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Sample records for cell dye n719

  1. Photostability of the solar cell dye sensitizer N719

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz

    The photostability of the sensitizer dye [Ru(dcbpyH)2(NCS)2] (Bu4N)2 (referred to as N719) was investigated in a simple model system instead of a complete nanocrystaline dye sensitized titanium dioxide solar cells (nc-DSSC). The applied model system consisted of N719 dyed titanium dioxide...... intensities. This light intensity dependency of the quantum yield was attributed to the back electron transfer reaction rate between the titanium dioxide conduction band electrons and the oxidized dye cation. Photoinduced absorption spectroscopy (PIA) was used to measure the back electron transfer reaction...

  2. Photostability of the solar cell dye sensitizer N719

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz

    The photostability of the sensitizer dye [Ru(dcbpyH)2(NCS)2] (Bu4N)2 (referred to as N719) was investigated in a simple model system instead of a complete nanocrystaline dye sensitized titanium dioxide solar cells (nc-DSSC). The applied model system consisted of N719 dyed titanium dioxide...... intensities. This light intensity dependency of the quantum yield was attributed to the back electron transfer reaction rate between the titanium dioxide conduction band electrons and the oxidized dye cation. Photoinduced absorption spectroscopy (PIA) was used to measure the back electron transfer reaction...... nanoparticles, suspended in a cuvette containing acetonitrile as the solvent which were illuminated with 532/525 nm monochromatic light of different light intensity. Under these experimental conditions and in the absence of any redox couple as a regenerative electron donor, the number of mole of...

  3. In Vitro Polarized Resonance Raman Study of N719 and N719-TBP in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, Søren; Jernshøj, Kit Drescher; Lund, Torben;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The working efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) depends on the long-term stability of the dye itself and on the microscopic structure of the dye-semiconductor interface. Previous experimental studies of DSCs based on ruthenium dye with bipyridine ligands (N719) adsorbed...

  4. In Vitro Polarized Resonance Raman Study of N719 and N719-TBP in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, Søren; Jernshøj, Kit Drescher; Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The working efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) depends on the long-term stability of the dye itself and on the microscopic structure of the dye-semiconductor interface. Previous experimental studies of DSCs based on ruthenium dye with bipyridine ligands (N719) adsorbed...... of the scattered light is generally different from the polarization of the laser light. When the excitation is chosen within the visible absorption band of N719 only the skeleton ring-modes in N719 are enhanced and are observed as the most intense bands in the RRS spectra. We demonstrate by experimental results...... the adsorption of the dye on TiO2 can be obtained. Furthermore it is found that the polarization fluorescence anisotropy is very different for adsorbed and non-adsorbed dye molecules. This information is automatically obtained when processing the Raman data. The conclusion is that if the polarization properties...

  5. Charge Transport and Photocurrent Generation Characteristics in Dye Solar Cells Containing Thermally Degraded N719 Dye Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. R.; Halme, J.; Lund, T.;

    2011-01-01

    By deliberately introducing the thermally degraded form of the dye solar cell sensitizer N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) using synthetically prepared N719-TBP ([Ru(L-H)(2)(NCS)(4-tert-butylpyridine)](-+)N-(Bu)(4)), we have investigated the devastating influence of this ligand substitution...... in the absorption spectrum of the dye, ca. 50% shorter electron diffusion length due to lower electron recombination resistance, and ca. 14% lower charge separation efficiency, which most likely can be ascribed to decreased dye regeneration efficiency caused by the replacement of one NCS ligand with TBP...

  6. Charge Transport and Photocurrent Generation Characteristics in Dye Solar Cells Containing Thermally Degraded N719 Dye Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. R.; Halme, J.; Lund, T.;

    2011-01-01

    By deliberately introducing the thermally degraded form of the dye solar cell sensitizer N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) using synthetically prepared N719-TBP ([Ru(L-H)(2)(NCS)(4-tert-butylpyridine)](-+)N-(Bu)(4)), we have investigated the devastating influence of this ligand substitution...... absorption spectrum of the dye, ca. 50% shorter electron diffusion length due to lower electron recombination resistance, and ca. 14% lower charge separation efficiency, which most likely can be ascribed to decreased dye regeneration efficiency caused by the replacement of one NCS ligand with TBP in the...

  7. Degradation chemistry of N719 and Z-907 dyes at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben; Nguyen, Hoang Thai; Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet

    2009-01-01

    Degradation chemistry of N719 and Z-907 dyes at elevated temperatures.   Torben Lunda, Phuong Tuyet Nguyena and Hoang Thai Nguyenb aDepartment of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000, Denmark bDepartment of Chemistry, University of Sciences, HoChiMinh City, Vietnam......      The popular dye sensitized solar cell dyes N719 and Z-907 are in general accepted to be very stable under solar cell conditions below 45 ºC.1 The dyes, however, may undergo thiocyanate ligand substitution reactions with the DSC solvent and additive molecules at elevated temperatures (80-100 º...

  8. Photocurrent-voltage of a dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells influenced by N719 dye adsorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Wook; Hwang, Kyung-Jun; Park, Dong-Won; Park, Kyung-Hee; Shim, Wang-Geun; Kim, Sang-Chai

    2007-11-01

    Titanium particles of single-phase anatase nanocrystallites were prepared by the hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was fabricated by adsorbing cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)-ruthenium(II)bis-tetrabutylammonium dye (N719) onto TiO2 film. The samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, FE-SEM, AFM, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The influence of the acetic acid treatment of TiO2 electrode with different concentrations on the photovoltaic performance of DSSC was investigated. It was found that DSSC had better photoelectric performance when the TiO2 electrode was treated by acetic acid of 0.5 M. An equivalent circuit analysis using the one-diode model was used to evaluate the influences of adsorption quantity and acetic acid treatment on the energy conversion efficiency of DSSC. A nonlinear least-square optimization method was used to determine five model parameters. PMID:18047044

  9. Influence of TiO2 Nanocrystals Fabricating Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell on the Absorption Spectra of N719 Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puhong Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The absorption spectra of N719 sensitizer anchored on the films prepared by TiO2 nanocrystals with different morphology and size were investigated for improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. We find that the morphology and size of TiO2 nanocrystals can affect the UV-vis and FT-IR spectra of the sensitizer anchored on their surfaces. In particular, the low-energy metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transitions (MLCT band in the visible absorption spectra of N719 is strongly affected, and locations of these MLCT bands revealed larger differences. The results indicate that there is a red shift of MLCT band in the spectra obtained by using TiO2 nanocrystals with long morphology and large size compared to that in solution. And it produced a larger red-shift on the MLCT band after TiO2 nanocrystals with small size mixed with some long nanocrystals. Accordingly, the utilization rate to visible light is increased. This is a reason why the DSC prepared by using such film as a photoelectrode has better performance than before mixing.

  10. Thermal Thiocyanate Ligand Substitution Kinetics of the Solar Cell Dye N719 by Acetonitrile, 3-Methoxypropionitrile, and 4-tert-Butylpyridine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thai Hoang; Minh, Ha; Lund, Torben

    2007-01-01

    the same products as occur in the homogenous solutions; however, the reactions are approximately 10 times faster. For the reaction of a colloidal mixture of N719-dyed TiO2 particles in acetonitrile containing 0.5 M 4-TBP, a t1/2(het) of 120 h was calculated at 85°C. The N719-based DSSC cells...... by a factor of 2-10; it thus may be used as an additive to prevent the thermal degradation of thiocyanate-based ruthenium complexes in DSSC solar cells....

  11. Photo-sensitization of ZnS nanoparticles with renowned ruthenium dyes N3, N719 and Z907 for application in solid state dye sensitized solar cells: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosheen, Erum; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Hussain, Hazrat; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a comprehensive relative report on the grafting of ZnS with renowned ruthenium ((Ru) dyes i.e. N3, N719 and Z907) and gives insight into their charge transfer interaction and sensitization mechanism for boosting solar cell efficiency. Influence of dye concentration on cell performance is also reported here. ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by a simple coprecipitation method with an average particle size of 15±2nm were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Elemental dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), tunneling electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. UV-Vis, photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirms the successful grafting of these dyes over ZnS nanoparticles surface. Low-energy metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transition (MLCT) bands of dyes are mainly affected on grafting over the nanoparticle surface. Moreover their current voltage (I-V) results confirm the efficiency enhancement in ZnS solid state dye sensitized solar cells (SSDSSCs) owing to effective sensitization of this material with Ru dyes and helps in finding the optimum dye concentration for nanoparticles sensitization. Highest rise in overall solar cell efficiency i.e. 64% of the reference device has been observed for 0.3mM N719-ZnS sample owing to increased open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). Experimental and proposed results were found in good agreement with each other. PMID:27479838

  12. Photo-sensitization of ZnS nanoparticles with renowned ruthenium dyes N3, N719 and Z907 for application in solid state dye sensitized solar cells: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosheen, Erum; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Hussain, Hazrat; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a comprehensive relative report on the grafting of ZnS with renowned ruthenium ((Ru) dyes i.e. N3, N719 and Z907) and gives insight into their charge transfer interaction and sensitization mechanism for boosting solar cell efficiency. Influence of dye concentration on cell performance is also reported here. ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by a simple coprecipitation method with an average particle size of 15±2nm were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Elemental dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), tunneling electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. UV-Vis, photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirms the successful grafting of these dyes over ZnS nanoparticles surface. Low-energy metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transition (MLCT) bands of dyes are mainly affected on grafting over the nanoparticle surface. Moreover their current voltage (I-V) results confirm the efficiency enhancement in ZnS solid state dye sensitized solar cells (SSDSSCs) owing to effective sensitization of this material with Ru dyes and helps in finding the optimum dye concentration for nanoparticles sensitization. Highest rise in overall solar cell efficiency i.e. 64% of the reference device has been observed for 0.3mM N719-ZnS sample owing to increased open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). Experimental and proposed results were found in good agreement with each other.

  13. The effect of 4-tert-butylpyridine and Li+ on the thermal degradation of TiO2 - bound ruthenium dye N719

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lund, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Thermal stability experiments were performed at 100 °C of the dye-sensitized solar cell ruthenium dye N719. The experiments were performed as simple test-tube experiments carried out with colloidal solutions of N719-loaded TiO2 particles. The dye degradation was followed by the use of HPLC...... on the concentration. If Li+ ions were added to the electrolyte the degradation increased by a factor of 4–16 times and the thermal degradation product mixture became more complex. It is suggested that an adsorbed layer of 4-TBP on the TiO2 protects the N719 dye against solvent substitution and oxidation processes...

  14. Enhance the performance of co-sensitized solar cell by a series efficient pyridine-anchor co-adsorbents of N,N‧-bis((pyridin-2-yl)methylene)-p-phenylenediimine and a ruthenium dye of N719

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liguo; Yang, Yulin; Fan, Ruiqing; Wang, Ping; Dong, Yuwei; Zhou, Wei; Luan, Tianzhu

    2015-10-01

    A pyridine-anchor co-adsorbent N,N‧-bis((pyridin-2-yl)methylene)-p-phenyl- lenediimine (named L1) and its derivatives N,N‧-bis((6-methoxylpyridin-2-yl)methylene)- p-phenylenediimine (named L2) and N,N‧-bis((pyridin-2-yl) (methyl)methylene)-p-phenyl- enediimine (named L3) are synthesized and employed in combination with a ruthenium complex N719 in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared co-adsorbent can overcome the deficiency of N719 absorption in the low wavelength region of visible spectrum, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3-, suppress the charge recombination and prolong the electron lifetime. The introduction of methyl or methoxyl substituent also has some effect on the performance of DSSCs. A short circuit current density of 14.60 mA cm-2, an open circuit voltage of 0.75 V and a fill factor of 0.63 corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 6.92% under AM 1.5G solar irradiation are achieved when L2 is used as co-adsorbent, which is 30% higher than that for DSSCs only sensitized by N719 (5.31%) under the same condition. Mechanistic investigations are carried out by various spectral and electrochemical characterizations.

  15. Photovoltaic performance and characteristics of dye sensitized solar cells prepared with the N719 thermal degradation products [Ru(L-H)2(NCS)(4-tert-butylpyridine)]-, +N(Bu)4 and [Ru(L-H)2(NCS)(1-methylbenzimidazole)]-, +N(Bu)4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet; Xuan Thi Lam, Binh; Hansen, Poul Erik;

    2011-01-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cell N719 thermal degradation products [Ru(LH)2(NCS)(4-tert-butylpyridine)][N(Bu)4] (1) and [Ru(LH)2(NCS)(1-methylbenzimidazole)][N(Bu)4] (2) were synthesized from [Ru(LH)2(NCS)2][N(Bu)4]2 (N719), (L = 2,2′-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid) and characterized by electrospr...

  16. Impedance spectroscopy study of N719-sensitized ZnO-based solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO porous films prepared by electrodeposition and by sol–gel techniques have been sensitized by the N719 dye and used as photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. Similar stationary current–voltage characteristics have been measured for films having two drastically different morphologies and nanostructures. The solar cells have been studied by impedance spectroscopy over large frequency and applied voltage ranges in order to elucidate the inherent correlation between the photoelectrode structure and properties. The electrical response has been analyzed using an ad-hoc electrical model to extrapolate the electronic structure and charge carrier kinetic properties of the photoelectrodes. The two films exhibit very different density distributions of their trap states below the conduction band edge. Moreover, their electron lifetimes and transport times vary differently with the DOS due to different surface and conduction properties. The charge collection efficiency has been calculated by two different approaches, one being derived from first principles. Very high values are reported in all cases. Globally, the limitation of N719/ZnO solar cell performances is related to their open circuit voltage and their short circuit current. The latter point is discussed in the light of our impedance results and photoelectrode light absorption data. - Highlights: • Exponential trap state distribution • Electron transport and recombination depend on oxide preparation route. • Charge collection efficiency modeling • Very high charge collection efficiency in N719/ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells • ZnO cell performance limitations

  17. Photovoltaic Performance and Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Prepared with the N719 Thermal Degradation Products Ru(LH)(2)(NCS)(4-tert-butylpyridine) N(Bu)(4) and Ru(LH)(2)(NCS)(1-methylbenzimidazole) N(Bu)(4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, P. T.; Binh, X. T. L.; Andersen, A. R.;

    2011-01-01

    higher temperature result in slightly lower potentials, and this alone leads to a change in impedance response when measured at open circuit voltage. The same parts of the impedance spectrum are affected (i.e., the interface between the photoanode and the electrolyte is affected in the same way) when we......The dye-sensitized solar cell N719 thermal degradation products [Ru(LH)(2)(NCS)(4-tert-butylpyridine)][N(Bu)(4)] (1) and [Ru(LH)(2)(NCS)(1-methylbenzimidazole)][N(Bu)(4)] (2) were synthesized from [Ru(LH)(2)(NCS)(2)][N(Bu)(4)](2) (N719), (L = 2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid) and characterized...... by electrospray mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs or DSSCs) prepared with 1 and 2 have efficiencies that are three and two times lower than N719 cells, respectively. Analysis of the UV/Vis and incident-photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) spectra indicates that...

  18. Integration of High-Performance Nanocrystalline TiO2 Photoelectrodes for N719-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jian Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on enhanced performance of N719-sensitized TiO2 solar cells (DSCs incorporating size and photoelectron diffusion-controlled TiO2 as sensitizer-matched light-scatter layers on conventional nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes. The double-layered N719/TiO2 composite electrode with a high dye-loading capacity exhibits the diffused reflectance of more than 50% in the range of λ = 650–800 nm, even when the films are coupled with the titania nanocrystalline underlayer in the device. As a result, the increased near-infrared light-harvesting produces a high light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of over 9% mainly due to the significant increase of Jsc. Such an optical effect of the NIR-light scattering TiO2 electrodes will be beneficial when the sensitizers with low molar extinction coefficients, such as N719, are introduced in the device.

  19. Great improvement of photoelectric property from co-sensitization of TiO2 electrodes with CdS quantum dots and dye N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO2 film electrodes have been successfully sensitized with CdS QDs. • DSSC based on CdS QDs-sensitized TiO2 film with 4 min has the highest efficiency. • CdS QDs can improve the electron transport and reduce the electron recombination. • Our work open up a new avenue for the development of DSSCs. - Abstract: The TiO2 film electrodes sensitized with CdS quantum dots (QDs) via chemical bath deposition method were successfully prepared as the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Microstructural characterizations by XRD, SEM, TEM and EDX show that the CdS nanocrystals with the cubic structure have intimate contact to the TiO2 films. The amount of CdS QDs can be controlled by varying the dipping time. The experiment results demonstrate that the CdS QDs-sensitized solar cells show a wider absorption in the solar spectrum and an enhanced surface photovoltage response. The maximal photoelectric conversion efficiency of 5.57% was achieved by the DSSC based on CdS QDs-sensitized TiO2 film with 4 min. The performance improvement is ascribed to the enhancement of electron transport, the reduction of electron recombination and the long electron lifetime

  20. DFT/TDDFT study of the adsorption of N3 and N719 dyes on ZnO(101̅0) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpiroz, Jon M; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-08-01

    ZnO has attracted a great deal of research as a potential replacement of TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), owing to the unique combination of interesting electronic properties (i.e., high electron mobility) and structural richness. Here, we present a DFT/TDDFT study about the interaction of the prototypical N3 and N719 Ru(II) sensitizers on ZnO models to understand some of the atomistic details that are crucial to the dye/semiconductor interaction. We pay particular attention to the adsorption mode of the sensitizer and to the effect of the complexation on the electronic structure of the dye. The sensitizers are predicted to strongly interact with the ZnO surface. In particular, the interaction is strengthened when three dye carboxylic groups are involved in the adsorption. Moreover, if the anchoring group bears a proton, the adsorption is predicted to be dissociative. The charge density donation from the dye to the semiconductor raises the valence and conduction band edges of the latter, in such a way that the optical gap of ZnO widens. Proton transfer from the dye to the semiconductor balances the charge donation effect and restores the electronic levels of the noninteracting fragments. The impact of dye/semiconductor interaction on the adsorbed dye optical properties is then discussed. PMID:24720354

  1. Broadband optical absorption enhancement of N719 dye in ethanol by gold-silver alloy nanoparticles fabricated under laser ablation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azawi, Mohammed A.; Bidin, Noriah; Abbas, Khaldoon N.; Bououdina, Mohamed; Azzez, Shrook A.

    2016-04-01

    The formation of gold-silver alloy nanoparticles (Au-Ag alloy NPs) by a two-step process with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser without any additives is presented. Mixtures of Au and Ag colloidal suspensions were separately obtained by 1064-nm laser ablation of metallic targets immersed in ethanol. Subsequently, the as-mixed colloidal suspensions were reirradiated by laser-induced heating at the second-harmonic generation (532 nm) for different irradiation periods of time. The absorption spectra and morphology of the colloidal alloys were studied as a function of exposure time to laser irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of monodispersed spherical nanoparticles with a homogeneous size distribution in all the synthesized samples. UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements were also employed to characterize the changes in the light absorption and emission of N719 dye solution with different concentrations of Au-Ag colloidal alloys, respectively. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au-Ag alloy NPs enhanced the absorption and fluorescence peak of the dye solution. The mixture of dye molecules with a higher concentration of alloy NPs exhibited an additional coupling of dipole moments with the LSPR, thereby contributing to the improvement of the optical properties of the mixture.

  2. The effect of 4-tert-butylpyridine and Li+ on the thermal degradation of TiO2 – bound ruthenium dye N719

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lund, Torben

    electrolyte. Various electrolyte compositions with varying concentrations of 4-TBP, Li+ ions and I3- were investigated and their effects on the kinetics of N719-degradation reactions as well as the profile of N719-degradation products were studied. Thermal stability experiments were performed at 100 º...

  3. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  4. Investigation of the Stability of the Ruthenium based Dye (N719) Utilizing the Polarization Properties of Dispersive Raman Modes and/or of the Fluorescent Emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, Søren; Jernshøj, Kit Drescher; Phuong, Nguyen;

    2013-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) offer intriguing new possibilities with the integration of these into, e.g., power generating windows or facade applications. For the DSCs to constitute a viable investment, the thermal appliance with respect to the working conditions typically encountered must...

  5. Degradation chemistry of RuLL´(NCS)2 complexes in the Dye-sensitized solar cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben

    will present and overview of our degradation investigations of the ruthenium dyes N719, Z907 and C106 with the general structure RuLL´(NCS)2 and show how detailed degradation mechanistic knowledge is important in the developing of DSC cells with improved thermal dye stability. The various ruthenium dye...

  6. An investigation of the photosubstitution reaction between N719-dyed nanocrystalline TiO2 particles and 4-tert-butylpyridine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Nguyen, Thai Hoang; Boschloo, Gerrit;

    2007-01-01

    The effect of high concentrations of the solar cell additive 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-TBP) on the stability and lifetime of the sensitizer [Ru(Hdcbpy)2(NCS)2]2-, 2(n-C4H9)4N+, (H2dcbpy=2,2′-bipyridine-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid), known as N719, has been evaluated based on kinetic data obtained from si......s-1, of the reaction between TiO2|N719+ and iodide. We conclude that the addition of 4-TBP to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) does not decrease the lifetime of the N719 dye during normal solar cell operation at room temperature. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved...

  7. Dye stability and performances of dye-sensitized solar cells with different nitrogen additives at elevated temperatures - Can sterically hindered pyridines prevent dye degradation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyet Nguyen, Phuong; Lund, Torben [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Rand Andersen, Anders [University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Sensors, Signals and Electrotechnics (SENSE), Niels Bohrs Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark); Danish Technological Institute, Plastics Technology, Gregersensvej 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Morten Skou, Eivind [University of Southern Denmark, Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Enviromental Technology, Niels Bohrs Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2010-10-15

    The homogeneous kinetics of the nucleophilic substitution reactions between the ruthenium dye N719 and eight pyridines and 1-methylbenzimidazole have been investigated in 3-methoxypropionitrile at 100 C. The half lives of N719 with the additives 4-tert-butylpyridine (0.5 M) and 1-methylbenzimidazole (0.5 M) were 57 and 160 h, respectively. Sterically hindered pyridines like 2,6-lutidine did not react with N719. The efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC, area=8.0 cm{sup 2}) prepared with 1-methylbenzimidazole (MBI), 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-TBP), 2,6-lutidine and without any additive were 7.1%, 6.2%, 6.0% and 4.8%, respectively. The cells were stored in dark at 85 C and their I-V curves and impedance spectra were measured at regular time intervals. The N719 dye degradation in the cells were monitored by a new dye extraction protocol combined with analysis of the dye extract by HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. After 300 h storage in dark at 85 C 40% of the initial amount of N719 dye was degraded in DSC cells prepared with MBI and the efficiency was decreased to 40% of its initial value. DSC cells prepared with 2,6-lutidine or no additives showed smaller thermal dye and efficiency stability at elevated temperatures than DSC cells prepared with the none sterically hindered additives MBI and 4-TBP. In the cells prepared with 2,6-lutidine or no additive higher contents of the iodo products [RuL{sub 2}(NCS)(iodide)]{sup +} and [RuL{sub 2}(3-MPN)(iodide)]{sup +} were found than in cells prepared with 4-TBP and MBI. It is suggested that sterically hindered pyridines have smaller complexation constants with I{sub 3}{sup -} than unsterically hindered additives. This may explain the observed faster nucleophilic substitution rates of uncomplexed I{sub 3}{sup -} with N719 in DSC cells prepared with sterically hindered pyridines. The EIS analysis showed that the lifetime of the injected electrons in the TiO{sub 2}{tau}{sub eff} is reduced by a thermally induced change

  8. Dye adsorption mechanisms in TiO2 films, and their effects on the photodynamic and photovoltaic properties in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-Jun; Shim, Wang-Geun; Kim, Youngjin; Kim, Gunwoo; Choi, Chulmin; Kang, Sang Ook; Cho, Dae Won

    2015-09-14

    The adsorption mechanism for the N719 dye on a TiO2 electrode was examined by the kinetic and diffusion models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion models). Among these methods, the observed adsorption kinetics are well-described using the pseudo-second order model. Moreover, the film diffusion process was the main controlling step of adsorption, which was analysed using a diffusion-based model. The photodynamic properties in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated using time-resolved transient absorption techniques. The photodynamics of the oxidized N719 species were shown to be dependent on the adsorption time, and also the adsorbed concentration of N719. The photovoltaic parameters (Jsc, Voc, FF and η) of this DSSC were determined in terms of the dye adsorption amounts. The solar cell performance correlates significantly with charge recombination and dye regeneration dynamics, which are also affected by the dye adsorption amounts. Therefore, the photovoltaic performance of this DSSC can be interpreted in terms of the adsorption kinetics and the photodynamics of oxidized N719.

  9. Effect of Solvent, Dye-Loading Time, and Dye Choice on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd M. Rajab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatase titania films with a thickness of up to 20 μm and deposited over a fluorine-doped tin-oxide substrate are impregnated with ruthenium dyes N-719 and N-749 using Dip and supercritical-fluid methods for the purpose of fabricating dye-sensitized solar cell devices. The dyes are dissolved in different solvent mixtures, including supercritical carbon dioxide, as well as combinations of more traditional solvents including mixtures of acetonitrile, and t-butanol. Analytical studies included thin-film analyzing and scanning electron microscopy to measure titania film thickness and porosity, UV-Vis spectroscopy to quantify dye concentration, and current-voltage device characterizations to assess energy conversion efficiency, as well as open-circuit voltage decay measurements and quantum efficiency to examine electron collection efficiency. A significant result is that using the dye N-749 in a solvent that includes supercritical carbon dioxide leads to energy conversion efficiencies that are higher for devices with a thick 20 μm semiconductor film than for the case of devices with thinner films, including the 10 μm film thickness that is traditionally considered an upper threshold. The supercritical-fluid method for the N-719 dye also enabled shorter impregnation duration than more conventional classical Dip Methods.

  10. Novel energy relay dyes for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Ko, Min Jae; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-02-01

    4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Hoechst 33342 (H33342) were used as novel energy relay dyes (ERDs) for an efficient energy transfer to the N719 dye in I-/I3- based liquid-junction dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The introduction of the ERDs, either as an additive in the electrolyte or as a co-adsorbent, greatly enhanced the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), mainly because of an increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc). This was attributed to the effects of non-radiative Förster-type excitation energy transfer as well as the radiative (emission)-type fluorescent energy transfer to the sensitizers. The net PCEs for the N719-sensitized DSSCs with DAPI and H33342 were 10.65% and 10.57%, and showed an improvement of 12.2% and 11.4% over control devices, respectively.4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Hoechst 33342 (H33342) were used as novel energy relay dyes (ERDs) for an efficient energy transfer to the N719 dye in I-/I3- based liquid-junction dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The introduction of the ERDs, either as an additive in the electrolyte or as a co-adsorbent, greatly enhanced the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), mainly because of an increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc). This was attributed to the effects of non-radiative Förster-type excitation energy transfer as well as the radiative (emission)-type fluorescent energy transfer to the sensitizers. The net PCEs for the N719-sensitized DSSCs with DAPI and H33342 were 10.65% and 10.57%, and showed an improvement of 12.2% and 11.4% over control devices, respectively. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the materials and instrumentation, device fabrication, measurement and calculations of the quantum yield (Qd), calculations of the Förster radius (R0), optimization of the ERDs mixed with electrolyte according to Type-A strategy; normalized absorption profiles of the N3, Ru505, and Z907 dyes and the emission profiles of DAPI and H33342

  11. Ethoxy-substituted Oligo-phenylenevinylene-Bridged Organic Dyes for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单益凡; 汤杰; 赖华; 谭宏伟; 刘晓峰; 杨帆; 房强

    2012-01-01

    Organic dyes with ethoxy-substituted oligo-phenylenevinylene as chromophores were synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and the detailed relationships between the dye structures, photophysical properties, electrochemical properties, and performances of DSSCs were described. The dye S3O showed broad IPCE spectra in the spectral range of 350--750 nm, and the dye S1P showed solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency (1/) of up to 4.23% under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW/cm2) in comparison with the reference Ru-complex (N719 dye) with an r/value of 5.90% under similar experimental conditions.

  12. π-Spacer effect in dithiafulvenyl-π-phenothiazine dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Gou, Faliang; Zhao, Dongning; Shi, Jian; Gao, Hong; Zhu, Zhenping; Jing, Huanwang

    2016-08-01

    New dithiafulvenyl-π-phenothiazine dyes have been devised and prepared for dye-sensitized solar cells. Various π-spacers have been successfully introduced into the skeleton of dithiafulvenyl and phenothiazine unit to generate novel D-π-D-A dyes (DPP-1 ∼ 4). All dyes have been characterized with NMR, HRMS, UV-vis and fluorescence spectra, and taken into cyclic voltammetry measurements. The devices of new dyes have been determined by photoelectrochemical experiments (IV, IPCE and EIS), in which, solar cell of DPP-4 with biphenyl ring π-spacer enhances obviously its photoelectric conversion efficiency to 7.66% reaching 94% of N719-based standard cell and displays good long-term stability with quasi-solid-state electrolyte. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of new dyes provide further insight into the molecular geometries and the impacts of the torsion angles on their photovoltaic performance. Large dihedral angles in DPP dyes induce good charge separation for efficient unidirectional flow of electron from donor to acceptor.

