Sample records for cell edge protrusion

  1. ERK reinforces actin polymerization to power persistent edge protrusion during motility. (United States)

    Mendoza, Michelle C; Vilela, Marco; Juarez, Jesus E; Blenis, John; Danuser, Gaudenz


    Cells move through perpetual protrusion and retraction cycles at the leading edge. These cycles are coordinated with substrate adhesion and retraction of the cell rear. We tracked spatial and temporal fluctuations in the molecular activities of individual moving cells to elucidate how extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling controlled the dynamics of protrusion and retraction cycles. ERK is activated by many cell surface receptors, and we found that ERK signaling specifically reinforced cellular protrusions so that they translated into rapid, sustained forward motion of the leading edge. Using quantitative fluorescent speckle microscopy and cross-correlation analysis, we showed that ERK controlled the rate and timing of actin polymerization by promoting the recruitment of the actin nucleator Arp2/3 to the leading edge. These findings support a model in which surges in ERK activity induced by extracellular cues enhance Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization to generate protrusion power phases with enough force to counteract increasing membrane tension and to promote sustained motility.

  2. A novel multilayer immunoisolating encapsulation system overcoming protrusion of cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhujbal, Swapnil V.; de Haan, Bart; Niclou, Simone P.; de Vos, Paul


    Application of alginate-microencapsulated therapeutic cells is a promising approach for diseases that require a local and constant supply of therapeutic molecules. However most conventional alginate microencapsulation systems are associated with low mechanical stability and protrusion of cells which

  3. Cancer-associated mutations in the protrusion-targeting region of p190RhoGAP impact tumor cell migration. (United States)

    Binamé, Fabien; Bidaud-Meynard, Aurélien; Magnan, Laure; Piquet, Léo; Montibus, Bertille; Chabadel, Anne; Saltel, Frédéric; Lagrée, Valérie; Moreau, Violaine


    Spatiotemporal regulation of RhoGTPases such as RhoA is required at the cell leading edge to achieve cell migration. p190RhoGAP (p190A) is the main negative regulator of RhoA and localizes to membrane protrusions, where its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity is required for directional migration. In this study, we investigated the molecular processes responsible for p190A targeting to actin protrusions. By analyzing the subcellular localization of truncated versions of p190A in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, we identified a novel functional p190A domain: the protrusion localization sequence (PLS) necessary and sufficient for p190A targeting to leading edges. Interestingly, the PLS is also required for the negative regulation of p190A RhoGAP activity. Further, we show that the F-actin binding protein cortactin binds the PLS and is required for p190A targeting to protrusions. Lastly, we demonstrate that cancer-associated mutations in PLS affect p190A localization and function, as well as tumor cell migration. Altogether, our data unveil a new mechanism of regulation of p190A in migrating tumor cells.

  4. WASP family members and formin proteins coordinate regulation of cell protrusions in carcinoma cells. (United States)

    Sarmiento, Corina; Wang, Weigang; Dovas, Athanassios; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Sidani, Mazen; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Desmarais, Vera; Holman, Holly A; Kitchen, Susan; Backer, Jonathan M; Alberts, Art; Condeelis, John


    We examined the role of the actin nucleation promoters neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and WAVE2 in cell protrusion in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF), a key regulator in carcinoma cell invasion. We found that WAVE2 knockdown (KD) suppresses lamellipod formation and increases filopod formation, whereas N-WASP KD has no effect. However, simultaneous KD of both proteins results in the formation of large jagged protrusions with lamellar properties and increased filopod formation. This suggests that another actin nucleation activity is at work in carcinoma cells in response to EGF. A mammalian Diaphanous-related formin, mDia1, localizes at the jagged protrusions in double KD cells. Constitutively active mDia1 recapitulated the phenotype, whereas inhibition of mDia1 blocked the formation of these protrusions. Increased RhoA activity, which stimulates mDia1 nucleation, was observed in the N-WASP/WAVE2 KD cells and was shown to be required for the N-WASP/WAVE2 KD phenotype. These data show that coordinate regulation between the WASP family and mDia proteins controls the balance between lamellar and lamellipodial protrusion activity.

  5. Amoeboid Cells Use Protrusions for Walking, Gliding and Swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Haastert, Peter J. M.; Hotchin, Neil A.


    Amoeboid cells crawl using pseudopods, which are convex extensions of the cell surface. In many laboratory experiments, cells move on a smooth substrate, but in the wild cells may experience obstacles of other cells or dead material, or may even move in liquid. To understand how cells cope with hete

  6. Device for cutting protrusions (United States)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.


    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  7. Human papillomavirus type 16 entry: retrograde cell surface transport along actin-rich protrusions.

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    Mario Schelhaas

    Full Text Available The lateral mobility of individual, incoming human papillomavirus type 16 pseudoviruses (PsV bound to live HeLa cells was studied by single particle tracking using fluorescence video microscopy. The trajectories were computationally analyzed in terms of diffusion rate and mode of motion as described by the moment scaling spectrum. Four distinct modes of mobility were seen: confined movement in small zones (30-60 nm in diameter, confined movement with a slow drift, fast random motion with transient confinement, and linear, directed movement for long distances. The directed movement was most prominent on actin-rich cell protrusions such as filopodia or retraction fibres, where the rate was similar to that measured for actin retrograde flow. It was, moreover, sensitive to perturbants of actin retrograde flow such as cytochalasin D, jasplakinolide, and blebbistatin. We found that transport along actin protrusions significantly enhanced HPV-16 infection in sparse tissue culture, cells suggesting a role for in vivo infection of basal keratinocytes during wound healing.

  8. Direct RNA sequencing mediated identification of mRNA localized in protrusions of human MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristine Raaby; Sørensen, Emilie; Brøndum, Karin Kathrine;


    Background Protrusions of cancer cells conferrers a vital function for cell migration and metastasis. Protein and RNA localization mechanisms have been extensively examined and shown to play pivotal roles for the functional presence of specific protein components in cancer cell protrusions. Methods...... To describe genome wide RNA localized in protrusions of the metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 we used Boyden chamber based methodology followed by direct mRNA sequencing. Results In the hereby identified group of protrusion localized mRNA some previously were described to be localized...... exemplified by mRNA for Ras-Related protein 13 (RAB13) and p0071 (Plakophilin-4/PKP4). For other transcripts, exemplified by mRNA for SH3PXD2A/TKS5 and PPFIA1/Liprin-α1, only the corresponding proteins previously were described to have protrusion localization. Finally, a cohort of MDA-MB-231 protrusion...

  9. Modeling the Excess Cell Surface Stored in a Complex Morphology of Bleb-Like Protrusions (United States)

    Wessler, Timothy; Yang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Alex; Roach, Nathan; Elston, Timothy C.; Wang, Qi; Jacobson, Ken; Forest, M. Gregory


    Cells transition from spread to rounded morphologies in diverse physiological contexts including mitosis and mesenchymal-to-amoeboid transitions. When these drastic shape changes occur rapidly, cell volume and surface area are approximately conserved. Consequently, the rounded cells are suddenly presented with a several-fold excess of cell surface whose area far exceeds that of a smooth sphere enclosing the cell volume. This excess is stored in a population of bleb-like protrusions (BLiPs), whose size distribution is shown by electron micrographs to be skewed. We introduce three complementary models of rounded cell morphologies with a prescribed excess surface area. A 2D Hamiltonian model provides a mechanistic description of how discrete attachment points between the cell surface and cortex together with surface bending energy can generate a morphology that satisfies a prescribed excess area and BLiP number density. A 3D random seed-and-growth model simulates efficient packing of BLiPs over a primary rounded shape, demonstrating a pathway for skewed BLiP size distributions that recapitulate 3D morphologies. Finally, a phase field model (2D and 3D) posits energy-based constitutive laws for the cell membrane, nematic F-actin cortex, interior cytosol, and external aqueous medium. The cell surface is equipped with a spontaneous curvature function, a proxy for the cell surface-cortex couple, that is a priori unknown, which the model “learns” from the thin section transmission electron micrograph image (2D) or the “seed and growth” model image (3D). Converged phase field simulations predict self-consistent amplitudes and spatial localization of pressure and stress throughout the cell for any posited stationary morphology target and cell compartment constitutive properties. The models form a general framework for future studies of cell morphological dynamics in a variety of biological contexts. PMID:27015526

  10. Modeling the Excess Cell Surface Stored in a Complex Morphology of Bleb-Like Protrusions.

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    Maryna Kapustina


    Full Text Available Cells transition from spread to rounded morphologies in diverse physiological contexts including mitosis and mesenchymal-to-amoeboid transitions. When these drastic shape changes occur rapidly, cell volume and surface area are approximately conserved. Consequently, the rounded cells are suddenly presented with a several-fold excess of cell surface whose area far exceeds that of a smooth sphere enclosing the cell volume. This excess is stored in a population of bleb-like protrusions (BLiPs, whose size distribution is shown by electron micrographs to be skewed. We introduce three complementary models of rounded cell morphologies with a prescribed excess surface area. A 2D Hamiltonian model provides a mechanistic description of how discrete attachment points between the cell surface and cortex together with surface bending energy can generate a morphology that satisfies a prescribed excess area and BLiP number density. A 3D random seed-and-growth model simulates efficient packing of BLiPs over a primary rounded shape, demonstrating a pathway for skewed BLiP size distributions that recapitulate 3D morphologies. Finally, a phase field model (2D and 3D posits energy-based constitutive laws for the cell membrane, nematic F-actin cortex, interior cytosol, and external aqueous medium. The cell surface is equipped with a spontaneous curvature function, a proxy for the cell surface-cortex couple, that is a priori unknown, which the model "learns" from the thin section transmission electron micrograph image (2D or the "seed and growth" model image (3D. Converged phase field simulations predict self-consistent amplitudes and spatial localization of pressure and stress throughout the cell for any posited stationary morphology target and cell compartment constitutive properties. The models form a general framework for future studies of cell morphological dynamics in a variety of biological contexts.

  11. Neural tube closure in Xenopus laevis involves medial migration, directed protrusive activity, cell intercalation and convergent extension. (United States)

    Davidson, L A; Keller, R E


    We have characterized the cell movements and prospective cell identities as neural folds fuse during neural tube formation in Xenopus laevis. A newly developed whole-mount, two-color fluorescent RNA in situ hybridization method, visualized with confocal microscopy, shows that the dorsal neural tube gene xpax3 and the neural-crest-specific gene xslug are expressed far lateral to the medial site of neural fold fusion and that expression moves medially after fusion. To determine whether cell movements or dynamic changes in gene expression are responsible, we used low-light videomicroscopy followed by fluorescent in situ and confocal microscopy. These methods revealed that populations of prospective neural crest and dorsal neural tube cells near the lateral margin of the neural plate at the start of neurulation move to the dorsal midline using distinctive forms of motility. Before fold fusion, superficial neural cells apically contract, roll the neural plate into a trough and appear to pull the superficial epidermal cell sheet medially. After neural fold fusion, lateral deep neural cells move medially by radially intercalating between other neural cells using two types of motility. The neural crest cells migrate as individual cells toward the dorsal midline using medially directed monopolar protrusions. These movements combine the two lateral populations of neural crest into a single medial population that form the roof of the neural tube. The remaining cells of the dorsal neural tube extend protrusions both medially and laterally bringing about radial intercalation of deep and superficial cells to form a single-cell-layered, pseudostratified neural tube. While ours is the first description of medially directed cell migration during neural fold fusion and re-establishment of the neural tube, these complex cell behaviors may be involved during cavitation of the zebrafish neural keel and secondary neurulation in the posterior axis of chicken and mouse.

  12. Potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 interacts with Vav2 to synchronize the cell volume decrease response with cell protrusion dynamics.

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    Adèle Salin-Cantegrel

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 (KCC3 causes hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC, a severe neurodegenerative disease associated with defective midline crossing of commissural axons in the brain. Conversely, KCC3 over-expression in breast, ovarian and cervical cancer is associated with enhanced tumor cell malignancy and invasiveness. We identified a highly conserved proline-rich sequence within the C-terminus of the cotransporter which when mutated leads to loss of the KCC3-dependent regulatory volume decrease (RVD response in Xenopus Laevis oocytes. Using SH3 domain arrays, we found that this poly-proline motif is a binding site for SH3-domain containing proteins in vitro. This approach identified the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF Vav2 as a candidate partner for KCC3. KCC3/Vav2 physical interaction was confirmed using GST-pull down assays and immuno-based experiments. In cultured cervical cancer cells, KCC3 co-localized with the active form of Vav2 in swelling-induced actin-rich protruding sites and within lamellipodia of spreading and migrating cells. These data provide evidence of a molecular and functional link between the potassium-chloride co-transporters and the Rho GTPase-dependent actin remodeling machinery in RVD, cell spreading and cell protrusion dynamics, thus providing new insights into KCC3's involvement in cancer cell malignancy and in corpus callosum agenesis in HMSN/ACC.

  13. Tetraspanin CD82 inhibits protrusion and retraction in cell movement by attenuating the plasma membrane-dependent actin organization.

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    Wei M Liu

    Full Text Available To determine how tetraspanin KAI1/CD82, a tumor metastasis suppressor, inhibits cell migration, we assessed which cellular events critical for motility are altered by KAI1/CD82 and how KAI1/CD82 regulates these events. We found that KAI1/CD82-expressing cells typically exhibited elongated cellular tails and diminished lamellipodia. Live imaging demonstrated that the polarized protrusion and retraction of the plasma membrane became deficient upon KAI1/CD82 expression. The deficiency in developing these motility-related cellular events was caused by poor formations of actin cortical network and stress fiber and by aberrant dynamics in actin organization. Rac1 activity was reduced by KAI1/CD82, consistent with the diminution of lamellipodia and actin cortical network; while the growth factor-stimulated RhoA activity was blocked by KAI1/CD82, consistent with the loss of stress fiber and attenuation in cellular retraction. Upon KAI1/CD82 expression, Rac effector cofilin was not enriched at the cell periphery to facilitate lamellipodia formation while Rho kinase exhibited a significantly lower activity leading to less retraction. Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-biphosphate, which initiates actin polymerization from the plasma membrane, became less detectable at the cell periphery in KAI1/CD82-expressing cells. Moreover, KAI1/CD82-induced phenotypes likely resulted from the suppression of multiple signaling pathways such as integrin and growth factor signaling. In summary, at the cellular level KAI1/CD82 inhibited polarized protrusion and retraction events by disrupting actin reorganization; at the molecular level, KAI1/CD82 deregulated Rac1, RhoA, and their effectors cofilin and Rho kinase by perturbing the plasma membrane lipids.

  14. The actin regulators Enabled and Diaphanous direct distinct protrusive behaviors in different tissues during Drosophila development. (United States)

    Nowotarski, Stephanie H; McKeon, Natalie; Moser, Rachel J; Peifer, Mark


    Actin-based protrusions are important for signaling and migration during development and homeostasis. Defining how different tissues in vivo craft diverse protrusive behaviors using the same genomic toolkit of actin regulators is a current challenge. The actin elongation factors Diaphanous and Enabled both promote barbed-end actin polymerization and can stimulate filopodia in cultured cells. However, redundancy in mammals and Diaphanous' role in cytokinesis limited analysis of whether and how they regulate protrusions during development. We used two tissues driving Drosophila dorsal closure--migratory leading-edge (LE) and nonmigratory amnioserosal (AS) cells--as models to define how cells shape distinct protrusions during morphogenesis. We found that nonmigratory AS cells produce filopodia that are morphologically and dynamically distinct from those of LE cells. We hypothesized that differing Enabled and/or Diaphanous activity drives these differences. Combining gain- and loss-of-function with quantitative approaches revealed that Diaphanous and Enabled each regulate filopodial behavior in vivo and defined a quantitative "fingerprint"--the protrusive profile--which our data suggest is characteristic of each actin regulator. Our data suggest that LE protrusiveness is primarily Enabled driven, whereas Diaphanous plays the primary role in the AS, and reveal each has roles in dorsal closure, but its robustness ensures timely completion in their absence.

  15. Par3/Bazooka and phosphoinositides regulate actin protrusion formation during Drosophila dorsal closure and wound healing. (United States)

    Pickering, Karen; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Goberdhan, Deborah; Millard, Tom H


    Effective wound closure mechanisms are essential for maintenance of epithelial structure and function. The repair of wounded epithelia is primarily driven by the cells bordering the wound, which become motile after wounding, forming dynamic actin protrusions along the wound edge. The molecular mechanisms that trigger wound edge cells to become motile following tissue damage are not well understood. Using wound healing and dorsal closure in Drosophila, we identify a direct molecular link between changes in cell-cell adhesion at epithelial edges and induction of actin protrusion formation. We find that the scaffolding protein Par3/Bazooka and the lipid phosphatase Pten are specifically lost from cell-cell junctions at epithelial edges. This results in a localized accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), which promotes the formation of actin protrusions along the epithelial edge. Depleting PIP3 results in defective epithelial closure during both dorsal closure and wound healing. These data reveal a novel mechanism that directly couples loss of epithelial integrity to activation of epithelial closure.

  16. Quantification of cell edge velocities and traction forces reveals distinct motility modules during cell spreading.

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    Benjamin J Dubin-Thaler

    Full Text Available Actin-based cell motility and force generation are central to immune response, tissue development, and cancer metastasis, and understanding actin cytoskeleton regulation is a major goal of cell biologists. Cell spreading is a commonly used model system for motility experiments -- spreading fibroblasts exhibit stereotypic, spatially-isotropic edge dynamics during a reproducible sequence of functional phases: 1 During early spreading, cells form initial contacts with the surface. 2 The middle spreading phase exhibits rapidly increasing attachment area. 3 Late spreading is characterized by periodic contractions and stable adhesions formation. While differences in cytoskeletal regulation between phases are known, a global analysis of the spatial and temporal coordination of motility and force generation is missing. Implementing improved algorithms for analyzing edge dynamics over the entire cell periphery, we observed that a single domain of homogeneous cytoskeletal dynamics dominated each of the three phases of spreading. These domains exhibited a unique combination of biophysical and biochemical parameters -- a motility module. Biophysical characterization of the motility modules revealed that the early phase was dominated by periodic, rapid membrane blebbing; the middle phase exhibited continuous protrusion with very low traction force generation; and the late phase was characterized by global periodic contractions and high force generation. Biochemically, each motility module exhibited a different distribution of the actin-related protein VASP, while inhibition of actin polymerization revealed different dependencies on barbed-end polymerization. In addition, our whole-cell analysis revealed that many cells exhibited heterogeneous combinations of motility modules in neighboring regions of the cell edge. Together, these observations support a model of motility in which regions of the cell edge exhibit one of a limited number of motility modules

  17. FMC46, a cell protrusion-associated leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 epitope on human lymphocytes and thymocytes. (United States)

    Pilarski, L M; Turley, E A; Shaw, A R; Gallatin, W M; Laderoute, M P; Gillitzer, R; Beckman, I G; Zola, H


    In this report, we describe a 76-kDa glycoprotein recognized by mAb FMC46 that, by virtue of its concentration on cell protrusions involved in motility, may be important in lymphoid cell locomotion. FMC46 detects an epitope of the leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1), a member of the selecting family (LAM-1, Endothelial Leukocyte Adhesion Molecular-1 (ELAM-1), and Granule Membrane Protein-140 (GMP-140), that is expressed on LAM-1-transfected cell lines, is a glycosylation epitope based on its loss after culture in tunicamycin, and is closely related to the LAM-1.2 epitope. FMC46 is expressed at high density on the majority of CD45RA+ and CD45RO+ peripheral blood T cells (60 to 70%) and on a subset of thymocytes that includes the multinegative CD3- CD4- CD8- progenitor cells (100% FMC46hi) and the CD45R0- presumptive thymic generative lineage (70% FMC46hi). It appears at reduced density and frequency on CD45RA- thymocytes (50% FMC46lo), comprised mainly of death-committed thymocytes. Among thymic subsets defined by expression of CD4 and/or CD8, FMC46 is expressed at high density predominantly on a subset of single-positive cells and not on double-positive cells. These results suggest a fundamental role for LAM-1 in thymic development, with a high density preferentially expressed on cells involved in thymic generative processes and a low density on cells progressing to intrathymic death. A major subset of peripheral blood B cells and thymic B cells also express FMC46. Immunohistochemistry on frozen sections indicated strong staining in splenic follicles and around blood vessels, staining of the thymic medulla and subcapsular areas, and staining of the mantle zone of germinal centers of the lymph node. FMC46+ lymphocytes accumulated along high endothelial venules in the lymph node. On locomoting multinegative thymocytes, FMC46 is concentrated on the leading tip of extended processes, on pseudopods, and on ruffles, unlike the distribution of either CD44 or TQ1 (LAM 1

  18. Graphene microsheets enter cells through spontaneous membrane penetration at edge asperities and corner sites. (United States)

    Li, Yinfeng; Yuan, Hongyan; von dem Bussche, Annette; Creighton, Megan; Hurt, Robert H; Kane, Agnes B; Gao, Huajian


    Understanding and controlling the interaction of graphene-based materials with cell membranes is key to the development of graphene-enabled biomedical technologies and to the management of graphene health and safety issues. Very little is known about the fundamental behavior of cell membranes exposed to ultrathin 2D synthetic materials. Here we investigate the interactions of graphene and few-layer graphene (FLG) microsheets with three cell types and with model lipid bilayers by combining coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD), all-atom MD, analytical modeling, confocal fluorescence imaging, and electron microscopic imaging. The imaging experiments show edge-first uptake and complete internalization for a range of FLG samples of 0.5- to 10-μm lateral dimension. In contrast, the simulations show large energy barriers relative to kBT for membrane penetration by model graphene or FLG microsheets of similar size. More detailed simulations resolve this paradox by showing that entry is initiated at corners or asperities that are abundant along the irregular edges of fabricated graphene materials. Local piercing by these sharp protrusions initiates membrane propagation along the extended graphene edge and thus avoids the high energy barrier calculated in simple idealized MD simulations. We propose that this mechanism allows cellular uptake of even large multilayer sheets of micrometer-scale lateral dimension, which is consistent with our multimodal bioimaging results for primary human keratinocytes, human lung epithelial cells, and murine macrophages.

  19. Integral edge seals for phosphoric acid fuel cells (United States)

    Granata, Jr., Samuel J. (Inventor); Woodle, Boyd M. (Inventor); Dunyak, Thomas J. (Inventor)


    A phosphoric acid fuel cell having integral edge seals formed by an elastomer permeating an outer peripheral band contiguous with the outer peripheral edges of the cathode and anode assemblies and the matrix to form an integral edge seal which is reliable, easy to manufacture and has creep characteristics similar to the anode, cathode and matrix assemblies inboard of the seals to assure good electrical contact throughout the life of the fuel cell.

  20. Re-analysis of protein data reveals the germination pathway and up accumulation mechanism of cell wall hydrolases during the radicle protrusion step of seed germination in Podophyllum hexandrum- a high altitude plant

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    Vivek eDogra


    Full Text Available Podophyllum hexandrum Royle is an important high-altitude plant of Himalayas with immense medicinal value. Earlier, it was reported that the cell wall hydrolases were up accumulated during radicle protrusion step of Podophyllum seed germination. In the present study, Podophyllum Germination protein interactome Network (PGN was constructed by using the differentially accumulated protein data set of Podophyllum during the radicle protrusion step of seed germination, with reference to Arabidopsis protein–protein interactome network (AtPIN. The developed PGN is comprised of a giant cluster with 1028 proteins having 10519 interactions and a few small clusters with relevant gene ontological signatures. In this analysis, a germination pathway related cluster which is also central to the topology and information dynamics of PGN was obtained with a set of 60 key proteins. Among these, 8 proteins which are known to be involved in signalling, metabolism, protein modification, cell wall modification and cell cycle regulation processes were found commonly highlighted in both the proteomic and interactome analysis. The systems-level analysis of PGN identified the key proteins involved in radicle protrusion step of seed germination in Podophyllum.

  1. A minimal model for spontaneous cell polarization and edge activity in oscillating, rotating and migrating cells

    CERN Document Server

    Raynaud, Franck; Gabella, Chiara; Bornert, Alicia; Sbalzarini, Ivo F; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Verkhovsky, Alexander B


    How the cells break symmetry and organize their edge activity to move directionally is a fun- damental question in cell biology. Physical models of cell motility commonly rely on gradients of regulatory factors and/or feedback from the motion itself to describe polarization of edge activity. Theses approaches, however, fail to explain cell behavior prior to the onset of polarization. Our analysis using the model system of polarizing and moving fish epidermal keratocytes suggests a novel and simple principle of self-organization of cell activity in which local cell-edge dynamics depends on the distance from the cell center, but not on the orientation with respect to the front-back axis. We validate this principle with a stochastic model that faithfully reproduces a range of cell-migration behaviors. Our findings indicate that spontaneous polarization, persistent motion, and cell shape are emergent properties of the local cell-edge dynamics controlled by the distance from the cell center.

  2. Adhesion-Dependent Wave Generation in Crawling Cells. (United States)

    Barnhart, Erin L; Allard, Jun; Lou, Sunny S; Theriot, Julie A; Mogilner, Alex


    Dynamic actin networks are excitable. In migrating cells, feedback loops can amplify stochastic fluctuations in actin dynamics, often resulting in traveling waves of protrusion. The precise contributions of various molecular and mechanical interactions to wave generation have been difficult to disentangle, in part due to complex cellular morphodynamics. Here we used a relatively simple cell type-the fish epithelial keratocyte-to define a set of mechanochemical feedback loops underlying actin network excitability and wave generation. Although keratocytes are normally characterized by the persistent protrusion of a broad leading edge, increasing cell-substrate adhesion strength results in waving protrusion of a short leading edge. We show that protrusion waves are due to fluctuations in actin polymerization rates and that overexpression of VASP, an actin anti-capping protein that promotes actin polymerization, switches highly adherent keratocytes from waving to persistent protrusion. Moreover, VASP localizes both to adhesion complexes and to the leading edge. Based on these results, we developed a mathematical model for protrusion waves in which local depletion of VASP from the leading edge by adhesions-along with lateral propagation of protrusion due to the branched architecture of the actin network and negative mechanical feedback from the cell membrane-results in regular protrusion waves. Consistent with our model simulations, we show that VASP localization at the leading edge oscillates, with VASP leading-edge enrichment greatest just prior to protrusion initiation. We propose that the mechanochemical feedbacks underlying wave generation in keratocytes may constitute a general module for establishing excitable actin dynamics in other cellular contexts.

  3. Cell-Edge Multi-User Relaying with Overhearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Fan; Kim, Tae Min; Paulraj, Arogyaswami


    Carefully designed protocols can turn overheard interference into useful side information to allow simultaneous transmission of multiple communication flows and increase the spectral efficiency in interference-limited regime. In this letter, we propose a novel scheme in a typical cell-edge scenario....... By exploiting the overhearing link through proper relay precoding and adaptive receiver processing, rate performance can be significantly improved compared to the conventional transmission which does not utilize overhearing....

  4. The impact of development and sensory deprivation on dendritic protrusions in the mouse barrel cortex. (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Chien; Bajnath, Adesh; Brumberg, Joshua C


    Dendritic protrusions (spines and filopodia) are structural indicators of synapses that have been linked to neuronal learning and memory through their morphological alterations induced by development and experienced-dependent activities. Although previous studies have demonstrated that depriving sensory experience leads to structural changes in neocortical organization, the more subtle effects on dendritic protrusions remain unclear, mostly due to focus on only one specific cell type and/or age of manipulation. Here, we show that sensory deprivation induced by whisker trimming influences the dendritic protrusions of basilar dendrites located in thalamocortical recipient lamina (IV and VI) of the mouse barrel cortex in a layer-specific manner. Following 1 month of whisker trimming after birth, the density of dendritic protrusions increased in layer IV, but decreased in layer VI. Whisker regrowth for 1 month returned protrusion densities to comparable level of age-matched controls in layer VI, but not in layer IV. In adults, chronic sensory deprivation led to an increase in protrusion densities in layer IV, but not in layer VI. In addition, chronic pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) increased protrusion density in both layers IV and VI, which returned to the control level after 1 month of drug withdrawal. Our data reveal that different cortical layers respond to chronic sensory deprivation in different ways, with more pronounced effects during developmental critical periods than adulthood. We also show that chronically blocking NMDARs activity during developmental critical period also influences the protrusion density and morphology in the cerebral cortex.

  5. Cell shape dynamics: from waves to migration.

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    Meghan K Driscoll

    Full Text Available We observe and quantify wave-like characteristics of amoeboid migration. Using the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, a model system for the study of chemotaxis, we demonstrate that cell shape changes in a wave-like manner. Cells have regions of high boundary curvature that propagate from the leading edge toward the back, usually along alternating sides of the cell. Curvature waves are easily seen in cells that do not adhere to a surface, such as cells that are electrostatically repelled from surfaces or cells that extend over the edge of micro-fabricated cliffs. Without surface contact, curvature waves travel from the leading edge to the back of a cell at -35 µm/min. Non-adherent myosin II null cells do not exhibit these curvature waves. At the leading edge of adherent cells, curvature waves are associated with protrusive activity. Like regions of high curvature, protrusive activity travels along the boundary in a wave-like manner. Upon contact with a surface, the protrusions stop moving relative to the surface, and the boundary shape thus reflects the history of protrusive motion. The wave-like character of protrusions provides a plausible mechanism for the zig-zagging of pseudopods and for the ability of cells both to swim in viscous fluids and to navigate complex three dimensional topography.

  6. Dendritic cells a double-edge sword in autoimmune responses

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    Giada eAmodio


    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are antigen-presenting cells that play a pivotal role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. In autoimmunity, DC act as a double-edged sword since on one hand they initiate adaptive self-reactive responses and on the other they play a pivotal role in promoting and maintaining tolerance. Thus, DC are the most important cells in either triggering self-specific responses or in negatively regulating auto-reactive responses. DC in the steady state or specialized subsets of DC, named tolerogenic DC, are involved in the latter function. Clinical and experimental evidence indicate that prolonged presentation of self-antigens by DC is crucial for the development of destructive autoimmune diseases, and defects in tolerogenic DC functions contribute to eradication of self-tolerance. In recent years, DC have emerged as therapeutic targets for limiting their immunogenicity against self-antigens, while tolerogenic DC have been conceived as therapeutic tools to restore tolerance. The purpose of this review is to give a general overview of the current knowledge on the pathogenic role of DC in patients affected by autoimmune diseases. In addition, the protective role of tolerogenic DC will be addressed. The currently applied strategies to block immune activation or to exploit the tolerogenic potential of DC will be discussed.

  7. Morphological change of self-organized protrusions of fluoropolymer surface by ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Akane, E-mail: [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tomohiro [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 350-0198 (Japan); Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)


    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) are typical fluoropolymers displaying several desirable technological properties such as electrical insulation and high chemical resistance. When their surfaces are irradiated with ion beams, dense micro-protrusions formed after the emergence and spread of micropores across the entire irradiated area, allowing culture cells to spread on the top of the protrusions. In this study, we investigate the morphological changes introduced in the fluoropolymer surfaces by ion beams as the energy of the beams is increased. When an FEP sample was irradiated with a nitrogen ion beam with an energy of less than 350 keV at 1.0 μA/cm{sup 2}, protrusions were formed with a density between 2 × 10{sup 7}/cm{sup 2} and 2 × 10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}. However, at energies higher than 350 keV, the protrusions became sparse, and the density dropped to 5 × 10{sup 2}/cm{sup 2}. Protrusions appeared sporadically during irradiation at high energies, and the top of the protrusions appeared as spots inside the sample, which were difficult to etch and became elongated as the erosion of the surface progressed. Erosion was caused by sputtering of FEP molecules and evaporation at notably elevated temperatures on the surface. Analysis based on attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of C=C bonds as well as –COOH, –C=O, and –OH bonds on all irradiated samples. Their concentration on the surface densely covered with micro-protrusions was higher than that on the surface with sparse protrusions after irradiation at energies exceeding 350 keV. Thus, we determined a suitable range for the ion energy for creating FEP surfaces densely covered with protrusions.

  8. Guidance signalling regulates leading edge behaviour during collective cell migration of cardiac cells in Drosophila. (United States)

    Raza, Qanber; Jacobs, J Roger


    Collective cell migration is the coordinated movement of cells, which organize tissues during morphogenesis, repair and some cancers. The motile cell membrane of the advancing front in collective cell migration is termed the Leading Edge. The embryonic development of the vertebrate and Drosophila hearts are both characterized by the coordinated medial migration of a bilateral cluster of mesodermal cells. In Drosophila, the cardioblasts form cohesive bilateral rows that migrate collectively as a unit towards the dorsal midline to form the dorsal vessel. We have characterized the collective cell migration of cardioblasts as an in vivo quantitative model to study the behaviour of the Leading Edge. We investigated whether guidance signalling through Slit and Netrin pathways plays a role in cell migration during heart development. Through time-lapse imaging and quantitative assessment of migratory behaviour of the cardioblasts in loss-of-function mutants, we demonstrate that both Slit and Netrin mediated signals are autonomously and concomitantly required to maximize migration velocity, filopodial and lamellipodial activities. Additionally, we show that another Slit and Netrin receptor, Dscam1, the role of which during heart development was previously unknown, is required for both normal migration of cardioblasts and luminal expansion. Leading edge behaviour analysis revealed a dosage dependent genetic interaction between Slit and Netrin receptors suggesting that downstream signalling through these receptors converge on a common output that increases leading edge activity of the cardioblasts. Finally, we found that guidance signalling maintains the balance between epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics of the migrating cardioblasts.

  9. EDL configuration on a dissimilarly charged protrusion array via double Fourier series and perturbation method. (United States)

    Lin, Sung-Hwa; Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Tseng, Shiojenn; Kuo, Yung-Chih; Liu, Bo-Tau


    In this study, through the extension of an one-dimensional, dissimilarly charged protrusions surface model set up in our previous work, a novel dissimilarly charged protrusion array (DCPA) model immersed in an electrolyte solution, which could simulate realistically both the surface morphology and the surface charged condition profoundly concerned on a biological cell membrane, or on the surface of a micro-scale, modified particle used in biomedical engineering and water treatment, is proposed. Considering the condition of small protrusions, the electrical potential field due to the electrical double layer (EDL) on DCPA model is solved semi-analytically using both the double Fourier series and the perturbation method. The analysis from the numerical result reveals that, a small, dissimilarly charged protrusion can lead to a steep variation in the local EDL configuration, especially compared with that in the condition when the charged surface is taken roughly as a flat surface using a lumped, mean surface charge density.

  10. Edge coating apparatus with movable roller applicator for solar cell substrates (United States)

    Pavani, Luca; Abas, Emmanuel


    A non-contact edge coating apparatus includes an applicator for applying a coating material on an edge of a solar cell substrate and a control system configured to drive the applicator. The control system may drive the applicator along an axis to maintain a distance with an edge of the substrate as the substrate is rotated to have the edge coated with a coating material. The applicator may include a recessed portion into which the edge of the substrate is received for edge coating. For example, the applicator may be a roller with a groove. Coating material may be introduced into the groove for application onto the edge of the substrate. A variety of coating materials may be employed with the apparatus including hot melt ink and UV curable plating resist.

  11. The Edges of Pancreatic Islet β Cells Constitute Adhesive and Signaling Microdomains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erez Geron


    Full Text Available Pancreatic islet β cells are organized in rosette-like structures around blood vessels and exhibit an artery-to-vein orientation, but they do not display the typical epithelial polarity. It is unclear whether these cells present a functional asymmetry related to their spatial organization. Here, we identify murine β cell edges, the sites at which adjacent cell faces meet at a sharp angle, as surface microdomains of cell-cell adhesion and signaling. The edges are marked by enrichment of F-actin and E-cadherin and are aligned between neighboring cells. The edge organization is E-cadherin contact dependent and correlates with insulin secretion capacity. Edges display elevated levels of glucose transporters and SNAP25 and extend numerous F-actin-rich filopodia. A similar β cell edge organization was observed in human islets. When stimulated, β cell edges exhibit high calcium levels. In view of the functional importance of intra-islet communication, the spatial architecture of their edges may prove fundamental for coordinating physiological insulin secretion.

  12. Hypotonicity causes actin reorganization and recruitment of the actin-binding ERM protein moesin in membrane protrusions in collecting duct principal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamma, G.; Procino, G.; Svelto, M.; Valenti, G.


    Hypotonicity-induced cell swelling is characterized by a modification in cell architecture associated with actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family proteins are important signal transducers during actin reorganization regulated by the monomeric G proteins of the Rho famil

  13. Transanal protrusion of intussusceptions in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezomike Uchechukwu Obiora


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the following study is to report our management experience and outcome of transanal protrusion of intussusceptions. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all cases of intussusceptions protruding through the anal opening from January 2008 to June 2013. Results: Of 62 cases of intussusceptions, transanal protrusion occurred in 10 patients (16% anal protrusion rate with a male:female ratio of 2:3. They were aged 4-96 months (mean 22.6 ± 30.7, median 7.5 months. Six were infants while four were above 1 year. Duration of symptoms ranged from 2 to 14 days (mean 5.9 days ± 3.4 with only two patients presenting within 48 h. Clinical features included vomiting (100%, abdominal pains (100%, bloody mucoid stool (100%, abdominal distension (90%, and palpable left iliac fossa mass (70%. Three patients had preceding diarrhoea (30% and two had preceding upper respiratory tract infection (20%. Duration of hospital stay ranged from 5 to 23 days (mean 12 days ± 5.6. Findings at surgery included seven ileocolic and two colocolic intussusceptions (one patient died before surgery. Operative procedures were right hemicolectomy (5, operative manual reduction (3, left hemicolectomy (1 giving a 67% bowel resection rate. One patient died giving a 10% mortality rate. Conclusion: Transanal protrusion occurred more in females and is associated with late presentation, older age, high bowel resection rate, and high mortality.

  14. Cell division and subsequent radicle protrusion in tomato seeds are inhibited by osmotic stress but DNA synthesis and formation of microtubular cytoskeleton are not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, de R.D.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Bino, R.J.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.


    We studied cell cycle events in embryos of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Moneymaker) seeds during imbibition in water and during osmoconditioning ("priming") using both quantitative and cytological analysis of DNA synthesis and -tubulin accumulation. Most embryonic nuclei of dry, untreate

  15. Self-organization of waves and pulse trains by molecular motors in cellular protrusions. (United States)

    Yochelis, A; Ebrahim, S; Millis, B; Cui, R; Kachar, B; Naoz, M; Gov, N S


    Actin-based cellular protrusions are an ubiquitous feature of cells, performing a variety of critical functions ranging from cell-cell communication to cell motility. The formation and maintenance of these protrusions relies on the transport of proteins via myosin motors, to the protrusion tip. While tip-directed motion leads to accumulation of motors (and their molecular cargo) at the protrusion tip, it is observed that motors also form rearward moving, periodic and isolated aggregates. The origins and mechanisms of these aggregates, and whether they are important for the recycling of motors, remain open puzzles. Motivated by novel myosin-XV experiments, a mass conserving reaction-diffusion-advection model is proposed. The model incorporates a non-linear cooperative interaction between motors, which converts them between an active and an inactive state. Specifically, the type of aggregate formed (traveling waves or pulse-trains) is linked to the kinetics of motors at the protrusion tip which is introduced by a boundary condition. These pattern selection mechanisms are found not only to qualitatively agree with empirical observations but open new vistas to the transport phenomena by molecular motors in general.

  16. Cell edges accumulate gamma tubulin complex components and nucleate microtubules following cytokinesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Ambrose

    Full Text Available Microtubules emanate from distinct organizing centers in fungal and animal cells. In plant cells, by contrast, microtubules initiate from dispersed sites in the cell cortex, where they then self-organize into parallel arrays. Previous ultrastructural evidence suggested that cell edges participate in microtubule nucleation but so far there has been no direct evidence for this. Here we use live imaging to show that components of the gamma tubulin nucleation complex (GCP2 and GCP3 localize at distinct sites along the outer periclinal edge of newly formed crosswalls, and that microtubules grow predominantly away from these edges. These data confirm a role for cell edges in microtubule nucleation, and suggest that an asymmetric distribution of microtubule nucleation factors contributes to cortical microtubule organization in plants, in a manner more similar to other kingdoms than previously thought.

  17. A Transmit Beamforming and Nulling Approach with Distributed Scheduling to Improve Cell Edge Throughput

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy C. Wong


    Full Text Available We propose a transmit scheme for WiMAX systems, where multiple base stations (BSs employ downlink transmit beamforming and nulling for interference mitigation, with minimal coordination amongst BSs. This scheme improves system throughput and robustness, by increasing cell edge and overall cell throughputs by 68% and 19%, respectively, and by delivering improvement for mobile speed up to 60 km/h. First, cell edge users suffering from severe interferences are identified. Next, the RRM unit allocates resource to serving cell edge users only. BSs will schedule to serve their cell edge users independently using the allocated resources by the RRM. A special uplink sounding region is designed for BSs to learn the interference environment and form proper beams and nulls. The nulls formed towards users served by other BSs reduced interference from a BS towards these users and is the basic building block of our algorithm.

  18. FMNL2 drives actin-based protrusion and migration downstream of Cdc42

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Block, Jennifer; Breitsprecher, Dennis; Kühn, Sonja;


    Cell migration entails protrusion of lamellipodia, densely packed networks of actin filaments at the cell front. Filaments are generated by nucleation, likely mediated by Arp2/3 complex and its activator Scar/WAVE. It is unclear whether formins contribute to lamellipodial actin filament nucleation...... ends generated by Arp2/3-mediated branching are captured and efficiently elongated by the formin. Consistent with these biochemical properties, RNAi-mediated silencing of FMNL2 expression decreases the rate of lamellipodia protrusion and, accordingly, the efficiency of cell migration. Our data...

  19. A simple technique for reducing edge effect in cell-based assays. (United States)

    Lundholt, Betina Kerstin; Scudder, Kurt M; Pagliaro, Len


    Several factors are known to increase the noise and variability of cell-based assays used for high-throughput screening. In particular, edge effects can result in an unacceptably high plate rejection rate in screening runs. In an effort to minimize these variations, the authors analyzed a number of factors that could contribute to edge effects in cell-based assays. They found that pre-incubation of newly seeded plates in ambient conditions (air at room temperature) resulted in even distribution of the cells in each well. In contrast, when newly seeded plates were placed directly in the CO(2) incubator, an uneven distribution of cells occurred in wells around the plate periphery, resulting in increased edge effect. Here, the authors show that the simple, inexpensive approach of incubating newly seeded plates at room temperature before placing them in a 37 degrees C CO(2) incubator yields a significant reduction in edge effect.

  20. Lipid protrusions membrane softness, and enzymatic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Høyrup, P.; Callisen, T.H.;


    The activity of phospholipase A(2) on lipid bilayers displays a characteristic lag burst behavior that has previously been shown to reflect the physical properties of the substrate. It has remained unclear which underlying molecular mechanism is responsible for this phenomenon. We propose here...... that protrusions of single lipid molecules out of the bilayer plane could provide such a mechanism. The proposal is supported by a combination of atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations, theory, and experiments that have been performed in order to investigate the relationship between on the one side lipid...... protrusion modes and mechanical softness of phospholipid bilayers and on the other side the activity of enzymes acting on lipid bilayers composed of different unsaturated lipids. Specifically, our experiments show a correlation between the bilayer bending rigidity and the apparent Arrhenius activation energy...

  1. Investigating cytoskeletal function in chloroplast protrusion formation in the arctic-alpine plant Oxyria digyna. (United States)

    Holzinger, A; Wasteneys, G O; Lütz, C


    Arctic and alpine plants like Oxyria digyna have to face enhanced environmental stress. This study compared leaves from Oxyria digyna collected in the Arctic at Svalbard (78 degrees N) and in the Austrian Alps (47 degrees N) at cellular, subcellular, and ultrastructural levels. Oxyria digyna plants collected in Svalbard had significantly thicker leaves than the samples collected in the Austrian Alps. This difference was generated by increased thickness of the palisade and spongy mesophyll layers in the arctic plants, while epidermal cells had no significant size differences between the two habitats. A characteristic feature of arctic, alpine, and cultivated samples was the occurrence of broad stroma-filled chloroplast protrusions, 2 - 5 microm broad and up to 5 microm long. Chloroplast protrusions were in close spatial contact with other organelles including mitochondria and microbodies. Mitochondria were also present in invaginations of the chloroplasts. A dense network of cortical microtubules found in the mesophyll cells suggested a potential role for microtubules in the formation and function of chloroplast protrusions. No direct interactions between microtubules and chloroplasts, however, were observed and disruption of the microtubule arrays with the anti-microtubule agent oryzalin at 5 - 10 microM did not alter the appearance or dynamics of chloroplast protrusions. These observations suggest that, in contrast to studies on stromule formation in Nicotiana, microtubules are not involved in the formation and morphology of chloroplast protrusions in Oxyria digyna. The actin microfilament-disrupting drug latrunculin B (5 - 10 microM for 2 h) arrested cytoplasmic streaming and altered the cytoplasmic integrity of mesophyll cells. However, at the ultrastructural level, stroma-containing, thylakoid-free areas were still visible, mostly at the concave sides of the chloroplasts. As chloroplast protrusions were frequently found to be mitochondria-associated in Oxyria

  2. Unique Asymmetric Protrusion of Nerve Cord in the Amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri (United States)

    Nozaki, Masumi; Terakado, Kiyoshi; Kubokawa, Kaoru

    The amphioxus is the only surviving prevertebrate segmented chordate. In this animal Hatschek's pit has long been regarded as a putative homologue of the adenohypophysis because of the presence of secretory granules and immunoreactive cells to vertebrate gonadotrophic hormone in this organ. We found that the nerve cord extends a protrusion to the pit along the right side of the notochord. Furthermore, secretory granules were found not only in the pit but also in the protrusion of the nerve cord. These results suggest that Hatschek's pit and the nerve protrusion are homologous to the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis, respectively. We believe that this is an evidence for the presence of the neuroendocrine link between the central nervous system and Hatschek's pit in the amphioxus.

  3. Prominin-2 expression increases protrusions, decreases caveolae and inhibits Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Raman Deep, E-mail:; Schroeder, Andreas S.; Scheffer, Luana; Holicky, Eileen L.; Wheatley, Christine L.; Marks, David L., E-mail:; Pagano, Richard E.


    Highlights: •Prominin-2 expression induced protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. •Prominin-2 expression decreased caveolae, caveolar endocytosis and increased pCav1. •Prominin-2 expression inhibited fluid phase endocytosis by inactivation of Cdc42. •These endocytic effects can be reversed by adding exogenous cholesterol. •Caveolin1 knockdown restored fluid phase endocytosis in Prominin2 expressing cells. -- Abstract: Background: Membrane protrusions play important roles in biological processes such as cell adhesion, wound healing, migration, and sensing of the external environment. Cell protrusions are a subtype of membrane microdomains composed of cholesterol and sphingolipids, and can be disrupted by cholesterol depletion. Prominins are pentaspan membrane proteins that bind cholesterol and localize to plasma membrane (PM) protrusions. Prominin-1 is of great interest as a marker for stem and cancer cells, while Prominin-2 (Prom2) is reportedly restricted to epithelial cells. Aim: To characterize the effects of Prom-2 expression on PM microdomain organization. Methods: Prom2-fluorescent protein was transfected in human skin fibroblasts (HSF) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for PM raft and endocytic studies. Caveolae at PM were visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Cdc42 activation was measured and caveolin-1 knockdown was performed using siRNAs. Results: Prom2 expression in HSF and CHO cells caused extensive Prom2-positive protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. Prom2 expression significantly decreased caveolae at the PM, reduced caveolar endocytosis and increased caveolin-1 phosphorylation. Prom2 expression also inhibited Cdc42-dependent fluid phase endocytosis via decreased Cdc42 activation. Effects on endocytosis were reversed by addition of cholesterol. Knockdown of caveolin-1 by siRNA restored Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis in Prom2-expressing cells. Conclusions: Prom2 protrusions primarily

  4. Edge sealing for low cost stability enhancement of roll-to-roll processed flexible polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanenbaum, David M.; Dam, Henrik Friis; Rösch, R.


    edges. The edge sealing rim was 10 mm wide. Cell modules were characterized by periodic measurements of IV curves over extended periods in a variety of conditions, as well as by a variety of spatial imaging techniques. Data show significant stability benefits of the edge sealing process. The results...

  5. [Effects of articulating paper on mandibular paths in lateral and protrusive excursions]. (United States)

    Mori, T; Kawaguchi, T; Katto, K; Kano, N; Takeuchi, K; Tanaka, K; Usami, H; Naka, Y; Asakura, Y


    Mandibular movements in 7 normal dentulous subjects during lateral and protrusive excursions were studied to investigate the effects of the clinical use of articulating paper on mandibular paths. Mandibular movements with or without the intraoral articulating paper (thickness: 35 microns) were detected as the lower incisal point displacement and were recorded three-dimensionally with the Selspot system. The date displayed on the X-Y chart recorder on the selected plane were analyzed quantitatively. 1. The paths of the mandible differed between the outward (from the intercuspal position) and the return (backward to the intercuspal position) movements. In lateral excursions the return path tended to be antero-inferior to the outward path, whereas in protrusive excursions the former tended to be dextro-inferior to the latter. 2. In lateral excursions the return path tended to be less stable than the outward path. In protrusive excursions no significant difference was found between the two paths. 3. In lateral excursions, 21-34% of the movements performed using the articulating paper deviated from the normal paths made without using the paper, and in the case of protrusive excursions, deviation was found in 21-50%. At or near the intercuspal position, the return path showed a greater deviation than the outward path. Near the edge-to-edge position, however, the relationship between these two path was reversed. 4. It is suggested that, when the articulating paper is used, the directions of the movement should be taken into account and sufficient care should be paid in occlusal adjustment because the range of functional movement may be overestimated.

  6. Theoretical model for cellular shapes driven by protrusive and adhesive forces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Kabaso


    Full Text Available The forces that arise from the actin cytoskeleton play a crucial role in determining the cell shape. These include protrusive forces due to actin polymerization and adhesion to the external matrix. We present here a theoretical model for the cellular shapes resulting from the feedback between the membrane shape and the forces acting on the membrane, mediated by curvature-sensitive membrane complexes of a convex shape. In previous theoretical studies we have investigated the regimes of linear instability where spontaneous formation of cellular protrusions is initiated. Here we calculate the evolution of a two dimensional cell contour beyond the linear regime and determine the final steady-state shapes arising within the model. We find that shapes driven by adhesion or by actin polymerization (lamellipodia have very different morphologies, as observed in cells. Furthermore, we find that as the strength of the protrusive forces diminish, the system approaches a stabilization of a periodic pattern of protrusions. This result can provide an explanation for a number of puzzling experimental observations regarding cellular shape dependence on the properties of the extra-cellular matrix.

  7. Cellular blebs: pressure-driven, axisymmetric, membrane protrusions

    KAUST Repository

    Woolley, Thomas E.


    Blebs are cellular protrusions that are used by cells for multiple purposes including locomotion. A mechanical model for the problem of pressure-driven blebs based on force and moment balances of an axisymmetric shell model is proposed. The formation of a bleb is initiated by weakening the shell over a small region, and the deformation of the cellular membrane from the cortex is obtained during inflation. However, simply weakening the shell leads to an area increase of more than 4 %, which is physically unrealistic. Thus, the model is extended to include a reconfiguration process that allows large blebs to form with small increases in area. It is observed that both geometric and biomechanical constraints are important in this process. In particular, it is shown that although blebs are driven by a pressure difference across the cellular membrane, it is not the limiting factor in determining bleb size. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. Infantile Perineal Protrusion in Two Monochorionic Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cavicchioli


    Full Text Available Case Report - Two female monochorionic-monoamniotic twins showed the same kind of infantile perineal protrusion (IPP at birth. Lesions in both twins progressively healed until resolution in 6 weeks' time; none of the twins have manifested, till date, alvus disturbances. Discussion and Literature Review - A literature review numbers approximately 100 reports of IPP. This condition has been classically classified into three categories: congenital/familiar (i.e., female sex, positive parental history of IPP, acquired (mainly due to constipation, and associated with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Conclusions and Final Remarks - This case report describes, for the first time, the presence of IPP in monochorionic-monoamniotic twins, supporting the existence of hereditary/genetic factors in the developing of this condition.

  9. Preferential control of basal dendritic protrusions by EphB2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Kayser

    Full Text Available The flow of information between neurons in many neural circuits is controlled by a highly specialized site of cell-cell contact known as a synapse. A number of molecules have been identified that are involved in central nervous system synapse development, but knowledge is limited regarding whether these cues direct organization of specific synapse types or on particular regions of individual neurons. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and the majority of glutamatergic synapses occur on mushroom-shaped protrusions called dendritic spines. Changes in the morphology of these structures are associated with long-lasting modulation of synaptic strength thought to underlie learning and memory, and can be abnormal in neuropsychiatric disease. Here, we use rat cortical slice cultures to examine how a previously-described synaptogenic molecule, the EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase, regulates dendritic protrusion morphology in specific regions of the dendritic arbor in cortical pyramidal neurons. We find that alterations in EphB2 signaling can bidirectionally control protrusion length, and knockdown of EphB2 expression levels reduces the number of dendritic spines and filopodia. Expression of wild-type or dominant negative EphB2 reveals that EphB2 preferentially regulates dendritic protrusion structure in basal dendrites. Our findings suggest that EphB2 may act to specify synapse formation in a particular subcellular region of cortical pyramidal neurons.

  10. Spectral and energy efficiency analysis of uplink heterogeneous networks with small-cells on edge

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad Zeeshan


    This paper presents a tractable mathematical framework to analyze the spectral and energy efficiency of an operator initiated deployment of the small-cells (e.g., femtocells) where the small-cell base stations are deliberately positioned around the edge of the macrocell. The considered deployment facilitates the cell-edge mobile users in terms of their coverage, spectral, and energy efficiency and is referred to as cell-on-edge (COE) configuration. The reduction in energy consumption is achieved by considering fast power control where the mobile users transmit with adaptive power to compensate the path loss, shadowing and fading. In particular, we develop a moment generating function (MGF) based approach to derive analytical bounds on the area spectral efficiency and exact expressions for the energy efficiency of the mobile users in the considered COE configuration over generalized-K fading channels. Besides the COE configuration, the derived bounds are also shown to be useful in evaluating the performance of random small-cell deployments, e.g., uniformly distributed small-cells. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the improvements in spectral and energy efficiency of the COE configuration with respect to macro-only networks and other unplanned deployment strategies. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Iron speciation in human cancer cells by K-edge total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polgari, Zs. [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Institute of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, P.O. Box 32, H-1518, Budapest (Hungary); Meirer, F. [Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); MiNALab, CMM-irst, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Sasamori, S.; Ingerle, D. [Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Pepponi, G. [MiNALab, CMM-irst, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Streli, C. [Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Rickers, K. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Reti, A.; Budai, B. [Department of Clinical Research, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Szoboszlai, N. [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Institute of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, P.O. Box 32, H-1518, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, G., E-mail: [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Institute of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, P.O. Box 32, H-1518, Budapest (Hungary)


    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis in combination with synchrotron radiation induced total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) acquisition was used to determine the oxidation state of Fe in human cancer cells and simultaneously their elemental composition by applying a simple sample preparation procedure consisting of pipetting the cell suspension onto the quartz reflectors. XANES spectra of several inorganic and organic iron compounds were recorded and compared to that of different cell lines. The XANES spectra of cells, independently from the phase of cell growth and cell type were very similar to that of ferritin, the main Fe store within the cell. The spectra obtained after CoCl{sub 2} or NiCl{sub 2} treatment, which could mimic a hypoxic state of cells, did not differ noticeably from that of the ferritin standard. After 5-fluorouracil administration, which could also induce an oxidative-stress in cells, the absorption edge position was shifted toward higher energies representing a higher oxidation state of Fe. Intense treatment with antimycin A, which inhibits electron transfer in the respiratory chain, resulted in minor changes in the spectrum, resembling rather the N-donor Fe-{alpha},{alpha}'-dipyridyl complex at the oxidation energy of Fe(III), than ferritin. The incorporation of Co and Ni in the cells was followed by SR-TXRF measurements.

  12. A protrusion can "eclipse" looping of a long self-avoiding chain

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, Yaroslav; Amit, Roee


    We simulate long self-avoiding chains using a weighted-biased sampling Monte-Carlo algorithm, and compute the probabilities for chain looping with and without a protrusion. We find that a protrusion near one of the chain's termini reduces the probability of looping, even for chains much longer than the protrusion-chain-terminus distance. This effect increases with protrusion size, and decreases with protrusion-terminus distance. We model the simulated results theoretically by considering how the protrusion "eclipses" the chain terminus closer to the protrusion from the more distant chain terminus. This eclipse mechanism has implications for understanding the regulatory role of proteins bound to DNA.

