{sup -2} is shorter than that previously reported (several tens of seconds) and a great UV intensity of 3-5 mw cm{sup -2}. The improved photo-driven LC cell holds out promise of applications in imaging plane neutron detector (IP-ND). (author)

  1. Fibres as carriers for Lactobacillus rhamnosus during freeze-drying and storage in apple juice and chocolate-coated breakfast cereals. (United States)

    Saarela, Maria; Virkajärvi, Ilkka; Nohynek, Liisa; Vaari, Anu; Mättö, Jaana


    The capability of different fibre preparations to protect the viability and stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus during freeze-drying, storage in freeze-dried form and after formulation into apple juice and chocolate-coated breakfast cereals was studied. In freeze-drying trials wheat dextrin and polydextrose proved to be promising carriers for the L. rhamnosus strains: both freeze-drying survival and storage stability at 37 degrees C were comparable to the control carrier (sucrose). Using apple fibre and inulin carriers resulted in powders with fairly good initial freeze-drying survival but with poor storage stability at 37 degrees C. When fresh L. rhamnosus cells were added into apple juice (pH 3.5) together with oat flour with 20% beta-glucan the survival of the cells was much better at 4 degrees C and at 20 degrees C than with sucrose, wheat dextrin and polydextrose, whereas with freeze-dried cells no protective effect of oat flour could be seen. The stability of freeze-dried L. rhamnosus cells at 20 degrees C was higher in chocolate-coated breakfast cereals compared to low pH apple juice. Similar to freeze-drying stability, wheat dextrin and polydextrose proved to be better carriers than oat flour in chocolate-coated breakfast cereals. Regardless of their differing capability to adhere to fibre preparations the two L. rhamnosus strains studied gave parallel results in the stability studies with different carriers.

  2. Device and method for determining freezing points (United States)

    Mathiprakasam, Balakrishnan (Inventor)


    A freezing point method and device (10) are disclosed. The method and device pertain to an inflection point technique for determining the freezing points of mixtures. In both the method and device (10), the mixture is cooled to a point below its anticipated freezing point and then warmed at a substantially linear rate. During the warming process, the rate of increase of temperature of the mixture is monitored by, for example, thermocouple (28) with the thermocouple output signal being amplified and differentiated by a differentiator (42). The rate of increase of temperature data are analyzed and a peak rate of increase of temperature is identified. In the preferred device (10) a computer (22) is utilized to analyze the rate of increase of temperature data following the warming process. Once the maximum rate of increase of temperature is identified, the corresponding temperature of the mixture is located and earmarked as being substantially equal to the freezing point of the mixture. In a preferred device (10), the computer (22), in addition to collecting the temperature and rate of change of temperature data, controls a programmable power supply (14) to provide a predetermined amount of cooling and warming current to thermoelectric modules (56).

  3. Unitarity Constraints on Asymmetric Freeze-In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; /SLAC


    This paper considers unitarity and CPT constraints on asymmetric freeze-in, the use of freeze-in to store baryon number in a dark sector. In this scenario, Sakharov's out of equilibrium condition is satisfied by placing the visible and hidden sectors at different temperatures while a net visible baryon number is produced by storing negative baryon number in a dark sector. It is shown that unitarity and CPT lead to unexpected cancellations. In particular, the transfer of baryon number cancels completely at leading order. This note has shown that if two sectors are in thermal equilibrium with themselves, but not with each other, then the leading effect transferring conserved quantities between the two sectors is of order the the weak coupling connecting them to the third power. When freeze-in is used to produce a net baryon number density, the leading order effect comes from {Omicron}({lambda}{sup 3}) diagrams where the intermediate state that goes on-shell has a different visible baryon number than the final state visible baryon number. Models in which the correct baryon number is generated with freeze-in as the dominant source of abundance, typically require {lambda} {approx}> 10{sup -6} and m{sub bath} {approx}> TeV. m{sub bath} is the mass of the visible particle which communicates with the hidden sector. The lower window is potentially observable at the LHC.

  4. Anomalous freezing behavior of nanoscale liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangler, E. J.; Kumar, P. B. S.; Laradji, M.


    The effect of the finite size of one-component liposomes on their phase behavior is investigated via simulations of an implicit-solvent model of self-assembled lipid bilayers. We found that the high curvature of nanoscale liposomes has a significant effect on their freezing behavior. While...

  5. Susceptibility of blackberry flowers to freezing temperatures (United States)

    Injury of tight buds, open flowers and green fruit often occur in fruit crops during spring frost events. In this study, freezing tolerance of ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry flowers at different reproductive stages of development (tight bud to green drupe) was determined using two methods. One method i...

  6. Scaling-Up Eutectic Freeze Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genceli, F.E.


    A novel crystallization technology, Eutectic Freeze Crystallization (EFC) has been investigated and further developed in this thesis work. EFC operates around the eutectic temperature and composition of aqueous solutions and can be used for recovery of (valuable) dissolved salts (and/or or acids)

  7. Freeze block testing of buried waste lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.D.; Willi, J.C.


    An investigation was conducted to demonstrate application of freeze blocking in waste transfer lines such that a hydrostatic pressure test can be applied. A shop test was conducted on a 20-foot length, 3-inch schedule 40, carbon steel pipe using a coolant of dry ice and Freon. The positive results from these tests prompted a similar employment of the freeze block method in hydrostatic pressure testing the feed inlet leading to 241-S-101 Waste Tank. This pipeline is a 3-inch schedule 10, stainless steel pipe approximately 800 feet long. The freeze block was formed near the lower end of the pipe as it entered the 101-S Waste Tank and a pressure hold test was applied to this pipeline. This test proved the integrity of the pipeline in question, and demonstrated the validity of freeze blocking an open-ended pipeline which could not be hydrotested in other conventional ways. The field demonstration facility, costing $30,200 was completed late in 1975

  8. Sysnthesis of powders by freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.M.; Gusman, M.I.; Hildenbrand, D.L.


    The freeze-drying method of synthesizing powders of the superconducting oxide YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 - δ is described. This process produces homogeneous, submicron powders of high purity. The effects of salt selection, solution concentration and pH on the process are described. Some evaluation of the sintering behavior and the effects on critical current density are included

  9. Brown bear sperm double freezing: Effect of elapsed time and use of PureSperm(®) gradient between freeze-thaw cycles. (United States)

    Alvarez-Rodríguez, Manuel; Alvarez, Mercedes; López-Urueña, Elena; Martínez-Rodriguez, Carmen; Borragan, Santiago; Anel-López, Luis; de Paz, Paulino; Anel, Luis


    The use of sexed spermatozoa has great potential to captive population management in endangered wildlife. The problem is that the sex-sorting facility is a long distance from the semen collection place and to overcome this difficulty two freeze-thaw cycles may be necessary. In this study, effects of refreezing on brown bear electroejaculated spermatozoa were analyzed. We carried out two experiments: (1) to assess the effects of the two freezing-thawing cycles on sperm quality and to analyze three different elapsed times between freezing-thawing cycles (30, 90 and 180 min), and (2) to analyze the use of PureSperm between freezing-thawing cycles to select a more motile and viable sperm subpopulation which better survived first freezing. The motility, viability and undamaged acrosomes were significantly reduced after the second thawing respect to first thawing into each elapsed time group, but the elapsed times did not significantly affect the viability and acrosome status although motility was damaged. Our results with the PureSperm gradient showed higher values of viability in freezability of select sample (pellet) respect to the rest of the groups and it also showed a significant decrease in the number of acrosome damaged. In summary, the double freezing of bear semen selected by gradient centrifugation is qualitatively efficient, and thus could be useful to carry out a sex-sorting of frozen-thawed bear spermatozoa before to send the cryopreserved sample to a biobank. Given the low recovery of spermatozoa after applying a selection gradient, further studies will be needed to increase the recovery rate without damaging of the cell quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A simple capacitive cell for the measurement of liquids dielectric constant under transient thermal conditions. (United States)