  13. Advanced Cd(II) complexes as high efficiency co-sensitizers for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Qiang, Liang Sheng; Wei, Li Guo; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin; Wang, Yu Lei

    2015-11-01

    This work reports on two new complexes with the general formula [Cd3(IBA)3(Cl)2(HCOO)(H2O)]n (1) and {[Cd1.5(IBA)3(H2O)6]·3.5H2O}n (2), which can be synthesized by the reaction of Cd(II) with rigid linear ligand 4-HIBA containing imidazolyl and carboxylate functional groups [4-HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid]. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that complex 1 is a 2D "wave-like" layer structure constructed from trinuclear units and complex 2 is just a mononuclear structure. Surprisingly, both complexes 1 and 2 appear as a 3D supramolecular network via intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. What's more, due to their strong UV-visible absorption, 1 and 2 can be employed as co-sensitizers in combination with N719 to enhance dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance. Both of them could overcome the deficiency of the ruthenium complex N719 absorption in the region of ultraviolet and blue-violet, and the charge collection efficiency is also improved when 1 and 2 are used as co-sensitizers, which are all in favor of enhancing the performance. The DSSC devices using co-sensitizers of 1/N719 and 2/N719 show an overall conversion efficiency of 8.27% and 7.73% with a short circuit current density of 17.48 mA cm(-2) and 17.39 mA cm(-2), and an open circuit voltage of 0.75 V and 0.74 V, respectively. The overall conversion efficiency is 27.23% and 18.92% higher than that of a device solely sensitized by N719 (6.50%). Consequently, the prepared complexes are high efficiency co-sensitizers for enhancing the performance of N719 sensitized solar cells. PMID:26419745

  14. Anthracene/phenothiazine π-conjugated sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells using redox mediator in organic and water-based solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ryan Yeh-Yung; Chuang, Tzu-Man; Wu, Feng-Ling; Chen, Pei-Yu; Chu, Te-Chun; Ni, Jen-Shyang; Fan, Miao-Syuan; Lo, Yih-Hsing; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Lin, Jiann T

    2015-01-01

    Metal-free dyes (MD1 to MD5) containing an anthracene/phenothiazine unit in the spacer have been synthesized. The conversion efficiency (7.13 %) of the dye-sensitized solar cell using MD3 as the sensitizer reached approximately 85 % of the N719-based standard cell (8.47 %). The cell efficiency (8.42 %) of MD3-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with addition of chenodeoxycholic acid is comparable with that of N719-based standard cell. The MD3 water-based DSSCs using a dual-TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl)/iodide electrolyte exhibited very promising cell performance of 4.96 % with an excellent Voc of 0.77 V.

  15. Treatment of TiO2 with COOH-functionalized germanium nanoparticles to enhance the photocurrent of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Ho; Ha, Eun-Sung; Baik, Hionsuck; Kim, Kang-Jin

    2011-03-01

    A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) containing a TiO(2) film treated with COOH-functionalized germanium nanoparticles (Ge-COOH Nps) exhibited a higher short-circuit photocurrent density (J(sc); 15.4 mA cm(-2)) compared to the corresponding untreated DSSC (13.4 mA cm(-2)) using N719 and a 12 μm thick TiO(2) film at 100 mW cm(-2). The amount of N719 attached to the treated TiO(2) film was 21% greater than that attached to the untreated TiO(2) film. Enhancement of the J(sc) value by 15% was attributed mostly to an intramolecular charge transfer from N719 attached to the Ge-COOH Nps to the TiO(2) conduction band through the Ge-COOH Nps.

  16. A comparative study on the quantum-dot-sensitized, dye-sensitized and co-sensitized solar cells based on hollow spheres embedded porous TiO2 photoanodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •TiO2 hollow spheres (THS) affect light harvesting and electron transport in photoanodes. •Three sensitization methods are applied for THS embedded photoanodes. •Photovoltaic performance highly depends on THS content and sensitizer. -- Abstract: TiO2 hollow spheres (THS) of 400 nm in diameter are mixed into TiO2 nanoparticles film as light scattering centers to improve the light harvesting and photovoltaic performance of solar cells based on CdS quantum-dot sensitized TiO2 (TiO2/CdS), N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 (TiO2/N719) and CdS/N719 co-sensitized TiO2 (TiO2/CdS/N719) photoanodes, respectively. The light harvesting and photovoltaic performance of the three types of solar cells are highly dependent on the THS content in TiO2 films due to: (1) the significant light scattering among or within THS, (2) the extended pore size distribution, and (3) the modulated electron transport in the TiO2 films. The optimal content of THS is around 10% by weight for TiO2/CdS and TiO2/CdS/N719 solar cells, and is around 15% for TiO2/N719 solar cell. It is suggested that, in TiO2/CdS and TiO2/CdS/N719 solar cells, high content THS can facilitate the aggregation of large CdS nanocrystals, which limits the injection of photo-generated electrons from CdS to TiO2 due to serious internal recombination loss, and thus decreases the power conversion efficiency. The co-sensitized solar cell with the optimal THS content exhibits higher power conversion efficiency compared to the single-component sensitized solar cells

  17. Effectiveness of dye sensitised solar cell under low light condition using wide band dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: ahmadzsahmer@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Zaine, Siti Nur Azella, E-mail: ct.azella@gmail.com [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Dye sensistised solar cell (DSC) based on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} has the potential to be used in indoor consumer power application. In realizing this, the DSC must be optimized to generate power under low lighting condition and under wider visible light range. The use of wide band dye N749 which has a wider spectrum sensitivity increases the photon conversion to electron between the visible light spectrums of 390nm to 700nm. This paper reports the study on the effectiveness of the dye solar cell with N749 dye under low light condition in generating usable power which can be used for indoor consumer application. The DSC was fabricated using fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with screen printing method and the deposited TiO{sub 2} film was sintered at 500°C. The TiO{sub 2} coated FTO glass was then soaked in the N749 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m{sup 2} with AM1.5 solar soaker. The use of the 43T mesh for the dual pass screen printing TiO{sub 2} paste gives a uniform TiO{sub 2} film layer of 16 µm. The low light condition was simulated using 1/3 filtered irradiance with the solar soaker. The fabricated DSC test cell with the N749 dye was found to have a higher efficiency of 6.491% under low light condition compared to the N719 dye. Under the standard test condition at 1 sun the N749 test cell efficiency is 4.55%. The increases in efficiency is attributed to the wider spectral capture of photon of the DSC with N749 dye. Furthermore, the use of N749 dye is more effective under low light condition as the V{sub OC} decrement is less significant compared to the latter.

  18. Effectiveness of dye sensitised solar cell under low light condition using wide band dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye sensistised solar cell (DSC) based on nanocrystalline TiO2 has the potential to be used in indoor consumer power application. In realizing this, the DSC must be optimized to generate power under low lighting condition and under wider visible light range. The use of wide band dye N749 which has a wider spectrum sensitivity increases the photon conversion to electron between the visible light spectrums of 390nm to 700nm. This paper reports the study on the effectiveness of the dye solar cell with N749 dye under low light condition in generating usable power which can be used for indoor consumer application. The DSC was fabricated using fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with screen printing method and the deposited TiO2 film was sintered at 500°C. The TiO2 coated FTO glass was then soaked in the N749 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m2 with AM1.5 solar soaker. The use of the 43T mesh for the dual pass screen printing TiO2 paste gives a uniform TiO2 film layer of 16 µm. The low light condition was simulated using 1/3 filtered irradiance with the solar soaker. The fabricated DSC test cell with the N749 dye was found to have a higher efficiency of 6.491% under low light condition compared to the N719 dye. Under the standard test condition at 1 sun the N749 test cell efficiency is 4.55%. The increases in efficiency is attributed to the wider spectral capture of photon of the DSC with N749 dye. Furthermore, the use of N749 dye is more effective under low light condition as the VOC decrement is less significant compared to the latter

  19. Improved solar efficiency by introducing graphene oxide in purple cabbage dye sensitized TiO2 based solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Gupta, R. K.; Kahol, P. K.; Wageh, S.; Al-Turki, Y. A.; El Shirbeeny, W.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2014-04-01

    Natural dye extracted from purple cabbage was used for fabrication of TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effect of light intensity on the solar efficiency of the device was investigated. It was observed that the efficiency of the DSSC increases with increasing the light intensity e.g. the efficiency of the solar cell increases from 0.013±0.002% to 0.150±0.020% by increase in light intensity from 30 to 100 mW/cm2, respectively. The solar efficiency of the natural dye used in this research was compared with commercial dye (N 719) under similar experimental conditions and observed that the natural (purple cabbage) dye has higher efficiency (0.150±0.020%) than N 719 (0.078±0.002%). It was further evaluated that the efficiency of the fabricated solar cell could improve by incorporating graphene oxide. The efficiency of the TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cell was found to increase from 0.150±0.020% to 0.361±0.009% by incorporating graphene oxide into purple cabbage dye.

  20. High spectral response heteroleptic ruthenium (II) complexes as sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Chandrasekharam; Ch Srinivasarao; T Suresh; M Anil Reddy; M Raghavender; G Rajkumar; M Srinivasu; P Yella Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Heteroleptic ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complex, cis-Ru(II)(4,4'-bis(4-tert-butylstyryl)-2,2'-bipyridyl) (4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridyl) (NCS2) (H112) was synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR, MASS, Spectrofluorometer and UV-Vis spectroscopes. The photo-voltaic performance of the sensitizer was evaluated in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) under irradiation of AM 1.5 G solar light and the photovoltaic characteristics were compared with those of reference cells of HRS1 and N719 fabricated under comparable conditions. Compared to N719, H112 sensitizer showed enhanced molar extinction coefficient and relatively better monochromatic incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) across the spectral range of 400 to 800 nm with solar energy-to-electrical conversion efficiency () of 2.43% [open circuit photovoltage (VOC) = 0.631V, short-circuit photocurrent density (JSC) = 8.96 mA/cm2, fill factor (ff) = 0.430], while values of 2.51% (VOC = 0.651V, JSC = 9.41 mA/cm2, ff = 0.410) and 2.74% (VOC = 0.705 V, JSC = 8.62 mA/cm2, ff = 0.455) were obtained for HRS1 and N719 sensitized solar cells respectively. The introduction of 4,4'-bis(4-tert-butylstyryl) moieties on one of the bipyridine moieties of N719 complex shows higher light absorption abilities, IPCE and JSC.

  1. Magnetic field effects in dye-sensitized solar cells controlled by different cell architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M.; Pankiewicz, R.; Zalas, M.; Stampor, W.

    2016-07-01

    The charge recombination and exciton dissociation are generally recognized as the basic electronic processes limiting the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In this work, we propose a detailed mechanism of photocurrent generation in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) examined by magnetic field effect (MFE) technique. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of the MFE on photocurrent in DSSCs can be controlled by the radius and spin coherence time of electron-hole (e-h) pairs which are experimentally modified by the photoanode morphology (TiO2 nanoparticles or nanotubes) and the electronic orbital structure of various dye molecules (ruthenium N719, dinuclear ruthenium B1 and fully organic squaraine SQ2 dyes). The observed MFE is attributed to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of (e-h) pairs according to the Δg mechanism.

  2. Magnetic field effects in dye-sensitized solar cells controlled by different cell architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M.; Pankiewicz, R.; Zalas, M.; Stampor, W.

    2016-01-01

    The charge recombination and exciton dissociation are generally recognized as the basic electronic processes limiting the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In this work, we propose a detailed mechanism of photocurrent generation in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) examined by magnetic field effect (MFE) technique. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of the MFE on photocurrent in DSSCs can be controlled by the radius and spin coherence time of electron-hole (e-h) pairs which are experimentally modified by the photoanode morphology (TiO2 nanoparticles or nanotubes) and the electronic orbital structure of various dye molecules (ruthenium N719, dinuclear ruthenium B1 and fully organic squaraine SQ2 dyes). The observed MFE is attributed to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of (e-h) pairs according to the Δg mechanism. PMID:27440452

  3. Magnetic field effects in dye-sensitized solar cells controlled by different cell architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M; Pankiewicz, R; Zalas, M; Stampor, W

    2016-01-01

    The charge recombination and exciton dissociation are generally recognized as the basic electronic processes limiting the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In this work, we propose a detailed mechanism of photocurrent generation in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) examined by magnetic field effect (MFE) technique. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of the MFE on photocurrent in DSSCs can be controlled by the radius and spin coherence time of electron-hole (e-h) pairs which are experimentally modified by the photoanode morphology (TiO2 nanoparticles or nanotubes) and the electronic orbital structure of various dye molecules (ruthenium N719, dinuclear ruthenium B1 and fully organic squaraine SQ2 dyes). The observed MFE is attributed to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of (e-h) pairs according to the Δg mechanism. PMID:27440452

  4. Effect of co-adsorption dye on the electrode interface (Ru complex/TiO2 of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Honda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The co-adsorption interface structure of isothiocyanate (R-N=C=S in N719 dye was investigated using a system of N719 alone and an N719 + D131 co-adsorption system. The sulfur core level (S 1s and sulfur K absorption edge (S K-edge were examined in detail using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS, respectively. The S 1s XPS spectra revealed that the binding energies were shifted approximately 9 eV higher in N719 alone because of interactions between the R-N=C=S of N719 and nanocrystalline TiO2. However, this strong interaction disappeared in the N719 + D131 co-adsorption system. Comparing the S K-edge NEXAFS spectra against the case of N719 alone revealed that the resonance adsorption peak at 2483 eV, which was attributed to an interaction between sulfur and the substrate, did not appear in the N719 + D131 co-adsorption system. This peak was observed under oblique incidence, but was almost indiscernible under normal incidence. These results indicate that the interface structure of sulfur atoms that strongly interacts with nanocrystalline TiO2 substrate changes to become non-interacting in the N719 + D131 co-adsorption system. We conclude that the co-adsorption dye has the unique property of inhibiting strong interactions between the S atom in the R-N=C=S group of the N719 dye and the nanocrystalline TiO2 surface.

  5. Efficiency Investigation of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on the Zinc Oxide Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Afifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we synthesized ZnO nanowires in dye sensitized solar cells. The nanowires have been fabricated using fast-microwave-hydrothermal process.We verify the effects of different lengths of ZnO nanowires on efficiency and absorptionofdye sensitized solar cells. J–V curves of the fabricated ZnO nanowire-based mercurochrome-sensitized solar cellsindicated that the short-circuit current density wouldincrease with increasing the length of nanowires.We also fabricate more efficient N719-sensitized solar cellsand investigate the effect of different length of Zno nanowires on the efficiency.

  6. Mechanism of Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based TiO2 Films Treated by Titanium Tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾隆月; 戴松元; 王孔嘉; 潘旭; 史成武; 郭力

    2004-01-01

    Performance of dye-sensitized solar cells can be improved by treating the nanoporous TiO2 films with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) aqueous solution. We explore the reason why the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells is enhanced by this method. It is found that the effect of TiCl4 treatment not only reduces the films surface area and improves the electronic contact, but also enhances the binding of N719 with the TiO2 films surface.

  7. N-Aryl Arenedicarboximides as Tunable Panchromatic Dyes for Molecular Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Cao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three organic dyes designed as molecular dyads were prepared that feature a common naphthalimide acceptor and N-aryl donors. One of these incorporated an additional cyanoacrylic acid linker and conjugated thiophene bridge inserted between donor and acceptor groups. Electrochemical and photochemical characterizations have been carried out on nanocrystalline TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells which were fabricated with these dyes as the sensitizing component. HOMO and LUMO energies were also calculated using TDDFT methods and validated by the cyclic voltammetry method. A key finding from this study indicates that computational methods can provide energy values in close agreement to experimental for the N-aryl-naphthalimide system. Relative to HOMO/LUMO energy levels of N719, the dyes based on naphthalimide chromophore are promising candidates for metal-free DSSCs.

  8. Exploring the heterogeneous interfaces in organic or ruthenium dye-sensitized liquid- and solid-state solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young Soo; Song, Inwoo; Lim, Jong Chul; Song, In Young; Siva, Ayyanar; Park, Taiho

    2012-06-27

    The interfacial properties were systematically investigated using an organic sensitizer (3-(5'-{4-[(4-tert-butyl-phenyl)-p-tolyl-amino]-phenyl}-[2,2']bithiophenyl-5-yl)-2-cyano-acrylic acid (D)) and inorganic sensitizer (bis(tetrabutylammonium) cis-bis(thiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylato) ruthenium(II) (N719)) in a liquid-state and a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC). For liquid-DSCs, the faster charge recombination for the surface of D-sensitized TiO2 resulted in shorter diffusion length (LD) of ∼3.9 μm than that of N719 (∼7.5 μm), limiting the solar cell performance at thicker films used in liquid-DSCs. On the other hand, for solid-DSCs using thin TiO2 films (∼ 2 μm), D-sensitized device outperforms the N719-sensitized device in an identical fabrication condition, mainly due to less perfect wetting ability of solid hole conductor into the porous TiO2 network, inducing the dye monolayer act as an insulation layer, while liquid electrolyte is able to fully wet the surface of TiO2. Such insulation effect was attributed to the fact that the significant increase in recombination resistance (from 865 to 4,400 Ω/cm(2)) but shorter electron lifetime (from 10.8 to 0.8 ms) when compared to liquid-DSCs. Higher recombination resistance for solid-DSCs induced the electron transport-limited situation, showing poor performance of N719-sensitized device which has shorter electron transport time and similar LD (2.9 μm) with D-sensitized device (3.0 μm). PMID:22658859

  9. Parallel Tandems of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with CNT Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Josef; Yuan, Chao-Chen; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2009-03-01

    In this presentation, we demonstrate the fabrication of monolithic parallel tandem dye sensitized solar cells using a semitransparent layer of carbon nanotubes. Each DSC sub-cell has titania photoelectrode with two different dyes: N 719 and N 749, which absorb light in different parts of solar spectrum. This layer of carbon nanotubes laminated on highly porous polymeric Millipore filter acts as both the collector of charge carrier and as the catalyst of the I/I3^- redox reaction that completes the function of the cell, overall allowing easier fabrication for tandem solar cell devices, with a potential for creating flexible devices in the future. The parallel tandem shows the total photocurrent which is nearly the sum of two Isc currents of constituent cells, and total Voc, which is average of two Voc, while conventional in-series DSC tandems show the lowest Voc and slightly increased Isc[1]. Thus the higher efficiency can be achieved in parallel DSC tandems, and we discuss the physical reasons for this effect. [1] Yanagida, et.al. J. of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry Volume 164, Issues 1-3, 1 June 2004, Pages 33-39

  10. Carbonate Doping in TiO2 Microsphere: The Key Parameter Influencing Others for Efficient Dye Sensitized Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigi, Zaki S; Ahmed, Saleh A; Sardar, Samim; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Four key parameters namely light trapping, density of light harvesting centre, photoinduced electron injection and electron transport without self-recombination are universally important across all kinds of solar cells. In the present study, we have considered the parameters in the context of a model Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Our experimental studies reveal that carbonate doping of TiO2 mesoporous microspheres (doped MS) makes positive influence to all the above mentioned key parameters responsible for the enhanced solar cell efficiency. A simple method has been employed to synthesize the doped MS for the photoanode of a N719 (ruthenium dye)-based DSSC. A detail electron microscopy has been used to characterize the change in morphology of the MS upon doping. The optical absorption spectrum of the doped MS reveals significant shift of TiO2 (compared to that of the MS without doping) towards maximum solar radiance (~500 nm) and the excellent scattering in the entire absorption band of the sensitizing dye (N719). Finally, and most importantly, for the first time we have demonstrated that the solar cells with doped MS offers better efficiency (7.6%) in light harvesting compared to MS without doping (5.2%) and also reveal minimum self recombination of photoelectrons in the redox chain. PMID:26984765

  11. Carbonate Doping in TiO2 Microsphere: The Key Parameter Influencing Others for Efficient Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigi, Zaki S.; Ahmed, Saleh A.; Sardar, Samim; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Four key parameters namely light trapping, density of light harvesting centre, photoinduced electron injection and electron transport without self-recombination are universally important across all kinds of solar cells. In the present study, we have considered the parameters in the context of a model Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Our experimental studies reveal that carbonate doping of TiO2 mesoporous microspheres (doped MS) makes positive influence to all the above mentioned key parameters responsible for the enhanced solar cell efficiency. A simple method has been employed to synthesize the doped MS for the photoanode of a N719 (ruthenium dye)-based DSSC. A detail electron microscopy has been used to characterize the change in morphology of the MS upon doping. The optical absorption spectrum of the doped MS reveals significant shift of TiO2 (compared to that of the MS without doping) towards maximum solar radiance (~500 nm) and the excellent scattering in the entire absorption band of the sensitizing dye (N719). Finally, and most importantly, for the first time we have demonstrated that the solar cells with doped MS offers better efficiency (7.6%) in light harvesting compared to MS without doping (5.2%) and also reveal minimum self recombination of photoelectrons in the redox chain.

  12. Improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by using the conversion luminescence of a phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Gwan; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook [Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensively studied since their discovery in 1991. A DSSC is composed of an electrode made of a dye-adsorbed nanoporous TiO{sub 2} layer on a fluorine doped tin-oxide (FTO) glass substrate, redox electrolytes, and a counter electrode. One of the ways to increase the efficiency of DSSC is to enhance the harvest of light. Many synthetic dyes have been synthesized and employed to improve the harvest of light and increase photocurrent production by DSSCs; however, even the best dyes (e.g., N-719) only absorb in the wavelength range of 400 - 800 nm, and most ultraviolet wavelengths are not used. In this work, phosphor is introduced to the TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode of a DSSC to improve the light harvesting, photovoltage, photocurrent production, and solar conversion efficiency by using a conversion-luminescence process. Moreover, further increases in the conversion efficiency of the DSSC are possible.

  13. Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetics of Gardenia Blue on TiO2 Photoelectrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured porous TiO2 paste was deposited on the FTO conductive glass using squeeze printing technique in order to obtain a TiO2 thin film with a thickness of 10 μm and an area of 4 cm2. Gardenia blue (GB extracted from Gardenia jasminode Ellis was employed as the natural dye for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. Adsorption studies indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of GB on the surface of TiO2 thin film was approximately 417 mg GB/g TiO2 photoelectrode. The commercial and natural dyes, N-719 and GB, respectively, were employed to measure the adsorption kinetic data, which were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The energy conversion efficiency of the TiO2 electrode with successive adsorptions of GB dye was about 0.2%.

  14. Preparation of a phosphor/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle composite layer for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Gwan; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook [Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The conversion luminescence of a phosphor from the ultraviolet region to the visible region can enhance the light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), because many dyes can only absorb visible light. To explore the influence of phosphor additives on the conversion efficiency of DSSC, we introduce the nanocrystalline YAG:Eu phosphors into TiO{sub 2} photoelectrodes. The photoluminescence measurement showed that a broad solar spectrum including the ultraviolet region could be reabsorbed by the dye N-719 via conversion luminescence due to the phosphor. With the introduction of the phosphor, both the photocurrent and the photovoltage of the DSSC could be improved due to the enhanced light harvesting and the elevated energy levels of the oxides. With the optimal concentration of phosphor doping in the electrode, the cells light-to-electricity conversion efficiency could be improved by a factor of 1.14 compared to that for a cell without phosphor doping.

  15. Novel D-A-π-A organic dyes based on 3-dimensional triarylamine and benzothiadiazole derivatives for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongli; Chen, Huajie; Long, Jun; Wang, Guo; Tan, Songting

    2016-09-01

    Organic dyes with a 3-dimensional (3D) structure is helpful for retarding dyes aggregation and charge recombination as well as improving the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this contribution, a novel 3D triarylamine derivative (IDTTPA) featuring an indenothiophenene unit has been designed, synthesized, and applied to develop a 3D organic dyes. Two novel D-A-π-A organic dyes (CD1 and CD2) based on IDTTPA as the electron donors, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole derivatives as the auxiliary acceptors, and formic acid as the anchoring groups have been successfully synthesized and applied in DSSCs. The effects of the fluoro substitute groups on the photophysical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties are investigated. The results indicate that the fluoro-containing dye CD2 exhibits higher molar extinction coefficient, stronger light-capturing ability, and better photovoltaic performance than those of CD1 dye without fluoro substitute. Investigation of the DSSCs performance shows that CD2-based DSSCs exhibit a high PCE value of 7.91%, higher than that of CD1-based DSSCs (6.29%), even higher than that of the reference DSSCs based on N719 (7.49%). This works has demonstrated that this kind of 3D unit (IDTTPA) is a strong and promising electron donor unit to develop high efficiency metal-free organic dyes.

  16. Study on the improved structure of dye-sensitized solar cells for enhancing light absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; SHEN Hui; DENG Youjun

    2007-01-01

    The absorption coefncients of N719 or N3 dyes at the longer wavelength region (>600 nm)are not enough to catch photons efficiently,but the solar spectrum has a large photon flux in the wavelength region between 500 and 1,000 nm,so it is desirable to enhance the absorption of light by the dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSC)to achieve higher efficiencies.To solve this problem,an improved structure Of DSSC for enhancing light absorption is introduced in this paper, and I-V characteristics of DSSC are measured to illustrate the enhancement of the light absorption and efficiency.As a result,the improved DSSC exhibits higher light absorption and solar-to-electric conversion efficiency than traditional DSSC.

  17. Effect of Al Doping on Performance of CuGaO2 p-Type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, D.; Vaszilcsin, N.; Bănica, R.; Miclau, M.

    2016-01-01

    The p-type semiconductor Cu(I)-based delafossite transparent conducting oxides are good candidates to be used as hole collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells. The Al-doped CuGaO2 has been synthesized by hydrothermal method and its properties have been investigated as cathode elements in ruthenium dye N719-sensitized solar cells. The photocurrent density ( J sc) and the open-circuit voltage ( V oc) for 5% Al-doped CuGaO2 microparticles using N719 dye were approximately two times higher than undoped CuGaO2 microparticles. The integration of aluminum dopants in the delafossite structure improves the photovoltaic performance of CuGaO2 thin films, due to the excellent optical transparency of CuGaO2 in the visible range as well as the improved electrical conductivity caused by the apparition of the intrinsic acceptor defect associate (Al Cu •• 2O i ″ )″ with tetrahedrally coordinated Al on the Cu-site.

  18. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  19. The Effect of UV-Irradiation (under Short-Circuit Condition on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Sensitized with a Ru-Complex Dye Functionalized with a (diphenylaminoStyryl-Thiophen Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuteru Nonomura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new ruthenium complex, cis-di(thiocyanato(2,2′-bipyridine-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid(4,4′-bis(2-(5-(2-(4-diphenylaminophenylethenyl-thiophen-2-ylethenyl-2,2′-bipyridineruthenium(II (named E322 has been synthesized for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. Higher extinction coefficient and a broader absorption compared to the standard Ru-dye, N719, were aimed. DSCs were fabricated with E322, and the efficiency was 0.12% initially. (4.06% for N719, as reference. The efficiency was enhanced to 1.83% by exposing the cell under simulated sunlight containing UV-irradiation at short-circuit condition. The reasons of this enhancement are (1 enhanceing electron injection from sensitizer to TiO2 following a shift toward positive potentials of the conduction band of TiO2 by the adsorption of protons or cations from the sensitizer, or from the redox electrolyte and (2 improving the regeneration reaction of the oxidized dye by the redox electrolyte by the dissolution of aggregated dye from the surface of TiO2 following the treatment.

  20. Thermally-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations from a 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer to a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin

    2016-07-28

    In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs. PMID:27356177

  1. Effect of photoanode thickness on electrochemical performance of dye sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thickness of photoanode is crucial as it adsorbed a large amount of dye molecules that provide electrons for generation of electricity in dye sensitized solar cell (DSC). Thus, in order to realize the practical application of DSC, study on various thickness of photoanode need to be carried out to analyze its effect on the electrochemical behavior of dye sensitized solar cell. To enhance the conversion efficiency, an additional layer of TiO2 using TiCl4 treatment was deposited prior to the deposition of the photoanode (active area of 1cm2) with the thickness of 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 µm on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. The resulting photoanode after the soak in N719 dye for more than 12hrs were used to be assembled in a test cell in combination with liquid electrolyte and counter electrode. The fabricated cells were characterized by solar simulator, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to approximate the thickness of photoanode. An optimum power conversion efficiency of 4.54% was obtained for the cell fabricated with 18 µm photoanode thickness. This is attributed to the reduced resistance related to electron transport in the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface as proven by the EIS result. This led to the reduction of internal resistance, the increase in the electron life time and the improvement in the conversion efficiency

  2. Unsymmetrical Heptamethine Dyes for NIR Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geiger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven unsymmetrical heptamethine dyes with carboxylic acid functionality were synthesized and characterized. These near-infrared dyes exhibit outstanding photophysical properties depending on their heterocyclic moieties and molecular structure. As proof of principle, the dyes were used as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the most promising dye, an overall conversion efficiency of 1.22% and an almost colorless solar cell were achieved.