  13. Electron transport in edge-disordered graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saloriutta, Karri; Hancock, Y.; Karkkainen, Asta


    Ab initio methods are used to study the spin-resolved transport properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) that have both chemical and structural edge disorder. Oxygen edge adsorbates on ideal and protruded ribbons are chosen as representative examples, with the protrusions forming the smallest po...

  14. Enhanced Cell-Edge Performance with Transmit Power-Shaping and Multipoint, Multiflow Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip Pietrask; Gregg Charltonl; Rui Yang,; Carl Wang


    In this paper, we present a technique called "fuzzy cells" that builds on the multicarrier features of Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) and high-speed packet access (HSPA). Multiple carriers are aggregated to create a larger system bandwidth, and these carriers are transmitted at different powers by each sector antenna. This creates a set of cell-edge locations that differ from one frequency to the next. System-level simulations are performed to estimate individual user and average throughput for a hexagonal deployment of 3-sector base stations. For moderately high loads, a fuzzy cell deployment can improve tenth percentile (cell-edge) user throughput by 100% and can improve average throughput by about 30% compared with a reuse 1 scheme. Fuzzy ceils reduce inter-cell interference in the same way as higher-order reuse schemes and allow users to access the full system bandwidth.

  15. Edg8/S1P5: an oligodendroglial receptor with dual function on process retraction and cell survival. (United States)

    Jaillard, C; Harrison, S; Stankoff, B; Aigrot, M S; Calver, A R; Duddy, G; Walsh, F S; Pangalos, M N; Arimura, N; Kaibuchi, K; Zalc, B; Lubetzki, C


    Endothelial differentiation gene (Edg) proteins are G-protein-coupled receptors activated by lysophospholipid mediators: sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) or lysophosphatidic acid. We show that in the CNS, expression of Edg8/S1P5, a high-affinity S1P receptor, is restricted to oligodendrocytes and expressed throughout development from the immature stages to the mature myelin-forming cell. S1P activation of Edg8/S1P5 on O4-positive pre-oligodendrocytes induced process retraction via a Rho kinase/collapsin response-mediated protein signaling pathway, whereas no retraction was elicited by S1P on these cells derived from Edg8/S1P5-deficient mice. Edg8/S1P5-mediated process retraction was restricted to immature cells and was no longer observed at later developmental stages. In contrast, S1P activation promoted the survival of mature oligodendrocytes but not of pre-oligodendrocytes. The S1P-induced survival of mature oligodendrocytes was mediated through a pertussis toxin-sensitive, Akt-dependent pathway. Our data demonstrate that Edg8/S1P5 activation on oligodendroglial cells modulates two distinct functional pathways mediating either process retraction or cell survival and that these effects depend on the developmental stage of the cell.

  16. Traffic jams and shocks of molecular motors inside cellular protrusions. (United States)

    Pinkoviezky, I; Gov, N S


    Molecular motors are involved in key transport processes inside actin-based cellular protrusions. The motors carry cargo proteins to the protrusion tip which participate in regulating the actin polymerization and play a key role in facilitating the growth and formation of such protrusions. It is observed that the motors accumulate at the tips of cellular protrusions and form aggregates that are found to drift towards the protrusion base at the rate of actin treadmilling. We present a one-dimensional driven lattice model, where motors become inactive after delivering their cargo at the tip, or by loosing their cargo to a cargoless neighbor. The results suggest that the experimental observations may be explained by the formation of traffic jams that form at the tip. The model is solved using a novel application of mean-field and shock analysis. We find a new class of shocks that undergo intermittent collapses. Extensions with attachment and detachment events and relevance to experiments are briefly described.

  17. A delta-catenin signaling pathway leading to dendritic protrusions. (United States)

    Abu-Elneel, Kawther; Ochiishi, Tomoyo; Medina, Miguel; Remedi, Monica; Gastaldi, Laura; Caceres, Alfredo; Kosik, Kenneth S


    Delta-catenin is a synaptic adherens junction protein pivotally positioned to serve as a signaling sensor and integrator. Expression of delta-catenin induces filopodia-like protrusions in neurons. Here we show that the small GTPases of the Rho family act coordinately as downstream effectors of delta-catenin. A dominant negative Rac prevented delta-catenin-induced protrusions, and Cdc42 activity was dramatically increased by delta-catenin expression. A kinase dead LIMK (LIM kinase) and a mutant Cofilin also prevented delta-catenin-induced protrusions. To link the effects of delta-catenin to a physiological pathway, we noted that (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors induced dendritic protrusions that are very similar to those induced by delta-catenin. Furthermore, delta-catenin RNA-mediated interference can block the induction of dendritic protrusions by DHPG. Interestingly, DHPG dissociated PSD-95 and N-cadherin from the delta-catenin complex, increased the association of delta-catenin with Cortactin, and induced the phosphorylation of delta-catenin within the sites that bind to these protein partners.

  18. Traffic Jams and Shocks of Molecular Motors inside Cellular Protrusions

    CERN Document Server

    Pinkoviezky, Itai


    Molecular motors are involved in key transport processes inside actin-based cellular protrusions. The motors carry cargo proteins to the protrusion tip which participate in regulating the actin polymerization, and play a key role in facilitating the growth and formation of such protrusions. It is observed that the motors accumulate at the tips of cellular protrusions, and in addition form aggregates that are found to drift towards the protrusion base at the rate of actin treadmilling. We present a one-dimensional driven lattice model, where motors become inactive after delivering their cargo at the tip, or by loosing their cargo to a cargo-less neighbor. The results suggest that the experimental observations may be explained by the formation of traffic jams that form at the tip. The model is solved using a novel application of mean-field and shock analysis. We find a new class of shocks that undergo intermittent collapses, and on average do not obey the Rankine-Hugoniot relation.

  19. Biomechanics of epithelial cell islands analyzed by modeling and experimentation

    CERN Document Server

    Coburn, Luke; Noppe, Adrian; Caldwell, Benjamin J; Moussa, Elliott; Yap, Chloe; Priya, Rashmi; Lobaskin, Vladimir; Roberts, Anthony P; Yap, Alpha S; Neufeld, Zoltan; Gomez, Guillermo A


    We generated a new computational approach to analyze the biomechanics of epithelial cell islands that combines both vertex and contact-inhibition-of-locomotion models to include both cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. Examination of the distribution of cell protrusions (adhesion to the substrate) in the model predicted high order profiles of cell organization that agree with those previously seen experimentally. Cells acquired an asymmetric distribution of protrusions (and traction forces) that decreased when moving from the edge to the island center. Our in silico analysis also showed that tension on cell-cell junctions (and monolayer stress) is not homogeneous across the island. Instead it is higher at the island center and scales up with island size, which we confirmed experimentally using laser ablation assays and immunofluorescence. Moreover, our approach has the minimal elements necessary to reproduce mechanical crosstalk between both cell-cell and cell substrate adhesion systems. We found that an i...

  20. Formation of Combined Surface Features of Protrusion Array and Wrinkles atop Shape-Memory Polymer (United States)

    Sun, L.; Zhao, Y.; Huang, W. M.; Tong, T. H.

    We demonstrate a simple and cost-effective approach to realize two combined surface features of different scales together, namely submillimeter-sized protrusion array and microwrinkles, atop a polystyrene shape-memory polymer. Two different types of protrusions, namely flat-top protrusion and crown-shaped protrusion, were studied. The array of protrusions was produced by the Indentation-Polishing-Heating (IPH) process. Compactly packed steel balls were used for making array of indents. A thin gold layer was sputter deposited atop the polymer surface right after polishing. After heating for shape recovery, array of protrusions with wrinkles on the top due to the buckling of gold layer was produced.

  1. Edge restenosis: impact of low dose irradiation on cell proliferation and ICAM-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannekum Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low dose irradiation (LDI of uninjured segments is the consequence of the suggestion of many authors to extend the irradiation area in vascular brachytherapy to minimize the edge effect. Atherosclerosis is a general disease and the uninjured segment close to the intervention area is often atherosclerotic as well, consisting of neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMC and quiescent monocytes (MC. The current study imitates this complex situation in vitro and investigates the effect of LDI on proliferation of SMC and expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in MC. Methods Plaque tissue from advanced primary stenosing lesions of human coronary arteries (9 patients, age: 61 ± 7 years was extracted by local or extensive thrombendarterectomy. SMC were isolated and identified by positive reaction with smooth muscle α-actin. MC were isolated from buffy coat leukocytes using the MACS cell isolation kit. For identification of MC flow-cytometry analysis of FITC-conjugated CD68 and CD14 (FACScan was applied. SMC and MC were irradiated using megavoltage photon irradiation (CLINAC2300 C/D, VARIAN, USA of 6 mV at a focus-surface distance of 100 cm and a dose rate of 6 Gy min-1 with single doses of 1 Gy, 4 Gy, and 10 Gy. The effect on proliferation of SMC was analysed at day 10, 15, and 20. Secondly, total RNA of MC was isolated 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, and 4 h after irradiation and 5 μg of RNA was used in standard Northern blot analysis with ICAM-1 cDNA-probes. Results Both inhibitory and stimulatory effects were detected after irradiation of SMC with a dose of 1 Gy. At day 10 and 15 a significant antiproliferative effect was found; at day 20 after irradiation cell proliferation was significantly stimulated. Irradiation with 4 Gy and 10 Gy caused dose dependent inhibitory effects at day 10, 15, and 20. Expression of ICAM-1 in human MC was neihter inhibited nor stimulated by LDI. Conclusion Thus, the stimulatory effect of LDI on SMC

  2. Cutting Edge: Innate Lymphoid Cells Suppress Homeostatic T Cell Expansion in Neonatal Mice. (United States)

    Bank, Ute; Deiser, Katrin; Finke, Daniela; Hämmerling, Günter J; Arnold, Bernd; Schüler, Thomas


    In adult mice, lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP) leads to T cell activation, memory differentiation, tissue destruction, and a loss of TCR diversity. Neonatal mice are lymphopenic within the first week of life. This enables some recent thymic emigrants to undergo LIP and convert into long-lived memory T cells. Surprisingly, however, most neonatal T cells do not undergo LIP. We therefore asked whether neonate-specific mechanisms prevent lymphopenia-driven T cell activation. In this study, we show that IL-7R-dependent innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) block LIP of CD8(+) T cells in neonatal but not adult mice. Importantly, CD8(+) T cell responses against a foreign Ag are not inhibited by neonatal ILCs. This ILC-based inhibition of LIP ensures the generation of a diverse naive T cell pool in lymphopenic neonates that is mandatory for the maintenance of T cell homeostasis and immunological self-tolerance later in life.

  3. Two-way cooperative AF relaying in spectrum-sharing systems: Enhancing cell-edge performance

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua


    In this contribution, two-way cooperative amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying technique is integrated into spectrumsharing wireless systems to improve spectral efficiency of secondary users (SUs). In order to share the available spectrum resources originally dedicated to primary users (PUs), the transmit power of a SU is optimized with respect to the average tolerable interference power at primary receivers. By analyzing outage probability and achievable data rate at the base station and at a cell-edge SU, our results reveal that the uplink performance is dominated by the average tolerable interference power at primary receivers, while the downlink always behaves like conventional one-way AF relaying and its performance is dominated by the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These important findings provide fresh perspectives for system designers to improve spectral efficiency of secondary users in next-generation broadband spectrum-sharing wireless systems. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Clostridium difficile toxin CDT induces formation of microtubule-based protrusions and increases adherence of bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Schwan


    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis by production of the Rho GTPase-glucosylating toxins A and B. Recently emerging hypervirulent Clostridium difficile strains additionally produce the binary ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase, which ADP-ribosylates actin and inhibits actin polymerization. Thus far, the role of CDT as a virulence factor is not understood. Here we report by using time-lapse- and immunofluorescence microscopy that CDT and other binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins, including Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin and Clostridium perfringens iota toxin, induce redistribution of microtubules and formation of long (up to >150 microm microtubule-based protrusions at the surface of intestinal epithelial cells. The toxins increase the length of decoration of microtubule plus-ends by EB1/3, CLIP-170 and CLIP-115 proteins and cause redistribution of the capture proteins CLASP2 and ACF7 from microtubules at the cell cortex into the cell interior. The CDT-induced microtubule protrusions form a dense meshwork at the cell surface, which wrap and embed bacterial cells, thereby largely increasing the adherence of Clostridia. The study describes a novel type of microtubule structure caused by less efficient microtubule capture and offers a new perspective for the pathogenetic role of CDT and other binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins in host-pathogen interactions.

  5. PI(4,5)P2-dependent microdomain assemblies capture microtubules to promote and control leading edge motility. (United States)

    Golub, Tamara; Caroni, Pico


    The lipid second messenger PI(4,5)P(2) modulates actin dynamics, and its local accumulation at plasmalemmal microdomains (rafts) might mediate regulation of protrusive motility. However, how PI(4,5)P(2)-rich rafts regulate surface motility is not well understood. Here, we show that upon signals promoting cell surface motility, PI(4,5)P(2) directs the assembly of dynamic raft-rich plasmalemmal patches, which promote and sustain protrusive motility. The accumulation of PI(4,5)P(2) at rafts, together with Cdc42, promotes patch assembly through N-WASP. The patches exhibit locally regulated PI(4,5)P(2) turnover and reduced diffusion-mediated exchange with their environment. Patches capture microtubules (MTs) through patch IQGAP1, to stabilize MTs at the leading edge. Captured MTs in turn deliver PKA to patches to promote patch clustering through further PI(4,5)P(2) accumulation in response to cAMP. Patch clustering restricts, spatially confines, and polarizes protrusive motility. Thus, PI(4,5)P(2)-dependent raft-rich patches enhance local signaling for motility, and their assembly into clusters is regulated through captured MTs and PKA, coupling local regulation of motility to cell polarity, and organization.

  6. High-Throughput Method for Automated Colony and Cell Counting by Digital Image Analysis Based on Edge Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Choudhry

    Full Text Available Counting cells and colonies is an integral part of high-throughput screens and quantitative cellular assays. Due to its subjective and time-intensive nature, manual counting has hindered the adoption of cellular assays such as tumor spheroid formation in high-throughput screens. The objective of this study was to develop an automated method for quick and reliable counting of cells and colonies from digital images. For this purpose, I developed an ImageJ macro Cell Colony Edge and a CellProfiler Pipeline Cell Colony Counting, and compared them to other open-source digital methods and manual counts. The ImageJ macro Cell Colony Edge is valuable in counting cells and colonies, and measuring their area, volume, morphology, and intensity. In this study, I demonstrate that Cell Colony Edge is superior to other open-source methods, in speed, accuracy and applicability to diverse cellular assays. It can fulfill the need to automate colony/cell counting in high-throughput screens, colony forming assays, and cellular assays.

  7. Stem cells, a two-edged sword: Risks and potentials of regenerative medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The recent advancements in stem cell (SC) biology have led to the concept of regenerative medicine, which is based on the potential of SC for therapies aimed to facilitate the repair of degenerating or injured tissues. Nonetheless, prior to large scale clinical appli- cations, critical aspects need to be further addressed, including the long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of SC-based treatments. Most problematic among the risks of SC-based therapies, in addition to the pos- sible rejection or loss of function of the infused cells, is their potential neoplastic transformation. Indeed, SCs may be used to cure devastating diseases, but their specific properties of self-renewal and clonogenicity may render them prone to generate cancers. In this respect, 'Stemness' might be seen as a two-edged sword, its bright side being represented by normal SCs, its dark side by cancer SCs. A better understand- ing of SC biology will help fulfill the promise of regen- erative medicine aimed at curing human pathologies and fighting cancer from its roots.

  8. Heating of Micro-protrusions in Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Keser, A C; Nusinovich, G S; Kashyn, D G; Jensen, K L


    The thermal and field emission of electrons from protrusions on metal surfaces is a possible limiting factor on the performance and operation of high-gradient room temperature accelerator structures. We present here the results of extensive numerical simulations of electrical and thermal behavior of protrusions. We unify the thermal and field emission in the same numerical framework, describe bounds for the emission current and geometric enhancement, then we calculate the Nottingham and Joule heating terms and solve the heat equation to characterize the thermal evolution of emitters under RF electric field. Our findings suggest that, heating is entirely due to the Nottingham effect, that thermal runaway scenarios are not likely, and that high RF frequency causes smaller swings in temperature and cooler tips. We build a phenomenological model to account for the effect of space charge and show that space charge eliminates the possibility of tip melting, although near melting temperatures reached.

  9. The epithelia of the protrusible tongue of Eurycea longicauda guttolineata (Hoolbrook 1838) (Urodela: Plethodontidae). (United States)

    Opolka, Alfred; Effing, Ute; Wistuba, Joachim; Clemen, Günter


    In this study the lingual and sublingual glands, the lingual stem and the epithelial surface of the protrusible secondary tongue were investigated by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The quality of the secretions of the epithelia was characterized histochemically. The lingual epithelium is formed by superficial (pavement) and goblet cells and at the margin of the tongue pad are also regions covered by ciliated cells. On the dorsal part of the tongue there are goblet cells of type A with mainly acidic secretions and of type B containing neutral secretions. Most of the goblet cells on the ventral side of the tongue (hypoglottis) show a strong alcian blue/PAS positive reaction (type I) and some produce neutral secretions (type II). The glandular cells of the lingual gland react positively to alcian blue and PAS in the apical region of the gland. In contrast there is only alcian blue-positive staining in the basal part of the gland. The size and complexity of the inclusion bodies of the secretory granules increase in a basal direction. In addition, there are ciliated cells in the glandular epithelium. Although the epithelium of the lingual stem is thin, it is double-layered. The cell types observed in this region are identical to those of the ventral part of the protrusible tongue. At the margin of the sublingual gland are trough-like structures. In the center, tubular parts are observed. The cells of this gland are stain strongly with alcian blue (pH 1.0) mainly in the basal part of the gland. The results of this are compared to the tongue pad and the lingual gland of Salamandra salamandra and Ambystoma mexicanum.

  10. Initial stem cell adhesion on porous silicon surface: molecular architecture of actin cytoskeleton and filopodial growth (United States)

    Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves; Panayotov, Ivan; Secret, Emilie; Cunin, Frédérique; Gergely, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frédéric; Martin, Marta


    The way cells explore their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) during development and migration is mediated by lamellipodia at their leading edge, acting as an actual motor pulling the cell forward. Lamellipodia are the primary area within the cell of actin microfilaments (filopodia) formation. In this work, we report on the use of porous silicon (pSi) scaffolds to mimic the ECM of mesenchymal stem cells from the dental pulp (DPSC) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Our atomic force microscopy (AFM), fluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that pSi promoted the appearance of lateral filopodia protruding from the DPSC cell body and not only in the lamellipodia area. The formation of elongated lateral actin filaments suggests that pores provided the necessary anchorage points for protrusion growth. Although MCF-7 cells displayed a lower presence of organized actin network on both pSi and nonporous silicon, pSi stimulated the formation of extended cell protrusions.

  11. Exclusion and Hierarchy of Time Scales Lead to Spatial Segregation of Molecular Motors in Cellular Protrusions (United States)

    Pinkoviezky, I.; Gov, N. S.


    Molecular motors that carry cargo along biopolymer filaments within cells play a crucial role in the functioning of the cell. In particular, these motors are essential for the formation and maintenance of the cellular protrusions that play key roles in motility and specific functionalities, such as the stereocilia in hair cells. Typically, there are several species of motors, carrying different cargos, that share the same track. Furthermore, it was observed that in the mature stereocilia, the different motors occupy well-segregated bands as a function of distance from the tip. We use a totally asymmetric exclusion process model with two- and three-motor species, to study the conditions that give rise to such spatial patterns. We find that the well-segregated bands appear for motors with a strong hierarchy of attachment or detachment rates. This is a striking example of pattern formation in nonequilibrium, low-dimensional systems.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lanmin


    In the present paper, 176 cases of lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion are treated with electroacupuncture (EA) and topical heat irradiation. Local tender-point is used as the main acupoint, combined with Tunzhong, Tiaoyue, Weizhong (BL 40) and Yanglingquan (GB 34). The treatment is conducted once daily, with 15 sessions being a therapeutic course. Following treatment, of 176 cases, 46 (26. 1%) are cured, 90 (51. 1%) have prominent improvement, 35 (19.8%) have amelioration and 5 (2.8%) have no apparent changes, with a total effective rate of 97.0%.

  13. Generation of compartmentalized pressure by a nuclear piston governs cell motility in a 3D matrix. (United States)

    Petrie, Ryan J; Koo, Hyun; Yamada, Kenneth M


    Cells use actomyosin contractility to move through three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices. Contractility affects the type of protrusions cells use to migrate in 3D, but the mechanisms are unclear. In this work, we found that contractility generated high-pressure lobopodial protrusions in human cells migrating in a 3D matrix. In these cells, the nucleus physically divided the cytoplasm into forward and rear compartments. Actomyosin contractility with the nucleoskeleton-intermediate filament linker protein nesprin-3 pulled the nucleus forward and pressurized the front of the cell. Reducing expression of nesprin-3 decreased and equalized the intracellular pressure. Thus, the nucleus can act as a piston that physically compartmentalizes the cytoplasm and increases the hydrostatic pressure between the nucleus and the leading edge of the cell to drive lamellipodia-independent 3D cell migration.

  14. [Two Cases of Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysm Complicated with Delayed Coil Protrusion after Coil Embolization]. (United States)

    Furukawa, Takashi; Ogata, Atsushi; Ebashi, Ryo; Takase, Yukinori; Masuoka, Jun; Kawashima, Masatou; Abe, Tatsuya


    We report two cases of delayed coil protrusion after coil embolization for ruptured cerebral aneurysms. Case 1:An 82-year-old woman with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured small anterior communicating artery aneurysm underwent successful coil embolization. Eighteen days after the procedure, coil protrusion from the aneurysm into the right anterior cerebral artery was observed without any symptoms. Further coil protrusion did not develop after 28 days. Case 2:A 78-year-old woman with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured small left middle cerebral artery aneurysm underwent successful coil embolization. Twenty days after the procedure, coil protrusion from the aneurysm into the left middle cerebral artery was observed, with a transient ischemic attack. Further coil protrusion did not develop. Both patients recovered with antithrombotic treatment. Even though delayed coil protrusion after coil embolization is rare, it should be recognized as a long-term complication of coil embolization for cerebral aneurysms.

  15. Protrusion of the Rod Electrode in the Electrospinning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Valtera


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the influence of the protrusion of the rod electrode on critical voltage in the DC electrospinning process. On the testing and industrial DC electrospinning devices, electrodes of any kind are extended towards the counter electrode. This provides the maximal, that is, supercritical, electric field intensity on the spinning-electrode orifice that is found to be higher than on the other supplementary parts. The principal study and experiments with basic apparatus were carried out and presented by Taylor in 1966. This study is focused on the arrangement closely related to the design of the real electrospinning device with respect to the safety and technological aspects. Results of the carried out experiments of the rod spinning-electrode are compared with the electrostatic simulation and analytical calculation. The presented effect of the electrode protrusion on the potential difference and the critical field strength introduces valuable information for the designers of electrospinning machines as well as for the setting up of the optimal technological parameters for producing modern nonwoven textile products.

  16. Self-assembly of colloids with liquid protrusions. (United States)

    Kraft, Daniela J; Vlug, Wessel S; van Kats, Carlos M; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Imhof, Arnout; Kegel, Willem K


    A facile and flexible synthesis for colloidal molecules with well-controlled shape and tunable patchiness is presented. Cross-linked polystyrene spheres with a liquid protrusion were found to assemble into colloidal molecules by coalescence of the liquid protrusions. Similarly, cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate) particles carrying a wetting layer assembled into colloidal molecules by coalescence of the wetting layer. Driven by surface energy, a liquid droplet on which the solid spheres are attached is formed. Subsequent polymerization of the liquid yields a wide variety of colloidal molecules as well as colloidosomes with tunable patchiness. Precise control over the topology of the particles has been achieved by changing the amount and nature of the swelling monomer as well as the wetting angle between the liquid and the seed particles. The overall cluster size can be controlled by the seed size as well as the swelling ratio. Use of different swelling monomers and/or particles allows for chemical diversity of the patches and the center. For low swelling ratios assemblies of small numbers of seeds resemble clusters that minimize the second moment of the mass distribution. Assemblies comprised of a large number of colloids are similar to colloidosomes exhibiting elastic strain relief by scar formation.

  17. Treatment of Protrusion of the Lumbar Intervertebral Disc by Massotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@Clinically, there is a higher incidence of protrusion of the lumbar intervertebral disc. It can cause a terrible pain. The author has treated 66 cases by massotherapy, who were confirmatively diagnosed as having protrusion of the lumbar intervertebral disc by X-ray film and computer-aided tomography, with satisfactory results as reported in the following. Clinical Data Among the 66 cases in this series, 49 were male and 17 female, ranging in age from 26 to 59 years, averaging 36.2 years. All the patients had got lumbago and unilateral ischialgia, with the left side affected in 37 cases and the right side in 29 cases. The leg pain radiating to lateral malleolus was found in 28 cases, to dorsum of the foot in 24 cases, and to the toes in 14 cases. Intermittent claudication was present in 22 cases, numbness of the affected foot in 16 cases, pain exacerbated when coughing in 35 cases, scoliosis in 21 cases, and positive Lasegue's sign in 48 cases.

  18. Infantil perineal protrusion er et harmløst fund med flere differentialdiagnoser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Dalgaard; Bygum, Anette


    Among girls the frequency of infantile perineal protrusion (IPP) is 13%. The skin-coloured protrusion is thought to represent a congenital weakness in the perineum and usually resolves spontaneously. We report a case of a 13 year-old girl who for nine years had been examined and treated for haemo......Among girls the frequency of infantile perineal protrusion (IPP) is 13%. The skin-coloured protrusion is thought to represent a congenital weakness in the perineum and usually resolves spontaneously. We report a case of a 13 year-old girl who for nine years had been examined and treated...

  19. The Rise of Jaw Protrusion in Spiny-Rayed Fishes Closes the Gap on Elusive Prey. (United States)

    Bellwood, David R; Goatley, Christopher H R; Bellwood, Orpha; Delbarre, Daniel J; Friedman, Matt


    Jaw protrusion is one of the most important innovations in vertebrate feeding over the last 400 million years [1, 2]. Protrusion enables a fish to rapidly decrease the distance between itself and its prey [2, 3]. We assessed the evolution and functional implications of jaw protrusion in teleost fish assemblages from shallow coastal seas since the Cretaceous. By examining extant teleost fishes, we identified a robust morphological predictor of jaw protrusion that enabled us to predict the extent of jaw protrusion in fossil fishes. Our analyses revealed increases in both average and maximum jaw protrusion over the last 100 million years, with a progressive increase in the potential impact of fish predation on elusive prey. Over this period, the increase in jaw protrusion was initially driven by a taxonomic restructuring of fish assemblages, with an increase in the proportion of spiny-rayed fishes (Acanthomorpha), followed by an increase in the extent of protrusion within this clade. By increasing the ability of fishes to catch elusive prey [2, 4], jaw protrusion is likely to have fundamentally changed the nature of predator-prey interactions and may have contributed to the success of the spiny-rayed fishes, the dominant fish clade in modern oceans [5].

  20. A Silicon-Based Nanothin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Array with Edge Reinforced Support for Enhanced Thermal Mechanical Stability. (United States)

    Baek, Jong Dae; Yu, Chen-Chiang; Su, Pei-Chen


    A silicon-based micro-solid oxide fuel cell (μ-SOFC) with electrolyte membrane array embedded in a thin silicon supporting membrane, featuring a unique edge reinforcement structure, was demonstrated by utilizing simple silicon micromachining processes. The square silicon supporting membrane, fabricated by combining deep reactive ion etching and through-wafer wet etching processes, has thicker edges and corners than the center portion of the membrane, which effectively improved the mechanical stability of the entire fuel cell array during cell fabrication and cell operation. The 20 μm thick single crystalline silicon membrane supports a large number of 80 nm thick free-standing yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes. The fuel cell array was stably maintained at the open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.04 V for more than 30 h of operation at 350 °C. A high peak power density of 317 mW/cm(2) was obtained at 400 °C. During a rigorous in situ thermal cycling between 150 and 400 °C at a fast cooling and heating rate of 25 °C/min, the OCV of the μ-SOFC recovered to its high value of 1.07 V without any drop caused by membrane failure, which justifies the superior thermal stability of this novel cell architecture.

  1. Membrane Protrusion Coarsening and Nanotubulation within Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    KAUST Repository

    Węgrzyn, Ilona


    Hydrophobic side groups on a stimuli-responsive polymer, encapsulated within a single giant unilamellar vesicle, enable membrane attachment during compartment formation at elevated temperatures. We thermally modulated the vesicle through implementation of an IR laser via an optical fiber, enabling localized directed heating. Polymer-membrane interactions were monitored using confocal imaging techniques as subsequent membrane protrusions occurred and lipid nanotubes formed in response to the polymer hydrogel contraction. These nanotubes, bridging the vesicle membrane to the contracting hydrogel, were retained on the surface of the polymer compartment, where they were transformed into smaller vesicles in a process reminiscent of cellular endocytosis. This development of a synthetic vesicle system containing a stimuli-responsive polymer could lead to a new platform for studying inter/intramembrane transport through lipid nanotubes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Treatment of Protrusion of the Lumbar Intervertebral Disc by TCM Massage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Protrusion of the lumbar intervertebral disc is a common disorder frequently encountered in clinic. With TCM massage and the maneuver of manual reduction, we have treated 82 cases of protrusion of the lumbar intervertebral disc, with satisfactory therapeutic results reported in the following.

  3. Graphene nanoplatelets doped with N at its edges as metal-free cathodes for organic dye-sensitized solar cells. (United States)

    Ju, Myung Jong; Jeon, In-Yup; Kim, Jae Cheon; Lim, Kimin; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Sun-Min; Choi, In Taek; Eom, Yu Kyung; Kwon, Young Jin; Ko, Jaejung; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Baek, Jong-Beom


    Challenging precious Pt-based electrocatalysts for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), graphene nanoplatelets that are N-doped at the edges (NGnPs) are prepared via simply ball-milling graphite in the presence of nitrogen gas. DSSCs based on specific nanoplatelets designated "NGnP5" display superior photovoltaic performance (power conversion efficiency, 10.27%) compared to that of conventional Pt-based devices (9.96%). More importantly, the NGnP counter electrode exhibits outstanding electrochemical stability and electrocatalytic activity with a cobalt-complex redox couple.

  4. Genioglossus and intrinsic electromyographic activities in impeded and unimpeded protrusion tasks. (United States)

    Pittman, Lora J; Bailey, E Fiona


    Eight muscles invest the human tongue: four extrinsic muscles have external origins and insert into the tongue body and four intrinsic muscles originate and terminate within the tongue. Previously, we noted minimal activation of the genioglossus tongue muscle during impeded protrusion tasks (i.e., having subjects push the tongue against a force transducer), suggesting that other muscles play a role in the production of tongue force. Accordingly, we sought to characterize genioglossus tongue muscle activities during impeded and unimpeded protrusion tasks (i.e., having subjects slowly and smoothly move the tongue out of their mouth). Electromyographic (EMG) and single motor-unit potentials of the extrinsic genioglossus muscle were recorded with tungsten microelectrodes and EMG activities of intrinsic tongue muscles were recorded with hook-wire electrodes inserted into the anterior tongue body. Tongue position was detected by an isotonic transducer coupled to the tongue tip. Protrusive force was detected by a force transducer attached to a rigid bar. Genioglossus and intrinsic tongue muscles were simultaneously active in both impeded and unimpeded protrusion tasks. Genioglossus whole muscle EMG and single motor-unit activities changed faithfully as a function of tongue position, with increased discharge associated with protrusion and decreased discharge associated with retraction back to the rest position. In contrast, during the impeded protrusion task drive the genioglossus muscle remained constant as protrusion force increased. Conversely, intrinsic tongue muscle activities appropriately followed changes in both tongue position and force. Importantly, we observed significantly higher levels of intrinsic muscle activity in the impeded protrusion task. These observations suggest that protrusion of the human tongue requires activation of the genioglossus and intrinsic protrudor muscles, with the former more important for establishing anterior-posterior tongue location

  5. Cutting edge: NKT cell development is selectively impaired in Fyn- deficient mice. (United States)

    Eberl, G; Lowin-Kropf, B; MacDonald, H R


    Most NK1.1+ T (NKT) cells express a biased TCRalphabeta repertoire that is positively selected by the monomorphic MHC class I-like molecule CD1d. The development of CD1d-dependent NKT cells is thymus dependent but, in contrast to conventional T cells, requires positive selection by cells of hemopoietic origin. Here, we show that the Src protein tyrosine kinase Fyn is required for development of CD1d-dependent NKT cells but not for the development of conventional T cells. In contrast, another Src kinase, Lck, is required for the development of both NKT and T cells. Impaired NKT cell development in Fyn-deficient mice cannot be rescued by transgenic expression of CD8, which is believed to increase the avidity of CD1d recognition by NKT cells. Taken together, our data reveal a selective and nonredundant role for Fyn in NKT cell development.

  6. FGFR4 GLY388 isotype suppresses motility of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by EDG-2 gene repression. (United States)

    Stadler, Christiane Regina; Knyazev, Pjotr; Bange, Johannes; Ullrich, Axel


    Clinical investigations of an FGFR4 germline polymorphism, resulting in substitution of glycine by arginine at codon 388 (G388 to R388), have shown a correlation between FGFR4 R388 and aggressive disease progression in cancer patients. Here, we studied the differential effects of the two FGFR4 isotypes on cellular signalling and motility in the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell model. cDNA array analysis showed the ability of FGFR4 G388 to suppress expression of specific genes involved in invasiveness and motility. Further investigations concentrating on cell signalling and motility revealed an abrogation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent LPA-induced Akt activation and cell migration due to downregulation of the LPA receptor Edg-2 in FGFR4 G388-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, FGFR4 G388 expression attenuated the invasivity of the breast cancer cell line and decreased small Rho GTPase activity. We conclude that FGFR4 G388 suppresses cell motility of invasive breast cancer cells by altering signalling pathways and the expression of genes that are required for metastasis. Therefore, the positive effect of FGFR4 R388 on disease progression appears to result from a loss of the tumour suppressor activity displayed by FGFR4 G388 rather than the acquisition or enhancement of oncogenic potential.

  7. The current distribution in an electrochemical cell. Part V. The determination of the depth of the current line penetration between the edges of the electrodes and the side walls of the cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A method for the calculation of the depth of the current line penetration between the edges of the electrodes and the side walls of the cell in a cell with plane parallel electrode arrangement is proposed. The method is verified by the calculation of the polarization curves for the cells in which the electrode edges do not touch the side walls of the cell. The agreement between the calculated and the measured values was fair.

  8. Muscular hydrostat mechanism for lip protrusion in speech (United States)

    Murano, Emi Z.; Stone, Maureen; Honda, Kiyoshi


    The lip is an organ consisting mostly of muscle similar to the tongue. While the tongue is known as a muscular hydrostat, it is unclear whether the lip is also. In this paper the muscular hydrostat issue was explored from the anatomical and functional point of view using high-resolution static MRI (hr-MRI 0.125 mm/pixel) and tagged-cineMRI (t-MRI). A 3-D reconstruction of the lips and its muscles was obtained from hr-MRI during sustained vowels /i/ and /u/. The muscular geometry of the orbicularis oris, mentalis, and depressor labii inferior muscles were superimposed onto the principal strains that depicts compression and expansion of the internal tissue obtained from t-MRI. It is shown that (1) orbicularis oris muscle shape can predict both the borderline of glabrous and hairy skin and the manner in which the lips are protruded; (2) the lips volume is almost identical for both speech tasks; and (3) direction and intensity of compression of orbicularis oris and mentalis muscle bundles imply the role of these muscles in the protrusion appearance. These results indicate that the muscular architecture and volume preserving characteristics of the lips are consistent with a muscular hydrostat. [This work was supported by NIH (USA) and NiCT (Japan).

  9. Cutting Edge: Murine Mast Cells Rapidly Modulate Metabolic Pathways Essential for Distinct Effector Functions. (United States)

    Phong, Binh; Avery, Lyndsay; Menk, Ashley V; Delgoffe, Greg M; Kane, Lawrence P


    There is growing appreciation that cellular metabolic and bioenergetic pathways do not play merely passive roles in activated leukocytes. Rather, metabolism has important roles in controlling cellular activation, differentiation, survival, and effector function. Much of this work has been performed in T cells; however, there is still very little information regarding mast cell metabolic reprogramming and its effect on cellular function. Mast cells perform important barrier functions and help control type 2 immune responses. In this study we show that murine bone marrow-derived mast cells rapidly alter their metabolism in response to stimulation through the FcεRI. We also demonstrate that specific metabolic pathways appear to be differentially required for the control of mast cell function. Manipulation of metabolic pathways may represent a novel point for the manipulation of mast cell activation.

  10. Cutting edge: identification of novel T cell epitopes in Lol p5a by computational prediction. (United States)

    de Lalla, C; Sturniolo, T; Abbruzzese, L; Hammer, J; Sidoli, A; Sinigaglia, F; Panina-Bordignon, P


    Although atopic allergy affects Lol p5a allergen from rye grass. In vitro binding studies confirmed the promiscuous binding characteristics of these peptides. Moreover, most of the predicted ligands were novel T cell epitopes that were able to stimulate T cells from atopic patients. We generated a panel of Lol p5a-specific T cell clones, the majority of which recognized the peptides in a cross-reactive fashion. The computational prediction of DR ligands might thus allow the design of T cell epitopes with potential useful application in novel immunotherapy strategies.

  11. At the cutting edge: applications and perspectives of laser nanosurgery in cell biology. (United States)

    Ronchi, Paolo; Terjung, Stefan; Pepperkok, Rainer


    Laser-mediated nanosurgery has become popular in the last decade because of the previously unexplored possibility of ablating biological material inside living cells with sub-micrometer precision. A number of publications have shown the potential applications of this technique, ranging from the dissection of sub-cellular structures to surgical ablations of whole cells or tissues in model systems such as Drosophila melanogaster or Danio rerio . In parallel, the recent development of micropatterning techniques has given cell biologists the possibility to shape cells and reproducibly organize the intracellular space. The integration of these two techniques has only recently started yet their combination has proven to be very interesting. The aim of this review is to present recent applications of laser nanosurgery in cell biology and to discuss the possible developments of this approach, particularly in combination with micropattern-mediated endomembrane organization.

  12. Calponin 2 Acts As an Effector of Noncanonical Wnt-Mediated Cell Polarization during Neural Crest Cell Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Ulmer


    Full Text Available Neural crest cells (NCCs migrate throughout the embryo to differentiate into cell types of all germ layers. Initial directed NCC emigration relies on planar cell polarity (PCP, which through the activity of the small GTPases RhoA and Rac governs the actin-driven formation of polarized cell protrusions. We found that the actin binding protein calponin 2 (Cnn2 was expressed in protrusions at the leading edge of migratory NCCs in chicks and frogs. Cnn2 knockdown resulted in NCC migration defects in frogs and chicks and randomized outgrowth of cell protrusions in NCC explants. Morphant cells showed central stress fibers at the expense of the peripheral actin network. Cnn2 acted downstream of Wnt/PCP, as migration defects induced by dominant-negative Wnt11 or inhibition of RhoA function were rescued by Cnn2 knockdown. These results suggest that Cnn2 modulates actin dynamics during NCC migration as an effector of noncanonical Wnt/PCP signaling.

  13. How Shigella Utilizes Ca(2+) Jagged Edge Signals during Invasion of Epithelial Cells. (United States)

    Bonnet, Mariette; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy


    Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system (T3SS). Through the injection of type III effectors, Shigella manipulates the actin cytoskeleton to induce its internalization in epithelial cells. At early invasion stages, Shigella induces atypical Ca(2+) responses confined at entry sites allowing local cytoskeletal remodeling for bacteria engulfment. Global Ca(2+) increase in the cell triggers the opening of connexin hemichannels at the plasma membrane that releases ATP in the extracellular milieu, favoring Shigella invasion and spreading through purinergic receptor signaling. During intracellular replication, Shigella regulates inflammatory and death pathways to disseminate within the epithelium. At later stages of infection, Shigella downregulates hemichannel opening and the release of extracellular ATP to dampen inflammatory signals. To avoid premature cell death, Shigella activates cell survival by upregulating the PI3K/Akt pathway and downregulating the levels of p53. Furthermore, Shigella interferes with pro-apoptotic caspases, and orients infected cells toward a slow necrotic cell death linked to mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload. In this review, we will focus on the role of Ca(2+) responses and their regulation by Shigella during the different stages of bacterial infection.

  14. Cutting edge: FasL(+) immune cells promote resolution of fibrosis. (United States)

    Wallach-Dayan, Shulamit B; Elkayam, Liron; Golan-Gerstl, Regina; Konikov, Jenya; Zisman, Philip; Dayan, Mark Richter; Arish, Nissim; Breuer, Raphael


    Immune cells, particularly those expressing the ligand of the Fas-death receptor (FasL), e.g. cytotoxic T cells, induce apoptosis in 'undesirable' self- and non-self-cells, including lung fibroblasts, thus providing a means of immune surveillance. We aimed to validate this mechanism in resolution of lung fibrosis. In particular, we elucidated whether FasL(+) immune cells possess antifibrotic capabilities by induction of FasL-dependent myofibroblast apoptosis and whether antagonists of membrane (m) and soluble (s) FasL can inhibit these capabilities. Myofibroblast interaction with immune cells and its FasL-dependency, were investigated in vitro in coculture with T cells and in vivo, following transplantation into lungs of immune-deficient syngeneic Rag-/- as well as allogeneic SCID mice, and into lungs and air pouches of FasL-deficient (gld) mice, before and after reconstitution of the mice with wild-type (wt), FasL(+) immune cells. We found that myofibroblasts from lungs resolving fibrosis undergo FasL-dependent T cell-induced apoptosis in vitro and demonstrate susceptibility to in vivo immune surveillance in lungs of reconstituted, immune- and FasL-deficient, mice. However, immune-deficient Rag-/- and SCID mice, and gld-mice with FasL-deficiency, endure the accumulation of transplanted myofibroblasts in their lungs with subsequent development of fibrosis. Concomitantly, gld mice, in contrast to chimeric FasL-deficient mice with wt immune cells, accumulated transplanted myofibroblasts in the air pouch model. In humans we found that myofibroblasts from fibrotic lungs secrete sFasL and resist T cell-induced apoptosis, whereas normal lung myofibroblasts are susceptible to apoptosis but acquire resistance upon addition of anti-s/mFasL to the coculture. Immune surveillance, particularly functional FasL(+) immune cells, may represent an important extrinsic component in myofibroblast apoptosis and serve as a barrier to fibrosis. Factors interfering with Fas

  15. Cutting edge: the mechanism of invariant NKT cell responses to viral danger signals. (United States)

    Tyznik, Aaron J; Tupin, Emmanuel; Nagarajan, Niranjana A; Her, Min J; Benedict, Chris A; Kronenberg, Mitchell


    Invariant NK T (iNKT) cells influence the response to viral infections, although the mechanisms are poorly defined. In this study we show that these innate-like lymphocytes secrete IFN-gamma upon culture with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) from mouse bone marrow. This requires TLR9 signaling and IL-12 secretion by the activated DCs, but it does not require CD1d expression. iNKT cells also produce IFN-gamma in response to mouse CMV infection. Their mechanism of mouse CMV detection is quite similar to that of CpG, requiring both TLR9 signaling and IL-12 secretion, while the need for CD1d expression is relatively minor. Consequently, iNKT cells have the ability to respond to a variety of microbes, including viruses, in an Ag-independent manner, suggesting they may play a broad role in antipathogen defenses despite their limited TCR repertoire.

  16. The double-edge role of B cells in mediating antitumor T-cell immunity: Pharmacological strategies for cancer immunotherapy. (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Zhang; Zhang, Yu-Hua; Guo, Xin-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Yuan


    Emerging evidence reveals the controversial role of B cells in antitumor immunity, but the underlying mechanisms have to be explored. Three latest articles published in the issue 521 of Nature in 2015 reconfirmed the puzzling topic and put forward some explanations of how B cells regulate antitumor T-cell responses both positively and negatively. This paper attempts to demonstrate that different B-cell subpopulations have distinct immunological properties and that they are involved in either antitumor responses or immunosuppression. Recent studies supporting the positive and negative roles of B cells in tumor development were summarized comprehensively. Several specific B-cell subpopulations, such as IgG(+), IgA(+), IL-10(+), and regulatory B cells, were described in detail. The mechanisms underlying the controversial B-cell effects were mainly attributed to different B-cell subpopulations, different B-cell-derived cytokines, direct B cell-T cell interaction, different cancer categories, and different malignant stages, and the immunological interaction between B cells and T cells is mediated by dendritic cells. Promising B-cell-based antitumor strategies were proposed and novel B-cell regulators were summarized to present interesting therapeutic targets. Future investigations are needed to make sure that B-cell-based pharmacological strategies benefit cancer immunotherapy substantially.

  17. On the cutting edge of organ renewal: Identification, regulation, and evolution of incisor stem cells. (United States)

    Kuang-Hsien Hu, Jimmy; Mushegyan, Vagan; Klein, Ophir D


    The rodent incisor is one of a number of organs that grow continuously throughout the life of an animal. Continuous growth of the incisor arose as an evolutionary adaptation to compensate for abrasion at the distal end of the tooth. The sustained turnover of cells that deposit the mineralized dental tissues is made possible by epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells residing at the proximal end of the incisor. A complex network of signaling pathways and transcription factors regulates the formation, maintenance, and differentiation of these stem cells during development and throughout adulthood. Research over the past 15 years has led to significant progress in our understanding of this network, which includes FGF, BMP, Notch, and Hh signaling, as well as cell adhesion molecules and micro-RNAs. This review surveys key historical experiments that laid the foundation of the field and discusses more recent findings that definitively identified the stem cell population, elucidated the regulatory network, and demonstrated possible genetic mechanisms for the evolution of continuously growing teeth.

  18. Skeletal anchorage for orthodontic correction of severe maxillary protrusion after previous orthodontic treatment. (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiji; Nishi-Sasaki, Akiko; Hasegawa, Takuro; Nishio, Clarice; Kawai, Nobuhiko; Tanne, Kazuo


    The correction of a severe maxillary protrusion in an adult by distal movement of the maxillary molars has been one of the most difficult biomechanical problems in orthodontics. This article reports on the treatment of an adult case of severe maxillary protrusion and a large overjet treated with a skeletal anchorage system. A female patient, age 22 years and 3 months, complained of the difficulty of lip closure due to severe maxillary protrusion with a gummy smile. Overjet and overbite were +7.6 mm and -0.9 mm, respectively. She had a history of orthodontic treatment in which her maxillary first premolars were extracted. In order to conduct distal movement of the maxillary molars, anchor plates were placed in the zygomatic process. After achieving a Class I molar relationship, retraction and intrusion of the maxillary incisors were performed. After a 2-year treatment, an acceptable occlusion was achieved with a Class I molar relationship. Her convex facial profile with upper lip protrusion was considerably improved, and the lips showed less tension in lip closure. After a 2-year retention period, an acceptable occlusion was maintained without recurrence of maxillary protrusion, indicating a stability of the occlusion. The result of this treatment indicated that skeletal anchorage is of great importance as a remedy for achieving intrusion and retraction of the maxillary incisors in cases of severe maxillary protrusion with a patient who had previous orthodontic treatment.

  19. Alignment of muscle precursor cells on the vertical edges of thick carbon nanotube films. (United States)

    Holt, Ian; Gestmann, Ingo; Wright, Andrew C


    The development of scaffolds and templates is an essential aspect of tissue engineering. We show that thick (>0.5 mm) vertically aligned carbon nanotube films, made by chemical vapour deposition, can be used as biocompatible substrates for the directional alignment of mouse muscle cells where the cells grow on the exposed sides of the films. Ultra high resolution scanning electron microscopy reveals that the films themselves consist mostly of small diameter (10 nm) multi-wall carbon nanotubes of wavy morphology with some single wall carbon nanotubes. Our findings show that for this alignment to occur the nanotubes must be in pristine condition. Mechanical wiping of the films to create directional alignment is detrimental to directional bioactivity. Larger areas for study have been formed from a composite of multiply stacked narrow strips of nanotubes wipe-transferred onto elastomer supports. These composite substrates appear to show a useful degree of alignment of the cells.

  20. Cutting edge: pulmonary Legionella pneumophila is controlled by plasmacytoid dendritic cells but not type I IFN. (United States)

    Ang, Desmond K Y; Oates, Clare V L; Schuelein, Ralf; Kelly, Michelle; Sansom, Fiona M; Bourges, Dorothée; Boon, Louis; Hertzog, Paul J; Hartland, Elizabeth L; van Driel, Ian R


    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are well known as the major cell type that secretes type I IFN in response to viral infections. Their role in combating other classes of infectious organisms, including bacteria, and their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We have found that pDCs play a significant role in the acute response to the intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila. pDCs were rapidly recruited to the lungs of L. pneumophila-infected mice, and depletion of pDCs resulted in increased bacterial load. The ability of pDCs to combat infection did not require type I IFN. This study points to an unappreciated role for pDCs in combating bacterial infections and indicates a novel mechanism of action for this cell type.

  1. Living edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri


    of the involved actors at the border. By doing so, the study underlines a forgotten, yet important, role of this edge zone – being a zone of commonality between the house and city, between indoors and outdoors, between the man at home and the man at the street. The city of Copenhagen promotes porous borders...... is a collection of material from the case study of an ongoing PhD study titled: LIVING EDGE - The Architectural and Urban Prospect of Domestic Borders. The paper includes a description of the problem analysis, research question, method, discussion and conclusion....

  2. K-edge EXAFS and XANES studies of Cu in CdTe thin-film solar cells (United States)

    Liu, Xiangxin; Gupta, Akhlesh; Compaan, Alvin D.; Leyarovska, Nadia; Terry, Jeff


    Copper has been identified as a very important dopant element in CdTe thin-film solar cells. Cu is a deep acceptor in CdTe and is commonly used to obtain a heavily doped, low resistance back contact to polycrystalline CdTe. Cu also helps to increase the open circuit voltage of the cell. However, Cu is also a fast diffuser in CdTe, especially along grain boundaries, and can accumulate at the CdS/CdTe junction. It is suspected of leading to cell performance degradation in some cases. The present study is designed to help identify the lattice location of the Cu in CdTe. Cu K-edge, x-ray absorption (XAS) measurements were conducted on Cu in thin films of CdTe. Experiments were performed at the MR-CAT beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The 3 mm CdTe layers were magnetron sputtered onto fused silica substrates. Some films were diffused with Cu from a 200 Å layer of evaporated Cu. XAS spectra were collected in fluorescence geometry with a 13 elements Ge detector. Quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy measurements were also performed. Details of the Cu environment and possible changes with time will be reported.

  3. Cdc42-dependent leading edge coordination is essential for interstitial dendritic cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lammermann, Tim; Renkawitz, Jorg; Wu, Xunwei;


    Mature dendritic cells (DCs) moving from the skin to the lymph node are a prototypic example of rapidly migrating amoeboid leukocytes. Interstitial DC migration is directionally guided by chemokines, but independent of specific adhesive interactions with the tissue as well as pericellular...

  4. At the edge of humanity: human stem cells, chimeras, and moral status. (United States)

    Streiffer, Robert


    Experiments involving the transplantation of human stem cells and their derivatives into early fetal or embryonic nonhuman animals raise novel ethical issues due to their possible implications for enhancing the moral status of che chimeric individual. Although status-enhancing research is not necessarily objectionable from the perspective of the chimeric individual, there are grounds for objecting to it in the conditions in which it is likely to occur. Translating this ethical conclusion into a policy recommendation, however, is complicated by the fact that substantial empirical and ethical uncertainties remain about which transplants, if any, would significantly enhance the chimeric individual's moral status. Considerations of moral status justify either an early-termination policy on chimeric embryos, or, in the absence of such a policy, restrictions on the introduction of pluripotent human stem cells into early-stage developing animals, pending the resolution of those uncertainties.

  5. Longitudinal Dependance Of Solsticial Hadley Cell Detected At The Edge Of The Massive Martian Erg

    CERN Document Server

    Kuassivi, M


    Using public HIRISE images of MARS, I derive the wind directions at high Northern lattitudes, where many interesting eolian features are observed. BArchan dunes show prominent wind direction from the North indicating that they formed during the southern summer. But a few record consistent SE winds near the UTOPIA PLANITIA basin. The wind reversal is consistent with a local perturbation of the solsticial Hadley cell caused by geological depression.

  6. Cutting edge: IL-17-secreting innate lymphoid cells are essential for host defense against fungal infection. (United States)

    Gladiator, André; Wangler, Nicolette; Trautwein-Weidner, Kerstin; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé


    IL-17-mediated immunity has emerged as a crucial host defense mechanism against fungal infections. Although Th cells are generally thought to act as the major source of IL-17 in response to Candida albicans, we show that fungal control is mediated by IL-17-secreting innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and not by Th17 cells. By using a mouse model of oropharyngeal candidiasis we found that IL-17A and IL-17F, which are both crucial for pathogen clearance, are produced promptly upon infection in an IL-23-dependent manner, and that ILCs in the oral mucosa are the main source for these cytokines. Ab-mediated depletion of ILCs in RAG1-deficient mice or ILC deficiency in retinoic acid-related orphan receptor c(-/-) mice resulted in a complete failure to control the infection. Taken together, our data uncover the cellular basis for the IL-23/IL-17 axis, which acts right at the onset of infection when it is most needed for fungal control and host protection.

  7. Cutting edge: Human regulatory T cells require IL-35 to mediate suppression and infectious tolerance. (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Vandana; Collison, Lauren W; Guy, Clifford S; Workman, Creg J; Vignali, Dario A A


    Human regulatory T cells (T(reg)) are essential for the maintenance of immune tolerance. However, the mechanisms they use to mediate suppression remain controversial. Although IL-35 has been shown to play an important role in T(reg)-mediated suppression in mice, recent studies have questioned its relevance in human T(reg). In this study, we show that human T(reg) express and require IL-35 for maximal suppressive capacity. Substantial upregulation of EBI3 and IL12A, but not IL10 and TGFB, was observed in activated human T(reg) compared with conventional T cells (T(conv)). Contact-independent T(reg)-mediated suppression was IL-35 dependent and did not require IL-10 or TGF-β. Lastly, human T(reg)-mediated suppression led to the conversion of the suppressed T(conv) into iTr35 cells, an IL-35-induced T(reg) population, in an IL-35-dependent manner. Thus, IL-35 contributes to human T(reg)-mediated suppression, and its conversion of suppressed target T(conv) into IL-35-induced T(reg) may contribute to infectious tolerance.

  8. Edge-nitrogenated graphene nanoplatelets as high-efficiency counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (United States)

    Wang, Guiqiang; Zhang, Juan; Hou, Shuo; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Zengdian


    Edge-nitrogenated graphene nanoplatelets (ENGNPs) are prepared by a simple and eco-friendly mechanochemical pin-grinding process using flake graphite as the precursor in the presence of nitrogen and investigated as the counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). SEM images and nitrogen adsorption analysis indicate an effective and spontaneous delamination of the pristine graphite into small graphene nanoplatelets by a mechanochemical pin-grinding process. The mechanochemical cracking of the graphitic C-C bond generates activated carbon sites that react directly with nitrogen at the broken edges. The resultant ENGNPs are deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by spray coating, and their electrocatalytic activities are investigated systemically in the I-/I3- redox electrolyte. Electrochemical measurements show that the ENGNP electrode possesses excellent electrocatalytic activity for the redox reaction of I-/I3- as evidenced by the low charge-transfer resistance at the interface of the electrode and electrolyte. Under 100 mW cm-2 illumination, the DSC with the optimized ENGNP counter electrode achieves a conversion efficiency of 7.69%, which is comparable to that of the device with Pt counter electrode.Edge-nitrogenated graphene nanoplatelets (ENGNPs) are prepared by a simple and eco-friendly mechanochemical pin-grinding process using flake graphite as the precursor in the presence of nitrogen and investigated as the counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). SEM images and nitrogen adsorption analysis indicate an effective and spontaneous delamination of the pristine graphite into small graphene nanoplatelets by a mechanochemical pin-grinding process. The mechanochemical cracking of the graphitic C-C bond generates activated carbon sites that react directly with nitrogen at the broken edges. The resultant ENGNPs are deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by spray coating, and their electrocatalytic

  9. Mechanisms of cell propulsion by active stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, A E, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Washington University, Campus Box 1105, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)


    The mechanisms by which cytoskeletal flows and cell-substrate interactions interact to generate cell motion are explored by using a simplified model of the cytoskeleton as a viscous gel containing active stresses. This model yields explicit general results relating cell speed and traction forces to the distributions of active stress and cell-substrate friction. It is found that (i) the cell velocity is given by a function that quantifies the asymmetry of the active-stress distribution, (ii) gradients in cell-substrate friction can induce motion even when the active stresses are symmetrically distributed, (iii) the traction-force dipole is enhanced by protrusive stresses near the cell edges or contractile stresses near the center of the cell and (iv) the cell velocity depends biphasically on the cell-substrate adhesion strength if active stress is enhanced by adhesion. Specific experimental tests of the calculated dependences are proposed.