    Baudot, A; Bret, J L


    A simple device for the measurement of the complex dielectric permittivity of liquids in various thermodynamic states has been developed. It uses a cylindrical aluminium capacitor of a type currently applied in tuning antenna circuits. The capacitor is filled with the liquid solution under study. A comparison of its capacity is made with that of the nitrogen filled capacitor tested under the same thermal conditions. This comparison allows the determination of the real and imaginary part of the solutions permittivity as a function of temperature (between 150 and 300 K) and frequency (between 100 Hz to 2 MHz). After validating the technique with pure glycerol and pure 1,2-propanediol, spectroscopic measurements have been undertaken on pure and diluted 1,2-propanediol in water. Due to the low heat capacity and the high thermal conductivity of the capacitor, cooling rates of 40 K/min have been achieved inside the solution, allowing measurements in the supercooled liquid and vitreous states. Results are presented and discussed in terms of relaxation and the physical states of the sample. By selecting the required thermal conditions, this device permits the observation of thermal transitions, such as ice crystallisation, and measurements to be conducted in the unstable supercooled liquid state. These measurements are necessary in the development of an effective electromagnetic warming device for vitrified cryoprotective solutions.

  11. EvoBot: An Open-Source, Modular Liquid Handling Robot for Nurturing Microbial Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faina, Andres; Nejatimoharrami, Farzad; Støy, Kasper


    Liquid handling robots are rarely used in the domain of artificial life. In this field, transitory behaviours of non-equilibrium man-made systems are studied and need an automatic monitoring and logging of results. In addition, artificial life experiments are dynamic with frequent changes, which...

  12. Liquid fiducial marker performance during radiotherapy of locally advanced non small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydhög, Jonas Scherman; Mortensen, Steen Riisgaard; Larsen, Klaus Richter


    We analysed the positional and structural stability of a long-term biodegradable liquid fiducial marker (BioXmark) for radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced lung cancer. Markers were injected via endoscopic- or endobronchial ultrasound in lymph nodes and reachable primary tumours. Marker...

  13. Water vapor movement in freezing aggregate base materials. (United States)


    The objectives of this research were to 1) measure the extent to which water vapor movement results in : water accumulation in freezing base materials; 2) evaluate the effect of soil stabilization on water vapor movement : in freezing base materials;...

  14. Static delectric behavior of charged fluids near freezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasolino, A.; Parrinello, M.; Tosi, M.P.


    The wavenumber-dependent, static dielectric function of classical charged fluids near freezing is obtained from structural data based on computer simulation or neutron diffraction, and its behavior is connected with the freezing process. (Auth.)

  15. Freeze-thaw performance testing of whole concrete railroad ties. (United States)


    Freezing and thawing durability tests of prestressed concrete ties are normally performed according to ASTM C666 specifications. Small specimens are cut from the shoulders of concrete ties and tested through 300 cycles of freezing and thawing. Saw-cu...

  16. Adaptive Control of Freeze-Form Extrusion Fabrication Processes (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Xiyue; Landers, Robert G; Leu, Ming C


    Freeze-form Extrusion Fabrication (FEF) is an additive manufacturing process that extrudes high solids loading aqueous ceramic pastes in a layer-by-layer fashion below the paste freezing temperature for component fabrication...

  17. Canalization of freeze tolerance in an alpine grasshopper. (United States)

    Hawes, Timothy C


    In the Rock and Pillar Range, New Zealand, the alpine grasshopper, Sigaus australis Hutton, survives equilibrium freezing (EF) all-year round. A comparison of freeze tolerance (FT) in grasshoppers over four austral seasons for a 1 year period finds that: (a) the majority (>70%) of the sample population of grasshoppers survive single freeze-stress throughout the year; (b) exposure to increased freeze stress (multiple freeze-stress events) does not lead to a loss of freeze tolerance; and (c) responses to increased freeze stress reveal seasonal tuning of the FT adaptation to environmental temperatures. The Rock and Pillar sample population provides a clear example of the canalization of the FT adaptation. Seasonal variability in the extent of tolerance of multiple freezing events indicates that physiology is modulated to environmental temperatures by phenotypic plasticity - i.e. the FT adaptation is permanent and adjustable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide on Gold Nanocrystal Formation Studied by in Situ Liquid Cell Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canepa, Silvia A.; Sneed, Brian T.; Sun, Hongyu


    of the morphology of Au nanocrystals in the early growth stage, we present an in situ liquid-cell scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) investigation using electron beam-induced radiolytic species as the reductant. The resulting particle shape at a low beam dose rate is shown to be strongly influenced......-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) model. Moreover, we investigate the temporal evolution of specific NP geometries. The amount of Au reduced by the electron beam outside the irradiated area is quantified to better interpret the nanocrystal growth kinetics, as well as to further develop an understanding of electron beam...

  19. Nanomaterials for efficiently lowering the freezing point of anti-freeze coolants. (United States)

    Hong, Haiping; Zheng, Yingsong; Roy, Walter


    In this paper, we report, for the first time, the effect of the lowered freezing point in a 50% water/50% anti-freeze coolant (PAC) or 50% water/50% ethylene glycol (EG) solution by the addition of carbon nanotubes and other particles. The experimental results indicated that the nano materials are much more efficient (hundreds fold) in lowering the freezing point than the regular ionic materials (e.g., NaCl). The possible explanation for this interesting phenomenon is the colligative property of fluid and relative small size of nano material. It is quite certain that the carbon nanotubes and metal oxide nano particles could be a wonderful candidate for the nano coolant application because they could not only increase the thermal conductivity, but also efficiently lower the freezing point of traditional coolants.

  20. Effects of freezing stress on electrolyte leakage of Persian shallot (Allium altissimum Regel. under controlled condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rezvan beydokhti


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of freezing stress on electrolyte leakage of three Mooseers’ (Allium altissimum Regel. ecotypes (Shirvan, Kalat and Tandoureh, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out under the controlled conditions in the Faculty of Agricultural, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2009. Plants were grown in natural conditions to acclimate with the growth condition, and then at two growth stages of emergence and seedling were transferred to the thermogradiant freezer with the six freezing temperatures (0,-4, -8,-12, -16 and -20 oC. Cell membrane integrity was measured by electrolyte leakage (EL index and the lethal temperature 50% (LT50 of samples were determined based on this index. The results showed that electrolyte leakage percentage and LT50el were significantly affected by experimental treatments. As the temperature decreased, EL (% of leaf, bulb and root of all ecotypes was significantly increased. In the all freezing temperatures, the highest and the lowest electrolyte leakage was observed in the root and leaf in the emergence stage. Shirvan ecotype at two growth stage (emergence and seedling showed the highest root electrolyte leakage and hence showed the lowest freezing tolerance in comparison with Kalat and Tandoreh ecotypes. The lowest and highest LT50el due to freezing were observed in Kalat, Tandoureh ecotype and Shirvan ecotype, respectively. At seedling stage, Shirvan ecotype’s root showed the highest LT50el which was more sensitive to freezing temperatures in comparison with leaf and bulb. Among all ecotypes, Kalat and Tandoreh ecotypes showed the lowest electrolyte leakage percentage, the lowest LT50el and the most tolerance to the freezing stress.