  3. Dispersion and Solvation Effects on the Structure and Dynamics of N719 Adsorbed to Anatase Titania (101) Surfaces in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids: An ab Initio Molecular Simulation Study

    KAUST Repository

    Byrne, Aaron

    2015-12-24

    Ab initio, density functional theory (DFT)-based molecular dynamics (MD) has been carried out to investigate the effect of explicit solvation on the dynamical and structural properties of a [bmim][NTf2] room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), solvating a N719 sensitizing dye adsorbed onto an anatase titania (101) surface. The effect of explicit dispersion on the properties of this dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) interface has also been studied. Upon inclusion of dispersion interactions in simulations of the solvated system, the average separation between the cations and anions decreases by 0.6 Å; the mean distance between the cations and the surface decreases by about 0.5 Å; and the layering of the RTIL is significantly altered in the first layer surrounding the dye, with the cation being on average 1.5 Å further from the center of the dye. Inclusion of dispersion effects when a solvent is not explicitly included (to dampen longer-range interactions) can result in unphysical "kinking" of the adsorbed dye\\'s configuration. The inclusion of solvent shifts the HOMO and LUMO levels of the titania surface by +3 eV. At this interface, the interplay between the effects of dispersion and solvation combines in ways that are often subtle, such as enhancement or inhibition of specific vibrational modes. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  4. Au-Loaded Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Modified Sol-Gel/Impregnation Methods and Their Application to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hathaithip Ninsonti; Weerasak Chomkitichai; Akira Baba; Natda Wetchakun; Wiyong Kangwansupamonkon; Sukon Phanichphant; Kazunari Shinbo; Keizo Kato; Futao Kaneko

    2014-01-01

    Au-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by the modified sol-gel method together with the impregnation method. Anatase phase of TiO2 was obtained in all samples with an average particle size of 20 nm. For the enhancement of DSSCs, the dye-sensitized solar cells composed of the ITO/Au-loaded TiO2/N-719/electrolyte/Pt were fabricated. Au-loaded TiO2 films were deposited by using squeegee method. Finally, the fabricated cells were studied upon an irradiation of solar light to study the perf...

  5. Change of Dye Bath for Sensitisation of Nanocrystalline TiO Films: Enhances Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malapaka Chandrasekharam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic performance of the heteroleptic H102 and HRD2 sensitizers was measured in DSSC and compared with that of reference N719 under similar fabrication and evaluation conditions. The Dye-Sensitised TiO2 electrodes were prepared by staining the electrodes in ethanol bath and 1/1 v/v acetonitrile/tert-butanol (binary liquid mixture bath separately and the DSSCs based on these sensitizers show that the change of dye bath from ethanol to the binary liquid mixture enhances the photocurrent action spectrum and solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies, (η. Using ethanol for sensitisation of TiO2 electrodes, the efficiencies obtained for H102, HRD2 and N719 are 4.31%, 4.62%, and 5.46%, respectively, while in binary liquid mixture bath, the corresponding values are enhanced to 5.89%, 4.87%, and 7.23%, respectively, under comparable conditions.

  6. Light harvesting via energy transfer in the dye solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegers, Conrad

    2007-11-09

    ratio was varied between 1 and 9. The different donor acceptor sensitizers were then incorporated into dye solar cells. Additionally, cells were prepared by the coadsorption of [Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2] (N719), which is today's standard dye for DSC applications, and a carboxy-functionalized Fluorol. Hence DSCs resulted that were sensitized via (i) coadsorbed chromophores, (ii) the dyad, and (iii) above-mentioned polymers. The resulting devices were characterized via current-voltage, transmission and external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements. The current-voltage measurements were carried out under simulated sunlight (AM1.5G) as well as under monochromatic blue and green illumination. This data allowed the calculation of the ratio of short circuit currents acquired under blue and green illumination, which indicates to what extent the current output of the solar cell may be enhanced by energy transfer. Furthermore, the energy transfer efficiency (ETE) was calculated from the DSC's spectral properties. All three concepts for the implementation of donor acceptor systems in the DSC revealed high ETEs (up to 90%). The introduction of an additional donor chromophore via coadsorption led to an increase of the monochromatic power conversion efficiency. The last-mentioned increase was more pronounced if covalently assembled donor acceptor sensitizers were used. The relative energy-transfer-mediated current gain was 21%, 24% and up to 179%, when coadsorbed chromophores, the dyad and donor acceptor polymers were used as sensitizers, respectively (in relation to the current generated by selective excitation of the acceptor component within the cell). These values confirm that energy transfer from fluorescent dyes being poor electron donors in themselves to good electroactive dyes (e.g. Ru-complexes) is also a viable process for light-to-electricity conversion in DSCs. Further optimization of the concepts investigated in this thesis (notably with respect to enhancing the light

  7. Indolo[3,2-b]carbazole-based multi-donor-π-acceptor type organic dyes for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xing; Shao, Li; Li, Hongmei; Yan, Rucai; Wang, Xiaoying; Hou, Linxi

    2016-07-01

    Four novel indolo[3,2-b]carbazole-based multi-donor-π-acceptor type organic dyes QX01-04 have been designed, synthesized, and applied for dye-sensitized solar cells. These dyes consist of an indolo[3,2-b]carbazole core acting as the main donor group, a couple of groups such as ethylbenzene, N,N-diethylaniline, ethyloxylbenzene, and octyloxylbenzene acting as the secondary donors. The photophysical, electrochemical, and theoretical studies indicate that the four dyes are all capable as the photosensitizers. When introducing N,N-diethylaniline as the secondary donor, QX02 exhibits a broader absorption region and significantly improved IPCE values, which ensured a good light-harvesting ability and a high Jsc of 15.2 mA cm-2. Finally, QX02-based cell achieved a high efficiency of 8.09% which is very close to that of the commercial N719-based cell (8.26%) under 100 mW cm-2 irradiation.

  8. Spacer Thickness-Dependent Electron Transport Performance of Titanium Dioxide Thick Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda E. El-Shater

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A titanium dioxide (P25 film was deposited by cast coating as conductive photoelectrode and subsequently immersed in dye solution (N719 to fabricate the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. A plastic spacer was used as a separation and sealant layer between the photoanode and the counter electrode. The effect of the thickness of this spacer on the transfer of electrons in the liquid electrolyte of the DSSCs was studied by means of both IV curves and electrochemical impedance. Using a spacer thickness range of 20 μm to 50 μm, efficiency ranges from 3.73% to 7.22%. The highest efficiency of 7.22% was obtained with an optimal spacer thickness of 40 μm.

  9. Ytterbium oxide nanodots via block copolymer self-assembly and their efficacy to dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwang-Won; Ahn, Sungwoo; Lim, Sung-Hwan; Jin, Ming Hao; Song, Jeemin; Yun, Seung-Young; Kim, Hyeon Mo; Kim, Gi Jeong; Ok, Kang Min; Hong, Jongin

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we develop a novel phosphor, Yb2O3, to be used as the spectral converter in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) for the efficient capture of ultraviolet light via down-conversion. These zero-dimensional nanodots with a high refractive index also allow more light to be trapped and can prevent charge recombination at the interfaces in the DSSCs. Compared to DSSCs without the nanodots, the DSSCs fabricated with the Yb2O3 nanodots exhibits higher power-conversion efficiencies for both the N719 (10.5%) and CSD-01 (20.5%) dyes. The multifunctionality of the Yb2O3 nanodots provides a new route for improving the performance of DSSCs.

  10. Organic Dyes Incorporating the Dithieno[3,2-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline Moiety for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jen-Shyang; Kao, Wei-Siang; Chou, Hao-Ju; Lin, Jiann T

    2015-09-01

    New donor-acceptor'-acceptor-type sensitizers (QBT dyes), comprising arylamine as the electron donor, dithieno[3,2-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline as the internal acceptor, and 2-cyanoacrylic acid as both the acceptor and anchor, have been synthesized. The QBT dyes have broad absorption spectra covering the range of λ=368-487 nm with a highest molar extinction coefficient of up to approximately 40 000 M(-1)  cm(-1) . The light-to-electricity conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated from the dyes range from 6.11 to 7.59 % under simulated AM 1.5 G illumination. Upon addition of a threefold concentration of chenodeoxycholic acid as the co-adsorbent, the best performance cell has a power-conversion efficiency of 8.41 %, which is higher than that of the N719-based standard DSSC (8.27 %).

  11. Indoor Light Performance of Coil Type Cylindrical Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Gaurav; Ogomi, Yuhei; Pandey, Shyam S; Ma, Tingli; Hayase, Shuzi

    2016-04-01

    A very good performance under low/diffused light intensities is one of the application areas in which dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) can be utilized effectively compared to their inorganic silicon solar cell counterparts. In this article, we have investigated the 1 SUN and low intensity fluorescent light performance of Titanium (Ti)-coil based cylindrical DSSC (C-DSSC) using ruthenium based N719 dye and organic dyes such as D205 and Y123. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic results were analyzed for variable solar cell performances. Reflecting mirror with parabolic geometry as concentrator was also utilized to tap diffused light for indoor applications. Fluorescent light at relatively lower illumination intensities (0.2 mW/cm2 to 0.5 mW/cm2) were used for the investigation of TCO-less C-DSSC performance with and without reflector geometry. Furthermore, the DSSC performances were analyzed and compared with the commercially available amorphous silicon based solar cell for indoor applications. PMID:27451601

  12. Characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Shoji, E-mail: furukawa@cse.kyutech.ac.j [Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 820-8502 (Japan); Iino, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Tomohisa; Kukita, Koudai; Yamauchi, Shoji [Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 820-8502 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are expected to be used for future clean energy. Recently, most of the researchers in this field use Ruthenium complex as dye in the dye-sensitized solar cells. However, Ruthenium is a rare metal, so the cost of the Ruthenium complex is very high. In this paper, various dye-sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using natural dye, such as the dye of red-cabbage, curcumin, and red-perilla. As a result, it was found that the conversion efficiency of the solar cell fabricated using the mixture of red-cabbage and curcumin was about 0.6% (light source: halogen lamp), which was larger than that of the solar cells using one kind of dye. It was also found that the conversion efficiency was about 1.0% for the solar cell with the oxide semiconductor film fabricated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) whose molecular weight was 2,000,000 and red-cabbage dye. This indicates that the cost performance (defined by [conversion efficiency]/[cost of dye]) of the latter solar cell (dye: red-cabbage) is larger by more than 50 times than that of the solar cell using Ruthenium complex, even if the effect of the difference between the halogen lamp and the standard light source is taken into account.

  13. Triazoloisoquinoline-Based/Ruthenium-Hybrid Sensitizer for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Lung Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Triazoloisoquinoline-based organic dyestuffs were synthesized and used in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. After cosensitization with ruthenium complex, the triazoloisoquinoline-based organic dyestuffs overcame the deficiency of ruthenium dyestuff absorption in the blue part of the visible spectrum. This method also fills the blanks of ruthenium dyestuff sensitized TiO2 film and forms a compact insulating molecular layer due to the nature of small molecular organic dyestuffs. The incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of N719 at shorter wavelength regions is 49%. After addition of a triazoloisoquinoline-based dyestuff for co-sensitization, the IPCE at 350–500 nm increased significantly. This can be attributed to the increased photocurrent of the cells, which improves the dye-sensitized photoelectric conversion efficiency from 6.23% to 7.84%, and the overall conversion efficiency increased by about 26%. As a consequence, this low molecular weight organic dyestuff is a promising candidate as coadsorbent and cosensitizer for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  14. Backside illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells based on titania nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Maggie; Shankar, Karthik; Varghese, Oomman K.; Mor, Gopal K.; Hardin, Brian; Grimes, Craig A.

    2006-03-01

    Backside illuminated solar cells based on 6 µm long highly-ordered nanotube-array films sensitized by a self-assembled monolayer of bis(tetrabutylammonium)-cis-(dithiocyanato)- N,N'-bis(4-carboxylato-4'-carboxylic acid-2, 2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (commonly called 'N719') show a short-circuit current density of 8.79 mA cm-2, 841 mV open circuit potential and a 0.57 fill factor yielding a power conversion efficiency of 4.24% under AM 1.5 sun. The solvent used to infiltrate the dye into the nanotube arrays, made by potentiostatic anodization of a titanium foil, was found to significantly influence the electrical characteristics of the resulting solar cell. A superior photoresponse was obtained with acetonitrile as the dye solvent. This is attributed to the improved wetting characteristics of the dye solution in acetonitrile enabling self-assembled monolayers with higher surface coverage to be formed inside the nanotubes. In comparison to nanocrystalline films, the nanotube-array films consistently exhibit larger open circuit photovoltage values; the origins of this enhancement are discussed.

  15. Light harvesting via energy transfer in the dye solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegers, Conrad

    2007-11-09

    ratio was varied between 1 and 9. The different donor acceptor sensitizers were then incorporated into dye solar cells. Additionally, cells were prepared by the coadsorption of [Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2] (N719), which is today's standard dye for DSC applications, and a carboxy-functionalized Fluorol. Hence DSCs resulted that were sensitized via (i) coadsorbed chromophores, (ii) the dyad, and (iii) above-mentioned polymers. The resulting devices were characterized via current-voltage, transmission and external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements. The current-voltage measurements were carried out under simulated sunlight (AM1.5G) as well as under monochromatic blue and green illumination. This data allowed the calculation of the ratio of short circuit currents acquired under blue and green illumination, which indicates to what extent the current output of the solar cell may be enhanced by energy transfer. Furthermore, the energy transfer efficiency (ETE) was calculated from the DSC's spectral properties. All three concepts for the implementation of donor acceptor systems in the DSC revealed high ETEs (up to 90%). The introduction of an additional donor chromophore via coadsorption led to an increase of the monochromatic power conversion efficiency. The last-mentioned increase was more pronounced if covalently assembled donor acceptor sensitizers were used. The relative energy-transfer-mediated current gain was 21%, 24% and up to 179%, when coadsorbed chromophores, the dyad and donor acceptor polymers were used as sensitizers, respectively (in relation to the current generated by selective excitation of the acceptor component within the cell). These values confirm that energy transfer from fluorescent dyes being poor electron donors in themselves to good electroactive dyes (e.g. Ru-complexes) is also a viable process for light-to-electricity conversion in DSCs. Further optimization of the concepts investigated in this thesis (notably with respect to enhancing the light

  16. Comparative study of TiO2 nanoparticles applied to dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubi, Besma; Bennaceur, Jamila; Ben Taieb, S.; Chtourou, Rathowan

    2014-02-01

    Microcrystalline titanium oxide (TiO2) particles of anatase crystal phase were prepared by the sol-gel route, varying thermal treatment conditions (400 °C and 600 °C), for a comparison purpose with commercial TiO2 (P25). Structural, optical and electrical properties were investigated for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) application. Both microcrystalline TiO2 particles, synthesized by the sol-gel method and obtained from the P25 powder were used to prepare a light scattering layer of the working electrode. The obtained electrodes were then immersed in a solution of N-719 (ruthenium) dye, at the ambient temperature, during 24 h. Finally, the DSSCs were assembled, the short circuit photocurrent, the open circuit photovoltage, and the power conversion efficiency were measured using an I-V measurement system. The overall conversion efficiencies for all elaborated DSSCs were proximate. A maximum efficiency of 2.3% was achieved for the sol-gel TiO2 thin film annealed at 400 °C, under one sun irradiation, with an open circuit voltage of 0.61 V and a current density of 6.54 mA/cm2. The higher efficiency value of the sol-gel TiO2 sample, annealed at 400 °C, was attributed to the uniformity of the prepared titanium oxide substrate, which provides a better surface for the dye absorption.

  17. Self-assembled ultra small ZnO nanocrystals for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Astam K.; Dutta, Arghya; Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail: msab@iacs.res.in

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a facile chemical approach to produce self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous zinc oxide nanocrystals using sodium salicylate (SS) as a template under hydrothermal conditions. These ZnO nanomaterials have been successfully fabricated as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in the presence of N719 dye and iodine–triiodide electrolyte. The structural features, crystallinity, purity, mesophase and morphology of the nanostructure ZnO are investigated by several characterization tools. N{sub 2} sorption analysis revealed high surface areas (203 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and narrow pore size distributions (5.1–5.4 nm) for different samples. The mesoporous structure and strong photoluminescence facilitates the high dye loading at the mesoscopic void spaces and light harvesting in DSSC. By utilizing this ultra-small ZnO photoelectrode with film thickness of about 7 μm in the DSSC with an open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.74 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 3.83 mA cm{sup −2} and an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved. - Graphical abstract: Ultra-small ZnO nanocrystals have been synthesized with sodium salicylate as a template and using it as a photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar cell 1.12% power conversion efficiency has been observed. - Highlights: • Synthesis of self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous ZnO nanocrystals by using sodium salicylate as a template. • Mesoporous ZnO materials have high BET surface areas and void space. • ZnO nanoparticles serve as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). • Using ZnO nanocrystals as photoelectrode power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved.

  18. Barium Staminate as Semiconductor Working Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-an Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs are fabricated with perovskite-type BaSnO3 as the photoelectrode materials. Different preparation methods including coprecipitation, hydrothermal, and solid state reaction are employed to synthesize BaSnO3 particles to optimize the photoelectric activities of electrode materials. The photoelectric properties of BaSnO3 particles and the performances of DSSCs are investigated by surface photovoltage spectroscopy and current-voltage measurements. The light-to-electricity conversion of 1.1% is preliminarily reached on the DSSC made of the coprecipitation-derived BaSnO3 particles. Large current density of hole injection into the HOMO level of N719 dye from the valence band of BaSnO3 and reduced photogenerated charge recombination in BaSnO3 could be responsible for the observed solar cell performance of the DSSC fabricated from the coprecipitation-derived BaSnO3 particles.

  19. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsatorn Amornpitoksuk

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell is a new type of solar cell. The operating system of this solar cell type is similar to plant’s photosynthesis process. The sensitizer is available for absorption light and transfer electrons to nanocrystalline metal oxide semiconductor. The ruthenium(II complexes with polypyridyl ligands are usually used as the sensitizers in solar cell. At the present time, the complex of [Ru(2,2',2'’-(COOH3- terpy(NCS3] is the most efficient sensitizer. The total photon to current conversion efficiency was approximately 10% at AM = 1.5.

  20. Evaluation of microwave plasma sintering for the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, A; Rahman, M; MacElroy, J M D; Dowling, D P

    2012-06-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have demonstrated considerable potential due to their solar energy conversion efficiency and their fabrication from relatively low cost materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are widely used in the fabrication of the DSSC electrodes. There is a considerable energy requirement however required for the sintering of the TiO2 particles during the fabrication of the mesoporous electrodes. This study investigates the use of microwave (MW) plasma treatments as a rapid, energy efficient processing technique for the sintering of the metal oxide particles. A comparison is made with conventional furnace treatments for the sintering of TiO2 nanoparticles (Degussa P25), deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates. Subsequent to the TiO2 sintering, ruthenium based dye (N719) adsorption studies were carried out for coatings heated using both sintering techniques. Based on UV/Vis absorption spectra measurements of 5 mins plasma and 30 mins furnace sintering, it was observed that both sintering techniques exhibited similar levels of dye adsorption. A decrease in the level of dye adsorption was observed for the TiO2 coatings sintered for longer periods (up to 10 mins in this study). This change with longer plasma treatment times was associated with rutile grain growth and a decrease in surface roughness, possibly due to a densification of the mesoporous structure. The effect of TiO2 coating plasma treatment times on the conversion efficiency of the dye sensitised electrodes was also evaluated. Plasma treatments of 5 mins were found to yield the highest conversion efficiency of 6.4%. PMID:22905529

  1. Organic Photosensitizers Incorporating Rigidified Dithieno[3,2-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline Segment Tethered with Thiophene Substitutes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jen-Shyang; Chiu, Tang-Yao; Kao, Wei-Siang; Chou, Hao-Ju; Su, Chao-Chin; Lin, Jiann T

    2016-09-01

    Metal-free D-π-RS-π-A type sensitizers, consisting of triphenylamine as the electron donor, 2,3-bis(3-(2-ethylhexyl)-5-methylthiophen-2-yl)dithieno[3,2-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline (DTQT) as the rigidified conjugation spacer (RS), thiophene as the π-spacer, and 2-cyanoacrylic acid as the acceptor/anchor, have broad absorption spectra ranging from 350 to 550 nm and a high molar extinction coefficient up to >46 200 M(-1) cm(-1). Under simulated AM 1.5 G illumination, the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated from the dyes exhibited light-to-electricity conversions in the range of 6.78% to 8.27%. The best efficiency is slightly higher than that of N719-based standard DSSC (7.92%). The efficiency can be further boosted to 8.51% by optimizing the concentration of LiI electrolyte.

  2. Sea-Urchin-Like ZnO Nanoparticle Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wen Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present novel sea-urchin-like ZnO nanoparticles synthesized using a chemical solution method. Solution approaches to synthesizing ZnO nanostructures have several advantages including low growth temperatures and high potential for scaling up. We investigated the influence of reaction times on the thickness and morphology of sea-urchin-like ZnO nanoparticles, and XRD patterns show strong intensity in every direction. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were developed using the synthesized ZnO nanostructures as photoanodes. The DSSCs comprised a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glass with dense ZnO nanostructures as the working electrode, a platinized FTO glass as the counter electrode, N719-based dye, and I-/I3-liquid electrolyte. The DSSC fabricated using such nanostructures yielded a high power conversion efficiency of 1.16% with an incident photo-to-current efficiency (IPCE as high as 15.32%. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the characteristics of DSSCs. An improvement in the electron transport in the ZnO photoanode was also observed.

  3. Mesoporous multi-shelled ZnO microspheres for the scattering layer of dye sensitized solar cell with a high efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Weiwei; Mei, Chao; Zeng, Xianghua; Chang, Shuai; Wu, Guoqing; Shen, Xiaoshuang

    2016-03-01

    Both light scattering and dye adsorbing are important for the power conversion efficiency PCE performance of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Nanostructured scattering layers with a large specific surface area are regarded as an efficient way to improve the PCE by increasing dye adsorbing, but excess adsorbed dye will hinder light scattering and light penetration. Thus, how to balance the dye adsorbing and light penetration is a key problem to improve the PCE performance. Here, multiple-shelled ZnO microspheres with a mesoporous surface are fabricated by a hydrothermal method and are used as scattering layers on the TiO2 photoanode of the DSSC in the presence of N719 dye and iodine-based electrolyte, and the results reveal that the DSSCs based on triple shelled ZnO microsphere with a mesoporous surface exhibit an enhanced PCE of 7.66%, which is 13.0% higher than those without the scattering layers (6.78%), indicating that multiple-shelled microspheres with a mesoporous surface can ensure enough light scattering between the shells, and a favorable concentration of the adsorbed dye can improve the light penetration. These results may provide a promising pathway to obtain the high efficient DSSCs.

  4. New perylene derivative dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafer, Ceylan; Turkmen, Gulsah; Demic, Serafettin; Icli, Siddik [Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, TR-35040 Izmir (Turkey); Kus, Mahmut [Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, TR-35040 Izmir (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Mugla University, TR-48000 Mugla (Turkey); Dincalp, Haluk [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Celal Bayar University, TR-45030 Manisa (Turkey); Kuban, Baha; Teoman, Yildirim [Tuerkiye Sise ve Cam Fabrikalari A.S. (SiSECAM), TR-80620 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-03-06

    We have studied the influence of the spacer alkyl chain length of perylenemonoimide (PMI) dyes on the device performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We observed that the dyes with longer and brunched alkyl chains exhibit higher efficiencies in DSSCs. In line with these statements we now report the highest efficiency obtained under standard conditions for a perylene imide derivative with PMI-DA1 that performs 300 mV open circuit voltage, 9.79 mA/cm{sup 2} short-circuit current and 1.61% overall conversion efficiency. (author)

  5. Preparation and Photovoltaic Properties of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Using ZnO Nanorods Stacking Films on AZO Substrate as Photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Xina; Liu, Rong; Wang, Hao

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional stacking of ZnO nanorods on conducting aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) glass were studied as efficient photoanodes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By changing hydrothermal growth time and cycle times, the thickness of ZnO nanorods stacking films varied from 30 µm to 64 µm, and its influence on the energetic conversion efficiency of the DSSCs based on the stacking films photoanodes was investigated. The loading density of N719 on the surface of ZnO nanorods was studied to increase the efficiency of the cells. Annealing experiments showed that the AZO substrates remained good conductors until heated above 350 °C. A photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as ~2.0% together with ISC of ~9.5 mA/cm2, VOC of ~0.5 V and FF of ~41.4% was achieved for the DSSC using 50 µm-thick film stacking by ZnO nanorods as photoanode and N719 as sensitizer under illumination of AM1.5G solar light (power density of 100 mW/cm2). A charge separation and transfer mechanism was proposed for the ZnO nanorods stacking electrode-based DSSCs.

  6. Preparation and Photovoltaic Properties of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Using ZnO Nanorods Stacking Films on AZO Substrate as Photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Xina; Liu, Rong; Wang, Hao

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional stacking of ZnO nanorods on conducting aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) glass were studied as efficient photoanodes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By changing hydrothermal growth time and cycle times, the thickness of ZnO nanorods stacking films varied from 30 µm to 64 µm, and its influence on the energetic conversion efficiency of the DSSCs based on the stacking films photoanodes was investigated. The loading density of N719 on the surface of ZnO nanorods was studied to increase the efficiency of the cells. Annealing experiments showed that the AZO substrates remained good conductors until heated above 350 °C. A photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as ~2.0% together with ISC of ~9.5 mA/cm2, VOC of ~0.5 V and FF of ~41.4% was achieved for the DSSC using 50 µm-thick film stacking by ZnO nanorods as photoanode and N719 as sensitizer under illumination of AM1.5G solar light (power density of 100 mW/cm2). A charge separation and transfer mechanism was proposed for the ZnO nanorods stacking electrode-based DSSCs. PMID:27451677

  7. Substitution of Carbazole Modified Fluorenes as π-Extension in Ru(II Complex-Influence on Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malapaka Chandrasekharam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new high molar extinction coefficient ruthenium(II bipyridyl complex “cis-Ru(4,4-bis(9,9-dibutyl-7-(3,6-di-tert-butyl-9H-carbazol-9-yl-9H-fluoren-2-yl-2,2-bipyridine(2,2-bipyridine-4,4-dicarboxylic acid(NCS2, BPFC” has been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and ESI-MASS spectroscopes. The sensitizer showed molar extinction coefficient of 18.5×103 M−1cm−1, larger as compared to the reference N719, which showed 14.4×103 M−1cm−1. The test cells fabricated using BPFC sensitizer employing high performance volatile electrolyte, (E01 containing 0.05 M I2, 0.1 M LiI, 0.6 M 1,2-dimethyl-3-n-propylimidazolium iodide, 0.5 M 4-tert-butylpyridine in acetonitrile solvent, exhibited solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiency (η of 4.65% (short-circuit current density (SC = 11.52 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage (OC = 566 mV, fill factor = 0.72 under Air Mass 1.5 sunlight, lower as compared to the reference N719 sensitized solar cell, fabricated under similar conditions, which exhibited η-value of 6.5% (SC = 14.3 mA/cm2, OC = 640 mV, fill factor = 0.71. UV-Vis measurements conducted on TiO2 films showed decreased film absorption ratios for BPFC as compared to those of reference N719. Staining TiO2 electrodes immediately after sonication of dye solutions enhanced film absorption ratios of BPFC relative to those of N719. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT calculations show higher oscillation strengths for 4,4-bis(9,9-dibutyl-7-(3,6-di-tert-butyl-9H-carbazol-9-yl-9H-fluoren-2-yl-2,2-bipyridine relative to 2,2-bipyridine-4,4-dicarboxylic acid and increased spectral response for the corresponding BPFC complex.

  8. UV Filtering of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Effects of Varying the UV Cut-Off upon Cell Performance and Incident Photon-to-Electron Conversion Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Carnie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With current technology, UV filters are essential to ensure long-term dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC stability. Blocking photons, however, will have an obvious effect on device performance and upon its incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE. Filters have been applied to DSC devices with a range of cut-off wavelengths in order to assess how different levels of filtering affect the performance and IPCE of devices made with three different dyes, namely N719, Z907, and N749. It is shown that dyes that extend their IPCE further into the NIR region suffer lesser relative efficiency losses due to UV filtering than dyes with narrower action spectra. Furthermore, the results are encouraging to those working towards the industrialisation of DSC technology. From the results presented it can be estimated that filtering at a level intended to prevent direct band gap excitation of the TiO2 semiconductor should cause a relative drop in cell efficiency of no more than 10% in forward illuminated devices and no more than 2% in reverse illuminated devices.