  10. A quantitative description of the extension and retraction of surface protrusions in spreading 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. (United States)

    Albrecht-Buehler, G; Lancaster, R M


    We suggest a method of quantitating the motile actions of surface protrusions in spreading animal cells in culture. Its basis is the determination of the percentage of freshly plated cells which produce particle-free areas around them on a gold particle-coated glass cover slip within 50 min. Studying 3T3 cells with this assay, we found that the presence of Na+, K+, Cl-, and Mg++ or Ca++ in a neutral or slightly alkaline phosphate or bicarbonate buffered solution is sufficient to support the optimal particle removal by the cells for at least 50 min. Two metabolic inhibitors, 2,4-dinitrophenol and Na-azide, inhibit the particle removal. If D-glucose is added along with the inhibitors, particle removal can be restored, whereas the addition of three glucose analogues which are generally believed to be nonmetabolizable cannot restore the activity. Serum is not required for the mechanism(s) of the motile actions of surface protrusions in spreading 3T3 cells. However, it contains components which can neutralize the inhibitory actions of bovine serum albumin and several amino acids, particularly L-cystine or L-cystein and L-methionine. Furthermore, serum codetermines which of the major surface extension, filopodia, lamellipodia, or lobopodia, is predominantly active. We found three distinct classes of extracellular conditions under which the active surface projections are predominantly either lamellipodia, (sheetlike projections), lobopodia (blebs), or filopodia (microspikes). The quantitated dependencies on temperature, pH and the inhibition by cytochalasin B or the particle removal are very similar in all three cases. Preventing the cells from anchoring themselves for 15-20 min before plating in serum-free medium seems to stimulate particle removal threefold.

  11. Smurf1 regulates tumor cell plasticity and motility through degradation of RhoA leading to localized inhibition of contractility


    Sahai, Erik; Garcia-Medina, Raquel; Pouysségur, Jacques; Vial, Emmanuel


    Rho GTPases participate in various cellular processes, including normal and tumor cell migration. It has been reported that RhoA is targeted for degradation at the leading edge of migrating cells by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf1, and that this is required for the formation of protrusions. We report that Smurf1-dependent RhoA degradation in tumor cells results in the down-regulation of Rho kinase (ROCK) activity and myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) phosphorylation at the cell periphery. The locali...

  12. Formation of Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Derived Protrusions and Vesicles in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Yamashita

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that have inner and outer membranes. In plants, the inner membrane has been well studied but relatively little is known about the outer membrane. Here we report that Arabidopsis cells have mitochondrial outer membrane-derived structures, some of which protrude from the main body of mitochondria (mitochondrial outer-membrane protrusions; MOPs, while others form vesicle-like structures without a matrix marker. The latter vesicle-like structures are similar to some mammalian MDVs (mitochondrial-derived vesicles. Live imaging demonstrated that a plant MDV budded off from the tip of a MOP. MDVs were also observed in the drp3a drp3b double mutant, indicating that they could be formed without the mitochondrial fission factors DRP3A and DRP3B. Double staining studies showed that the MDVs were not peroxisomes, endosomes, Golgi apparatus or trans-Golgi network (TGN. The numbers of MDVs and MOPs increased in senescent leaves and after dark treatment. Together, these results suggest that MDVs and MOPs are related to leaf senescence.

  13. Automated screening of microtubule growth dynamics identifies MARK2 as a regulator of leading edge microtubules downstream of Rac1 in migrating cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Nishimura

    Full Text Available Polarized microtubule (MT growth in the leading edge is critical to directed cell migration, and is mediated by Rac1 GTPase. To find downstream targets of Rac1 that affect MT assembly dynamics, we performed an RNAi screen of 23 MT binding and regulatory factors and identified RNAi treatments that suppressed changes in MT dynamics induced by constitutively activated Rac1. By analyzing fluorescent EB3 dynamics with automated tracking, we found that RNAi treatments targeting p150(glued, APC2, spastin, EB1, Op18, or MARK2 blocked Rac1-mediated MT growth in lamellipodia. MARK2 was the only protein whose RNAi targeting additionally suppressed Rac1 effects on MT orientation in lamellipodia, and thus became the focus of further study. We show that GFP-MARK2 rescued effects of MARK2 depletion on MT growth lifetime and orientation, and GFP-MARK2 localized in lamellipodia in a Rac1-activity-dependent manner. In a wound-edge motility assay, MARK2-depleted cells failed to polarize their centrosomes or exhibit oriented MT growth in the leading edge, and displayed defects in directional cell migration. Thus, automated image analysis of MT assembly dynamics identified MARK2 as a target regulated downstream of Rac1 that promotes oriented MT growth in the leading edge to mediate directed cell migration.

  14. Local protrusions formed on Si(111) surface by surface melting and solidification under applied tensile stress (United States)

    Nishimura, T.; Tomitori, M.


    The surface structure and composition of Si(111) was modified, by heating it to 1300 °C in ultrahigh vacuum under an external tensile stress. A stress of approximately 1 GPa was applied, by pressing on the center of the rear side of the sample. This process produced two protrusions of approximately 100 μm in height, to the left and right of the center. Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy revealed Fe, Cr, Ni, and C impurities at the top of one protrusion, and C at the top of the other. These impurities likely diffused into the tops of the protrusions during heating, and segregated to the local surface during cooling when the protrusions formed. The protrusion formation mechanism is discussed. Their formation was related to non-uniform surface temperature, electromigration, piezoresistivity, freezing-point depression due to surface alloying with the impurities, and volume expansion during solidification from surface melting. These findings provide a perspective on controlling surface structures and compositions using heat and stress to induce self-assembly.

  15. Lipid tail protrusion in simulations predicts fusogenic activity of influenza fusion peptide mutants and conformational models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Larsson

    Full Text Available Fusion peptides from influenza hemagglutinin act on membranes to promote membrane fusion, but the mechanism by which they do so remains unknown. Recent theoretical work has suggested that contact of protruding lipid tails may be an important feature of the transition state for membrane fusion. If this is so, then influenza fusion peptides would be expected to promote tail protrusion in proportion to the ability of the corresponding full-length hemagglutinin to drive lipid mixing in fusion assays. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of influenza fusion peptides in lipid bilayers, comparing the X-31 influenza strain against a series of N-terminal mutants. As hypothesized, the probability of lipid tail protrusion correlates well with the lipid mixing rate induced by each mutant. This supports the conclusion that tail protrusion is important to the transition state for fusion. Furthermore, it suggests that tail protrusion can be used to examine how fusion peptides might interact with membranes to promote fusion. Previous models for native influenza fusion peptide structure in membranes include a kinked helix, a straight helix, and a helical hairpin. Our simulations visit each of these conformations. Thus, the free energy differences between each are likely low enough that specifics of the membrane environment and peptide construct may be sufficient to modulate the equilibrium between them. However, the kinked helix promotes lipid tail protrusion in our simulations much more strongly than the other two structures. We therefore predict that the kinked helix is the most fusogenic of these three conformations.

  16. Numerical Investigation of Non-Newtonian Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Rectangular Tubes with Protrusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Xie


    Full Text Available Flow characteristics and heat transfer performances in rectangular tubes with protrusions are numerically investigated in this paper. The thermal heat transfer enhancement of composite structures and flow resistance reduction of non-Newtonian fluid are taken advantage of to obtain a better thermal performance. Protrusion channels coupled with different CMC concentration solutions are studied, and the results are compared with that of smooth channels with water flow. The comprehensive influence of turbulence effects, structural effects, and secondary flow effects on the CMC’s flow in protrusion tubes is extensively investigated. The results indicate that the variation of flow resistance parameters of shear-thinning power-law fluid often shows a nonmonotonic trend, which is different from that of water. It can be concluded that protrusion structure can effectively enhance the heat transfer of CMC solution with low pressure penalty in specific cases. Moreover, for a specific protrusion structure and a fixed flow velocity, there exists an optimal solution concentration showing the best thermal performance.

  17. Effects of colchicine or demecolcine on cytoplasmic protrusions and assisted enucleation of golden hamster oocytes. (United States)

    Wang, Lingyan; Jiang, Han; Su, Li; Tang, Bo; Li, Dexue; Li, Ziyi


    To establish experimental protocols for cloning golden hamsters, optimal concentrations of colchicine and demecolcine were determined for inducing cytoplasmic protrusion (containing chromosomes) and assisting enucleation of their oocytes. Denuded oocytes at different ages were treated with 2.5-10 microg/ml of colchicine for 1-4h or 0.02-0.6 microg/ml of demecolcine for 15-60 min. Cytoplasmic protrusions of oocytes were removed with a micromanipulation pipette. The results show that: 1) at 13.5-18h post-hCG injection, approximately 90% of oocytes treated for with 10 microg/ml of colchicine formed cytoplasmic protrusions, and in some oocytes enucleation occurred; 2) when treated with 0.4 microg/ml of demecolcine for 1h, cytoplasmic protrusions 13.5-18h post-hCG treatment were present in almost all oocytes; 3) after the protrusions induced by either treatment had been removed, the assisted enucleation rate was >80%, whereas it was approximately 32% with blind enucleation.

  18. Treatment of Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion by means of unusual extractions and anchorage mini-implant


    Jong-Moon Chae


    INTRODUCTION: Patients with dental Class II bialveolar protrusion are generally treated by extracting the four first premolars or two first and two second premolars, and retracting the anterior teeth. This case report describes the treatment of an adult patient with bialveolar protrusion, a Class II canine and molar relationship, and lip protrusion. METHODS: In this patient, the maxillary right second molar (1.7) had to be extracted due to extensive caries. To create sufficient space to retra...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许恒栋; 赵海燕; 孟令瑶; 王西昌; 巩水利; 白秉哲


    addition, the micro-hardness of the four zones were measured and the results were explained by its microstructure features and weight percentages of alloy elements. It was found that four zones exist in the protrusion, namely edge zone, central zone, heat affected zone (HAZ) and substrate. The edge zone is composed of coarse grain with platelet martensite inside, whose micro-hardness is the lowest. The central zone, whose micro-hardness is the second lowest, is constituted of coarse grain with regular-layed platelet martensite; however, the grain size is smaller than that in the edge zone. The HAZ is characterized of fine grain with boundary α and parallel-layed short platelet martensite inside, plus the highest micro-hardness. The weight percentages of Al in the HAZ and the substrate were higher than that in the edge zone and the central zone, which, together with different grain size of the four zones, are the two main reasons for the micro-hardness differences of the four zones.

  20. Edge Detection, (United States)


    PROJECT. T ASK0 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA It WORK UNIT NUMBERS V 545 Technology Square ( Cambridge, HA 02139 I I* CONTOOL1LIN@4OFFICE NAME...ARD-A1t62 62 EDGE DETECTION(U) NASSACNUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 1/1 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB E C HILDRETH SEP 85 AI-M-8 N99SI4-8S-C-6595...used to carry out this analysis. cce~iO a N) ’.~" D LI’BL. P p ------------ Sj. t i MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY i ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

  1. Solar cell module. Taiyo denchi module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Akihiko.


    This invention concerns a module frame of solar cell and a solar cell module using this frame. In particular, it concerns a frame and a module useful for the CdS/CdTe or CdS/CuInSe {sub 2} based cell. In the existing solar cell module, sealant is packed in between the edges of a glass substrate, a resin layer and a back protective thin film, etc. and a grooved frame of U-shaped section. For the sealant, silicon based resin and butyl rubber based resin are used many times, but either resin has defects such as their overflow from the module structure. In order to solve these defects, this invention proposes to provide stair-shaped protrusions along the four sides of the bottom of the box frame (herein after called the lower frame) of the module and at the same time, provide a groove for pooling the sealant at the portion where such protrusion meets the side wall, furthermore to provide depressions for pooling the sealant at the upper edge inside the side wall of the lower frame or to punch holes at the corners of the bottom of the lower frame. 9 figs.

  2. Bimaxillary protrusion with masseter muscle hypertrophy treated with titanium screw anchorage and masseter surgical reduction. (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Kuroda, Shingo; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Mishima, Katsuaki; Sugahara, Toshio; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko


    This case report describes the treatment of a patient with bimaxillary protrusion and masseter muscle hypertrophy. At age 21 years 7 months, this woman had temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms, severe bimaxillary protrusion, and a prominent mandibular angle with facial asymmetry. After an attempt to alleviate the TMD symptoms with occlusal splint stabilization, portions of the masseter muscle and the mandible were surgically removed. Titanium screws were placed bilaterally in both arches, and a retraction force was applied. After active treatment for 38 months, the convexity of the facial profile with lip protrusion was improved remarkably, and good occlusion was achieved. The prominent mandibular angle with facial asymmetry was improved as a result of the surgical reduction of the masseter muscle and the modeling ostectomy near the masseteric tuberosity. The TMD symptoms disappeared, and the jaw movement pattern became normal. Therefore, our results suggest that this combination treatment would be useful for masseter muscle hypertrophy for morphologic and functional problems.

  3. Treatment of 116 Cases of Cervical Intervertebral Disc Protrusion by Tuina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guang-zong; XIAO Yuan-chun


    Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of uplifting massage therapy in the treatment of cervical intervertebral disc protrusion and study the effectiveness of this massage therapy for cervical intervertebral disc protrusion. Methods: 116 subjects were randomized into two groups: treatment group in which 60 cases were treated by uplifting massage therapy and conventional massage, and control group in which 56 cases were treated by simple conventional massage. Results: After 1-2 courses of treatment, the total effective rate was 95.0% in treatment group and 80.4% in control group; the former rate was higher than the latter one(P<0.05).Conclusion: The uplifting massage therapy combined with conventional massage has better effects than simple conventional massage in the treatment of cervical intervertebral disc protrusion.

  4. Edge Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri


    When separating the meaning of dwelling to ‘home’ and ‘house’, ‘home’ has no clear boundaries, organizational types, physical features, and experiences (Chapman, 1999) - while ‘house’ does. The house is a physical container of dwelling activities. Since early days, the essential purpose of this c......When separating the meaning of dwelling to ‘home’ and ‘house’, ‘home’ has no clear boundaries, organizational types, physical features, and experiences (Chapman, 1999) - while ‘house’ does. The house is a physical container of dwelling activities. Since early days, the essential purpose...... of this container is to separate inside from outside and to protect and provide privacy, psychological as well as physical (Venturi, 1966). But, if dwelling phenomenon takes place both inside and outside the private house – why is the urban house an enclosed box? What is the differentiation between inside...... and outside the contemporary urban house? And what is the interplay between them? The research argues for re-thinking the edge zone between inside and outside the urban house. Therefore, although, residential buildings in the city are the objects of study, the focal point here is the edge zone along...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lixin; LI Wanting


    Objective: To observe the effect of ginger-separated moxibustion for treatment of lumbar intervertebrai disc prolapse. Methods: 29 Iumbar intervertebral disc protrusion patients including 21 males and 8 females were treated with ginger-separated moxibustion of Ashi-point and Jiaji (EX-B 2 , the affected region), 5 - 6 cones every time, once every other day, continuously for 5 times. Then the therapeutic effect was analyzed. Results: After treatment, of the 29 cases, 23(79.3% ) were cured, and the rest 6(20.7% ) experienced improvement. Conclusion: Ginger-separated moxibustion is fairly effective and safe in treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion.

  6. Short Lives with Long-Lasting Effects: Filopodia Protrusions in Neuronal Branching Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Leondaritis

    Full Text Available The branching behaviors of both dendrites and axons are part of a neuronal maturation process initiated by the generation of small and transient membrane protrusions. These are highly dynamic, actin-enriched structures, collectively called filopodia, which can mature in neurons to form stable branches. Consequently, the generation of filopodia protrusions is crucial during the formation of neuronal circuits and involves the precise control of an interplay between the plasma membrane and actin dynamics. In this issue of PLOS Biology, Hou and colleagues identify a Ca2+/CaM-dependent molecular machinery in dendrites that ensures proper targeting of branch formation by activation of the actin nucleator Cobl.

  7. Dynamic contact with friction of an ultra-low flying head-disk interface with thermal protrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakis, A.I.; Lee, S.-C.; Polycarpou, A.A.


    A dynamic two-degree-of-freedom contact with friction model of the head-disk interface (HDI) is presented accounting for slider thermal protrusion and its influence on the HDI dynamics. Using this model, which includes roughness, the applied power to the thermal protrusion is calculated that leads t

  8. Report of a Class I bimaxillary dental protrusion case with extraction of first premolars treated with Clarity™ SL MBT appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Trevisi


    Full Text Available Bimaxillary protrusion cases are common in orthodontic practice. For the best facial outcome, the biomechanics can often be challenging. A class I bimaxillary protrusion case is presented below illustrating the careful application of extractions and bracket prescription. The case highlights how self-ligating brackets and high precision bracket positioning can reduce the need for additional anchorage.

  9. The RhoGEF TEM4 Regulates Endothelial Cell Migration by Suppressing Actomyosin Contractility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mitin

    Full Text Available Persistent cellular migration requires efficient protrusion of the front of the cell, the leading edge where the actin cytoskeleton and cell-substrate adhesions undergo constant rearrangement. Rho family GTPases are essential regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and cell adhesion dynamics. Here, we examined the role of the RhoGEF TEM4, an activator of Rho family GTPases, in regulating cellular migration of endothelial cells. We found that TEM4 promotes the persistence of cellular migration by regulating the architecture of actin stress fibers and cell-substrate adhesions in protruding membranes. Furthermore, we determined that TEM4 regulates cellular migration by signaling to RhoC as suppression of RhoC expression recapitulated the loss-of-TEM4 phenotypes, and RhoC activation was impaired in TEM4-depleted cells. Finally, we showed that TEM4 and RhoC antagonize myosin II-dependent cellular contractility and the suppression of myosin II activity rescued the persistence of cellular migration of TEM4-depleted cells. Our data implicate TEM4 as an essential regulator of the actin cytoskeleton that ensures proper membrane protrusion at the leading edge of migrating cells and efficient cellular migration via suppression of actomyosin contractility.

  10. Extraction treatment of an adult patient with severe bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion using microscrew anchorage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Li; ZHOU Yan-heng; FU Min-kui; DING Peng


    @@ Bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion is one of the most prevalent malocclusion in Asian population,1 Traditionally, orthodontic treatment often involves the extraction of four first premolars2 and demands the least amount of anchorage loss, therefore headgear used to be an unavoid- able fate of these patients.

  11. Measurements of the Curvature of Protrusions/Retrusions on Migrating Recrystallization Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, Dorte


    in thickness. The results reveal that the values calculated by both these methods are reasonable when compared with the stored energy measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The relationship between protrusions and the average stored energy density in the deformed matrix is also investigated...

  12. Numerical investigation of heat transfer performance of synthetic jet impingement onto dimpled/protrusioned surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Di


    Full Text Available Dynamic mesh methods and user defined functions are adopted and the shear stress transport k-ω turbulent model has been used in the numerical investigation of heat transfer performance of synthetic jet impingement onto dimple/protrusioned surface. The results show that the local time-averaged Nusselt number of the dimpled/protrusioned target surface tends to be much closer with that of flat cases with increasing of frequency. The heat transfer performance gets better when frequency increases. The area-averaged time-averaged Nusselt number of protrusioned target surface is the most close to that of flat cases when f = 320 Hz while it is the smallest among the synthetic jet cases in dimpled target surface. The heat transfer enhancement performance of synthetic jet is 30 times better than that of natural convection. The time-averaged Nusselt number of stagnation point in the protrusioned target surface is higher than that of flat target surface while it is lower in the dimpled surface than that of flat surface no matter in the synthetic jet, steady jet or natural convection cases. Meanwhile, the timeaveraged Nusselt number of stagnation point in the synthetic jet cases increases with the increasing of frequency. It is worth pointing out that the time-averaged Nusselt number of stagnation point is lower than that of steady cases when the frequency is low. However, it shows a bit higher than that of steady cases when f = 320 Hz.

  13. Neutron reflectivity of supported membranes incorporating terminally anchored polymers: Protrusions vs. blisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fragneto, Giovanna; Halperin, Avraham; Klösgen-Buchkremer, Beate Maria;


    was characterized by w 1/2 , the width at half-height of the scattering length density profile. The inner headgroup layer was essentially unperturbed while w 1/2 of the outer layer increased significantly. This suggests that the anchored PEG chains give rise to headgroup protrusions rather than to blister...

  14. Effects of tongue position and lung volume on voluntary maximal tongue protrusion force in humans. (United States)

    Saboisky, Julian P; Luu, Billy L; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C


    Maximal voluntary protrusion force of the human tongue has not been examined in positions beyond the incisors or at different lung volumes. Tongue force was recorded with the tongue tip at eight positions relative to the incisors (12 and 4mm protrusion, neutral and 4, 12, 16, 24 and 32mm retraction) at functional residual capacity (FRC), total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) in 15 healthy subjects. Maximal force occurred between 12mm and 32mm retraction (median 16mm). Maximum force at FRC was reproducible at the optimal tongue position across sessions (P=0.68). Across all positions at FRC the average force was highest at 24mm retraction (28.3±5.3N, mean±95% CI) and lowest at 12mm protrusion (49.1±4.6% maximum; Ptongue positions, maximal force was on average 9.3% lower at FRC than TLC and RV (range: 4.5-12.7% maximum, P<0.05). Retracted positions produce higher-force protrusions with a small effect of lung volume.

  15. Effect of Tongue Exercise on Protrusive Force and Muscle Fiber Area in Aging Rats (United States)

    Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Jackson, Michelle A.; Mann, Laura; Kluender, Keith


    Purpose: Age-related changes in tongue function may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. The authors' purpose was to investigate whether aged rats that have undergone tongue exercise would manifest increased protrusive tongue forces and increased genioglossus (GG) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Method: Forty-eight young adult,…

  16. Imitation of Tongue Protrusion in Human Neonates: Specificity of the Response in a Large Sample (United States)

    Nagy, Emese; Pilling, Karen; Orvos, Hajnalka; Molnar, Peter


    Although a large body of evidence has accumulated on the young human infant's ability to imitate, the phenomenon has failed to gain unanimous acceptance. Imitation of tongue protrusion, the most tested gesture to date, was examined in a sample of 115 newborns in the first 5 days of life in 3 seating positions. An ethologically based…

  17. Observation of a Ag protrusion on a Ag2S island using a scanning tunneling microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Ohno


    Full Text Available A silver sulfide (Ag2S island as an ionic conductor in resistive switching memories was formed and a protrusion of silver from the Ag2S formed by an electrochemical reaction was observed using a scanning tunneling microscope.

  18. Direct Observation of the Formation of Liquid Protrusions on Polymer Colloids and their Coalescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, B.; van Blaaderen, A.; Imhof, A.


    Monodisperse nonspherical poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) particles where a central core particle had grown two extra “lobes”, or protrusions, placed opposite each other were successfully synthesized by swelling and subsequent polymerization of cross-linked PMMA spheres with methyl methacrylate an

  19. Real-time and quantitative fluorescent live-cell imaging with quadruplex-specific red-edge probe (G4-REP). (United States)

    Yang, Sunny Y; Amor, Souheila; Laguerre, Aurélien; Wong, Judy M Y; Monchaud, David


    The development of quadruplex-directed molecular diagnostic and therapy rely on mechanistic insights gained at both cellular and tissue levels by fluorescence imaging. This technique is based on fluorescent reporters that label cellular DNA and RNA quadruplexes to spatiotemporally address their complex cell biology. The photophysical characteristics of quadruplex probes usually dictate the modality of cell imaging by governing the selection of the light source (lamp, LED, laser), the optical light filters and the detection modality. Here, we report the characterizations of prototype from a new generation of quadruplex dye termed G4-REP (for quadruplex-specific red-edge probe) that provides fluorescence responses regardless of the excitation wavelength and modality (owing to the versatility gained through the red-edge effect), thus allowing for diverse applications and most imaging facilities. This is demonstrated by cell images (and associated quantifications) collected through confocal and multiphoton microscopy as well as through real-time live-cell imaging system over extended period, monitoring both non-cancerous and cancerous human cell lines. Our results promote a new way of designing versatile, efficient and convenient quadruplex-reporting dyes for tracking these higher-order nucleic acid structures in living human cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "G-quadruplex" Guest Editor: Dr. Concetta Giancola and Dr. Daniela Montesarchio.

  20. Drosophila Dachsous and Fat polarize actin-based protrusions over a restricted domain of the embryonic denticle field. (United States)

    Lawlor, Kynan T; Ly, Daniel C; DiNardo, Stephen


    Atypical cadherins Dachsous (Ds) and Fat coordinate the establishment of planar polarity, essential for the patterning of complex tissues and organs. The precise mechanisms by which this system acts, particularly in cases where Ds and Fat act independently of the 'core' frizzled system, are still the subject of investigation. Examining the deployment of the Ds-Fat system in different tissues of the model organism Drosophila, has provided insights into the general mechanisms by which polarity is established and propagated to coordinate outcomes across a field of cells. The Drosophila embryonic epidermis provides a simple model epithelia where the establishment of polarity can be observed from start to finish, and in the absence of proliferation, over a fixed number of cells. Using the asymmetric placement of f-actin during denticle assembly as a read-out of polarity, we examine the requirement for Ds and Fat in establishing polarity across the denticle field. Comparing detailed phenotypic analysis with steady state protein enrichment revealed a spatially restricted requirement for the Ds-Fat system within the posterior denticle field. Ectopic Ds signaling provides evidence for a model whereby Ds acts to asymmetrically enrich Fat in a neighboring cell, in turn polarizing the cell to specify the position of the actin-based protrusions at the cell cortex.

  1. EMA: a developmentally regulated cell-surface glycoprotein of CNS neurons that is concentrated at the leading edge of growth cones. (United States)

    Baumrind, N L; Parkinson, D; Wayne, D B; Heuser, J E; Pearlman, A L


    To identify cell-surface molecules that mediate interactions between neurons and their environment during neural development, we used monoclonal antibody techniques to define a developmentally regulated antigen in the central nervous system of the mouse. The antibody we produced (2A1) immunolabels cells throughout the central nervous system; we analyzed its distribution in the developing cerebral cortex, where it is expressed on cells very soon after they complete mitosis and leave the periventricular proliferative zone. Expression continues into adult life. The antibody also labels the epithelium of the choroid plexus and the renal proximal tubules, but does not label neurons of the peripheral nervous system in the dorsal root ganglia. In dissociated cell culture of embryonic cerebral cortex, 2A1 labels the surface of neurons but not glia. Immunolabeling of neurons in tissue culture is particularly prominent on the edge of growth cones, including filopodia and the leading edge of lamellipodia, when observed with either immunofluorescence or freeze-etch immunoelectron microscopy. Immunopurification with 2A1 of a CHAPS-extracted membrane preparation from brains of neonatal mice produces a broad (32-36 kD) electrophoretic band and a less prominent 70 kD band that are sensitive to N-glycosidase but not endoglycosidase H. Thus the 2A1 antibody recognizes a developmentally regulated, neuronal cell surface glycoprotein (or glycoproteins) with complex N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. We have termed the glycoprotein antigen EMA because of its prominence on the edge membrane of growth cones. EMA is similar to the M6 antigen (Lagenaur et al: J. Neurobiol. 23:71-88, 1992) in apparent molecular weight, distribution in tissue sections, and immunoreactivity on Western blots, suggesting that the two antigens are similar or identical. Expression of EMA is a very early manifestation of neuronal differentiation; its distribution on growth cones suggests a role in mediating the

  2. Effect of microscale protrusions on local fluid flow and mass transport in the presence of forced convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Gehard W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Three-dimensional creeping flow around single, axisymmetric protrusions is studied numerically using the boundary-integral technique. Emphasis is placed upon cylindrical protrusions on plane walls for various height-to-radius (h-to-a) aspect ratios, but cones and sections of spheres protruding from plane walls are also briefly examined. The presented items include shear-stress distributions, shear-stress contours, extents of the fluid-flow disturbance, total forces and torques on the cylinders, streamlines, and skin-friction lines. Also included is a discussion of flow topology around axisymmetric geometries. No flow reversal is observed for cylindrical protrusions with aspect ratios greater than 2.4 to 2.6. At higher aspect ratios, the fluid tends to be swept around cylindrical protrusions with little vertical motion. At lower aspect ratios, the strength of the recirculation increases, and the recirculation region becomes wider in the transverse direction and narrower in the flow direction. Also, the recirculation pattern begins to resemble the closed streamline patterns in two-dimensional flow over square ridges. However, unlike two-dimensional flow, closed streamline patterns are not observed. For arbitrary axisymmetric geometries, the extent of the fluid-flow disturbance can be estimated with the total force that is exerted on the protrusion. When the same force is exerted on protrusions with different aspect ratios, the protrusion with the higher aspect ratio tends to have a greater disturbance in the flow direction and a smaller disturbance in the transverse direction. The total force exerted on cylindrical protrusions with rounded corners is only slightly lower than the total force exerted on cylindrical protrusions with sharp corners.

  3. Cutting edge: TNFR-shedding by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells inhibits the induction of inflammatory mediators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, G.J. van; Scherer, H.U.; Hameetman, M.; Morgan, M.E.; Flierman, R.; Huizinga, T.W.J.; Toes, R.E.


    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells play an essential role in maintaining tolerance to self and nonself. In several models of T cell-mediated (auto) immunity, Treg cells exert protective effects by the inhibition of pathogenic T cell responses. In addition, Treg cells can modulate T cell-independent


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵立新; 李万婷


    Objective:To observe the effect of ginger-separated moxibustion for treatment of lumbar intervertepral disc prolapse.Methods:29 lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion patients including 21 males and 8 temales were treated with ginger-separated moxibustion of Ashi-point and Jiaji(EX-B 2,.the affected region),5-6 cones every time,once every other day,continuously for 5 times,Then the therapeutic effect was analyzed.Results:After treatment,of the 29 cases,23(79.3%) were cured,and the rest 6(20.7%)experienced improvement.Conclusion:Ginger-separated moxibustion is farily effective and safe in treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion.

  5. [Coblation of nucleus pulposus in treatment of military men's lumbar disc protrusions]. (United States)

    Manukovskiĭ, V A; Badalov, V I; Tiulikov, K V; Korostelev, K E


    Mini-invasive surgery is used more often for the treatment of spinal disc herniations today. Coblation is one of such contemporary methods. The aim of our investigation was to evaluate results of percutaneous disc nucleoplasty using coblation. 35 patients with disc protrusions diagnosed by MRI underwent operations using this method. We used Visual Analogue Pain Scale, took into account time of painless sitting, standing and walking position, and also patients' satisfaction to assess the immediate results of treatment and short-time outcomes. It was noted the better immediate results in group of operated patients in comparison with the non-operated group. It was obvious either on the table or the day after operation. There were 84 and 93% of good results in 3 months and in 1 year after operation, respectively. Coblation is definitely modern and effective way to treat disc protrusions with different types, sizes, and may be used in lumbar spine wherever.

  6. Sudden progression of lumbar disk protrusion during vertebral axial decompression traction therapy. (United States)

    Deen, H Gordon; Rizzo, Thomas D; Fenton, Douglas S


    Vertebral axial decompression (VAX-D) is a form of spinal traction that is widely promoted as an effective and safe treatment of degenerated and herniated lumbar intervertebral disks. Information targeted at the general public emphasizes that the treatment is completely risk-free. We describe a patient with a large lumbar disk protrusion who experienced sudden, severe exacerbation of radicular pain during a VAX-D therapy session. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar region showed marked enlargement of the disk protrusion, and urgent microdiskectomy was required. To our knowledge, this is the first reported complication of VAX-D therapy. This case shows that VAX-D therapy has the potential to cause sudden deterioration requiring urgent surgical intervention.

  7. Genioglossus and Intrinsic Electromyographic Activities in Impeded and Unimpeded Protrusion Tasks



    Eight muscles invest the human tongue: four extrinsic muscles have external origins and insert into the tongue body and four intrinsic muscles originate and terminate within the tongue. Previously, we noted minimal activation of the genioglossus tongue muscle during impeded protrusion tasks (i.e., having subjects push the tongue against a force transducer), suggesting that other muscles play a role in the production of tongue force. Accordingly, we sought to characterize genioglossus tongue m...

  8. Human Newborns Match Tongue Protrusion of Disembodied Human and Robotic Mouths (United States)

    Soussignan, Robert; Courtial, Alexis; Canet, Pierre; Danon-Apter, Gisele; Nadel, Jacqueline


    No evidence had been provided so far of newborns' capacity to give a matching response to 2D stimuli. We report evidence from 18 newborns who were presented with three types of stimuli on a 2D screen. The stimuli were video-recorded displays of tongue protrusion shown by: (a) a human face, (b) a human tongue from a disembodied mouth, and (c) an…

  9. Friction-induced nanofabrication method to produce protrusive nanostructures on quartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaoying


    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a new friction-induced nanofabrication method is presented to fabricate protrusive nanostructures on quartz surfaces through scratching a diamond tip under given normal loads. The nanostructures, such as nanodots, nanolines, surface mesas and nanowords, can be produced on the target surface by programming the tip traces according to the demanded patterns. The height of these nanostructures increases with the increase of the number of scratching cycles or the normal load. Transmission electron microscope observations indicated that the lattice distortion and dislocations induced by the mechanical interaction may have played a dominating role in the formation of the protrusive nanostructures on quartz surfaces. Further analysis reveals that during scratching, a contact pressure ranged from 0.4Py to Py (Py is the critical yield pressure of quartz is apt to produce protuberant nanostructures on quartz under the given experimental conditions. Finally, it is of great interest to find that the protrusive nanostructures can be selectively dissolved in 20% KOH solution. Since the nanowords can be easily 'written' by friction-induced fabrication and 'erased' through selective etching on a quartz surface, this friction-induced method opens up new opportunities for future nanofabrication.

  10. Autosomal recessive mental retardation syndrome with anterior maxillary protrusion and strabismus: MRAMS syndrome. (United States)

    Basel-Vanagaite, Lina; Rainshtein, Limor; Inbar, Dov; Gothelf, Doron; Hennekam, Raoul; Straussberg, Rachel


    We report on a family in whom the combination of mental retardation (MR), anterior maxillary protrusion, and strabismus segregates. The healthy, consanguineous parents (first cousins) of Israeli-Arab descent had 11 children, 7 of whom (5 girls) were affected. They all had severe MR. Six of the seven had anterior maxillary protrusion with vertical maxillary excess, open bite, and prominent crowded teeth. None of the sibs with normal intelligence had jaw or dental anomalies. The child with MR but without a jaw anomaly was somewhat less severely retarded, had seizures and severe psychosis, which may point to his having a separate disorder. Biochemical and neurological studies, including brain MRI and standard cytogenetic studies, yielded normal results; fragile X was excluded, no subtelomeric rearrangements were detectable, and X-inactivation studies in the mother showed random inactivation. We have been unable to find a similar disorder in the literature, and suggest that this is a hitherto unreported autosomal recessive disorder, which we propose to name MRAMS (mental retardation, anterior maxillary protrusion, and strabismus).

  11. Friction-induced nanofabrication method to produce protrusive nanostructures on quartz (United States)

    Song, Chenfei; Li, Xiaoying; Yu, Bingjun; Dong, Hanshan; Qian, Linmao; Zhou, Zhongrong


    In this paper, a new friction-induced nanofabrication method is presented to fabricate protrusive nanostructures on quartz surfaces through scratching a diamond tip under given normal loads. The nanostructures, such as nanodots, nanolines, surface mesas and nanowords, can be produced on the target surface by programming the tip traces according to the demanded patterns. The height of these nanostructures increases with the increase of the number of scratching cycles or the normal load. Transmission electron microscope observations indicated that the lattice distortion and dislocations induced by the mechanical interaction may have played a dominating role in the formation of the protrusive nanostructures on quartz surfaces. Further analysis reveals that during scratching, a contact pressure ranged from 0.4 P y to P y ( P y is the critical yield pressure of quartz) is apt to produce protuberant nanostructures on quartz under the given experimental conditions. Finally, it is of great interest to find that the protrusive nanostructures can be selectively dissolved in 20% KOH solution. Since the nanowords can be easily 'written' by friction-induced fabrication and 'erased' through selective etching on a quartz surface, this friction-induced method opens up new opportunities for future nanofabrication.

  12. A clinico-radiographic analysis of sagittal condylar guidance determined by protrusive interocclusal registration and panoramic radiographic images in humans


    Krishna Prasad, D.; Namrata Shah; Chethan Hegde


    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between sagittal condylar guidance obtained by protrusive interocclusal records and panoramic radiograph tracing methods in human dentulous subjects. Materials and Methods: The sagittal condylar guidance was determined in 75 dentulous subjects by protrusive interocclusal records using Aluwax through a face bow transfer (HANAU™ Spring Bow, Whip Mix Corporation, USA) to a semi-adjustable articulator (HANAU™ Wide-Vue Articulator, Whip Mix Corporation, USA). I...

  13. The Correction of Bimaxillary Protrusion Experience%双颌前突的矫治体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥宏; 袁晓蓉; 吴萍


    [AbstractPurpose]:Exploration of Treatment methods and results for different degree of Bimaxillary protrusion and Orthodontics. Methords:For mild Bimaxillary protrusion during Permanent Dentition or narrow Upper and lower dental arch and Moderate protrusion patients who refused to tooth extraction,the methord of RPE and Push back molars has been respectively used to adduct the upper and lower incisor after acquiring adequate space. For the Mild cases of protrusion who require for higher aesthetic and Moderate and severe bimaxillary protrusion,the method of extraction has been used to adduct the upper and lower incisor after acquiring adequate space. Results:In the follow up observation from 1.7 years to 4.5 years,there were 7 recurrences with different degree in 19 Non-extraction cases after corretation,and there were 2 recurrences because of non-wearing retainer in 61extraction cases. Conclusion:Extraction cases were inlow recurrence rate because of giving a more generous space to Bimaxillarey protrusion.It is an effective treatment measure expacially for Moderate and severe bimaxillary protrusion.%目的:探索不同程度的双颌前突口腔正畸的治疗方法与效果。方法:对于恒牙期双颌轻度前突或上下牙弓狭窄以及中度前突但拒绝拔牙的患者,我们分别采用扩弓,推磨牙向后等方法获得足够的间隙后,内收上下切牙。对于美观要求较高的轻度前突病例以及中、重度双颌前突病例我们采用拔牙的方法,利用拔牙后所产生的间隙,内收上下切牙。结果:在矫治结束后,追踪观察1.7~4.5年,19例非拔牙病例中有7例出现不同程度的复发。61例拔牙病例中,仅2例因没有按规定戴保持器而复发。结论:拔牙病例因给予双颌前突较为宽松的间隙,故复发的机率较低。特别是对于中、重度双颌前突者是一种行之有效的治疗方法。

  14. Three-dimensional evaluation of upper anterior alveolar bone dehiscence after incisor retraction and intrusion in adult patients with bimaxillary protrusion malocclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-yuan GUO; Shi-jie ZHANG; Hong LIU; Chun-ling WANG; Fu-lan WEI; Tao LV; Na-na WANG; Dong-xu LIU


    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) dehiscence of upper anterior alveolar bone during incisor retraction and intrusion in adult patients with maximum anchorage.Methods: Twenty adult patients with bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion had the four first premolars extracted.Miniscrews were placed to provide maximum anchorage for upper incisor retraction and intrusion.A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed after placement of the miniscrews and treatment.The 3D reconstructions of pre- and post-CT data were used to assess the dehiscence of upper anterior alveolar bone.Results: The amounts of upper incisor retraction at the edge and apex were (7.64±1.68) and (3.91±2.10) mm,respectively,and (1.34±0.74) mm of upper central incisor intrusion.Upper alveolar bone height losses at labial alveolar ridge crest (LAC) and palatal alveolar ridge crest (PAC) were 0.543 and 2.612 mm,respectively,and the percentages were (6.49±3.54)% and (27.42±9.77)%,respectively.The shape deformations of LAC-labial cortex bending point (LBP) and PAC-palatal cortex bending point (PBP) were (15.37±5.20)° and (6.43±3.27)°,respectively.Conclusions: Thus,for adult patients with bimaxillary protrusion,mechanobiological response of anterior alveolus should be taken into account during incisor retraction and intrusion.Pursuit of maximum anchorage might lead to upper anterior alveolar bone loss.

  15. Intermediate-affinity LFA-1 binds alpha-actinin-1 to control migration at the leading edge of the T cell. (United States)

    Stanley, Paula; Smith, Andrew; McDowall, Alison; Nicol, Alastair; Zicha, Daniel; Hogg, Nancy


    T lymphocytes use LFA-1 to migrate into lymph nodes and inflammatory sites. To investigate the mechanisms regulating this migration, we utilize mAbs selective for conformational epitopes as probes for active LFA-1. Expression of the KIM127 epitope, but not the 24 epitope, defines the extended conformation of LFA-1, which has intermediate affinity for ligand ICAM-1. A key finding is that KIM127-positive LFA-1 forms new adhesions at the T lymphocyte leading edge. This LFA-1 links to the cytoskeleton through alpha-actinin-1 and disruption at the level of integrin or actin results in loss of cell spreading and migratory speed due to a failure of attachment at the leading edge. The KIM127 pattern contrasts with high-affinity LFA-1 that expresses both 24 and KIM127 epitopes, is restricted to the mid-cell focal zone and controls ICAM-1 attachment. Identification of distinctive roles for intermediate- and high-affinity LFA-1 in T lymphocyte migration provides a biological function for two active conformations of this integrin for the first time.

  16. Cutting edge: Multiple sclerosis-like lesions induced by effector CD8 T cells recognizing a sequestered antigen on oligodendrocytes. (United States)

    Saxena, Amit; Bauer, Jan; Scheikl, Tanja; Zappulla, Jacques; Audebert, Marc; Desbois, Sabine; Waisman, Ari; Lassmann, Hans; Liblau, Roland S; Mars, Lennart T


    CD8 T cells are emerging as important players in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis, although their direct contribution to tissue damage is still debated. To assess whether autoreactive CD8 T cells can contribute to the pronounced loss of oligodendrocytes observed in MS plaques, we generated mice in which the model Ag influenza hemagglutinin is selectively expressed in oligodendrocytes. Transfer of preactivated hemagglutinin-specific CD8 T cells led to inflammatory lesions in the optic nerve, spinal cord, and brain. These lesions, associating CD8 T cell infiltration with focal loss of oligodendrocytes, demyelination, and microglia activation, were very reminiscent of active MS lesions. Thus, our study demonstrates the potential of CD8 T cells to induce oligodendrocyte lysis in vivo as a likely consequence of direct Ag-recognition. These results provide new insights with regard to CNS tissue damage mediated by CD8 T cells and for understanding the role of CD8 T cells in MS.

  17. 外侧膝状体细胞对边缘的响应模型%Response of Lateral Geniculate Nucleus Cells to Edges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Edges composing of stimuli of different intensities are common in both natural scenes and digital images.Edge detection is a basic step for machine visual systems,particularly machine biological visual systems.This paper establishes a model of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)cells in a primary visual pathway,describes the LGN cell response to edges,and provides feature representations for designing image processing approaches based on neural mechanism. According to physiological characteristics of retinal ganglion cells,the paper uses the classical model of difference of Gaussians to describe the LGN cell response to stimuli,and obtains a re-sponse function via reasonable simplifications.Through simple analyses,several mathematical properties of the response function are obtained,which agree with the physiological characteristics of neurons.By further simplifying the contrast of a stimulus,a normalized response function is obtained.Numeric experiments show that similarities exist between the function’s response curve and the physiological curve discovered in a previous neural science research,showing validity of the described model.%边缘检测是机器视觉系统与生物视觉系统处理视觉信息的基础阶段。为初级视觉通路中的外侧膝状体(LGN)细胞建立一个模型,描述其对边缘的响应,为构建基于神经机制的图像处理方法提供特征表征。根据神经节细胞感受野的生理特性,用经典的高斯差模型描述 LGN 细胞对刺激的响应,通过合理地简化得到相对简单的响应函数。通过简单数学分析,能够得到函数的几点数学性质,且这些性质都与神经元的生理特性相符。进一步简化刺激的对比度,得到归一化的响应函数。数值实验发现,函数的响应曲线和神经科学研究得到的生理曲线具有相似性,说明该数学模型的合理性。

  18. The edges of graphene. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xin, John; Ding, Feng


    The edge of two dimensional (2D) graphene, as the surface of a three dimensional (3D) crystal, plays a crucial role in the determination of its physical, electronic and chemical properties and thus has been extensively studied recently. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the study of graphene edges, including edge formation energy, edge reconstruction, method of graphene edge synthesis and the recent progress on metal-passivated graphene edges and the role of edges in graphene CVD growth. We expect this review to provide a guideline for readers to gain a clear picture of graphene edges from several aspects, especially the catalyst-passivated graphene edges and their role in graphene CVD growth.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaraman T


    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To correlate Intravesical Prostatic Protrusion (IVPP with International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS, Quality of Life Index (QOL, Uroflowmetry, Post Void Urine (PVR and Pressure Flow Study (PFS and to assess whether the presence and increasing grades of Intravesical prostatic protrusion are directly correlated with the severity of Bladder outlet obstruction due to Benign prostatic hypertrophy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Non-randomized prospective cohort study, conducted in Department of Urology, Govt. Stanley Hospital, from June 2012 to June 2015, on a sample of 100 patients with IVPP. IVPP was correlated with IPSS, Quality of life index, Uroflowmetry, Effects of drug therapy, Response to surgical therapy. Response of patients with Intravesical prostatic protrusion of same grade to surgical therapy and drug therapy are compared to decide which modality of management is best. RESULTS The incidence of IVPP in patients presenting with LUTS due to BPH is 1 in 5. Majority present with grade 2 IVPP. The increasing grades of IVPP are significantly directly correlated with IPSS score, Q-max and Post void residual. Statistical analysis showed IVPP to correlate significantly with BOO. TURP showed a very good and significant mean decrease of IPSS and Q-max, whereas those who had medical treatment showed only a mean decrease of 2 in IPSS score and 1 in Q-max. CONCLUSION The increasing grades of IVPP are significantly directly correlated with IPSS score max and Post void residual. IVPP have a very good positive and negative predictive value and also a good accuracy rate in comparison with all other parameters in predicting the BOO. The surgical intervention statistically proved to be superior to medical treatment in IVPP patients.

  20. Domain wall pinning and potential landscapes created by constrictions and protrusions in ferromagnetic nanowires (United States)

    Petit, Dorothée; Jausovec, Ana-Vanessa; Read, Dan; Cowburn, Russell P.


    The potential experienced by transverse domain walls (TDWs) in the vicinity of asymmetric constrictions or protrusions in thin Permalloy nanowires is probed using spatially resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements. Both types of traps are found to act as pinning centers for DWs. The strength of pinning is found to depend on the trap type as well as on the chirality of the incoming DW; both types of traps are seen to act either as potential wells or potential barriers, also depending on the chirality of the DW. Micromagnetic simulations have been performed that are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Clinical Experience on Treatment of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Protrusion by Traditional Manual Techniques plus Electric Acupuncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Hao-wen; WU Fang; YANG Wan-zhang; ZHANG Min; HUANG Guo-qi


    52 cases of the patients with L4-S1 intervertebral disc protrusion were first treated by traditional Tuina manual techniques, including the rolling method, pressing method,oblique-plucking method and shaking method, and then treated by electric acupuncture on Shenshu (BL 23), Yaoyangguan (GV 3), Dachangshu (BL 25), Xiaochangshu (BL 27),Mingmen (GV 4) and Shangliao (BL 31). After 7-28 sessions of the treatments, the results showed cure in 40 cases, remarkable effect in 8 cases, effect in 3 cases, failure in 1 case, and the total effective rate in 98.1%.

  2. The tumor suppressor p53 connects ribosome biogenesis to cell cycle control: a double-edged sword. (United States)

    Hölzel, Michael; Burger, Kaspar; Mühl, Bastian; Orban, Mathias; Kellner, Markus; Eick, Dirk


    Since its first description more than 30 years ago p53 has become a paradigm for a protein with versatile functions. P53 sensitizes a large variety of genetic alterations and has been entitled the guardian of the genome. Stabilization of p53 upon DNA damage is accompanied by a complex pattern of modifications, which ascertain the cellular response either in the direction of a reversible or irreversible cell cycle arrest or programmed cell death. More recently it became evident that p53 also responds to non-genotoxic cell stress, in particular if ribosome biogenesis is affected.

  3. The acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyano enone), TBE-31, targets microtubule dynamics and cell polarity in migrating cells. (United States)

    Chan, Eddie; Saito, Akira; Honda, Tadashi; Di Guglielmo, Gianni M


    Cell migration is dependent on the microtubule network for structural support as well as for the proper delivery and positioning of polarity proteins at the leading edge of migrating cells. Identification of drugs that target cytoskeletal-dependent cell migration and protein transport in polarized migrating cells is important in understanding the cell biology of normal and tumor cells and can lead to new therapeutic targets in disease processes. Here, we show that the tricyclic compound TBE-31 directly binds to tubulin and interferes with microtubule dynamics, as assessed by end binding 1 (EB1) live cell imaging. Interestingly, this interference is independent of in vitro tubulin polymerization. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we also observed that TBE-31 interferes with the polarity of migratory cells. The polarity proteins Rac1, IQGAP and Tiam1 were localized at the leading edge of DMSO-treated migrating cell, but were observed to be in multiple protrusions around the cell periphery of TBE-31-treated cells. Finally, we observed that TBE-31 inhibits the migration of Rat2 fibroblasts with an IC50 of 0.75 μM. Taken together, our results suggest that the inhibition of cell migration by TBE-31 may result from the improper maintenance of cell polarity of migrating cells.

  4. Cutting edge: JAM-C controls homeostatic chemokine secretion in lymph node fibroblastic reticular cells expressing thrombomodulin. (United States)

    Frontera, Vincent; Arcangeli, Marie-Laure; Zimmerli, Claudia; Bardin, Florence; Obrados, Elodie; Audebert, Stéphane; Bajenoff, Marc; Borg, Jean-Paul; Aurrand-Lions, Michel


    The development and maintenance of secondary lymphoid organs, such as lymph nodes, occur in a highly coordinated manner involving lymphoid chemokine production by stromal cells. Although developmental pathways inducing lymphoid chemokine production during organogenesis are known, signals maintaining cytokine production in adults are still elusive. In this study, we show that thrombomodulin and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α identify a population of fibroblastic reticular cells in which chemokine secretion is controlled by JAM-C. We demonstrate that Jam-C-deficient mice and mice treated with Ab against JAM-C present significant decreases in stromal cell-derived factor 1α (CXCL12), CCL21, and CCL19 intranodal content. This effect is correlated with reduced naive T cell egress from lymph nodes of anti-JAM-C-treated mice.

  5. A first order theory of the p/+/-n-n/+/ edge-illuminated silicon solar cell at very high injection levels (United States)

    Goradia, C.; Sater, B. L.


    A first order theory of the edge-illuminated p(+)-n-n(+) silicon solar cell under very high injection levels has been derived. The very high injection level illuminated J-V characteristic is derived for any general base width to diffusion length (W/L) ratio and it includes the minority carrier reflection by the n-n(+) high-low junction. The beneficial effects of the high-low junction are shown to be significant until extremely high injection levels are reached. The theoretical dependencies of Jsc and Voc on temperature, incident intensity, and base resistivity are derived and discussed in detail. Some experimental results are given and these are discussed in relation to the theory.

  6. Composition analysis of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell microporous layer using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (United States)

    George, Michael G.; Wang, Jian; Banerjee, Rupak; Bazylak, Aimy


    The novel application of scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to the microporous layer (MPL) of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell is investigated. A spatially resolved chemical component distribution map is obtained for the MPL of a commercially available SGL 25 BC sample. This is achieved with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic analysis. Prior to analysis the sample is embedded in non-reactive epoxy and ultra-microtomed to a thickness of 100 nm. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), carbon particle agglomerates, and supporting epoxy resin distributions are identified and reconstructed for a scanning area of 6 μm × 6 μm. It is observed that the spatial distribution of PTFE is strongly correlated to the carbon particle agglomerations. Additionally, agglomerate structures of PTFE are identified, possibly indicating the presence of a unique mesostructure in the MPL. STXM analysis is presented as a useful technique for the investigation of chemical species distributions in the MPL.

  7. New perspective on Herbst therapy for skeletal Class II malocclusions: a proposal for maxillary protrusion management. (United States)

    Filho, Leopoldino Capelozza; Siqueira, Danilo Furquim; de Castro, Renata Cristina Faria Ribeiro; An, Tien-Li; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida


    Angle Class II malocclusions may present morphologic deviations originated from the maxilla, mandible, or both. Since its reintroduction by Pancherz, the Herbst appliance has demonstrated effectiveness in the management of patients with mandibular deficiency. Because of the intermaxillary anchorage, the action of mandibular advancement provokes simultaneous reaction of maxillary restriction, similar to high-pull headgear. This aimed of this report is to compare two cases treated in two phases. In the first interceptive phase, the transverse problem was corrected by rapid maxillary expansion, which was followed by a Herbst appliance for mandibular advancement; in the second corrective phase, the cases were finished with fixed appliances. Although Herbst appliances were used in both patients, one patient with maxillary protrusion and another with mandibular deficiency, their use targeted different types of skeletal discrepancies. This difference allowed for the comparison of treatment effects, and although both patients had their malocclusion corrected, it seems reasonable to conclude that the final outcome was more favorable for the patient with maxillary protrusion.

  8. Cutting edge: Self-antigen controls the balance between effector and regulatory T cells in peripheral tissues. (United States)

    Gratz, Iris K; Rosenblum, Michael D; Maurano, Megan M; Paw, Jonathan S; Truong, Hong-An; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann; Abbas, Abul K


    Immune homeostasis in peripheral tissues is achieved by maintaining a balance between pathogenic effector T cells (Teffs) and protective Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Using a mouse model of an inducible tissue Ag, we demonstrate that Ag persistence is a major determinant of the relative frequencies of Teffs and Tregs. Encounter of transferred naive CD4(+) T cells with transiently expressed tissue Ag leads to generation of cytokine-producing Teffs and peripheral Tregs. Persistent expression of Ag, a mimic of self-antigen, leads to functional inactivation and loss of the Teffs with preservation of Tregs in the target tissue. The inactivation of Teffs by persistent Ag is associated with reduced ERK phosphorylation, whereas Tregs show less reduction in ERK phosphorylation and are relatively resistant to ERK inhibition. Our studies reveal a crucial role for Ag in maintaining appropriate ratios of Ag-specific Teffs to Tregs in tissues.

  9. Cutting edge: TCR stimulation by antibody and bacterial superantigen induces Stat3 activation in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerwien, J; Nielsen, M; Labuda, T;


    Recent data show that TCR/CD3 stimulation induces activation of Stat5 in murine T cells. Here, we show that CD3 ligation by mAb and Staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) induce a rapid, gradually accumulating, long-lasting tyrosine, and serine phosphorylation of Stat3 (but not Stat5) in allogen...

  10. Optimal measurement for "posterolateral protrusion" of the vertebral artery at the craniovertebral junction using computed tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Ohya


    Full Text Available Purpose: Among extraosseous abnormalities of the vertebral artery (VA at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ, available evidence regarding "posterolateral protrusion," the VA running distant from the groove over the superior surface of the posterior arch of the atlas, is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal measurement to indicate posterolateral protrusion of the VA. Materials and Methods: Computed tomography angiography (CTA images of 40 consecutive patients with cervical disease were reviewed. Ultimately, 66 arteries were included in this study. Five parameters predicted to indicate posterolateral protrusion of the VA were defined (A-E and measured by two surgeons twice over a 2-week interval. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were used to examine intra-observer reproducibility and inter-observer reliability. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was performed to determine the most optimal parameter to predict posterolateral protrusion of the VA. Results: Excellent inter-observer reliability and intra-observer reproducibility were obtained for all parameters (ICC = 0.87-0.99. Among them, parameter A, defined as the maximal length from the outer surface of the VA to the outer surface of the posterior arch of the atlas, was most accurately described posterolateral protrusion of the VA. The optimal cut-off value of parameter A obtained with ROC curves was 8.3 mm (sensitivity 97.5%, specificity 100%. Conclusions: The measurement in this study can quantitatively evaluate the posterolateral protrusion of the VA. Before posterior surgery at the CVJ, pre-operative CTA can help surgeons detect anomalous VA and reduce the risk of intra-operative VA injury.