  1. Dye-sensitized nanoarrays with discotic liquid crystals as interlayer for high-efficiency inverted polymer solar cells. (United States)

    Shi, Yueqin; Tan, Licheng; Chen, Yiwang


    The well-aligned and highly uniform one-dimensional ZnO with organic dyes core/shell (ZNs) and ZnO with dyes and liquid crystals core/double-shells nanoarrays (ZNLs) with controllable lengths were fabricated as electron transport layers (ETLs) in inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). Ditetrabutylammonium cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato) ruthenium(II) dye (N719) was presented to reduce the surface defects of ZnO nanoarrays (NAs). In addition, the shell modification could decrease the electron injection barrier between ZnO and active layer, thereby facilitating electron injection effectively and forming a direct electron transport channel into the cathode. Due to the orientation of nanoarrays and the self-organization of 3,6,7,10,11-pentakis(hexyloxy)-2-hydroxytriphenylene liquid crystals (LCs) in liquid crystalline mesophase and isotropic phase transition, the components of active layer would be driven rearrange and infiltrate among the interspaces of nanoarrays more orderly. The increased interfacial contact between cathode and active layer would benefit charge generation, transportation and collection. On the basis of these advantages, it was found the N719 shell and N719/LCs double-shells modifications of ZnO NAs could boost the photovoltaic performance of PSCs with the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.3% and 8.0%, respectively.

  2. Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices (United States)

    Kim, Min Su; Bos, Philip J.; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yang, Deng-Ke; Lee, Joong Hee; Lee, Seung Hee


    Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but linear flexoelectric effect. Despite of the urgent requirement of solving the issue, understanding of such a phenomenon is yet vague. Here, we thoroughly analyze and firstly report the flexoelectric effect in in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell. The effect takes place on the area above electrodes due to splay and bend deformations of nematic liquid crystal along oblique electric fields, so that the obvious spatial shift of the optical transmittance is experimentally observed and is clearly demonstrated based on the relation between direction of flexoelectric polarization and electric field polarity. In addition, we report that the IPS mode has inherent characteristics to solve the image-flickering issue in the low-power consumption display in terms of the physical property of liquid crystal material and the electrode structure. PMID:27731372

  3. Improved power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using side chain liquid crystal polymer embedded in polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Woosum; Lee, Jae Wook; Gal, Yeong-Soon; Kim, Mi-Ra; Jin, Sung Ho


    Side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP) embedded in poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)-based polymer electrolytes (PVdF-co-HFP:side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP)) was prepared for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The polymer electrolytes contained tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI), iodine (I 2 ), and 8 wt% PVdF-co-HFP in acetonitrile. DSSCs comprised of PVdF-co-HFP:SCLCP-based polymer electrolytes displayed enhanced redox couple reduction and reduced charge recombination in comparison to those of the conventional PVdF-co-HFP-based polymer electrolyte. The significantly increased short-circuit current density (J sc , 10.75 mA cm −2 ) of the DSSCs with PVdF-co-HFP:SCLCP-based polymer electrolytes afforded a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.32% and a fill factor (FF) of 0.64 under standard light intensity of 100 mW cm −2 irradiation of AM 1.5 sunlight. - Highlights: • We developed the liquid crystal polymer embedded on polymer electrolyte for DSSCs. • We fabricated the highly efficient DSSCs using polymer electrolyte. • The best PCE achieved for P1 is 5.32% using polymer electrolyte

  4. Freeze-drying process design by manometric temperature measurement: design of a smart freeze-dryer. (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolin Charlie; Nail, Steven L; Pikal, Michael J


    To develop a procedure based on manometric temperature measurement (MTM) and an expert system for good practices in freeze drying that will allow development of an optimized freeze-drying process during a single laboratory freeze-drying experiment. Freeze drying was performed with a FTS Dura-Stop/Dura-Top freeze dryer with the manometric temperature measurement software installed. Five percent solutions of glycine, sucrose, or mannitol with 2 ml to 4 ml fill in 5 ml vials were used, with all vials loaded on one shelf. Details of freezing, optimization of chamber pressure, target product temperature, and some aspects of secondary drying are determined by the expert system algorithms. MTM measurements were used to select the optimum shelf temperature, to determine drying end points, and to evaluate residual moisture content in real-time. MTM measurements were made at 1 hour or half-hour intervals during primary drying and secondary drying, with a data collection frequency of 4 points per second. The improved MTM equations were fit to pressure-time data generated by the MTM procedure using Microcal Origin software to obtain product temperature and dry layer resistance. Using heat and mass transfer theory, the MTM results were used to evaluate mass and heat transfer rates and to estimate the shelf temperature required to maintain the target product temperature. MTM product dry layer resistance is accurate until about two-thirds of total primary drying time is over, and the MTM product temperature is normally accurate almost to the end of primary drying provided that effective thermal shielding is used in the freeze-drying process. The primary drying times can be accurately estimated from mass transfer rates calculated very early in the run, and we find the target product temperature can be achieved and maintained with only a few adjustments of shelf temperature. The freeze-dryer overload conditions can be estimated by calculation of heat/mass flow at the target product

  5. Tracheobronchial air-liquid interface cell culture: a model for innate mucosal defense of the upper airways? (United States)

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Kirkham, Sara; Pickles, Raymond J.; Henderson, Ashley G.; Alexis, Neil E.; DeMaria, Genevieve; Knight, David; Thornton, David J.; Sheehan, John K.


    Human tracheobronchial epithelial cells grown in air-liquid interface culture have emerged as a powerful tool for the study of airway biology. In this study, we have investigated whether this culture system produces “mucus” with a protein composition similar to that of in vivo, induced airway secretions. Previous compositional studies of mucous secretions have greatly underrepresented the contribution of mucins, which are major structural components of normal mucus. To overcome this limitation, we have used a mass spectrometry-based approach centered on prior separation of the mucins from the majority of the other proteins. Using this approach, we have compared the protein composition of apical secretions (AS) from well-differentiated primary human tracheobronchial cells grown at air-liquid interface and human tracheobronchial normal induced sputum (IS). A total of 186 proteins were identified, 134 from AS and 136 from IS; 84 proteins were common to both secretions, with host defense proteins being predominant. The epithelial mucins MUC1, MUC4, and MUC16 and the gel-forming mucins MUC5B and MUC5AC were identified in both secretions. Refractometry showed that the gel-forming mucins were the major contributors by mass to both secretions. When the composition of the IS was corrected for proteins that were most likely derived from saliva, serum, and migratory cells, there was considerable similarity between the two secretions, in particular, in the category of host defense proteins, which includes the mucins. This shows that the primary cell culture system is an important model for study of aspects of innate defense of the upper airways related specifically to mucus consisting solely of airway cell products. PMID:18931053

  6. Study on direct-contact phase-change liquid immersion cooling dense-array solar cells under high concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Xue; Wang, Yiping; Huang, Qunwu; Cui, Yong; Shi, Xusheng; Sun, Yong


    Highlights: • Direct-contact phase-change liquid immersion cooling for solar cells was proposed. • A self-regulating system investigated the feasibility in temperature control. • Temperature was well controlled between 87.3 °C and 88.5 °C. • Surface heat transfer coefficient was up to 23.49 kW/(m 2 ·K) under 398.4×. • A model illustrated the interface function was the main reason to affect light. - Abstract: A new cooling method by directly immersing the solar cells into phase-change liquid was put forward to cool dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. A self-running system was built to study the feasibility of temperature control and the effect of bubbles generated by ethanol phase change under concentration ratio ranged between 219.8× and 398.4×. The results show that the cooling system is self-regulating without consuming extra energy and ethanol flow rate reaches up to 180.6 kg/(s·m 2 ) under 398.4×. The temperature of solar cells distributes in the range between 87.3 °C and 88.5 °C, the surface heat transfer coefficient of electric heating plate is up to 23.49 kW/(m 2 ·K) under 398.4×. The bubble effect on electrical performance of triple-junction solar cells is reported and the results show that I sc and P max decline 10.2% and 7.3%, respectively. A model based on bubble images illustrates that light loss at the interface between ethanol and bubble is the main reason to cut down the electrical performance.