  9. Performance enhancement of TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells by carbon nanospheres in photoanode

    CERN Document Server

    Bayatloo, Elham; Polkoo, Sajad Saghaye

    2013-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is optimized by modifying the optical design and improving absorbance within the cell. These objectives are obtained by creating different sized cavities in TiO2 photoanode. For this purpose, carbon nanospheres with diameters 100-600 nm are synthesized by hydrothermal method. A paste of TiO2 is mixed with various amounts of carbon nanospheres. During TiO2 photoanode sintering processes at 500C temperature, the carbon nanospheres are removed. This leads to random creation of cavities in the DSSCs photoanode. These cavities enhance light scattering and porosity which improve light absorbance by dye N719 and provide a larger surface area for dye loading. These consequences enhance performance of DSSCs. By mixing 3% Wt. carbon nanospheres in the TiO2 pastes, we were able to increase the short circuit current density and efficiency by 40% (from 12.59 to 17.73 mA/cm2) and 33% (from 5.72% to 7.59%), respectively.

  10. Dye-Sensitized Carbon Nano-Yarn Based Photovoltaic Cells with Enhanced Electron-Hole Separation and Barrier Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H. Justin; Leal, Miguel; Grissom, Glenn; Trad, Tarek; Islam, Nazmul; Touhami, Ahmed; Uddin, M. Jasim

    Over the last 30 years dye-sensitized solar cells have received considerable interest as an alternative energy source due to their low-cost, environmental sustainability, flexibility, and an abundant number of other practical applications. Flexible carbon nanotube-yarn based photo voltaic cells have shown considerable advantages over metal wire based solar cells or non-flexible substrates like indium-doped tin oxide glass. Carbon nanotubes are superior for photo voltaic cells due to their lower electrical resistance, excellent electrocatalytic activity, and high mechanical integrity. Here, we introduce the use of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), [6.6] diphenyl C62 bis(butyric acid methyl ester), cadmium sulfide-cadmium selenide quantum dots, and ruthenium-based dye N719 to locally increase electron generation, decrease electron-hole pair recombination, as well as enhancing barrier characteristics. Our prototype 3-dimensional carbon nano-yarn based photovoltaic cells show an enhancement in photon to energy conversion efficiency (>6.5%). This along with prolonged environmental stability makes for a very promising solar cell. NIH, NSF, Welch Foundation.

  11. Natural Dyes as Photosensitizers for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem S. El-Ghamri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were assembled using Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles as a photoelectrode and natural dyes extracted from eight natural plants as photosensitizers. The structural properties of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were studied using XRD, SEM and TEM characterizations. Photovoltaic parameters such as short circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc, fill factor FF, and overall conversion efficiency η for the fabricated cells were determined under 100 mW/cm2 illumination. It was found that the DSSC fabricated with the extracted safflower dye as a sensitizer showed the best performance. Also, its performance increased with increasing the sintering temperature of the semiconductor electrode with highest performance at 400 °C. Moreover, it was found that a semiconductor electrode of 7.5 μm thickness yielded the highest response.

  12. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Sancun; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Yunfang; Lin, Jianming [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China)

    2006-02-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The I{sub SC} from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the V{sub OC} from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and P{sub max} from 58{mu}W to 327{mu}W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts. In the extracts of natural fruit, leaves and flower chosen, the black rice extract performed the best photosensitized effect, which was due to the better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin molecule on black rice extract and the surface of TiO{sub 2} porous film. The blue-shift of absorption wavelength of the black rice extract in ethanol solution on TiO{sub 2} film and the blue-shift phenomenon from absorption spectrum to photoaction spectrum of DSC sensitized with black rice extract are discussed in the paper. Because of the simple preparation technique, widely available and low cheap cost natural dye as an alternative sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell is promising. (author)

  13. Electrodeposited ZnO thin film as an efficient alternative blocking layer for TiCl4 pre-treatment in TiO2-based dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhestanian, E.; Mozaffari, S. A.; Ranjbar, M.; SalarAmoli, H.; Armanmehr, M. H.

    2016-08-01

    Recently, ZnO nanostructures have received considerable attention in fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanodes due to their unique transport properties. In the present study, a chronoamperometric method was performed to fabricate the ZnO nanostructures as an appropriate alternative of TiCl4 pre-treatment to reduce the recombination reactions, while retaining the TiO2-based DSSC performance. The effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on ZnO electrodeposition to control the growth and crystallization of ZnO nanostructures was investigated. ZnO/TiO2 based-DSSCs were fabricated using N719 ruthenium dye and all photovoltaic parameters were characterized. Incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and VOC decay techniques were employed for studying the cell properties which is resulted in a significant enhancement in cell performance.

  14. Monolithic multiscale bilayer inverse opal electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Woo; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-03-12

    Multilayer structures in which the layers are both electrically and physically connected are critical to be used as high-performance electrodes for photovoltaic devices. We present the first multiscale bilayer inverse opal (IO) structures for application as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A bilayer of a mesoscopic IO layer (70 nm pore diameter) and a top macroporous IO layer (215 nm and 250 nm pore diameters) was fabricated as the high-specific-area electrode and the light-harvesting enhancing layer, respectively. The mesoscopic IO layer exhibits a dye-adsorption density, which is approximately 4 times greater than that of the macroporous IO structure because of its small pore size. The macroporous IO layer exhibits a photonic bandgap reflection in the visible-light wavelength range. We incorporated the bilayer IO electrodes into DSCs and compared the effects of the pore sizes of the macroporous layers on the photocurrent densities of the DSCs. We observed that the bilayer IO electrode DSCs that contained a 250 nm IO layer exhibited photocurrent densities greater than those of 215 nm IO DSCs. This enhanced photocurrent density was achieved because the photonic bandgap (PBG) reflection wavelength matches the wavelength range in which the N719 dye has a small light-absorption coefficient. The fabrication of this structurally homogeneous IO bilayer allows a strong contact between the layers, and the resulting bilayer, therefore, exhibits a high photovoltaic performance. We believe that this bilayer structure provides an alternative approach to the development of optimized electrode structures for various devices.

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells using ZnO nanotips and Ga-doped ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanhong; Du Pasquier, Aurelien; Saraf, Gaurav; Zhong, Jian; Lu, Yicheng

    2008-04-01

    Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) transparent conducting films and well-aligned ZnO nanotips were sequentially grown on a glass substrate using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The morphology control of ZnO from dense films to nanotips was realized through temperature-modulated growth. The ZnO nanotips/GZO structure was sensitized with dye N719 to form photoelectrochemical cells. It is found that the power conversion efficiency linearly increases with the length of ZnO nanotips. For the 1.0 cm2 dye-sensitized solar cell built from 4.8 µm ZnO nanotips, a peak incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency of 79% (at ~530 nm) and a power conversion efficiency of 0.77% under the illumination of one sun-simulated sunlight were achieved. UV light harvesting directly by ZnO was observed. The I-V characteristics of the cells were analyzed using a one-diode equivalent circuit model.

  16. Characterization of spray-deposited ZnO thin films for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amala Rani, A.; Ernest, Suhashini

    2016-07-01

    ZnO films have been prepared on glass plates with concentrations of 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 M each consisting of 50 ml of solution using the spray pyrolysis technique. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was constructed by means of the obtained film for 0.1 M which was also coated above the ITO substrate. N-719, iodide and platinum-coated ITO glass plates were used as the dye, electrolyte and counter electrode, respectively. XRD confirms that the structure of the film was polycrystalline having wurtzite structure. The surface with pores was found from the FESEM studies. The DSSC shows an optical transmittance of approximately 70 % in the visible region. The photoluminescence study reveals the electronic structure of the material. The efficiency of the DSSC measured for a 0.1 M ZnO thin film by sensitizing every 2 h was η = 0.51, 0.80, 0.54, 1.12, 2.11, 2.71, 3.15 and 3.20 %, respectively.

  17. Efficiency enhancement in dye-sensitized solar cells with down conversion material ZnO: Eu3+, Dy3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nannan; Huang, Jinzhao; Fu, Ke; Liu, Shiyou; E, Dong; Wang, Yanhao; Xu, Xijin; Zhu, Min; Cao, Bingqiang

    2014-12-01

    The down conversion (DC) material ZnO: Eu3+, Dy3+ are synthesized by precipitation method and used to prepare the photo anode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of down conversion material on the photoelectric performance of the DSSC were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), scanning electron microscope (SEM), current-voltage (I-V) curve, incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) and UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. In this paper, Eu3+, Dy3+ codoped ZnO excited by from UV to blue light converts blue to red light emission, corresponding to the absorption region of the dye (N719). At the concentration 1.75% of ZnO: Eu3+, Dy3+ (weight ratio of DC to TiO2), the short-circuit current density and conversion efficiency of the DSSCs reached to the optimal values: 8.92 mA cm-2 and 4.48%, about 212% and 245% higher than with pure TiO2 and about 91.4% and 105% higher than with TiO2/graphene (G) structure, respectively. The research result reveals that the application of DC material can improve the efficiency of DSSCs.

  18. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre

    2015-11-01

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grätzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications. PMID:26428071

  19. Applications of poly(3,5-diaminobenzotrifluoride) as electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells and electrochromic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(3,5-diaminobenzotrifluoride) (PDAT) films with controlled thickness have been successfully grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates using the cyclic voltammetry (CV) method at room temperature, followed by Pt particles depositing on the PDAT films by electrochemical method. The morphology of PDAT films and aggregation of Pt particles were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and UV–vis absorption spectra were employed to characterize the chemical structure of PDAT. Solar cells made of PDAT film which were used as counter electrode and the N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 used as anode were fabricated. The photovoltaic performance of the solar cells was tested. We investigated the influence of various Pt loadings on efficiency of solar cells. With the increasing of Pt loadings, the morphologies changed and the efficiency of solar cells increased. We also investigated the electrochromic properties of PDAT. As the voltage increased, the color of the PDAT film turned from pale yellow to yellow with good reversibility. It shows that PDAT can be used as electronic display materials.

  20. Natural Dye Extracts of Areca Catechu Nut as dye Sensitizer for Titanium dioxide Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    P. Murugakoothan; S. Ananth; P. Vivek; T. Arumanayagam

    2014-01-01

    A dye sensitized solar cell was fabricated using titanium dioxide nano particles sensitized by a new natural dye extracted from areca catechu nut. The natural dye extract contains tannin which is rich in gallotannic acid. The pure titanium dioxide nano particles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and were sensitized by the natural dye to yield photo anode material. The Powder X-Ray Diffraction, UV-vis spectra, Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X- ...

  1. Improving optical absorptivity of natural dyes for fabrication of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatzadeh, Reza; Mohammadi, Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Efficient and cheap dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using natural dyes from Pastinaca sativa and Beta vulgaris. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted dyes. We investigated the influence of various factors in the extraction process, such as utilization of different extraction approaches, the acidity of extraction solvent, and different compounds of solvents on the optical absorption spectra. It was found that we could considerably enhance the optical absorptivity of dye and consequently the performance of DSSC by choosing a proper mixture of ethanol and water for extracting solvent and also the acidity of dye solution.

  2. Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2009-06-21

    Conventional dye-sensitized solar cells have excellent charge collection efficiencies, high open-circuit voltages and good fill factors. However, dye-sensitized solar cells do not completely absorb all of the photons from the visible and near-infrared domain and consequently have lower short-circuit photocurrent densities than inorganic photovoltaic devices. Here, we present a new design where high-energy photons are absorbed by highly photoluminescent chromophores unattached to the titania and undergo Förster resonant energy transfer to the sensitizing dye. This novel architecture allows for broader spectral absorption, an increase in dye loading, and relaxes the design requirements for the sensitizing dye. We demonstrate a 26% increase in power conversion efficiency when using an energy relay dye (PTCDI) with an organic sensitizing dye (TT1). We estimate the average excitation transfer efficiency in this system to be at least 47%. This system offers a viable pathway to develop more efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  3. Pulsed laser deposited porous nano-carpets of indium tin oxide and their use as charge collectors in core-shell structures for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Timothy R; Farnum, Byron H; Lopez, Rene

    2015-02-14

    Porous In2O3:Sn (ITO) films resembling from brush carpets to open moss-like discrete nanostructures were grown by pulsed laser deposition under low to high background gas pressures, respectively. The charge transport properties of these mesoporous substrates were probed by pulsed laser photo-current and -voltage transient measurements in N719 dye sensitized devices. Although the cyclic voltammetry and dye adsorption measurements suggest a lower proportion of electro-active dye molecules for films deposited at the high-end background gas pressures, the transient measurements indicate similar electron transport rates within the films. Solar cell operation was achieved by the deposition of a conformal TiO2 shell layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Much of the device improvement was shown to be due to the TiO2 shell blocking the recombination of photoelectrons with the electrolyte as recombination lifetimes increased drastically from a few seconds in uncoated ITO to over 50 minutes in the ITO with a TiO2 shell layer. Additionally, an order of magnitude increase in the electron transport rate in ITO/TiO2 (core/shell) films was observed, giving the core-shell structure a superior ratio of recombination/transport times.

  4. Investigation into Photoconductivity in Single CNF/TiO2-Dye Core–Shell Nanowire Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochford Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A vertically aligned carbon nanofiber array coated with anatase TiO2 (CNF/TiO2 is an attractive possible replacement for the sintered TiO2 nanoparticle network in the original dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC design due to the potential for improved charge transport and reduced charge recombination. Although the reported efficiency of 1.1% in these modified DSSC’s is encouraging, the limiting factors must be identified before a higher efficiency can be obtained. This work employs a single nanowire approach to investigate the charge transport in individual CNF/TiO2 core–shell nanowires with adsorbed N719 dye molecules in dark and under illumination. The results shed light on the role of charge traps and dye adsorption on the (photo conductivity of nanocrystalline TiO2 CNF’s as related to dye-sensitized solar cell performance.

  5. Carboxyfluorescein Diacetate Succinimidyl Ester Fluorescent Dye for Cell Labeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qi WANG; Xiu-Mei DUAN; Li-Hua LIU; Yan-Qiu FANG; Yan TAN

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to study the properties of the carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE) and the methodology of cell labeling using CFDA-SE fluorescent dye. First, we analyzed the kinetics of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye intensity over time. Second, we determined the optimal concentration of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling. Third, we tested the toxicity of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye on labeled cells. Finally, we determined the optimal staining time of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling.The results show that the optimal concentration of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling varies according to different cell types. CFDA-SE fluorescent dye is non-toxic to cells as the cell death rate caused by CFDASE labeling is below 5%. The optimal cell labeling time was determined to be 8 min of incubation with CFDA-SE fluorescent dye. We concluded that the advantages of using CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling are as follows: (1) the binding of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye to cells is stable; (2) CFDA-SE fluorescent dye is not toxic and does not modify the viability of labeled cells; and (3) CFDA-SE fluorescent dye is a suitable fluorochrome for cell labeling.

  6. Development of an organic redox couple and organic dyes for aqueous dye-sensitized solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Haining; Gabrielsson, Erik; Lohse, Peter William; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Kloo, Lars; Hagfeldt, Anders; Sun, Licheng

    2012-01-01

    A water-soluble organic redox couple (TT-/DTT) and new organic dyes (D45 and D51) have been developed for aqueous dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). An optimal efficiency of 3.5% was obtained using the D51 dye and an optimized electrolyte composition. The highest IPCE value obtained was 68% at 460 nm. QC 20130108

  7. Photochromic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah M. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication and characterization of photochromic dye sensitized solar cells that possess the ability to change color depending on external lighting conditions. This device can be used as a “smart” window shade that tints, collects the sun's energy, and blocks sunlight when the sun shines, and is completely transparent at night.

  8. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, E. M.; Hafez, H. S.; Bakir, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k = 1.6, 2.1 and 1.9 × 10-3 min-1 for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (η) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100 mW cm-2, reveals highly stable DSSCs.

  9. Dye adsorption on TiO{sub 2} electrodes studied using modulated photocurrent measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghamgosar, Pedram; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit, E-mail: gerrit.boschloo@kemi.uu.se

    2014-06-02

    An in-situ modulated photocurrent technique to study kinetics of dye adsorption and to determine binding constants of dye molecules on the TiO{sub 2} surface is presented. An AC-photocurrent signal is measured, when a TiO{sub 2} electrode is in contact with the dye bath, containing an inert salt for increased conductivity, upon excitation with on/off modulated light. This method provides relatively rapid results and is very useful for comparative studies. Organic dyes (D149, D5, D35) and ruthenium complexes (N719, Z907, black dye) were investigated and the effect of a coadsorbant in the dye bath (deoxycholic acid) was also analyzed. - Highlights: • A rapid method for in-situ study of dye-adsorption in dye-sensitized solar cellsDye adsorption follows the Langmuir isotherm when an inert salt is added to the dye bath. • A series of organic and metal–organic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells is analyzed.

  10. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2010-08-11

    The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4- dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3.5% to 4.5%. The unattached DCM dyes exhibit an average excitation transfer efficiency (EÌ?TE) of 96% inside TT1-covered, mesostructured TiO2 films. Further performance increases were limited by the solubility of DCM in an acetonitrile based electrolyte. This demonstration shows that energy relay dyes can be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2011-01-05

    Panchromatic response is essential to increase the light-harvesting efficiency in solar conversion systems. Herein we show increased light harvesting from using multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse from 400-590 nm matching the optical window of the zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer was observed due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the two energy relay dyes to the sensitizing dye. The complementary absorption spectra of the energy relay dyes and high excitation transfer efficiencies result in a 35% increase in photovoltaic performance. © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA.

  12. Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2010-12-14

    This image presents a scanning electron microscopy image of solid state dye-sensitized solar cell with a plasmonic back reflector, overlaid with simulated field intensity plots when monochromatic light is incident on the device. Plasmonic back reflectors, which consist of 2D arrays of silver nanodomes, can enhance absorption through excitation of plasmonic modes and increased light scattering, as reported by Michael D. McGehee, Yi Cui, and co-workers.

  13. Spray deposited copper zinc tin sulphide (Cu2ZnSnS4) film as a counter electrode in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Chaturvedi, Neha; Kumar, Anuj; Chander, Nikhil; Dutta, Viresh; Kumar, D Kishore; Ivaturi, A; Senthilarasu, S; Upadhyaya, Hari M

    2014-11-21

    Stoichiometric thin films of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) were deposited by the spray technique on a FTO coated glass substrate, with post-annealing in a H2S environment to improve the film properties. CZTS films were used as a counter electrode (CE) in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs) with N719 dye and an iodine electrolyte. The DSC of 0.25 cm(2) area using a CE of CZTS film annealed in a H2S environment under AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW cm(-2)) exhibited a short circuit current density (JSC) = 18.63 mA cm(-2), an open circuit voltage (VOC) = 0.65 V and a fill factor (FF) = 0.53, resulting in an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) = 6.4%. While the DSC using as deposited CZTS film as a CE showed the PCE = 3.7% with JSC = 13.38 mA cm(-2), VOC = 0.57 V and FF = 0.48. Thus, the spray deposited CZTS films can play an important role as a CE in the large area DSC fabrication. PMID:25286339

  14. Study of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Scanning Electron Micrograph Observation and Thickness Optimization of Porous TiO2 Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the photoenergy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, it is important to optimize their porous TiO2 electrodes. This paper examines the surface and cross-sectional views of the electrodes using scanning electron micrography. Two types of samples for cross-sectional viewing were prepared by mechanically breaking the substrate and by using an Ar-ion etching beam. The former displays the surface of the TiO2 particles and the latter shows the cross-section of the TiO2 particles. We found interesting surface and cross-sectional structures in the scattering layer containing the 400 nm diameter particles, which have an angular and horned shape. The influence of TiO2 particle size and the thickness of the nanocrystalline-TiO2 electrode in DSCs using four kinds of sensitizing dyes (D149, K19, N719 and Z907 and two kinds of electrolytes (acetonitrile-based and ionic-liquid electrolytes are discussed in regards to conversion efficiency, which this paper aims to optimize.

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on thick highly ordered TiO2 nanotubes produced by controlled anodic oxidation in non-aqueous electrolytic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared using TiO2 nanotubes, grown by controlled Ti anodic oxidation in non-aqueous media. Smooth, vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays, presenting a high degree of self-organization and a length of 20 μm, have been grown using ethylene glycol electrolyte containing HF. As-grown nanotubes exhibit an amorphous structure, which transforms to the anatase TiO2 crystalline phase upon post-annealing in air at 450 deg. C. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the porous morphology together with high roughness and fractality of the surface. The annealed tubes were sensitized by the standard N719 ruthenium dye and the adsorption was characterized using resonance micro-Raman spectroscopy and adsorption-desorption measurements. The sensitized tubes were further used as active photoelectrodes after incorporation in sandwich-type DSSCs using both liquid and solidified electrolytes. The efficiencies obtained under air mass (AM) 1.5 conditions, using a back-side illumination geometry, were very promising: 0.85% using a composite polymer redox electrolyte, while the efficiency was further increased up to 1.65% using a liquid electrolyte

  16. Effects of Taiwan Roselle anthocyanin treatment and single-walled carbon nanotube addition on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. S.; Tsai, P. J.; Wu, P.; Shu, G. G.; Huang, Y. H.; Chen, Y. S.

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) sensitized by a natural sensitizer of Taiwan Roselle anthocyanin (TRA) and fabrication process conditions of the DSSC. A set of systematic experiments has been carried out at various soaking temperatures, soaking periods, sensitizer concentrations, pH values, and additions of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). An absorption peak (520 nm) is found for TRA, and it is close to that of the N719 dye (518 nm). At a fixed concentration of TRA and a fixed soaking period, a lower pH of the extract or a lower soaking temperature is found favorable to the formation of pigment cations, which leads to an enhanced power conversion efficiency (η) of DSSC. For instance, by applying 17.53 mg/100ml TRA at 30 for 10 h, as the pH of the extract decreases to 2.00 from 2.33 (the original pH of TRA), the η of DSSC with TiO2+SWCNT electrode increases to 0.67% from 0.11% of a traditional DSSC with TiO2 electrode. This performance improvement can be explained by the combined effect of the pH of sensitizer and the additions of SWCNT, a first investigation in DSSC using the natural sensitizer with SWCNT.

  17. Natural Dye Extracts of Areca Catechu Nut as dye Sensitizer for Titanium dioxide Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Murugakoothan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell was fabricated using titanium dioxide nano particles sensitized by a new natural dye extracted from areca catechu nut. The natural dye extract contains tannin which is rich in gallotannic acid. The pure titanium dioxide nano particles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and were sensitized by the natural dye to yield photo anode material. The Powder X-Ray Diffraction, UV-vis spectra, Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X- Ray spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy studies of pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 were carried out to analyze their structural, optical, functional group, compositional and morphological details. The dye sensitized solar cell was fabricated using TiO2 nano particles coated on FTO glass plate which is sensitized by the natural dye as photo anode and platinum coated FTO as counter electrode. The natural dye sensitized solar cell showed a solar light energy to electron conversion efficiency of 0.76 %.

  18. Amphiphilic block-graft copolymer templates for organized mesoporous TiO2 films in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Yup; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jung Min; Ahn, Joonmo; Cho, Hyung Hee; Kim, Jong Hak

    2016-01-01

    Amphiphilic block-graft copolymers composed of poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS) backbone and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) side chains are synthesized and combined with hydrophilically preformed TiO2 (Pre-TiO2), which works as a structural binder as well as titania source. This results in the formation of crack free, 6-μm-thick, organized mesoporous TiO2 (OM-TiO2) films via one-step doctor-blading based on self-assembly of SBS-g-POEM as well as preferential interaction of POEM chains with Pre-TiO2. SBS-g-POEM with different numbers of ethylene oxide repeating units, SBS-g-POEM(500) and SBS-g-POEM(950), are used to form OM-TiO2(500) and OM-TiO2(950), respectively. The efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with a quasi-solid-state polymer electrolyte reach 5.7% and 5.8% at 100 mW/cm2 for OM-TiO2(500) and OM-TiO2(950), respectively. The surface area of OM-TiO2(950) was greater than that of OM-TiO2(500) but the light reflectance was lower in the former, which is responsible for similar efficiency. Both DSSCs exhibit much higher efficiency than one (4.8%) with randomly-organized particulate TiO2 (Ran-TiO2), which is attributed to the higher dye loading, reduced charge recombination and improved pore infiltration of OM-TiO2. When utilizing poly((1-(4-ethenylphenyl)methyl)-3-butyl-imidazolium iodide) (PEBII) and mesoporous TiO2 spheres as the solid electrolyte and the scattering layer, the efficiency increases up to 7.5%, one of the highest values for N719-based solid-state DSSCs.

  19. Oxidovanadium(IV/V) complexes as new redox mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, Andigoni; Vlasiou, Manolis; Tziouris, Petros A; Tsiafoulis, Constantinos; Tsipis, Athanassios C; Rehder, Dieter; Kabanos, Themistoklis A; Keramidas, Anastasios D; Stathatos, Elias

    2015-04-20

    Corrosiveness is one of the main drawbacks of using the iodide/triiodide redox couple in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Alternative redox couples including transition metal complexes have been investigated where surprisingly high efficiencies for the conversion of solar to electrical energy have been achieved. In this paper, we examined the development of a DSSC using an electrolyte based on square pyramidal oxidovanadium(IV/V) complexes. The oxidovanadium(IV) complex (Ph4P)2[V(IV)O(hybeb)] was combined with its oxidized analogue (Ph4P)[V(V)O(hybeb)] {where hybeb(4-) is the tetradentate diamidodiphenolate ligand [1-(2-hydroxybenzamido)-2-(2-pyridinecarboxamido)benzenato}and applied as a redox couple in the electrolyte of DSSCs. The complexes exhibit large electron exchange and transfer rates, which are evident from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrochemistry, rendering the oxidovanadium(IV/V) compounds suitable for redox mediators in DSSCs. The very large self-exchange rate constant offered an insight into the mechanism of the exchange reaction most likely mediated through an outer-sphere exchange mechanism. The [V(IV)O(hybeb)](2-)/[V(V)O(hybeb)](-) redox potential and the energy of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the sensitizing dye N719 and the HOMO of [V(IV)O(hybeb)](2-) were calculated by means of density functional theory electronic structure calculation methods. The complexes were applied as a new redox mediator in DSSCs, while the cell performance was studied in terms of the concentration of the reduced and oxidized form of the complexes. These studies were performed with the commercial Ru-based sensitizer N719 absorbed on a TiO2 semiconducting film in the DSSC. Maximum energy conversion efficiencies of 2% at simulated solar light (AM 1.5; 1000 W m(-2)) with an open circuit voltage of 660 mV, a short-circuit current of 5.2 mA cm(-2), and a fill factor of 0.58 were recorded without the presence of any additives in the

  20. Molecular design of organic dyes based on vinylene hexylthiophene bridge for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Three donor-(π-spacer)-acceptor(D-π-A) organic dyes,containing different groups(triphenylamine,di(p-tolyl)phenylamine,and 9-octylcarbazole moieties) as electron donors,were designed and synthesized.Nanocrystalline TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated by using these dyes.It was found that the variation of electron donors in the D-π-A dyes played an important role in modifying and tuning photophysical properties of organic dyes.Under standard global AM 1.5 solar condition,the DSSC based on the dye D2 showed the best photovoltaic performance:a short-circuit photocurrent density(Jsc) of 13.93 mA/cm2,an open-circuit photovoltage(Voc) of 0.71 V,and a fill factor(FF) of 0.679,corresponding to solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency(η) of 6.72%.

  1. Molecular design of organic dyes based on vinylene hexylthiophene bridge for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU DaXi; ZHAO Bin; SHEN Ping; HUANG Hui; LIU LiMing; TAN SongTing

    2009-01-01

    Three donor-(TT-spacer)-acceptor (D-tt-A) organic dyes,containing different groups (triphenylamine,di(p-tolyl)phenylamine,and 9-octylcarbazole moieties) as electron donors,were designed and synthesized. Nanocrystalline TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated by using these dyes. It was found that the variation of electron donors in the D-tt-A dyes played an important role in modifying and tuning photophysical properties of organic dyes. Under standard global AM 1.5 solar condition,the DSSC based on the dye D2 showed the best photovoltaic performance: a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 13.93 mA/cm2,an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.71 V,and a fill factor (FF) of 0.679,corresponding to solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency (77) of 6.72%.