  11. Capping protein regulatory cycle driven by CARMIL and V-1 may promote actin network assembly at protruding edges. (United States)

    Fujiwara, Ikuko; Remmert, Kirsten; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Hammer, John A


    Although capping protein (CP) terminates actin filament elongation, it promotes Arp2/3-dependent actin network assembly and accelerates actin-based motility both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, capping protein Arp2/3 myosin I linker (CARMIL) antagonizes CP by reducing its affinity for the barbed end and by uncapping CP-capped filaments, whereas the protein V-1/myotrophin sequesters CP in an inactive complex. Previous work showed that CARMIL can readily retrieve CP from the CP:V-1 complex, thereby converting inactive CP into a version with moderate affinity for the barbed end. Here we further clarify the mechanism of this exchange reaction, and we demonstrate that the CP:CARMIL complex created by complex exchange slows the rate of barbed-end elongation by rapidly associating with, and dissociating from, the barbed end. Importantly, the cellular concentrations of V-1 and CP determined here argue that most CP is sequestered by V-1 at steady state in vivo. Finally, we show that CARMIL is recruited to the plasma membrane and only at cell edges undergoing active protrusion. Assuming that CARMIL is active only at this location, our data argue that a large pool of freely diffusing, inactive CP (CP:V-1) feeds, via CARMIL-driven complex exchange, the formation of weak-capping complexes (CP:CARMIL) at the plasma membrane of protruding edges. In vivo, therefore, CARMIL should promote Arp2/3-dependent actin network assembly at the leading edge by promoting barbed-end capping there.

  12. Cutting Edge: Marginal Zone Macrophages Regulate Antigen Transport by B Cells to the Follicle in the Spleen via CD21. (United States)

    Prokopec, Kajsa E; Georgoudaki, Anna-Maria; Sohn, Silke; Wermeling, Fredrik; Grönlund, Hans; Lindh, Emma; Carroll, Michael C; Karlsson, Mikael C I


    Marginal zone macrophages (MZM) are strategically located in the spleen, lining the marginal sinus where they sense inflammation and capture Ag from the circulation. One of the receptors expressed by MZM is scavenger receptor macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), which has affinity for modified self-antigens. In this article, we show that engagement of MARCO on murine macrophages induces extracellular ATP and loss of CD21 and CD62L on marginal zone B cells. Engagement of MARCO also leads to reduction of Ag transport by marginal zone B cells and affects the subsequent immune response. This study highlights a novel function for MZM in regulating Ag transport and activation, and we suggest that MARCO-dependent ATP release regulates this through shedding of CD21 and CD62L. Because systemic lupus erythematosus patients were shown to acquire autoantibodies against MARCO, this highlights a mechanism that could affect a patient's ability to combat infections.

  13. Methods of Cell Propulsion through the Local Stroma in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry J. Davies


    Full Text Available In the normal breast, cellular structures change cyclically in response to ovarian hormones. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and differentiation are integral processes that are precisely regulated. Normal epithelial cells depend on the formation of intercellular adhesion contacts to form a continuous sheet of stratifying cell layers that are attached to one and other horizontally and vertically. Cells migrate by extending membrane protrusions to explore the extracellular space locating their targets in a chemotactic manner. The formation of cell protrusions is driven by the assembly of actin filaments at the leading edge. Reorganisation is regulated by a highly integrated signalling cascade that transduces extracellular stimuli to the actin filaments. This signalling cascade is governed by GTPases which act as molecular switches leading to actin polymerisation and the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia. This process is linked to downstream molecules known collectively as WASP proteins, which, in the presence of cortactin, form a complex leading to nucleation and formation of branched filaments. In breast cancer, the cortactin is over expressed leading to increased cellular motility and invasiveness. This hugely complex and integrated signalling cascade transduces extracellular stimuli. There are multiple genes related to cell motility which are dysregulated in human breast cancers.

  14. Screening and target identification of bioactive compounds that modulate cell migration and autophagy. (United States)

    Tashiro, Etsu; Imoto, Masaya


    Cell migration is a fundamental step for embryonic development, wound repair, immune responses, and tumor cell invasion and metastasis. It is well known that protrusive structures, namely filopodia and lamellipodia, can be observed at the leading edge of migrating cells. The formation of these structures is necessary for cell migration; however, the molecular mechanisms behind the formation of these structures remain largely unclear. Therefore, bioactive compounds that modulate protrusive structures are extremely powerful tools for studying the mechanisms behind the formation of these structures and subsequent cell migration. Therefore, we have screened for bioactive compounds that inhibit the formation of filopodia, lamellipodia, or cell migration from natural products, and attempted to identify the target molecules of our isolated compounds. Additionally, autophagy is a bulk, non-specific protein degradation system that is involved in the pathogenesis of cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent extensive studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms of autophagy, however, they also remain largely unclear. Thus, we also have screened for bioactive compounds that modulate autophagy, and identified the target molecules. In the present article, we introduce the phenotypic screening system and target identification of four bioactive compounds.

  15. Cutting edge: IL-23 cross-regulates IL-12 production in T cell-dependent experimental colitis. (United States)

    Becker, Christoph; Dornhoff, Heike; Neufert, Clemens; Fantini, Massimo C; Wirtz, Stefan; Huebner, Sabine; Nikolaev, Alexei; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Murphy, Andrew J; Valenzuela, David M; Yancopoulos, George D; Galle, Peter R; Karow, Margaret; Neurath, Markus F


    Although IL-12 and IL-23 share the common p40 subunit, IL-23, rather than IL-12, seems to drive the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and arthritis, because IL-23/p19 knockout mice are protected from disease. In contrast, we describe in this study that newly created LacZ knockin mice deficient for IL-23 p19 were highly susceptible for the development of experimental T cell-mediated TNBS colitis and showed even more severe colitis than wild-type mice by endoscopic and histologic criteria. Subsequent studies revealed that dendritic cells from p19-deficient mice produce elevated levels of IL-12, and that IL-23 down-regulates IL-12 expression upon TLR ligation. Finally, in vivo blockade of IL-12 p40 in IL-23-deficient mice rescued mice from lethal colitis. Taken together, our data identify cross-regulation of IL-12 expression by IL-23 as novel key regulatory pathway during initiation of T cell dependent colitis.

  16. Pregnancy close to the edge: an immunosuppressive infiltrate in the chorionic plate of placentas from uncomplicated egg cell donation. (United States)

    Schonkeren, Dorrith; Swings, Godelieve; Roberts, Drucilla; Claas, Frans; de Heer, Emile; Scherjon, Sicco


    In pregnancies achieved after egg donation (ED) tolerance towards a completely allogeneic fetus is mediated by several complex immunoregulatory mechanisms, of which numerous aspects are still unknown. A distinct lesion not described previously in the literature, was repeatedly found in the chorionic plate in a substantial portion of placentas from ED pregnancies, but never in placentas from normal term pregnancies. The aim of this study was to assess its origin and its cellular composition. The relation between the lesion, the clinical and histological parameters were assessed. In addition we investigated the relation with the number of HLA-mismatches and KIR genotype of mother and child.In ten out of twenty-six (38.5%) placentas from ED pregnancies an inflammatory lesion was present in the chorionic plate. A significantly lower incidence of pre-eclampsia was found in the group with the lesion; 0% versus 45.5%. A significant relation was found between this lesion and the presence of intervillositis, chronic deciduitis, presence of plasma cells and fibrin deposition in the decidua. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation with X/Y-chromosome probes showed that the majority of cells present in the lesion are of maternal origin. The expression of the macrophage marker CD14+ and of the type 2 macrophage (M2) marker CD163+ was significantly higher in the lesion. The incidence of a fetal HLA-C2 genotype was significantly higher in cases with a lesion compared to the group without the lesion. In conclusion, a striking relationship was observed between the presence of a not previously described inflammatory lesion in the chorionic plate and the absence of pre-eclampsia in ED pregnancies. The lesion consists of mainly maternal cells with a higher expression of the macrophage marker CD14+ and the M2 marker CD163+. These findings suggest a protective immune mechanism which might contribute to the prevention of severe clinical complications like pre-eclampsia.

  17. Pregnancy close to the edge: an immunosuppressive infiltrate in the chorionic plate of placentas from uncomplicated egg cell donation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorrith Schonkeren

    Full Text Available In pregnancies achieved after egg donation (ED tolerance towards a completely allogeneic fetus is mediated by several complex immunoregulatory mechanisms, of which numerous aspects are still unknown. A distinct lesion not described previously in the literature, was repeatedly found in the chorionic plate in a substantial portion of placentas from ED pregnancies, but never in placentas from normal term pregnancies. The aim of this study was to assess its origin and its cellular composition. The relation between the lesion, the clinical and histological parameters were assessed. In addition we investigated the relation with the number of HLA-mismatches and KIR genotype of mother and child.In ten out of twenty-six (38.5% placentas from ED pregnancies an inflammatory lesion was present in the chorionic plate. A significantly lower incidence of pre-eclampsia was found in the group with the lesion; 0% versus 45.5%. A significant relation was found between this lesion and the presence of intervillositis, chronic deciduitis, presence of plasma cells and fibrin deposition in the decidua. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation with X/Y-chromosome probes showed that the majority of cells present in the lesion are of maternal origin. The expression of the macrophage marker CD14+ and of the type 2 macrophage (M2 marker CD163+ was significantly higher in the lesion. The incidence of a fetal HLA-C2 genotype was significantly higher in cases with a lesion compared to the group without the lesion. In conclusion, a striking relationship was observed between the presence of a not previously described inflammatory lesion in the chorionic plate and the absence of pre-eclampsia in ED pregnancies. The lesion consists of mainly maternal cells with a higher expression of the macrophage marker CD14+ and the M2 marker CD163+. These findings suggest a protective immune mechanism which might contribute to the prevention of severe clinical complications like pre-eclampsia.

  18. Role of rf electric and magnetic fields in heating of micro-protrusions in accelerating structures

    CERN Document Server

    Nusinovich, Gregory S


    It is known that high-gradient operation in metallic accelerating structures causes significant deterioration of structure surfaces that, in turn, greatly increases the probability of microwave breakdown. At the same time, the physical reason for this deterioration so far is not well understood. In the present paper, the role of two effects is analyzed, viz. (a) the microwave heating caused by penetration of the rf magnetic field into microprotrusion of a radius on the order of the skin depth and (b) the Joule heating caused by the field emitted current, i.e. the effect of the rf electric field magnified by a sharp protrusion. Corresponding expressions for the power densities of both effects are derived and the criterion for evaluating the dominance of one of these two is formulated. This criterion is analyzed and illustrated by the discussion of an example with parameters typical for recent experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) National Accelerator Laboratory.

  19. Severe bidentoalveolar protrusion treated with orthodontic microimplant-dependent en-masse retraction. (United States)

    Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kook, Yoon-Ah


    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 14.5-year-old girl with severe bidentoalveolar protrusion. Specially designed sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) orthodontic microimplants (C-implants, Cimplant Co, Seoul, Korea) were placed in the alveolar bone in all 4 quadrants to provide anchorage for en-masse retraction without the help of banded or bonded molars. Successful retraction was achieved. The mandibular dentition was detailed by using conventional orthodontic appliances during the finishing stage. The osseointegration potential of these microimplants allows them to resist rotational force moments and control 3-dimensional movements of the anterior teeth during retraction. Facial esthetics improved for the patient, fullness of the upper and lower lips was reduced, and the interdental relationship was corrected. Biomechanical considerations, efficacy, and potential complications of the treatment technique are discussed.

  20. Successful treatment of Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ayaz


    Full Text Available This case report deals with the successful orthodontic treatment of a 14-year-old female patient having Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription. She reported with forwardly placed upper front teeth and difficulty in closing lips. She had prognathic maxilla, retrognathic mandible, and full cusp Class II molar and canine relation bilaterally with overjet of 7 mm. She was in cervical vertebrae maturation indicator Stage IV. The case was treated by fixed extraction mechanotherapy. Interarch Class II mechanics was used to retract the upper incisor and to mesialize the lower molars. Simultaneously, Class I mechanics was used to upright lower incisors. Tip back bend, curve of Spee, and extra palatal root torque were incorporated in upper archwire to maintain molars in upright position and prevent extrusion and deepening of bite, respectively. There was satisfactory improvement in facial profile at the end of 24 months. After a follow-up of 6 months, occlusion was stable.

  1. Edge physics Simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.Q. Xu; C.S. Chang


    @@ The plasma edge includes the pedestal, scrape-off, and divertor regions. A complete edge physics should deal with the plasma, atomic, and the plasma-wall interaction phenomena. The edge provides the source of plasma through ionization of the incoming neutral particles and source of impurity through the wall sputtering. Edge plasma sets a boundary condition for the core confinement physics. Importance of the edge plasma has been elevated to the top list of the ITER physics research needs due to the necessity of the self-organized plasma pedestal and its destruction by edge localized mode activities. Extrapolation of the present tokamak data base predicts that a sufficient pedestal height is a necessary condition for the success of ITER.

  2. Cutting edge: A common polymorphism impairs cell surface trafficking and functional responses of TLR1 but protects against leprosy. (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M; Lyle, Elizabeth A; Omueti, Katherine O; Stepensky, Vitaly A; Yegin, Olcay; Alpsoy, Erkan; Hamann, Lutz; Schumann, Ralf R; Tapping, Richard I


    TLRs constitute an essential family of pattern recognition molecules that, through direct recognition of conserved microbial components, initiate inflammatory responses following infection. In this role, TLR1 enables host responses to a variety of bacteria, including pathogenic species of mycobacteria. In this study, we report that I602S, a common single nucleotide polymorphism within TLR1, is associated with aberrant trafficking of the receptor to the cell surface and diminished responses of blood monocytes to bacterial agonists. When expressed in heterologous systems, the TLR1 602S variant, but not the TLR1 602I variant, exhibits the expected deficiencies in trafficking and responsiveness. Among white Europeans, the 602S allele represents the most common single nucleotide polymorphism affecting TLR function identified to date. Surprisingly, the 602S allele is associated with a decreased incidence of leprosy, suggesting that Mycobacterium leprae subverts the TLR system as a mechanism of immune evasion.

  3. Plasmonic nano-protrusions: hierarchical nanostructures for single-molecule Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Basuray, Sagnik; Pathak, Avinash; Bok, Sangho; Chen, Biyan; Hamm, Steven C.; Mathai, Cherian J.; Guha, Suchismita; Gangopadhyay, Keshab; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra


    Classical methods for enhancing the electromagnetic field from substrates for spectroscopic applications, such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), have involved the generation of hotspots through directed self-assembly of nanoparticles or by patterning nanoscale features using expensive nanolithography techniques. A novel large-area, cost-effective soft lithographic technique involving glancing angle deposition (GLAD) of silver on polymer gratings is reported here. This method produces hierarchical nanostructures with high enhancement factors capable of analyzing single-molecule SERS. The uniform ordered and patterned nanostructures provide extraordinary field enhancements that serve as excitatory hotspots and are herein interrogated by SERS. The high spatial homogeneity of the Raman signal and signal enhancement over a large area from a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 2-naphthalenethiol demonstrated the uniformity of the hotspots. The enhancement was shown to have a critical dependence on the underlying nanostructure via the surface energy landscape and GLAD angles for a fixed deposition thickness, as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy surface analysis of the substrate. The nanostructured surface leads to an extremely concentrated electromagnetic field at sharp nanoscale peaks, here referred to as ‘nano-protrusions’, due to the coupling of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) with localized SPR. These nano-protrusions act as hotspots which provide Raman enhancement factors as high as 108 over a comparable SAM on silver. Comparison of our substrate with the commercial substrate Klarite™ shows higher signal enhancement and minimal signal variation with hotspot spatial distribution. By using the proper plasmon resonance angle corresponding to the laser source wavelength, further enhancement in signal intensity can be achieved. Single-molecule Raman spectra for rhodamine 6G are obtained from the best SERS substrate (a

  4. Cortico-muscular synchronization by proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles during isometric tongue protrusion. (United States)

    Maezawa, Hitoshi; Mima, Tatsuya; Yazawa, Shogo; Matsuhashi, Masao; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Funahashi, Makoto


    Tongue movements contribute to oral functions including swallowing, vocalizing, and breathing. Fine tongue movements are regulated through efferent and afferent connections between the cortex and tongue. It has been demonstrated that cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) is reflected at two frequency bands during isometric tongue protrusions: the beta (β) band at 15-35Hz and the low-frequency band at 2-10Hz. The CMC at the β band (β-CMC) reflects motor commands from the primary motor cortex (M1) to the tongue muscles through hypoglossal motoneuron pools. However, the generator mechanism of the CMC at the low-frequency band (low-CMC) remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of low-CMC during isometric tongue protrusion using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) were also recorded following electrical tongue stimulation. Significant low-CMC and β-CMC were observed over both hemispheres for each side of the tongue. Time-domain analysis showed that the MEG signal followed the electromyography signal for low-CMC, which was contrary to the finding that the MEG signal preceded the electromyography signal for β-CMC. The mean conduction time from the tongue to the cortex was not significantly different between the low-CMC (mean, 80.9ms) and SEFs (mean, 71.1ms). The cortical sources of low-CMC were located significantly posterior (mean, 10.1mm) to the sources of β-CMC in M1, but were in the same area as tongue SEFs in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). These results reveal that the low-CMC may be driven by proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles to S1, and that the oscillatory interaction was derived from each side of the tongue to both hemispheres. Oscillatory proprioceptive feedback from the tongue muscles may aid in the coordination of sophisticated tongue movements in humans.

  5. Tasting edge effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bocquet, L


    We show that the baking of potato wedges constitutes a crunchy example of edge effects, which are usually demonstrated in electrostatics. A simple model of the diffusive transport of water vapor around the potato wedges shows that the water vapor flux diverges at the sharp edges in analogy with its electrostatic counterpart. This increased evaporation at the edges leads to the crispy taste of these parts of the potatoes.

  6. High-surface-area nanomesh graphene with enriched edge sites as efficient metal-free cathodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (United States)

    Yang, Wang; Xu, Xiuwen; Gao, Yalun; Li, Zhao; Li, Cuiyu; Wang, Wenping; Chen, Yu; Ning, Guoqing; Zhang, Liqiang; Yang, Fan; Chen, Shengli; Wang, Aijun; Kong, Jing; Li, Yongfeng


    Exploiting cost-effective and highly efficient counter electrodes (CEs) has been a persistent objective for practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, we present an efficient CE by using pure three-dimensional (3D) nanomesh graphene frameworks (NGFs) which are synthesized via a template-directed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach. The high-surface-area 3D NGFs associated with the enriched surface edge defects make it very efficient towards I3- reduction even without any Pt catalyst. More interestingly, by virtue of the interpenetrating graphene frameworks, the NGFs exhibit excellent electron conductivity, thus leading to facile charge transfer. Consequently, the DSSCs with pure NGFs as CEs display a power conversion efficiency of 7.32%, which is comparable to that of Pt as CEs (7.28%), thereby exhibiting great potential as low-cost and highly efficient CE materials for large-scale deployment of DSSCs.Exploiting cost-effective and highly efficient counter electrodes (CEs) has been a persistent objective for practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, we present an efficient CE by using pure three-dimensional (3D) nanomesh graphene frameworks (NGFs) which are synthesized via a template-directed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach. The high-surface-area 3D NGFs associated with the enriched surface edge defects make it very efficient towards I3- reduction even without any Pt catalyst. More interestingly, by virtue of the interpenetrating graphene frameworks, the NGFs exhibit excellent electron conductivity, thus leading to facile charge transfer. Consequently, the DSSCs with pure NGFs as CEs display a power conversion efficiency of 7.32%, which is comparable to that of Pt as CEs (7.28%), thereby exhibiting great potential as low-cost and highly efficient CE materials for large-scale deployment of DSSCs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional SEM image, SAED image, cross-sectional SEM

  7. Effects of an oral appliance with different mandibular protrusion positions at a constant vertical dimension on obstructive sleep apnea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarab, G.; Lobbezoo, F.; Hamburger, H.L.; Naeije, M.


    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of four mandibular protrusion positions, at a constant vertical dimension, on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Seventeen OSA patients (49.2 ± 8.5 years) received an adjustable mandibular advancement device (MAD). The patients underwent four polysomnogra

  8. Field emission study from an array of hierarchical micro protrusions on stainless steel surface generated by femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; More, M. A.; Basu, S.; Sinha, Sucharita


    This paper reports our results on femtosecond (fs) pulsed laser induced surface micro/nano structuring of stainless steel 304 (SS 304) samples and their characterization in terms of surface morphology, formed material phases on laser irradiation and field emission studies. Our investigations reveal that nearly uniform and dense array of hierarchical micro-protrusions (density: ∼5.6 × 105 protrusions/cm2) is formed upon laser treatment. Typical tip diameters of the generated protrusions are in the range of 2-5 μm and these protrusions are covered with submicron sized features. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis of the laser irradiated sample surface has shown formation mainly of iron oxides and cementite (Fe3C) phases in the treated region. These laser micro-structured samples have shown good field emission properties such as low turn on field (∼4.1 V/μm), high macroscopic field enhancement factor (1830) and stable field emission current under ultra high vacuum conditions.

  9. Role of Nottingham and Thomson effects in heating of micro-protrusion in high-gradient accelerating structures (United States)

    Keser, Aydin; Nusinovich, Gregory; Kashyn, Dmytro; Antonsen, Thomas


    It is widely accepted that one of the reasons for appearance of the RF breakdown which limits operation of high-gradient accelerating structures is the electron dark current [1]. This field emitted current, usually considered as a precursor of the breakdown, can be emitted from apexes of micro-protrusions on a structure surface. Therefore field and thermal processes in such protrusions deserve careful studies [2, 3]. The goal of our first study [3] was to analyze 2D process of RF field penetration inside protrusion of a metal with finite conductivity and to study corresponding Joule heating. In the current study, it is found that space charges can have a stabilizing effect on the electric field. We include a modification of the 1D model described in [4]. Moreover, we include into consideration, first, the Nottingham effect which may significantly change the protrusion heating. We also investigate the interplay between high temperature gradients and electric fields (Thomson heating).[4pt] [1] Wang and Loew, SLAC PUB 7684 October 1997.[0pt] [2] K.L. Jensen, Y.Y. Lau, D.W. Feldman, P.G. O'Shea, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 081001(2008).[0pt] [3] Kashyn et al, AAC-2010.[0pt] [4] K.L. Jensen, J. LEbowitz, Y.Y. LAu, J. Luginsland, Journal of Applied Physics 111, 054917(2012).

  10. Improved MR imaging of the cervical spine, 2; Study of disk protrusion in the cervical spine in flexion-versus-extension views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanno, Munehiko; Kyomasu, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Masafumi (Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)) (and others)


    Comparative study of incidence of disk protrusion was performed on the basis of MR imaging in a state of flexion versus extension. The results showed that the incidnece of disk protrusion at each disk level was generally higher on the extension images than on the flexion images at the corresponding levels. The degree of difference in the incidence of the disk protrusion on flexion and extension was the greatest at the mid-cervical level spine. Based on the results with respect to features of the cervical spine in extension and flexion, it appears that the difference in incidence of disk protrusion is probably caused by movement in response to bending of the cervical spine. These results may provide information concerning the dynamic of cervical disks and may partly explain cases in which patients have symptoms of cervical myelopathy and/or radiculopathy but have no disk protrusion on images in the neutral position. (author).

  11. Unreacted PbI2 as a Double-Edged Sword for Enhancing the Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells. (United States)

    Jacobsson, T Jesper; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Halvani Anaraki, Elham; Philippe, Bertrand; Stranks, Samuel D; Bouduban, Marine E F; Tress, Wolfgang; Schenk, Kurt; Teuscher, Joël; Moser, Jacques-E; Rensmo, Håkan; Hagfeldt, Anders


    Lead halide perovskites have over the past few years attracted considerable interest as photo absorbers in PV applications with record efficiencies now reaching 22%. It has recently been found that not only the composition but also the precise stoichiometry is important for the device performance. Recent reports have, for example, demonstrated small amount of PbI2 in the perovskite films to be beneficial for the overall performance of both the standard perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3, as well as for the mixed perovskites (CH3NH3)x(CH(NH2)2)(1-x)PbBryI(3-y). In this work a broad range of characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photo electron spectroscopy (PES), transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS), UV-vis, electroluminescence (EL), photoluminescence (PL), and confocal PL mapping have been used to further understand the importance of remnant PbI2 in perovskite solar cells. Our best devices were over 18% efficient, and had in line with previous results a small amount of excess PbI2. For the PbI2-deficient samples, the photocurrent dropped, which could be attributed to accumulation of organic species at the grain boundaries, low charge carrier mobility, and decreased electron injection into the TiO2. The PbI2-deficient compositions did, however, also have advantages. The record Voc was as high as 1.20 V and was found in PbI2-deficient samples. This was correlated with high crystal quality, longer charge carrier lifetimes, and high PL yields and was rationalized as a consequence of the dynamics of the perovskite formation. We further found the ion migration to be obstructed in the PbI2-deficient samples, which decreased the JV hysteresis and increased the photostability. PbI2-deficient synthesis conditions can thus be used to deposit perovskites with excellent crystal quality but with the downside of grain boundaries enriched in organic species, which act as a barrier toward

  12. On Edge Detection, (United States)


    T. 0. "On boundary detection." A. I. Memo 183, MIT, 1980. Hildreth, E. C. "Implementation of a theory of edge detection ." A. /. Memo 579, MIT, 1980...Detection." IEEE Trans. PAMI, 6, 678-680, 1983. Marr, 0. C. and Hildreth, E. C, " Theory of edge detection ." Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 207, 187-217, 1980. Marr

  13. Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C


    complete polymer solar cell module prepared in the ambient atmosphere using all-solution processing with no vacuum steps and full roll-to-roll (R2R) processing is presented. The modules comprise five layers that were prepared on a 175-μm flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrate with an 80......-nm layer of transparent conducting indium–tin oxide (ITO). The ITO layer was first patterned by screen printing an etch resist followed by etching. The second layer was applied by either knife-over-edge (KOE) coating or slot-die coating a solution of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-nps) followed...... was patterned into stripes and juxtaposed with the ITO layer. The fourth layer comprised screen-printed or slot-die-coated PEDOT:PSS and the fifth and the final layer comprised a screen-printed or slot-die-coated silver electrode. The final module dimensions were 28 cm×32 cm and presented four individual solar...

  14. Cutting Edge: Localization of linker for activation of T cells to lipid rafts is not essential in T cell activation and development. (United States)

    Zhu, Minghua; Shen, Shudan; Liu, Yan; Granillo, Olivia; Zhang, Weiguo


    It has been proposed that upon T cell activation, linker for activation of T cells (LAT), a transmembrane adaptor protein localized to lipid rafts, orchestrates formation of multiprotein complexes and activates signaling cascades in lipid rafts. However, whether lipid rafts really exist or function remains controversial. To address the importance of lipid rafts in LAT function, we generated a fusion protein to target LAT to nonraft fractions using the transmembrane domain from a nonraft protein, linker for activation of X cells (LAX). Surprisingly, this fusion protein functioned well in TCR signaling. It restored MAPK activation, calcium flux, and NFAT activation in LAT-deficient cells. To further study the function of this fusion protein in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that express this protein. Analysis of these mice indicated that it was fully capable of replacing LAT in thymocyte development and T cell function. Our results demonstrate that LAT localization to lipid rafts is not essential during normal T cell activation and development.

  15. Pathological classification of lumbar disc protrusion and its guidance for surgical treatment%腰椎间盘突出症的病理学分型及其对手术方案选择的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马信龙; 徐宝山; 王涛; 马剑雄; 田鹏; 韩超; 臧加成; 李鹏飞; 孔敬波


    Objective To introduce a pathological classification of lumbar disc protrusion for guidance of surgical treatment.Methods From February 2001 to October 2010,812 patients of lumbar disc protrusion underwent surgical treatment,and three types of protrusions were defined according to intraoperative findings,namely damage-herniation type,degeneration-protrusion type,and posterior vertebral osteochondrosis with disc protrusion type.All of 124 specimens of the first two types were observed by microscopic pathology,immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.Results Damage-herniation type was observed in 495 patients,with an average age of 38.6 years old,the history of slight trauma and positive straight leg raising test (SLRT) existed in 80.4% and 76.8% of them,respectively.Pathological examinations showed inflammation and revascularization,T-lymphocytes and macrophage infiltration,IgG and IgM deposition,and IL-7 expression,while ultrastructive examination showed mainly destructive signs,which suggested the presence of injury mechanism.Degeneration-protrusion type was observed in 215 patients with an average of 55.7 years old,the intermittent claudicating and positive SLRT existed in 85.1% and 14.9% of them,respectively.Pathological examinations showed dense proliferation and disarrangement of the collagenous fibers and cartilage matrix,none or minimal inflammation or immune response,while ultrastructive examination showed mainly hyperplasia signs including active cell synthesis,which suggested the degenerative and proliferative mechanism.The third type protrusion was observed in 102 patients.Osseous protrusion and defect in the vertebral body were showed by X-ray and CT.Conclusion Lumbar disc protrusion has different pathological types,pathogenesis and clinical characteristics.Damage-herniation type had obvious inflammations and damage responses,so the herniated and broken nucleus pulpous should be removed adequately during surgical treatment.Degeneration-protrusion

  16. Casimir edge effects

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, H; Gies, Holger; Klingmuller, Klaus


    We compute Casimir forces in open geometries with edges, involving parallel as well as perpendicular semi-infinite plates. We focus on Casimir configurations which are governed by a unique dimensional scaling law with a universal coefficient. With the aid of worldline numerics, we determine this coefficient for various geometries for the case of scalar-field fluctuations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our results facilitate an estimate of the systematic error induced by the edges of finite plates, for instance, in a standard parallel-plate experiment. The Casimir edge effects for this case can be reformulated as an increase of the effective area of the configuration.

  17. Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Labrecque, Joseph


    Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide is a practical guide on creating engaging content for the Web with Adobe's newest HTML5 tool. By taking a chapter-by-chapter look at each major aspect of Adobe Edge, the book lets you digest the available features in small, easily understandable chunks, allowing you to start using Adobe Edge for your web design needs immediately. If you are interested in creating engaging motion and interactive compositions using web standards with professional tooling, then this book is for you. Those with a background in Flash Professional wanting to get started quickly with Adobe

  18. Stick-slip motion and elastic coupling in crawling cells. (United States)

    Loosley, Alex J; Tang, Jay X


    Crawling cells exhibit a variety of cell shape dynamics, ranging from complex ruffling and bubbling to oscillatory protrusion and retraction. Periodic shape changes during cell migration are recorded in fast-moving fish epithelial keratocytes where sticking and slipping at opposite sides of the cell's broad trailing edge generate bipedal locomotion. Barnhart et al. [Biophys. J. 98, 933 (2010)] recently proposed a mechanical spring model specifically designed to capture bipedal locomotion in these cells. We extend their model by benchmarking the dynamics of four mechanical configurations against those of crawling keratocytes. Our analysis shows that elastic coupling to the cell nucleus is necessary to generate its lateral motion. We select one configuration to study the effects of cell elasticity, size, and aspect ratio on crawling dynamics. This configuration predicts that shape dynamics are highly dependent on the lamellipodial elasticity but less sensitive to elasticity at the trailing edge. The model predicts a wide range of dynamics seen in actual crawling keratocytes, including coherent bipedal, coherent nonbipedal, and decoherent motions. This work highlights how the dynamical behavior of crawling cells can be derived from mechanical properties through which biochemical factors may operate to regulate cellular locomotion.

  19. Adobe Edge Preview 3

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris


    Want to use an Adobe tool to design animated web graphics that work on iPhone and iPad? You've come to the right book. Adobe Edge Preview 3: The Missing Manual shows you how to build HTML5 graphics using simple visual tools. No programming experience? No problem. Adobe Edge writes the underlying code for you. With this eBook, you'll be designing great-looking web elements in no time. Get to know the workspace. Learn how Adobe Edge Preview 3 performs its magic.Create and import graphics. Make drawings with Edge's tools, or use art you designed in other programs.Work with text. Build menus, lab

  20. The Dorsal Mesenchymal Protrusion and the Pathogenesis of Atrioventricular Septal Defects (United States)

    Burns, Tara; Yang, Yanping; Hiriart, Emilye; Wessels, Andy


    Congenital heart malformations are the most common type of defects found at birth. About 1% of infants are born with one or more heart defect on a yearly basis. Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) causes more deaths in the first year of life than any other congenital abnormality, and each year, nearly twice as many children die in the United States from CHD as from all forms of childhood cancers combined. Atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD) are congenital heart malformations affecting approximately 1 in 2000 live births. Babies born with an AVSD often require surgical intervention shortly after birth. However, even after successful surgery, these individuals typically have to deal with lifelong complications with the most common being a leaky mitral valve. In recent years the understanding of the molecular etiology and morphological mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of AVSDs has significantly changed. Specifically, these studies have linked abnormal development of the Dorsal Mesenchymal Protrusion (DMP), a Second Heart Field-derived structure, to the development of this congenital defect. In this review we will be discuss some of the latest insights into the role of the DMP in the normal formation of the atrioventricular septal complex and in the pathogenesis of AVSDs. PMID:28133602

  1. Biomechanical implications of excessive endograft protrusion into the aortic arch after thoracic endovascular repair. (United States)

    Rinaudo, Antonino; Raffa, Giuseppe Maria; Scardulla, Francesco; Pilato, Michele; Scardulla, Cesare; Pasta, Salvatore


    Endografts placed in the aorta for thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) may determine malappositioning to the lesser curvature of the aortic wall, thus resulting in a devastating complication known as endograft collapse. This premature device failure commonly occurs in young individuals after TEVAR for traumatic aortic injuries as a result of applications outside the physical conditions for which the endograft was designed. In this study, an experimentally-calibrated fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model was developed to assess the hemodynamic and stress/strain distributions acting on the excessive protrusion extension (PE) of endografts deployed in four young patients underwent TEVAR. Endograft infolding was experimentally measured for different hemodynamic scenarios by perfusion testing and then used to numerically calibrate the mechanical behavior of endograft PE. Results evinced that the extent of endograft can severely alter the hemodynamic and structural loads exerted on the endograft PE. Specifically, PE determined a physiological aortic coarctation into the aortic arch characterized by a helical flow in the distal descending aorta. High device displacement and transmural pressure across the stent-graft wall were found for a PE longer than 21 mm. Finally, marked intramural stress and principal strain distributions on the protruded segment of the endograft wall may suggest failure due to material fatigue. These critical parameters may contribute to the endograft collapse observed clinically and can be used to design new devices more suitable for young individuals to be treated with an endoprosthesis for TEVAR of blunt traumatic aortic injuries.

  2. The Electrode Edge Effect in LCD Cell%液晶盒中电极边缘效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志东; 赵金良


    The spatial distribution of directors within the LCD cell is calculated by means of solving two-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equations using difference method. Based on the spatial distribution of directors, we get the spatial distribution of intensity. So we know, in one hand, the spatial distributions of transmitting light in-tensity are different from those in the center of the electrode. In other hand, with the same other conditions, but reducing the width of the gap of the electrodes graduaUy, the optical intensity becomes analogous to each picture-element electrode connected as a whole without gaps. The two phenomenons are owning both to the electrode's edge effect and the voltage-dependent transmittance relationship.%利用差分方法通过解二维非线性偏微分方程,得到了液晶盒中液晶指向矢的空间分布,在此基础上,进一步得到了透射光强的分布,我们发现,一方面,电极边缘处透射光强分布不同于电极中间处;另一方面,其它条件不变,逐渐减小电极间间隙宽度,会造成液晶屏相邻像素之间难以分辨.通过分析知道,这是由电极的边缘效应和 VA 显示模式自身电光特性共同作用的结果.

  3. Theory of Edge Detection (United States)

    Marr, D.; Hildreth, E.


    A theory of edge detection is presented. The analysis proceeds in two parts. (1) Intensity changes, which occur in a natural image over a wide range of scales, are detected separately at different scales. An appropriate filter for this purpose at a given scale is found to be the second derivative of a Gaussian, and it is shown that, provided some simple conditions are satisfied, these primary filters need not be orientation-dependent. Thus, intensity changes at a given scale are best detected by finding the zero values of nabla 2G(x, y)* I(x, y) for image I, where G(x, y) is a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution and nabla 2 is the Laplacian. The intensity changes thus discovered in each of the channels are then represented by oriented primitives called zero-crossing segments, and evidence is given that this representation is complete. (2) Intensity changes in images arise from surface discontinuities or from reflectance or illumination boundaries, and these all have the property that they are spatially localized. Because of this, the zero-crossing segments from the different channels are not independent, and rules are deduced for combining them into a description of the image. This description is called the raw primal sketch. The theory explains several basic psychophysical findings, and the operation of forming oriented zero-crossing segments from the output of centre-surround nabla 2G filters acting on the image forms the basis for a physiological model of simple cells (see Marr & Ullman 1979).

  4. Significant intravesical prostatic protrusion and prostatic calcification predict unfavorable outcomes of medical treatment for male lower urinary tract symptoms


    Chia-Hao Kuei; Chun-Hou Liao; Bing-Juin Chiang


    Objective: To evaluate the impact of intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) and prostatic calcification on medical treatment for male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Materials and methods: Men over the age of 40 years with total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥ 8 were recruited from January to August 2013. The maximal flow rate, postvoiding residual (PVR) urine volume, total prostate volume (TPV), transitional zone volume (TZV), transitional zone index (TZI), and grades ...

  5. The Edge supersonic transport (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian


    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  6. Comparison between prostate volume and intravesical prostatic protrusion in detecting bladder outlet obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. (United States)

    Hossain, A K M S; Alam, A K M K; Habib, A K M K; Rashid, M M; Rahman, H; Islam, A K M A; Jahan, M U


    The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the correlation of intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) and prostate volume (PV) with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). This study was conducted in the department of urology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh, between July 2009 to September 2010. Fifty benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients were included in the study. Their evaluation consisted of history along with International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), digital rectal examination (DRE), transabdominal ultrasonography to measure prostate volume, intravesical prostatic protrusion & post voidal residual (PVR) urine and pressure-flow studies to detect bladder outflow obstruction (BOO). Statistical analysis included Unpaired 't' test, Chi-square test and Spearman's Rank correlation test. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the correlation of PV and IPP with BOO. Mean prostate volume was significantly larger in bladder outlet obstructed patients (PProstate volume & intravesical prostatic protrusion measured through transabdominal ultrasonography are noninvasive and accessible method that significantly correlates with bladder outlet obstruction in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and the correlation of IPP is much more stronger than that of prostate volume.

  7. Extended Klein edges in graphene. (United States)

    He, Kuang; Robertson, Alex W; Lee, Sungwoo; Yoon, Euijoon; Lee, Gun-Do; Warner, Jamie H


    Graphene has three experimentally confirmed periodic edge terminations, zigzag, reconstructed 5-7, and arm-chair. Theory predicts a fourth periodic edge of graphene called the extended Klein (EK) edge, which consists of a series of single C atoms protruding from a zigzag edge. Here, we confirm the existence of EK edges in both graphene nanoribbons and on the edge of bulk graphene using atomic resolution imaging by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. The formation of the EK edge stems from sputtering and reconstruction of the zigzag edge. Density functional theory reveals minimal energy for EK edge reconstruction and bond distortion both in and out of plane, supporting our TEM observations. The EK edge can now be included as the fourth member of observed periodic edge structures in graphene.

  8. A New Edge-directed Subpixel Edge Localization Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于新瑞; 徐威; 王石刚; 李倩


    Localization of the inspected chip image is one of the key problems with machine vision aided surface mount devices (SMD) and other micro-electronic equipments. This paper presents a new edge-directed subpixel edge localization method. The image is divided into two regions, edge and non-edge, using edge detection to emphasize the edge feature. Since the edges of the chip image are straight, they have straight-line characteristics locally and globally. First,the line segments of the straight edge are located to subpixel precision, according to their local straight properties, in a 3 × 3 neighborhood of the edge region. Second, the subpixel midpoints of the line segments are computed. Finally, the straight edge is fitted using the midpoints and the least square method, according to its global straight property in the entire edge region. In this way, the edge is located to subpixel precision. While fitting the edge, the irregular points are eliminated by the angles of the line segments to improve the precision. We can also distinguish different edges and their intersections using the angles of the line segments and distances between the edge points, then give the vectorial result of the image edge with high precision.

  9. Physiotherapy of postoperation of lumbar disc protrusion%腰椎间盘突出症术后的理疗康复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Background:The common treatment of lumbar disc protrusion is operation.After the extirpation of intervertebral disc,patients always need processes of plerosis and healing and always have edema of nerve root and aseptic inflammation.

  10. Theory of edge radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Kocharyan, V.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.


    We formulate a complete theory of Edge Radiation based on a novel method relying on Fourier Optics techniques. Similar types of radiation like Transition UndulatorRadiation are addressed in the framework of the same formalism. Special attention is payed in discussing the validity of approximations upon which the theory is built. Our study makes consistent use of both similarity techniques and comparisons with numerical results from simulation. We discuss both near and far zone. Physical understanding of many asymptotes is discussed. Based on the solution of the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, we also discuss an analytical model to describe the presence of a vacuum chamber. In particular, explicit calculations for a circular vacuum chamber are reported. Finally, we consider the use of Edge Radiation as a tool for electron beam diagnostics. We discuss Coherent Edge Radiation, Extraction of Edge Radiation by a mirror, and other issues becoming important at high electron energy and long radiation wavelength. Based on this work we also study the impact of Edge Radiation on XFEL setups and we discuss recent results. (orig.)

  11. Treatment of Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion by means of unusual extractions and anchorage mini-implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Moon Chae


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients with dental Class II bialveolar protrusion are generally treated by extracting the four first premolars or two first and two second premolars, and retracting the anterior teeth. This case report describes the treatment of an adult patient with bialveolar protrusion, a Class II canine and molar relationship, and lip protrusion. METHODS: In this patient, the maxillary right second molar (1.7 had to be extracted due to extensive caries. To create sufficient space to retract the anterior teeth, the maxillary right posterior teeth were distalized with a maxillary posterior mini-implant (1.2~1.3 mm in diameter, 10 mm long, which was placed into the maxillary tuberosity area and allowed an en masse retraction of the maxillary anterior teeth. RESULTS: Overall, mini-implant can provide anchorage to produce a good facial profile even without additional premolar extraction in cases of dental Class II bialveolar protrusion with the hopeless second molar. CONCLUSION: The total treatment period was 42 months and the results were acceptable for 34 months after debonding.INTRODUÇÃO: os pacientes com Classe II e biprotrusão alveolar são, geralmente, tratados com extração de quatro primeiros pré-molares ou dois primeiros e dois segundos pré-molares, e retração dos dentes anteriores. Este relato de caso descreve o tratamento de um paciente adulto com biprotrusão alveolar, relação de caninos e de molares em Classe II e protrusão labial. MÉTODOS: nesse paciente, o segundo molar superior direito precisou ser extraído devido a cáries extensas. Para criar espaço suficiente para retração dos dentes anteriores, os dentes posterossuperiores direitos foram distalizados com um mini-implante posterossuperior (1,2 ~ 1,3mm de diâmetro, 10mm de comprimento, que foi colocado na área da tuberosidade maxilar e permitiu uma retração em massa dos dentes anteriores. RESULTADOS: em geral, mini-implantes podem fornecer ancoragem para

  12. Evaluation of condylar inclination of dentulous subjects determined by axiograph and to compare with manual programming of articulators using protrusive interocclusal record


    Prasad, Krishna D.; Manoj Shetty; Chandy, Binoj K.


    Aims: To determine the average condylar inclination using ultrasonic axiograph; to determine the average condylar inclination using protrusive interocclusal bite records; to compare whether there is any marked difference in the values obtained by these techniques. Settings and Design: This clinical study compares the mean horizontal condylar inclination of the ultrasonic axiograph (Axioquick system) and the manual programming using protrusive interocclusal records. Materials and Methods: The ...

  13. Comparison of Mallampati test with lower jaw protrusion maneuver in predicting difficult laryngoscopy and intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Ul Haq


    Full Text Available Background: Failure to maintain a patent airway is one of the commonest causes of anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. Many protocols, algorithms, and different combinations of tested methods for airway assessment have been developed to predict difficult laryngoscopy and intubation. The reported incidence of a difficult intubation varies from 1.5% to 13%. The objective of this study was to compare Mallampati test (MT with lower jaw protrusion (LJP maneuver in predicting difficult laryngoscopy and intubation. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and sixty patients were included in the study. All the patients underwent MT and LJP maneuver for their airway assessment. After a standardized technique of induction of anesthesia, primary anesthetist performed laryngoscopy and graded it according to the grades described by Cormack and Lehane. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were calculated for both these tests with 95% confidence interval (CI using conventional laryngoscopy as gold standard. Area under curve was also calculated for both, MT and LJP maneuver. A P < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: LJP maneuver had higher sensitivity (95.9% vs. 27.1%, NPV (98.7% vs. 82.0%, and accuracy (90.1% vs. 80.3% when compared to MT in predicting difficult laryngoscopy and intubation. Both tests, however, had similar specificity and PPV. There was marked difference in the positive and negative likelihood ratio between LJP and MT. Similarly, the area under the curve favored LJP maneuver over MT. Conclusion: The results of this study show that LJP maneuver is a better test to predict difficult laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. We recommend the addition of this maneuver to the routine preoperative evaluation of airway.

  14. High Speed Edge Detection (United States)

    Prokop, Norman F (Inventor)


    Analog circuits for detecting edges in pixel arrays are disclosed. A comparator may be configured to receive an all pass signal and a low pass signal for a pixel intensity in an array of pixels. A latch may be configured to receive a counter signal and a latching signal from the comparator. The comparator may be configured to send the latching signal to the latch when the all pass signal is below the low pass signal minus an offset. The latch may be configured to hold a last negative edge location when the latching signal is received from the comparator.

  15. Zigzag graphene nanoribbon edge reconstruction with Stone-Wales defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, J. N. B.; Gonçalves, P. A. D; Rodrigues, N. F. G.;


    In this paper, we study zigzag graphene nanoribbons with edges reconstructed with Stone-Wales defects, by means of an empirical (first-neighbor) tight-binding method, with parameters determined by ab initio calculations of very narrow ribbons. We explore the characteristics of the electronic band...... structure with a focus on the nature of edge states. Edge reconstruction allows the appearance of a new type of edge states. They are dispersive, with nonzero amplitudes in both sublattices; furthermore, the amplitudes have two components that decrease with different decay lengths with the distance from...... the edge; at the Dirac points one of these lengths diverges, whereas the other remains finite, of the order of the lattice parameter. We trace this curious effect to the doubling of the unit cell along the edge, brought about by the edge reconstruction. In the presence of a magnetic field, the zero...

  16. Superpixel edges for boundary detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Mary M.; Koch, Mark W.


    Various embodiments presented herein relate to identifying one or more edges in a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image comprising a plurality of superpixels. Superpixels sharing an edge (or boundary) can be identified and one or more properties of the shared superpixels can be compared to determine whether the superpixels form the same or two different features. Where the superpixels form the same feature the edge is identified as an internal edge. Where the superpixels form two different features, the edge is identified as an external edge. Based upon classification of the superpixels, the external edge can be further determined to form part of a roof, wall, etc. The superpixels can be formed from a speckle-reduced SAR image product formed from a registered stack of SAR images, which is further segmented into a plurality of superpixels. The edge identification process is applied to the SAR image comprising the superpixels and edges.

  17. Predicting edge seal performance from accelerated testing (United States)

    Hardikar, Kedar; Vitkavage, Dan; Saproo, Ajay; Krajewski, Todd


    Degradation in performance of a PV module attributable to moisture ingress has received significant attention in PV reliability research. Assessment of field performance of PV modules against moisture ingress through product-level testing in temperature-humidity control chambers poses challenges. Development of a meaningful acceleration factor model is challenging due to different rates of degradation of components embedded in a PV module, when exposed to moisture. Test results are typically a convolution of moisture barrier performance of the edge seal and degradation of laminated components when exposed to moisture. It is desirable to have an alternate method by which moisture barrier performance of the edge seal in its end product form can be assessed in any given field conditions, independent of particular cell design. In this work, a relatively inexpensive test technique was developed to test the edge seal in its end product form in a manner that is decoupled from other components of the PV module. A theoretical framework was developed to assess moisture barrier performance of edge seal with desiccants subjected to different conditions. This framework enables the analysis of test results from accelerated tests and prediction of the field performance of the edge seal. Results from this study lead to the conclusion that the edge seal on certain Miasole glass-glass modules studied is effective for the most aggressive weather conditions examined, beyond the intended service.

  18. Coordination of glioblastoma cell motility by PKCι

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin R Mitchell


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma is one of the deadliest forms of cancer, in part because of its highly invasive nature. The tumor suppressor PTEN is frequently mutated in glioblastoma and is known to contribute to the invasive phenotype. However the downstream events that promote invasion are not fully understood. PTEN loss leads to activation of the atypical protein kinase C, PKCι. We have previously shown that PKCι is required for glioblastoma cell invasion, primarily by enhancing cell motility. Here we have used time-lapse videomicroscopy to more precisely define the role of PKCι in glioblastoma. Results Glioblastoma cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically were unable to coordinate the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod. Instead, some cells generated multiple small, short-lived protrusions while others generated a diffuse leading edge that formed around the entire circumference of the cell. Confocal microscopy showed that this behavior was associated with altered behavior of the cytoskeletal protein Lgl, which is known to be inactivated by PKCι phosphorylation. Lgl in control cells localized to the lamellipod leading edge and did not associate with its binding partner non-muscle myosin II, consistent with it being in an inactive state. In PKCι-depleted cells, Lgl was concentrated at multiple sites at the periphery of the cell and remained in association with non-muscle myosin II. Videomicroscopy also identified a novel role for PKCι in the cell cycle. Cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically entered mitosis normally, but showed marked delays in completing mitosis. Conclusions PKCι promotes glioblastoma motility by coordinating the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod and has a role in remodeling the cytoskeleton at the lamellipod leading edge, promoting the dissociation of Lgl from non-muscle myosin II. In addition PKCι is required

  19. Dictionary based Approach to Edge Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Nitish


    Edge detection is a very essential part of image processing, as quality and accuracy of detection determines the success of further processing. We have developed a new self learning technique for edge detection using dictionary comprised of eigenfilters constructed using features of the input image. The dictionary based method eliminates the need of pre or post processing of the image and accounts for noise, blurriness, class of image and variation of illumination during the detection process itself. Since, this method depends on the characteristics of the image, the new technique can detect edges more accurately and capture greater detail than existing algorithms such as Sobel, Prewitt Laplacian of Gaussian, Canny method etc which use generic filters and operators. We have demonstrated its application on various classes of images such as text, face, barcodes, traffic and cell images. An application of this technique to cell counting in a microscopic image is also presented.

  20. A clinico-radiographic analysis of sagittal condylar guidance determined by protrusive interocclusal registration and panoramic radiographic images in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Krishna Prasad


    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between sagittal condylar guidance obtained by protrusive interocclusal records and panoramic radiograph tracing methods in human dentulous subjects. Materials and Methods: The sagittal condylar guidance was determined in 75 dentulous subjects by protrusive interocclusal records using Aluwax through a face bow transfer (HANAU™ Spring Bow, Whip Mix Corporation, USA to a semi-adjustable articulator (HANAU™ Wide-Vue Articulator, Whip Mix Corporation, USA. In the same subjects, the sagittal outline of the articular eminence and glenoid fossa was traced in panoramic radiographs. The sagittal condylar path inclination was constructed by joining the heights of curvature in the glenoid fossa and the corresponding articular eminence. This was then related to the constructed Frankfurt′s horizontal plane to determine the radiographic angle of sagittal condylar guidance. Results: A strong positive correlation existed between right and left condylar guidance by the protrusive interocclusal method (P 0.000 and similarly by the radiographic method (P 0.013. The mean difference between the condylar guidance obtained using both methods were 1.97° for the right side and 3.18° for the left side. This difference between the values by the two methods was found to be highly significant for the right (P 0.003 and left side (P 0.000, respectively. The sagittal condylar guidance obtained from both methods showed a significant positive correlation on right (P 0.000 and left side (P 0.015, respectively. Conclusion: Panoramic radiographic tracings of the sagittal condylar path guidance may be made relative to the Frankfurt′s horizontal reference plane and the resulting condylar guidance angles used to set the condylar guide settings of semi-adjustable articulators.

  1. Edge detection by nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Yiu-fai


    We demonstrate how the formulation of a nonlinear scale-space filter can be used for edge detection and junction analysis. By casting edge-preserving filtering in terms of maximizing information content subject to an average cost function, the computed cost at each pixel location becomes a local measure of edgeness. This computation depends on a single scale parameter and the given image data. Unlike previous approaches which require careful tuning of the filter kernels for various types of edges, our scheme is general enough to be able to handle different edges, such as lines, step-edges, corners and junctions. Anisotropy in the data is handled automatically by the nonlinear dynamics.

  2. Graphene edges; localized edge state and electron wave interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoki Toshiaki


    Full Text Available The electronic structure of massless Dirac fermion in the graphene hexagonal bipartite is seriously modified by the presence of edges depending on the edge chirality. In the zigzag edge, strongly spin polarized nonbonding edge state is created as a consequence of broken symmetry of pseudo-spin. In the scattering at armchair edges, the K-K’ intervalley transition gives rise to electron wave interference. The presence of edge state in zigzag edges is observed in ultra-high vacuum STM/STS observations. The electron wave interference phenomenon in the armchair edge is observed in the Raman G-band and the honeycomb superlattice pattern with its fine structure in STM images.

  3. Direct Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation Complicated by Anterior Tracheal Laceration Secondary to Protrusion of Preloaded Endotracheal Tube Stylet. (United States)

    Warner, Matthew A; Fox, Jonathan F


    Tracheal wall disruption is a rare complication of endotracheal intubation, typically occurring in the posterior (membranous) trachea lacking cartilaginous support. We present the case of a 68-year-old man who developed an anterior tracheal tear after routine endotracheal intubation, most likely occurring secondary to protrusion of a factory-preloaded stylet beyond the distal orifice of the endotracheal tube. Tracheal disruption should be considered in any patient with subcutaneous emphysema and respiratory distress after tracheal extubation and confirmed with bronchoscopy. Conservative management may be appropriate for those with small tears, hemodynamic stability, and the ability to isolate the tear from positive pressure ventilation.

  4. Edge turbulence in tokamaks (United States)

    Nedospasov, A. V.


    Edge turbulence is of decisive importance for the distribution of particle and energy fluxes to the walls of tokamaks. Despite the availability of extensive experimental data on the turbulence properties, its nature still remains a subject for discussion. This paper contains a review of the most recent theoretical and experimental studies in the field, including mainly the studies to which Wootton (A.J. Wooton, J. Nucl. Mater. 176 & 177 (1990) 77) referred to most in his review at PSI-9 and those published later. The available theoretical models of edge turbulence with volume dissipation due to collisions fail to fully interpret the entire combination of experimental facts. In the scrape-off layer of a tokamak the dissipation prevails due to the flow of current through potential shifts near the surface of limiters of divertor plates. The different origins of turbulence at the edge and in the core plasma due to such dissipation are discussed in this paper. Recent data on the electron temperature fluctuations enabled one to evaluate the electric probe measurements of turbulent flows of particles and heat critically. The latest data on the suppression of turbulence in the case of L-H transitions are given. In doing so, the possibility of exciting current instabilities in biasing experiments (rather than only to the suppression of existing turbulence) is given some attention. Possible objectives of further studies are also discussed.

  5. Flap Edge Noise Reduction Fins (United States)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhan, Meelan M. (Inventor)


    A flap of the type that is movably connected to an aircraft wing to provide control of an aircraft in flight includes opposite ends, wherein at least a first opposite end includes a plurality of substantially rigid, laterally extending protrusions that are spaced apart to form a plurality of fluidly interconnected passageways. The passageways have openings adjacent to upper and lower sides of the flap, and the passageways include a plurality of bends such that high pressure fluid flows from a high pressure region to a low pressure region to provide a boundary condition that inhibits noise resulting from airflow around the end of the flap.

  6. Smoothness in Binomial Edge Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Damadi


    Full Text Available In this paper we study some geometric properties of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. We study the singularity and smoothness of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. Some of these algebraic sets are irreducible and some of them are reducible. If every irreducible component of the algebraic set is smooth we call the graph an edge smooth graph, otherwise it is called an edge singular graph. We show that complete graphs are edge smooth and introduce two conditions such that the graph G is edge singular if and only if it satisfies these conditions. Then, it is shown that cycles and most of trees are edge singular. In addition, it is proved that complete bipartite graphs are edge smooth.