  7. Experimental study on direct-contact liquid film cooling simulated dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiping; Shi, Xusheng; Huang, Qunwu; Cui, Yong; Kang, Xue


    Highlights: • Direct-contact liquid film cooling dense-array solar cells was first proposed. • Average temperature was controlled well below 80 °C. • The maximum temperature difference was less than 10 °C. • The heat transfer coefficient reached up to 11.91 kW/(m 2 ·K) under 589X. - Abstract: This paper presented a new method of cooling dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system by direct-contact liquid film, and water was used as working fluid. An electric heating plate was designed to simulate the dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. The input power of electric heating plate simulated the concentration ratios. By heat transfer experiments, the effect of water temperatures and flow rates on heat transfer performance was investigated. The results indicated that: the average temperature of simulated solar cells was controlled well below 80 °C under water temperature of 30 °C and flow rate of 300 L/h when concentration ratio ranged between 300X and 600X. The maximum temperature difference among temperature measurement points was less than 10 °C, which showed the temperature distribution was well uniform. The heat transfer coefficient reached up to 11.91 kW/(m 2 ·K) under concentration ratio of 589X. To improve heat transfer performance and obtain low average temperature of dense-array solar cells, lower water temperature and suitable water flow rate are preferred.

  8. Deep-freezing of boar semen in plastic film 'cochettes'. (United States)

    Eriksson, B M; Rodriguez-Martinez, H


    The motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa from nine boars frozen with a programmable freezing machine in plastic bags, 'cochettes', and in 'maxi-straws', in total doses of 5 x 10(9) spermatozoa/5 ml with glycerol (3%) used as cryoprotectant, were assessed after thawing. A computer-based cell motion analyser was used to evaluate sperm motility, while the integrity of the plasmalemma was assessed with fluorescent supravital dyes (C-FDA/PI). The fertilizing capacity of the semen frozen in the two containers was investigated by inseminating (AI) gilts. Pregnancy was monitored by Doppler-ultrasound, and the numbers of corpora lutea and viable embryos counted at slaughter, between days 30 and 38 after AI. The cochettes sustained the overall procedure of freezing/thawing (FT), with 30 min post-thaw (PT) sperm motility being significantly higher than for straws, 46.9 vs. 39.5%. The only significant difference in motility patterns detected when comparing the packages was a higher sperm velocity (VCL) in cochettes at 30 min PT. However, percentages of FT-spermatozoa with intact membranes, detected with the supravital probes, were higher in maxi-straws than in cochettes, 46.8 vs. 43.0% (P straws and those frozen in cochettes. The results indicate that although the deep-freezing of AI-doses of boar semen in large plastic bags is feasible, problems such as their inconvenient size for storage and inconsistent thawing must be solved before this type of container can be used for the commercial cryopreservation of boar semen.

  9. Objective video quality assessment method for freeze distortion based on freeze aggregation (United States)

    Watanabe, Keishiro; Okamoto, Jun; Kurita, Takaaki


    With the development of the broadband network, video communications such as videophone, video distribution, and IPTV services are beginning to become common. In order to provide these services appropriately, we must manage them based on subjective video quality, in addition to designing a network system based on it. Currently, subjective quality assessment is the main method used to quantify video quality. However, it is time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, we need an objective quality assessment technology that can estimate video quality from video characteristics effectively. Video degradation can be categorized into two types: spatial and temporal. Objective quality assessment methods for spatial degradation have been studied extensively, but methods for temporal degradation have hardly been examined even though it occurs frequently due to network degradation and has a large impact on subjective quality. In this paper, we propose an objective quality assessment method for temporal degradation. Our approach is to aggregate multiple freeze distortions into an equivalent freeze distortion and then derive the objective video quality from the equivalent freeze distortion. Specifically, our method considers the total length of all freeze distortions in a video sequence as the length of the equivalent single freeze distortion. In addition, we propose a method using the perceptual characteristics of short freeze distortions. We verified that our method can estimate the objective video quality well within the deviation of subjective video quality.

  10. SLAPex Freeze/Thaw 2015: The First Dedicated Soil Freeze/Thaw Airborne Campaign (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Wu, Albert; DeMarco, Eugenia; Powers, Jarrett; Berg, Aaron; Rowlandson, Tracy; Freeman, Jacqueline; Gottfried, Kurt; Toose, Peter; Roy, Alexandre; hide


    Soil freezing and thawing is an important process in the terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles, marking the change between two very different hydraulic, thermal, and biological regimes. NASA's Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission includes a binary freeze/thaw data product. While there have been ground-based remote sensing field measurements observing soil freeze/thaw at the point scale, and airborne campaigns that observed some frozen soil areas (e.g., BOREAS), the recently-completed SLAPex Freeze/Thaw (F/T) campaign is the first airborne campaign dedicated solely to observing frozen/thawed soil with both passive and active microwave sensors and dedicated ground truth, in order to enable detailed process-level exploration of the remote sensing signatures and in situ soil conditions. SLAPex F/T utilized the Scanning L-band Active/Passive (SLAP) instrument, an airborne simulator of SMAP developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and was conducted near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in October/November, 2015. Future soil moisture missions are also expected to include soil freeze/thaw products, and the loss of the radar on SMAP means that airborne radar-radiometer observations like those that SLAP provides are unique assets for freeze/thaw algorithm development. This paper will present an overview of SLAPex F/T, including descriptions of the site, airborne and ground-based remote sensing, ground truth, as well as preliminary results.

  11. Boron removal and its concentration in aqueous solution through progressive freeze concentration. (United States)

    Wang, Li Pang


    This study explored the feasibility of progressive freeze concentration in boron removal and its concentration in aqueous solution. The influence of three key parameters in progressive freeze concentration on boron removal and concentration, namely, the advance speed of the ice front, the circumferential velocity of the stirrer, and the initial boron concentration, are investigated by conducting batch experiments. The results show that the effectiveness of boron removal increases with a lower advance speed of the ice front, a higher circumferential velocity of the stirrer, and a lower initial boron concentration. For a model boron solution with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L, the boron concentration in the ice phase after progressive freeze concentration is below 1 mg/L when the advance speed of the ice front is lower than 1 cm/h and the circumferential velocity of the stirrer is higher than 0.12 m/s. In addition, the concentration of boron in the liquid phase occurs simultaneously with progressive freeze concentration. Furthermore, the results also suggest that this method can be applied to the purification and concentration of not only organic molecules but also inorganic ions.

  12. Fabrication of Li2TiO3 pebbles by a freeze drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Park, Yi-Hyun; Yu, Min-Woo


    Li 2 TiO 3 pebbles were successfully fabricated by using a freeze drying process. The Li 2 TiO 3 slurry was prepared using a commercial powder of particle size 0.5–1.5 μm and the pebble pre-form was prepared by dropping the slurry into liquid nitrogen through a syringe needle. The droplets were rapidly frozen, changing their morphology to spherical pebbles. The frozen pebbles were dried at −10 °C in vacuum. To make crack-free pebbles, some glycerin was employed in the slurry, and long drying time and a low vacuum condition were applied in the freeze drying process. In the process, the solid content in the slurry influenced the spheroidicity of the pebble green body. The dried pebbles were sintered at 1200 °C in an air atmosphere. The sintered pebbles showed almost 40% shrinkage. The sintered pebbles revealed a porous microstructure with a uniform pore distribution and the sintered pebbles were crushed under an average load of 50 N in a compressive strength test. In the present study, a freeze drying process for fabrication of spherical Li 2 TiO 3 pebbles is introduced. The processing parameters, such as solid content in the slurry and the conditions of freeze drying and sintering, are also examined

  13. 7 CFR 58.620 - Freezing and packaging rooms. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freezing and packaging rooms. 58.620 Section 58.620 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....620 Freezing and packaging rooms. The rooms used for freezing and packaging frozen desserts shall be...