  2. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cell with a specially tailored TiO{sub 2} compact layer prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M.H., E-mail: hanapiah801@ppinang.uitm.edu.my [NANO-Electronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rusop, M. [NANO-Electronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-07-05

    Highlights: • A novel gradient index antireflective TiO{sub 2} compact layer based DSSC was fabricated. • Higher right-shifted transmittance spectra favour the spectral response of N719 dye. • The arc-TiO{sub 2} film on ITO has decreased the charge interfacial resistance, R{sub 1}. • The arc-TiO{sub 2} film prevents electrons recombination at ITO and nc-TiO{sub 2} interfaces. • Almost 42% increment in the overall efficiency compared to the bare ITO cell. - Abstract: We demonstrate that a graded index TiO{sub 2} antireflective compact layer (arc-TiO{sub 2}) employed by RF sputtering can modulate the optical transmittance and reduce the electron recombination in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The spectral response of the DSSC is improved, due to higher and red-shifted transmittance spectra in a specific region that favours the sensitization effect of the dye. The effects of arc-TiO{sub 2} prepared at various RF sputtering powers to the performances of DSSC were investigated by means of the incident photo to current efficiency (IPCE), open-circuit voltage decay (OCVD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The slow decay of the photo-voltage attributed to the desirable merits of the arc-TiO{sub 2} compact layer has been evidenced by the OCVD measurement. Meanwhile, the improvement of adhesion between an arc-TiO{sub 2} film and porous-TiO{sub 2} has decreased the interfacial-charge resistance, R{sub 1} in the EIS measurement. This lower R{sub 1} then facilitates the charge-transfer process of the electron in the DSSC. At 100 W of RF power, these blended effects improved the overall conversion efficiency of the DSSC by an increase of 42% compared to the cell without the compact layer.

  3. Gold Tris(carboxyphenyl)corroles as Multifunctional Materials: Room Temperature Near-IR Phosphorescence and Applications to Photodynamic Therapy and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Abraham B; Day, Nicholas U; Mani, Tomoyasu; Rudine, Alexander B; Thomas, Kolle E; Gederaas, Odrun A; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Wamser, Carl C; Ghosh, Abhik

    2016-07-27

    Two amphiphilic corroles-5,10,15-tris(3-carboxyphenyl)corrole (H3[mTCPC]) and 5,10,15-tris(4-carboxyphenyl)corrole (H3[pTCPC])-and their gold complexes have been synthesized, and their photophysical properties and photovoltaic behavior have been investigated. Like other nonpolar gold corroles, Au[mTCPC] and Au[pTCPC] were both found to exhibit room temperature phosphorescence in deoxygenated solutions with quantum yields of ∼0.3% and triplet lifetimes of ∼75 μs. Both compounds exhibited significant activity as dyes in photodynamic therapy experiments and in dye-sensitized solar cells. Upon irradiation at 435 nm, both Au corroles exhibited significant phototoxicity against AY27 rat bladder cancer cells while the free-base corroles proved inactive. Dye-sensitized solar cells constructed using the free bases H3[mTCPC] and H3[pTCPC] exhibited low efficiencies (≪1%), well under that obtained with 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin, H2[pTCPP] (1.9%, cf. N719 9.5%). Likewise, Au[pTCPC] proved inefficient, with an efficiency of ∼0.2%. By contrast, Au[mTCPC] proved remarkably effective, exhibiting an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.56 V, a short-circuit current of 8.7 mA cm(-2), a fill factor of 0.72, and an efficiency of 3.5%. PMID:27414087

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dyes as sensitizers from Malaysia local fruit `Buah Mertajam'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Roshidah, N.; Hashim, M. Norhafiz; Mohamad, I. S.; Saad, N. Hidayah; Norizan, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the high conversion efficiency, low cost, green technology and easy to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using natural anthocyanin dyes as sensitizers. The DSSCs was fabricated by using natural anthocyanin dyes which were extracted from different parts of the plants inclusive `Buah Mertajam', `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. The natural anthocyanin dyes that found in flower, leaves and fruits were extracted by the simple procedures. This anthocyanin dye is used to replace the expensive chemical synthetic dyes due to its ability to effectively attach into the surface of Titanium dioxide (TiO2). A natural anthocyanin dyes molecule adsorbs to each particle of the TiO2 and acts as the absorber of the visible light. A natural anthocyanin dye from Buah Mertajam shows the best performance with the conversion efficiency of 5.948% and fill factor of 0.708 followed by natural anthocyanin dyes from `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. Buah Mertajam or scientifically known as eriglossum rubiginosum is a local Malaysia fruit.

  5. Efficient synthesis of triarylamine-based dyes for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Griebel, Jan; Hajduk, Anna; Friedrich, Dirk; Stark, Annegret; Abel, Bernd; Siefermann, Katrin R.

    2016-05-01

    The class of triarylamine-based dyes has proven great potential as efficient light absorbers in inverse (p-type) dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, detailed investigation and further improvement of p-type DSSCs is strongly hindered by the fact that available synthesis routes of triarylamine-based dyes are inefficient and particularly demanding with regard to time and costs. Here, we report on an efficient synthesis strategy for triarylamine-based dyes for p-type DSSCs. A protocol for the synthesis of the dye-precursor (4-(bis(4-bromophenyl)amino)benzoic acid) is presented along with its X-ray crystal structure. The dye precursor is obtained from the commercially available 4(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde in a yield of 87% and serves as a starting point for the synthesis of various triarylamine-based dyes. Starting from the precursor we further describe a synthesis protocol for the dye 4-{bis[4‧-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)-[1,1‧-biphenyl]-4-yl]amino}benzoic acid (also known as dye P4) in a yield of 74%. All synthesis steps are characterized by high yields and high purities without the need for laborious purification steps and thus fulfill essential requirements for scale-up.

  6. Electrochemical pulsed deposition of platinum nanoparticles on indium tin oxide/polyethylene terephthalate as a flexible counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Chih-Sheng [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China); Ma, Chen-Chi M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chuen-Horng [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chien-Kuo, E-mail: jack_hsieh@mail.mcut.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    In this study, a pulsed-mode electrochemical deposition (Pulse-ECD) technique was employed to deposit platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) on the indium tin oxide/polyethylene terephthalate (ITO/PET) substrate as a flexible counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The characteristic properties of the Pulse-ECD PtNPs were prepared and compared to the traditional (electron beam) Pt film. The surface morphologies of the PtNPs were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM). The FE-SEM results showed that our PtNPs were deposited uniformly on the ITO/PET flexible substrates via the Pulse-ECD technique. The AFM results indicated that the surface roughness of the pulsed PtNPs influenced the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSCs, due to the high specific surface area of PtNPs which enhanced the catalytic activities for the reduction (I{sub 3}{sup −} to I{sup −}) of redox electrolyte. In combination with a N719 dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSCs with the PtNPs flexible counter electrode showed a PCE of 4.3% under the illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mW cm{sup −2}). The results demonstrated that the Pulse-ECD PtNPs are good candidate for flexible DSSCs. - Highlights: • We used indium tin oxide/polyethylene terephthalate as a flexible substrate. • We utilized pulse electrochemical deposition to deposit platinum nanoparticles. • We synthesized a flexible counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). • The power conversion efficiency of DSSC was measured to be 4.3%.

  7. Halogen Bonding Promotes Higher Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photovoltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sarah J C; Parlane, Fraser G L; Swords, Wesley B; Kellett, Cameron W; Du, Chuan; Lam, Brian; Dean, Rebecca K; Hu, Ke; Meyer, Gerald J; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2016-08-24

    We report here an enhancement in photovoltage for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) where halogen-bonding interactions exist between a nucleophilic electrolyte species (I(-)) and a photo-oxidized dye immobilized on a TiO2 surface. The triarylamine-based dyes under investigation showed larger rate constants for dye regeneration (kreg) by the nucleophilic electrolyte species when heavier halogen substituents were positioned on the dye. The open-circuit voltages (VOC) tracked these kreg values. This analysis of a homologous series of dyes that differ only in the identity of two halogen substituents provides compelling evidence that the DSSC photovoltage is sensitive to kreg. This study also provides the first direct evidence that halogen-bonding interactions between the dye and the electrolyte can bolster DSSC performance.

  8. Development of a new solid-state absorber material for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swapna Lilly Cyriac; B Deepika; Bhaskaran Pillai; S V Nair; K R V Subramanian

    2014-05-01

    In contrast to the conventional DSSC systems, where the dye molecules are used as light harvesting material, here a solid-state absorber was used as a sensitizer in conjunction with the dye. The materials like ZnO and Al2O3 : C, which will show optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) upon irradiation were used as extremely thin absorber layers. This novel architecture allows broader spectral absorption, an increase in photocurrent, and hence, an improved efficiency because of the mobility of the trapped electrons in the absorber material after irradiation, to the TiO2 conduction band. Nanocrystalline mesoporous TiO2 photoanodes were fabricated using these solid-state absorber materials and after irradiation, a few number of samples were co-sensitized with N719 dye. On comparing both the dye loaded photoanodes (ZnO/TiO2 and Al2O3 : C/TiO2), it can be concluded from the present studies that, the Al2O3 : C is superior to ZnO under photon irradiation. Al2O3 : C is more sensitive to photon irradiation than ZnO and hence there can be more trap centres produced in Al2O3 : C.

  9. Correlating the photovoltaic performance of alumina modified dye-sensitized solar cells with the properties of metal-free organic sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Shengqiang [Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Korea University, Jochiwon, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Centre for Organic Photonics and Electronics, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia); Geng, Yan [Centre for Organic Photonics and Electronics, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia); Kim, Chulwoo; Paik, Sanghyun [Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Korea University, Jochiwon, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jaejung, E-mail: jko@korea.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Korea University, Jochiwon, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlating the effect of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer with the molecular size and the LUMO level of the sensitizers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over 8% in the efficiency of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} modified DSSCs can be facilely obtained using simple organic sensitizers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overcoat on the pore microstructure and electronic energy level of the electrode was examined. - Abstract: Low photovoltage for metal-free organic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been restricting them surpassing the equivalent cells based on ruthenium complex sensitizers (typically N719). In this study, an alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) layer was employed to cover on the titania (TiO{sub 2}) surface before dye loading in order to improve the photovoltage of the organic dye based DSSCs. The open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of the solar cell was found to increase by 0.02-0.06 V for a variety of organic sensitizers by the presence of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overcoat, while the photocurrent (J{sub sc}) was observed highly dependent on the property of the sensitizer. Results show that for the sensitizers with a low Low-Unoccupied-Molecular-Orbital (LUMO) level or a large molecular size, the DSSC yielded a decreased J{sub sc} due to two factors, (i) an insufficient driving force for electron injection due to the upshift of the conduction band level of the TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode, and (ii) a decrease of dye adsorption amount for the TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode in comparison with the referenced TiO{sub 2} electrode because of the reduced pore size and porosity by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating. However, for the sensitizers with a high (more negative) LUMO level and a small molecular size, the J{sub sc} of the DSSCs based on the TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode was very close to that composed of only TiO{sub 2} electrode. Using such organic dyes sensitizing on the TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin; Maiaugree, Wasan; Suriharn, Bhalang; Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-09-01

    Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  11. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on dyes extracted from dried plant leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Sofyan A. Taya; Taher M. El-Agez; ELREFI, Kamal S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, natural dyes were extracted from dried plant leaves of plant cream, apricot, figs, apples, sage, thyme, mint, Ziziphus jujuba, orange, shade tree, basil, berry, Mirabelle plum, Victoria plum, peach, mango, pomegranate, banana, guava, and fluoridation-treated plant. The extracts were used as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The cells were assembled using nanostructured TiO2 films. The best performance was observed for the DSSC sensitized with Ziziphus juju...

  12. Molecular design and photovoltaic performance of organic dyes containing phenothiazine for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyo Jeong; Nam, Jung Eun; Sim, Kyoseung; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Jae Hong; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-10-01

    We synthesized novel organic photosensitizers based on fluorine-substituted phenothiazine with thiophene bridge units in the chromophore for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Furthermore, organic dyes with different acceptors exhibited higher molar extinction coefficients, and better light absorption at longer wavelengths. The photovoltaic properties of organic dyes composed of different acceptors in their chromophores were measured to identify their effects on the DSSC performance. The organic dye, PFSCN2 containing multi-cyanoacrylic acid as the electron acceptor, showed a power conversion efficiency of 4.67% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm2). The retarded recombination kinetics from TiO2 electrode to electrolyte enhanced the electron life time of the organic dye, PFSCN2 in the photoanode of the DSSC. This was confirmed with impedance analysis.

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from achiote seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ortiz, N.M.; Vazquez-Maldonado, I.A.; Azamar-Barrios, J.A.; Oskam, G. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Merida, Yuc. 97310 (Mexico); Perez-Espadas, A.R.; Mena-Rejon, G.J. [Laboratorio de Quimica Organica de Investigacion, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Merida, Yuc. 97150 (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    We have explored the application of natural dyes extracted from the seeds of the achiote shrub (Bixa orellana L.) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The main pigments are bixin and norbixin, which were obtained by separation and purification from the dark-red extract (annatto). The dyes were characterized using {sup 1}H-NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Solar cells were prepared using TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanostructured, mesoporous films and the annatto, bixin, and norbixin as sensitizers. The best results were obtained with bixin-sensitized TiO{sub 2} solar cells with efficiencies of up to 0.53%, illustrating the importance of purification of dyes from natural extracts. (author)

  14. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

    2014-12-01

    The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

  15. Modeling the efficiency of Förster resonant energy transfer from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hoke, Eric T.

    2010-02-11

    Förster resonant energy transfer can improve the spectral breadth, absorption and energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. In this design, unattached relay dyes absorb the high energy photons and transfer the excitation to sensitizing dye molecules by Förster resonant energy transfer. We use an analytic theory to calculate the excitation transfer efficiency from the relay dye to the sensitizing dye accounting for dynamic quenching and relay dye diffusion. We present calculations for pores of cylindrical and spherical geometry and examine the effects of the Förster radius, the pore size, sensitizing dye surface concentration, collisional quenching rate, and relay dye lifetime. We find that the excitation transfer efficiency can easily exceed 90% for appropriately chosen dyes and propose two different strategies for selecting dyes to achieve record power conversion efficiencies. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

  16. Pre dye treated titanium dioxide nanoparticles synthesized by modified sol-gel method for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pure and pre dye treated titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel and modified sol-gel methods, respectively. The pre dye treatment has improved the properties of TiO2, such as uniform dye adsorption, reduced agglomeration, improved morphology and less dye aggregation. The brazilein pigment-rich Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract was used as natural dye sensitizer for pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles. Low cost and environment friendly dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye showed solar light to electron conversion efficiencies of 1.09 and 1.65 %, respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2-based DSSC showed 51 % improvement in efficiency when compared to that of conventionally prepared DSSC.

  17. Influence of TiCl4 treatment on performance of dye-sensitized solar cell assembled with nano-TiO2 coating deposited by vacuum cold spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Shengqiang; LI Changjiu; YANG Guanjun; ZHANG Lingzi

    2006-01-01

    Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) treatment was employed to TiO2 coating deposited on fluoride-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass and indium oxide doped tin oxide (ITO) conducting glass, respectively. The nano-crystalline TiO2coating was deposited using a composite powder composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and 25 nm TiO2 particles by vacuum cold spraying (VCS) process. A commercial N-719 dye was used to adsorb on the surface of TiO2 coating to prepare TiO2 electrode, which was applied to assemble dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC).The cell performance was measured under simulated solar light at an intensity of 100 mW·cm-2.Results show that with an FTO substrate the DSC composed of a VCS TiO2 electrode untreated by TiCl4 gives a short-circuit current density of 13.1 mA·cm-2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.60 V corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 4.4%. It is found that after TiCl4 treatment to the VCSTiO2 electrode with an FTO substrate, the short circuit current density of the cell increases by 31%, the open-circuit voltage increases by 60 mV and a higher conversion yield of 6.5% was obtained. However, when an ITOsubstrate is used to deposit TiO2 coating by VCS, after TiCl4 treatment, the conversion efficiency of the assembled cell reduces slightly due to corrosionof the conducting layer on the ITO glass by TiCl4.

  18. Worm-like mesoporous TiO2 thin films templated using comb copolymer for dye-sensitized solar cells with polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hun; Park, Cheol Hun; Jung, Jung Pyo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2015-12-01

    A comb copolymer consisting of hydrophobic poly(2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl] ethyl methacrylate) (PBEM) and hydrophilic poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) is synthesized via one-pot free radical polymerization. The PBEM-POEM comb copolymer is used as an agent to direct the structure toward one consisting of worm-like mesoporous TiO2 (WM-TiO2) films. The selective, preferential interaction between the titania precursor and the hydrophilic POEM chains is responsible for the formation of a well-organized worm-like mesostructure. The morphology of the WM-TiO2 films is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In particular, the effects of film thickness on the optical and electrochemical properties are systematically investigated. The introduction of the WM-TiO2 layer between the nanocrystalline TiO2 (NC-TiO2) layer and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass results in increased transmittance of visible light due to an antireflective property, decreased interfacial resistance and suppressed charge recombination at the interfaces of NC-TiO2/FTO glass. As a result, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with a polymer electrolyte is improved from 5.3% to 6.6% at an optimum film thickness (310 nm). The obtained efficiency represents a higher efficiency for the N719-based DSSC with a solvent-free, polymer electrolyte.

  19. Electrochemical and spectroscopic characterization of dye-sensitized solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Rathi, Neelima

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Novel porphyrin and triphenylamine based organic dyes with different electron-donating moieties, ??-bridging units and cyanoacetic acid as an acceptor (D-??-A) were characterised for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. The electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of the dyes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, Raman, ATR-FTIR, UV-Vis, fluorescence and XPS. The UV-Vis spectra of all the dyes displayed maximum absorbances in the range 400-500 nm. ATR-FTIR and Raman spe...

  20. Utilization of Naturally Occurring Dyes as Sensitizers in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sawhney, Nipun; Satapathi, Soumitra

    2015-01-01

    Dye sensitized Solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated with four naturally occurring anthocyanin dyes extracted from naturally found fruits/ juices (viz. Indian Jamun, Plum, Black Currant and Berries) as sensitizers. Extraction of anthocyanin was done using acidified ethanol. The highest power conversion efficiencies ({\\eta}) of 0.55% and 0.53% were achieved for the DSSCs fabricated using anthocyanin extracts of blackcurrant and mixed berry juice. Widespread availability of these fruits/juices, h...

  1. ITO/TiO2/PTh/N719复合电极的光电化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王郝; 许世红; 赵象禄; 李生英

    2013-01-01

    以PTh和N719敏化TiO2得到了ITO/TiO2、TO/TiO2/PTh、ITO/TiO2/PTh/N719太阳能电池光阳极,表征了各电极的光谱特性和光电性能.DRS分析表明,TiO2/PTh的吸收限在605nm处,带隙能为2.05eV.ITO/TiO2/PTh/N719复合电极的光电转换效率为6.2%.复合敏化电极中PTh与TiO2之间形成的p-n异质结能够减少光生电子-空穴的反向复合,提高光电转换效率.

  2. Review of Polymer, Dye-Sensitized, and Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Mohd-Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is now recognized as potential application in developing flexible, large area, and low cost photovoltaic devices. Several conjugated low bandgap polymers, dyes, and underlayer materials based on the previous studies are quoted in this paper, which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. All of these materials are designed to help harvest more sunlight in a wider range of the solar spectrum besides enhancing the rate of charge transfer in a device structure. This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells.

  3. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells. PMID:27443236

  4. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-07-22

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells.

  5. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells. PMID:27443236

  6. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells.

  7. Application of highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube-arrays in heterojunction dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Maggie; Shankar, Karthik; Varghese, Oomman K.; Mor, Gopal K.; Grimes, Craig A.

    2006-06-01

    Highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays are made by potentiostatic anodization of a titanium film in a fluoride containing electrolyte. Here we describe the application of this unique material architecture in both front-side and back-side illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The back-side illuminated solar cells are based on the use of 6.2 µm long (110 nm pore diameter, 20 nm wall thickness) highly-ordered nanotube-array films made by anodization of a 250 µm thick Ti foil in a KF electrolyte. Front-side illuminated solar cells use a negative electrode composed of optically transparent nanotube arrays, approximately 3600 nm in length (46 nm pore diameter, 17 nm wall thickness), grown on a fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrate by anodic oxidation of a previously deposited RF-sputtered titanium thin film in a HF electrolyte. After crystallization by oxygen annealling the nanotube-arrays are treated with TiCl4 to enhance photocurrent amplitudes. The arrays are then sensitized by a self-assembled monolayer of bis(tetrabutylammonium)-cis-(dithiocyanato)-N, N'- bis(4-carboxylato-4'-carboxylic acid-2, 2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (commonly called 'N719'). Superior photoresponse is obtained using acetonitrile as the dye solvent. Voltage decay measurements indicate that the highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube-arrays, in comparison with nanoparticulate systems, provide excellent pathways for electron percolation with superior electron lifetimes. The front-side illuminated DSSCs, show a typical AM 1.5 photocurrent of 10.3 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage of 0.84 V, 0.54 fill factor, and 4.7% efficiency although the transparent nanotube-array negative electrode is only 360 nm thick. The back-side illuminated DSSCs show an AM 1.5 short-circuit current density of 10.6 mA cm-2, 0.82 V open circuit potential and a 0.51 fill factor yielding a solar conversion efficiency of 4.4%.

  8. Structural color-tunable mesoporous bragg stack layers based on graft copolymer self-assembly for high-efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Soo; Park, Jung Tae; Kim, Jong Hak

    2016-08-01

    We present a facile fabrication route for structural color-tunable mesoporous Bragg stack (BS) layers based on the self-assembly of a cost-effective graft copolymer. The mesoporous BS layers are prepared through the alternating deposition of organized mesoporous-TiO2 (OM-TiO2) and -SiO2 (OM-SiO2) films on the non-conducting side of the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The OM layers with controlled porosity, pore size, and refractive index are templated with amphiphilic graft copolymers consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) backbones and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) side chains, i.e., PVC-g-POEM. The morphology and properties of the structural color-tunable mesoporous BS-functionalized electrodes are characterized using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), spectroscopic ellipsometry, and reflectance spectroscopy. The solid-state DSSCs (ssDSSCs) based on a structural color-tunable mesoporous BS counter electrode with a single-component solid electrolyte show an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 7.1%, which is much greater than that of conventional nanocrystalline TiO2-based cells and one of the highest values for N719 dye-based ssDSSCs. The enhancement of η is due to the enhancement of current density (Jsc), attributed to the improved light harvesting properties without considerable decrease in fill factor (FF) or open-circuit voltage (Voc), as confirmed by incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

  9. Distinction between SnO2 nanoparticles synthesized using co-precipitation and solvothermal methods for the photovoltaic efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M M Rashad; I A Ibrahim; I Osama; A E Shalan

    2014-06-01

    Nanocrystalline SnO2 powders prepared by solvothermal and co-precipitation pathways have been characterized using XRD, TEM, UV–Visible absorption, BET specific surface area (BET) method, EIS and – measurements. The obtained powders have a surface area and size of 38.59 m2/g and 10.63 nm for the SnO2 powders synthesized solvothermally at a temperature of 200 °C for 24 h, while the values were 32.59 m2/g and 16.20 nm for the formed hydroxide precursor annealed at 1000 °C for 2 h by co-precipitation route. The microstructure of the formed powders appeared as tetragonal-like structure. Thus, the prepared SnO2 nanopowders using two pathways were applied as an electrode in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The photoelectrochemical measurements indicated that the cell presents short-circuit photocurrent (sc), open circuit voltage (oc) and fill factor (FF) were 7.017 mA/cm2, 0.690 V and 69.68%, respectively, for solvothermal route and they were 4.241 mA/cm2, 0.756 V and 66.74%, respectively, for co-precipitation method. The energy conversion efficiency of the solvothermal SnO2 powders was considerably higher than that formed by co-precipitation powders; ∼ 3.20% (solvothermal) and 2.01% (co-precipitation) with the N719 dye under 100 mW/cm2 of simulated sunlight, respectively. These results were in agreement with EIS study showing that the electrons were transferred rapidly to the surface of the solvothermal-modified SnO2 nanoparticles, compared with that of a co-precipitation-modified SnO2 nanoparticles.

  10. Vegetable-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Antonino; Di Marco, Gaetano; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bonaccorso, Francesco

    2015-05-21

    There is currently a large effort to improve the performance of low cost renewable energy devices. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are emerging as one of the most promising low cost photovoltaic technologies, addressing "secure, clean and efficient solar energy conversion". Vegetable dyes, extracted from algae, flowers, fruit and leaves, can be used as sensitizers in DSSCs. Thus far, anthocyanin and betalain extracts together with selected chlorophyll derivatives are the most successful vegetable sensitizers. This review analyses recent progress in the exploitation of vegetable dyes for solar energy conversion and compares them to the properties of synthetic dyes. We provide an in-depth discussion on the main limitation of cell performance e.g. dye degradation, effective electron injection from the dye into the conduction band of semiconducting nanoparticles, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, outlining future developments for the use of vegetable sensitizers in DSSCs. We also discuss the cost of vegetable dyes and how their versatility can boost the advancement of new power management solutions, especially for their integration in living environments, making the practical application of such systems economically viable. Finally, we present our view on future prospects in the development of synthetic analogues of vegetable dyes as sensitizers in DSSCs.

  11. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2014-07-01

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

  12. Density-controlled ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode for improving dye-sensitized solar cells performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jimmy; Lin, Chih-Min; Yin, Stuart (.

    2015-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) via ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode with density-controlled abilities are presented in this paper. This nanocomposite photoanode is composed of TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed into densitycontrolled vertically aligned ZnO-TiO2 core-shell nanorod arrays. The density-controlled ZnO-TiO2 core-shell nanorod arrays were synthesized directly onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using an innovative two-step wet chemical route. First, the density-controlled ZnO nanorod arrays were formed by applying a ZnO hydrothermal process from a TiO2 nanocrystals template. Second, the ZnO-TiO2 core-shell nanorod arrays were formed by depositing a TiO2 shell layer from a sol-gel process. The major advantages of a density-controlled ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode include (1) providing a better diffusion path from ZnO nanorod arrays and (2) reducing the recombination loss by introducing an energy barrier layer TiO2 conformal shell coating. To validate the advantages of a density-controlled ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode, DSSCs based on a ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode were fabricated, in which N719 dye was used. The average dimensions of the ZnO nanorod arrays were 20 μm and 650 nm for the length and the diameter, respectively, while the designated spacing between each nanorod was around 5 μm. The performance of the solar cell was tested by using a standard AM 1.5 solar simulator from Newport Corporation. The experimental results confirmed that an open-circuit voltage, 0.93 V, was achieved, which was much higher than the conventional TiO2 nanoparticles thin film structure for the same thickness. Thus, density-controlled ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanodes could improve the performance of DSSCs by offering a better electron diffusion path.

  13. Enhanced Electrochemical Catalytic Efficiencies of Electrochemically Deposited Platinum Nanocubes as a Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Hsuan; Tsai, Ming-Chi; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Wu, Hsuan-Chung; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Tsai, Chuen-Horng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2015-12-01

    Platinum nanocubes (PtNCs) were deposited onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by electrochemical deposition (ECD) method and utilized as a counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this study, we controlled the growth of the crystalline plane to synthesize the single-crystal PtNCs at room temperature. The morphologies and crystalline nanostructure of the ECD PtNCs were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The surface roughness of the ECD PtNCs was examined by atomic force microscopy. The electrochemical properties of the ECD PtNCs were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry, Tafel polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectra. The Pt loading was examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The DSSCs were assembled via an N719 dye-sensitized titanium dioxide working electrode, an iodine-based electrolyte, and a CE. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSCs with the ECD PtNC CE was examined under the illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mWcm-2). The PtNCs in this study presented a single-crystal nanostructure that can raise the electron mobility to let up the charge-transfer impedance and promote the charge-transfer rate. In this work, the electrocatalytic mass activity (MA) of the Pt film and PtNCs was 1.508 and 4.088 mAmg-1, respectively, and the MA of PtNCs was 2.71 times than that of the Pt film. The DSSCs with the pulse-ECD PtNC CE showed a PCE of 6.48 %, which is higher than the cell using the conventional Pt film CE (a PCE of 6.18 %). In contrast to the conventional Pt film CE which is fabricated by electron beam evaporation method, our pulse-ECD PtNCs maximized the Pt catalytic properties as a CE in DSSCs. The results demonstrated that the PtNCs played a good catalyst for iodide/triiodide redox couple reactions in the DSSCs and provided a potential strategy for electrochemical catalytic applications.