  7. 两种直丝弓支抗形式矫治上颌前突的临床比较研究%Clinical study of two kinds of anchorage with straight-wire techniques in the treatment of maxillary protrusion patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨庆慧; 何欣; 刘松林


    Objective:To investigate the effect of sliding-transpalatal arch anchorage with MBT appliance and anchorage with Tip-Edge plus appliance in the treatment of maxillary protrusion.Methods:Thirty patients with maxillary protrusion, aged 11-17 years old, were selected and divided into sliding-transpalatal arch-MBT group and Tip-Edge plus group after extraction of four first premolars.All the patients were treated by MBT tech-nique and Tip-Edge plus technique, respectively.Lateral cephalometric radiographs before and after treatment were taken and analyzed.Results:The average forward movement of first upper molar did not change in two groups.The lower incisors were intruded 3.93°with reference to mandibular plane in MBT group,while in Tip-Edge plus group lower incisors were protruded 1.53°.The vertical height of bimaxillary first molars increased in sliding-transpalatal arch-MBT group.Plane of occlusion clockwise rotation in the Tip-Edge plus group.Conclu-sion:Maxillary protrusion patients could be treated successfully with straight wire and Tip-Edge Plus technique.Sliding-transpalatal arch anchorage system is effective in the plane of occlusion control and backward movement of incisor.Lower incisors were intruded more in the Tip-Edge Plus group than in the straight-wire group.%目的:比较滑动杆与横腭杆联合MBT直丝弓技术和Tip-Edge plus差动直丝弓技术治疗上颌前突的临床疗效。方法:选取11~17岁上颌前突病例30例,均拔除4颗第一前磨牙。 MBT直丝弓组15例( S+MBT组),使用直丝弓技术结合滑动杆与横腭杆强支抗治疗;Tip-Edge plus组15例( TP组),使用Tip-Edge差动直丝弓技术治疗。均在矫治前后行X线头影测量分析。结果:两组患者上颌支抗磨牙前移量治疗前后无显著性变化;S+MBT组L1-MP减小3.93°、L1-NB减小5.07 mm,差异有统计学意义;TP组L1-MP增加1.53°、L1-NB增加0.43 mm,差异无统计学意义。 TP组牙合平面顺

  8. Series of spinal balance therapy in treatment of 196 cases of protrusion of intervertebral disc%脊柱系列平衡疗法治疗椎间盘突出症196例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高维亮; 米宏义; 任秀琴; 任秀琴


    @@ Background:Protrusion of intervertebral disc was a clinical syndrom resulted from intervertevral disc degeneration, fibrous ring rupture,protrusion of pulpiform nucleus that stimulate and compresses nerve root,and comprehensive conservative therapy was often adopted.In this group of data,196 cases of protrusion of intervertebral disc treated by series of spinal balance therapy were collected from January 2000 to December 2001.

  9. Matrix metalloproteinases regulate the formation of dendritic spine head protrusions during chemically induced long-term potentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Szepesi

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are are small membranous protrusions that extend from neuronal dendrites and harbor the majority of excitatory synapses. Increasing evidence has shown that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, a family of extracellularly acting and Zn(2+-dependent endopeptidases, are able to rapidly modulate dendritic spine morphology. Spine head protrusions (SHPs are filopodia-like processes that extend from the dendritic spine head, representing a form of postsynaptic structural remodeling in response to altered neuronal activity. Herein, we show that chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP in dissociated hippocampal cultures upregulates MMP-9 activity that controls the formation of SHPs. Blocking of MMPs activity or microtubule dynamics abolishes the emergence of SHPs. In addition, autoactive recombinant MMP-9, promotes the formation of SHPs in organotypic hippocampal slices. Furthermore, spines with SHPs gained postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA receptors upon cLTP and the synaptic delivery of AMPA receptors was controlled by MMPs. The present results strongly imply that MMP-9 is functionally involved in the formation of SHPs and the control of postsynaptic receptor distribution upon cLTP.

  10. Treatment of 96 Cases of Prolapse of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc of Posterior Protrusion Type by the Comprehensive Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kong-jiang; LU Jian-hu; SONG Ling


    选择腰椎间盘突出症后凸型患者96例,随机分为观察组50例和对照组46例,观察组采用针刺牵引推拿综合治疗,对照组仅用针刺治疗,对患者治疗后进行疗效评定.治疗组和对照组治疗后的疗效有显著差异(P<0.05).综合治疗腰椎间盘突出症后凸型疗效确切,方法简便,具有一定的临床指导意义.%s: Ninety-six cases of prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc of posterior protrusion type were divided randomly into observation group including 50 cases and control group including 46 cases.Patients in observation group were treated with combined use of acupuncture, traction and Tuina, and patients in control group were only treated with acupuncture. After treatment, the significant difference was found between the observation group and control group in therapeutic affect. The comprehensive therapy is definitely effective and simple in the treatment of prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc of posterior protrusion type, which has guiding significance to the clinical practice.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamics simulation of 300 KA novel cell for aluminum electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Song


    Full Text Available A novel cathode with cylindrical protrusions was presented to investigate the effect of protrusions on the electromagnetic field and flow field in the aluminum electrolysis cell. Results show that by using the novel cathode, the maximum horizontal electromagnetic force and velocity at 2/3 height of the metal pad were reduced by 21 % and 41 % respectively, and the metal - bath interface wave decreased by 0,69 cm. The metal pad flows around protrusions. Eddies due to boundary layer separation are beneficial to the dissolution of alumina.

  12. Comprehensive treatment and rehabilitation nursing of protrusion of lumbar intervertebral discs%腰椎间盘突出症的综合治疗与康复护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ INTRODUCTION Comprehensive treatment by drug, manipulation reduction, attacking avital point on patients with protrusion can achieve satisfying clinicaleffects combined with rehabilitation nursing.

  13. Cutting edge: CXCR4 is critical for CD8+ memory T cell homeostatic self-renewal but not rechallenge self-renewal. (United States)

    Chaix, Julie; Nish, Simone A; Lin, Wen-Hsuan W; Rothman, Nyanza J; Ding, Lei; Wherry, E John; Reiner, Steven L


    Central memory (CM) CD8(+) T cells "remember" prior encounters because they maintain themselves through cell division in the absence of ongoing challenge (homeostatic self-renewal), as well as reproduce the CM fate while manufacturing effector cells during secondary Ag encounters (rechallenge self-renewal). We tested the consequence of conditional deletion of the bone marrow homing receptor CXCR4 on antiviral T cell responses. CXCR4-deficient CD8(+) T cells have impaired memory cell maintenance due to defective homeostatic proliferation. Upon rechallenge, however, CXCR4-deficient T cells can re-expand and renew the CM pool while producing secondary effector cells. The critical bone marrow-derived signals essential for CD8(+) T cell homeostatic self-renewal appear to be dispensable to yield self-renewing, functionally asymmetric cell fates during rechallenge.

  14. Ultrastructural characteristics of lateral pterygoid muscle after functional mandibular protrusion in adult rats%成年大鼠下颌功能性前伸后翼外肌的超微结构改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冬青; 白玉兴; 车晓霞; 孙异临


    Objective To investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of lateral pterygoid muscle after functional mandibular protrusion in adult rats. Methods Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four experimental groups and four control groups, each group had 5 rats.The experimental groups were fitted with fixed bite-jumping devices that protruded the mandible. The control groups did not wear the devices. The animals were sacrificed on days 3, 7, 14, 28 days after experimental mandibular protrusion . The left and right lateral pterygoid muscle were dissected and observed under transmission electronic microscope. Results The myofilaments of experimental lateral pterygoid musle were dissolved and ruptured on days 3. The myofilaments interlaced and the sarcomeres did not arranged by rule in the experimental groups on days 7and 14. On days 28, The direction of a little myofilaments were different. The amount of subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrilar mitochondria of lateral pterygoid muscle was increased and the shape were changed on days 3,7, 14.The amount and shape of mitochondria were normal on day 28 after experimental mandibular protrusion. The excitatory transmitter in the end plate of lateral pterygoid muscle cells increased on 14days after functional mandibular protrusion. Conclusions The lateral pterygoid muscle showed ultrastructural alterations after experimental mandibular protrusion in adult rats.%目的 观察成年大鼠下颌功能性前伸后翼外肌的超微结构变化.方法 成年雄性Sprague-Dawley大鼠40只,随机分为4个实验组和4个对照组,每组5只.实验组大鼠配戴固定的前伸下颌矫治器,对照组不配戴矫治器.分别于下颌前伸3、7、14、28 d处死实验组和对照组大鼠.取大鼠左右侧的翼外肌,制作电镜标本,透射电镜下观察成年大鼠翼外肌的超微结构变化.结果 在实验组大鼠翼外肌细胞内,下颌前伸3 d时,部分肌丝溶解断裂;下颌前伸7 d和14 d时,肌

  15. Topological Number of Edge States

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Koji


    We show that the edge states of the four-dimensional class A system can have topological charges, which are characterized by Abelian/non-Abelian monopoles. The edge topological charges are a new feature of relations among theories with different dimensions. From this novel viewpoint, we provide a non-Abelian analogue of the TKNN number as an edge topological charge, which is defined by an SU(2) 't Hooft-Polyakov BPS monopole through an equivalence to Nahm construction. Furthermore, putting a constant magnetic field yields an edge monopole in a non-commutative momentum space, where D-brane methods in string theory facilitate study of edge fermions.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zhi-yong; LIU Zhi-ping; WU Yi-hong; ZHANG Dong


    This article experimentally investigated the pressure and cavitation characteristics of high velocity flow over a surface irregularity with and without aeration in a non-circulating water tunnel system. The surface irregularity is a cylindrical protrusion made of stainless steel of 6 mm diameter and 2 mm height. Pressures with and without aeration were measured with MPX400D pressure transducers and real-timely acquired by a SINOCERA YE6263 data acquisition system. Variations in flow regimes with and without aeration were observed. Pressure profiles and their variations with air concentration upper and lower cylindrical protrusion on the invert and obvert walls were determined. Variations of cavitation number with air concentration lower cylindrical protrusion were analyzed. Also, cavitation numbers in the presence and absence of aeration were compared.

  17. On TCM Therapy for Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Protrusion%腰椎间盘突出症的中医药治疗概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海清; 赵继荣; 陈文


    Curative effects of internal treatment, external treatment, traction, massage, small needle-knife in treating lumbar Intervertebral disc protrusion were summarized through analyzing related literature of TCM in treating lumbar Intervertebral disc protrusion, therefore to illustrate the effectiveness of TCM in treating lumbar Intervertebral disc protrusion.%通过分析中医药治疗腰椎间盘突出症的相关文献,就中药内治法、中药外治法、牵引、推拿、小针刀等方法治疗腰椎间盘突出症的临床疗效进行概述,进一步说明中医药在治疗腰椎间盘突出症的有效性.

  18. Electrochemistry of folded graphene edges. (United States)

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Bonanni, Alessandra; Pumera, Martin


    There is enormous interest in the investigation of electron transfer rates at the edges of graphene due to possible energy storage and sensing applications. While electrochemistry at the edges and the basal plane of graphene has been studied in the past, the new frontier is the electrochemistry of folded graphene edges. Here we describe the electrochemistry of folded graphene edges and compare it to that of open graphene edges. The materials were characterized in detail by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. We found that the heterogeneous electron transfer rate is significantly lower on folded graphene edges compared to open edge sites for ferro/ferricyanide, and that electrochemical properties of open edges offer lower potential detection of biomarkers than the folded ones. It is apparent, therefore, that for sensing and biosensing applications the folded edges are less active than open edges, which should then be preferred for such applications. As folded edges are the product of thermal treatment of multilayer graphene, such thermal procedures should be avoided when fabricating graphene for electrochemical applications.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAOLianying; LIUGuizhen


    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G).S E(G)is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S.The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xc(G),is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G.It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ,δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xcf(G),is the fractional matiching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hypereges the edge covers of G.In this paper,we study the relation between Xc(G) and δfor any graph G,and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ by the technique of graph coloring.For any graph G,we give an exact formula o Xcf(G),that is,Xcf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)},where λ(G)=minCS/S/2 and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.δ


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Lianying; LIU Guizhen


    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G). S _C E(G) is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S. The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'c(G) , is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G. It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ, δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'cf(G), is the fractional matching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hyperedges the edge covers of G. In this paper, we study the relation between X'c(G) and δ for any graph G, and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ by the technique of graph coloring. For any graph G, we give an exact formula of X'cf(G), that is, X'cf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)}, where λ(G)=min |C[S]|/[|S|/2]and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.

  1. Rehabilitation treatment after operation for lower back interveterbral disc protrusion%腰椎间盘突出症术后的康复治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@Background: Most operation treating the lower back interveterbral disc protrusion apply posterior vertebral lamina fenestration an half vertebral lamina removing or vertebral lamina removing, the vertebral tube was opened and the nucleus pulposus was removed, while all these methods caused weakened spinal column stability. Satisfactory treating results may be gained with the horizontal and vertical chiseling and reserved replanting of vertebral lamina designed according to biodynamic principles. Objective: To discuss the treating effects of reserved replanting of vertebral lamina and rehabilitation treatment after operation in lower back intervertebral disc protrusion. Unit:Second People's Hospital of Ningxia.

  2. An asymmetry between pushing and pulling for crawling cells

    CERN Document Server

    Recho, Pierre


    Eukaryotic cells possess motility mechanisms allowing them not only to self-propel but also to exert forces on obstacles (to push) and to carry cargoes (to pull). To study the inherent asymmetry between active pushing and pulling we model a crawling acto-myosin cell extract as a 1D layer of active gel subjected to external forces. We show that pushing is controlled by protrusion and that the macroscopic signature of the protrusion dominated motility mechanism is concavity of the force velocity relation. Instead, pulling is driven by protrusion only at small values of the pulling force and it is replaced by contraction when the pulling force is sufficiently large. This leads to more complex convex-concave structure of the force velocity relation, in particular, competition between protrusion and contraction can produce negative mobility in a biologically relevant range. The model illustrates active readjustment of the force generating machinery in response to changes in the dipole structure of external forces....

  3. Edge remap for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis


    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  4. Microtubules and Lis-1/NudE/dynein regulate invasive cell-on-cell migration in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachen Yang

    Full Text Available The environment through which cells migrate in vivo differs considerably from the in vitro environment where cell migration is often studied. In vivo many cells migrate in crowded and complex 3-dimensional tissues and may use other cells as the substratum on which they move. This includes neurons, glia and their progenitors in the brain. Here we use a Drosophila model of invasive, collective migration in a cellular environment to investigate the roles of microtubules and microtubule regulators in this type of cell movement. Border cells are of epithelial origin and have no visible microtubule organizing center (MTOC. Interestingly, microtubule plus-end growth was biased away from the leading edge. General perturbation of the microtubule cytoskeleton and analysis by live imaging showed that microtubules in both the migrating cells and the substrate cells affect movement. Also, whole-tissue and cell autonomous deletion of the microtubule regulator Stathmin had distinct effects. A screen of 67 genes encoding microtubule interacting proteins uncovered cell autonomous requirements for Lis-1, NudE and Dynein in border cell migration. Net cluster migration was decreased, with initiation of migration and formation of dominant front cell protrusion being most dramatically affected. Organization of cells within the cluster and localization of cell-cell adhesion molecules were also abnormal. Given the established role of Lis-1 in migrating neurons, this could indicate a general role of Lis-1/NudE, Dynein and microtubules, in cell-on-cell migration. Spatial regulation of cell-cell adhesion may be a common theme, consistent with observing both cell autonomous and non-autonomous requirements in both systems.

  5. Edge phonons in black phosphorus (United States)

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.


    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements.

  6. Intraoral Vertical Ramus Osteotomy Improved the Stomatognathic Function in an Elderly Patient with Mandibular Protrusion:A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article reports the successful surgical-orthodontic treatment of an elderly patient with dentofacial deformity and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with a concave profile due to mandibular protrusion. To correct skeletal deformities, the mandible was posteriorly repositioned by employing intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO following presurgical orthodontic treatment. After active treatment for 31 months, the facial profile was significantly improved and satisfactory occlusion was achieved. In addition, TMD symptoms of clicking sounds on the left side and difficulty in mouth opening were resolved. Regarding the findings of magnetic resonance imaging, anterior disc displacement in the opening phase was improved in the temporomandibular joint on the left side. Furthermore, stomatognathic functions were also improved without any aggravation of age-related problems. In conclusion, surgical repositioning of the mandible using IVRO leads to both morphological and functional improvements even in elderly patients.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋松鹤; 郁引飞; 叶天申


    In the present paper the authors sum up their research results about "She-Bie" (black-tail snake-ground beetle) Ointment-partition moxibustion for treatment of Iumbar intervertebral disc protrusion (LIDP). Animal ex-perirments showed that when used externally, "She-Bie" Ointment had striking anti-infllammation and pain-relief actionsbut had no irritant and no allergic effects to the skin. In the treatment of mild type of LIDP, "She-Bie" Ointment parti-tion moxibustion could work well in improving clinical symptoms; and in the treatment of moderate type of LIDP, itcould be used as a supplementary measure and raise the excellent and good rates of the therapeutic effect further. Forthis reason, "She-Bie" Ointment partition moxibustion deserves being Popularized in clinical treatment of LIDP.

  8. Protein kinase C, focal adhesions and the regulation of cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Betina S; Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John Robert


    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix is a complex process involving protrusive activity driven by the actin cytoskeleton, engagement of specific receptors, followed by signaling and cytoskeletal organization. Thereafter, contractile and endocytic/recycling activities may facilitate migration...

  9. Training for motor function after removal of nucleus pulposus in protrusion of lumbar intervertebral discs%腰椎间盘突出症髓核摘除术后运动功能训练

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ INTRODUCIION Protrusion of lumbar intervertebral discs is a kind of disease causedby protrusion of nucleus pulposus to vertebral canal due to degen-eration and rupture of lumbar intervertebral discs and stimulationand compression on neighboring nerve roots. Therapeutic effects afteroperation has a direct relationship with postoperative rehabilitationnursing.

  10. Edge conduction in vacuum glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simko, T.M.; Collins, R.E. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Applied Physics; Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)


    Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. An array of small support pillars separates the sheets; fused solder glass forms the edge seal. Heat transfer through the glazing occurs by radiation across the vacuum gap, conduction through the support pillars, and conduction through the bonded edge seal. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, leading to possible failure of the glazing; in addition, excessive heat transfer because of thermal bridging in the edge region can lower overall window thermal performance and decrease resistance to condensation. Infrared thermography was used to analyze the thermal performance of prototype vacuum glazings, and, for comparison, atmospheric pressure superwindows. Research focused on mitigating the edge effects of vacuum glazings through the use of insulating trim, recessed edges, and framing materials. Experimentally validated finite-element and finite-difference modeling tools were used for thermal analysis of prototype vacuum glazing units and complete windows. Experimental measurements of edge conduction using infrared imaging were found to be in good agreement with finite-element modeling results for a given set of conditions. Finite-element modeling validates an analytic model developed for edge conduction.

  11. Cutting edge: activation by innate cytokines or microbial antigens can cause arrest of natural killer T cell patrolling of liver sinusoids. (United States)

    Velázquez, Peter; Cameron, Thomas O; Kinjo, Yuki; Nagarajan, Niranjana; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Dustin, Michael L


    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes that rapidly secrete large amounts of effector cytokines upon activation. Recognition of alpha-linked glycolipids presented by CD1d leads to the production of IL-4, IFN-gamma, or both, while direct activation by the synergistic action of IL-12 and IL-18 leads to IFN-gamma production only. We previously reported that in vitro cultured dendritic cells can modulate NKT cell activation and, using intravital fluorescence laser scanning microscopy, we reported that the potent stimulation of NKT cells results in arrest within hepatic sinusoids. In this study, we examine the relationship between murine NKT cell patrolling and activation. We report that NKT cell arrest results from activation driven by limiting doses of a bacteria-derived weak agonist, galacturonic acid-containing glycosphingolipid, or a synthetic agonist, alpha-galactosyl ceramide. Interestingly, NKT cell arrest also results from IL-12 and IL-18 synergistic activation. Thus, innate cytokines and natural microbial TCR agonists trigger sinusoidal NKT cell arrest and an effector response.

  12. Cutting Edge Localisation in an Edge Profile Milling Head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura; Azzopardi, George; Alegre, Enrique; Petkov, Nicolai


    Wear evaluation of cutting tools is a key issue for prolonging their lifetime and ensuring high quality of products. In this paper, we present a method for the effective localisation of cutting edges of inserts in digital images of an edge profile milling head. We introduce a new image data set of 1

  13. Automatic Prompting and Positive Attention to Reduce Tongue Protrusion and Head Tilting by Two Adults With Severe to Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancioni, G.E.; Singh, N.N.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Sigafoos, J.; Didden, H.C.M.; Pichierri, S.


    This study assessed a simple behavioral strategy for reducing stereotypic tongue protrusion and forward head tilting displayed by a woman and a man with severe to profound intellectual disabilities. The strategy involved (a) auditory prompting (i.e., verbal encouragements to keep the tongue in the m

  14. Evaluation of condylar inclination of dentulous subjects determined by axiograph and to compare with manual programming of articulators using protrusive interocclusal record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna D Prasad


    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the average condylar inclination using ultrasonic axiograph; to determine the average condylar inclination using protrusive interocclusal bite records; to compare whether there is any marked difference in the values obtained by these techniques. Settings and Design: This clinical study compares the mean horizontal condylar inclination of the ultrasonic axiograph (Axioquick system and the manual programming using protrusive interocclusal records. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 30 subjects reporting to Department of Prosthodontics. Axioquick software system of SAM III (School Articulator Munich fully-adjustable articulator was used, and interocclusal recording of condylar inclination is the manual method used in semi-adjustable articulators using Aluwax. The condylar inclination of the articulator was adjusted and set using protrusive interocclusal record. Statistical Analysis: The horizontal condylar inclination values of both methods were collected, and the mean of right and left condylar inclination was compared using paired t-test. Results: A statistically significant difference exists between Axioquick system and the manual method of programming articulator with protrusive interocclusal records (P ≤ 0.001. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, the following conclusions were drawn: The average condylar inclination by axiograph is 42.125°. The average condylar inclination by interocclusal record is 33.25°. Comparison of both values shows a difference of 8.88° ± 4.03° that showed a significant difference (P < 0.001.

  15. Evaluation of condylar inclination of dentulous subjects determined by axiograph and to compare with manual programming of articulators using protrusive interocclusal record (United States)

    Prasad, Krishna D.; Shetty, Manoj; Chandy, Binoj K.


    Aims: To determine the average condylar inclination using ultrasonic axiograph; to determine the average condylar inclination using protrusive interocclusal bite records; to compare whether there is any marked difference in the values obtained by these techniques. Settings and Design: This clinical study compares the mean horizontal condylar inclination of the ultrasonic axiograph (Axioquick system) and the manual programming using protrusive interocclusal records. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 30 subjects reporting to Department of Prosthodontics. Axioquick software system of SAM III (School Articulator Munich) fully-adjustable articulator was used, and interocclusal recording of condylar inclination is the manual method used in semi-adjustable articulators using Aluwax. The condylar inclination of the articulator was adjusted and set using protrusive interocclusal record. Statistical Analysis: The horizontal condylar inclination values of both methods were collected, and the mean of right and left condylar inclination was compared using paired t-test. Results: A statistically significant difference exists between Axioquick system and the manual method of programming articulator with protrusive interocclusal records (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, the following conclusions were drawn: The average condylar inclination by axiograph is 42.125°. The average condylar inclination by interocclusal record is 33.25°. Comparison of both values shows a difference of 8.88° ± 4.03° that showed a significant difference (P < 0.001). PMID:26321837

  16. Automatic Prompting and Positive Attention to Reduce Tongue Protrusion and Head Tilting by Two Adults with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Pichierri, Sabrina


    This study assessed a simple behavioral strategy for reducing stereotypic tongue protrusion and forward head tilting displayed by a woman and a man with severe to profound intellectual disabilities. The strategy involved (a) auditory prompting (i.e., verbal encouragements to keep the tongue in the mouth or the head upright) delivered automatically…

  17. Giant edge state splitting at atomically precise graphene zigzag edges. (United States)

    Wang, Shiyong; Talirz, Leopold; Pignedoli, Carlo A; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal


    Zigzag edges of graphene nanostructures host localized electronic states that are predicted to be spin-polarized. However, these edge states are highly susceptible to edge roughness and interaction with a supporting substrate, complicating the study of their intrinsic electronic and magnetic structure. Here, we focus on atomically precise graphene nanoribbons whose two short zigzag edges host exactly one localized electron each. Using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope, the graphene nanoribbons are transferred from the metallic growth substrate onto insulating islands of NaCl in order to decouple their electronic structure from the metal. The absence of charge transfer and hybridization with the substrate is confirmed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, which reveals a pair of occupied/unoccupied edge states. Their large energy splitting of 1.9 eV is in accordance with ab initio many-body perturbation theory calculations and reflects the dominant role of electron-electron interactions in these localized states.

  18. CT检查在牵引治疗腰椎间盘突出症中的评估作用%Evaluation function of CT examination to traction therapy to lumbar disc protrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁长伟; 刘丽君; 林楠; 王天君


    Objective To investigate whether there is morphological change at intervertebral disc after traction therapy to lumbar disc protrusion. Methods We observed 58 lumbar disc protrusion cases diagnosed by CT and treated with traction therapy with CT again, and compared morphological change of intervertebral disc on CT image before and after treatment. Result Effective rate of traction therapy to lumbar disc protrusion was 84.48% , there was no apparent difference in degree of lumbar disc protrusion, anterior posterior diameter of vertebral canal and lateral crypt width between before and after treatment. Conclusion Traction can relieve effectively clinical symptoms of lumbar disc protrusion, but can't make great change in shape of protruded intervertebral disc.

  19. Cutting edge: trans-signaling via the soluble IL-6R abrogates the induction of FoxP3 in naive CD4+CD25 T cells. (United States)

    Dominitzki, Sabine; Fantini, Massimo C; Neufert, Clemens; Nikolaev, Alexei; Galle, Peter R; Scheller, Jürgen; Monteleone, Giovanni; Rose-John, Stefan; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph


    Chronic inflammatory diseases may develop when regulatory T cells (Tregs) fail to control the balance between tolerance and immunity. Alternatively, activated immune cells might prevent the induction or activation of Tregs in such diseases. In this study, we demonstrate that trans-signaling into T cells via the soluble IL-6 receptor completely abrogates the de novo induction of adaptive Tregs. Mechanistically, IL-6 trans-signaling augmented the expression of the TGF-beta signaling inhibitor SMAD7. Consequently, SMAD7 overexpression in T cells using newly created transgenic mice rendered CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells resistant to the induction of FoxP3. Finally, IL-6 trans-signaling inhibited Treg-mediated suppression in a murine model of colitis. In summary, IL-6 trans-signaling into T cells emerges as a key pathway for blockade of the development of adaptive Tregs and thus may play a pivotal role in shifting the balance between effector and regulatory T cell numbers in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  20. Cutting edge: TGF-beta1 and IL-15 Induce FOXP3+ gammadelta regulatory T cells in the presence of antigen stimulation. (United States)

    Casetti, Rita; Agrati, Chiara; Wallace, Marianne; Sacchi, Alessandra; Martini, Federico; Martino, Angelo; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Malkovsky, Miroslav


    Several subsets of alphabeta regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been described and studied intensively, but the potential regulatory role of gammadelta T cells remains largely unclear. Lymphocytes expressing gammadelta TCR are involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses, and their major adult human peripheral blood subset (Vgamma9Vdelta2) displays a broad reactivity against microbial agents and tumors. In this study we report that gammadelta T lymphocytes with regulatory functions (Vdelta2 Tregs) are induced in vitro in the presence of specific Ag stimulation and cytokines (TGF-beta1 and IL-15). These cells express FOXP3 and, similarly as alphabeta Tregs, suppress the proliferation of anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulated-PBMC. Phenotypic and functional analyses of Vdelta2 Tregs will very likely improve our understanding about the role of gammadelta T cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmune, infectious, and neoplastic diseases.

  1. Improved Edge Performance in MRF (United States)

    Shorey, Aric; Jones, Andrew; Durnas, Paul; Tricard, Marc


    The fabrication of large segmented optics requires a polishing process that can correct the figure of a surface to within a short distance from its edges-typically, a few millimeters. The work here is to develop QED's Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) precision polishing process to minimize residual edge effects.

  2. The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loucks, C.S.; Selleck, C.B.


    The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories is developing four areas of technology required for automated deburring, chamfering, and blending of machined edges: (1) the automatic programming of robot trajectories and deburring processes using information derived from a CAD database, (2) the use of machine vision for locating the workpiece coupled with force control to ensure proper tool contact, (3) robotic deburring, blending, and machining of precision chamfered edges, and (4) in-process automated inspection of the formed edge. The Laboratory, its components, integration, and results from edge finishing experiments to date are described here. Also included is a discussion of the issues regarding implementation of the technology in a production environment. 24 refs., 17 figs.

  3. Naegleria fowleri: contact-dependent secretion of electrondense granules (EDG). (United States)

    Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Villatoro, Lizbeth Salazar; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Rodríguez-Monroy, Marco Aurelio; Segovia-Gamboa, Norma; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo


    The free living amoeba Naegleria fowleri is pathogenic to humans but also to other mammalians. These amoebae may invade the nasal mucosa and migrate into the brain causing cerebral hemorrhagic necrosis, a rapidly fatal infection. Knowledge of the cytolytic mechanism involved in the destruction of brain tissues by Naegleria trophozoites is limited. In other amoebic species, such as Entamoeba histolytica, we have previously reported the possible lytic role of small cytoplasmic components endowed with proteolytic activities, known as electrondense granules (EDG). Using transmission electron microscopy we now report that EDG, seldom found in long term cultured N. fowleri, are present in abundance in trophozoites recovered from experimental mice brain lesions. Numerous EDG were also observed in amoebae incubated with collagen substrates or cultured epithelial cells. SDS-PAGE assays of concentrated supernatants of these trophozoites, containing EDG, revealed proteolytic activities. These results suggest that EDG may have a clear role in the cytopathic mechanisms of this pathogenic amoeba.

  4. Kinetic effects in edge plasma: kinetic modeling for edge plasma and detached divertor (United States)

    Takizuka, T.


    Detached divertor is considered a solution for the heat control in magnetic-confinement fusion reactors. Numerical simulations using the comprehensive divertor codes based on the plasma fluid modeling are indispensable for the design of the detached divertor in future reactors. Since the agreement in the results between detached-divertor experiments and simulations has been rather fair but not satisfactory, further improvement of the modeling is required. The kinetic effect is one of key issues for improving the modeling. Complete kinetic behaviors are able to be simulated by the kinetic modeling. In this paper at first, major kinetic effects in edge plasma and detached divertor are listed. One of the most powerful kinetic models, particle-in-cell (PIC) model, is described in detail. Several results of PIC simulations of edge-plasma kinetic natures are presented. Future works on PIC modeling and simulation for the deeper understanding of edge plasma and detached divertor are discussed.

  5. The reduced folate carrier (RFC) is cytotoxic to cells under conditions of severe folate deprivation. RFC as a double edged sword in folate homeostasis. (United States)

    Ifergan, Ilan; Jansen, Gerrit; Assaraf, Yehuda G


    The reduced folate carrier (RFC), a bidirectional anion transporter, is the major uptake route of reduced folates essential for a spectrum of biochemical reactions and thus cellular proliferation. However, here we show that ectopic overexpression of the RFC, but not of folate receptor alpha, a high affinity unidirectional folate uptake route serving here as a negative control, resulted in an approximately 15-fold decline in cellular viability in medium lacking folates but not in folate-containing medium. Moreover to explore possible mechanisms of adaptation to folate deficiency in various cell lines that express the endogenous RFC, we first determined the gene expression status of the following genes: (a) RFC, (b) ATP-driven folate exporters (i.e. MRP1, MRP5, and breast cancer resistance protein), and (c) folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthetase and gamma-glutamate hydrolase (GGH), enzymes catalyzing folate polyglutamylation and hydrolysis, respectively. Upon 3-7 days of folate deprivation, semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed a specific approximately 2.5-fold decrease in RFC mRNA levels in both breast cancer and T-cell leukemia cell lines that was accompanied by a consistent fall in methotrexate influx, serving here as an RFC transport activity assay. Likewise a 2.4-fold decrease in GGH mRNA levels and approximately 19% decreased GGH activity was documented for folate-deprived breast cancer cells. These results along with those of a novel mathematical biomodeling devised here suggest that upon severe short term (i.e. up to 7 days) folate deprivation RFC transport activity becomes detrimental as RFC, but not ATP-driven folate exporters, efficiently extrudes folate monoglutamates out of cells. Hence down-regulation of RFC and GGH may serve as a novel adaptive response to severe folate deficiency.

  6. Hydrogen-free graphene edges. (United States)

    He, Kuang; Lee, Gun-Do; Robertson, Alex W; Yoon, Euijoon; Warner, Jamie H


    Graphene edges and their functionalization influence the electronic and magnetic properties of graphene nanoribbons. Theoretical calculations predict saturating graphene edges with hydrogen lower its energy and form a more stable structure. Despite the importance, experimental investigations of whether graphene edges are always hydrogen-terminated are limited. Here we study graphene edges produced by sputtering in vacuum and direct measurements of the C-C bond lengths at the edge show ~86% contraction relative to the bulk. Density functional theory reveals the contraction is attributed to the formation of a triple bond and the absence of hydrogen functionalization. Time-dependent images reveal temporary attachment of a single atom to the arm-chair C-C bond in a triangular configuration, causing expansion of the bond length, which then returns back to the contracted value once the extra atom moves on and the arm-chair edge is returned. Our results provide confirmation that non-functionalized graphene edges can exist in vacuum.

  7. Edge magnetization in Bernal-stacked trilayer zigzag graphene nanoribbons (United States)

    Pérez, Juan Antonio Casao


    We have used a tight-binding Hamiltonian of an ABA-stacked trilayer zigzag graphene nanoribbon with β-alignment edges to study the edge magnetizations. Our model includes the effect of the intralayer next-nearest-neighbor hopping, the interlayer hopping responsible for the trigonal warping and the interaction between electrons, which is considered by a single band Hubbard model in the mean field approximation. Firstly, in the neutral system we analyzed the two magnetic states in which both edge magnetizations reach their maximum value; the first one is characterized by an intralayer ferromagnetic coupling between the magnetizations at opposite edges, whereas in the second state that coupling is antiferromagnetic. The band structure, the location of the edge-state bands and the local density of states resolved in spin are calculated in order to understand the origins of the edge magnetizations. We have also introduced an electron doping so that the number of electrons in the ribbon unit cell is higher than in neutral case. As a consequence, we have obtained magnetization steps and charge accumulation at the edges of the sample, which are caused by the edge-state flat bands.

  8. Tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II, divisão 1 de Angle, com protrusão maxilar utilizando-se recursos ortopédicos Class II, division 1, with maxillar protrusion's treatment employing orthopedic approachs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Melleiro Gimenez


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente trabalho tem o propósito de apresentar uma revisão da literatura acerca do tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II, divisão 1 de Angle, tendo a protrusão maxilar como o principal componente dessa má oclusão, durante a fase de crescimento e desenvolvimento craniofacial. Serão apresentadas as características de cada um desses aparelhos, os seus componentes, a forma adequada de utilização, os seus mecanismos de ação e, principalmente, os seus efeitos em todo o complexo dentofacial. CONCLUSÃO: nos casos em que se verifica apenas a protrusão maxilar, sem envolvimento mandibular, e se faz necessário o controle vertical, pode ser indicado o AEB, conjugado ao aparelho removível derivado do aparelho preconizado por Thurow. Já nas situações de combinação da protrusão maxilar com a retrusão mandibular, uma opção de tratamento é o ativador combinado à ancoragem extrabucal.AIM: The purpose of this research is to review the literature about the treatment of Class II, division 1 malocclusion with maxillary protrusion, during the growth and development period. This review addresses the characteristics of these appliances, their components, correct use, action mechanisms, and mainly their consequences in dentofacial complex. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with maxillary protrusion and with no mandibular component, it may be indicated the use of a maxillary splint similar to the one suggested by Thurow. However, in patients with maxillary protrusion and mandibular retrusion, it may be indicated an activator associated with extra oral anchorage.

  9. Dynamics of Actin Stress Fibers and Focal Adhesions during Slow Migration in Swiss 3T3 Fibroblasts: Intracellular Mechanism of Cell Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Sugawara


    Full Text Available To understand the mechanism regulating the spontaneous change in polarity that leads to cell turning, we quantitatively analyzed the dynamics of focal adhesions (FAs coupling with the self-assembling actin cytoskeletal structure in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. Fluorescent images were acquired from cells expressing GFP-actin and RFP-zyxin by laser confocal microscopy. On the basis of the maximum area, duration, and relocation distance of FAs extracted from the RFP-zyxin images, the cells could be divided into 3 regions: the front region, intermediate lateral region, and rear region. In the intermediate lateral region, FAs appeared close to the leading edge and were stabilized gradually as its area increased. Simultaneously, bundled actin stress fibers (SFs were observed vertically from the positions of these FAs, and they connected to the other SFs parallel to the leading edge. Finally, these connecting SFs fused to form a single SF with matured FAs at both ends. This change in SF organization with cell retraction in the first cycle of migration followed by a newly formed protrusion in the next cycle is assumed to lead to cell turning in migrating Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts.

  10. Fast tracking using edge histograms (United States)

    Rokita, Przemyslaw


    This paper proposes a new algorithm for tracking objects and objects boundaries. This algorithm was developed and applied in a system used for compositing computer generated images and real world video sequences, but can be applied in general in all tracking systems where accuracy and high processing speed are required. The algorithm is based on analysis of histograms obtained by summing along chosen axles pixels of edge segmented images. Edge segmentation is done by spatial convolution using gradient operator. The advantage of such an approach is that it can be performed in real-time using available on the market hardware convolution filters. After edge extraction and histograms computation, respective positions of maximums in edge intensity histograms, in current and previous frame, are compared and matched. Obtained this way information about displacement of histograms maximums, can be directly converted into information about changes of target boundaries positions along chosen axles.

  11. Interference of wedge-shaped protrusions on the faces of a Griffith crack in biaxial stress. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, J.A.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)


    An initial investigation of the influence of protrusion interference on the fracture toughness required to prevent unstable propagation of a Griffith crack in a brittle material is described. The interference is caused by relative shear displacement of the crack faces when subjected to remote biaxial stress with neither principal stress parallel to the crack. It is shown that for room temperature cracks smaller than about one centimeter in silicon carbide, or about one millimeter in silicon nitride, the presence of interference changes the fracture stress. A mathematical model based on linear elasticity solutions and including multiple interference sites at arbitrarily specified positions on the crack is presented. Computations of the change in required fracture toughness and its dependence on wedge geometry (size and vertex angle), applied stresses (orientation and magnitude), and location of the interference site are discussed. Results indicate that a single interference site has only a slight effect on required toughness. However, the influence of interference increases monotonically with the number of interference sites. The two-dimensional model described herein is not accurate when the interference sites are closely spaced.

  12. Bimaxillary protrusion with an atrophic alveolar defect: orthodontics, autogenous chin-block graft, soft tissue augmentation, and an implant. (United States)

    Chiu, Grace S C; Chang, Chris H N; Roberts, W Eugene


    Bimaxillary protrusion in a 28-year-old woman was complicated by multiple missing, restoratively compromised, or hopeless teeth. The maxillary right central incisor had a history of avulsion and replantation that subsequently evolved into generalized external root resorption with Class III mobility and severe loss of the supporting periodontium. This complex malocclusion had a discrepancy index of 21, and 8 additional points were scored for the atrophic dental implant site (maxillary right central incisor). The comprehensive treatment plan included extraction of 4 teeth (both maxillary first premolars, the maxillary right central incisor, and the mandibular right first molar), orthodontic closure of all spaces except for the future implant site (maxillary right central incisor), augmentation of the alveolar defect with an autogenous chin-block graft, enhancement of the gingival biotype with a connective tissue graft, and an implant-supported prosthesis. Orthodontists must understand the limitations of bone grafts. Augmented alveolar defects are slow to completely turn over to living bone, so they are usually good sites for implants but respond poorly to orthodontic space closure. However, postsurgical orthodontic treatment is often indicated to optimally finish the esthetic zone before placing the final prosthesis. The latter was effectively performed for this patient, resulting in a total treatment time of about 36 months for comprehensive interdisciplinary care. An excellent functional and esthetic result was achieved.

  13. High Density Infill in Cracks and Protrusions from the Articular Calcified Cartilage in Osteoarthritis in Standardbred Horse Carpal Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Laverty


    Full Text Available We studied changes in articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB in the third carpal bones (C3 of Standardbred racehorses with naturally-occurring repetitive loading-induced osteoarthritis (OA. Two osteochondral cores were harvested from dorsal sites from each of 15 post-mortem C3 and classified as control or as showing early or advanced OA changes from visual inspection. We re-examined X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT image sets for the presence of high-density mineral infill (HDMI in ACC cracks and possible high-density mineralized protrusions (HDMP from the ACC mineralizing (tidemark front (MF into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC. We hypothesized and we show that 20-µm µCT resolution in 10-mm diameter samples is sufficient to detect HDMI and HDMP: these are lost upon tissue decalcification for routine paraffin wax histology owing to their predominant mineral content. The findings show that µCT is sufficient to discover HDMI and HDMP, which were seen in 2/10 controls, 6/9 early OA and 8/10 advanced OA cases. This is the first report of HDMI and HDMP in the equine carpus and in the Standardbred breed and the first to rely solely on µCT. HDMP are a candidate cause for mechanical tissue destruction in OA.

  14. High density infill in cracks and protrusions from the articular calcified cartilage in osteoarthritis in standardbred horse carpal bones. (United States)

    Laverty, Sheila; Lacourt, Mathieu; Gao, Chan; Henderson, Janet E; Boyde, Alan


    We studied changes in articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) in the third carpal bones (C3) of Standardbred racehorses with naturally-occurring repetitive loading-induced osteoarthritis (OA). Two osteochondral cores were harvested from dorsal sites from each of 15 post-mortem C3 and classified as control or as showing early or advanced OA changes from visual inspection. We re-examined X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) image sets for the presence of high-density mineral infill (HDMI) in ACC cracks and possible high-density mineralized protrusions (HDMP) from the ACC mineralizing (tidemark) front (MF) into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC). We hypothesized and we show that 20-µm µCT resolution in 10-mm diameter samples is sufficient to detect HDMI and HDMP: these are lost upon tissue decalcification for routine paraffin wax histology owing to their predominant mineral content. The findings show that µCT is sufficient to discover HDMI and HDMP, which were seen in 2/10 controls, 6/9 early OA and 8/10 advanced OA cases. This is the first report of HDMI and HDMP in the equine carpus and in the Standardbred breed and the first to rely solely on µCT. HDMP are a candidate cause for mechanical tissue destruction in OA.

  15. Tongue diagnosis:relationship between sublingual tongue morphology in three tongue protrusion angles and menstrual clinical symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tim Hideaki Tanaka


    OBJECTIVE:The morphological and color characteristics of the tongue sublingual veins (SLVs) can manifest differently within the subjects, depending on the way their tongue is curled upward. This study was conducted in order to investigate the clinical relevancy of tongue SLV diagnosis in relation to menstrual clinical symptoms (pain, clots, heavy, and scanty), using three different inspection procedures (IP1, IP2, and IP3). METHODS: Three-hundred and seventy-seven female patients were asked to stick out their tongues in three speciifc ways which were intended to create different tongue protrusion angles. The SLV parameters for thickness (TK), length (LE), color (CL), shape (SP), and nodules (ND) were then evaluated. RESULTS: According to the results of the Waldχ2 test, IP1 provides the best model for pain (R2 = 0.155), IP3 for clots (R2 = 0.437), IP2 for heavy (R2 = 0.268), and scanty (R2 = 0.192). Abnormal SLV diagnostic parameters were most strongly associated with the clinical symptom of clots (R2= 0.492). CONCLUSION: While the study showed the relations between tongue SLV features and menstrual clinical symptoms, as wel it showed that IP2 was the best overal predictor for the symptomatic indexes used in this study, and using one particular SLV inspection procedure may not be sufifcient. The application of a particular inspection method alone may cause under- or over-estimation of SLV abnormalities.

  16. Lumbar disc protrusion therapy by combination drug administration in epidural space%硬膜外腔联合用药治疗腰椎间盘突出症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹美华; 杨德荣; 许晶; 马玉清


    @@ BACKGROUND: Lumbar disc protrusion was a syndrome dueto degeneration of disc, disruption of fibrous tings and protrusion ofnucleus pulposus and stimulation of cauda equina. It was the mostcommon cause of leg and back pain. it had a high incidence rate andthe patients suffered too greatly to normal work and life. Afternon-operative therapy, symptoms of most patients disappeared orrelieved. Only 10% to 15% of the patients needed operation. Re-cently, combination drug administration in epidural space were usedin lumbar disc protrusion therapy with a highly successful rate andhttle danger.

  17. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes S.; Assaad, Fakher F.; Schnyder, Andreas P.


    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground-state degeneracy. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry-broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. We examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of dx y-wave superconductors by performing a mean-field analysis in the Majorana basis of the edge states. The leading instabilities are Majorana mass terms, which correspond to coherent superpositions of particle-particle and particle-hole channels in the fermionic language. We find that attractive interactions induce three different mass terms. One is a coherent superposition of imaginary s -wave pairing and current order, and another combines a charge-density-wave and finite-momentum singlet pairing. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism together with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. Our quantum Monte Carlo simulations confirm these findings and demonstrate that these instabilities occur even in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. We discuss the implications of our results for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  18. A MAPK-Driven Feedback Loop Suppresses Rac Activity to Promote RhoA-Driven Cancer Cell Invasion. (United States)

    Hetmanski, Joseph H R; Zindy, Egor; Schwartz, Jean-Marc; Caswell, Patrick T


    Cell migration in 3D microenvironments is fundamental to development, homeostasis and the pathobiology of diseases such as cancer. Rab-coupling protein (RCP) dependent co-trafficking of α5β1 and EGFR1 promotes cancer cell invasion into fibronectin (FN) containing extracellular matrix (ECM), by potentiating EGFR1 signalling at the front of invasive cells. This promotes a switch in RhoGTPase signalling to inhibit Rac1 and activate a RhoA-ROCK-Formin homology domain-containing 3 (FHOD3) pathway and generate filopodial actin-spike protrusions which drive invasion. To further understand the signalling network that drives RCP-driven invasive migration, we generated a Boolean logical model based on existing network pathways/models, where each node can be interrogated by computational simulation. The model predicted an unanticipated feedback loop, whereby Raf/MEK/ERK signalling maintains suppression of Rac1 by inhibiting the Rac-activating Sos1-Eps8-Abi1 complex, allowing RhoA activity to predominate in invasive protrusions. MEK inhibition was sufficient to promote lamellipodia formation and oppose filopodial actin-spike formation, and led to activation of Rac and inactivation of RhoA at the leading edge of cells moving in 3D matrix. Furthermore, MEK inhibition abrogated RCP/α5β1/EGFR1-driven invasive migration. However, upon knockdown of Eps8 (to suppress the Sos1-Abi1-Eps8 complex), MEK inhibition had no effect on RhoGTPase activity and did not oppose invasive migration, suggesting that MEK-ERK signalling suppresses the Rac-activating Sos1-Abi1-Eps8 complex to maintain RhoA activity and promote filopodial actin-spike formation and invasive migration. Our study highlights the predictive potential of mathematical modelling approaches, and demonstrates that a simple intervention (MEK-inhibition) could be of therapeutic benefit in preventing invasive migration and metastasis.

  19. A MAPK-Driven Feedback Loop Suppresses Rac Activity to Promote RhoA-Driven Cancer Cell Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H R Hetmanski


    Full Text Available Cell migration in 3D microenvironments is fundamental to development, homeostasis and the pathobiology of diseases such as cancer. Rab-coupling protein (RCP dependent co-trafficking of α5β1 and EGFR1 promotes cancer cell invasion into fibronectin (FN containing extracellular matrix (ECM, by potentiating EGFR1 signalling at the front of invasive cells. This promotes a switch in RhoGTPase signalling to inhibit Rac1 and activate a RhoA-ROCK-Formin homology domain-containing 3 (FHOD3 pathway and generate filopodial actin-spike protrusions which drive invasion. To further understand the signalling network that drives RCP-driven invasive migration, we generated a Boolean logical model based on existing network pathways/models, where each node can be interrogated by computational simulation. The model predicted an unanticipated feedback loop, whereby Raf/MEK/ERK signalling maintains suppression of Rac1 by inhibiting the Rac-activating Sos1-Eps8-Abi1 complex, allowing RhoA activity to predominate in invasive protrusions. MEK inhibition was sufficient to promote lamellipodia formation and oppose filopodial actin-spike formation, and led to activation of Rac and inactivation of RhoA at the leading edge of cells moving in 3D matrix. Furthermore, MEK inhibition abrogated RCP/α5β1/EGFR1-driven invasive migration. However, upon knockdown of Eps8 (to suppress the Sos1-Abi1-Eps8 complex, MEK inhibition had no effect on RhoGTPase activity and did not oppose invasive migration, suggesting that MEK-ERK signalling suppresses the Rac-activating Sos1-Abi1-Eps8 complex to maintain RhoA activity and promote filopodial actin-spike formation and invasive migration. Our study highlights the predictive potential of mathematical modelling approaches, and demonstrates that a simple intervention (MEK-inhibition could be of therapeutic benefit in preventing invasive migration and metastasis.

  20. Method for Measuring the Distribution of Adhesion Forces on Continuous Nanoscale Protrusions Using Carbon Nanofiber Tip on a Scanning Probe Microscope Cantilever. (United States)

    Shimoi, Norihiro; Abe, Daisuke


    The adhesion force on surfaces has received attention in numerous scientific and technological fields, including catalysis, thin-film growth, and tribology. Many applications require knowledge of the strength of these forces as a function of position in three dimensions, but until now such information has only been theoretically proposed. Here, we demonstrate an approach based on scanning probe microscopy that can obtain such data and be used to image the three-dimensional surface force field of continuous nanoscale protrusions. We present adhesion force maps with nanometer and nanonewton resolution that allow detailed characterization of the interaction between a surface and a thin carbon nanofiber (CNF) rod synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at the end of a tip on a scanning probe microscope cantilever in three dimensions. In these maps, the positions of all continuous nanoscale protrusions are identified and the differences in the adhesive forces among limited areas at inequivalent sites are quantified.

  1. Orientation Relationships between Ferrite and Cementite by Edge-to-edge Matching Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Zhong; Xiaodong Wang; Zhenghong Guo; Yonghua Rong


    The crystallographic features of pearlite were investigated by experiments and edge-to-edge matching principle. Two new orientation relationships between ferrite and cementite were determinated by selected area electron diffraction and then explained by our modified edge-to-edge matching method. The consistence of the experimental results with theoretical prediction confirms the practicability of the modified edge-to-edge matching model.

  2. Inositol induces mesenchymal-epithelial reversion in breast cancer cells through cytoskeleton rearrangement. (United States)

    Dinicola, Simona; Fabrizi, Gianmarco; Masiello, Maria Grazia; Proietti, Sara; Palombo, Alessandro; Minini, Mirko; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Alwasel, Saleh H; Ricci, Giulia; Catizone, Angela; Cucina, Alessandra; Bizzarri, Mariano


    Inositol displays multi-targeted effects on many biochemical pathways involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). As Akt activation is inhibited by inositol, we investigated if such effect could hamper EMT in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In cancer cells treated with pharmacological doses of inositol E-cadherin was increased, β-catenin was redistributed behind cell membrane, and metalloproteinase-9 was significantly reduced, while motility and invading capacity were severely inhibited. Those changes were associated with a significant down-regulation of PI3K/Akt activity, leading to a decrease in downstream signaling effectors: NF-kB, COX-2, and SNAI1. Inositol-mediated inhibition of PS1 leads to lowered Notch 1 release, thus contributing in decreasing SNAI1 levels. Overall, these data indicated that inositol inhibits the principal molecular pathway supporting EMT. Similar results were obtained in ZR-75, a highly metastatic breast cancer line. These findings are coupled with significant changes on cytoskeleton. Inositol slowed-down vimentin expression in cells placed behind the wound-healing edge and stabilized cortical F-actin. Moreover, lamellipodia and filopodia, two specific membrane extensions enabling cell migration and invasiveness, were no longer detectable after inositol addiction. Additionally, fascin and cofilin, two mandatory required components for F-actin assembling within cell protrusions, were highly reduced. These data suggest that inositol may induce an EMT reversion in breast cancer cells, suppressing motility and invasiveness through cytoskeleton modifications.

  3. Computation of Edge-Edge-Edge Events Based on Conicoid Theory for 3-D Object Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chenye; MA Huimin


    The availability of a good viewpoint space partition is crucial in three dimensional (3-D) object rec-ognition on the approach of aspect graph. There are two important events depicted by the aspect graph ap-proach, edge-edge-edge (EEE) events and edge-vertex (EV) events. This paper presents an algorithm to compute EEE events by characteristic analysis based on conicoid theory, in contrast to current algorithms that focus too much on EV events and often overlook the importance of EEE events. Also, the paper provides a standard flowchart for the viewpoint space partitioning based on aspect graph theory that makes it suitable for perspective models. The partitioning result best demonstrates the algorithm's efficiency with more valu-able viewpoints found with the help of EEE events, which can definitely help to achieve high recognition rate for 3-D object recognition.

  4. T-Stenting-and-Small-Protrusion Technique for Bifurcation Stenoses After End-to-Side Anastomosis of Transplant Renal Artery and External Iliac Artery: Report of Two Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong, E-mail:; Ye, Peng, E-mail: [Southern Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nanfang Hospital (China); Jiang, Wen-jin, E-mail: [Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital (China); Ma, Shuo-yi, E-mail:; Zhao, Jian-bo, E-mail:; Zeng, Qing-le, E-mail: [Southern Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nanfang Hospital (China)


    Bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of transplant renal artery (TRA) and external iliac artery (EIA), including stenoses at the anastomosis and the iliac artery proximal to the TRA, are rare. In the present article, we report two successfully managed cases of bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of the TRA and EIA using the technique of T-stenting and small protrusion (TAP stenting)

  5. Improved performance of dye sensitized solar cells using Cu-doped TiO2 as photoanode materials: Band edge movement study by spectroelectrochemistry (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wei, Liguo; Yang, Yulin; Xia, Xue; Wang, Ping; Yu, Jia; Luan, Tianzhu


    Cu-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are prepared and used as semiconductor materials of photoanode to improve the performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). UV-Vis spectroscopy and variable temperature spectroelectrochemistry study are used to characterize the influence of copper dopant with different concentrations on the band gap energies of TiO2 nanoparticles. The prepared Cu-doped TiO2 semiconductor has avoided the formation of CuO during hydrothermal process and lowered the conduction band position of TiO2, which contribute to increase the short circuit current density of DSSCs. At the optimum Cu concentration of 1.0 at.%, the short circuit current density increased from 12.54 to 14.98 mA cm-2, full sun solar power conversion efficiencies increased from 5.58% up to 6.71% as compared to the blank DSSC. This showed that the presence of copper in DSSCs leads to improvements of up to 20% in the conversion efficiency of DSSCs.

  6. Arsenate reduction and methylation in the cells of Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1, Penicillium janthinellum SM-12F4, and Fusarium oxysporum CZ-8F1 investigated with X-ray absorption near edge structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.M., E-mail: [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing (China); Zeng, X.B., E-mail: [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing (China); Li, L.F.; Duan, R.; Bai, L.Y. [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing (China); Li, A.G.; Wang, J.; Jiang, S. [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three fungal strains are capable of As(V) reduction and methylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As(V) reduction might be more easily processed than the methylation in fungal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As sequestration and speciation transformation might be the detoxification processes. - Abstract: Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) was introduced to directly analysis chemical species of arsenic (As) in the cells of Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1, Penicillium janthinellum SM-12F4, and Fusarium oxysporum CZ-8F1 capable of As accumulation and volatilisation. After exposure to As(V) of 500 mg L{sup -1} for 15 days, a total of 60.5% and 65.3% of the accumulated As in the cells of T. asperellum SM-12F1 and P. janthinellum SM-12F4, respectively, was As(III), followed by 31.3% and 32.4% DMA (dimethylarsinic acid), 8.3% and 2.3% MMA (monomethylarsonic acid), respectively. However, for F. oxysporum CZ-8F1, 54.5% of the accumulated As was As(III), followed by 37.8% MMA and 7.7% As(V). The reduction and methylation of As(V) formed As(III), MMA, and DMA as the primacy products, and the reduction of As(V) might be more easily processed than the methylation. These results will help to understanding the mechanisms of As detoxification and its future application in bioremediation.