  14. Growth of airway epithelial cells at an air-liquid interface changes both the response to particle exposure and iron homeostasis (United States)

    We tested the hypothesis that 1) relative to submerged cells, airway epithelial cells grown at an air-liquid interface and allowed to differentiate would have an altered response to particle exposure and 2) that these differences would be associated with indices of iron homeostas...

  15. Effect of repeated freezing-thawing on the Achilles tendon of rabbits. (United States)

    Chen, Lianxu; Wu, Yanping; Yu, Jiakuo; Jiao, Zhaode; Ao, Yingfang; Yu, Changlong; Wang, Jianquan; Cui, Guoqing


    The increased use of allograft tissue in the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament has brought more focus to the effect of storage and treatment on allograft. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of histology and biomechanics on Achilles tendon in rabbits through repeated freezing-thawing before allograft tendon transplantation. Rabbit Achilles tendons were harvested and processed according to the manufacture's protocol of tissue bank, and freezing-thawing was repeated three times (group 1) and ten times (group 2). Those received only one cycle were used as controls. Then, tendons in each group were selected randomly to make for histological observations and biomechanics test. Histological observation showed that the following changes happened as the number of freezing-thawing increased: the arrangement of tendon bundles and collagen fibrils became disordered until ruptured, cells disrupted and apparent gaps appeared between tendon bundle because the formation of ice crystals. There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups in the values of maximum load, energy of maximum load and maximum stress, whereas no significant differences existed in other values such as stiffness, maximum strain, elastic modulus, and energy density. Therefore, repeated freezing-thawing had histological and biomechanical effect on Achilles tendon in rabbits before allograft tendon transplantation. This indicates that cautions should be taken in the repeated freezing-thawing preparation of allograft tendons in clinical application.

  16. Growth Dynamics and Gas Transport Mechanism of Nanobubbles in Graphene Liquid Cells


    Shin, Dongha; Park, Jong Bo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Sang Jin; Kang, Jin Hyoun; Lee, Bora; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Hong, Byung Hee; Novoselov, Konstantin S.


    Formation, evolution, and vanishing of bubbles are common phenomena in our nature, which can be easily observed in boiling or falling waters, carbonated drinks, gas-forming electrochemical reactions, etc. However, the morphology and the growth dynamics of the bubbles at nanoscale have not been fully investigated owing to the lack of proper imaging tools that can visualize nanoscale objects in liquid phase. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that the nanobubbles in water encapsulated by ...

  17. Assembly of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals with Solid Crystal's Structural Order Translated from the Lipid Rafts in Cell Membranes. (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Seob


    Self-assembly offers a powerful way to control the complexity and hierarchy of nanoscale materials, and promises to create a diverse range of emergent properties. Successful syntheses that allow a delicate structural design of building units play an important role. However, as can be learned from many cellular processes and functions, coself-assembly using logically chosen additives should be equally effective in designing self-assembly. Herein I show that, translated from the dynamic nanoscale assemblies in cell membranes known as lipid rafts, coself-assembly of 1-decanol into cetyltrimethylammonium chloride micelles for the assembly of lyotropic liquid crystals generates new structural complexity and hierarchy, and a surprising property that is emerging from it. Designing the intermolecular forces in the way that cholesterol interacts with sphingolipids promotes the synergistic balance between the flexibility and rigidity, and the unique molecular recognition for silicic acid, followed by the micelle coalescence. This very much resembles the assembly process of the lipid rafts in cell membranes and triggers orders of magnitude of sharp increases in X-ray diffraction intensity. The analysis of the diffraction patterns shows that the structural order of these liquid crystals matches that of solid crystals, often of single crystals. Furthermore, the assembly of the liquid crystals promotes a substantial increase in the condensation rate of silicic acids by guiding them to form a silicate trimer along the surface of micelles. This very much resembles the role of the lipid rafts that sharply increases the reaction rate of biomolecules by guiding them to form discrete species along the surface of membranes. This finding demonstrates that it is possible to translate the key features of cellular processes and functions into artificial self-assembling systems of our choice using the building units that are readily available, thus creating novel soft materials.

  18. Solidification of liquid electrolyte with imidazole polymers for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Miao; Lin Yuan; Zhou Xiaowen; Xiao Xurui; Yang Lei; Feng Shujing; Li Xueping


    Quasi-solid-state electrolytes were prepared by employing the imidazole polymers to solidify the liquid electrolyte containing lithium iodide, iodine and ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) mixed solvent. The ionic conductivity and diffusion behavior of triiodide in the quasi-solid-state electrolytes were examined in terms of the polymer content. Application of the quasi-solid-state electrolytes to the dye-sensitized solar cells, the maximum energy conversion efficiency of 7.6% (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm -2 ) was achieved. The dependence of the photovoltaic performance on the polymer content and on the different anions of the imidazole polymers was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The results indicate the charge transfer behaviors occurred at nanocrystalline TiO 2 /electrolyte and Pt/electrolyte interface play an important role in influencing the photovoltaic performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

  19. Weeding atypical glandular cell look-alikes from the true atypical lesions in liquid-based Pap tests: a review. (United States)

    Wood, Moira D; Horst, Julie A; Bibbo, Marluce


    The purpose of this review is to identify features that separate atypical glandular cells (AGC) associated with glandular neoplasia from its mimickers, both benign and neoplastic. We reviewed cases of AGC diagnosed on liquid-based Pap tests (LBP) for which corresponding histological follow-up was available. A review of the literature for similar studies in LBP tests was also conducted. We find that certain benign mimics can be reliably separated from AGC, but recommend caution in attempting to increase specificity at the risk of losing sensitivity. Although accounting for only a small percentage of diagnoses AGC require a thorough clinical evaluation, including colposcopy. Most cases are ultimately found to be benign. When evaluating smears suspicious for AGC, it is important to examine the subtle features which make truly atypical cells discernible from their numerous benign mimickers.

  20. Phase Change Predictions for Liquid Fuel in Contact with Steel Structure using the Heat Conduction Equation


    Brear, D. J.


    When liquid fuel makes contact with steel structure the liquid can freeze as a crust and the structure can melt at the surface. The melting and freezing processes that occur can influence the mode of fuel freezing and hence fuel relocation. Furthermore the temperature gradients established in the fuel and steel phases determine the rate at which heat is transferred from fuel to steel. In this memo the 1-D transient heat conduction equations are applied to the case of initially liquid UO2 brou...

  1. Screening freeze-drying cryoprotectants for Saccharomyces boulardii by Plackett-Burman design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He CHEN


    Full Text Available As a lyophilized product, Saccharomyces boulardii has been commonly used to treat diarrhea in adults. However, there are few studies focusing on the preparation of its freeze-drying powder. This paper investigated the effect of lyoprotectants on the freeze-drying survival rate and the number of viable cells for vacuum freezedried powder of S. boulardii. Single factor experiment and Plackett-Burman design were conducted to obtain the optimal compound lyoprotectant formulations. The result showed that lactose, trehalose and sodium glutamate could significantly enhance the freeze-drying survival rate of S. boulardii. Meanwhile, all these three lyoprotectants showed positive effect on the freezedrying survival rate of the yeast, and the optimal lyoprotectant composition for S. boulardii was as follows: 18g/100mL lactose, 18g/100mL trehalose and 3g/100mL sodium glutamate.