  14. Dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dyes extracted from spinach and ipomoea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H., E-mail: f10381@ntut.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1. Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Wu, H.M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, No. 40, Sec. 3, Jhongshan N. Rd. Jhongshan District, Taipei City 104, Taiwan (China); Chen, T.L. [Department of Industrial Design, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Huang, K.D. [Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Jwo, C.S. [Department of Energy and Air-Conditioning Refrigeration Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Lo, Y.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1. Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-16

    This study used spinach extract, ipomoea leaf extract and their mixed extracts as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Spinach and ipomoea leaves were first placed separately in ethanol and the chlorophyll of these two kinds of plants was extracted to serve as the natural dyes for using in DSSCs. In addition, the self-developed nanofluid synthesis system prepared a TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 50 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to let the TiO{sub 2} deposit nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11.61 {mu}m. This TiO{sub 2} thin film underwent sintering at 450 {sup o}C to enhance the compactness of thin film. Finally, the sintered TiO{sub 2} thin film was immersed in the natural dye solutions extracted from spinach and ipomoea leaves, completing the production of the anode of DSSC. This study then further inspected the fill factor, photoelectric conversion efficiency and incident photon current efficiency of the encapsulated DSSC. According to the experimental results of current-voltage curve, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by natural dyes from ipomoea leaf extract is 0.318% under extraction temperature of 50 {sup o}C and pH value of extraction fluid at 1.0. This paper also investigated the influence of the temperature in the extraction process of this kind of natural dye and the influence of pH value of the dye solution on the UV-VIS patterns absorption spectra of the prepared natural dye solutions, and the influence of these two factors on the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dyes extracted from spinach and ipomoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study used spinach extract, ipomoea leaf extract and their mixed extracts as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Spinach and ipomoea leaves were first placed separately in ethanol and the chlorophyll of these two kinds of plants was extracted to serve as the natural dyes for using in DSSCs. In addition, the self-developed nanofluid synthesis system prepared a TiO2 nanofluid with an average particle size of 50 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to let the TiO2 deposit nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO2 thin film with the thickness of 11.61 μm. This TiO2 thin film underwent sintering at 450 oC to enhance the compactness of thin film. Finally, the sintered TiO2 thin film was immersed in the natural dye solutions extracted from spinach and ipomoea leaves, completing the production of the anode of DSSC. This study then further inspected the fill factor, photoelectric conversion efficiency and incident photon current efficiency of the encapsulated DSSC. According to the experimental results of current-voltage curve, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by natural dyes from ipomoea leaf extract is 0.318% under extraction temperature of 50 oC and pH value of extraction fluid at 1.0. This paper also investigated the influence of the temperature in the extraction process of this kind of natural dye and the influence of pH value of the dye solution on the UV-VIS patterns absorption spectra of the prepared natural dye solutions, and the influence of these two factors on the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  16. Molecular modification of coumarin dyes for more efficient dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-de-Armas, Rocio; San-Miguel, Miguel A.; Oviedo, Jaime; Sanz, Javier Fdez. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2012-05-21

    In this work, new coumarin based dyes for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have been designed by introducing several substituent groups in different positions of the NKX-2311 structure. Two types of substitutions have been considered: the introduction of three electron-donating groups (-OH, -NH{sub 2}, and -OCH{sub 3}) and two different substituents with steric effect: -CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}- and -CH{sub 2}-HC=CH-. The electronic absorption spectra (position and width of the first band and absorption threshold) and the position of the LUMO level related to the conduction band have been used as theoretical criteria to evaluate the efficiency of the new dyes. The introduction of a -NH{sub 2} group produces a redshift of the absorption maximum position and the absorption threshold, which could improve the cell efficiency. In contrast, the introduction of -CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}- does not modify significantly the electronic structure of NKX-2311, but it might prevent aggregation. Finally, -CH{sub 2}-HC=CH- produces important changes both in the electronic spectrum and in the electronic structure of the dye, and it would be expected as an improvement of cell efficiency for these dyes.

  17. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A.; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a).

  18. Vibrational spectroscopy of photosensitizer dyes for organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Leon, C.

    2005-11-18

    Ruthenium(II) complexes containing polypyridyl ligands are intensely investigated as potential photosensitizers in organic solar cells. Of particular interest is their use in dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanocrystalline films of TiO{sub 2}. Functional groups of the dye allow for efficient anchoring on the semiconductor surface and promote the electronic communication between the donor orbital of the dye and the conduction band of the semiconductor. In the present work a new dye, [Ru(dcbpyH{sub 2}){sub 2}(bpy-TPA{sub 2})](PF6{sub )2}, and the well known (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}[Ru(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] complex were spectroscopically characterized. The electronic transitions of both dyes showed solvatochromic shifts due to specific interactions of the ligands with the solvent molecules. The surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra of the dyes dissolved in water, ethanol, and acetonitrile were measured in silver and gold colloidal solutions. The results demonstrate that the dyes were adsorbed on the metallic nanoparticles in different ways for different solvents. It was also found that in the gold colloid, the aqueous solutions of both dyes did not produce any SERS signal, whereas in ethanolic solution the SERS effect was very weak. Deprotonation, H-bonding, and donor-acceptor interactions seem to determine these different behaviors. Our results indicate the important role of the charge transfer mechanism in SERS. The adsorption of the dye on two different TiO{sub 2} substrates, anatase paste films and anatase nanopowder, was also studied to clarify the role of the carboxylate groups in the anchoring process of the dyes on the semiconductor surface. The recorded spectra indicate a strong dependence of the anchoring configuration on the morphology of the semiconductor. (orig.)

  19. Photosensitizing activity of ferrocenyl bearing Ni(II) and Cu(II) dithiocarbamates in dye sensitized TiO2 solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vikram; Chauhan, Ratna; Gupta, Ajit N; Kumar, Vinod; Drew, Michael G B; Bahadur, Lal; Singh, Nanhai

    2014-03-28

    Biferrocene bearing planar metal dithiocarbamates, namely, [M(FcCH2dtc)2] (dtc = furan-2-ylmethyldithiocarbamate, M = Cu(II) 1, Ni(II) 4; dtc = benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-ylmethyl dithiocarbamate, M = Cu(II) 2, Ni(II) 5; dtc = pyridin-2-ylmethyldithiocarbamate, M = Cu(II) 3, Ni(II) 6; Fc = ferrocenyl; Fe(η(5)-C5H5)(η(5)-C5H4-)), have been synthesized and characterized by microanalysis, magnetic susceptibility and cyclic voltammetry. Structures of 1, 2 and 4 have been obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction. These complexes with pyridyl, piperonyl and furfuryl as heteroaromatic groups in the dithiocarbamate ligands have been exploited as sensitizers in dye sensitized TiO2 solar cells for converting sunlight into electrical energy. Light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies achieved using these sensitizers are considerably greater than those obtained with analogous compounds previously reported by us. The overall conversion efficiency (η) is found to be dependent upon the nature of the heteroaromatic conjugated linkers and increases in the order η (ferrocenylfurfuryl) > η (ferrocenylpiperonyl) > η (ferrocenylpyridyl) all values being lower than that obtained in the reference Ru dye N719 under similar experimental conditions. The conversion efficiencies also vary with the metal being higher for Ni (4, 5 and 6) than for Cu complexes (1, 2 and 3). The X-ray structural analyses reveal the existence of rare M···H-C intermolecular anagostic interactions involving the metal atom in chain motifs in 1 and 4, which are retained in solution as evidenced by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:24473675

  20. Dyes extracted from Trigonella seeds as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batniji, Amal; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Ghamri, Hatem

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the extract of Trigonella seeds was used as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The natural dye was extracted from the seeds using water and alcohol as solvents for the raw material. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of Trigonella extract solution and dye adsorbed on TiO2 film were measured. DSSCs sensitized by Trigonella extracted using water as a solvent exhibited better performance with efficiency of 0.215 %. The performance of the fabricated DSSCs was attempted to enhance by acid treatment of the FTO substrates with HNO3, H3PO4, and H2SO4. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the fabricated cells was also carried out.

  1. Novel organic dyes based on phenyl-substituted benzimidazole for dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltan, Gözde Murat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Celal Bayar University, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Dinçalp, Haluk, E-mail: haluk.dincalp@cbu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Celal Bayar University, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Kıran, Merve; Zafer, Ceylan [Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Erbaş, Seçil Çelik [Celal Bayar University, Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey)

    2015-08-01

    Two new sensitizers derived from benzimidazole core for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications were designed and synthesized as D–π–A structures, in which two phenyl-substituted benzimidazole group, a phenyl ring and a cyanoacrylic acid were used as the electron donor, π-conjugated linkage and the electron acceptor, respectively. Effect of methoxy- and N,N-dimetylamino- moieties attached to the phenyl groups of benzimidazole were investigated by means of optical and photovoltaic measurements. The compounds exhibit broad absorption maximum at 387 nm with the tail extending up to 500 nm on TiO{sub 2}-coated thin film. The longer wavelength absorption band around 360 nm and the much longer decay components could be attributed to the existence of charge transfer state of the dyes in solutions. DSSC device fabricated by using methoxy substituted dye (BI5a) as a sensitizer shows much better incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 64% giving cell efficiency of 2.68%. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Long decay times suggest the delayed fluorescence caused by the existence of ICT. • The best solar energy conversion efficiency was obtained for BI5a dye (2.68%). • More fluorescent BI5a dye gives higher photocurrent generation.

  2. Dye sensitized photovoltaic cells: Attaching conjugated polymers to zwitterionic ruthenium dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Biancardo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of a zwitterionic ruthenium dye that binds to anatase surfaces and has a built-in functionality that allows for the attachment of a conjugated polymer chain is presented. The system was found to adsorb on the surface of anatase anchored by the ruthenium dye. Two types of devices were...... prepared: standard photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cells and polymer solar cells. The PEC solar cells employed a sandwich geometry between TiO2 nanoporous photoanodes and Pt counter electrodes using LiI/I-2 in CH3CN as an electrolyte. The polymer solar cells employed planar anatase electrodes...... and the complex was adsorbed onto the surface before evaporation of gold electrodes. Alternative devices were obtained by spincoating of the polymer solution onto PEDOT:PSS covered indium-doped tin oxide substrates. PEC solar cells gave the best results and the main finding was that the polymer chain served...

  3. Panchromatic Response in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Containing Phosphorescent Energy Relay Dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2009-11-23

    Running relay: Incorporating an energyrelay dye (ERD) into the hole transporter of a dye-sensitized solar cell increased power-conversion efficiency by 29% by extending light harvesting into the blue region. In the operating mechanism (see picture), absorption of red photons by the sensitizer transfers an electron into TiO2 and a hole into the electrolyte. Blue photons absorbed by the ERD are transferred by FRET to the sensitizer. Chemical Equitation Presentation © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  4. Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (NDSSCs) From Opuntia Prickly Pear Dye Using ZnO Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Method

    OpenAIRE

    K. M. Prabu; P.M.Anbarasan

    2014-01-01

    Natural dye-sensitized solar cells (NDSSCs) have gained considerable attention in the field of solar energy due to their simple fabrication, good efficiency, and low production cost. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted natural dyes. W...

  5. Oligothiophene-linked D-π-A type phenothiazine dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huan-Huan; Qian, Xing; Chang, Wen-Ying; Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Yi-Zhou; Zheng, Jian-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Three novel phenothiazine dyes (JY31-33) featured oligothiophene π-bridge have been designed, synthesized and applied as photosensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The introduction of alkyl chains on oligothiophene π-bridge is found to significantly improve the open-circuit voltage of the resultant device. Phenothiazine bearing a 4-butoxyphenyl group as the secondary donor exhibits a stronger electron-donating ability and a positive acceleration on the short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage. The dye JY33 containing a secondary donor and two alkyl chains finally gives a high efficiency of 7.48% under the 100 mW cm-2 simulated AM1.5 sunlight, with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 17.18 mA cm-2, an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 742 mV and a fill factor (FF) of 0.59.

  6. Microbial fuel cell with an azo-dye-feeding cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangzhou Inst. of Geochemistry; Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangdon Key Lab. of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control; Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, Fang-bai [Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangdon Key Lab. of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control; Feng, Chun-hua [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Li, Xiang-zhong [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Civil and Structural Engineering

    2009-11-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were constructed using azo dyes as the cathode oxidants to accept the electrons produced from the respiration of Klebsiella pneumoniae strain L17 in the anode. Experimental results showed that a methyl orange (MO)-feeding MFC produced a comparable performance against that of an air-based one at pH 3.0 and that azo dyes including MO, Orange I, and Orange II could be successfully degraded in such cathodes. The reaction rate constant ({kappa}) of azo dye reduction was positively correlated with the power output which was highly dependent on the catholyte pH and the dye molecular structure. When pH was varied from 3.0 to 9.0, the k value in relation to MO degradation decreased from 0.298 to 0.016 {mu}mol min{sup -1}, and the maximum power density decreased from 34.77 to 1.51 mW m{sup -2}. The performances of the MFC fed with different azo dyes can be ranked from good to poor as MO > Orange I > Orange II. Furthermore, the cyclic voltammograms of azo dyes disclosed that the pH and the dye structure determined their redox potentials. A higher redox potential corresponded to a higher reaction rate. (orig.)

  7. Performance variation from triphenylamine- to carbazole-triphenylamine-rhodaniline-3-acetic acid dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We synthesized an organic dye of carbazole-rhodaniline-3-acetic acid-triphenylamine. → A dye-sensitized solar cell is fabricated using this dye with efficiency of 4.64%. → Carbazole donor in the dye molecule provides electron in increasing efficiency. → Two rhodaniline-3-acetic acids play a key role in increasing efficiency. → AC impedance proves this dye's effect on enhancing charge transfer in TiO2. - Abstract: Organic dyes have been synthesized which contain an extra-electron donor (carbazole) and electron acceptors (rhodaniline-3-acetic acid) on triphenylamines (TPA). Photophysical, electrochemical, and theoretical computational methods have categorized these compounds. Nanocrystalline TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated using these dye molecules as light-harvesting sensitizers. The overall efficiency of sensitized cells has 4.64% relative to a cis-di(thiocyanato)-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl)-4,4'-dicarboxylate ruthenium (II) (N3 dye)-sensitized device (7.83%) fabricated and measured under the same conditions. Carbazole-electron donation in the dye molecules plays a key role in the increased efficiency. Two rhodaniline-3-acetic acid groups appear to help convey the charge transfer from the excited dye molecules to the conduction band of TiO2, leading to a higher efficiency of devices using such a dye. Electrochemical impedance supports this dye's effect on enhancing charge transfer in TiO2 (e-). Computations on this dye compound also indicate the larger charge transfer efficiency in the electronically excited state.

  8. Selective labelling of cell-surface proteins using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner-McWhirter, Asa; Winkvist, Maria; Bourin, Stephanie; Marouga, Rita

    2008-01-01

    Surface proteins are central to the cell's ability to react to its environment and to interact with neighboring cells. They are known to be inducers of almost all intracellular signaling. Moreover, they play an important role in environmental adaptation and drug treatment, and are often involved in disease pathogenesis and pathology (1). Protein-protein interactions are intrinsic to signaling pathways, and to gain more insight in these complex biological processes, sensitive and reliable methods are needed for studying cell surface proteins. Two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis is used extensively for detection of biomarkers and other targets in complex protein samples to study differential changes. Cell surface proteins, partly due to their low abundance (1 2% of cellular proteins), are difficult to detect in a 2-D gel without fractionation or some other type of enrichment. They are also often poorly represented in 2-D gels due to their hydrophobic nature and high molecular weight (2). In this study, we present a new protocol for intact cells using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes for specific labeling and detection of this important group of proteins. The results showed specific labeling of a large number of cell surface proteins with minimal labeling of intracellular proteins. This protocol is rapid, simple to use, and all three CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes (Cy 2, Cy 3 and Cy 5) can be used to label cell-surface proteins. These features allow for multiplexing using the 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with Ettan DIGE technology and analysis of protein expression changes using DeCyder 2-D Differential Analysis Software. The level of cell-surface proteins was followed during serum starvation of CHO cells for various lengths of time (see Table 1). Small changes in abundance were detected with high accuracy, and results are supported by defined statistical methods.

  9. Natural dye extracted from karkadah and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells: experimental and density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, S M; Soliman, K A

    2016-02-01

    This work presents an experimental and theoretical study of cyanidin natural dye as a sensitizer for ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells. ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using ammonia and oxalic acid as a capping agent. The calculated average size of the synthesized ZnO with different capping agents was found to be 32.1 nm. Electronic properties of cyanidin and delphinidin dye were studied using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT with a B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. By comparing the theoretical results with the experimental data, the cyanidin dye can be used as a sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells. An efficiency of 0.006% under an AM-1.5 illumination at 100  mW/cm(2) was attained. The influence of dye adsorption time on the solar cell performance is discussed. PMID:26836089

  10. Towards Rational Designing of Efficient Sensitizers Based on Thiophene and Infrared Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometries, electronic properties, and absorption spectra of the dyes which are a combination of thiophene based dye (THPD and IR dyes (covering IR region; TIRBD1-TIRBD3 were performed using density functional theory (DFT and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT, respectively. Different electron donating groups, electron withdrawing groups, and IR dyes have been substituted on THPD to enhance the efficiency. The bond lengths of new designed dyes are almost the same. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of designed dyes are above the conduction band of TiO2 and the highest occupied molecular orbital energies are below the redox couple revealing that TIRBD1-TIRBD3 would be better sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. The broad spectra and low energy gap also showed that designed materials would be efficient sensitizers.

  11. Progress on the Electrolytes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The development of a new type of solar cell has been promoted by public concern about pollution and energy consumption.Since the prototype of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) was reported in 1991 by M.Gratzel,it has aroused intensive interest over the past decade due to its low cost and simple preparation procedure.The typical cell is a sandwiched structure consisting of a dye-sensitized TiO2 electrode,a platinized counter electrode and a filled redox couple electrolyte between the electrodes...

  12. Enhancement of Spectral Response of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuai

    Dye-Sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a class of third-generation solar devices. A notable feature of DSSC is that it can be manufactured by solution-based approach; this non-vacuum processing renders significant reduction in manufacturing costs. Different from conventional solar cells, in a DSSC, mesoporous semiconductor film with large surface areas is utilized for anchoring dye molecules, serving as light absorbing layer. Dye sensitizers play an important role in determining the final performance in DSSCs. Since the first highly-efficient DSSC was reported in 1991 sensitized by a ruthenium-based dye, numerous researchers have been focused on the development and characterization of various kinds of dyes for the applications in DSSCs. These include mainly metal complexes dyes, organic dyes, porphyrins and phthalocyanines dyes. The first part of my thesis work is to develop and test new dyes for DSSCs and a series of phenothiazine-based organic dyes and new porphyrin dyes are reported during the process. It has been realized that extending the response of dye sensitizers to a wider range of the solar spectrum is a key step in further improving the device efficiency. Typically, there are two ways for expanding the strong spectral response of DSSCs from visible to far red/NIR region. One approach is called co-sensitization. Herein, we demonstrate a new co-sensitization concept where small molecules is used to insert the interstitial site of between the pre-adsorbed large molecules. In this case, the co-adsorbed small ones is found to improve the light response and impede the back recombination, finally leading to the power conversion efficiency over 10% in conventional DSSC devices and a record-equaling efficiency of 9.2% in quasi-solid-state devices. I also implemented graphene sheets in the anode films for better charge transfer efficiency and break the energy conversion limit of co-sensitization in DSSCs. The optimal configuration between porphyrin dyes and

  13. Screening π-conjugated bridges of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells with panchromatic visible light harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenqing; Liu, Chunmeng; Shao, Changjin; Zeng, Xiaofei; Cao, Dapeng

    2016-07-01

    Developing highly efficient organic dyes with panchromatic visible light harvesting for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is still one of the most important scientific challenges. Here, we design a series of phenothiazine derivative organic dyes with donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) structure using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) based on experimentally synthesized typical SH-6 organic dyes. Results indicate that the newly designed BUCT13 - BUCT30 dyes show smaller HOMO-LUMO energy gaps, higher molar extinction coefficients and obvious redshifts compared to the SH-6 dye, and the maximum absorption peaks of eight dyes are greater than 650 nm among the newly designed dyes. In particular, BUCT27 exhibits a 234 nm redshift and the maximum molar extinction coefficient with an increment of about 80% compared to the SH-6 dye. BUCT19 exhibits not only a 269 nm redshift and higher molar extinction coefficient with an increment of about 50% compared to the SH-6 dye, but the extremely broad absorption spectrum covering the entire visible range up to the near-IR region of 1200 nm. It is expected that this work can provide a new strategy and guidance for the investigation of these dye-sensitized devices.

  14. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on laser-engineered ruthenium dye-functionalized nanoporous gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Lina; Franzka, Steffen; Biener, Monika; Biener, Jürgen; Hartmann, Nils

    2016-06-01

    Photothermal processing of nanoporous gold with a microfocused continuous-wave laser at λ = 532 nm provides a facile means in order engineer the pore and ligament size of nanoporous gold. In this report we take advantage of this approach in order to investigate the size-dependence of enhancement effects in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Surface structures with laterally varying pore sizes from 25 nm to ≥200 nm are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and then functionalized with N719, a commercial ruthenium complex, which is widely used in dye-sensitized solar cells. Raman spectroscopy reveals the characteristic spectral features of N719. Peak intensities strongly depend on the pore size. Highest intensities are observed on the native support, i.e. on nanoporous gold with pore sizes around 25 nm. These results demonstrate the particular perspectives of laser-fabricated nanoporous gold structures in fundamental SERS studies. In particular, it is emphasized that laser-engineered porous gold substrates represent a very well defined platform in order to study size-dependent effects with high reproducibility and precision and resolve conflicting results in previous studies.

  15. Anatase TiO{sub 2} sols derived from peroxotitanium acid and to form transparent TiO{sub 2} compact film for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Difeng [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Li Yaogang [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Glasses Manufacturing Technology, MOE, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhang Qinghong, E-mail: zhangqh@dhu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Glasses Manufacturing Technology, MOE, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shi Guoying [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang Hongzhi, E-mail: wanghz@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2011-10-13

    Graphical abstract: Dye-sensitized solar cells with TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline porous film in absence of compact film (A) and in presence of compact film in thickness of 1.0 {mu}m (B), 2.5 {mu}m (C), 4.0 {mu}m (D), respectively. Highlights: > Anatase TiO{sub 2} sols were prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of peroxotitanium acid. > TiO{sub 2} sols were used for DSSC photoelectrode as the compact film on FTO layer. > The transmittance of the TiO{sub 2} compact film on FTO reached 80%. > The {eta} of DSSCs in the presence of the compact film has improved significantly from 4.2% to 5.6%. - Abstract: Transparent and surfactant-free TiO{sub 2} sols containing anatase nanocrystals were prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of water-soluble peroxotitanium acid (PTA) at a temperature of 120 deg. C. The TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM results indicated that the TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals were nanorod-like with diameters of less than 7 nm after the subsequently hydrothermal treatment. A gradient layer between the transparent fluorine doped SnO{sub 2} (FTO) layer and the porous titanium dioxide nanocrystalline film for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) photoelectrodes, was made with the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} sols. The TiO{sub 2} gradient layers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectrometry. After the gradient layer deposition on the FTO coated glass, the composite multilayer film exhibited the visible light transmittance of 80% which approached to that of bare FTO glass. The photo-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of the N719 dye-sensitized solar cell had significantly improved from 4.2% to 5.6% in the presence of the compact layer between FTO and the porous TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline film under of AM1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm{sup 2}). The remarkable improvements in short-circuit current for the DSSCs was due to the effective gradient layer at the

  16. First application of diethyl oxalate as efficient additive in high performance dye-sensitized solar cells based on iodide/triiodide electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, diethyl oxalate (DEOX) is applied as an effective inexpensive additive based iodide/triiodide electrolyte in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Addition the suitable amount of DEOX as 1 M into the electrolyte shows dramatically improvement in the short circuit current (Jsc) and consequently, in the total conversion efficiency (η). The fabricated devices based on N719 and 2-cyano-3-(4-(diphenylamino) phenyl) acrylic acid (TPA) sensitizers with modified electrolyte show the efficiency of 7.33% and 2.63% at an irradiation of AM1.5, and an 37% and 22% energy conversion efficiency increments, respectively. The boost in the photocurrent density mainly is due to the molecular complex formation between DEOX and redox species in the electrolyte solution that promotes the electrochemical properties of electrolyte. Also, electrochemical impedance measurements indicate adsorbing of DEOX on the semiconductor surface leads to an incensement in the lifetime (τ) and the electron density (ns) in the conduction band (CB) of TiO2 that shifts the Fermi level (EF) which leads to small enhancement in the Voc. Adsorbing of DEOX on the titania surface retards the interfacial charge recombination that has a beneficial effect on the Voc and Jsc. Furthermore, we compares the effect mechanisms of DEOX and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) additives on the cell performance by applying different electrolytes containing the additives. These results show that TBP increases Voc while DEOX additive has effect on the Jsc and using of combination of additives leads to a remarkable improvement in η. As a result, DEOX is a new promising co-additive which can be used for high efficient and low cost DSSCs

  17. High Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liyuan Han

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Much attention has been paid to the development of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) during the past decade. In general, a DSC comprises a nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) electrode modified with a dye fabricated on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO), a platinum (Pt) counter electrode, and an electrolyte solution with a dissolved iodide ion/tri-iodide ion redox couple between the electrodes. Although a DSC using black dye with high efficiency of 10.4%, which was measured by NREL(U. S. A. ), was reported by Graetzel et al. [1], the efficiency of DSCs should be further improved for practical use in comparison with silicon solar cells.

  18. Effects of heat treatment on the dye adsorption of ZnO nanorods for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Won Suk; Choi, Seok Cheol; Sohn, Sang Ho; Oh, Sang Jin

    2012-11-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods for the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were grown via a sonochemical method, and the heat-treatment effects on the dye adsorption in the DSSCs were studied. The heat treatment of well-aligned ZnO nanorods was performed at 200 ˜ 500 °C for 1 h, which was immediately followed by the dye adsorption. The dye amounts adsorbed in the ZnO nanorods were estimated from the UV-Vis absorbance by using Beer-Lambert's law. The efficiency of the DSSCs with ZnO nanorods was measured to investigate the heat-treatment effects of ZnO nanorods on the dye adsorption properties. The heat-treatment of ZnO nanorods was found to yield a change in their dye adsorption ability, resulting in a change in the efficiency of the DSSCs.

  19. Effects of heat treatment on the dye adsorption of ZnO nanorods for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Won Suk; Choi, Seok Cheol; Sohn, Sang Ho [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Jin [Phoenix Materials, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods for the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were grown via a sonochemical method, and the heat-treatment effects on the dye adsorption in the DSSCs were studied. The heat treatment of well-aligned ZnO nanorods was performed at 200 ∼ 500 .deg. C for 1 h, which was immediately followed by the dye adsorption. The dye amounts adsorbed in the ZnO nanorods were estimated from the UV-Vis absorbance by using Beer-Lambert's law. The efficiency of the DSSCs with ZnO nanorods was measured to investigate the heat-treatment effects of ZnO nanorods on the dye adsorption properties. The heat-treatment of ZnO nanorods was found to yield a change in their dye adsorption ability, resulting in a change in the efficiency of the DSSCs.

  20. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Using Various Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliarto, Brian; Fanani, Fahiem; Fuadi, M. Kasyful; Nugraha

    2010-10-01

    This article reports the development of organic dyes as an attempt to reduce material costs of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Indonesia, a country with variety and considerable number of botanical resources, is suitable to perform the research. Indonesian black rice, curcuma, papaya leaf, and the combination were chosen as organic dyes source. Dyes were extracted using organic solvent and adsorbed on mesoporous Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) which has been optimized in our laboratory. The best dyes light absorbance and performance obtained from papaya leaf as chlorophyll dyes that gives two peaks at 432 nm and 664 nm from UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and performance under 100 mW/cm2 Xenon light solar simulator gives VOC = 0.566 Volt, JSC = 0.24 mA/cm2, Fill Factor = 0.33, and efficiency of energy conversion 0,045%.

  1. Benzotriazole-based dyes containing a low band gap for dye-sensitised solar cells: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, S.; Lee, Jin Yong

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we investigated a series of metal-free benzotriazole-based organic dyes. The geometries, electronic properties, light harvesting efficiency, and electronic absorption spectra of these dyes were studied using the density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory. The optimised geometries indicate that these dyes are non-planar and thereby effectively inhibit close intermolecular π-π aggregation. The band gap of these dyes ensures a positive effect on the process of electron injection and dye regeneration. The band gap trend corroborates well with the predicted spectra data. Our theoretical calculations reveal that the designed metal-free organic dyes can be used as potential sensitisers for solar cells compared to the best known organic sensitiser (Y123) to date.

  2. Effect of Substituents in Catechol Dye Sensitizers on Photovoltaic Performance of Type II Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooyama, Yousuke; Kanda, Masahiro; Uenaka, Koji; Ohshita, Joji

    2015-10-01

    In order to provide a direction in molecular design of catechol (Cat) dyes for type II dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the dye-to-TiO2 charge-transfer (DTCT) characteristics of Cat dyes with various substituents and their photovoltaic performance in DSSCs are investigated. The Cat dyes with electron-donating or moderately electron-withdrawing substituents exhibit a broad absorption band corresponding to DTCT upon binding to TiO2 films, whereas those with strongly electron-withdrawing substituents exhibit weak DTCT. This study indicates that the introduction of a moderately electron-withdrawing substituent on the Cat moiety leads to not only an increase in the DTCT efficiency, but also the retardation of back electron transfer. This results in favorable conditions for the type II electron-injection pathway from the ground state of the Cat dye to the conduction band of the TiO2 electrode by the photoexcitation of DTCT bands.