  7. On the edge: haptic discrimination of edge sharpness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy L Skinner

    Full Text Available The increasing ubiquity of haptic displays (e.g., smart phones and tablets necessitates a better understanding of the perceptual capabilities of the human haptic system. Haptic displays will soon be capable of locally deforming to create simple 3D shapes. This study investigated the sensitivity of our haptic system to a fundamental component of shapes: edges. A novel set of eight high quality shape stimuli with test edges that varied in sharpness were fabricated in a 3D printer. In a two alternative, forced choice task, blindfolded participants were presented with two of these shapes side by side (one the reference, the other selected randomly from the remaining set of seven and after actively exploring the test edge of each shape with the tip of their index finger, reported which shape had the sharper edge. We used a model selection approach to fit optimal psychometric functions to performance data, and from these obtained just noticeable differences and Weber fractions. In Experiment 1, participants performed the task with four different references. With sharpness defined as the angle at which one surface meets the horizontal plane, the four JNDs closely followed Weber's Law, giving a Weber fraction of 0.11. Comparisons to previously reported Weber fractions from other haptic manipulations (e.g. amplitude of vibration suggests we are sufficiently sensitive to changes in edge sharpness for this to be of potential utility in the design of future haptic displays. In Experiment 2, two groups of participants performed the task with a single reference but different exploration strategies; one was limited to a single touch, the other unconstrained and free to explore as they wished. As predicted, the JND in the free exploration condition was lower than that in the single touch condition, indicating exploration strategy affects sensitivity to edge sharpness.

  8. Effect of comprehensive rehabilitation treatment on protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc%综合康复疗法对腰椎间盘突出症的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ BACKGROUND:Conservative therapy is very important in treatment of lumbar protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc and symptoms can be alleviated or disappear in most patients by physical therapy,traction and other comprehensive methods.

  9. Nonpolarized signaling reveals two distinct modes of 3D cell migration. (United States)

    Petrie, Ryan J; Gavara, Núria; Chadwick, Richard S; Yamada, Kenneth M


    We search in this paper for context-specific modes of three-dimensional (3D) cell migration using imaging for phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) and active Rac1 and Cdc42 in primary fibroblasts migrating within different 3D environments. In 3D collagen, PIP3 and active Rac1 and Cdc42 were targeted to the leading edge, consistent with lamellipodia-based migration. In contrast, elongated cells migrating inside dermal explants and the cell-derived matrix (CDM) formed blunt, cylindrical protrusions, termed lobopodia, and Rac1, Cdc42, and PIP3 signaling was nonpolarized. Reducing RhoA, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), or myosin II activity switched the cells to lamellipodia-based 3D migration. These modes of 3D migration were regulated by matrix physical properties. Specifically, experimentally modifying the elasticity of the CDM or collagen gels established that nonlinear elasticity supported lamellipodia-based migration, whereas linear elasticity switched cells to lobopodia-based migration. Thus, the relative polarization of intracellular signaling identifies two distinct modes of 3D cell migration governed intrinsically by RhoA, ROCK, and myosin II and extrinsically by the elastic behavior of the 3D extracellular matrix.

  10. Edge Ideals of Weighted Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Paulsen, Chelsey


    We study weighted graphs and their "edge ideals" which are ideals in polynomial rings that are defined in terms of the graphs. We provide combinatorial descriptions of m-irreducible decompositions for the edge ideal of a weighted graph in terms of the combinatorics of "weighted vertex covers". We use these, for instance, to say when these ideals are m-unmixed. We explicitly describe which weighted cycles and trees are unmixed and which ones are Cohen-Macaulay, and we prove that all weighted complete graphs are Cohen-Macaulay.

  11. All-graphene edge contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kåre Wedel; Falkenberg, Jesper Toft; Papior, Nick Rübner;


    Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures...... to be in therange of 1-10 kΩμm which is comparable to the best contact resistance reportedfor edge-contacted graphene-metal contacts. We conclude that conductingall-carbon T-junctions should be feasible....

  12. Edge detection based on morphological amoebas

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Won Yeol; Kim, Se Yun; Lim, Jae Young; Lim, Dong Hoon


    Detecting the edges of objects within images is critical for quality image processing. We present an edge-detecting technique that uses morphological amoebas that adjust their shape based on variation in image contours. We evaluate the method both quantitatively and qualitatively for edge detection of images, and compare it to classic morphological methods. Our amoeba-based edge-detection system performed better than the classic edge detectors.

  13. Failure During Sheared Edge Stretching (United States)

    Levy, B. S.; van Tyne, C. J.


    Failure during sheared edge stretching of sheet steels is a serious concern, especially in advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) grades. The shearing process produces a shear face and a zone of deformation behind the shear face, which is the shear-affected zone (SAZ). A failure during sheared edge stretching depends on prior deformation in the sheet, the shearing process, and the subsequent strain path in the SAZ during stretching. Data from laboratory hole expansion tests and hole extrusion tests for multiple lots of fourteen grades of steel were analyzed. The forming limit curve (FLC), regression equations, measurement uncertainty calculations, and difference calculations were used in the analyses. From these analyses, an assessment of the primary factors that contribute to the fracture during sheared edge stretching was made. It was found that the forming limit strain with consideration of strain path in the SAZ is a major factor that contributes to the failure of a sheared edge during stretching. Although metallurgical factors are important, they appear to play a somewhat lesser role.

  14. On the Edge of Existence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line


    Based on ethnographic fieldwork among Malian migrants and migration brokers in Mali, Algeria, Morocco, and France, this article investigates life in exile on the edge of Europe. Zooming in on the experiences of interlocutors in Morocco and Algeria, the article will explore the experiential...

  15. Development of edge effects around experimental ecosystem hotspots is affected by edge density and matrix type (United States)

    Ecological edge effects are sensitive to landscape context. In particular, edge effects can be altered by matrix type and by the presence of other nearby edges. We experimentally altered patch configurations in an African savanna to determine how edge density and matrix type influence edge effect de...

  16. Edge detection based on directional space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Wei-qi; LI De-sheng


    A new method for edge detection based on directional space is proposed.The principle is that:firstly,the directional differential space is set up in which the ridge edge pixels and valley edge pixels are abstracted with the help of the method of logical judgments along the direction of differential function,forming a directional roof edge map;secondly,step edge pixels are abstracted between the neighboring directional ridge edge and directional valley edge along the direction of differential function;finally,the ridge edge map,valley edge map and step edge map gained along different directions are combined into corresponding ridge edge map,valley edge map and step edge map.This method is different from classical algorithms in which the gray differential values of the mutual vertical direction are combined into one gradient value.The experiment of edge detection is made for the images of nature scenery,human body and accumulative raw material,whose result is compared with the one of classical algorithms and showing the robustness of the proposed method.

  17. Saddle-node dynamics for edge detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Y.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Inst. for Scientific Computing Research


    The author demonstrates how the formulation of a nonlinear scale-space filter can be used for edge detection and junction analysis. By casting edge-preserving filtering in terms of maximizing information content subject to an average cost function, the computed cost at each pixel location becomes a local measure of edgeness. This computation depends on a single scale parameter and the given image data. Unlike previous approaches which require careful tuning of the filter kernels for various types of edges, this scheme is general enough to be able to handle different edges, such as lines, step edges, corners and junctions. Anisotropy in the data is handled automatically by the nonlinear dynamics.

  18. Edge effect in beam monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Cuperus, J H


    Quite often, particle-beam monitors have not the same cross-section as the beam pipe or vacuum chamber in which they are mounted. In that case, the electromagnetic field of the beam is distorted in the vicinity of the edges of the monitor. This field, at the junction of two rectangular beam pipes of different dimensions, is computed for a beam with constant charge along its length. Solutions which are less accurate but easier to apply are obtained with a first order approximation. The results are extended to intensity-modulated beams and circular or elliptical cross-sections. The errors, due to the edge effect, for the electrostatic pickup and the wall-current monitor are computed. The final formulas are simple and easy to apply to practical cases. (6 refs).

  19. Trajetoria condilar sagital em protrusão : comparação entre articuladores e metodos de determinaç$ão


    Paulo Renato Junqueira Zuim


    Resumo: O estudo dos movimentos mandibulares e a determinação da trajetória condilar sagital, durante o movimento de protrusão, têm sido observado em diversos trabalhos da literatura odontológica, cujos resultados demonstraram grande variação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a relação entre os diferentes métodos propostos para o registro e ajuste da TSCM, empregando, no método Intra-Oral, um articulador do tipo "arcon" (Gnatus 8600) e outro "não-arcon" (Dentatus ARL), verificando t...

  20. Fifty-six cases of protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc treated by penetration and oral administration of Chinese decoction plus traction. (United States)

    Zhong, Q


    Fifty-six cases of the protrusion of the lumbar intervertebral disc in the treatment group were treated by drug-penetration and oral administration of traditional Chinese decoction plus traction, and the other 35 cases in the control group by oral administration of Chinese decoction and traction. The results showed that the cure rate in the treatment group was 83.9%, and that in the control group was 57.1%, with a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P lumbar intervertebral disc.

  1. Edge adaptive directional total variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang


    Full Text Available The directional total variation (DTV model has been proposed very recently for image denoising. However, the DTV model works well when there is just one dominant direction in the image. In this Letter, the authors propose to make the DTV model adaptive to image edge direction so that the proposed model can handle images with several dominant directions. Experiment and comparison show the effectiveness of the proposed method.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Yang; Jiachang Sun


    In this paper, two new nonconforming hexagonal elements are presented, which are based on the trilinear function space Q(3)1 and are edge-oriented, analogical to the case of the rotated Q1 quadrilateral element. A priori error estimates are given to show that the new elements achieve first-order accuracy in the energy norm and second-order accuracy in the L2 norm. This theoretical result is confirmed by the numerical tests.

  3. Edge-driven microplate kinematics (United States)

    Schouten, Hans; Klitgord, Kim D.; Gallo, David G.


    It is known from plate tectonic reconstructions that oceanic microplates undergo rapid rotation about a vertical axis and that the instantaneous rotation axes describing the microplate's motion relative to the bounding major plates are frequently located close to its margins with those plates, close to the tips of propagating rifts. We propose a class of edge-driven block models to illustrate how slip across the microplate margins, block rotation, and propagation of rifting may be related to the relative motion of the plates on either side. An important feature of these edge-driven models is that the instantaneous rotation axes are always located on the margins between block and two bounding plates. According to those models the pseudofaults or traces of disrupted seafloor resulting from the propagation of rifting between microplate and major plates may be used independently to approximately trace the continuous kinematic evolution of the microplate back in time. Pseudofault geometries and matching rotations of the Easter microplate show that for most of its 5 m.y. history, block rotation could be driven by the drag of the Nazca and Pacific plates on the microplate's edges rather than by a shear flow of mantle underneath.

  4. Leading Edge Device Aerodynamic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gabriel COJOCARU


    Full Text Available Leading edge devices are conventionally used as aerodynamic devices that enhance performances during landing and in some cases during takeoff. The need to increase the efficiency of the aircrafts has brought the idea of maintaining as much as possible a laminar flow over the wings. This is possible only when the leading edge of the wings is free from contamination, therefore using the leading edge devices with the additional role of shielding during takeoff. Such a device based on the Krueger flap design is aerodynamically analyzed and optimized. The optimization comprises three steps: first, the positioning of the flap such that the shielding criterion is kept, second, the analysis of the flap size and third, the optimization of the flap shape. The first step is subject of a gradient based optimization process of the position described by two parameters, the position along the line and the deflection angle. For the third step the Adjoint method is used to gain insight on the shape of the Krueger flap that will extend the most the stall limit. All these steps have been numerically performed using Ansys Fluent and the results are presented for the optimized shape in comparison with the baseline configuration.

  5. Nonreference Medical Image Edge Map Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Panetta


    Full Text Available Edge detection is a key step in medical image processing. It is widely used to extract features, perform segmentation, and further assist in diagnosis. A poor quality edge map can result in false alarms and misses in cancer detection algorithms. Therefore, it is necessary to have a reliable edge measure to assist in selecting the optimal edge map. Existing reference based edge measures require a ground truth edge map to evaluate the similarity between the generated edge map and the ground truth. However, the ground truth images are not available for medical images. Therefore, a nonreference edge measure is ideal for medical image processing applications. In this paper, a nonreference reconstruction based edge map evaluation (NREM is proposed. The theoretical basis is that a good edge map keeps the structure and details of the original image thus would yield a good reconstructed image. The NREM is based on comparing the similarity between the reconstructed image with the original image using this concept. The edge measure is used for selecting the optimal edge detection algorithm and optimal parameters for the algorithm. Experimental results show that the quantitative evaluations given by the edge measure have good correlations with human visual analysis.

  6. Rac1 and Stathmin but Not EB1 Are Required for Invasion of Breast Cancer Cells in Response to IGF-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Morimura


    Full Text Available Cell migration is considered necessary for the invasion that accompanies the directional formation of the cellular protrusions termed lamellipodia. In invasive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, lamellipodia formation is preceded by translocation of the actin cytoskeletal regulatory protein WAVE2 to the leading edge. WAVE2 translocation and lamellipodia formation require many signaling molecules, including PI3K, Rac1, Pak1, IRSp53, stathmin, and EB1, but whether these molecules are necessary for invasion remains unclear. In noninvasive breast cancer MCF7 cells, no lamellipodia were induced by IGF-I, whereas in MDA-MB-231 cells, Rac1, stathmin, and EB1 were overexpressed. Depletion of Rac1 or stathmin by small interfering RNA abrogated the IGF-I-induced invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells; however, depletion of EB1 did not, indicating the necessity of Rac1 and stathmin but not EB1 for invasion. The signaling pathway leading to cell invasion may not be identical but shares some common molecules, leading to cell migration through lamellipodia formation.

  7. Actin and myosin regulate cytoplasm stiffness in plant cells: a study using optical tweezers. (United States)

    van der Honing, Hannie S; de Ruijter, Norbert C A; Emons, Anne Mie C; Ketelaar, Tijs


    Here, we produced cytoplasmic protrusions with optical tweezers in mature BY-2 suspension cultured cells to study the parameters involved in the movement of actin filaments during changes in cytoplasmic organization and to determine whether stiffness is an actin-related property of plant cytoplasm. Optical tweezers were used to create cytoplasmic protrusions resembling cytoplasmic strands. Simultaneously, the behavior of the actin cytoskeleton was imaged. After actin filament depolymerization, less force was needed to create cytoplasmic protrusions. During treatment with the myosin ATPase inhibitor 2,3-butanedione monoxime, more trapping force was needed to create and maintain cytoplasmic protrusions. Thus, the presence of actin filaments and, even more so, the deactivation of a 2,3-butanedione monoxime-sensitive factor, probably myosin, stiffens the cytoplasm. During 2,3-butanedione monoxime treatment, none of the tweezer-formed protrusions contained filamentous actin, showing that a 2,3-butanedione monoxime-sensitive factor, probably myosin, is responsible for the movement of actin filaments, and implying that myosin serves as a static cross-linker of actin filaments when its motor function is inhibited. The presence of actin filaments does not delay the collapse of cytoplasmic protrusions after tweezer release. Myosin-based reorganization of the existing actin cytoskeleton could be the basis for new cytoplasmic strand formation, and thus the production of an organized cytoarchitecture.

  8. Edge effect on weevils and spiders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Horváth


    Full Text Available The edge effect on weevils and spiders was tested along oak forest – meadow transects using sweep-net samples at the Síkfökút Project in Hungary. For spiders the species richness was significantly higher in the forest edge than either in the meadow or the forest interior. For weevils the species richness of the forest edge was higher than that of the meadow, but the difference was not statistically significant whereas the species richness of the forest interior was significantly lower than that of the forest edge and the meadow. The composition of the spider assemblage of the edge was more similar to the forest, while the composition of weevils in the edge was more similar to the meadow. Our results based on two invertebrate groups operating on different trophic levels suggest that there is a significant edge effect for the studied taxa resulting in higher species richness in the edge.

  9. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) REST Interface (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  10. Chemistry at the Edge of Graphene. (United States)

    Bellunato, Amedeo; Arjmandi Tash, Hadi; Cesa, Yanina; Schneider, Grégory F


    The selective functionalization of graphene edges is driven by the chemical reactivity of its carbon atoms. The chemical reactivity of an edge, as an interruption of the honeycomb lattice of graphene, differs from the relative inertness of the basal plane. In fact, the unsaturation of the pz orbitals and the break of the π conjugation on an edge increase the energy of the electrons at the edge sites, leading to specific chemical reactivity and electronic properties. Given the relevance of the chemistry at the edges in many aspects of graphene, the present Review investigates the processes and mechanisms that drive the chemical functionalization of graphene at the edges. Emphasis is given to the selective chemical functionalization of graphene edges from theoretical and experimental perspectives, with a particular focus on the characterization tools available to investigate the chemistry of graphene at the edge.

  11. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) Search Widget (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  12. Direct laser writing of nanorough cell microbarriers on anatase/Si and graphite/Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Y.C. [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Martínez-Martínez, R.M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Torres-Costa, V. [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Agulló-Rueda, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain); García-Ruiz, J.P. [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Manso-Silván, M., E-mail: [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)


    The formation of hierarchical structures consisting of microstripe barriers decorated with nanorough ablated materials prepared by direct laser writing is described. Linear features of circa 25 μm width and 12 μm height are achieved on amorphous and crystalline titania and graphitic carbon films deposited on silicon. Ablated protrusions build up barriers decorated by nanoscale Si-film reconstructions, as indicated by EDX maps and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Wettability tests show a dramatic change in water contact angle, which leads to almost full wetting after irradiation, irrespective of the original film composition. Fluorescence microscopy images of human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on 1D and 2D structures demonstrate the short term biocompatibility of the ablated surfaces. It is shown that cells adhere, extend and polarize on feature edges, independently of the type of surface, thus suggesting that the created nanoroughness is at the origin of the antifouling behavior. In particular, irradiated anatase and graphite surfaces demonstrate an increased performance of crystalline films for the creation of cell guiding and trapping devices. The results suggest that such laser processing of films may serve as a time-and-cost-efficient method for the design of few-cells analytical surfaces. - Graphical abstract: Response of human mesenchymal stem cells to the microbarriers grown by direct laser writing on anatase/Si. Microbarriers show low colonization and high induction of cellular polarization on the feature edges. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Hierarchical microbarriers by direct IR laser writing on thin films. • Complex reconstruction of irradiated materials includes nanorough features. • Ablated areas become fully wettable. • Short term biocompatibility of the grown hierarchical structures confirmed. • Particular designs functional for cell guiding or trapping.

  13. Evaluation of edge detectors using avarage risk


    Spreeuwers, L.J.; Heijden, van der, RW Rob


    A new method for evaluation of edge detectors, based on the average risk of a decision, is discussed. The average risk is a performance measure well-known in Bayesian decision theory. Since edge detection can be regarded as a compound decision making process, the performance of an edge detector is context dependent. Therefore, the application of average risk to edge detection is non-trivial. The paper describes a method to estimate the probabilities on a number of different types of (context ...

  14. CFAR Edge Detector for Polarimetric SAR Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper; Skriver, Henning; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg;


    Finding the edges between different regions in an image is one of the fundamental steps of image analysis, and several edge detectors suitable for the special statistics of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) intensity images have previously been developed. In this paper, a new edge detector...

  15. An edge detection algorithm for imaging ladar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wang(王骐); Ziqin Li(李自勤); Qi Li(李琦); Jianfeng Sun(孙剑峰); Juncheng Fu(傅俊诚)


    In this paper, the morphological filter based on parametric edge detection is presented and applied toimaging ladar image with speckle noise. This algorithm and Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG) operator arecompared on edge detection. The experimental results indicate the superior performance of this kind ofthe edge detection.

  16. A Regularized Solution to Edge Detection. (United States)


    Hildreth, E. C. "Implementation of a theory of edge detection ," AI-TR-579, MIT Al Lab, 1980. Lunscher, W. H. H. "The asymptotic optimal frequency domain...filter for edge detection," IEEE Trans. PAMI, 6, 678-680, 1983. Marr, D. C. and Hildreth, E. C. " Theory of edge detection ," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B

  17. Understanding and preventing the edge effect. (United States)

    Cheneau, Edouard; Wolfram, Roswitha; Leborgne, Laurent; Waksman, Ron


    Edge stenosis, combining neointimal proliferation and negative remodeling, remains a serious limitation of vascular brachytherapy. This review comprehensively presents terminology, definitions, mechanisms, and treatment strategies to better understand the complexities of edge narrowing. The major contributors to this phenomenon are known; understanding the practical solutions will enable us to further minimize the problem of the edge effect.

  18. Predicting the Performance of Edge Seal Materials for PV (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, M.; Panchagade, D.; Dameron, A.; Reese, M.


    Edge seal materials were evaluated using a 100-nm film of Ca deposited on glass and laminated to another glass substrate. As moisture penetrates the package it converts the Ca metal to transparent CaOH2 giving a clear indication of the depth to which moisture has entered. Using this method, we have exposed test samples to a variety of temperature and humidity conditions ranging from 45C and 10% RH up to 85C and 85% RH, to ultraviolet radiation and to mechanical stress. We are able to show that edge seal materials are capable of keeping moisture away from sensitive cell materials for the life of a module.

  19. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Joseph


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  20. Effect of shear stress on the expression of growth factors in endothelial cells around stent edge%切应力对支架边缘内皮细胞生长因子表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安才; 李利芳; 张步春; 白玲


    增生的原因之一.%BACKGROUND:Alterations in secondary hemodynamics around the stent edge can be caused by stent planted. Is there different effect of shear stress on platelet growth factors-A, B (PDGF-A, B) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) of endothelial cells around stent edge after stent planted?OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of shear stress on growth factors of endothelial cells around stent edge.DESIGN: Observational comparative study.SETTING: Department of Cardiology, Yijishan Hospital, Wannan Medical College; Laboratory of Biomechanics (National Laboratory), Medical College of Shanghai Jiao Tong University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Biomechanics, Medical College of Shanghai Jiaotong University from April to October 2006. The main reagents were detailed as follows: trypsin (Hyclon Company); M-199 medium (Gibco BRL Company); fetal bovine serum (Hangzhou Sijiqing Bioengineering Material Institute); aFGF, Heparin and Hepes (Sigma Company); thymide, Ⅷ factor monoclonal antibody (Rabbit anti-human),biotinylated horse anti-rabbit IgG and propidium lodide (Sigma Company); neonate belly band (Delivery Room of Shanghai the Fifth People's Hospital); trizol (Invitrogene Company); reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit (Fermentas Company); penicillin/streptomycin (AB/M), objective gene primer (Shanghai Bioengineering Company).METHODS: Traditional parallel-plate streaming cavity was modified into rectangular and gradient shear stress models;while static group was established at the same time. Two shear stress groups were subjected to 11.37 dyne/cm2 and 5.66-14.38 dyne/cm2 shear stress, respectively for 3 hours, 6 hours and 12 hours.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The expressions of PDGF-A, B and bFGF mRNA of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) were measured by RT-PCR at different time points.RESULTS: Compared with static group, the maximal expression of PDGF-A, B and bFGF mRNA was reached peak at 3 hours in gradient shear stress group and this

  1. Image edge detection based on beamlet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jing; Huang Peikang; Wang Xiaohu; Pan Xudong


    Combining beamlet transform with steerable filters, a new edge detection method based on line gra-dient is proposed. Compared with operators based on point local properties, the edge-detection results with this method achieve higher SNR and position accuracy, and are quite helpful for image registration, object identification, etc. Some edge-detection experiments on optical and SAR images that demonstrate the significant improvement over classical edge operators are also presented. Moreover, the template matching result based on edge information of optical reference image and SAR image also proves the validity of this method.

  2. Evaluating Edge Detection through Boundary Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Song


    Full Text Available Edge detection has been widely used in computer vision and image processing. However, the performance evaluation of the edge-detection results is still a challenging problem. A major dilemma in edge-detection evaluation is the difficulty to balance the objectivity and generality: a general-purpose edge-detection evaluation independent of specific applications is usually not well defined, while an evaluation on a specific application has weak generality. Aiming at addressing this dilemma, this paper presents new evaluation methodology and a framework in which edge detection is evaluated through boundary detection, that is, the likelihood of retrieving the full object boundaries from this edge-detection output. Such a likelihood, we believe, reflects the performance of edge detection in many applications since boundary detection is the direct and natural goal of edge detection. In this framework, we use the newly developed ratio-contour algorithm to group the detected edges into closed boundaries. We also collect a large data set ( of real images with unambiguous ground-truth boundaries for evaluation. Five edge detectors (Sobel, LoG, Canny, Rothwell, and Edison are evaluated in this paper and we find that the current edge-detection performance still has scope for improvement by choosing appropriate detectors and detector parameters.

  3. Vlsi Implementation of Edge Detection for Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mahalakshmi


    Full Text Available Edge is the boundary between the image and its background. Edge detection in general is defined as the local maxima obtained from high pass filters, but an optimized edge detector should mark the edges with respect to luminance or brightness changes. It is easy to obtain them in software implementation but for hardware implementation there is an issue with percentage of accuracy and processing time. This study discusses various edge detection algorithms and proposes an optimized edge detector which provides the solution for mentioned above issue. Since FPGA provides practical solutions for most of the image processing problems, the proposed architecture has been developed using Matlab System generator. Experimental results show the accuracy of edge detected using proposed architecture.

  4. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas


    is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between......Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities (>1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark...... the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge...

  5. High glucose-mediated oxidative stress impairs cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo L Lamers

    Full Text Available Deficient wound healing in diabetic patients is very frequent, but the cellular and molecular causes are poorly defined. In this study, we evaluate the hypothesis that high glucose concentrations inhibit cell migration. Using CHO.K1 cells, NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, mouse embryonic fibroblasts and primary skin fibroblasts from control and diabetic rats cultured in 5 mM D-glucose (low glucose, LG, 25 mM D-glucose (high glucose, HG or 25 mM L-glucose medium (osmotic control--OC, we analyzed the migration speed, protrusion stability, cell polarity, adhesion maturation and the activity of the small Rho GTPase Rac1. We also analyzed the effects of reactive oxygen species by incubating cells with the antioxidant N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC. We observed that HG conditions inhibited cell migration when compared to LG or OC. This inhibition resulted from impaired cell polarity, protrusion destabilization and inhibition of adhesion maturation. Conversely, Rac1 activity, which promotes protrusion and blocks adhesion maturation, was increased in HG conditions, thus providing a mechanistic basis for the HG phenotype. Most of the HG effects were partially or completely rescued by treatment with NAC. These findings demonstrate that HG impairs cell migration due to an increase in oxidative stress that causes polarity loss, deficient adhesion and protrusion. These alterations arise, in large part, from increased Rac1 activity and may contribute to the poor wound healing observed in diabetic patients.

  6. Haptic Edge Detection Through Shear (United States)

    Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Lipson, Hod; Hayward, Vincent


    Most tactile sensors are based on the assumption that touch depends on measuring pressure. However, the pressure distribution at the surface of a tactile sensor cannot be acquired directly and must be inferred from the deformation field induced by the touched object in the sensor medium. Currently, there is no consensus as to which components of strain are most informative for tactile sensing. Here, we propose that shape-related tactile information is more suitably recovered from shear strain than normal strain. Based on a contact mechanics analysis, we demonstrate that the elastic behavior of a haptic probe provides a robust edge detection mechanism when shear strain is sensed. We used a jamming-based robot gripper as a tactile sensor to empirically validate that shear strain processing gives accurate edge information that is invariant to changes in pressure, as predicted by the contact mechanics study. This result has implications for the design of effective tactile sensors as well as for the understanding of the early somatosensory processing in mammals. PMID:27009331

  7. A robust sub-pixel edge detection method of infrared image based on tremor-based retinal receptive field model (United States)

    Gao, Kun; Yang, Hu; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang


    Because of complex thermal objects in an infrared image, the prevalent image edge detection operators are often suitable for a certain scene and extract too wide edges sometimes. From a biological point of view, the image edge detection operators work reliably when assuming a convolution-based receptive field architecture. A DoG (Difference-of- Gaussians) model filter based on ON-center retinal ganglion cell receptive field architecture with artificial eye tremors introduced is proposed for the image contour detection. Aiming at the blurred edges of an infrared image, the subsequent orthogonal polynomial interpolation and sub-pixel level edge detection in rough edge pixel neighborhood is adopted to locate the foregoing rough edges in sub-pixel level. Numerical simulations show that this method can locate the target edge accurately and robustly.

  8. The nanostructure of myoendothelial junctions contributes to signal rectification between endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik


    Micro-anatomical structures in tissues have potential physiological effects. In arteries and arterioles smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells are separated by the internal elastic lamina, but the two cell layers often make contact through micro protrusions called myoendothelial junctions. Cross...

  9. The Rac-FRET Mouse Reveals Tight Spatiotemporal Control of Rac Activity in Primary Cells and Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin E. Johnsson


    Full Text Available The small G protein family Rac has numerous regulators that integrate extracellular signals into tight spatiotemporal maps of its activity to promote specific cell morphologies and responses. Here, we have generated a mouse strain, Rac-FRET, which ubiquitously expresses the Raichu-Rac biosensor. It enables FRET imaging and quantification of Rac activity in live tissues and primary cells without affecting cell properties and responses. We assessed Rac activity in chemotaxing Rac-FRET neutrophils and found enrichment in leading-edge protrusions and unexpected longitudinal shifts and oscillations during protruding and stalling phases of migration. We monitored Rac activity in normal or disease states of intestinal, liver, mammary, pancreatic, and skin tissue, in response to stimulation or inhibition and upon genetic manipulation of upstream regulators, revealing unexpected insights into Rac signaling during disease development. The Rac-FRET strain is a resource that promises to fundamentally advance our understanding of Rac-dependent responses in primary cells and native environments.

  10. Ca L2,3-edge XANES and Sr K-edge EXAFS study of hydroxyapatite and fossil bone apatite (United States)

    Zougrou, I. M.; Katsikini, M.; Brzhezinskaya, M.; Pinakidou, F.; Papadopoulou, L.; Tsoukala, E.; Paloura, E. C.


    Upon burial, the organic and inorganic components of hard tissues such as bone, teeth, and tusks are subjected to various alterations as a result of interactions with the chemical milieu of soil, groundwater, and presence of microorganisms. In this study, simulation of the Ca L 2,3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum of hydroxyapatite, using the CTM4XAS code, reveals that the different symmetry of the two nonequivalent Ca(1) and Ca(2) sites in the unit cell gives rise to specific spectral features. Moreover, Ca L 2,3-edge XANES spectroscopy is applied in order to assess variations in fossil bone apatite crystallinity due to heavy bacterial alteration and catastrophic mineral dissolution, compared to well-preserved fossil apatite, fresh bone, and geologic apatite reference samples. Fossilization-induced chemical alterations are investigated by means of Ca L 2,3-edge XANES and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and are related to histological evaluation using optical microscopy images. Finally, the variations in the bonding environment of Sr and its preference for substitution in the Ca(1) or Ca(2) sites upon increasing the Sr/Ca ratio is assessed by Sr K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy.

  11. Ca L2,3-edge XANES and Sr K-edge EXAFS study of hydroxyapatite and fossil bone apatite. (United States)

    Zougrou, I M; Katsikini, M; Brzhezinskaya, M; Pinakidou, F; Papadopoulou, L; Tsoukala, E; Paloura, E C


    Upon burial, the organic and inorganic components of hard tissues such as bone, teeth, and tusks are subjected to various alterations as a result of interactions with the chemical milieu of soil, groundwater, and presence of microorganisms. In this study, simulation of the Ca L 2,3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum of hydroxyapatite, using the CTM4XAS code, reveals that the different symmetry of the two nonequivalent Ca(1) and Ca(2) sites in the unit cell gives rise to specific spectral features. Moreover, Ca L 2,3-edge XANES spectroscopy is applied in order to assess variations in fossil bone apatite crystallinity due to heavy bacterial alteration and catastrophic mineral dissolution, compared to well-preserved fossil apatite, fresh bone, and geologic apatite reference samples. Fossilization-induced chemical alterations are investigated by means of Ca L 2,3-edge XANES and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and are related to histological evaluation using optical microscopy images. Finally, the variations in the bonding environment of Sr and its preference for substitution in the Ca(1) or Ca(2) sites upon increasing the Sr/Ca ratio is assessed by Sr K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy.

  12. Numerical Investigation of Protrusions on Leakage of Straight- Through Labyrinth Seal%齿间凸起对直通篦齿封严特性影响的数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童飞; 张丽; 华锐睿; 陆海鹰; 梁义强


    To improve the performance of labyrinth seal,a straight-through labyrinth seal with protrusions on the smooth bush has been numerically investigated. The effects of pressure ratio, protrusions size and the space between teeth and protrusions are studied. Compared with smooth bush straight-through labyrinth seal , protrusions destroy the wall jet boundary layer continuity and change the direction of the jet flow,which improve the seal performance and decrease the mass flow effectively. The study reveals that when the pressure ratio is 2, the leakage coefficient of labyrinth seal with protrusions can decrease by 13% in comparison with smooth bush labyrinth seal,and when the pressure ratio is 4,the leakage coefficient is reduced by 18%. The narrower width and the higher height the protrusions can have,the better seal performance the labyrinth seal can get. Additional⁃ly, with a decrease of the axial distance between protrusion and the next tooth, the protrusion can greatly change the direction of the jet which flows into the next tooth,and thus improve the seal performance evidently.%为提升篦齿的密封性能,对在齿间光滑衬套上增加矩形凸起的直通篦齿的流动特性进行了数值研究,分析了压比、凸起的尺寸和轴向位置对篦齿泄漏特性的影响。和光滑齿相比,凸起破坏了壁面射流附面层的连续性,改变了流体在齿腔中的流动方向,有效地提高了通道的密封性能,降低了通道的泄漏量。结果表明,当压比为2时,含有凸起结构的篦齿的泄漏系数较光滑齿降低了13%,当压比增加到4时,泄漏系数更是降低了18%;凸起的高度越大宽度越小,凸起对篦齿密封性能的提高就越明显;凸起和下级齿之间的轴向距离越短,凸起对流入下级齿的气体流动方向改变就越大,密封性能也就越好。

  13. The degradation of potato virus M (PVM particles in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald


    Full Text Available Degradation of potato virus M particles was observed in the cells of Solanum tuberosum, Solanum rostratum, Lycopersicon esculentum and Lycopersicon chilense plants infected with this virus. PVM particles found in the cytoplasm of infected parenchyma cells grouped together in the form of inclusions, often found near the tonoplast. The ends of the virus particles and the tonoplast came into close contact. Cytoplasmic protrusions containing PVM particles, reaching into vacuoles were formed in those places. In addition to a large central vacuole, small vacuoles were observed in cells containing PVM particles. Various stages of degradation of cytoplasmic protrusions were observed both in the large and small vacuoles.

  14. Edge detection in microscopy images using curvelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koumoutsakos Petros


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite significant progress in imaging technologies, the efficient detection of edges and elongated features in images of intracellular and multicellular structures acquired using light or electron microscopy is a challenging and time consuming task in many laboratories. Results We present a novel method, based on the discrete curvelet transform, to extract a directional field from the image that indicates the location and direction of the edges. This directional field is then processed using the non-maximal suppression and thresholding steps of the Canny algorithm to trace along the edges and mark them. Optionally, the edges may then be extended along the directions given by the curvelets to provide a more connected edge map. We compare our scheme to the Canny edge detector and an edge detector based on Gabor filters, and show that our scheme performs better in detecting larger, elongated structures possibly composed of several step or ridge edges. Conclusion The proposed curvelet based edge detection is a novel and competitive approach for imaging problems. We expect that the methodology and the accompanying software will facilitate and improve edge detection in images available using light or electron microscopy.

  15. Jet formation at the sea ice edge (United States)

    Feltham, D. L.; Heorton, H. D.


    The sea ice edge presents a region of many feedback processes between the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, which are inadequately represented in current climate models. Here we focus on on-ice atmospheric and oceanic flows at the sea ice edge. Mesoscale jet formation due to the Coriolis effect is well understood over sharp changes in surface roughness such as coastlines. This sharp change in surface roughness is experienced by the atmosphere flowing over, and ocean flowing under, a compacted sea ice edge. We have studied a dynamic sea ice edge responding to atmospheric and oceanic jet formation. The shape and strength of atmospheric and oceanic jets during on-ice flows is calculated from existing studies of the sea ice edge and prescribed to idealised models of the sea ice edge. An idealised analytical model of sea ice drift is developed and compared to a sea ice climate model (the CICE model) run on an idealised domain. The response of the CICE model to jet formation is tested at various resolutions. We find that the formation of atmospheric jets during on-ice winds at the sea ice edge increases the wind speed parallel to the sea ice edge and results in the formation of a sea ice edge jet. The modelled sea ice edge jet is in agreement with an observed jet although more observations are needed for validation. The increase in ice drift speed is dependent upon the angle between the ice edge and wind and can result in a 40% increase in ice transport along the sea ice edge. The possibility of oceanic jet formation during on-ice currents and the resultant effect upon the sea ice edge is less conclusive. Observations and climate model data of the polar oceans has been analysed to show areas of likely atmospheric jet formation, with the Fram Strait being of particular interest.

  16. Polarity control of h-BN nanoribbon edges by strain and edge termination. (United States)

    Yamanaka, Ayaka; Okada, Susumu


    We studied the polarity of h-BN nano-flakes in terms of their edge geometries, edge hydrogen termination, and uniaxial strain by evaluating their electrostatic potential using density functional theory. Our calculations have shown that the polarity of the nanoribbons is sensitive to their edge shape, edge termination, and uniaxial tensile strain. Polarity inversion of the ribbons can be induced by controlling the hydrogen concentration at the edges and the uniaxial tensile strain. The polarity inversion indicates that h-BN nanoribbons can exhibit non-polar properties at a particular edge hydrogen concentration and tensile strain, even though the nanoribbons essentially have polarity at the edge. We also found that the edge angle affects the polarity of nanoribbons with hydrogenated edges.

  17. Structure of complex networks: Quantifying edge-to-edge relations by failure-induced flow redistribution

    CERN Document Server

    Schaub, Michael T; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio


    The analysis of complex networks has so far revolved mainly around the role of nodes and communities of nodes. However, the dynamics of interconnected systems is commonly focalised on edge processes, and a dual edge-centric perspective can often prove more natural. Here we present graph-theoretical measures to quantify edge-to-edge relations inspired by the notion of flow redistribution induced by edge failures. Our measures, which are related to the pseudo-inverse of the Laplacian of the network, are global and reveal the dynamical interplay between the edges of a network, including potentially non-local interactions. Our framework also allows us to define the embeddedness of an edge, a measure of how strongly an edge features in the weighted cuts of the network. We showcase the general applicability of our edge-centric framework through analyses of the Iberian Power grid, traffic flow in road networks, and the C. elegans neuronal network.

  18. Edge-Transitive Lexicographic and Cartesian Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imrich Wilfried


    Full Text Available In this note connected, edge-transitive lexicographic and Cartesian products are characterized. For the lexicographic product G ◦ H of a connected graph G that is not complete by a graph H, we show that it is edge-transitive if and only if G is edge-transitive and H is edgeless. If the first factor of G ∘ H is non-trivial and complete, then G ∘ H is edge-transitive if and only if H is the lexicographic product of a complete graph by an edgeless graph. This fixes an error of Li, Wang, Xu, and Zhao [11]. For the Cartesian product it is shown that every connected Cartesian product of at least two non-trivial factors is edge-transitive if and only if it is the Cartesian power of a connected, edge- and vertex-transitive graph.

  19. Edge Magnon Excitation in Spin Dimer Systems (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Ryo; Matsumoto, Masashige


    Magnetic excitation in a spin dimer system on a bilayer honeycomb lattice is investigated in the presence of a zigzag edge, where disordered and ordered phases can be controlled by a quantum phase transition. In analogy with the case of graphene with a zigzag edge, a flat edge magnon mode appears in the disordered phase. In an ordered phase, a finite magnetic moment generates a mean-field potential to the magnon. Since the potential is nonuniform on the edge and bulk sites, it affects the excitation, and the dispersion of the edge mode deviates from the flat shape. We investigate how the edge magnon mode evolves when the phase changes through the quantum phase transition and discuss the similarities to ordered spin systems on a monolayer honeycomb lattice.

  20. [Artificial crowns influence upon edge parodontium status]. (United States)

    Zhulev, E N; Serov, A B


    With the aim of prosthetic treatment efficacy increase study of edge parodontium tissue reaction upon different types of artificial crowns was done and methods of chronic localized parodontitis prevention were developed. Changes of the main gingival fluid characteristics (amount, acidity, interleukine-1beta concentration) and indicators of microcirculation in edge parodontium of the teeth under the artificial crowns influence were disclosed. There were developed methods of chronic localized parodontitis prevention produced by artificial crowns edge.

  1. Helical Aharonov-Casher edge states


    Heremans, J. J.; Xu, L. L.


    It is shown that an Aharonov-Casher vector potential in a two-dimensional geometry can lead to helical edge states. The Aharonov-Casher vector potential is the electromagnetic dual of the magnetic vector potential, and leads to traveling states at the sample edge in analogy to the integer quantum Hall effect. The helical edge states are predicted to appear in a narrow channel geometry with parabolic or sufficiently symmetric confinement potential. The implications of the helical Aharonov-Cash...

  2. Selective Electroless Silver Deposition on Graphene Edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, D.; Larsen, M. V.; Andryieuski, Andrei


    We demonstrate a method of electroless selective silver deposition on graphene edges or between graphene islands without covering the surface of graphene. Modifications of the deposition recipe allow for decoration of graphene edges with silver nanoparticles or filling holes in damaged graphene...... on silica substrate and thus potentially restoring electric connectivity with minimal influence on the overall graphene electrical and optical properties. The presented technique could find applications in graphene based transparent conductors as well as selective edge functionalization and can be extended...

  3. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Zweben; R. Maqueda; K. Hill; D. Johnson; S. Kaye; H. Kugel; F. Levinton; R. Maingi; L. Roquemore; S. Sabbagh; G. Wurden


    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radial heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of ''gas puff imaging'' to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence.

  4. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Zweben; R. Maqueda; K. Hill; D. Johnson; et al


    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radical heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of gas puff imaging to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence.

  5. A Gravitational Edge Detection for Multispectral Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genyun Sun


    Full Text Available Gravitational edge detection is one of the new edge detection algorithms that is based on the law of gravity. This algorithm assumes that each image pixel is a celestial body with a mass represented by its grayscale intensity and their interactions are based on the Newtonian laws of gravity. In this article, a multispectral version of the algorithm is introduced. The method uses gravitational techniques in combination with metric tensor to detect edges of multispectral images including color images. To evaluate the performances of the proposed algorithm, several experiments are performed. The experimental results confirm the efficiency of the multispectral gravitational edge detection.  


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆


    A method that incorporates edge detection technique, Markov Random field (MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques was presented for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. It first applies edge detection technique to obtain a Difference In Strength (DIS) map. An initial segmented result is obtained based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance. Then the region process is modeled by MRF to obtain an image that contains different intensity regions. The gradient values are calculated and then the watershed technique is used. DIS calculation is used for each pixel to define all the edges (weak or strong) in the image. The DIS map is obtained. This help as priority knowledge to know the possibility of the region segmentation by the next step (MRF), which gives an image that has all the edges and regions information. In MRF model,gray level l, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The segmentation results are improved by using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions are processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. The edge map is obtained using a merge process based on averaged intensity mean values. A common edge detectors that work on (MRF) segmented image are used and the results are compared. The segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  7. A new fuzzy edge detection algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunWei; XiaLiangzheng


    Based upon the maximum entropy theorem of information theory, a novel fuzzy approach for edge detection is presented. Firsdy, a definition of fuzzy partition entropy is proposed after introducing the concepts of fuzzy probability and fuzzy partition. The relation of the probability partition and the fuzzy c-partition of the image gradient are used in the algorithm. Secondly, based on the conditional probabilities and the fuzzy partition, the optimal thresholding is searched adaptively through the maximum fuzzy entropy principle, and then the edge image is obtained. Lastly, an edge-enhancing procedure is executed on the edge image. The experimental results show that the proposed approach performs well.

  8. Edge Segment-Based Automatic Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksam Chae


    Full Text Available This paper presents a moving-object segmentation algorithm using edge information as segment. The proposed method is developed to address challenges due to variations in ambient lighting and background contents. We investigated the suitability of the proposed algorithm in comparison with the traditional-intensity-based as well as edge-pixel-based detection methods. In our method, edges are extracted from video frames and are represented as segments using an efficiently designed edge class. This representation helps to obtain the geometric information of edge in the case of edge matching and moving-object segmentation; and facilitates incorporating knowledge into edge segment during background modeling and motion tracking. An efficient approach for background initialization and robust method of edge matching is presented, to effectively reduce the risk of false alarm due to illumination change and camera motion while maintaining the high sensitivity to the presence of moving object. Detected moving edges are utilized along with watershed algorithm for extracting video object plane (VOP with more accurate boundary. Experiment results with real image sequence reflect that the proposed method is suitable for automated video surveillance applications in various monitoring systems.

  9. Efficient edge-guided full-waveform inversion by Canny edge detection and bilateral filtering algorithms (United States)

    Xiang, Shiming; Zhang, Haijiang


    It is known full-waveform inversion (FWI) is generally ill-conditioned and various strategies including pre-conditioning and regularizing the inversion system have been proposed to obtain a reliable estimation of the velocity model. Here, we propose a new edge-guided strategy for FWI in frequency domain to efficiently and reliably estimate velocity models with structures of the size similar to the seismic wavelength. The edges of the velocity model at the current iteration are first detected by the Canny edge detection algorithm that is widely used in image processing. Then, the detected edges are used for guiding the calculation of FWI gradient as well as enforcing edge-preserving total variation (TV) regularization for next iteration of FWI. Bilateral filtering is further applied to remove noise but keep edges of the FWI gradient. The proposed edge-guided FWI in the frequency domain with edge-guided TV regularization and bilateral filtering is designed to preserve model edges that are recovered from previous iterations as well as from lower frequency waveforms when FWI is conducted from lower to higher frequencies. The new FWI method is validated using the complex Marmousi model that contains several steeply dipping fault zones and hundreds of horizons. Compared to FWI without edge guidance, our proposed edge-guided FWI recovers velocity model anomalies and edges much better. Unlike previous image-guided FWI or edge-guided TV regularization strategies, our method does not require migrating seismic data, thus is more efficient for real applications.

  10. Effect of trailing edge shape on the separated flow characteristics around an airfoil at low Reynolds number: A numerical study (United States)

    Thomareis, Nikitas; Papadakis, George


    Direct numerical simulations of the flow field around a NACA 0012 airfoil at Reynolds number 50 000 and angle of attack 5° with 3 different trailing edge shapes (straight, blunt, and serrated) have been performed. Both time-averaged flow characteristics and the most dominant flow structures and their frequencies are investigated using the dynamic mode decomposition method. It is shown that for the straight trailing edge airfoil, this method can capture the fundamental as well as the subharmonic of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that develops naturally in the separating shear layer. The fundamental frequency matches well with relevant data in the literature. The blunt trailing edge results in periodic vortex shedding, with frequency close to the subharmonic of the natural shear layer frequency. The shedding, resulting from a global instability, has an upstream effect and forces the separating shear layer. Due to forcing, the shear layer frequency locks onto the shedding frequency while the natural frequency (and its subharmonic) is suppressed. The presence of serrations in the trailing edge creates a spanwise pressure gradient, which is responsible for the development of a secondary flow pattern in the spanwise direction. This pattern affects the mean flow in the near wake. It can explain an unexpected observation, namely, that the velocity deficit downstream of a trough is smaller than the deficit after a protrusion. Furthermore, the insertion of serrations attenuates the energy of vortex shedding by de-correlating the spanwise coherence of the vortices. This results in weaker forcing of the separating shear layer, and both the subharmonics of the natural frequency and the shedding frequency appear in the spectra.

  11. Combination of physical therapies on 80 cases of protrusion of lumbar intervertebral discs%不同物理疗法组合治疗腰椎间盘突出症80例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾继娥; 张晓莉


    @@ BACKGROUND: Therapy of protrusion of lumbar intervertebral discs includes drugs, operation, compared with other two methods, physical therapy is safe, high effective and economical. Physical therapy included ultrashort wave, computer middle-frequency electrical therapy, warm magnet therapy, combination of these 3 methods needs a further explore.

  12. A numerical investigation into the effects of Reynolds number on the flow mechanism induced by a tubercled leading edge (United States)

    Rostamzadeh, Nikan; Kelso, Richard M.; Dally, Bassam


    Leading-edge modifications based on designs inspired by the protrusions on the pectoral flippers of the humpback whale (tubercles) have been the subject of research for the past decade primarily due to their flow control potential in ameliorating stall characteristics. Previous studies have demonstrated that, in the transitional flow regime, full-span wings with tubercled leading edges outperform unmodified wings at high attack angles. The flow mechanism associated with such enhanced loading traits is, however, still being investigated. Also, the performance of full-span tubercled wings in the turbulent regime is largely unexplored. The present study aims to investigate Reynolds number effects on the flow mechanism induced by a full-span tubercled wing with the NACA-0021 cross-sectional profile in the transitional and near-turbulent regimes using computational fluid dynamics. The analysis of the flow field suggests that, with the exception of a few different flow features, the same underlying flow mechanism, involving the presence of transverse and streamwise vorticity, is at play in both cases. With regard to lift-generation characteristics, the numerical simulation results indicate that in contrast to the transitional flow regime, where the unmodified NACA-0021 undergoes a sudden loss of lift, in the turbulent regime, the baseline foil experiences gradual stall and produces more lift than the tubercled foil. This observation highlights the importance of considerations regarding the Reynolds number effects and the stall characteristics of the baseline foil, in the industrial applications of tubercled lifting bodies.

  13. A numerical investigation into the effects of Reynolds number on the flow mechanism induced by a tubercled leading edge (United States)

    Rostamzadeh, Nikan; Kelso, Richard M.; Dally, Bassam


    Leading-edge modifications based on designs inspired by the protrusions on the pectoral flippers of the humpback whale (tubercles) have been the subject of research for the past decade primarily due to their flow control potential in ameliorating stall characteristics. Previous studies have demonstrated that, in the transitional flow regime, full-span wings with tubercled leading edges outperform unmodified wings at high attack angles. The flow mechanism associated with such enhanced loading traits is, however, still being investigated. Also, the performance of full-span tubercled wings in the turbulent regime is largely unexplored. The present study aims to investigate Reynolds number effects on the flow mechanism induced by a full-span tubercled wing with the NACA-0021 cross-sectional profile in the transitional and near-turbulent regimes using computational fluid dynamics. The analysis of the flow field suggests that, with the exception of a few different flow features, the same underlying flow mechanism, involving the presence of transverse and streamwise vorticity, is at play in both cases. With regard to lift-generation characteristics, the numerical simulation results indicate that in contrast to the transitional flow regime, where the unmodified NACA-0021 undergoes a sudden loss of lift, in the turbulent regime, the baseline foil experiences gradual stall and produces more lift than the tubercled foil. This observation highlights the importance of considerations regarding the Reynolds number effects and the stall characteristics of the baseline foil, in the industrial applications of tubercled lifting bodies.

  14. Lgr4 and Lgr5 drive the formation of long actin-rich cytoneme-like membrane protrusions (United States)

    Snyder, Joshua C.; Rochelle, Lauren K.; Marion, Sébastien; Lyerly, H. Kim; Barak, Larry S.; Caron, Marc G.


    ABSTRACT Embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis require precise information exchange between cells and their microenvironment to coordinate cell behavior. A specialized class of ultra-long actin-rich filopodia, termed cytonemes, provides one mechanism for this spatiotemporal regulation of extracellular cues. We provide here a mechanism whereby the stem-cell marker Lgr5, and its family member Lgr4, promote the formation of cytonemes. Lgr4- and Lgr5-induced cytonemes exceed lengths of 80 µm, are generated through stabilization of nascent filopodia from an underlying lamellipodial-like network and functionally provide a pipeline for the transit of signaling effectors. As proof-of-principle, we demonstrate that Lgr5-induced cytonemes act as conduits for cell signaling by demonstrating that the actin motor and filopodial cargo carrier protein myosin X (Myo10) and the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling effector β-arrestin-2 (Arrb2) transit into cytonemes. This work delineates a biological function for Lgr4 and Lgr5 and provides the rationale to fully investigate Lgr4 and Lgr5 function and cytonemes in mammalian stem cell and cancer stem cell behavior. PMID:25653388

  15. Fractional quantum Hall edge: Effect of nonlinear dispersion and edge roton


    Jolad, Shivakumar; Sen, Diptiman; Jain, Jainendra K.


    According to Wen's theory, a universal behavior of the fractional quantum Hall edge is expected at sufficiently low energies, where the dispersion of the elementary edge excitation is linear. A microscopic calculation shows that the actual dispersion is indeed linear at low energies, but deviates from linearity beyond certain energy, and also exhibits an "edge roton minimum." We determine the edge exponent from a microscopic approach, and find that the nonlinearity of the dispersion makes a s...

  16. Absence of edge states in covalently bonded zigzag edges of graphene on Ir(111). (United States)

    Li, Yan; Subramaniam, Dinesh; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Lazić, Predrag; Caciuc, Vasile; Pauly, Christian; Georgi, Alexander; Busse, Carsten; Liebmann, Marcus; Blügel, Stefan; Pratzer, Marco; Morgenstern, Markus; Mazzarello, Riccardo


    The zigzag edges of graphene on Ir(111) are studied by ab initio simulations and low-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy, providing information about their structural, electronic, and magnetic properties. No edge state is found to exist, which is explained in terms of the interplay between a strong geometrical relaxation at the edge and a hybridization of the d orbitals of Ir atoms with the graphene orbitals at the edge.

  17. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan


    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  18. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)


    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  19. Product of normal edge transitive Cayley graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Assari


    Full Text Available For two normal edge transitive Cayley graphs on two groups H and K whichhave no common direct factor and gcd(|H|/|H'|, |Z(K| = 1 = gcd(|K=K′|,|Z(H|,we consider four standard product of them and proved that only tensor product ofthem can be normal edge transitive.

  20. Finding Edges and Lines in Images. (United States)


    Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Cambridge Mass., Al Memo 183, 1970. lildreth E. C. "Implementation of a Theory of Edge Detection ," M.I.T...1970. Marr D. C. "Early Processing of Visual Information," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 275 (1976), 483-524. Marr D. C. and Hildreth E. " Theory of Edge Detection ," Proc

  1. LES tests on airfoil trailing edge serration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong


    In the present study, a large number of acoustic simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with different Trailing Edge Serrations (TES). The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) acoustic analogy is used for noise prediction at trailing edge. The acoustic solver is running on the platform...

  2. Endocytic turnover of Rab8 controls cell polarization (United States)

    Vidal-Quadras, Maite; Holst, Mikkel R.; Larsson, Elin; Hachimi, Mariam; Yau, Wai-Lok; Peränen, Johan; Martín-Belmonte, Fernando


    ABSTRACT Adaptation of cell shape and polarization through the formation and retraction of cellular protrusions requires balancing of endocytosis and exocytosis combined with fine-tuning of the local activity of small GTPases like Rab8. Here, we show that endocytic turnover of the plasma membrane at protrusions is directly coupled to surface removal and inactivation of Rab8. Removal is induced by reduced membrane tension and mediated by the GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase-1 (GRAF1, also known as ARHGAP26), a regulator of clathrin-independent endocytosis. GRAF1-depleted cells were deficient in multi-directional spreading and displayed elevated levels of GTP-loaded Rab8, which was accumulated at the tips of static protrusions. Furthermore, GRAF1 depletion impaired lumen formation and spindle orientation in a 3D cell culture system, indicating that GRAF1 activity regulates polarity establishment. Our data suggest that GRAF1-mediated removal of Rab8 from the cell surface restricts its activity during protrusion formation, thereby facilitating dynamic adjustment of the polarity axis. PMID:28137756

  3. 从腹论治腰椎间盘突出症的研究进展%Research Progress on Protrusion of the Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Treated from the Perspective of Abdomen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明宇; 黄桂成


    目的:总结从腹论治腰椎间盘突出症的研究进展.方法:总结、归纳、分析近年来的相关文献.结果:提出从腹论治腰椎间盘突出症的理论依据,采用腹部针灸和腹部手法治疗腰椎间盘突出症疗效显著.结论:腰椎间盘突出并不等于腰椎间盘突症,腰腿痛的发病原因并非单纯机械性压迫,从腹论治达到机体的前后平衡,对于腰椎间盘突出症的治疗扩展了治疗思路.%Objective;To summarize the research progress on protrusion of the lumbar intervertebral disc treated from the perspective of abdomen. Methods:The relative literature was summarized,concluded and analyzed in recent years. Results;The theoretical basis on the treatment of protrusion of the lumbar intervertebral disc from the perspective of abdomen was proposed. Acupuncture and moxibustion on the abdomen and abdomen technique were adopted and had remarkable curative effects in treating protrusion of the lumbar intervertebral disc. Conclusion;Protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc is not equal to lumbar intervertebral disc hemiation and the pain in waist and legs is not caused merely by mechanical stress. The achievement of balance between the front and the back of the body from the differentiation and treatment of abdomen has expanded thoughts for the treatment of protrusion of the lumbar intervertebral disc.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Automated Ice Edge Detection (United States)

    Moen, Mari-Ann N.; Isaksem, Hugo; Debien, Annekatrien


    The importance of highly detailed and time sensitive ice charts has increased with the increasing interest in the Arctic for oil and gas, tourism, and shipping. Manual ice charts are prepared by national ice services of several Arctic countries. Methods are also being developed to automate this task. Kongsberg Satellite Services uses a method that detects ice edges within 15 minutes after image acquisition. This paper describes a sensitivity analysis of the ice edge, assessing to which ice concentration class from the manual ice charts it can be compared to. The ice edge is derived using the Ice Tracking from SAR Images (ITSARI) algorithm. RADARSAT-2 images of February 2011 are used, both for the manual ice charts and the automatic ice edges. The results show that the KSAT ice edge lies within ice concentration classes with very low ice concentration or open water.