  2. Survival and Growth of Epidemically Successful and Nonsuccessful Salmonella enterica Clones after Freezing and Dehydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Karoline; Aabo, Søren; Birk, Tina


    Salmonella isolates were characterized as successful or nonsuccessful. We studied the survival and growth of stationary- and exponential-phase cells of these isolates after freezing for up to 336 days in minced meat. We also investigated survival and growth after dehydration at 10°C and 82% relative humidity...... temperature were less harmful to Salmonella than were low humidity and high temperature. Tolerance to adverse conditions was highest for Salmonella Infantis and one Salmonella Typhimurium U292 isolate and lowest for Salmonella Derby and one Salmonella Typhimurium DT170 isolate. Dehydration, in contrast...... to freezing, was differently tolerated by the Salmonella strains in this study, but tolerance to freezing and dehydration does not appear to contribute to the emergence of successful Salmonella clones....

  3. Sample Preparation Methodologies for In Situ Liquid and Gaseous Cell Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy of Electropolished Specimens. (United States)

    Zhong, Xiang Li; Schilling, Sibylle; Zaluzec, Nestor J; Burke, M Grace


    In recent years, an increasing number of studies utilizing in situ liquid and/or gaseous cell scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) have been reported. Because of the difficulty in the preparation of suitable specimens, these environmental S/TEM studies have been generally limited to studies of nanoscale structured materials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, or sputtered thin films. In this paper, we present two methodologies which have been developed to facilitate the preparation of electron-transparent samples from conventional bulk metals and alloys for in situ liquid/gaseous cell S/TEM experiments. These methods take advantage of combining sequential electrochemical jet polishing followed by focused ion beam extraction techniques to create large electron-transparent areas for site-specific observation. As an example, we illustrate the application of this methodology for the preparation of in situ specimens from a cold-rolled Type 304 austenitic stainless steel sample, which was subsequently examined in both 1 atm of air as well as fully immersed in a H2O environment in the S/TEM followed by hyperspectral imaging. These preparation techniques can be successfully applied as a general procedure for a wide range of metals and alloys, and are suitable for a variety of in situ analytical S/TEM studies in both aqueous and gaseous environments.

  4. Amphoteric water as acid and base for protic ionic liquids and their electrochemical activity when used as fuel cell electrolytes. (United States)

    Miran, Muhammed Shah; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Tatara, Ryoichi; Abu Bin Hasan Susan, Md; Watanabe, Masayoshi


    Amphoteric water was mixed with equimolar amounts of a super-strong acid, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH), and a super-strong base, 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]-7-undecene (DBU). Bulk physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the mixtures were compared with those of the best ever reported protic ionic liquid (PIL), diethylmethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([dema][TfO]), which has excellent physicochemical properties as a fuel cell electrolyte. The acidic mixture ([H 3 O][TfO]) behaved as a protic ionic liquid, while the basic mixture ([DBU]OH) showed incomplete proton transfer. The Walden plot indicated that [H 3 O][TfO] behaves as a good PIL, similar to [dema][TfO], whereas [DBU]OH behaves as a poor PIL. [H 3 O][TfO] showed excellent H 2 /O 2 fuel cell performance at 80 °C; however, the performance deteriorated as the bulk water content increased, because of the retardation of the electrode kinetics due to the oxidation of Pt in the presence of bulk water. On the other hand, [DBU]OH exhibited very poor performance possibly because of the existence of neutral species in the system.

  5. Thermodynamic mixing effects of liquid ternary Au–Fe–Pd alloys by computer-aided Knudsen cell mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiska, Josef


    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic mixing behavior of liquid Au–Fe–Pd alloys over the whole range of composition. ► Experimental investigations by means of the computer-aided Knudsen cell mass spectrometry. ► Algebraic representation of the molar excess properties by TAP series concept. ► The corresponding TAP parameters are presented. ► The values of all molar excess functions, and thermodynamic activities at 1850 K are given. - Abstract: Thermodynamic investigations on liquid ternary Au–Fe–Pd alloys have been performed by means of the computer-aided Knudsen cell mass spectrometry. The “Digital Intensity-Ratio” (DIR) – method has been applied for the determination of the thermodynamic mixing behaviour. The ternary thermodynamically adapted power (TAP) series concept is used for the algebraic representation of the molar excess properties. The corresponding TAP parameters, and the values of the molar excess quantities Z E (Z = Gibbs energy G, heat of mixing H, and entropy S) as well as the thermodynamic activities of all three constituents at 1850 K are presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadett SZMUTKU


    Full Text Available Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM is amodern, non-invasive method for objective andspecialized image analysis of anatomical materialfeatures at microscopic level. Referring to wood, itoffers the possibility to view in 3D a bunch ofneighboring cells, in all three grain directions.This allows the imaging of modifications thatmight appear in the structure of the wood cellmembrane (e.g. micro-fissures caused by differentfactors, including temperature variations. This paperpresents the results of the SEM analysis performedon European spruce (Picea abies samples, cut fromboards which were subjected to freezing and thawingunder different conditions of temperature variationand time of exposure.The main aim of this research was to reveal theconditions which determine the occurrence of microfissuresin the cell wall and consequently lead tostrength losses in wood.

  7. On the addition of conducting ceramic nanoparticles in solvent-free ionic liquid electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Chuan-Pei


    Titanium carbide (TiC) is an extremely hard conducting ceramic material often used as a coating for titanium alloys as well as steel and aluminum components to improve their surface properties. In this study, conducting ceramic nanoparticles (CCNPs) have been used, for the first time, in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and the incorporation of TiC nanoparticles in a binary ionic liquid electrolyte on the cell performance has been investigated. Cell conversion efficiency with 0.6 wt% TiC reached 1.68%, which was higher than that without adding TiC (1.18%); however, cell efficiency decreased when the TiC content reached 1.0 wt%. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was employed to analyze the interfacial resistance in DSSCs, and it was found that the resistance of the charge-transfer process at the Pt counter electrode (Rct1) decreased when up to 1.0 wt% TiC was added. Presumably, this was due to the formation of the extended electron transfer surface (EETS) which facilitates electron transfer to the bulk electrolyte, resulting in a decrease of the dark current, whereby the open-circuit potential (VOC) could be improved. Furthermore, a significant increase in the fill factor (FF) for all TiC additions was related to the decrease in the series resistance (RS) of the DSSCs. However, at 1.0 wt% TiC, the largest charge-transfer resistance at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface was observed and resulted from the poor penetration of the electrolyte into the porous TiO2. The long-term stability of DSSCs with a binary ionic liquid electrolyte, which is superior to that of an organic solvent-based electrolyte, was also studied. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cordyceps sinensis Oral Liquid Inhibits Damage Induced by Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation in SH-SY5Y Cells. (United States)

    Zou, Ying-Xin; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Ruan, Ming-Hua; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Jia-Chun; Chu, Zhi-Yong