  3. Improved performance of Ag-doped TiO2 synthesized by modified sol-gel method as photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj; Bahadur, Lal

    2016-08-01

    Ag-doped TiO2 with Ag content ranging from 1 to 7 mol% was synthesized by a modified sol-gel route, and its performance as the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was compared with undoped TiO2 photoanode. Titanium(IV)isopropoxide was used as precursor and hexamethylenetetramine as the capping agent. XRD results show the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 5 nm (1 % Ag-doped TiO2) and 9 nm (undoped TiO2), respectively. The TiO2 nanopowder was used to prepare its thin film photoelectrode using doctor's blade method. Significant improvement in light-to-energy conversion efficiency was achieved when thin films of 1 % Ag-doped TiO2 were applied as photoanode in DSSC taking N719 as the sensitizer dye. As evidenced by EIS measurements, the electron lifetime of DSSC with Ag-doped TiO2 increased from 1.33 (for undoped TiO2) to 2.05 ms. The short-circuit current density ( J sc), open-circuit voltage ( V oc), fill factor (FF) and the overall energy conversion efficiency ( η) were 1.07 mA cm-2, 0.72 V, 0.73 and 0.40 %, respectively, with the use of 1 % Ag-doped TiO2 photoanode, whereas with undoped TiO2 under similar conditions, J sc = 0.63 mA cm-2, V oc = 0.70 V, fill factor 0.45 and conversion efficiency 0.14 % could be obtained. Therefore, compared with the reference DSSC containing an undoped TiO2 photoanode, the power conversion efficiency of the cell based on Ag-doped TiO2 has been remarkably enhanced by ~70 %. The substantial improvement in the device performance is attributed to the reduced band-gap energy, retarded charge recombination and greater surface coverage of the sensitizing dye over Ag-doped TiO2, which ultimately resulted in improved IPCE, J SC and η values.

  4. Co-sensitization promoted light harvesting with a new mixed-addenda polyoxometalate [Cu(C12H8N2)2]2[V2W4O19]·4H2O in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sha-Sha; Chen, Wei-Lin; Wang, Yan-Hua; Li, Yang-Guang; Liu, Zhu-Jun; Shan, Chun-Hui; Su, Zhong-Min; Wang, En-Bo

    2015-11-14

    A di-vanadium-substituted Lindqvist-type polyoxometalate [Cu(C12H8N2)2]2[V2W4O19]·4H2O (1) was hydrothermally synthesized and characterized structurally by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy disperse spectroscopy tests further prove the existence of vanadium. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theoretical studies indicate that the energy level of 1 matches well with the conduction band of the TiO2. Furthermore, considering the semiconductor-like nature of 1 and the introduction of transition metal element Cu synchronously extends the absorption to the visible region, which should also be beneficial to the photovoltaic device performance. 1-Doped TiO2 composites (denoted as 1@TiO2) have been successfully fabricated by a simple sol-gel method, and introduced into the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as co-sensitizers in N719-sensitized photoanodes by mixing 1@TiO2 with P25 nanoparticles with different weight ratios to enhance the photoelectric conversion efficiency. The investigations show that the DSSC assembled with 1@TiO2/19P25 photoanode has the best performance and the overall improvement of the efficiency is 21.6% compared with pure P25. Furthermore, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay investigations show that the cosensitization of 1 and N719 can promote electron transfer and restrain charge recombinations in the DSSCs, resulting in a longer electron lifetime.

  5. Edge-selenated graphene nanoplatelets as durable metal-free catalysts for iodine reduction reaction in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Myung Jong; Jeon, In-Yup; Kim, Hong Mo; Choi, Ji Il; Jung, Sun-Min; Seo, Jeong-Min; Choi, In Taek; Kang, Sung Ho; Kim, Han Seul; Noh, Min Jong; Lee, Jae-Joon; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are sufficiently active in Co(II)/Co(III) electrolytes but are not satisfactory in the most commonly used iodide/triiodide (I−/I3−) electrolytes. Thus, developing active and stable metal-free electrocatalysts in both electrolytes is one of the most important issues in DSSC research. We report the synthesis of edge-selenated graphene nanoplatelets (SeGnPs) prepared by a simple mechanochemical reaction between graphite and selenium (Se) powders, and their application to the counter electrode (CE) for DSSCs in both I−/I3− and Co(II)/Co(III) electrolytes. The edge-selective doping and the preservation of the pristine graphene basal plane in the SeGnPs were confirmed by various analytical techniques, including atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Tested as the DSSC CE in both Co(bpy)32+/3+ (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine) and I−/I3− electrolytes, the SeGnP-CEs exhibited outstanding electrocatalytic performance with ultimately high stability. The SeGnP-CE–based DSSCs displayed a higher photovoltaic performance than did the Pt-CE–based DSSCs in both SM315 sensitizer with Co(bpy)32+/3+ and N719 sensitizer with I−/I3− electrolytes. Furthermore, the I3− reduction mechanism, which has not been fully understood in carbon-based CE materials to date, was clarified by an electrochemical kinetics study combined with density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green’s function calculations. PMID:27386557

  6. Saccharide blocking layers in solid state dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, S.; Haque, S.A.; Durrant, J.R. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, South Kensington, SW7 2AZ. London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    The adsorption of saccharides on dye sensitized, nanocrystalline metal oxide films is shown to improve the efficiency of solid state dye sensitized solar cells. The function of the saccharide treatment is evaluated by transient optical studies, and correlated with device photovoltaic performance. A range of saccharides, including cyclodextrins and their linear analogue amylose, are investigated. The saccharide blocking layer is shown to retard interfacial charge recombination losses, resulting in increased device open circuit voltage. Highest device performance is achieved with linear saccharide amylose, resulting in a 60 % improvement in device efficiency relative to the non-treated control, with a device open circuit voltage of 1 V. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Dyes and Redox Couples with Matched Energy Levels: Elimination of the Dye-Regeneration Energy Loss in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dianlu; Darabedian, Narek; Ghazarian, Sevak; Hao, Yuanqiang; Zhgamadze, Maxim; Majaryan, Natalie; Shen, Rujuan; Zhou, Feimeng

    2015-11-16

    In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a significant dye-regeneration force (ΔG(reg)(0)≥0.5 eV) is usually required for effective dye regeneration, which results in a major energy loss and limits the energy-conversion efficiency of state-of-art DSSCs. We demonstrate that when dye molecules and redox couples that possess similar conjugated ligands are used, efficient dye regeneration occurs with zero or close-to-zero driving force. By using Ru(dcbpy)(bpy)2(2+) as the dye and Ru(bpy)2(MeIm)2(3+//2+) as the redox couple, a short-circuit current (J(sc)) of 4 mA cm(-2) and an open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.9 V were obtained with a ΔG(reg)(0) of 0.07 eV. The same was observed for the N3 dye and Ru(bpy)2(SCN)2(1+/0) (ΔG(reg)(0)=0.0 eV), which produced an J(sc) of 2.5 mA cm(-2) and V(oc) of 0.6 V. Charge recombination occurs at pinholes, limiting the performance of the cells. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that high V(oc) values can be attained by significantly curtailing the dye-regeneration force.

  8. Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of octacarboxy-metallophthalocyanine dyes applied in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of octacarboxy-metallophthalocyanine dyes, i.e., MgOCPc, MnOCPc, FeOCPc and ZnOCPc with different central metal ions were designed and synthesized by microwave irradiation. The effects of the introduction of different metal ions with variant 3d orbitals (3d0, 3d5, 3d6, and 3d10, respectively in the centre of the phthalocyanine rings on the thermal, photophysical, and electrochemical properties of octacarboxy-metallophthalocyanines were characterized and evaluated in details. The results showed that ZnOCPc and MgOCPc with closed-shell metal ions and FeOCPc with an open-shell metal ion had excellent thermal property. However, MnOCPc with a half-full-shell metal ion had a lowest decomposition temperature and largest Q band red shifts. By theoretical calculation, the energy gaps of MgOCPc, MnOCPc, FeOCPc and ZnOCPc were 0.11, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.22V, respectively. Applied in TiO2 nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC, the photovoltaic properties of the four dyes were obtained under AM1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm-2.

  9. Molecular Design of TPD-based Organic Dyes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xing-bo

    2013-01-01

    An interesitng class of organic A-π-D-π-A dyes based on an N,N,N',N'-tetraphenylbenzidine(TPD) unit as donor was designed and synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSCs).TPD-4-based DSSCs gave a short circuit photocurrent density(Jsc) of 16.67 mA/cm2,a open circuit voltage(Voc) of 0.635 V and a fill factor(ff) of 0.68,achieving a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency(η) of 7.22% in preliminary tests.The N3-sensitized device gave an η value of 8.02% with a Jsc of 18.81 mA/cm2,a Voc of 0.630 V and an ffof 0.68 under the same conditions.The incident photo-to-current efficiency(IPCE) values above 70% observed in a range of 460 to 600 nm with a maximum value of 80% at 500 nm indicate that the TPD-4-based DSSC shows a high performance.Under the same conditions,the DSSC based on N3 provided the IPCE values above 70% in a range of 490 to 580 nm with a maximum value of 76% at 500 nm.Both further optimization of the device processing and structural modification of these dyes are anticipated to make the device give even better performances.

  10. Coumarin Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells - A Long-Range-Corrected Density Functional Study

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Bryan M; 10.1063/1.3025924

    2010-01-01

    The excited-state properties in a series of coumarin solar cell dyes are investigated with a long-range-corrected (LC) functional which asymptotically incorporates Hartree-Fock exchange. Using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), we calculate excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state dipole moments in each of the dyes as a function of the range-separation paramenter, mu. To investigate the acceptable range of mu and assess the quality of the LC-TDDFT formalism, an extensive comparison is made between LC-BLYP excitation energies and approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles (CC2) calculations. When using a properly-optimized value of mu, we find that the LC technique provides a consistent picture of charge-transfer excitations as a function of molecular size. In contrast, we find that the widely-used B3LYP hybrid functional severely overestimates excited-state dipole moments and underestimates vertical excitations energies, especially for larger dye molecules. The results ...

  11. Solid State Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Over the past decade,Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensively investigated as potential alternatives to conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices due to their low production cost and high energy conversion[1-4]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive energy conversion efficiency of over 10%,whose electrolyte is a voltaic organic liquid solvent containing iodide/triiodide as redox couple.However,the use of a liquid electrolyte brings difficulties in the practi...

  12. Dye sensitized solar cells as optically random photovoltaic media

    OpenAIRE

    Gálvez, Francisco Enrique; Piers R. F. Barnes; Halme, Janne; Míguez, Hernán

    2014-01-01

    In order to enhance optical absorption, light trapping by multiple scattering is commonly achieved in dye sensitized solar cells by adding particles of a different sort. Herein we propose a theoretical method to find the structural parameters (particle number density and size) that optimize the conversion efficiency of electrodes of different thicknesses containing spherical inclusions of diverse composition. Our work provides a theoretical framework in which the response of solar cells conta...

  13. Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosz-Wilkołazka Anna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system simplifies the transformation process and reduces the time required for its completion. In the present work, four fungal strains with a well-known ability to produce laccase were tested for oxidation of 17 phenolic and non-phenolic precursors into stable and non-toxic dyes. Results An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor. Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium. The immobilized fungal biomass catalyzed the transformation of 1 mM benzene and naphthalene derivatives in liquid cultures yielding stable and non-toxic products with good dyeing properties. The type of fungal strain had a large influence on the absorbance of the coloured products obtained after 48-hour transformation of the selected precursors, and the most effective was Fomes fomentarius (FF25. Whole-cell transformation of AHBS (3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid into a phenoxazinone dye was carried out in four different systems: in aqueous media comprising low amounts of carbon and nitrogen source, in buffer, and in distilled water. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes. This paper highlights the potential of fungal biomass for replacing isolated enzymes as a cheaper industrial-grade biocatalyst for the synthesis of dyes and other

  14. Improved Electrodes and Electrolytes for Dye-Based Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry R. Allcock; Thomas E. Mallouk; Mark W. Horn

    2011-10-26

    The most important factor in limiting the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells is the use of volatile liquid solvents in the electrolytes, which causes leakage during extended operation especially at elevated temperatures. This, together with the necessary complex sealing of the cells, seriously hampers the industrial-scale manufacturing and commercialization feasibilities of DSSCs. The objective of this program was to bring about a significant improvement in the performance and longevity of dye-based solar cells leading to commercialization. This had been studied in two ways first through development of low volatility solid, gel or liquid electrolytes, second through design and fabrication of TiO2 sculptured thin film electrodes.

  15. Natural Pigment-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Hernández-Martínez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC based on natural dyes extracted from five different sources is reported. These are inexpensive, have no nutritional use, and are easy to find in Mexico. The solar cells were assembled using a thin film and a TiO2 mesoporous film on ITO-coated glass; these films were characterized by FTIR. The extracts were characterized using UV–Vis and typical I-V curves were obtained for the cells. The best performance was for Punica Granatum with a solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.86%, with a current density Jsc of 3.341 mA/cm2using an incident irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at 25 ºC.

  16. Dye-sensitized Solar Cells for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M. S.; Deol, Y. S.; Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Narottam; Janu, Yojana

    2011-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) also known as Gratzel cells, have attracted the interests of researchers to a great extent because of its cost effective and easy manufacturing process without involving highly sophisticated lithographic technique and high cost raw materials as usually seen in conventional solar cell. Based on simple photo-electrochemical process, it has got immense potential in converting solar energy to electrical power in remote and desert area where the supply of conventional power is not possible. The overall peak power-production efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has been reported around 11 percent, so they are best suited to low-density applications and the price-to-performance ratio obtained through these solar cells is superior to others. DSSCs have ability to absorb even diffused sunlight and therefore work in cloudy whether as well without much impact over the efficiency. The present communication deals with a review of our work on DSSCs wherein we have used cost effective natural dyes/pigments as a sensitizer of nc-TiO2 and discussed about various key factors affecting the conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  17. Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as optofluidic cell sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen;

    2009-01-01

    Dye doped hybrid polymer lasers are implemented as label free evanescent field biosensors for detection of cells. It is demonstrated that although the coverage is irregular and the cells extend over several lattice constants, the emission wavelength depends linearly on the fraction of the surface...... covered by the HeLa cells used as model system. Design parameters relating to photonic crystal sensing of large objects are identified and discussed. The lasers are chemically modified to bind cells and molecules with flexible UV activated linker molecules....

  18. Cell staining by photo-activated dye and its conjugate with Chitosan.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitsev, S.; Shaposhnikov, M.; Solovyeva, D.; Zaitsev, I.; Möbius, D.

    2015-01-01

    Photo-activated or “Caged” rhodamine dyes are the most useful for microscopic investigation of biological tissue by various fluorescent techniques. Novel precursor of the fluorescent dye (PFD813) has been studied for photosensitive staining of numerous animal cells. The functional rhodamine dye (Rho813) with intensive fluorescence has been obtained after photoactivation of its precursor PFD813 inside cells. The dye Rho813 has been successfully used for the optical detection of particular feat...

  19. Dye-sensitized solar cells using laser processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heungsoo; Pique, Alberto; Kushto, Gary P.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Lee, S. H.; Arnold, Craig B.; Kafafi, Zakia H.

    2004-07-01

    Laser processing techniques, such as laser direct-write (LDW) and laser sintering, have been used to deposit mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 (nc-TiO2) films for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. LDW enables the fabrication of conformal structures containing metals, ceramics, polymers and composites on rigid and flexible substrates without the use of masks or additional patterning techniques. The transferred material maintains a porous, high surface area structure that is ideally suited for dye-sensitized solar cells. In this experiment, a pulsed UV laser (355nm) is used to forward transfer a paste of commercial TiO2 nanopowder (P25) onto transparent conducting electrodes on flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and rigid glass substrates. For the cells based on flexible PET substrates, the transferred TiO2 layers were sintered using an in-situ laser to improve electron paths without damaging PET substrates. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of laser processing techniques to produce nc-TiO2 films (~10 μm thickness) on glass for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (Voc = 690 mV, Jsc = 8.7 mA/cm2, ff = 0.67, η = 4.0 % at 100 mW/cm2). This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  20. Numerical Procedure for Optimizing Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Razvan Mitroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a numerical procedure consisting of a simplified physical model and a numerical method with the aim of optimizing the performance parameters of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. We calculate the real rate of absorbed photons (in the dye spectral range Grealx by introducing a factor β<1 in order to simplify the light absorption and reflection on TCO electrode. We consider the electrical transport to be purely diffusive and the recombination process only to occur between electrons from the TiO2 conduction band and anions from the electrolyte. The used numerical method permits solving the system of differential equations resulting from the physical model. We apply the proposed numerical procedure on a classical DSSC based on Ruthenium dye in order to validate it. For this, we simulate the J-V characteristics and calculate the main parameters: short-circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc, fill factor FF, and power conversion efficiency η. We analyze the influence of the nature of semiconductor (TiO2 and dye and also the influence of different technological parameters on the performance parameters of DSSCs. The obtained results show that the proposed numerical procedure is suitable for developing a numerical simulation platform for improving the DSSCs performance by choosing the optimal parameters.

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on bisindolylmaleimide derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong ZHANG; Zhijun NING; Hongcui PEI; Wenjun WU

    2009-01-01

    Three organic dyes based on bisindolylmaleimide derivatives (11, 12 and 13) were synthesized and investigated as sensitizers for the application in nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells. The indole group,maleimide group and carboxylic group functioned as electron donor, acceptor and anchoring group, respec-tively. Solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies under simulated amplitude-modulated 1.5 irradiation based on 12 and of 1.87% and 1.50% for 13 and 11,respectively. The open circuit voltage Voc was demon-strated to be enhanced by the introduction of dodecyl or benzyl moieties on the indole groups. The nonplanar structure of bisindolylmaleimide was proven to be effective in aggregation resistance. This work suggests that organic sensitizers with maleimide as electron acceptor are promising candidates as organic sensiti-zers in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  2. Recent Advances in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is an abundant and accessible source of renewable energy available on earth, and many types of photovoltaic (PV devices like organic, inorganic, and hybrid cells have been developed to harness the energy. PV cells directly convert solar radiation into electricity without affecting the environment. Although silicon based solar cells (inorganic cells are widely used because of their high efficiency, they are rigid and manufacturing costs are high. Researchers have focused on organic solar cells to overcome these disadvantages. DSSCs comprise a sensitized semiconductor (photoelectrode and a catalytic electrode (counter electrode with an electrolyte sandwiched between them and their efficiency depends on many factors. The maximum electrical conversion efficiency of DSSCs attained so far is 11.1%, which is still low for commercial applications. This review examines the working principle, factors affecting the efficiency, and key challenges facing DSSCs.

  3. Recent Advances in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. Lenzmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes recent advances in the research on dye-sensitized solar cells. After a brief discussion of the general operation principles and a presentation of record efficiencies, stability data and key technology drivers, current trends will be reviewed. The focus of this review is on materials development (sensitizers, nanostructured oxide films, and electrolyte, but commercialization aspects will also be briefly addressed. The review describes the most relevant characteristics and major trends in a compact way.

  4. Functional Materials for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Raksha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A review on the analysis of characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC is provided. DSSC design, materials that are used for the manufacture of functional layers and the characteristics of elements depending on their properties are analyzed. The basic disadvantages DSSC, the factors leading to their appearance, as well as solutions to eliminate or reduce the impact of these factors are revealed.

  5. Alternative redox systems for the dye-sensitized solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Nusbaumer, Hervé; Grätzel, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Due to their high efficiencies and their potentially low production costs, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have attracted much attention during the last few years. The technology is based on a layer made of mesoscopic TiO2 film which significantly increases the optical path for light harvesting by the surface-anchored sensitizer molecules, whilst keeping an efficient contact with the electrolytic solution. These sensitizer molecules are often based on ruthenium polypyridyl complexes because...

  6. Alternative redox systems for the dye-sensitized solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Nusbaumer, Hervé

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high efficiencies and their potentially low production costs, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have attracted much attention during the last few years. The technology is based on a layer made of mesoscopic TiO2 film which significantly increases the optical path for light harvesting by the surface-anchored sensitizer molecules, whilst keeping an efficient contact with the electrolytic solution. These sensitizer molecules are often based on ruthenium polypyridyl complexes because...

  7. New Components for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Di Carlo; Carlo Alberto Bignozzi; Rita Boaretto; Roberto Argazzi; Vito Cristino; Stefano Caramori

    2010-01-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) are among the most promising solar energy conversion devices of new generation, since coupling ease of fabrication and low cost offer the possibility of building integration in photovoltaic windows and facades. Although in their earliest configuration these systems are close to commercialization, fundamental studies are still required for developing new molecules and materials with more desirable properties as well as improving our understanding of the funda...

  8. Solution Processed Silver Nanoparticles in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Berginc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A plasmonic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs is studied. The solutions of silver nitrate in isopropanol, ethylene glycol, or in TiO2 sol were examined as possible precursors for Ag NPs formation. The solutions were dip-coated on the top of the porous TiO2 layer. The results of optical measurements confirmed the formation of Ag NPs throughout the porous TiO2 layer after the heat treatment of the layers above 100°C. Heat treatment at 220°C was found to be optimal regarding the formation of the Ag NPs. The porous TiO2 layers with Ag NPs have been evaluated also in DSSC by measuring current-voltage characteristics and the external quantum efficiency of the cells. In addition, the amount of adsorbed dye has been determined to prove the plasmonic effect in the cells. The I-V characterization of the DSSCs revealed an increase of the short circuit current in the presence of Ag NPs although the amount of the attached dye molecules decreased. These results confirm that the performance enhancement is related to the plasmonic effect. However, neither a thin sol-gel TiO2 layer nor poly(4-vinylpyridine shells provide effective protection for the long term stability of the Ag NPs against the corrosion of I3-/I- based electrolyte.

  9. 介孔TiO2颗粒在卟啉-N719共敏化太阳能电池中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张羿[1,2; 张宝[1; 陆福泰[1,2; 赵艳明[1,2; 冯亚青[1,2

    2016-01-01

    为了提高材料的比表面积,以四氯化钛为钛源,表面活性剂poly(ethylene-glycol)-block-poly(propylene-glycol)-blockpoly(ethylene-glycol)(P123)为模板剂,采用水热法制备了介孔TiO2颗粒。采用BET低温氮气吸附法对介孔TiO2粒子的表面物理性质进行了表征。将介孔TiO2制成光阳极,应用于卟啉-N719共敏化太阳能电池(DSSCs)。结果表明:介孔TiO2颗粒的高比表面积能够大幅提高染料敏化太阳能电池的光电转换效率,以其为光阳极的N719敏化电池的光电转化效率为7.55%,较工业使用TiO2P25为光阳极的电池,光电转化效率提高了21.6%;采用自制的卟啉C4作为敏化染料与N719共敏化,由于增大了染料的吸光范围,电池的光电效率得到了进一步的提高,达到8.38%。

  10. Salicylic Acid-Based Organic Dyes Acting as the Photosensitizer for Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungjun; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Han, Ah-Reum; Ko, Kwan-Woo; Eom, Jin Hee; Namgoong, Sung Keon; Lo, Alvie S V; Gordon, Keith C; Yoon, Sungho; Han, Chi-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    A D-π-A metal-free organic dye, featuring salicylic acid as a novel acceptor/anchoring unit, has been designed, synthesized and applied to dye-sensitized solar cell. The detailed photophysical, electrochemical, photovoltaic and sensitizing properties of the organic dye were investigated, in addition to the computational studies of the dye and dye-(TiO2)6 system. A solar cell device using this new organic dye as a sensitizer produced a solar to electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.49% (J(sc) = 6.69 mAcm-2, V(oc) = 0.74 V and ff = 0.70) under 100 mWcm(-2) simulated AM 1.5 G solar irradiation, demonstrating that the salicylic acid-based organic dye is a suitable alternative to currently used organometallic dyes. PMID:27483839

  11. Substituent effects on the croconate dyes in dye sensitized solar cell applications: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitumalla, Ramesh Kumar; Lim, Manho; Gao, Xingfa; Jang, Joonkyung

    2015-11-01

    Using the density functional theory (DFT), we studied two model croconate dyes, one with an electron-donating substituent (CR1) and the other with an electron-withdrawing group (CR2). The geometric, electronic, and optical properties of these dyes were compared. Upon switching from CR1 to CR2, a considerable bathochromic shift was observed in the electronic absorption spectrum. We also investigated the adsorption behavior of the two dyes on a TiO2 (101) anatase surface by employing periodic DFT simulations. The periodic electronic-structure calculations revealed that the diketo group of CR1 bound more strongly to the TiO2 surface than that of CR2, with a binding strength comparable to that of a typical organic D-π-A dye. In this work we evaluate in particular the effect of the electron withdrawing/donating nature of the substituent on the electronic, optical, and adsorption properties of the croconate dyes. Finally, we hope that the present study will help in the design of highly efficient dyes for dye sensitized solar cells by considering substituent effects. Graphical abstract Effect of substituent on binding energy and charge transfer. PMID:26518689

  12. Visible to near infra red absorption in natural dye (Mondo Grass Berry) for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigala, Duleepa; Desilva, L. A. A.; Perera, A. G. U.

    2012-03-01

    The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Research on development of artificial dyes for broadening the response is important in finding a solution. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination. The broad spectral response from 400 nm to 750 nm was also observed for the Mondo Grass dye compared to other natural dyes consists of anthocyanins or tannins.

  13. Performance of Kerria japonica and Rosa chinensis flower dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemalatha, K. V.; Karthick, S. N.; Justin Raj, C.; Hong, N.-Y.; Kim, S.-K.; Kim, H.-J.

    2012-10-01

    The natural dyes carotenoid and anthocyanin were extracted from Kerria japonica and Rosa chinensis, respectively, using a simple extraction technique without any further purification. They were then used as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and their characteristics were studied. The ranges of short-circuit current (JSC) from 0.559 to 0.801 (mA/cm2), open-circuit voltage (VOC) from 0.537 to 0.584 V, and fill factor from 0.676 to 0.705 were obtained for the DSSCs made using the extracted dyes. Sugar molecules were added externally to the dye for stabilization and to increase the conversion efficiency. The efficiencies of the K. japonica and R. chinensis dyes were 0.22% and 0.29%, respectively; after the addition of sugar, the efficiency increased to 0.29% for K. japonica and decreased to 0.27% for R. chinensis. Thus, the addition of sugar molecules increased the conversion efficiency slightly with the carotenoid dye of K. japonica, while there was no considerable change with the anthocyanin of R. chinensis. This paper briefly discusses the simple extraction technique of these natural dyes and their performance in DSSCs.

  14. FM dye photo-oxidation as a tool for monitoring membrane recycling in inner hair cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Kamin; Revelo, Natalia H.; Rizzoli, Silvio O.

    2014-01-01

    Styryl (FM) dyes have been used for more than two decades to investigate exo- and endocytosis in conventional synapses. However, they are difficult to use in the inner hair cells of the auditory pathway (IHCs), as FM dyes appear to penetrate through mechanotransducer channels into the cytosol of IHCs, masking endocytotic uptake. To solve this problem we applied to IHCs the FM dye photo-oxidation technique, which renders the dyes into electron microscopy markers. Photo-oxidation allowed the un...

  15. Natural dye -sensitized mesoporous ZnO solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qishuang; Shen, Yue; Wu, Guizhi; Li, Linyu; Cao, Meng; Gu, Feng

    2011-02-01

    Natural dye-sensitized solar cells (N-DSSCs) were assembled using chlorophyll sensitized mesoporous ZnO (based on FTO) as the photoanode and platinum plate as the cathode. The natural dyes (chlorophyll) were extracted from spinach by simple procedure. The absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectrum of chlorophyll were studied. Mesoporous ZnO (m-ZnO) applied to the N-DSSCs was synthesized through hydrothermal method. The structures and morphologies were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and diffuse reflection. The results indicated that the samples had an average pore size of 17 nm and the m-ZnO was hexagonal wurtzite structure. The performances of the N-DSSCs were investigated under AM 1.5G illumination. The Voc of the N-DSSCs was about 480mv, and the Isc was about 470μA. The performance of the N-DSSCs could be further improved by adjusting its structure.

  16. Novelionic Polymer Electrolytes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Shibi Fang; Yuan Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, dye-sensitized solar cells(DSC) based on nanocrystalline porous TiO2 films have attracted much attention because of their relatively higher efficiency and low cost compared with conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices[1]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive photo-to-energy conversion efficiency of over 10% where the electrolyte is volatile organic liquid solvents containing I-/I-3- as redox couple. Because of high volatilities, solvent losses occur during long-term operations, resulting in lowered DSC performances.And leakage of liquid electrolyte also limits the durability of DSC.