  5. Cascading Edge Failures: A Dynamic Network Process

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, June


    This paper considers the dynamics of edges in a network. The Dynamic Bond Percolation (DBP) process models, through stochastic local rules, the dependence of an edge $(a,b)$ in a network on the states of its neighboring edges. Unlike previous models, DBP does not assume statistical independence between different edges. In applications, this means for example that failures of transmission lines in a power grid are not statistically independent, or alternatively, relationships between individuals (dyads) can lead to changes in other dyads in a social network. We consider the time evolution of the probability distribution of the network state, the collective states of all the edges (bonds), and show that it converges to a stationary distribution. We use this distribution to study the emergence of global behaviors like consensus (i.e., catastrophic failure or full recovery of the entire grid) or coexistence (i.e., some failed and some operating substructures in the grid). In particular, we show that, depending on...

  6. [Gap edge effect of Castanopsis kawakamii community]. (United States)

    Liu, Jinfu; Hong, Wei; Li, Junqing; Lin, Rongfu


    This paper reported the characters of gap edge effect of Castanopsis kawakamii community in Sanming, Fujian Province. The species diversity, ecological dominance, and edge effect strength of 38 forest gaps with different development stages in different stands of Castanopsis kawakamii community were measured, and Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index, and index of edge effect strength were calculated. The results showed that the index of the gap edge effect of Castanopsis kawakamii community was about 0.7-1.3 (according to the species diversity index) and 0.3-1.8 (according to the ecological dominance index). The gap edge effect had the trend of increasing the species diversity of forest communities. The index of gap effect was affected by the size and development stage of the gap and the related forest type. The study provided a theoretical basis for the maintenance of species diversity and the forest management in Castanopsis kawakamii community.

  7. Edge exchangeable models for network data

    CERN Document Server

    Crane, Harry


    Exchangeable models for vertex labeled graphs cannot replicate the large sample behaviors of sparsity and power law degree distributions observed in many network datasets. Out of this mathematical impossibility emerges the question of how network data can be modeled in a way that reflects known empirical behaviors and respects basic statistical principles. We address this question by observing that edges, not vertices, act as the statistical units in most network datasets, making a theory of edge labeled networks more natural for most applications. Within this context we introduce the new invariance principle of {\\em edge exchangeability}, which unlike its vertex exchangeable counterpart can produce networks with sparse and/or power law structure. We characterize the class of all edge exchangeable network models and identify a particular two parameter family of models with suitable theoretical properties for statistical inference. We discuss issues of estimation from edge exchangeable models and compare our a...

  8. Localized Edge Vibrations and Edge Reconstruction by Joule Heating in Graphene Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Mads; Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Jauho, Antti-Pekka;


    for current-induced edge reconstruction using density functional theory. Our calculations provide evidence for localized vibrations at edge interfaces involving unpassivated armchair edges. We demonstrate that these vibrations couple to the current, estimate their excitation by Joule heating, and argue......Control of the edge topology of graphene nanostructures is critical to graphene-based electronics. A means of producing atomically smooth zigzag edges using electronic current has recently been demonstrated in experiments [Jia et al., Science 323, 1701 (2009)]. We develop a microscopic theory...

  9. The Hidden K-edge Signal in K-edge Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, Christopher J; de Ruiter, Niels J A; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H; Renaud, Peter F


    K-edge imaging is commonly used for viewing contrast pharmaceuticals in a variety of multi-energy x-ray imaging techniques, ranging from dual-energy and spectral computed tomography to fluoroscopy. When looking for the K-edge signal of a specific contrast, by taking measurements either side of the K-edge, it is found that the K-edge is not always observable for low concentrations. We have also observed that the ability to see the K-edge is unit dependent - a K-edge that is not observable in computed tomography (CT) reconstructed linear attenuation units can often be made visible by converting to Hounsfield units. This paper presents an investigation of this K-edge hiding phenomenon. We conclude that if a multi-energy x-ray measurement of any K-edge material contains a signal of any other material, then there will be a positive concentration of that K-edge material below which its K-edge cannot be observed without extracting the K-edge signal through means of basis decomposition. Mathematical descriptions of t...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Image segmentation is the process of partitioning/subdividing a digital image into multiple meaningful regions or sets of pixels regions with respect to a particular application. Edge detection is one of the frequently used techniques in digital image processing. The level to which the subdivision is carried depends on theproblem being viewed. Edges characterize boundaries and are therefore a problem of fundamental importance in image processing. There are many ways to perform edge detection. In this paper different Edge detection methods such as Sobel, Prewitt, Robert, Canny, Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG are used for segmenting the image. Expectation-Maximization (EM algorithm, OSTU and Genetic algorithms are also used. A new edge detection technique is proposed which detects the sharp and accurate edges that are not possible with the existing techniques. The proposed method with different threshold values for given input image is shown that ranges between 0 and 1 and it are observed that when the threshold value is 0.68 the sharp edges are recognised properly.

  11. AliEn - EDG Interoperability in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnasco, S; Buncic, P; Carminati, F; Cerello, P G; Saiz, P


    AliEn (ALICE Environment) is a GRID-like system for large scale job submission and distributed data management developed and used in the context of ALICE, the CERN LHC heavy-ion experiment. With the aim of exploiting upcoming Grid resources to run AliEn-managed jobs and store the produced data, the problem of AliEn-EDG interoperability was addressed and an in-terface was designed. One or more EDG (European Data Grid) User Interface machines run the AliEn software suite (Cluster Monitor, Storage Element and Computing Element), and act as interface nodes between the systems. An EDG Resource Broker is seen by the AliEn server as a single Computing Element, while the EDG storage is seen by AliEn as a single, large Storage Element; files produced in EDG sites are registered in both the EDG Replica Catalogue and in the AliEn Data Catalogue, thus ensuring accessibility from both worlds. In fact, both registrations are required: the AliEn one is used for the data management, the EDG one to guarantee the integrity and...

  12. Removable Edges in a 5-Connected Graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiong XU; Xiao Feng GU


    An edge e of a k-connected graph G is said to be a removable edge if G Θ e is still k-connected,where G Θ e denotes the graph obtained from G by deleting e to get G-e,and for any end vertex of e with degree k-1 in G-e,say x,delete x,and then add edges between any pair of non-adjacent vertices in NC_e(x).The existence of removable edges of k-connected graphs and some properties of 3-connected and 4-connected graphs have been investigated[1,11,14,15].In the present paper,we investigate some properties of 5-connected graphs and study the distribution of removable edges on a cycle and a spanning tree in a 5-connected graph.Based on the properties,we proved that for a 5-connected graph G of order at least 10,if the edge-vertex-atom of G contains at least three vertices,then G has at least (3|G|+2)/2 removable edges.

  13. Image Edge Extraction via Fuzzy Reasoning (United States)

    Dominquez, Jesus A. (Inventor); Klinko, Steve (Inventor)


    A computer-based technique for detecting edges in gray level digital images employs fuzzy reasoning to analyze whether each pixel in an image is likely on an edge. The image is analyzed on a pixel-by-pixel basis by analyzing gradient levels of pixels in a square window surrounding the pixel being analyzed. An edge path passing through the pixel having the greatest intensity gradient is used as input to a fuzzy membership function, which employs fuzzy singletons and inference rules to assigns a new gray level value to the pixel that is related to the pixel's edginess degree.

  14. Edge-Disjoint Fibonacci Trees in Hypercube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indhumathi Raman


    Full Text Available The Fibonacci tree is a rooted binary tree whose number of vertices admit a recursive definition similar to the Fibonacci numbers. In this paper, we prove that a hypercube of dimension h admits two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-2, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-4 and so on, as subgraphs. The result shows that an algorithm with Fibonacci trees as underlying data structure can be implemented concurrently on a hypercube network with no communication latency.

  15. Adobe Edge Animate CC for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Michael


    The easy way to build HTML5 mobile and web apps using Adobe's new Edge Animate CC Edge Animate CC is an approachable WYSIWYG alternative for leveraging the power of languages like HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript to design and develop for the web and mobile devices, even if you have no programming experience. Written by Michael Rohde, the book calls on this seasoned web developer's wealth of experience using Edge Animate CC, and a companion website includes all code from the book to help you apply what you learn as you go. Features an easy-to-use interface, with a propert

  16. Cavitation on hydrofoils with sinusoidal leading edge (United States)

    Johari, H.


    Cavitation characteristics of hydrofoils with sinusoidal leading edge were examined experimentally at a Reynolds number of 7.2 × 105. The hydrofoils had an underlying NACA 634-021 profile and an aspect ratio of 4.3. The sinusoidal leading edge geometries included three amplitudes of 2.5%, 5%, and 12% and two wavelengths of 25% and 50% of the mean chord length. Results revealed that cavitation on the leading edge-modified hydrofoils existed in pockets behind the troughs whereas the baseline hydrofoil produced cavitation along its entire span. Moreover, cavitation on the modified hydrofoils appeared at consistently lower angles of attack than on the baseline hydrofoil.

  17. Research Progress on Resorption After Protrusion of Lumbar Vertebral Disc%腰椎间盘突出后的重吸收研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞振翰; 姜宏; 周红海


    This paper introduces the chronological characteristic of the resorption after protrusion of lumbar vertebral disc (PLVD) and its relation to different PLVD types. It also discusses the mechanism of the resorption after PLVD, which includes inflammatory cytophagocytosis, autoimmune reaction, vascularization, reduced matrix metalloproteinase synthesis, dehydration and hematoma absorption, influence of growth factors and cytokines, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) understanding of this resorption. The author indicates that the resorption after PLVD has provided a powerful prove for the rea-sonability and effectiveness of TCM conservative therapy in protrusion of the intervertebral disc, and suggests that inflammatory reaction helps the resorption but causes nerve stimulation leading to pain, so how to control and make use of inflammation is a important research direction in the future.%介绍了腰椎间盘突出后重吸收的时间特点及其与分型的关系,并论述了腰椎间盘突出后重吸收的发生机制,包括炎性细胞吞噬作用、自身免疫反应、血管化、基质金属蛋白酶合成减少、脱水及血肿的吸收、生长因子与细胞因子的影响等,另外论述了中医药对此现象的认识.认为腰椎间盘突出后重吸收现象为中医保守治疗椎间盘突出症的合理性、有效性提供了有力的依据.并提出炎性反应有利于重吸收但同时会造成神经刺激引发疼痛,如何控制、利用炎症是今后研究的一个重要方向.

  18. Incoherent synchrotron emission of laser-driven plasma edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serebryakov, D. A., E-mail:; Nerush, E. N.; Kostyukov, I. Yu. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23 Gagarin Avenue, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)


    When a relativistically intense linearly polarized laser pulse is incident on an overdense plasma, a dense electron layer is formed on the plasma edge which relativistic motion results in high harmonic generation, ion acceleration, and incoherent synchrotron emission of gamma-photons. Here we present a self-consistent analytical model that describes the edge motion and apply it to the problem of incoherent synchrotron emission by ultrarelativistic plasma electrons. The model takes into account both coherent radiation reaction from high harmonics and incoherent radiation reaction in the Landau–Lifshitz form. The analytical results are in agreement with 3D particle-in-cell simulations in a certain parameter region that corresponds to the relativistic electronic spring interaction regime.

  19. Incoherent synchrotron emission of laser-driven plasma edge (United States)

    Serebryakov, D. A.; Nerush, E. N.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.


    When a relativistically intense linearly polarized laser pulse is incident on an overdense plasma, a dense electron layer is formed on the plasma edge which relativistic motion results in high harmonic generation, ion acceleration, and incoherent synchrotron emission of gamma-photons. Here we present a self-consistent analytical model that describes the edge motion and apply it to the problem of incoherent synchrotron emission by ultrarelativistic plasma electrons. The model takes into account both coherent radiation reaction from high harmonics and incoherent radiation reaction in the Landau-Lifshitz form. The analytical results are in agreement with 3D particle-in-cell simulations in a certain parameter region that corresponds to the relativistic electronic spring interaction regime.

  20. Incoherent synchrotron emission of laser-driven plasma edge

    CERN Document Server

    Serebryakov, D A; Kostyukov, I Yu


    When a relativistically intense linearly polarized laser pulse is incident on an overdense plasma, a dense electron layer is formed on the plasma edge which relativistic motion results in high harmonic generation, ion acceleration and incoherent synchrotron emission of gamma-photons. Here we present a self-consistent analytical model that describes the edge motion and apply it to the problem of incoherent synchrotron emission by ultrarelativistic plasma electrons. The model takes into account both coherent radiation reaction from high harmonics and incoherent radiation reaction in the Landau-Lifshitz form. The analytical results are in agreement with 3D particle-in-cell simulations in a certain parameter region that corresponds to the relativistic electronic spring interaction regime.

  1. Investigation on the Bearing Abilities of Three-Dimensional Full Five-Directional Braided Composites with Cut-Edge (United States)

    Wang, Yibo; Liu, Zhenguo; Lei, Bing; Huang, Xiang; Li, Xiaokang


    The longitudinal tensile experiments of cut-edge effect on the mechanical performance of three-dimensional full five-directional (3DF5D) braided composites were conducted. The specimens involved two different braiding angles and two different cutting ways. Fracture appearance of specimens without cut-edge and cutting along width direction presented flush, while explosive for specimen with cut-edge along thickness direction. The fracture of axis yarns mainly contributed to the damage of specimens. Cut-edge had little influence on the stiffness of 3DF5D braided composites and had approximately 20 % reduction in tensile strength compared with specimens without cut-edge. The periodic boundary conditions under cut-edge and uncut-edge situations were applied to the RVC to simulate the mesoscopic damage mechanism using finite element method. The stress-strain curves and damage evolution nephogram were obtained. The variation of cut-edge effect with the number of inner cells was predicted by superimposing inner cells method, the addition of inner cells could strengthen the performance of 3DF5D braided composites with cut-edge. These results will play an important role in evaluating the mechanical properties of braided materials after cutting.

  2. KIF20A-Mediated RNA Granule Transport System Promotes the Invasiveness of Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Taniuchi


    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancers are aggressive because they are highly invasive and highly metastatic; moreover, effective treatments for aggressive pancreatic cancers are lacking. Here, we report that the motor kinesin protein KIF20A promoted the motility and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through transporting the RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 and IGF2BP3-bound transcripts toward cell protrusions along microtubules. We previously reported that IGF2BP3 and its target transcripts are assembled into cytoplasmic stress granules of pancreatic cancer cells, and that IGF2BP3 promotes the motility and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through regulation of localized translation of IGF2BP3-bound transcripts in cell protrusions. We show that knockdown of KIF20A inhibited accumulation of IGF2BP3-containing stress granules in cell protrusions and suppressed local protein expression from specific IGF2BP3-bound transcripts, ARF6 and ARHGEF4, in the protrusions. Our results provide insight into the link between regulation of KIF20A-mediated trafficking of IGF2BP3-containing stress granules and modulation of the motility and invasiveness in pancreatic cancers.

  3. Edge effect in fluid jet polishing. (United States)

    Guo, Peiji; Fang, Hui; Yu, Jingchi


    The edge effect is one of the most important subjects in optical manufacturing. The removal function at different positions of the sample in the process of fluid jet polishing (FJP) is investigated in the experiments. Furthermore, by using finite-element analysis (FEA), the distributions for velocity and pressure of slurry jets are simulated. Experimental results demonstrate that the removal function has a ring-shaped profile, except for a little change in the size at the operated area even if the nozzle extends beyond the edge of the sample. FEA simulations reveal a similar distribution of velocity with a cavity resulting in the ring-shaped profile of material removal at different impact positions. To a certain extent, therefore, the removal function at the edge of the surface of the sample appears similar to that inside of it, so that the classical edge effect can be neglected in FJP.

  4. Statistical Mechanics of Multi-Edge Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sagarra, Oleguer; Dïaz-Guilera, Albert


    Statistical properties of binary complex networks are well understood and recently many attempts have been made to extend this knowledge to weighted ones. There is, however, a subtle difference between networks where weights are continuos variables and those where they account for discrete, distinguishable events, which we call multi-edge networks. In this work we face this problem introducing multi-edge networks as graphs where multiple (distinguishable) connections between nodes are considered. We develop a statistical mechanics framework where it is possible to get information about the most relevant observables given a large spectrum of linear and nonlinear constraints including those depending both on the number of multi-edges per link and their binary projection. The latter case is particularly interesting as we show that binary projections can be understood from multi-edge processes. The implications of these results are important as many real agent based problems mapped onto graphs require of this tre...

  5. Mechanotunable monatomic metal structures at graphene edges. (United States)

    Wei, Ning; Chang, Cheng; Zhu, Hongwei; Xu, Zhiping


    Monatomic metal (e.g. silver) structures could form preferably at graphene edges. We explore their structural and electronic properties by performing density functional theory based first-principles calculations. The results show that cohesion between metal atoms, as well as electronic coupling between metal atoms and graphene edges offer remarkable structural stability of the hybrid. We find that the outstanding mechanical properties of graphene allow tunable properties of the metal monatomic structures by straining the structure. The concept is extended to metal rings and helices that form at open ends of carbon nanotubes and edges of twisted graphene ribbons. These findings demonstrate the role of graphene edges as an efficient one-dimensional template for low-dimensional metal structures that are mechanotunable.

  6. Fuel cell electrode interconnect contact material encapsulation and method (United States)

    Derose, Anthony J.; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Gudyka, Russell A.; Bonadies, Joseph V.; Silvis, Thomas W.


    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of fuel cell cassettes each including a fuel cell with an anode and a cathode. Each fuel cell cassette also includes an electrode interconnect adjacent to the anode or the cathode for providing electrical communication between an adjacent fuel cell cassette and the anode or the cathode. The interconnect includes a plurality of electrode interconnect protrusions defining a flow passage along the anode or the cathode for communicating oxidant or fuel to the anode or the cathode. An electrically conductive material is disposed between at least one of the electrode interconnect protrusions and the anode or the cathode in order to provide a stable electrical contact between the electrode interconnect and the anode or cathode. An encapsulating arrangement segregates the electrically conductive material from the flow passage thereby, preventing volatilization of the electrically conductive material in use of the fuel cell stack.

  7. Edge detection in microscopy images using curvelets


    Koumoutsakos Petros; Gebäck Tobias


    Abstract Background Despite significant progress in imaging technologies, the efficient detection of edges and elongated features in images of intracellular and multicellular structures acquired using light or electron microscopy is a challenging and time consuming task in many laboratories. Results We present a novel method, based on the discrete curvelet transform, to extract a directional field from the image that indicates the location and direction of the edges. This directional field is...

  8. Development of K-edge Densitometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Li-xia; BAI; Lei; XU; Xiao-ming; ZHU; Li-qun


    K-edge densitometer is designed to quantify heavy elements concentration in homogeneous solution of nuclear fuel reprocessing.It is based on principle of hybrid K-edge densitometer(KED)measurement and X-ray fluorescence(XRF)analysis of induced X rays.It has proven to give approximately the same precision as destructive analysis methods,yet is much simpler and faster to use.The system consists of a

  9. Edge covers and independence: Algebraic approach (United States)

    Kalinina, E. A.; Khitrov, G. M.; Pogozhev, S. V.


    In this paper, linear algebra methods are applied to solve some problems of graph theory. For ordinary connected graphs, edge coverings and independent sets are considered. Some results concerning minimum edge covers and maximum matchings are proved with the help of linear algebraic approach. The problem of finding a maximum matching of a graph is fundamental both practically and theoretically, and has numerous applications, e.g., in computational chemistry and mathematical chemistry.

  10. Lyman edges in AGN accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerny, B. (Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warsaw (Poland)); Pojmanski, G. (Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Obserwatorium Astronomiczne)


    We show that the basic difference in the two principal approaches to predictions of the Lyman edge in an accretion disc lies in the implicit assumption about the density of the radiating gas. Independent from the details, models predict a broad range of the edge sizes, both in absorption and in emission. Observed spectra do not exhibit any strong feature at 912 A but may still be consistent with an accretion disc mechanism if more advanced theory is developed. (author).

  11. Edge states of periodically kicked quantum rotors

    CERN Document Server

    Floß, Johannes


    We present a quantum localization phenomenon that exists in periodically kicked 3D rotors, but is absent in the commonly studied 2D ones: edge localization. We show that under the condition of a fractional quantum resonance there are states of the kicked rotor that are strongly localized near the edge of the angular momentum space at $J=0$. These states are analogs of surface states in crystalline solids, and they significantly affect resonant excitation of molecular rotation by laser pulse trains.

  12. Image Edge Detection Based on Oscillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong; WANG Zhi-jie


    A new method for image edge detection based on a pulse neural network is proposed in this paper. The network is locally connected. The external input of each neuron of the network is gray value of the corresponding pixel. The synchrony of the neuron and its neighbors is detected by detection neurons. The edge of the image can be read off at minima of the total activity of the detection neurons.

  13. Applications of Hydrofoils with Leading Edge Protuberances (United States)


    APPLICATIONS OF HYDROFOILS WITH LEADING EDGE PROTUBERANCES Final Technical Report for Office of Naval Research contract...To) 03/30/2012 Final Technical Report 01-08-2008 to 31-12-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Applications of Hydrofoils with Leading...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The leading edge modified hydrofoils

  14. Mechanotaxis and cell motility

    CERN Document Server

    Recho, Pierre; Truskinovsky, Lev


    We propose a mechanism of cell motility which is based on contraction and does not require protrusion. The contraction driven translocation of a cell is due to internal flow of the cytoskeleton generated by molecular motors. Each motor contributes to the stress field and simultaneously undergoes biased random motion in the direction of a higher value of this stress. In this way active cross-linkers use passive actin network as a medium through which they interact and self-organize. The model exhibits motility initiation pattern similar to the one observed in experiments on keratocytes.

  15. Aircraft wing trailing-edge noise (United States)

    Underwood, R. L.; Hodgson, T. H.


    The mechanism and sound pressure level of the trailing-edge noise for two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer flow was examined. Experiment is compared with current theory. A NACA 0012 airfoil of 0.61 m chord and 0.46 m span was immersed in the laminar flow of a low turbulence open jet. A 2.54 cm width roughness strip was placed at 15 percent chord from the leading edge on both sides of the airfoil as a boundary layer trip so that two separate but statistically equivalent turbulent boundary layers were formed. Tests were performed with several trailing-edge geometries with the upstream velocity U sub infinity ranging from a value of 30.9 m/s up to 73.4 m/s. Properties of the boundary layer for the airfoil and pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the trailing-edge were examined. A scattered pressure field due to the presence of the trailing-edge was observed and is suggested as a possible sound producing mechanism for the trailing-edge noise.

  16. Interaction of gusts with forest edges (United States)

    Ruck, Bodo; Tischmacher, Michael


    Experimental investigations in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel were carried out in order to study the interaction of gusts with forest edges. Summarizing the state of knowledge in the field of forest damages generated by extreme storms, there is a strong indication that in many cases, windthrow of trees starts near the forest edge from where it spreads into the stand. The high-transient interaction between gusts and (porous) forest edges produce unsteady flow phenomena not known so far. From a fluid mechanical point of view, the flow type resembles a forward-facing porous step flow, which is significantly influenced by the characteristics of the oncoming atmospheric boundary layer flow and the shape and `porous properties' of the forest edge. The paper reports systematic investigations on the interaction of artificially generated gusts and forest edge models in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. The experimental investigations were carried out with a laser-based time-resolved PIV-system and high speed photography. Different flow phenomena like gust streching, vortex formation, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities or wake production of turbulence could be measured or visualized contributing to the understanding of the complex flow perfomance over the forest edge.

  17. Edge states in polariton honeycomb lattices (United States)

    Milićević, M.; Ozawa, T.; Andreakou, P.; Carusotto, I.; Jacqmin, T.; Galopin, E.; Lemaître, A.; Le Gratiet, L.; Sagnes, I.; Bloch, J.; Amo, A.


    The experimental study of edge states in atomically thin layered materials remains a challenge due to the difficult control of the geometry of the sample terminations, the stability of dangling bonds, and the need to measure local properties. In the case of graphene, localized edge modes have been predicted in zigzag and bearded edges, characterized by flat dispersions connecting the Dirac points. Polaritons in semiconductor microcavities have recently emerged as an extraordinary photonic platform to emulate 1D and 2D Hamiltonians, allowing the direct visualization of the wavefunctions in both real- and momentum-space as well as of the energy dispersion of eigenstates via photoluminescence experiments. Here we report on the observation of edge states in a honeycomb lattice of coupled micropillars. The lowest two bands of this structure arise from the coupling of the lowest energy modes of the micropillars, and emulate the π and π* bands of graphene. We show the momentum-space dispersion of the edge states associated with the zigzag and bearded edges, holding unidimensional quasi-flat bands. Additionally, we evaluate polarization effects characteristic of polaritons on the properties of these states.

  18. Nondiffusive plasma transport at tokamak edge (United States)

    Krasheninnikov, S. I.


    Recent findings show that cross field edge plasma transport at tokamak edge does not necessarily obey a simple diffusive law [1], the only type of a transport model applied so far in the macroscopic modeling of edge plasma transport. Cross field edge transport is more likely due to plasma filamentation with a ballistic motion of the filaments towards the first wall. Moreover, it so fast that plasma recycles on the main chamber first wall rather than to flow into divertor as conventional picture of edge plasma fluxes suggests. Crudely speaking particle recycling wise diverted tokamak operates in a limiter regime due to fast anomalous non-diffusive cross field plasma transport. Obviously that this newly found feature of edge plasma anomalous transport can significantly alter a design of any future reactor relevant tokamaks. Here we present a simple model describing the motion of the filaments in the scrape off layer and discuss it implications for experimental observations. [1] M. Umansky, S. I. Krasheninnikov, B. LaBombard, B. Lipschultz, and J. L. Terry, Phys. Plasmas 6 (1999) 2791; M. Umansky, S. I. Krasheninnikov, B. LaBombard and J. L. Terry, Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 3373.

  19. Influence of Edge Rolling Reduction on Plate-Edge Stress Distribution During Finish Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-liang; LIU Xiang-hua; CHEN Li-qing; LI Chang-sheng; ZHI Ying; LI Xin-wen


    Dimensions of one kind of stainless steel plate before finish rolling were obtained through analysis of the rough rolling processes by finite element method and updated geometrical method.The FE models of finish rolling process with a front edge roll were built,and influences of the edge rolling reduction on-the stress change in the plate edge during finish roiling were analyzed.The results show that when the edge rolling reduction is increased from 0 mm to 2 ram,the compressive stress in plate corner clearly increases in edge rolling process,and the zone of tensile stress during whole rolling decreases;when the edge rolling reduction is increased from 2 mm to 5 mm,the compressive stress in the plate corner seldom changes,and the compressive stress decreases after the horizontal rolling.

  20. Edge subdivision and edge multisubdivision versus some domination related parameters in generalized corona graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Dettlaff


    Full Text Available Given a graph \\(G=(V,E\\, the subdivision of an edge \\(e=uv\\in E(G\\ means the substitution of the edge \\(e\\ by a vertex \\(x\\ and the new edges \\(ux\\ and \\(xv\\. The domination subdivision number of a graph \\(G\\ is the minimum number of edges of \\(G\\ which must be subdivided (where each edge can be subdivided at most once in order to increase the domination number. Also, the domination multisubdivision number of \\(G\\ is the minimum number of subdivisions which must be done in one edge such that the domination number increases. Moreover, the concepts of paired domination and independent domination subdivision (respectively multisubdivision numbers are defined similarly. In this paper we study the domination, paired domination and independent domination (subdivision and multisubdivision numbers of the generalized corona graphs.

  1. Image edge detection based on adaptive weighted morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui Jiang; Yanying Guo


    A novel morphological edge detector based on adaptive weighted morphological operators is presented. It judges image edge and direction by adaptive weighted morphological structuring elements (SEs). If the edge direction exists, a big weight factor in SE is put; if it does not exist, a small weight factor in SE is put. Thus we can achieve an intensified edge detector. Experimental results prove that the new operator's performance dominates those of classical operators for images in edge detection, and obtains superbly detail edges.

  2. Influence of Immersion Lithography on Wafer Edge Defectivity


    Jami, K.; Pollentier, I.; Vedula, S; Blumenstock, G


    In this paper, we investigated the impact of immersion lithography on wafer edge defectivity. In the past, such work has been limited to inspection of the flat top part of the wafer edge due to the inspection challenges at the curved wafer edge and lack of a comprehensive defect inspection solution. Our study used a new automated edge inspection system that provides full wafer edge imaging and automatic defect classification. The work revealed several key challenges to controlling wafer edge-...

  3. A Shearlets-based Edge Identification Algorithem for Infrared Image


    Rui-bin ZOU; Cai-cheng SHI


    A shearlets-based edge identification algorithem for infrared image is proposed. The algorithem demonstrates the performance of edge detection based on shearlets, combines with the edge hysteresis thresholding, designs steps of edge detection, which is proper to use in infrared images.Simultaneously, with the advantage of edge geometric features provided by the shearlets, infrared image were extracted the direction information of edge of Infrared image, and classified. In computer simulations...

  4. Study on Occlusal Contacts of Mandibular Protrusive Movement in Class Ⅱ Division 1 Malocclusions%安氏Ⅱ1类患者下颌前伸运动时的(牙合)接触情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张端强; 林焱


    Objective To analyze the dynamic occlusal contacts in Class Ⅱ Division 1 Malocclusions during mandibular protrusive movement, and to investigate the dentofacial morphological factors related to the occlusal interferences. Methods A total of 60 patients of Class Ⅱ Division 1 Malocclusions without orthodontic treatment were employed. T-Scan Ⅱ system was used to record and analyse the dynamic occlusal contacts during mandibular protrusive movement. The patients were divided into two groups (Group A and Group B) on the basis of protrusive occlusal interference during mandibular protrusive movement. Dentofacial morphological data was dertermined by measuring plaster mold and the lateral cephalometric radiography. SPSS 12.0 for windows was used for the statistics. Results Significant differences were found between the groups with and without protrusive occlusal interference in Y-angle,MP-FH, U1-L1, A-ptm, the ratio of front arch-widths and the molar mesiodistal index. Logistic analysis showed that MP-FH is the dangerous factor in the protrusive occlusal interference , while A-ptm served as the protective one. Conclusions (1)"High-angle"patients are more likely to incur protrusive occlusal interference, Mandibular plane angle is a dangerous factor for the occlusal interference. (2)A negative correlation was found between maxillary length and protrusive occlusal interference, Short Maxillary length act as a dangerous factor of the occlusal interference. (3)Cuspid-cuspid molar distoclusion is more likely to occur occlusal interference than complete post-normal occlusion does.%目的 研究安氏Ⅱ1类患者在下颌前伸运动过程中的牙合接触情况,探讨前伸牙合干扰情况的存在并分析其牙颌颅面形态结构的特点.方法 对60名未经过正畸治疗的安氏Ⅱ1类患者进行常规错牙合畸形临床检查,并采用T-Scan Ⅱ咬合分析系统记录并分析其前伸运动中的牙合接触情况,根据前伸运动过程中是否存在

  5. New contact frame design for minimizing losses due to edge recombination and grid-induced shading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, D.; Ebest, G. [Technical University of Chemnitz (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology


    Edge recombination and grid shading are two loss mechanisms which decrease solar cell efficiency. We introduce a new way for decreasing both significantly by a novel contact frame design which runs along the edge on the surface of a solar cell. No additional processing is necessary for preparing the contact frame. For a 100 cm{sup 2} commercial c-Silicon (Si) solar cell the efficiency increased from 16.18% to 16.83% at 1 Sun (AM 1.5) as estimated by careful device simulation. (author)

  6. Losing your edge: climate change and the conservation value of range-edge populations. (United States)

    Rehm, Evan M; Olivas, Paulo; Stroud, James; Feeley, Kenneth J


    Populations occurring at species' range edges can be locally adapted to unique environmental conditions. From a species' perspective, range-edge environments generally have higher severity and frequency of extreme climatic events relative to the range core. Under future climates, extreme climatic events are predicted to become increasingly important in defining species' distributions. Therefore, range-edge genotypes that are better adapted to extreme climates relative to core populations may be essential to species' persistence during periods of rapid climate change. We use relatively simple conceptual models to highlight the importance of locally adapted range-edge populations (leading and trailing edges) for determining the ability of species to persist under future climates. Using trees as an example, we show how locally adapted populations at species' range edges may expand under future climate change and become more common relative to range-core populations. We also highlight how large-scale habitat destruction occurring in some geographic areas where many species range edge converge, such as biome boundaries and ecotones (e.g., the arc of deforestation along the rainforest-cerrado ecotone in the southern Amazonia), can have major implications for global biodiversity. As climate changes, range-edge populations will play key roles in helping species to maintain or expand their geographic distributions. The loss of these locally adapted range-edge populations through anthropogenic disturbance is therefore hypothesized to reduce the ability of species to persist in the face of rapid future climate change.

  7. Reduction in Edge-Ringing in Aberrated Images of Coherent Edge Objects by Multishaded Aperture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkanna Mekala


    Full Text Available The images of a straight edge in coherent illumination produced by an optical system with circular aperture and apodized with multiple filters have been studied. The most common problem encountered in the coherent-imaging techniques is the edge-ringing. To minimize the edge-ringing, multishaded aperture method has been proposed. Image intensity distribution curves are drawn and edge-ringing values are evaluated. The results are compared to that of the airy case with the use of single, double and triple filtering.

  8. Cutting edge: The adapters EAT-2A and -2B are positive regulators of CD244- and CD84-dependent NK cell functions in the C57BL/6 mouse. (United States)

    Wang, Ninghai; Calpe, Silvia; Westcott, Jill; Castro, Wilson; Ma, Chunyan; Engel, Pablo; Schatzle, John D; Terhorst, Cox


    EWS/FLI1-activated transcript 2 (EAT-2)A and EAT-2B are single SH2-domain proteins, which bind to phosphorylated tyrosines of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family receptors in murine NK cells. While EAT-2 is a positive regulator in human cells, a negative regulatory role was attributed to the adapter in NK cells derived from EAT-2A-deficient 129Sv mice. To evaluate whether the genetic background or the presence of a selection marker in the mutant mice could influence the regulatory mode of these adapters, we generated EAT-2A-, EAT-2B-, and EAT-2A/B-deficient mice using C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells. We found that NK cells from EAT-2A- and EAT-2A/B-deficient mice were unable to kill tumor cells in a CD244- or CD84-dependent manner. Furthermore, EAT-2A/B positively regulate phosphorylation of Vav-1, which is known to be implicated in NK cell killing. Thus, as in humans, the EAT-2 adapters act as positive regulators of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family receptor-specific NK cell functions in C57BL/6 mice.

  9. Bearing Abilities and Progressive Damage Analysis of Three Dimensional Four-Directional Braided Composites with Cut-Edge (United States)

    Lei, Bing; Liu, Zhenguo; Ya, Jixuan; Wang, Yibo; Li, Xiaokang


    Cut-edge is a kind of damage for the three-dimensional four-directional (3D4d) braided composites which is inevitable because of machining to meet requisite shape and working in the abominable environment. The longitudinal tensile experiment of the 3D4d braided composites with different braiding angles between cut-edge and the ones without cut-edge was conducted. Then representative volume cell (RVC) with interface zones was established to analyze the tensile properties through the fracture and damage mechanics. The periodic boundary conditions under the cut-edge and uncut-edge conditions were imposed to simulate the failure mechanism. Stress-strain distribution and the damage evolution nephogram in cut-edge condition were conducted. Numerical results were coincident with the experimental results. Finally the variation of cut-edge effect with the specimen thickness was simulated by superimposing inner cells. The consequence showed that thickness increase can effectively reduce cut-edge influence on longitudinal strength for 3D4d braided composites. Cut-edge simulation of braided composites has guiding significance on the actual engineering application.

  10. Attaching importance to the pathological classification of lumbar disc protrusion, and selecting appropriate treatment%重视腰椎间盘突出症的病理分型,选择合适的治疗方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Lumbar intervertebrae disc protrusion is a term for the description of morphology, with different pathological changes, pathogenesis and clinical characteristics. We propose a new pathologoical classification including damage-hernia⁃tion, degeneration-protrusion, posterior vertebral osteochondrosis with disc protrusion, and disc cyst. The appropriate treat⁃ment including surgical option should be selected according to pathological changes.%腰椎间盘突出是描述形态学的术语,具有不同的病理变化、发病机制和临床特点。笔者提出新的病理分型分为损伤疝出型、退变突出型、椎体后缘骨软骨病伴椎间盘突出、椎间盘囊肿4种类型。应根据病理变化选择合适的治疗措施和手术方式。

  11. Hydroxyl induced edge magnetism and metallicity in armchair MoS2 nanoribbons (United States)

    Cheng, Xue-Mei; Wang, Xue-Feng; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Dong, Yao-Jun; Xu, Long


    Based on ab initio density functional theory, we demonstrate systematically how nonmagnetic semiconductor armchair MoS2 nanoribbons (AMoS2NRs) become magnetic or/and metallic when being edge-passivated by OH groups. Both the Mo and S edge atoms of an AMoS2NR can adsorb OH groups but an S atom can catch one OH group only when each of its neighbor Mo atoms has already been passivated by two. The AMoS2NR becomes edge magnetic in low passivation density and edge conductive in high density. In the case of uniform edge passivation, one or both of the edges usually become metallic and nonmagnetic if the number i of OH groups per primitive cell satisfies 1≤slant i<8 . In case i<1 a non-passivated edge Mo atom may be spin polarized if its neighbor Mo atom has adsorbed one OH group and the nanoribbon becomes magnetic semiconductor. For i=8 the nanoribbon become nonmagnetic semiconductor again.

  12. Power spectrum weighted edge analysis for straight edge detection in images (United States)

    Karvir, Hrishikesh V.; Skipper, Julie A.


    Most man-made objects provide characteristic straight line edges and, therefore, edge extraction is a commonly used target detection tool. However, noisy images often yield broken edges that lead to missed detections, and extraneous edges that may contribute to false target detections. We present a sliding-block approach for target detection using weighted power spectral analysis. In general, straight line edges appearing at a given frequency are represented as a peak in the Fourier domain at a radius corresponding to that frequency, and a direction corresponding to the orientation of the edges in the spatial domain. Knowing the edge width and spacing between the edges, a band-pass filter is designed to extract the Fourier peaks corresponding to the target edges and suppress image noise. These peaks are then detected by amplitude thresholding. The frequency band width and the subsequent spatial filter mask size are variable parameters to facilitate detection of target objects of different sizes under known imaging geometries. Many military objects, such as trucks, tanks and missile launchers, produce definite signatures with parallel lines and the algorithm proves to be ideal for detecting such objects. Moreover, shadow-casting objects generally provide sharp edges and are readily detected. The block operation procedure offers advantages of significant reduction in noise influence, improved edge detection, faster processing speed and versatility to detect diverse objects of different sizes in the image. With Scud missile launcher replicas as target objects, the method has been successfully tested on terrain board test images under different backgrounds, illumination and imaging geometries with cameras of differing spatial resolution and bit-depth.

  13. Partnership for Edge Physics Simulation (EPSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, Peter [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)


    We propose to develop advanced simulation codes, based upon an extreme parallelism, first principles kinetic approach, to address the challenges associated with the edge region of magnetically confined plasmas. This work is relevant to both existing magnetic fusion facilities and essential for next-generation burning plasma experiments, such as ITER where success is critically dependent upon H-mode operation achieving an edge pedestal of sufficient height for good core plasma performance without producing deleterious large scale edge localized instabilities. The plasma edge presents a well-known set of multi-physics, multi-scale problems involving complex 3D magnetic geometry. Perhaps the greatest computational challenge is the lack of scale separation – temporal scales for drift waves, Alfven waves, ELM dynamics for example have strong overlap. Similar overlap occurs on the spatial scales for the ion poloidal gyro-radius, drift wave and pedestal width. The traditional approach of separating fusion problems into weakly interacting spatial or temporal domains clearly breaks down in the edge. A full kinetic model (full-f model) must be solved to understand and predict the edge physics including non-equilibrium thermodynamic issues arising from the magnetic topology (the open field lines producing a spatially sensitive velocity hole), plasma wall interactions, neutral and atomic physics. The plan here is to model these phenomena within a comprehensive first principles set of equations without the need for the insurmountable multiple-codes coupling issues by building on the XGC1 code developed under the SciDAC Proto-FSP Center for Plasma Edge Simulation (CPES). This proposal includes the critical participants in the XGC1 development. We propose enhancing the capability of XGC1 by including all the important turbulence physics contained in kinetic ion and electron electromagnetic dynamics, by extending the PIC technology to incorporate several positive features found

  14. Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, Daniel L. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.


    The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

  15. Dissecting new physics models through kinematic edges (United States)

    Iyer, Abhishek M.; Maitra, Ushoshi


    Kinematic edges in the invariant mass distributions of different final state particles are typically a signal of new physics. In this work we propose a scenario wherein these edges could be utilized in discriminating between different classes of models. To this effect, we consider the resonant production of a heavy Higgs like resonance (H1) as a case study. Such states are a characteristic feature of many new physics scenarios beyond the standard model (SM). In the event of a discovery, it is essential to identify the true nature of the underlying theory. In this work we propose a channel, H1→t2t , where t2 is a vectorlike gauge singlet top-partner that decays into W b , Z t , h t . Invariant mass distributions constructed out of these final states are characterized by the presence of kinematic edges, which are unique to the topology under consideration. Further, since all the final state particles are SM states, the position in the edges of these invariant mass distributions can be used to exclusively determine the masses of the resonances. Observation of these features are meant to serve as a trigger, thereby mandating a more detailed analysis in a particular direction of parameter space. The absence of these edge like features, in the specific invariant mass distributions considered here, in minimal versions of supersymmetric models (MSSM) also serves as a harbinger of such non-MSSM-like scenarios.

  16. Particle simulation of neoclassical transport in the plasma Edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.S. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea); Ku, S. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, NY (United States); Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea)


    Particle-in-cell is a popular technique for a global five dimensional numerical simulation of the neoclassical plasma phenomena in a toroidal plasma. In this paper, we briefly review the physical and mathematical aspects of the modern neoclassical particle simulation methodology for a plasma edge simulation and present representative results recently obtained from XGC (X-point included Guiding Center) code. The strength and weakness in the modern neoclassical particle simulation techniques will also be discussed. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Reduction of wafer-edge overlay errors using advanced correction models, optimized for minimal metrology requirements (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Won, Hwa-Yeon; Jeong, Jong-Mun; Böcker, Paul; Vergaij-Huizer, Lydia; Kupers, Michiel; Jovanović, Milenko; Sochal, Inez; Ryan, Kevin; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Lim, Young-Wan; Byun, Jin-Moo; Kim, Gwang-Gon; Suh, Jung-Joon


    In order to optimize yield in DRAM semiconductor manufacturing for 2x nodes and beyond, the (processing induced) overlay fingerprint towards the edge of the wafer needs to be reduced. Traditionally, this is achieved by acquiring denser overlay metrology at the edge of the wafer, to feed field-by-field corrections. Although field-by-field corrections can be effective in reducing localized overlay errors, the requirement for dense metrology to determine the corrections can become a limiting factor due to a significant increase of metrology time and cost. In this study, a more cost-effective solution has been found in extending the regular correction model with an edge-specific component. This new overlay correction model can be driven by an optimized, sparser sampling especially at the wafer edge area, and also allows for a reduction of noise propagation. Lithography correction potential has been maximized, with significantly less metrology needs. Evaluations have been performed, demonstrating the benefit of edge models in terms of on-product overlay performance, as well as cell based overlay performance based on metrology-to-cell matching improvements. Performance can be increased compared to POR modeling and sampling, which can contribute to (overlay based) yield improvement. Based on advanced modeling including edge components, metrology requirements have been optimized, enabling integrated metrology which drives down overall metrology fab footprint and lithography cycle time.

  18. Regional divergence of palate medial edge epithelium along the anterior to posterior axis. (United States)

    Jin, Jiu-Zhen; Warner, Dennis R; Ding, Jixiang


    Recent studies have shown that mouse palatal mesenchymal cells undergo regional specification along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis defined by anterior Shox2 and Msx1 expression and posterior Meox2 expression. A-P regional specification of the medial edge epithelium, which is directly responsible for palate fusion, has long been proposed, but it has not yet been demonstrated due to the lack of regional specific markers. In this study, we have demonstrated that the palate medial edge epithelium is regionalized along the A-P axis, similar to that for the underlying mesenchyme. Mmp13, a medial edge epithelium specific marker, was uniformly expressed from anterior to posterior in wild-type mouse palatal shelves. Previous studies demonstrated that medial edge epithelium expression of Mmp13 was regulated by TGF-beta3. We have found that the changes in Mmp13 expression in TGF-beta3 knockouts varied along the A-P axis, and can be broken down into three distinct regions. These regions correlated with regional specification of the underlying medial edge mesenchymal cells and timing of palate fusion. Mouse palate medial edge epithelium along the A-P axis can be divided into different regions according to the differential response to the loss of TGF-beta3.

  19. Edge Detection By Differences Of Gaussians (United States)

    Marthon, Ph.; Thiesse, B.; Bruel, A.


    The Differences of Gaussians (DOGs) are of fundamental importance in edge detection. They belong to the human vision system as shown by Enroth-Cugell and Robson [ENR66]. The zero-crossings of their outputs mark the loci of the intensity changes. The set of descriptions from different operator sizes forms the input for later visual processes, such as stereopsis and motion analysis. We show that DOGs uniformly converge to the Laplacian of a Gaussian (ΔG2,σ) when both the inhibitory and excitatory variables converge to σ. Spatial and spectral properties of DOGs and ΔGs are compared: width and height of their central positive regions, bandiwidths... Finally, DOGs' responses to some features such as ideal edge, right angle corner, general corner..., are presented and magnitudes of error on edge position are given.

  20. Predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge (United States)

    Goessling, H. F.; Tietsche, S.; Day, J. J.; Hawkins, E.; Jung, T.


    Skillful sea ice forecasts from days to years ahead are becoming increasingly important for the operation and planning of human activities in the Arctic. Here we analyze the potential predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge in six climate models. We introduce the integrated ice-edge error (IIEE), a user-relevant verification metric defined as the area where the forecast and the "truth" disagree on the ice concentration being above or below 15%. The IIEE lends itself to decomposition into an absolute extent error, corresponding to the common sea ice extent error, and a misplacement error. We find that the often-neglected misplacement error makes up more than half of the climatological IIEE. In idealized forecast ensembles initialized on 1 July, the IIEE grows faster than the absolute extent error. This means that the Arctic sea ice edge is less predictable than sea ice extent, particularly in September, with implications for the potential skill of end-user relevant forecasts.

  1. Floquet edge states in germanene nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.


    We theoretically demonstrate versatile electronic properties of germanene monolayers under circularly, linearly, and elliptically polarized light. We show for the high frequency regime that the edge states can be controlled by tuning the amplitude of the light and by applying a static electric field. For circularly polarized light the band gap in one valley is reduced and in the other enhanced, enabling single valley edge states. For linearly polarized light spin-split states are found for both valleys, being connected by time reversal symmetry. The effects of elliptically polarized light are similar to those of circularly polarized light. The transport properties of zigzag nanoribbons in the presence of disorder confirm a nontrivial nature of the edge states under circularly and elliptically polarized light.

  2. Preparation of edge states by shaking boundaries (United States)

    Shi, Z. C.; Hou, S. C.; Wang, L. C.; Yi, X. X.


    Preparing topological states of quantum matter, such as edge states, is one of the most important directions in condensed matter physics. In this work, we present a proposal to prepare edge states in Aubry-André-Harper (AAH) model with open boundaries, which takes advantage of Lyapunov control to design operations. We show that edge states can be obtained with almost arbitrary initial states. A numerical optimalization for the control is performed and the dependence of control process on the system size is discussed. The merit of this proposal is that the shaking exerts only on the boundaries of the model. As a by-product, a topological entangled state is achieved by elaborately designing the shaking scheme.

  3. Diagnosing Topological Edge States via Entanglement Monogamy. (United States)

    Meichanetzidis, K; Eisert, J; Cirio, M; Lahtinen, V; Pachos, J K


    Topological phases of matter possess intricate correlation patterns typically probed by entanglement entropies or entanglement spectra. In this Letter, we propose an alternative approach to assessing topologically induced edge states in free and interacting fermionic systems. We do so by focussing on the fermionic covariance matrix. This matrix is often tractable either analytically or numerically, and it precisely captures the relevant correlations of the system. By invoking the concept of monogamy of entanglement, we show that highly entangled states supported across a system bipartition are largely disentangled from the rest of the system, thus, usually appearing as gapless edge states. We then define an entanglement qualifier that identifies the presence of topological edge states based purely on correlations present in the ground states. We demonstrate the versatility of this qualifier by applying it to various free and interacting fermionic topological systems.

  4. Improved Edge Awareness in Discontinuity Preserving Smoothing

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Stuart B


    Discontinuity preserving smoothing is a fundamentally important procedure that is useful in a wide variety of image processing contexts. It is directly useful for noise reduction, and frequently used as an intermediate step in higher level algorithms. For example, it can be particularly useful in edge detection and segmentation. Three well known algorithms for discontinuity preserving smoothing are nonlinear anisotropic diffusion, bilateral filtering, and mean shift filtering. Although slight differences make them each better suited to different tasks, all are designed to preserve discontinuities while smoothing. However, none of them satisfy this goal perfectly: they each have exception cases in which smoothing may occur across hard edges. The principal contribution of this paper is the identification of a property we call edge awareness that should be satisfied by any discontinuity preserving smoothing algorithm. This constraint can be incorporated into existing algorithms to improve quality, and usually ha...

  5. Edge excitations in fractional Chern insulators (United States)

    Luo, Wei-Wei; Chen, Wen-Chao; Wang, Yi-Fei; Gong, Chang-De


    Recent theoretical papers have demonstrated the realization of fractional quantum anomalous Hall states (also called fractional Chern insulators) in topological flat band lattice models without an external magnetic field. Such newly proposed lattice systems play a vital role in obtaining a large class of fractional topological phases. Here we report the exact numerical studies of edge excitations for such systems in a disk geometry loaded with hard-core bosons, which will serve as a more viable experimental probe for such topologically ordered states. We find convincing numerical evidence of a series of edge excitations characterized by the chiral Luttinger liquid theory for the bosonic fractional Chern insulators in both the honeycomb disk Haldane model and the kagome-lattice disk model. We further verify these current-carrying chiral edge states by inserting a central flux to test their compressibility.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Sayed


    Full Text Available The edge detection on the images is so important for image processing. It is used in a various fields of applications ranging from real-time video surveillance and traffic management to medical imaging applications. Currently, there is not a single edge detector that has both efficiency and reliability. Traditional differential filter-based algorithms have the advantage of theoretical strictness, but require excessive post-processing. Proposed CNN technique is used to realize edge detection task it takes the advantage of momentum features extraction, it can process any input image of any size with no more training required, the results are very promising when compared to both classical methods and other ANN based methods

  7. Study of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    This paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise with special focus on airfoils with blunt trailing edges. Two methods are employed to calculate airfoil noise: The flow/acoustic splitting method and the semi-empirical method. The flow/acoustic splitting method is derived from compressible Navier...... design or optimization. Calculations from both methods are compared with exist experiments. The airfoil blunt noise is found as a function of trailing edge bluntness, Reynolds number, angle of attack, etc.......-Stokes equations. It provides us possibilities to study details about noise generation mechanism. The formulation of the semi-empirical model is based on acoustic analogy and then curve-fitted with experimental data. Due to its high efficiency, such empirical relation is used for purpose of low noise airfoil...

  8. Topological edge modes in multilayer graphene systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Lixin


    Plasmons can be supported on graphene sheets as the Dirac electrons oscillate collectively. A tight-binding model for graphene plasmons is a good description as the field confinement in the normal direction is strong. With this model, the topological properties of plasmonic bands in multilayer graphene systems are investigated. The Zak phases of periodic graphene sheet arrays are obtained for different configurations. Analogous to Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model in electronic systems, topological edge plasmon modes emerge when two periodic graphene sheet arrays with different Zak phases are connected. Interestingly, the dispersion of these topological edge modes is the same as that in the monolayer graphene and is invariant as the geometric parameters of the structure such as the separation and period change. These plasmonic edge states in multilayer graphene systems can be further tuned by electrical gating or chemical doping. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

  9. Flow distortion at a dense forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob


    The flow near tall forest edges is complex, yet poorly described. A field experiment using two meteorological masts equipped with sonic anemometers and a horizontally staring lidar was performed upwind and downwind of the interface between an open flat farmland and a tall (hc = 24 m) beech forest......, relative to the measurements upwind of the edge. The lidar data taken at several positions between the masts at 1.25hc show that the minimum wind speed occurred just upwind of the edge. At the 1.25hc level, at the forest mast, the momentum flux (\\documentclass....... Data obtained during near‐neutral conditions are presented for the wind direction towards the forest. Results from a high leaf area index period are compared with those from a low leaf area index period. For both periods, the wind speed increased above the forest and decreased within the forest...

  10. Contrast edge colors under different natural illuminations. (United States)

    Nieves, Juan Luis; Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Romero, Javier


    Essential to sensory processing in the human visual system is natural illumination, which can vary considerably not only across space but also along the day depending on the atmospheric conditions and the sun's position in the sky. In this work, edges derived from the three postreceptoral Luminance, Red-Green, and Blue-Yellow signals were computed from hyperspectral images of natural scenes rendered with daylights of Correlated Color Temperatures (CCTs) from 2735 to 25,889 K; for low CCT, the same analysis was performed using Planckian illuminants up to 800 K. It was found that average luminance and chromatic edge contrasts were maximal for low correlated color temperatures and almost constants above 10,000 K. The magnitude of these contrast changes was, however, only about 2% across the tested daylights. Results suggest that the postreceptoral opponent and nonopponent color vision mechanisms produce almost constant responses for color edge detection under natural illumination.

  11. Controllable Edge Feature Sharpening for Dental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Fan


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to sharpen blurred edge features in scanned tooth preparation surfaces generated by structured-light scanners. It aims to efficiently enhance the edge features so that the embedded feature lines can be easily identified in dental CAD systems, and to avoid unnatural oversharpening geometry. We first separate the feature regions using graph-cut segmentation, which does not require a user-defined threshold. Then, we filter the face normal vectors to propagate the geometry from the smooth region to the feature region. In order to control the degree of the sharpness, we propose a feature distance measure which is based on normal tensor voting. Finally, the vertex positions are updated according to the modified face normal vectors. We have applied the approach to scanned tooth preparation models. The results show that the blurred edge features are enhanced without unnatural oversharpening geometry.

  12. Edge-Matching Problems with Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Martin; Fischer, Paul; Witt, Carsten


    Edge-matching problems, also called puzzles, are abstractions of placement problems with neighborhood conditions. Pieces with colored edges have to be placed on a board such that adjacent edges have the same color. The problem has gained interest recently with the (now terminated) Eternity II...... puzzle, and new complexity results. In this paper we consider a number of settings which differ in size of the puzzles and the manipulations allowed on the pieces. We investigate the effect of allowing rotations of the pieces on the complexity of the problem, an aspect that is only marginally treated so...... far. We show that some problems have polynomial time algorithms while others are NP-complete. Especially we show that allowing rotations in one-row puzzles makes the problem NP-hard. We moreover show that many commonly considered puzzles can be emulated by simple puzzles with quadratic pieces, so...