    Cordyceps sinensis has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. It has been demonstrated to have a variety of biological activities, and an extract of it has been demonstrated to possess a protective effect in occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia of the middle cerebral artery in rats. It could be explored as an agent for treatment of ischemic stroke, and the mechanisms need to be studied further. The study intended to investigate the protective effects of the Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid (CSOL) against damage induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in SH-SY5Y cells. DESIGN • The research team designed an in vitro study. The study occurred at the Naval Medical Research Institute in Shanghai, China. SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to CSOL in doses of 0.01, 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, and 1.00 mg/mL, creating 5 intervention groups. The OGD condition was induced by transfer of the cells from high-glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) in a box gassed with air containing 5% CO2 to glucose-free DMEM in a box gassed with 94% N2, 5% CO2, and 1% O2. Like the cells for the interventions groups, the cells for a model group were cultured with high-glucose DMEM and were transferred to the OGD, but they received no dose of COSL. Cells in a control group were cultured with high-glucose DMEM, were not transferred to the OGD condition, and did not receive any dose of COSL. Cell viability was assayed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The apoptosis and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected by flow cytometry, and the protein expression of caspase-3 was observed by western blot. After exposure to OGD, the cell viability of cells treated with 0.01, 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, and 1.00 mg/mL of CSOL increased in a dose-effect relationship. Compared with the cells in the model group, the treatment of CSOL at all the experimental concentrations significantly inhibited both the cell apoptosis

  9. Real-time monitoring of methanol concentration using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor for direct methanol fuel cell without reference liquid measurement (United States)

    Tada, Kyosuke; Nozawa, Takuya; Kondoh, Jun


    In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for sensors that continuously measure liquid concentrations and detect abnormalities in liquid environments. In this study, a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensor is applied for the continuous monitoring of liquid concentrations. As the SH-SAW sensor functions using the relative measurement method, it normally needs a reference at each measurement. However, if the sensor is installed in a liquid flow cell, it is difficult to measure a reference liquid. Therefore, it is important to establish an estimation method for liquid concentrations using the SH-SAW sensor without requiring a reference measurement. In this study, the SH-SAW sensor is installed in a direct methanol fuel cell to monitor the methanol concentration. The estimated concentration is compared with a conventional density meter. Moreover, the effect of formic acid is examined. When the fuel temperature is higher than 70 °C, it is necessary to consider the influence of liquid conductivity. Here, an estimation method for these cases is also proposed.

  10. High ice nucleation activity located in blueberry stem bark is linked to primary freeze initiation and adaptive freezing behaviour of the bark (United States)

    Kishimoto, Tadashi; Yamazaki, Hideyuki; Saruwatari, Atsushi; Murakawa, Hiroki; Sekozawa, Yoshihiko; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Price, William S.; Ishikawa, Masaya


    Controlled ice nucleation is an important mechanism in cold-hardy plant tissues for avoiding excessive supercooling of the protoplasm, for inducing extracellular freezing and/or for accommodating ice crystals in specific tissues. To understand its nature, it is necessary to characterize the ice nucleation activity (INA), defined as the ability of a tissue to induce heterogeneous ice nucleation. Few studies have addressed the precise localization of INA in wintering plant tissues in respect of its function. For this purpose, we recently revised a test tube INA assay and examined INA in various tissues of over 600 species. Extremely high levels of INA (−1 to −4 °C) in two wintering blueberry cultivars of contrasting freezing tolerance were found. Their INA was much greater than in other cold-hardy species and was found to be evenly distributed along the stems of the current year's growth. Concentrations of active ice nuclei in the stem were estimated from quantitative analyses. Stem INA was localized mainly in the bark while the xylem and pith had much lower INA. Bark INA was located mostly in the cell wall fraction (cell walls and intercellular structural components). Intracellular fractions had much less INA. Some cultivar differences were identified. The results corresponded closely with the intrinsic freezing behaviour (extracellular freezing) of the bark, icicle accumulation in the bark and initial ice nucleation in the stem under dry surface conditions. Stem INA was resistant to various antimicrobial treatments. These properties and specific localization imply that high INA in blueberry stems is of intrinsic origin and contributes to the spontaneous initiation of freezing in extracellular spaces of the bark by acting as a subfreezing temperature sensor. PMID:25082142

  11. High ice nucleation activity located in blueberry stem bark is linked to primary freeze initiation and adaptive freezing behaviour of the bark. (United States)

    Kishimoto, Tadashi; Yamazaki, Hideyuki; Saruwatari, Atsushi; Murakawa, Hiroki; Sekozawa, Yoshihiko; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Price, William S; Ishikawa, Masaya


    Controlled ice nucleation is an important mechanism in cold-hardy plant tissues for avoiding excessive supercooling of the protoplasm, for inducing extracellular freezing and/or for accommodating ice crystals in specific tissues. To understand its nature, it is necessary to characterize the ice nucleation activity (INA), defined as the ability of a tissue to induce heterogeneous ice nucleation. Few studies have addressed the precise localization of INA in wintering plant tissues in respect of its function. For this purpose, we recently revised a test tube INA assay and examined INA in various tissues of over 600 species. Extremely high levels of INA (-1 to -4 °C) in two wintering blueberry cultivars of contrasting freezing tolerance were found. Their INA was much greater than in other cold-hardy species and was found to be evenly distributed along the stems of the current year's growth. Concentrations of active ice nuclei in the stem were estimated from quantitative analyses. Stem INA was localized mainly in the bark while the xylem and pith had much lower INA. Bark INA was located mostly in the cell wall fraction (cell walls and intercellular structural components). Intracellular fractions had much less INA. Some cultivar differences were identified. The results corresponded closely with the intrinsic freezing behaviour (extracellular freezing) of the bark, icicle accumulation in the bark and initial ice nucleation in the stem under dry surface conditions. Stem INA was resistant to various antimicrobial treatments. These properties and specific localization imply that high INA in blueberry stems is of intrinsic origin and contributes to the spontaneous initiation of freezing in extracellular spaces of the bark by acting as a subfreezing temperature sensor. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  12. Fabrication of Chitosan Silk-based Tracheal Scaffold Using Freeze-Casting Method (United States)

    Nematollahi, Zeinab; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Zamanian, Ali; Seyedsalehi, Amir; Mohammad-Behgam, Shadmehr; Ghorbani, Fariba; Mirahmadi, Fereshte


    Background: Since the treatments of long tracheal lesions are associated with some limitations, tissue engineered trachea is considered as an alternative option. This study aimed at preparing a composite scaffold, based on natural and synthetic materials for tracheal tissue engineering. Methods: Nine chitosan silk-based scaffolds were fabricated using three freezing rates (0.5, 1, and 2°C/min) and glutaraldehyde (GA) concentrations (0, 0.4, and 0.8 wt%). Samples were characterized, and scaffolds having mechanical properties compatible with those of human trachea and proper biodegradability were selected for chondrocyte cell seeding and subsequent biological assessments. Results: The pore sizes were highly influenced by the freezing rate and varied from 135.3×372.1 to 37.8×83.4 µm. Swelling and biodegradability behaviors were more affected by GA rather than freezing rate. Tensile strength raised from 120 kPa to 350 kPa by an increment of freezing rate and GA concentration. In addition, marked stiffening was demonstrated by increasing elastic modulus from 1.5 MPa to 12.2 MPa. Samples having 1 and 2°C/min of freezing rate and 0.8 wt% GA concentration made a non-toxic, porous structure with tensile strength and elastic modulus in the range of human trachea, facilitating the chondrocyte proliferation. The results of 21-day cell culture indicated that glycosaminoglycans content was significantly higher for the rate of 2°C/min (12.04 µg/min) rather than the other (9.6 µg/min). Conclusion: A homogenous porous structure was created by freeze drying. This allows the fabrication of a chitosan silk scaffold cross-linked by GA for cartilage tissue regeneration with application in tracheal regeneration. PMID:28131109

  13. Late Spring Freezes in Poland in Relation to Atmospheric Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustrnul Zbigniew


    Full Text Available Late spring freeze events, a significant agroclimatic hazard, are investigated for Poland. Daily minimum air temperatures from 184 stations for the period 1951-2010 were used to analyze the frequency and conditional probability of late spring freezes. In addition, three classification schemes were employed to investigate the atmospheric circulation responsible for late spring freezes events. The findings suggest that knowledge of the airflow influencing late spring freezes can help to understand the complex historical trends and projected future changes in freeze risk for perennial crops

  14. The freezing and supercooling of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

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    James, Christian; Seignemartin, Violaine; James, Stephen J. [Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering Research Centre (FRPERC), University of Bristol, Churchill Building, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom)


    This work shows that peeled garlic cloves demonstrate significant supercooling during freezing under standard conditions and can be stored at temperatures well below their freezing point (-2.7 C) without freezing. The nucleation point or 'metastable limit temperature' (the point at which ice crystal nucleation is initiated) of peeled garlic cloves was found to be between -7.7 and -14.6 C. Peeled garlic cloves were stored under static air conditions at temperatures between -6 and -9 C for up to 69 h without freezing, and unpeeled whole garlic bulbs and cloves were stored for 1 week at -6 C without freezing. (author)

  15. Model simulations with COSMO-SPECS: impact of heterogeneous freezing modes and ice nucleating particle types on ice formation and precipitation in a deep convective cloud (United States)

    Diehl, Karoline; Grützun, Verena


    In deep convective clouds, heavy rain is often formed involving the ice phase. Simulations were performed using the 3-D cloud resolving model COSMO-SPECS with detailed spectral microphysics including parameterizations of homogeneous and three heterogeneous freezing modes. The initial conditions were selected to result in a deep convective cloud reaching 14 km of altitude with strong updrafts up to 40 m s-1. At such altitudes with corresponding temperatures below -40 °C the major fraction of liquid drops freezes homogeneously. The goal of the present model simulations was to investigate how additional heterogeneous freezing will affect ice formation and precipitation although its contribution to total ice formation may be rather low. In such a situation small perturbations that do not show significant effects at first sight may trigger cloud microphysical responses. Effects of the following small perturbations were studied: (1) additional ice formation via immersion, contact, and deposition modes in comparison to solely homogeneous freezing, (2) contact and deposition freezing in comparison to immersion freezing, and (3) small fractions of biological ice nucleating particles (INPs) in comparison to higher fractions of mineral dust INP. The results indicate that the modification of precipitation proceeds via the formation of larger ice particles, which may be supported by direct freezing of larger drops, the growth of pristine ice particles by riming, and by nucleation of larger drops by collisions with pristine ice particles. In comparison to the reference case with homogeneous freezing only, such small perturbations due to additional heterogeneous freezing rather affect the total precipitation amount. It is more likely that the temporal development and the local distribution of precipitation are affected by such perturbations. This results in a gradual increase in precipitation at early cloud stages instead of a strong increase at later cloud stages coupled with

  16. Development and Design of Sludge Freezing Beds (United States)


    freezing often occurs in nature. A typical example is the desalin - ation of sea ice. Initially, brine is concentrated between ice crystal boundaries...Research, 67(3): 1085-1090. Cox, G.F.N. and W.F. Weeks (1975) Brine drainage and initial salt entrapment in sodium chloride ice. USA Cold Regions...Over a period of time, this brine drains out by gravity leaving relatively pure ice (Cox and Weeks 1975). Another example is the formation of pure ice


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    H. Sadeghi - Nejad


    Full Text Available (1 The secondary stage of freeze - drying, particularly the last day, is not important and I suggest the whole procedure is reduced to three days, the primary stage occupying two of these. (2 The mothod used obtains the satisfactory low level of residual moisture. RESUME (3 Experiments on reconstitution with saline and distilled water show that distilled water is more satisfactory and I suggest that saline should not he used.

  18. Microwave Augmented Freeze-Drying - Four Studies (United States)


    F.J. 1G76. Pigments in "Principles of Food Science". O.R. Fennema, ed., Marcel Dekkar, Inc., New York. Datta, A.K. and Hu, W. 1992. Optimization of...and Wilke, C.R 1967. The relationship between transport properties and rates of freeze-drying of poultry meat. AIChE J. 13:428. Slater, L.E. 1975

  19. Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycerol/H+ symporter Stl1p is essential for cold/near-freeze and freeze stress adaptation. A simple recipe with high biotechnological potential is given

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    Ferreira Célia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freezing is an increasingly important means of preservation and storage of microbial strains used for many types of industrial applications including food processing. However, the yeast mechanisms of tolerance and sensitivity to freeze or near-freeze stress are still poorly understood. More knowledge on this regard would improve their biotechnological potential. Glycerol, in particular intracellular glycerol, has been assigned as a cryoprotectant, also important for cold/near-freeze stress adaptation. The S. cerevisiae glycerol active transporter Stl1p plays an important role on the fast accumulation of glycerol. This gene is expressed under gluconeogenic conditions, under osmotic shock and stress, as well as under high temperatures. Results We found that cells grown on STL1 induction medium (YPGE and subjected to cold/near-freeze stress, displayed an extremely high expression of this gene, also visible at glycerol/H+ symporter activity level. Under the same conditions, the strains harbouring this transporter accumulated more than 400 mM glycerol, whereas the glycerol/H+ symporter mutant presented less than 1 mM. Consistently, the strains able to accumulate glycerol survive 25-50% more than the stl1Δ mutant. Conclusions In this work, we report the contribution of the glycerol/H+ symporter Stl1p for the accumulation and maintenance of glycerol intracellular levels, and consequently cell survival at cold/near-freeze and freeze temperatures. These findings have a high biotechnological impact, as they show that any S. cerevisiae strain already in use can become more resistant to cold/freeze-thaw stress just by simply adding glycerol to the broth. The combination of low temperatures with extracellular glycerol will induce the transporter Stl1p. This solution avoids the use of transgenic strains, in particular in food industry.

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycerol/H+ symporter Stl1p is essential for cold/near-freeze and freeze stress adaptation. A simple recipe with high biotechnological potential is given. (United States)

    Tulha, Joana; Lima, Ana; Lucas, Cândida; Ferreira, Célia


    Freezing is an increasingly important means of preservation and storage of microbial strains used for many types of industrial applications including food processing. However, the yeast mechanisms of tolerance and sensitivity to freeze or near-freeze stress are still poorly understood. More knowledge on this regard would improve their biotechnological potential. Glycerol, in particular intracellular glycerol, has been assigned as a cryoprotectant, also important for cold/near-freeze stress adaptation. The S. cerevisiae glycerol active transporter Stl1p plays an important role on the fast accumulation of glycerol. This gene is expressed under gluconeogenic conditions, under osmotic shock and stress, as well as under high temperatures. We found that cells grown on STL1 induction medium (YPGE) and subjected to cold/near-freeze stress, displayed an extremely high expression of this gene, also visible at glycerol/H+ symporter activity level. Under the same conditions, the strains harbouring this transporter accumulated more than 400 mM glycerol, whereas the glycerol/H+ symporter mutant presented less than 1 mM. Consistently, the strains able to accumulate glycerol survive 25-50% more than the stl1Δ mutant. In this work, we report the contribution of the glycerol/H+ symporter Stl1p for the accumulation and maintenance of glycerol intracellular levels, and consequently cell survival at cold/near-freeze and freeze temperatures. These findings have a high biotechnological impact, as they show that any S. cerevisiae strain already in use can become more resistant to cold/freeze-thaw stress just by simply adding glycerol to the broth. The combination of low temperatures with extracellular glycerol will induce the transporter Stl1p. This solution avoids the use of transgenic strains, in particular in food industry.