  13. Exploring topological edge states in photonic quasicrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Baboux, F; Lemaître, A; Gomez, C; Galopin, E; Gratiet, L Le; Sagnes, I; Amo, A; Bloch, J; Akkermans, E


    We experimentally investigate the topological properties of quasiperiodic chains using cavity polaritons confined in a potential following the Fibonacci sequence. Edge states forming in the gaps of a fractal energy spectrum are imaged both in real and momentum space. These edge states periodically traverse the gaps when varying a structural degree of freedom $\\phi$ of the Fibonacci sequence. The period and direction of the traverses are directly related to the Chern numbers assigned to each gap by the gap-labeling theorem. Additionally, we show that the Chern numbers determine the spatial symmetry properties of the edge states. These results highlight the potential of cavity polaritons to emulate nontrivial topological properties in a controlled environment.

  14. Intraoperative evaluation of transmitral pressure gradients after edge-to-edge mitral valve repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan N Hilberath

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Edge-to-edge repair of the mitral valve (MV has been described as a viable option used for the surgical management of mitral regurgitation (MR. Based on the significant changes in MV geometry associated with this technique, we hypothesized that edge-to-edge MV repairs are associated with higher intraoperative transmitral pressure gradients (TMPG compared to conventional methods. METHODS: Patient records and intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE examinations of 552 consecutive patients undergoing MV repair at a single institution over a three year period were assessed. After separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, peak and mean TMPG were recorded for each patient and subsequently analyzed. RESULTS: 84 patients (15% underwent edge-to-edge MV repair. Peak and mean TMPG were significantly higher compared to gradients in patients undergoing conventional repairs: 10.7 ± 0.5 mmHg vs 7.1 ± 0.2 mmHg; P<0.0001 and 4.3 ± 0.2 mmHg vs 2.8 ± 0.1 mmHg; P<0.0001. Only patients with mean TMPG ≥ 7 mmHg (n = 9 required prompt reoperation for iatrogenic mitral stenosis (MS. No differences in peak and mean TMPG were observed among edge-to-edge repairs performed in isolation, compared to those performed in combination with annuloplasty: 11.0 ± 0.7 mmHg vs 10.3 ± 0.6 mmHg and 4.4 ± 0.3 mmHg vs 4.3 ± 0.3 mmHg. There were no differences in TMPG between various types of annuloplasty techniques used in combination with the edge-to-edge repairs. CONCLUSIONS: Edge-to-edge MV repairs are associated with higher intraoperative peak and mean TMPG after separation from CPB compared to conventional repair techniques. Unless gradients are severely elevated, these findings are not necessarily suggestive of iatrogenic MS. Thus, in the immediate postoperative period mildly elevated TMPG can be expected and tolerated after edge-to-edge mitral repairs.

  15. Consistent approach to edge detection using multiscale fuzzy modeling analysis in the human retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Salimian


    Full Text Available Today, many widely used image processing algorithms based on human visual system have been developed. In this paper a smart edge detection based on modeling the performance of simple and complex cells and also modeling and multi-scale image processing in the primary visual cortex is presented. A way to adjust the parameters of Gabor filters (mathematical models of simple cells And the proposed non-linear threshold response are presented in order to Modeling of simple and complex cells. Also, due to multi-scale modeling analysis conducted in the human retina, in the proposed algorithm, all edges of the small and large structures with high precision are detected and localized. Comparing the results of the proposed method for a reliable database with conventional methods shows the higher Performance (about 4-13% and reliability of the proposed method in the detection and localization of edge.

  16. 复发性腰椎间盘突出症的微创手术治疗%The minimally invasive surgery for treating recurrent lumbar disc protrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴辉; 胡凌云; 林宏


    目的:探讨微创手术通道下治疗复发性腰椎间盘突出症的临床效果。方法回顾性分析2009年7月到2013年7月行微创椎间盘切除术治疗的30例腰椎间盘突出症术后复发患者的临床资料,患者复发节段腰34(L34)1例,腰45(L45)10例,腰5骶1(L5S1)19例;统计描述患者的年龄、体质量指数、复发节段、手术时间、术中失血量、术后无痛行走的时间,采用疼痛视觉模拟评分(VAS)评估微创手术治疗的临床疗效。结果手术时间50~100min,平均65min;术中失血量100~180mL,平均145mL;住院时间9~16d,平均13d;平均住院费用7300元;术后无痛行走时间7~15d,平均11d;术后从事非体力劳动的时间27.3d,VAS分值由术前的(7.3±1.3)分降低到术后(3.1±0.9)分,末次随访时为(2.2±0.6)分,术后、末次随访VAS分值与术前比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。获得随访时间6~33个月,平均16.5个月。疗效优16例,良7例,可5例,差2例,优良率76%。结论微创手术是治疗复发性腰椎间盘突出症的有效方法之一。%Objective To study the clinical effect of the minimally invasive surgery for treating recurrent lumbar disc protrusion . Methods Thirty operative cases of recurrent lumbar disc protrusion treated with the minimally invasive surgery from July 2009 to July 2013 were retrospectively analyzed for statistically describing the age ,body mass index ,recurrent segment ,operating time ,intr-aoperative bleeding volume and postoperative painless walking time .The recurrence segments were 1 case of L34 ,10 cases of L45 and 19 cases of L5 S1 ;the visual analogue scale (VAS) was adopted to evaluate the operative effect .Results The operating time was 65 min on average (50-100)min;mean intraoperative bleeding volume was 145 mL(100-180)mL ;average length of hospital stay was 13 d (9-16)d;average hospitalization

  17. Edge Video CDN:A Wi-Fi Content Hotspot Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Hu; Zhi Wang; Ming Ma; Li-Feng Sun


    The emergence of smart edge-network content item hotspots, which are equipped with huge storage space (e.g., several GBs), opens up the opportunity to study the possibility of delivering videos at the edge network. Different from both the conventional content item delivery network (CDN) and the peer-to-peer (P2P) scheme, this new delivery paradigm, namely edge video CDN, requires up to millions of edge hotspots located at users’ homes/offices to be coordinately managed to serve mobile video content item. Specifically, two challenges are involved in building edge video CDN, including how edge content item hotspots should be organized to serve users, and how content items should be replicated to them at different locations to serve users. To address these challenges, we propose our data-driven design as follows. First, we formulate an edge region partition problem to jointly maximize the quality experienced by users and minimize the replication cost, which is NP-hard in nature, and we design a Voronoi-like partition algorithm to generate optimal service cells. Second, to replicate content items to edge-network content item hotspots, we propose an edge request prediction based replication strategy, which carries out the replication in a server peak offloading manner. We implement our design and use trace-driven experiments to verify its effectiveness. Compared with conventional centralized CDN and popularity-based replication, our design can significantly improve users’ quality of experience, in terms of users’ perceived bandwidth and latency, up to 40%.

  18. 16 CFR 1211.12 - Requirements for edge sensors. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for edge sensors. 1211.12... Requirements for edge sensors. (a) Normal operation test. (1) When installed on a representative door edge, an edge sensor shall actuate upon the application of a 15 pounds (66.7 N) or less force in the...

  19. A Note on Edge Guards in Art Galleries

    CERN Document Server

    Nandakumar, R


    We examine the Art Gallery Problem with Edge Guards. We present a heuristic algorithm to arrange edge guards to guard only the inward side of the walls of any N-vertex simple polygonal gallery using at most roof (N/4) edge guards - a weakened version of Toussaint's conjecture on the number of edge guards that can guard an entire simple polygon

  20. Nonlinear edge: preserving smoothing by PDEs (United States)

    Ha, Yan; Liu, Jiejing


    This work introduces a new algorithm for image smoothing. Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) are employed to smooth the image while preserving the edges and corners. Compared with other filters such as average filter and median filter, it is found that the effects of image denoising by the new algorithm are better than that by other filters. The experimental results show that this method can not only remove the noise but also preserve the edges and corners. Due to its simplicity and efficiency, the algorithm becomes extremely attractive.

  1. AliEn - EDG Interoperability in ALICE


    Bagnasco, S.; Barbera, R; Buncic, P.; Carminati, F.; Cerello, P.; Saiz, P.


    AliEn (ALICE Environment) is a GRID-like system for large scale job submission and distributed data management developed and used in the context of ALICE, the CERN LHC heavy-ion experiment. With the aim of exploiting upcoming Grid resources to run AliEn-managed jobs and store the produced data, the problem of AliEn-EDG interoperability was addressed and an in-terface was designed. One or more EDG (European Data Grid) User Interface machines run the AliEn software suite (Cluster Monitor, Stora...

  2. Mechanisms and methods to resolve edge effect. (United States)

    Kuchulakanti, Pramod; Lew, Robert; Waksman, Ron


    Vascular brachytherapy (VBT) has established itself as a viable modality to treat in-stent restenosis (ISR). The problems associated with VBT have been understood well and remedied. Late thrombosis has been overcome to a great extent by prolonged antiplatelet therapy. Edge effect is another important limitation of VBT and is due to inadequate radiation coverage of the edges following VBT. It may be overcome by confining injury to the lesion segment and extending the radiation sources by a few millimeters from the injured segment.

  3. Edge fluctuations of eigenvalues of Wigner matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Döring, Hanna


    We establish a moderate deviation principle (MDP) for the number of eigenvalues of a Wigner matrix in an interval close to the edge of the spectrum. Moreover we prove a MDP for the $i$th largest eigenvalue close to the edge. The proof relies on fine asymptotics of the variance of the eigenvalue counting function of GUE matrices due to Gustavsson. The extension to large families of Wigner matrices is based on the Tao and Vu Four Moment Theorem. Possible extensions to other random matrix ensembles are commented.

  4. Particle Size Estimation Based on Edge Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-xing


    Given image sequences of closely packed particles, the underlying aim is to estimate diameters without explicit segmentation. In a way, this is similar to the task of counting objects without directly counting them. Such calculations may, for example, be useful fast estimation of particle size in different application areas. The topic is that of estimating average size (=average diameter) of packed particles, from formulas involving edge density, and the edges from moment-based thresholding are used. An average shape factor is involved in the calculations, obtained for some frames from crude partial segmentation. Measurement results from about 80 frames have been analyzed.

  5. A new method of edge detection for object recognition (United States)

    Maddox, Brian G.; Rhew, Benjamin


    Traditional edge detection systems function by returning every edge in an input image. This can result in a large amount of clutter and make certain vectorization algorithms less accurate. Accuracy problems can then have a large impact on automated object recognition systems that depend on edge information. A new method of directed edge detection can be used to limit the number of edges returned based on a particular feature. This results in a cleaner image that is easier for vectorization. Vectorized edges from this process could then feed an object recognition system where the edge data would also contain information as to what type of feature it bordered.

  6. Outlier Edge Detection Using Random Graph Generation Models and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Honglei; Gabbouj, Moncef


    Outliers are samples that are generated by different mechanisms from other normal data samples. Graphs, in particular social network graphs, may contain nodes and edges that are made by scammers, malicious programs or mistakenly by normal users. Detecting outlier nodes and edges is important for data mining and graph analytics. However, previous research in the field has merely focused on detecting outlier nodes. In this article, we study the properties of edges and propose outlier edge detection algorithms using two random graph generation models. We found that the edge-ego-network, which can be defined as the induced graph that contains two end nodes of an edge, their neighboring nodes and the edges that link these nodes, contains critical information to detect outlier edges. We evaluated the proposed algorithms by injecting outlier edges into some real-world graph data. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithms can effectively detect outlier edges. In particular, the algorithm based on the Prefe...

  7. Cutting Edge: Nanogel-Based Delivery of an Inhibitor of CaMK4 to CD4+ T Cells Suppresses Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Lupus-like Disease in Mice. (United States)

    Otomo, Kotaro; Koga, Tomohiro; Mizui, Masayuki; Yoshida, Nobuya; Kriegel, Christina; Bickerton, Sean; Fahmy, Tarek M; Tsokos, George C


    Treatment of autoimmune diseases is still largely based on the use of systemically acting immunosuppressive drugs, which invariably cause severe side effects. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV is involved in the suppression of IL-2 and the production of IL-17. Its pharmacologic or genetic inhibition limits autoimmune disease in mice. In this study, we demonstrate that KN93, a small-molecule inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV, targeted to CD4(+) T cells via a nanolipogel delivery system, markedly reduced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and was 10-fold more potent than the free systemically delivered drug in the lupus mouse models. The targeted delivery of KN93 did not deplete T cells but effectively blocked Th17 cell differentiation and expansion as measured in the spinal cords and kidneys of mice developing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis or lupus, respectively. These results highlight the promise of cell-targeted inhibition of molecules involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity as a means of advancing the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  8. A Double-edged sword — the impact of autophagy on diabetes and pancreatic beta cells%一把双刃剑——自噬对糖尿病和胰岛β细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽波; 李艳波


    Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic system, which enables cells to capture cytoplasmic components for degradation within lysosomes. Autophagy is involved in development, differentiation and tissue remodeling in various organisms, and is also implicated in certain diseases. Recent studies demonstrate that autophagy is necessary to maintain architecture and function of pancreatic beta cells. Inhibited autophagy is also involved in pancreatic beta cell death. Whether autophagy plays a protective or harmful role in diabetes is still not clear. This article summarizes the current knowledge about the role of autophagy in pancreatic beta cells and diabetes.%自噬是一种细胞内的代谢降解过程,能够在溶酶体内降解损伤的细胞质或细胞器.自噬参与多种生物体的生长、分化和组织重构,同时也与某些疾病有关.有研究表明,自噬在维持胰岛β细胞结构和功能中起重要作用.抑制自噬可增加胰岛β细胞死亡.然而自噬在糖尿病中的作用还不清楚.

  9. Ultrastructure of sperm cells in the female gonoduct of Xiphinema. (United States)

    Van De Velde, M C; Coomans, A; Van Ranst, L; De W Kruger, J C; Claeys, M


    The ultrastructure of the sperm cells in the female gonoduct of the nematodes Xiphinema theresiae and X. pinoides is described. The nucleus of the sperm cells is composed of several electron-dense clumps of chromatin that is not surrounded by a nuclear envelope. A layer of mitochondria, in which the mitochondrial cristae are only rarely visible, lies around the nuclear material. In the surrounding cytoplasm packets of electron-dense fibres are abundant. The sperm in the uterus have the following surface differentiations: highly intertwined protrusions between adjacent sperm cells, protrusions coinciding with the plication of the inner uterine wall and a slightly undulated surface towards the uterine lumen. It is argued that in the uterus, the sperm cells actively move in proximal direction by a mechanism resembling pseudopodial movement, in which the packets of fibres are involved. In the oviduct, the sperm cells loose their surface protrusions and the packets of fibres gradually become less abundant. Since the oviduct has no pre-formed lumen, the sperm cells appear to wedge their way along by forcing oviduct cells apart.

  10. Edge control in CNC polishing, paper 2: simulation and validation of tool influence functions on edges. (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Walker, David; Yu, Guoyu; Sayle, Andrew; Messelink, Wilhelmus; Evans, Rob; Beaucamp, Anthony


    Edge mis-figure is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for manufacturing the segments of extremely large telescopes, which can dominate key aspects of performance. A novel edge-control technique has been developed, based on 'Precessions' polishing technique and for which accurate and stable edge tool influence functions (TIFs) are crucial. In the first paper in this series [D. Walker Opt. Express 20, 19787-19798 (2012)], multiple parameters were experimentally optimized using an extended set of experiments. The first purpose of this new work is to 'short circuit' this procedure through modeling. This also gives the prospect of optimizing local (as distinct from global) polishing for edge mis-figure, now under separate development. This paper presents a model that can predict edge TIFs based on surface-speed profiles and pressure distributions over the polishing spot at the edge of the part, the latter calculated by finite element analysis and verified by direct force measurement. This paper also presents a hybrid-measurement method for edge TIFs to verify the simulation results. Experimental and simulation results show good agreement.

  11. Reading Edge. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012


    "Reading Edge" is a middle school literacy program that emphasizes cooperative learning, goal setting, feedback, classroom management techniques, and the use of metacognitive strategy, whereby students assess their own skills and learn to apply new ones. The program is a component of the "Success for All"[superscript 2]…

  12. Flow Control Over Sharp-Edged Wings (United States)


    Sharp Leading Edge," Paper No. AIAA-2001-0121. 12Washburn, A. E., and Amitay, M., "Active Flow Control on the Stingray UAV: Physical Mechanisms," 4 2...A. E., and Amitay, M., "Active Flow Control on the Stingray UAV: Physical Mechanisms," 42 Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit," Paper No. AIAA-2004

  13. The Edges of the Ocean: An Introduction. (United States)

    Burke, Kevin


    Introduces a series of related articles on the study of ocean/continent boundaries (margins) within the framework of plate tectonics. Topics discussed include: early attempts to interpret ocean/continent boundaries, Atlantic-type margins, Pacific-type margins, the edges of ancient oceans, and future challenges in the study of continental margins.…

  14. MERIS and the red-edge position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Jong, de S.M.; Epema, G.F.; Meer, van der F.; Bakker, W.H.; Skidmore, A.K.; Addink, E.A.


    The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) is a payload component of Envisat-1. MERIS will be operated over land with a standard 15 band setting acquiring images with a 300 m spatial resolution. The red-edge position (REP) is a promising variable for deriving foliar chlorophyll concentration

  15. Leading-Edge Vortex lifts swifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, JJ; Stamhuis, EJ; Povel, GDE


    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel. Inter

  16. A note on electromagnetic edge modes

    CERN Document Server

    Zuo, Fen


    We give an intuitive identification for the electromagnetic edge modes as virtual spinon and vison excitations in quantum spin liquids. As an example, we show how such an identification may reconcile the discrepancy on the logarithmic coefficient of the entanglement entropy on a sphere.

  17. Edge maps: Representing flow with bounded error

    KAUST Repository

    Bhatia, Harsh


    Robust analysis of vector fields has been established as an important tool for deriving insights from the complex systems these fields model. Many analysis techniques rely on computing streamlines, a task often hampered by numerical instabilities. Approaches that ignore the resulting errors can lead to inconsistencies that may produce unreliable visualizations and ultimately prevent in-depth analysis. We propose a new representation for vector fields on surfaces that replaces numerical integration through triangles with linear maps defined on its boundary. This representation, called edge maps, is equivalent to computing all possible streamlines at a user defined error threshold. In spite of this error, all the streamlines computed using edge maps will be pairwise disjoint. Furthermore, our representation stores the error explicitly, and thus can be used to produce more informative visualizations. Given a piecewise-linear interpolated vector field, a recent result [15] shows that there are only 23 possible map classes for a triangle, permitting a concise description of flow behaviors. This work describes the details of computing edge maps, provides techniques to quantify and refine edge map error, and gives qualitative and visual comparisons to more traditional techniques. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Diffraction Anomalous Near-Edge Structure (United States)

    Moltaji, Habib O., Jr.


    To determine the atomic structure about atom of an element in a sample of a condensed multicomponent single crystal, contrast radiation is proposed with the use of Diffraction Anomalous Near-Edge Structure (DANES), which combines the long-range order sensitivity of the x-ray diffraction and short-range order of the x-ray absorption near-edge techniques. This is achieved by modulating the photon energy of the x-ray beam incident on the sample over a range of energies near an absorption edge of the selected element. Due to anomalous dispersion, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray absorption, the DANES intensity with respect to the selected element is obtained in a single experiment. I demonstrate that synchrotron DANES measurements for the single crystal of thin film and the powder samples and provide the same local atomic structural information as the x-ray absorption near-edge with diffraction condition and can be used to provide enhanced site selectivity. I demonstrate calculations of DAFS intensity and measurements of polarized DANES and XANES intensity.

  19. Edge-disjoint Hamiltonian cycles in hypertournaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten


    We introduce a method for reducing k-tournament problems, for k >= 3, to ordinary tournaments, that is, 2-tournaments. It is applied to show that a k-tournament on n >= k + 1 + 24d vertices (when k >= 4) or on n >= 30d + 2 vertices (when k = 3) has d edge-disjoint Hamiltonian cycles if and only...

  20. On Bitstream Based Edge Detection Techniques (United States)


    Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Woods, Digital Image Processing , Addison-Wesley...Longman Publishing Co., Inc., Boston, MA, USA, 2001. [6] William K Pratt, Digital image processing , Wiley, New York :, 1991. [7] Miguel Segui Prieto and...bitstream processing 1. INTRODUCTION Edge detection is a vital part of image processing , which is used for extracting important features from an image

  1. Artistic edge and corner enhancing smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papari, Giuseppe; Petkov, Nicolai; Campisi, Patrizio


    Two important visual properties of paintings and painting-like images are the absence of texture details and the increased sharpness of edges as compared to photographic images. Painting-like artistic effects can be achieved from photographic images by filters that smooth out texture details, while

  2. Acoustic streaming of a sharp edge. (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Zhou, Jianbo; Yalamanchili, Satish


    Anomalous acoustic streaming is observed emanating from sharp edges of solid bodies that are vibrating in fluids. The streaming velocities can be orders of magnitude higher than expected from the Rayleigh streaming at similar amplitudes of vibration. Acoustic velocity of fluid relative to a solid body diverges at a sharp edge, giving rise to a localized time-independent body force acting on the fluid. This force results in a formation of a localized jet. Two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to predict acoustic streaming for low amplitude vibration using two methods: (1) Steady-state solution utilizing perturbation theory and (2) direct transient solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Both analyses agree with each other and correctly predict the streaming of a sharp-edged vibrating blade measured experimentally. The origin of the streaming can be attributed to the centrifugal force of the acoustic fluid flow around a sharp edge. The dependence of this acoustic streaming on frequency and velocity is examined using dimensional analysis. The dependence law is devised and confirmed by numerical simulations.

  3. Thin hard crest on the edge of ceramic acetabular liners accelerates wear in edge loading. (United States)

    Sanders, Anthony P; Dudhiya, Parth J; Brannon, Rebecca M


    Ceramic acetabular liners may exhibit a small, sharp crest-an artifact of discontinuous machining steps--at the junction between the concave spherical surface and the interior edge. On 3 ceramic liners, this crest was found to form a 9° to 11° deviation from tangency. Edge loading wear tests were conducted directly on this crest and on a smoother region of the edge. The crest elicited 2 to 15 times greater volumetric wear on the femoral head. The propensity of the crest to rapidly (machining protocols might be a root cause of stripe wear and squeaking in ceramic acetabular bearings.

  4. An ellipse detection algorithm based on edge classification (United States)

    Yu, Liu; Chen, Feng; Huang, Jianming; Wei, Xiangquan


    In order to enhance the speed and accuracy of ellipse detection, an ellipse detection algorithm based on edge classification is proposed. Too many edge points are removed by making edge into point in serialized form and the distance constraint between the edge points. It achieves effective classification by the criteria of the angle between the edge points. And it makes the probability of randomly selecting the edge points falling on the same ellipse greatly increased. Ellipse fitting accuracy is significantly improved by the optimization of the RED algorithm. It uses Euclidean distance to measure the distance from the edge point to the elliptical boundary. Experimental results show that: it can detect ellipse well in case of edge with interference or edges blocking each other. It has higher detecting precision and less time consuming than the RED algorithm.

  5. Edge detection of color images using the HSL color space (United States)

    Weeks, Arthur R.; Felix, Carlos E.; Myler, Harley R.


    Various edge detectors have been proposed as well as several different types of adaptive edge detectors, but the performance of many of these edge detectors depends on the features and the noise present in the grayscale image. Attempts have been made to extend edge detection to color images by applying grayscale edge detection methods to each of the individual red, blue, and green color components as well as to the hue, saturation, and intensity color components of the color image. The modulus 2(pi) nature of the hue color component makes its detection difficult. For example, a hue of 0 and 2(pi) yields the same color tint. Normal edge detection of a color image containing adjacent pixels with hue of 0 and 2(pi) could yield the presence of an edge when an edge is really not present. This paper presents a method of mapping the 2(pi) modulus hue space to a linear space enabling the edge detection of the hue color component using the Sobel edge detector. The results of this algorithm are compared against the edge detection methods using the red, blue, and green color components. By combining the hue edge image with the intensity and saturation edge images, more edge information is observed.

  6. No fio da navalha: anemia falciforme, raça e as implicações no cuidado à saúde On the razor's edge: sickle cell anemia, race and the implications in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Laguardia


    Full Text Available As propostas de políticas de saúde para a população negra têm uma história recente no cenário político brasileiro, com um destaque especial para o Programa Nacional de Anemia Falciforme (PAF. Esse programa é o resultado das ações políticas do movimento negro em prol do reconhecimento da anemia falciforme como uma doença prevalente na população negra brasileira. No seio dessa ação política foram elaborados discursos sobre a anemia falciforme que ressaltam, a partir de pressupostos biológicos e epidemiológicos, o caráter racial dessa doença. O propósito deste artigo é criticar tais pressupostos, enfatizando as implicações éticas decorrentes da racialização das doenças.The political propositions in health for the black population have a recent history in the Brazilian political setting, with a special highlight to the National Program on Sickle Cell Anemia. This program is an output of political actions launched by the black movement on behalf of the recognition of sickle cell anemia as prevalent disease among Brazilian black population. Discourses on the sickle cell anemia have been built in the core of that political action, stressing, based in biological and epidemiological assumptions, the racial character of this disease. The objective of this article is to criticize those assumptions, emphasizing the ethical implications of disease racialization.

  7. Direct nitrogen fixation at the edges of graphene nanoplatelets as efficient electrocatalysts for energy conversion. (United States)

    Jeon, In-Yup; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Ju, Myung Jong; Choi, In Taek; Lim, Kimin; Ko, Jaejung; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Kim, Jae Cheon; Lee, Jae-Joon; Shin, Dongbin; Jung, Sun-Min; Seo, Jeong-Min; Kim, Min-Jung; Park, Noejung; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom


    Nitrogen fixation is essential for the synthesis of many important chemicals (e.g., fertilizers, explosives) and basic building blocks for all forms of life (e.g., nucleotides for DNA and RNA, amino acids for proteins). However, direct nitrogen fixation is challenging as nitrogen (N₂) does not easily react with other chemicals. By dry ball-milling graphite with N₂, we have discovered a simple, but versatile, scalable and eco-friendly, approach to direct fixation of N₂ at the edges of graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs). The mechanochemical cracking of graphitic C--C bonds generated active carbon species that react directly with N₂ to form five- and six-membered aromatic rings at the broken edges, leading to solution-processable edge-nitrogenated graphene nanoplatelets (NGnPs) with superb catalytic performance in both dye-sensitized solar cells and fuel cells to replace conventional Pt-based catalysts for energy conversion.

  8. The role of T helper (TH)17 cells as a double-edged sword in the interplay of infection and autoimmunity with a focus on xenobiotic-induced immunomodulation. (United States)

    Hemdan, Nasr Y A; Abu El-Saad, Ahmed M; Sack, Ulrich


    Extensive research in recent years suggests that exposure to xenobiotic stimuli plays a critical role in autoimmunity induction and severity and that the resulting response would be exacerbated in individuals with an infection-aroused immune system. In this context, heavy metals constitute a prominent category of xenobiotic substances, known to alter divergent immune cell responses in accidentally and occupationally exposed individuals, thereby increasing the susceptibility to autoimmunity and cancer, especially when accompanied by inflammation-triggered persistent sensitization. This perception is learned from experimental models of infection and epidemiologic studies and clearly underscores the interplay of exposure to such immunomodulatory elements with pre- or postexposure infectious events. Further, the TH17 cell subset, known to be associated with a growing list of autoimmune manifestations, may be the "superstar" at the interface of xenobiotic exposure and autoimmunity. In this review, the most recently established links to this nomination are short-listed to create a framework to better understand new insights into TH17's contributions to autoimmunity.

  9. The Role of T Helper (TH17 Cells as a Double-Edged Sword in the Interplay of Infection and Autoimmunity with a Focus on Xenobiotic-Induced Immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Y. A. Hemdan


    Full Text Available Extensive research in recent years suggests that exposure to xenobiotic stimuli plays a critical role in autoimmunity induction and severity and that the resulting response would be exacerbated in individuals with an infection-aroused immune system. In this context, heavy metals constitute a prominent category of xenobiotic substances, known to alter divergent immune cell responses in accidentally and occupationally exposed individuals, thereby increasing the susceptibility to autoimmunity and cancer, especially when accompanied by inflammation-triggered persistent sensitization. This perception is learned from experimental models of infection and epidemiologic studies and clearly underscores the interplay of exposure to such immunomodulatory elements with pre- or postexposure infectious events. Further, the TH17 cell subset, known to be associated with a growing list of autoimmune manifestations, may be the “superstar” at the interface of xenobiotic exposure and autoimmunity. In this review, the most recently established links to this nomination are short-listed to create a framework to better understand new insights into TH17’s contributions to autoimmunity.

  10. 成人安氏Ⅰ类双颌前突患者的上颌切牙区牙槽骨体积%Alveolar bone volume around upper incisors in adult patients with Class Ⅰ bimaxillary protrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐; 李荣荣; 刘梦臖; 张琰; 刘东旭


    Objective To investigate the alveolar bone volume around upper incisors in adult patients with Class Ⅰbimaxillary protrusion and provide a reference for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.Methods Twenty-two cases with Class Ⅰ bimaxillary protrusion (bimaxillary protrusion group)and Eighteen cases with individual normal occlusion (control group)were recruited.Lateral cephalograms and cone beam computed tomography(CBCT)scan-nings were taken respectively and the alveolar bone volume around four upper incisors in each subject were measured by Mimics 16.0.Results In bimaxillary protrusion group,alveolar bone volume around upper incisors decreased com-pared to the control group (P <0.05),apart from labial root apex zone of central incisors,labial root apex and palatal crest zone of the lateral incisors.Besides,alveolar crest zone,middle root zone,palatal alveolar bone,total alveolar bone of the central incisors,labial alveolar bone,palatal alveolar bone,total alveolar bone of the lateral incisors and total alveolar bone volume of four upper incisors in bimaxillary protrusion group were decreased compared to the control group (P <0.001).Conclusion The alveolar bone volume around upper incisors in adult patients with Class Ⅰ bima-xillary protrusion is fewer than that in the subjects with normal occlusion.It should be more cautious in the process of treatment planning,especially retraction or intrusion of the upper incisors.%目的:研究成人安氏Ⅰ类双颌前突患者上颌切牙区牙槽骨体积,为正畸诊断及治疗计划制定提供参考。方法选择安氏Ⅰ类双颌前突患者22例(双颌前突组)及个别正常牙合志愿者18例(对照组),分别拍摄头颅侧位片及锥体束计算机断层扫描(CBCT),利用 Mimics 16.0测量上颌4颗切牙牙槽骨体积。结果双颌前突组上颌切牙区牙槽骨体积除中切牙唇侧根尖区、侧切牙唇侧根尖区及腭侧牙槽嵴顶区外,

  11. Approximating the Edge Length of 2-Edge Connected Planar Geometric Graphs on a Set of Points

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrev, Stefan; Krizanc, Danny; Morales-Ponce, Oscar; Stacho, Ladislav


    Given a set $P$ of $n$ points in the plane, we solve the problems of constructing a geometric planar graph spanning $P$ 1) of minimum degree 2, and 2) which is 2-edge connected, respectively, and has max edge length bounded by a factor of 2 times the optimal; we also show that the factor 2 is best possible given appropriate connectivity conditions on the set $P$, respectively. First, we construct in $O(n\\log{n})$ time a geometric planar graph of minimum degree 2 and max edge length bounded by 2 times the optimal. This is then used to construct in $O(n\\log n)$ time a 2-edge connected geometric planar graph spanning $P$ with max edge length bounded by $\\sqrt{5}$ times the optimal, assuming that the set $P$ forms a connected Unit Disk Graph. Second, we prove that 2 times the optimal is always sufficient if the set of points forms a 2 edge connected Unit Disk Graph and give an algorithm that runs in $O(n^2)$ time. We also show that for $k \\in O(\\sqrt{n})$, there exists a set $P$ of $n$ points in the plane such th...

  12. FRET imaging and statistical signal processing reveal positive and negative feedback loops regulating the morphology of randomly migrating HT-1080 cells. (United States)

    Kunida, Katsuyuki; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Aoki, Kazuhiro


    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological processes. Rho GTPases (Rac1, Cdc42, RhoA) and phosphatidylinositols have been extensively studied in directional cell migration. However, it remains unclear how Rho GTPases and phosphatidylinositols regulate random cell migration in space and time. We have attempted to address this issue using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging and statistical signal processing. First, we acquired time-lapse images of random migration of HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells expressing FRET biosensors of Rho GTPases and phosphatidyl inositols. We developed an image-processing algorithm to extract FRET values and velocities at the leading edge of migrating cells. Auto- and cross-correlation analysis suggested the involvement of feedback regulations among Rac1, phosphatidyl inositols and membrane protrusions. To verify the feedback regulations, we employed an acute inhibition of the signaling pathway with pharmaceutical inhibitors. The inhibition of actin polymerization decreased Rac1 activity, indicating the presence of positive feedback from actin polymerization to Rac1. Furthermore, treatment with PI3-kinase inhibitor induced an adaptation of Rac1 activity, i.e. a transient reduction of Rac1 activity followed by recovery to the basal level. In silico modeling that reproduced the adaptation predicted the existence of a negative feedback loop from Rac1 to actin polymerization. Finally, we identified MLCK as the probable controlling factor in the negative feedback. These findings quantitatively demonstrate positive and negative feedback loops that involve actin, Rac1 and MLCK, and account for the ordered patterns of membrane dynamics observed in randomly migrating cells.

  13. Independent component analysis of edge information for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Karande, Kailash Jagannath


    The book presents research work on face recognition using edge information as features for face recognition with ICA algorithms. The independent components are extracted from edge information. These independent components are used with classifiers to match the facial images for recognition purpose. In their study, authors have explored Canny and LOG edge detectors as standard edge detection methods. Oriented Laplacian of Gaussian (OLOG) method is explored to extract the edge information with different orientations of Laplacian pyramid. Multiscale wavelet model for edge detection is also propos

  14. The Analysis of Imaging Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Protrusion in Adolescent%20岁以下青少年腰椎间盘突出症影像学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鹏; 高雪梅; 钟辉; 陈进


    目的 探讨青少年腰椎间盘突出症的病因、临床及影像学表现特点.方法 回顾性分析16例青少年腰椎间盘突出症的临床和影像学表现.结果 L4.5,L5-S1是椎间盘突出的好发部位.16例青少年腰椎间盘突出症的主要CT、MR表现为:①中央型腰椎问盘突出2例,占12.50%;②周围型腰椎问盘突出 14例,占87.50%.结论 本病的发生与外伤和腰骶部发育异常有关.X线平片对青少年椎间盘突出诊断价值不如CT和MR,CT和MR检查准确性高,且为无创性检查,是诊断青少年腰椎椎间盘突出较为理想的检查方法 .%Objective To investigate the pathogenesis,clinical manifestations and imaging findings of lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion in adolescent.Metho&The clinical and imaging representations of 16 cases with lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion in adolescent were retrospectively analysed.Results The location of disc herniation occurred frequently at thelevel of L4-5 and L5-S1 intervertebral space.The main CT and MR This disease is closeiy related to trauma and develop mental anomaly.CT and MR is accurate and non-Invasive means,especially lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion in the adolescent.

  15. Analysis of angulation rotation traction in the treatment of 30 protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc cases%成角度牵引治疗腰椎间盘突出症30例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    ObjectiveTo investigate curative effect by angulation rotation traction in the treatment of protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc.MethodsA total of 60 patients with protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 30 cases in each group. The treatment group received angulation rotation traction for treatment, and the control group received continuous horizontal traction for treatment. Curative effects of the two groups were compared.ResultsAfter treatment for 3 courses, the treatment group had better total effective rate as 83.3% than 66.7% of the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Angulation rotation traction provides precisely curative effect in treating protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc.%目的:探讨成角度牵引治疗腰椎间盘突出症的疗效。方法60例腰椎间盘突出症患者,随机分为治疗组与对照组,各30例。治疗组给予持续成角度牵引治疗,对照组给予持续水平牵引治疗。比较两组治疗效果。结果经过3个疗程治疗后,治疗组总有效率为83.3%,优于对照组的66.7%(P<0.05)。结论成角度牵引治疗腰椎间盘突出症临床疗效良好。

  16. Design and application of dietary guidance software for lumbar disc protrusion%腰椎间盘突出症饮食指导模式的软件设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建华; 梁洁平; 张淑华


    目的 设计腰椎间盘突出症的饮食指导软件,使饮食指导能系统化和个性化相结合.方法 将2007年1~12月在我科住院的200例腰椎间盘突出病人分两组,两组患者均采用保守治疗,对照组未对患者进行饮食指导;观察组对患者进行饮食指导.结果 观察组的显效率(73%)和总有效率(91%)高于对照组(分别为61%、77%);观察组起效时间(7.5天)短于对照组(10.6天).结论 本软件对腰椎间盘患者有帮助,也是疾病宣教的新突破.%Objective To design dietary guidance software for lumbar disc protrusion, combining the dietary guidance systematically and individually. Methods The software was designed on the basis of Chinse therapies based on symdrome differentiation and computer technology was applied as a link, including establishment of typing of symdrome differentiation, construction of food databank, and programming of software. Methods 200 patients with lumbar disc protrusion who had been hospitalized during January 2007 and December 2007 were divided into two groups. The control group received conservative treatment but no dietary guidance and the study group received conservative treatment and dietary guidance. Results The improvement rate and the total effective rate were higher in the study group than in the control group; and the onset duration was shorter in the study group. Conclusions This software is helpful for patients with lumbar disc protrusion and is a new breakthrough in health education.

  17. Iris Localization Based on Edge Searching Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yong; Han Jiuqiang


    An iris localization scheme based on edge searching strategies is presented. First, the edge detection operator Laplacian-ofGaussian (LoG) is used to iris original image to search its inner boundary. Then, a circle detection operator is introduced to locate the outer boundary and its center, which is invariant of translation, rotation and scale. Finally, the method of curve fitting is developed in localization of eyelid. The performance of the proposed method is tested with 756 iris images from 108 different classes in CASIA Iris Database and compared with the conventional Hough transform method. The experimental results show that without loss of localization accuracy, the proposed iris localization algorithm is apparently faster than Hough transform.

  18. Edit Propagation via Edge-Aware Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hu; Zhao Dong; Guo-Dong Yuan


    This paper presents a novel framework for efficiently propagating the stroke-based user edits to the regions with similar colors and locations in high resolution images and videos.Our framework is based on the key observation that the edit propagation intrinsically can also be achieved by utilizing recently proposed edge-preserving filters.Therefore,instead of adopting the traditional global optimization which may involve a time-consuming solution,our algorithm propagates edits with the aid of the edge-preserve filters.Such a propagation scheme has low computational complexity and supports multiple kinds of strokes for more flexible user interactions.Further,our method can be easily and efficiently implemented in GPU.The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and user-friendliness of our approach.

  19. Quantum nature of edge magnetism in graphene. (United States)

    Golor, Michael; Wessel, Stefan; Schmidt, Manuel J


    It is argued that the subtle crossover from decoherence-dominated classical magnetism to fluctuation-dominated quantum magnetism is experimentally accessible in graphene nanoribbons. We show that the width of a nanoribbon determines whether the edge magnetism is on the classical side, on the quantum side, or in between. In the classical regime, decoherence is dominant and leads to static spin polarizations at the ribbon edges, which are well described by mean-field theories. The quantum Zeno effect is identified as the basic mechanism which is responsible for the spin polarization and thereby enables the application of graphene in spintronics. On the quantum side, however, the spin polarization is destroyed by dynamical processes. The great tunability of graphene magnetism thus offers a viable route for the study of the quantum-classical crossover.

  20. A Review of Classic Edge Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldo Spontón


    Full Text Available In this paper some of the classic alternatives for edge detection in digital images are studied. The main idea behind edge detection is to find where abrupt changes in the intensity of an image have occurred. The first family of algorithms reviewed in this work uses the first derivative to find the changes of intensity, such as Sobel, Prewitt and Roberts. In the second reviewed family it is used second derivative, for example in algorithms like Marr-Hildreth and Haralick. Results obtained from a qualitative point of view (perceptual and from a quantitative point of view (number of operations, execution time are compared, considering different ways to convolve an image with a kernel (step required in some of the algorithms.

  1. Knife-edge technique for laser cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhanshan; MA Shanshan; MA Yan; ZHAO Min; LIU Hengbiao


    The transfer characteristics of an atomic beam and the effect of laser were investigated in this paper. In the application of knife-edge technique, the temperature of atoms through laser cooling was measured. Results indicate that,after atoms are emitted from an atomic oven, the longer the atoms move, the worse the distribution of the atomic beam shows, regardless the laser cooling is taken or not. Laser cooling can reduce the transverse velocity of the atomic beam to several orders of magnitude and also increase the uniformity of an atomic beam. Knife-edge technique can measure the temperature of an atomic beam through laser cooling. The measurement accuracy depends on the pixel size of the charge coupled device (CCD), which is used for the fluorescent imaging of the atomic beam. The results are very important for the future experiments of laser cooling.

  2. Edge and corner detection by color invariants (United States)

    Chu, Jun; Miao, Jun; Zhang, Guimei; Wang, Lu


    Gray-based features are widely used in computer vision applications, while image color is a very important source, which can provide more feature information. To fully exploit color data, a color saturation invariant based on dichromatic reflection model is first constructed. The invariant is an object reflectance property independent of viewpoint and illumination direction. The saturation invariant is then synthesized with existing hue invariant to detect edge and corner features in color image. Experiments show that the detection method proposed here can more effectively tap into color information and achieve true target features due to its lower sensitivity to shadow, shading and highlight. Moreover, when comparing with many other existing edges and corners detecting methods, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better in detection accurate and effective.

  3. Controlling edge dynamics in complex networks


    Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás


    The interaction of distinct units in physical, social, biological and technological systems naturally gives rise to complex network structures. Networks have constantly been in the focus of research for the last decade, with considerable advances in the description of their structural and dynamical properties. However, much less effort has been devoted to studying the controllability of the dynamics taking place on them. Here we introduce and evaluate a dynamical process defined on the edges ...

  4. Study of terahertz pulses at an edge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaijun Xi; Xiaohan Yu; Tiqiao Xiao


    The propagation behaviour of terahertz (THz) pulses at an edge is characterized. The phenomenon that the amplitude oscillates periodically in the frequency spectrum is similar to Young's interference, if the absorption effect is neglected. The oscillation cycle is shorter for a thicker sample. THz pulses at anedge are an alyzed by the broadband Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral. The experimental results are in agreement with the simulation results approximately. The simulation errors are also analyzed.

  5. Spatial regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase during chemotactic cell migration


    Howe, Alan K.; Baldor, Linda C.; Hogan, Brian P.


    Historically, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) has a paradoxical role in cell motility, having been shown to both facilitate and inhibit actin cytoskeletal dynamics and cell migration. In an effort to understand this dichotomy, we show here that PKA is regulated in subcellular space during cell migration. Immunofluorescence microscopy and biochemical enrichment of pseudopodia showed that type II regulatory subunits of PKA and PKA activity are enriched in protrusive cellular structures ...

  6. Two-dimensional numerical study of ELMs-induced erosion of tungsten divertor target tiles with different edge shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Information Science and Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Sun, Jizhong, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Hu, Wanpeng; Sang, Chaofeng [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Dezhen, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)


    Highlights: • Thermal performance of three edge-shaped divertor tiles was assessed numerically. • All the divertor tiles exposed to type-I ELMs like ITER's will melt. • The rounded edge tile thermally performs the best in all tiles of interest. • The incident energy flux density was evaluated with structural effects considered. - Abstract: Thermal performance of the divertor tile with different edge shapes was assessed numerically along the poloidal direction by a two-dimensional heat conduction model with considering the geometrical effects of castellated divertor tiles on the properties of its adjacent plasma. The energy flux density distribution arriving at the castellated divertor tile surface was evaluated by a two-dimension-in-space and three-dimension-in-velocity particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo Collisions code and then the obtained energy flux distribution was used as input for the heat conduction model. The simulation results showed that the divertor tiles with any edge shape of interest (rectangular edge, slanted edge, and rounded edge) would melt, especially, in the edge surface region of facing plasma poloidally under typical heat flux density of a transient event of type-I ELMs for ITER, deposition energy of 1 MJ/m{sup 2} in a duration of 600 μs. In comparison with uniform energy deposition, the vaporizing erosion was reduced greatly but the melting erosion was aggravated noticeably in the edge area of plasma facing diveror tile. Of three studied edge shapes, the simulation results indicated that the divertor plate with rounded edge was the most resistant to the thermal erosion.

  7. 正畸—正颌联合矫治上颌前突畸形术后疗效及其稳定性研究%Clinical Study of Orthognathic- Orthodontics Surgery for Mandibular Protrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨正畸—正颌联合矫治对上颌前突的临床疗效以及疗效的稳定性.方法:20例骨性上颌前突的恒牙列患者中联合治疗组11例,其采用上颌前份阶段性骨切开截骨术后退上颌骨并进行术前术后结合正畸进行治疗.对照组9例,行上颌前份节段性骨切开术治疗.结果:2组患者上颌前突均得到矫治,面部比例较为治疗前有明显的改善(P<0.05),联合治疗组的疗效的相关指标要高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:应用正颌—正畸联合治疗上颌前突具有患者侧貌协调、治疗效果稳定的特点,但术前正畸去代偿对疗效有一定影响.%Objective: T6 investigate the clinical efficacy and effect of stability of orthodontic -orthognathic correction of skeletal maxillary protrusion. Methods: From April 2006 to October 2009, 20 patients with permanent dentition and maxillary protrusion were selected, in which 11 cases were combined treatment. They were staged by anterior maxillary osteotomy and maxillary osteotomy back to preoperative and postoperative orthodontic treatment. In the control group, 9 cases were segmental anterior maxillary bone with incision treatment. Results: The patients who received treatment of maxillary protrusion had facial proportion significant improved (P<0. 05). The efficacy of combined treatment group was higher (P<0. 05). Conclusion: Orthognathic -orthodontic treatment of maxillary protrusion has the characteristics of coordination and efficiency.

  8. Diffusion-induced line-edge roughness (United States)

    Stewart, Michael D.; Schmid, Gerard M.; Goldfarb, Dario L.; Angelopoulos, Marie; Willson, C. Grant


    As feature dimensions shrink, line edge roughness has become an increasing concern in semiconductor fabrication. There are numerous potential contributors to line edge roughness throughout the lithographic process and any measured roughness value on a printed device feature is, like the feature itself, a convolved function of every processing step. When the full lithographic process is used to study line edge roughness, it can be difficult to isolate the contribution to final roughness from any individual processing step or factor. To gain a more fundamental understanding of roughness generation that is specifically related to photoresist chemistry and formulation it is necessary to design experiments that separate out exposure related issues like mask dimension variation or local dose variation ("shot noise"). This can be accomplished using previously reported experimental protocols for bilayer film stack creation. The bilayer experimental approach has been used to study the effect of variations in such factors as post exposure bake time, photoacid generator loading, and developer concentration on roughness generation. Surface roughness of the developed film stacks is measured via atomic force microscopy. Surface roughness of developed bilayer film stacks may be considered analogous to sidewall roughness of printed features. An acrylate-based 193nm photoresist resin and an APEX-type resin are used in these experiments. In addition to experimental results, results from mesoscale lithographic simulations are used to gain further insight into diffusion induced roughness and how roughness in the latent image is modified during the development step.

  9. Canny edge-based deformable image registration (United States)

    Kearney, Vasant; Huang, Yihui; Mao, Weihua; Yuan, Baohong; Tang, Liping


    This work focuses on developing a 2D Canny edge-based deformable image registration (Canny DIR) algorithm to register in vivo white light images taken at various time points. This method uses a sparse interpolation deformation algorithm to sparsely register regions of the image with strong edge information. A stability criterion is enforced which removes regions of edges that do not deform in a smooth uniform manner. Using a synthetic mouse surface ground truth model, the accuracy of the Canny DIR algorithm was evaluated under axial rotation in the presence of deformation. The accuracy was also tested using fluorescent dye injections, which were then used for gamma analysis to establish a second ground truth. The results indicate that the Canny DIR algorithm performs better than rigid registration, intensity corrected Demons, and distinctive features for all evaluation matrices and ground truth scenarios. In conclusion Canny DIR performs well in the presence of the unique lighting and shading variations associated with white-light-based image registration.

  10. Fermi bubble edges: spectrum and diffusion function

    CERN Document Server

    Keshet, Uri


    Current measurements of the $\\gamma$-ray Fermi bubbles (FB) are based on model-dependent tracers, carry substantial systematic uncertainties, show mild spatial variations, and are at some tension with each other. We show that gradient filters pick out the FB edges, found to smoothly connect to the bipolar X-ray structure emanating from the Galactic center, thus supporting the interpretation of the FBs as a Galactic-scale phenomenon. The sharp edges facilitate a direct, model-free measurement of the peripheral FB spectrum. The result is strikingly similar to the full FB-integrated spectrum, softened by a power law of index $\\eta\\simeq (0.2-0.3)$. This is naturally explained, in both hadronic and leptonic models, if cosmic-rays are injected at the edge, and diffuse away preferentially at higher energies $E$. The inferred, FB-averaged diffusion function in the (more plausible) leptonic model, $D(E)\\simeq 10^{29.5}(E/10\\mbox{ GeV})^{0.48\\pm0.02}\\mbox{ cm}^2\\mbox{ s}^{-1}$, is consistent with estimates for Kraichn...

  11. Compressive Tectonics around Tibetan Plateau Edges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhixin; Xu Jiren


    Various earthquake fault types, mechanism solutions, stress field, and other geophysical data were analyzed for study on the crust movement in the Tibetan plateau and its tectonic implications. The results show that numbers of thrust fault and strike-slip fault type earthquakes with strong compressive stress near NNE-SSW direction occurred in the edges around the plateau except the eastern boundary. Some normal faulting type earthquakes concentrate in the Central Tibetan plateau. The strikes of fault planes of thrust and strike-slip faulting earthquakes are almost in the E-W direction based on the analyses of the Wulff stereonet diagrams of fault plane solutions. This implies that the dislocation slip vectors of the thrust and strike-slip faulting type events have quite great components in the N-S direction. The compression motion mainly probably plays the tectonic active regime around the plateau edges. The compressive stress in N-S or NE-SW directions predominates earthquake occurrence in the thrust and strike-slip faulting event region around the plateau. The compressive motion around the Tibetan plateau edge is attributable to the northward motion of the Indian subcontinent plate. The northward motion of the Tibetan plateau shortened in the N-S direction encounters probably strong obstructions at the western and northern margins.

  12. Adaptive Edge-Oriented Shot Boundary Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee MC


    Full Text Available We study the problem of video shot boundary detection using an adaptive edge-oriented framework. Our approach is distinct in its use of multiple multilevel features in the required processing. Adaptation is provided by a careful analysis of these multilevel features, based on shot variability. We consider three levels of adaptation: at the feature extraction stage using locally-adaptive edge maps, at the video sequence level, and at the individual shot level. We show how to provide adaptive parameters for the multilevel edge-based approach, and how to determine adaptive thresholds for the shot boundaries based on the characteristics of the particular shot being indexed. The result is a fast adaptive scheme that provides a slightly better performance in terms of robustness, and a five fold efficiency improvement in shot characterization and classification. The reported work has applications beyond direct video indexing, and could be used in real-time applications, such as in dynamic monitoring and modeling of video data traffic in multimedia communications, and in real-time video surveillance. Experimental results are included.

  13. Emergent properties of patch shapes affect edge permeability to animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilis O Nams

    Full Text Available Animal travel between habitat patches affects populations, communities and ecosystems. There are three levels of organization of edge properties, and each of these can affect animals. At the lowest level are the different habitats on each side of an edge, then there is the edge itself, and finally, at the highest level of organization, is the geometry or structure of the edge. This study used computer simulations to (1 find out whether effects of edge shapes on animal behavior can arise as emergent properties solely due to reactions to edges in general, without the animals reacting to the shapes of the edges, and to (2 generate predictions to allow field and experimental studies to test mechanisms of edge shape response. Individual animals were modeled traveling inside a habitat patch that had different kinds of edge shapes (convex, concave and straight. When animals responded edges of patches, this created an emergent property of responding to the shape of the edge. The response was mostly to absolute width of the shapes, and not the narrowness of them. When animals were attracted to edges, then they tended to collect in convexities and disperse from concavities, and the opposite happened when animals avoided edges. Most of the responses occurred within a distance of 40% of the perceptual range from the tip of the shapes. Predictions were produced for directionality at various locations and combinations of treatments, to be used for testing edge behavior mechanisms. These results suggest that edge shapes tend to either concentrate or disperse animals, simply because the animals are either attracted to or avoid edges, with an effect as great as 3 times the normal density. Thus edge shape could affect processes like pollination, seed predation and dispersal and predator abundance.

  14. Framework Application for Core Edge Transport Simulation (FACETS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Pigarov, Alexander


    The FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations) project of Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Program was aimed at providing a high-fidelity whole-tokamak modeling for the U.S. magnetic fusion energy program and ITER through coupling separate components for each of the core region, edge region, and wall, with realistic plasma particles and power sources and turbulent transport simulation. The project also aimed at developing advanced numerical algorithms, efficient implicit coupling methods, and software tools utilizing the leadership class computing facilities under Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR). The FACETS project was conducted by a multi-discipline, multi-institutional teams, the Lead PI was J.R. Cary (Tech-X Corp.). In the FACETS project, the Applied Plasma Theory Group at the MAE Department of UCSD developed the Wall and Plasma-Surface Interaction (WALLPSI) module, performed its validation against experimental data, and integrated it into the developed framework. WALLPSI is a one-dimensional, coarse grained, reaction/advection/diffusion code applied to each material boundary cell in the common modeling domain for a tokamak. It incorporates an advanced model for plasma particle transport and retention in the solid matter of plasma facing components, simulation of plasma heat power load handling, calculation of erosion/deposition, and simulation of synergistic effects in strong plasma-wall coupling.

  15. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects. (United States)

    Villaseñor, Nélida R; Driscoll, Don A; Escobar, Martín A H; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B


    With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula). We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis) had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1) habitat quality/preference, (2) species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3) spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This framework will

  16. Group choreography: mechanisms orchestrating the collective movement of border cells. (United States)

    Montell, Denise J; Yoon, Wan Hee; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle


    Cell movements are essential for animal development and homeostasis but also contribute to disease. Moving cells typically extend protrusions towards a chemoattractant, adhere to the substrate, contract and detach at the rear. It is less clear how cells that migrate in interconnected groups in vivo coordinate their behaviour and navigate through natural environments. The border cells of the Drosophila melanogaster ovary have emerged as an excellent model for the study of collective cell movement, aided by innovative genetic, live imaging, and photomanipulation techniques. Here we provide an overview of the molecular choreography of border cells and its more general implications.

  17. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) CS-W Interface (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  18. Study and Comparison of Various Techniques of Image Edge Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjeet Singh


    Full Text Available An edge may be defined as a set of connected pixels that forms a boundary between two disjoints regions. Image Edge detection reduces the amount of data and filters out useless information, while preserving the important structural properties in an image. Edge detection plays an important role in digital image processing and practical aspects of our daily life. In this paper we studied various edge detection techniques as Prewitt, Robert, Sobel, LoG and Canny operators. On comparing them we conclude that canny edge detector performs better than all other edge detectors on various aspects such as it is adaptive in nature, performs better for noisy image, gives sharp edges, low probability of detecting false edges.

  19. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies of graphite edges

    CERN Document Server

    Niimi, Y; Kambara, H; Tagami, K; Tsukada, M; Fukuyama, H; Fukuyama, Hiroshi


    We studied experimentally and theoretically the electronic local density of states (LDOS) near single step edges at the surface of exfoliated graphite. In scanning tunneling microscopy measurements, we observed the $(\\sqrt{3} \\times \\sqrt{3}) R 30^{\\circ}$ and honeycomb superstructures both extending over 3$-$4 nm either from the zigzag or armchair edge. Calculations based on a density-functional derived non-orthogonal tight-binding model show that these superstructures can coexist if the two types of edge admix each other in real graphite step edges. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements near the zigzag edge reveal a clear peak in the LDOS at an energy below the Fermi energy by 20 meV. No such a peak was observed near the armchair edge. We concluded that this peak corresponds to the "edge state" theoretically predicted for graphene ribbons, since a similar prominent LDOS peak due to the edge state is obtained by the first principles calculations.

  20. Investigation of Edge Effects in Thermoacoustic Couple Measurements (United States)


    22 Ill. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -- 24 A. EDGE EFFECT ........................................................................................... 24...investigate the extent to which irregularities in the temperature difference extend into the plate interior. A. EDGE EFFECT We constructed a TAC (TAC#1) with