  17. Evaluation of chemical fluorescent dyes as a protein conjugation partner for live cell imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hayashi-Takanaka

    Full Text Available To optimize live cell fluorescence imaging, the choice of fluorescent substrate is a critical factor. Although genetically encoded fluorescent proteins have been used widely, chemical fluorescent dyes are still useful when conjugated to proteins or ligands. However, little information is available for the suitability of different fluorescent dyes for live imaging. We here systematically analyzed the property of a number of commercial fluorescent dyes when conjugated with antigen-binding (Fab fragments directed against specific histone modifications, in particular, phosphorylated H3S28 (H3S28ph and acetylated H3K9 (H3K9ac. These Fab fragments were conjugated with a fluorescent dye and loaded into living HeLa cells. H3S28ph-specific Fab fragments were expected to be enriched in condensed chromosomes, as H3S28 is phosphorylated during mitosis. However, the degree of Fab fragment enrichment on mitotic chromosomes varied depending on the conjugated dye. In general, green fluorescent dyes showed higher enrichment, compared to red and far-red fluorescent dyes, even when dye:protein conjugation ratios were similar. These differences are partly explained by an altered affinity of Fab fragment after dye-conjugation; some dyes have less effect on the affinity, while others can affect it more. Moreover, red and far-red fluorescent dyes tended to form aggregates in the cytoplasm. Similar results were observed when H3K9ac-specific Fab fragments were used, suggesting that the properties of each dye affect different Fab fragments similarly. According to our analysis, conjugation with green fluorescent dyes, like Alexa Fluor 488 and Dylight 488, has the least effect on Fab affinity and is the best for live cell imaging, although these dyes are less photostable than red fluorescent dyes. When multicolor imaging is required, we recommend the following dye combinations for optimal results: Alexa Fluor 488 (green, Cy3 (red, and Cy5 or CF640 (far-red.

  18. Chemisorption of a thiol-functionalized ruthenium dye on zinc oxide nanoparticles: Implications for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagdeep; Im, Jisun; Whitten, James E.; Soares, Jason W.; Steeves, Diane M.

    2010-09-01

    ZnO is an alternative to TiO 2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Adsorption of cis-ruthenium-bis[2,2'-bipyridine]-bis[4-thiopyridine] onto ZnO nanorods has been studied using X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS and UPS). XPS indicates chemisorption with a surface density of ca. 1 × 10 15 molecules/cm 2, confirming the possibility of using thiol-terminated dyes for ZnO-based DSSC devices. The energy level diagram, based on UPS and absorbance spectroscopy, indicates that the LUMO of this dye is lower in energy than the ZnO conduction band edge, providing minimal enthalpic driving force for photovoltaic electron injection. However, optimization of thiol-functionalized Ru dyes could result in competitive ZnO-based DSSCs.

  19. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-02-01

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  20. Digital Printing of Titanium Dioxide for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrington, Ruth; Wood, Benjamin Michael; Salaoru, Iulia; Goodship, Vannessa

    2016-01-01

    Silicon solar cell manufacturing is an expensive and high energy consuming process. In contrast, dye sensitized solar cell production is less environmentally damaging with lower processing temperatures presenting a viable and low cost alternative to conventional production. This paper further enhances these environmental credentials by evaluating the digital printing and therefore additive production route for these cells. This is achieved here by investigating the formation and performance of a metal oxide photoelectrode using nanoparticle sized titanium dioxide. An ink-jettable material was formulated, characterized and printed with a piezoelectric inkjet head to produce a 2.6 µm thick layer. The resultant printed layer was fabricated into a functioning cell with an active area of 0.25 cm(2) and a power conversion efficiency of 3.5%. The binder-free formulation resulted in a reduced processing temperature of 250 °C, compatible with flexible polyamide substrates which are stable up to temperatures of 350 ˚C. The authors are continuing to develop this process route by investigating inkjet printing of other layers within dye sensitized solar cells. PMID:27166761

  1. Analysis of Natural Sensitizers to Enhance the Efficiency in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Rajkumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three vegetable dyes are used for the study: anthocyanin dye from pomegranate arils extract, betalain dye from beet root extract and chlorophyll dye from tridax procumbens leaf. The anthocyanin and betalain, anthocyanin and chlorophyll, betalain and chlorophyll dyes are blended in cocktail in equal proportions, by volume. This study determines the effect of different extraction concentrations and different vegetable dyes on energy gap using dye sensitized solar cells. The experimental results show that the cocktail dye blended using extracts of pomegranate arils, beet root and tridax procumbens leaf, in the volumetric proportion 1:1, using an extraction at room temperature the greatest energy gap (eg of up to 1.87eV.

  2. Evaluation of the molecular dye orientation in functioning dye-sensitised solar cells (DSCs) by neutron reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2007, global photovoltaic energy production has increased tenfold and its predicted market value is estimated to reach $155 billion by 2018. However, the energy- and costintensive processes required for the production of conventional solid-state devices has created a demand for cheaper and more environmentally friendly alternatives, such as dye-sensitised solar cells (DSCs). Since 1991, DSCs have been intensively investigated and laboratory devices have since accomplished a conversion efficiency of 13%. Typical DSCs consist of a molecular dye adsorbed onto a semiconductor, surrounded by a redox electrolyte (e.g. I-/I3-) and positioned between two transparent conductive oxide substrates. The dye is the principal light absorber, injecting photo-excited electrons into the conduction band of the semiconductor, thus giving rise to the electrical characteristics of the cell. Even though the structure, orientation, and surface packing density of dyes at the TiO2 interface may affect electron injection and bulk TiO2 surface passivation processes, and thus influence the overall cell performance, details about these key parameters still remain limited. X-ray reflectometry has already been successfully employed to measure these properties, however typical laboratory instruments are limited to studies at the solid-air interface. The application of neutrons by the authors, as will be presented in this talk, has allowed development of the technique to a solid-liquid environment wherein the dyes are surrounded by a solvent containing the redox electrolyte. Modifications to the sample environment have enabled measurements in operando, while the cell is exposed to photo-irradiation illumination, along with in situ measurements of the cellular I-V characteristics. Results have revealed subtle differences in dye structure at open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current and given some insight into the influence of the electrolyte on dye-layer structure, but also highlighted

  3. Photosynthesis in a test tube- dye sensitized solar cells as a teaching tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raturi, Atul; Fepuleai, Yoheni [Division of Physics, School of Engineering and Physics, The University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji)

    2010-05-15

    Dye sensitized solar cells employing natural plant dyes as phosensitizers can be effectively used to train students in the science and technology of solar cells. This is especially relevant to developing countries where facilities for silicon cell fabrication are non-existent. The cross-disciplinary nature of this device makes it very attractive for student projects. The present work describes such a project where anthocyanin dye from hibiscus flowers has been used as the electron harvester. (author)

  4. Neutral and anionic tetrazole-based ligands in designing novel ruthenium dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guohua; Kaneko, Ryuji; Zhang, Yaohong; Shinozaki, Yoshinao; Sugawa, Kosuke; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan; Bedja, Idriss; Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Shen, Qing; Otsuki, Joe

    2016-03-01

    Two novel thiocyanate-free Ru(II) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated as dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Both complexes have two tridentate ligands: one is the tricarboxyterpyridine as an anchoring ligand and the other is one of the two bis(tetrazolyl)pyridine derivatives. One of the bis(tetrazolyl)pyridine ligand coordinates to the Ru(II) ion as a doubly deprotonated tetrazolate anion with a formal charge of -2 to form a neutral complex, which is coded as BTP dye, while the other bis(methyltetrazolyl)pyridine ligand coordinates to the Ru(II) ion as a neutral ligand forming a divalent cationic complex, coded as BMTP dye. Unexpectedly, the oxidation potentials for these two compounds are similar, implying similar electron-donating effects of the anionic tetrazolate ligand and the neutral methyltetrazole ligand to the Ru(II) ion. Despite similar HOMO/LUMO levels, BTP dye performs much better, recording 6.10% efficiency, than BMTP dye for DSSCs. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as well as nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy indicates that the differences in the electron injection and electron recombination processes, which may be the consequences of the difference in the localization of LUMO as suggested by DFT calculations, are the main causes for the differences in performance.

  5. Carbazole dye with phosphonic acid anchoring groups for long-term heat stability of dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the binding strength between the dye and TiO2 surface may affect the heat stability of the DSSCs. Carboxylic acids have generally been used as the anchoring groups for the adsorption of dyes on TiO2 surfaces. However, a phosphonic acid anchor is expected to effect more stable bonding to a TiO2 surface because of its tridentate binding capability. In this study, we developed a new carbazole dye that employed a phosphonic acid anchor, MK-94. We studied the effect of the dye anchoring group on the heat stability of DSSCs by comparing MK-94, MK-2 (a carbazole dye with a carboxylic acid anchoring group), and Z-907 (a well-known, robust Ru complex dye with a carboxylic acid anchoring group). In the initial performance assessment, the DSSC with MK-94 exhibited a lower short circuit current (jsc) but a higher open circuit voltage (ΔVoc) than MK-2. With respect to heat stability, decreases in jsc and ΔVoc were suppressed with MK-94, and the drop of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was kept within 6% after 504 h of heating. In addition, MK-94 demonstrated the longest electron lifetime and largest charge transfer resistance than the other dyes during the stability test. In contrast, the PCE decreased 27% from the initial value in the DSSC with MK-2. Thus, the phosphonic acid anchor was effective in extending the long-term heat stability of the DSSCs

  6. Exploiting quantum interference in dye sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggio, Emanuele; Solomon, Gemma C.; Troisi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    subunits. A theory for nonadiabatic electron transfer is employed in order to take explicitly into account the contribution from the bridge states mediating the process. If a cross-conjugated fragment is present in the bridge, it is possible to suppress the charge recombination by negative interference......A strategy to hinder the charge recombination process in dye sensitized solar cells is developed in analogy with similar approaches to modulate charge transport across nanostructures. The system studied is a TiO2 (anatase)-chromophore interface, with an unsaturated carbon bridge connecting the two...

  7. Novel nanostructures for next generation dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we review our latest advancements in nanostructured photoanodes for next generation photovoltaics in general and dye-sensitized solar cells in particular. Bottom-up self-assembly techniques are developed to fabricate large-area 3D nanostructures that enable enhanced charge extraction and light harvesting through optical scattering or photonic crystal effects to improve photocurrent, photovoltage and fill factor. Using generalized techniques to fabricate specialized nanostructures enables specific optoelectronic and physical characteristics like conduction, charge extraction, injection, recombination and light harvesting but also helps improve mechanical flexibility and long-term stability in low cost materials. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. New Components for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Caramori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs are among the most promising solar energy conversion devices of new generation, since coupling ease of fabrication and low cost offer the possibility of building integration in photovoltaic windows and facades. Although in their earliest configuration these systems are close to commercialization, fundamental studies are still required for developing new molecules and materials with more desirable properties as well as improving our understanding of the fundamental processes at the basis of the functioning of photoactive heterogeneous interfaces. In this contribution, some recent advances, made in the effort of improving DSSC devices by finding alternative materials and configurations, are reviewed.

  9. Does the Donor-π-Acceptor Character of Dyes Improve the Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Chung Man; Troisi, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    We quantified the donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) character of a large number of dyes (116) used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and correlated them with the power conversion efficiency of the corresponding cell. The result indicates that there is no correlation between different measures of D-π-A strength and efficiency; that is, the effect of the D-π-A character is completely washed out by other effects. We propose that other design rules should be identified by statistically testing them against the now rich set of experimentally available data. PMID:27434300

  10. A simple method for modeling dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Min-Kyu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30, Jangjeon-Dong, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyunwoong [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Center of Plasma Nano-interface Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Lee, Kyoung-Jun; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Byung-Man; Park, Songyi; Prabakar, Kandasamy [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30, Jangjeon-Dong, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Je, E-mail: heeje@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30, Jangjeon-Dong, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-03

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are photoelectrochemical photovoltaics based on complicated electrochemical reactions. The modeling and simulation of DSCs are powerful tools for evaluating the performance of DSCs according to a range of factors. Many theoretical methods are used to simulate DSCs. On the other hand, these methods are quite complicated because they are based on a difficult mathematical formula. Therefore, this paper suggests a simple and accurate method for the modeling and simulation of DSCs without complications. The suggested simulation method is based on extracting the coefficient from representative cells and a simple interpolation method. This simulation method was implemented using the power electronic simulation program and C-programming language. The performance of DSCs according to the TiO{sub 2} thickness was simulated, and the simulated results were compared with the experimental data to confirm the accuracy of this simulation method. The suggested modeling strategy derived the accurate current–voltage characteristics of the DSCs according to the TiO{sub 2} thickness with good agreement between the simulation and the experimental results. - Highlights: • Simple modeling and simulation method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). • Modeling done using a power electronic simulation program and C-programming language. • The performance of DSC according to the TiO{sub 2} thickness was simulated. • Simulation and experimental performance of DSCs were compared. • This method is suitable for accurate simulation of DSCs.

  11. 聚吡咯/石墨复合对电极在染料敏化太阳能电池中的应用研究%Application Research of Polypyrrole/Graphite Composite Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯小明; 黄先威; 谭卓; 赵斌; 谭松庭

    2011-01-01

    通过化学氧化法制备了聚吡咯纳米粒子,并将其与石墨共混旋涂于ITO导电玻璃上,作为染料敏化太阳能电池的对电极.通过SEM观察到聚吡咯纳米粒子粒径在80~100 nm之间,循环伏安测试表明聚吡咯电极对I2/I-电解质氧化还原体系具有较好的催化能力.光伏电池的电化学交流阻抗测试结果说明掺入石墨后可有效降低聚吡咯对电极的电荷转移阻抗.以钌染料N719为光敏剂,聚吡咯/石墨复合电极为对电极组装成的染料敏化太阳能电池,在AM 1.5(100mW·cm-2)的模拟太阳光照射下,得到6.01%的光电转换效率,达到相同条件下铂对电极性能的92%.%Polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles were synthesized and mixed with graphite to fabricate PPy/graphite composite counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The SEM investigation showed that PPy with porous and particle diameter in 80~100 nm is covered on the ITO glass. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis of the PPy electrode exhibited favorable catalytic activity for I2/I- redox reaction. The charge-transfer resistance (Rct) of PPy electrode decreased after the addition of graphite. Overall energy conversion efficiency of the DSSCs based on the ruthenium dye (N719) with PPy/graphite composite counter electrode reached 6.01% under simulated AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW/cm2), which was 92% of the energy conversion efficiency of the DSSCs with Pt electrode.

  12. Development of the plastic solid-dye cell for tunable solid-state dye lasers and study on its optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Do Kyeong; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Jung, E. C.; Kim, Hyun Su; Lim, Gwon

    2001-01-01

    we have fabricated solid-state dyes with PMMA and sol-gel materials. We developed single longitudianl mode solid-state dye laser with the linewidth of less than 500MHz. We have constructed a self-seeded laser and observed the increase of the output power because of self-seeding effect. We investigated the operating characteristics of the dualwave laser oscillator and DFDL with solid-state dyes. And we have constructed the 3-color solid-state dye laser oscillator and amplifier system and observed 3-color operation. We also improved the laser oscliiator with disk-type solid-state dye cell which can be translated and rotated with the help of the two stepping motors. With the help of computer control, we could constantly changed the illuminated area of the dye cell and, therefore, were able to achieve long time operation and to use almost the entire region of the solid-state dye cell.

  13. Development of the plastic solid-dye cell for tunable solid-state dye lasers and study on its optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    we have fabricated solid-state dyes with PMMA and sol-gel materials. We developed single longitudianl mode solid-state dye laser with the linewidth of less than 500MHz. We have constructed a self-seeded laser and observed the increase of the output power because of self-seeding effect. We investigated the operating characteristics of the dualwave laser oscillator and DFDL with solid-state dyes. And we have constructed the 3-color solid-state dye laser oscillator and amplifier system and observed 3-color operation. We also improved the laser oscliiator with disk-type solid-state dye cell which can be translated and rotated with the help of the two stepping motors. With the help of computer control, we could constantly changed the illuminated area of the dye cell and, therefore, were able to achieve long time operation and to use almost the entire region of the solid-state dye cell

  14. A dye sensitized solar cell using natural counter electrode and natural dye derived from mangosteen peel waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiaugree, Wasan; Lowpa, Seksan; Towannang, Madsakorn; Rutphonsan, Phikun; Tangtrakarn, Apishok; Pimanpang, Samuk; Maiaugree, Prapen; Ratchapolthavisin, Nattawat; Sang-Aroon, Wichien; Jarernboon, Wirat; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya

    2015-10-01

    Mangosteen peel is an inedible portion of a fruit. We are interested in using these residues as components of a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Carbonized mangosteen peel was used with mangosteen peel dye as a natural counter electrode and a natural photosensitizer, respectively. A distinctive mesoporous honeycomb-like carbon structure with a rough nanoscale surface was found in carbonized mangosteen peels. The efficiency of a dye sensitized solar cell using carbonized mangosteen peel was compared to that of DSSCs with Pt and PEDOT-PSS counter electrodes. The highest solar conversion efficiency (2.63%) was obtained when using carbonized mangosteen peel and an organic disulfide/thiolate (T2/T-) electrolyte.

  15. P2X antagonists inhibit styryl dye entry into hair cells

    OpenAIRE

    Crumling, Mark A.; Tong, Mingjie; Aschenbach, Krista L.; Liu, Li Qian; Pipitone, Christine M.; Duncan, R Keith

    2009-01-01

    The styryl pyridinium dyes, FM1-43 and AM1-43, are fluorescent molecules that can permeate the mechanotransduction channels of hair cells, the sensory receptors of the inner ear. When these dyes are applied to hair cells, they enter the cytoplasm rapidly, resulting in a readily detectable increase in intracellular fluorescence that is often used as a molecular indication of mechanotransduction channel function. However, such dyes can also permeate the ATP receptor, P2X2. Therefore, we explore...

  16. Enhancing the efficiency of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells utilizing natural dye extracted from Azadirachta indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahare, Sanjay; Veldurthi, Naresh; Singh, Ranbir; Swarnkar, A. K.; Salunkhe, Manauti; Bhave, Tejashree

    2015-10-01

    The natural dye extracted from Azadirechta indica (neem) was used as a sensitizer in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The fabricated DSSC exhibited open circuit voltage of 0.538 V with 2.81% power conversion efficiency (η) in back-illuminated mode which is higher than that reported in the literature. In order to understand the characteristics of DSSC, systematic study of solar cell component materials was carried out. Anatase TiO2 (30-40 nm) nanoparticles were synthesized by DC arc plasma method and deposited electrophoretically on a flexible titanium (Ti) substrate. A platinum-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was used as a counter electrode to construct flexible DSSC. The structural and optical behavior of neem-dye sensitized TiO2 thin film has been studied using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. We have observed that the neem dye gives a very good sensitization effect. In addition, the dye has good prospects as a low-cost and environmental friendly alternative to ruthenium-based sensitizers which are normally used in DSSCs.

  17. Pt-graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Graphene films with Pt nanoparticles were prepared from commercial graphene. • Pt consumption can be reduced by using Pt-graphene films. • The film showed improved catalytic activity for the reaction I3−/I−. • The film can be used as the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). • The performance of DSSC was superior to that of the Pt electrode. - Abstract: A simple paste method for fabricating graphene films with Pt nanoparticles was developed. First, graphene pastes with Pt nanoparticles were prepared from commercially available graphene. The resulting films of graphene nanoplatelet aggregates with Pt nanoparticles (Pt-GNA) contained Pt nanoparticles distributed over the entire three-dimensional surface of the GNA. Then, the catalytic activity for the I3−/I− redox reaction was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. The GNA electrode exhibited higher activity than a graphene nanoplatelet electrode because of its higher effective surface area. Addition of Pt nanoparticles to the electrodes improved the catalytic activity. In particular, a large Faradaic current for the I3−/I− reaction was observed for the Pt-GNA electrode. As the counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), their performance was consistent with the cyclic voltammetry results. In particular, the DSSC performance of the Pt-GNA electrode was superior to that of the Pt electrodes commonly used in DSSCs

  18. Pt-graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Hajime, E-mail: hoshi@ed.tus.ac.jp; Tanaka, Shumpei; Miyoshi, Takashi

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Graphene films with Pt nanoparticles were prepared from commercial graphene. • Pt consumption can be reduced by using Pt-graphene films. • The film showed improved catalytic activity for the reaction I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −}. • The film can be used as the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). • The performance of DSSC was superior to that of the Pt electrode. - Abstract: A simple paste method for fabricating graphene films with Pt nanoparticles was developed. First, graphene pastes with Pt nanoparticles were prepared from commercially available graphene. The resulting films of graphene nanoplatelet aggregates with Pt nanoparticles (Pt-GNA) contained Pt nanoparticles distributed over the entire three-dimensional surface of the GNA. Then, the catalytic activity for the I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −} redox reaction was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. The GNA electrode exhibited higher activity than a graphene nanoplatelet electrode because of its higher effective surface area. Addition of Pt nanoparticles to the electrodes improved the catalytic activity. In particular, a large Faradaic current for the I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −} reaction was observed for the Pt-GNA electrode. As the counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), their performance was consistent with the cyclic voltammetry results. In particular, the DSSC performance of the Pt-GNA electrode was superior to that of the Pt electrodes commonly used in DSSCs.

  19. Highly efficient monolithic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Lee, Jun Young; Ko, Min Jae; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-03-01

    Monolithic dye-sensitized solar cells (M-DSSCs) provide an effective way to reduce the fabrication cost of general DSSCs since they do not require transparent conducting oxide substrates for the counter electrode. However, conventional monolithic devices have low efficiency because of the impediments resulting from counter electrode materials and spacer layers. Here, we demonstrate highly efficient M-DSSCs featuring a highly conductive polymer combined with macroporous polymer spacer layers. With M-DSSCs based on a PEDOT/polymer spacer layer, a power conversion efficiency of 7.73% was achieved, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest efficiency for M-DSSCs to date. Further, PEDOT/polymer spacer layers were applied to flexible DSSCs and their cell performance was investigated. PMID:23432389

  20. Improvement of Dye Solar Cell Efficiency by Photoanode Posttreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Ivanovska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic concept for efficiency improvement in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC is limiting the electron-hole recombination. One way to approach the problem is to improve the photogenerated charge carriers lifetime and consequently reduce their recombination probability. We are reporting on a facile posttreatment of the mesoporous photoanode by using a colloidal solution of TiO2 nanoparticles. We have investigated the outcome of the different sintering temperature of the posttreated photoanodes on their morphology as well as on the conversion efficiency of the DSSC. The DSSCs composed of posttreated photoanodes at 450°C showed an increase in JSC and consequently an increase in efficiency of 10%. Investigations were made to determine the electron recombination via the electrolyte by the OCVD technique. We found that the posttreatment has the effect of reducing the surface trap states and thus increases the electron lifetime, which is responsible for the increase of the overall cell efficiency.

  1. Molecular design of new hydrazone dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: Synthesis, characterization and DFT study

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.

    2012-07-01

    Three new sensitizers 2-{4-[2-(4-Nitrobenzylidene)hydrazino)]phenyl} ethylene-1,1,2-tricarbonitrile (NBHPET), 2-{4-[2-p-Chlorobenzylidenehydrazino] phenyl}- ethylene-1,1,2-tri carbonitrile (CBHPET) and 2-{4-[2-p- Bromobenzylidenehydrazino] phenyl}ethylene-1,1,2-tricarbonitrile (BBHPET) have been synthesized. The dyes showed pronounced solvatochromic effects as the polarity of the solvents increased. The structures have been optimized at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The torsion in E-isomer is smaller than Z-isomer and azo isomers. The highest occupied molecular orbitals are delocalized on whole molecule while lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals are distributed on the tricarbonitrile. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies are above the conduction band of titanium dioxide, highest occupied molecular orbitals of the dyes are below the redox couple of new synthesized dyes and small energy gap revealed these dyes would be better sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Yen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP, and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.

  3. Numerical simulations for the effiency improvement of hybrid dye-microcrystalline silicon pin-solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdorf, Sven; Bauer, Gottfried Heinrich; Brueggemann, Rudolf [Institut fuer Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Hybrid solar cells consisting of dye sensitizers incorporated in the i-layer of microcrystalline silicon pin solar cell have been proposed and even recently processed. The dye sensitizer molecules are embedded in the matrix and enhance the overall absorption of the dye-matrix system due to their high absorption coefficient in the spectral range interesting for photovoltaic applications. However, the charge transport properties of dyes are quite poor. Microcrystalline silicon on the other hand has acceptable charge transport properties, while the absorption, given a layer thickness in the micron range, is relatively poor. This contribution investigates the effiency improvement of hybrid dye-microcrystalline solar cells compared to pure microcrystalline solar cells by simulation. The results indicate that, under optimal conditions, the effiency can be improved by more than 20 % compared to a pure microcrystalline silicon cell. The thickness reduction for the hybrid system can be as large as 50 % for the same effiency.

  4. Simple indoline based donor–acceptor dye for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtaruzzaman, Md., E-mail: akhtar.brces@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Ekramul Mahmud, H.N.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Islam, Ashraful, E-mail: ISLAM.Ashraful@nims.go.jp [Photovoltaic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Ei Shafei, Ahmed [Polymer and Color Chemistry Program, North Carolina State University 1000 Main Campus Dr., Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Karim, Mohammed Rezaul [Center of Excellence for Research in Engineering Materials (CEREM), College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Sopian, Kamaruzzaman [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Han, Liyuan [Photovoltaic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yoshinori [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2013-10-01

    A simple metal-free donor–acceptor type sensitizer U01, bearing strong electron donor indoline-triphenylamine was synthesized for panchromatic sensitization of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline film. Photovoltaic properties of U01 showed remarkably enhanced light harvesting due to the presence of strong electron donor and robust structure. The new U01 sensitized solar cell exhibited a photovoltaic performance: a short-circuit photocurrent density (J{sub sc}) of 10.70 mA cm{sup −2}, an open-circuit photovoltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.758 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.74, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 6.01% under standard global AM 1.5 solar light condition. Our results suggest that indoline-triphenylamine based robust D–A molecular architecture is a highly promising class of panchromatic sensitizers for improvement of the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). - Graphical abstract: A new donor–acceptor type sensitizer, U01 has been synthesized for panchromatic TiO{sub 2} sensitization. The photovoltaic properties of U01 showed higher light harvesting compared to D-1 due to the presence of strong electron donor indoline-triphenylamine moiety and compact molecular structure, which translated into a high total conversion efficiency of 6.01%. - Highlights: • A simple and robust indoline-triphenylamine based sensitizer for DSCs. • An overall conversion efficiency of 6.01% was obtained. • Strong electron donor triphenylamine unit extends absorption spectrum. • Simple and robust molecular design is a promising class of sensitizers.

  5. Optimum Nanoporous TiO2 Film and Its Application to Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴松元; 王孔嘉

    2003-01-01

    Properties of TiO2 nanoporous films, which are one of the crucial technologies in dye-sensitized solar cell, are investigated. The nanocrystalline TiO2 films were prepared with the sol-gel method at different pH in precursor and treatment temperature in autoclave for their application to dye-sensitized solar cells. The thickness of the TiO2 film is very important to the transfer of photoelectron as well as adsorption of dye, it is also known as one of the source to the dark current. The results show that the TiO2 films, such as different particle sizes of TiO2, different pH in precursor and treatment temperature in autoclave, have a strong influence on the photoelectrochemical properties of the dye-sensitized solar cells. We give the optimum TiO2 film thickness and morphology for the application to dye-sensitized solar cells.

  6. Electrical characterization of dye sensitized nano solar cell using natural pomegranate juice as photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adithi, U.; Thomas, Sara; Uma, V.; Pradeep, N.

    2013-02-01

    This paper shows Electrical characterization of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell using natural dye, extracted from the pomegranate as a photo sensitizer and ZnO nanoparticles as semiconductor. The constituents of fabricated dye sensitized solar cell were working electrode, dye, electrolyte and counter electrode. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and used as semiconductor in working electrode. Carbon soot was used as counter electrode. The resistance of ZnO film on ITO film was found out. There was an increase in the resistance of the film and film changes from conducting to semiconducting. Photovoltaic parameters of the fabricated cell like Short circuit current, open circuit voltage, Fill factor and Efficiency were found out. This paper shows that usage of natural dyes like pomegranate juice as sensitizer enables faster and simpler production of cheaper and environmental friendly solar cell.

  7. Progress in nanostructured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian; Liu, Yong; Lin, Tong

    2016-09-01

    Solar cells represent a principal energy technology to convert light into electricity. Commercial solar cells are at present predominately produced by single- or multi-crystalline silicon wafers. The main drawback to silicon-based solar cells, however, is high material and manufacturing costs. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted much attention during recent years because of the low production cost and other advantages. The photoanode (working electrode) plays a key role in determining the performance of DSSCs. In particular, nanostructured photoanodes with a large surface area, high electron transfer efficiency, and low electron recombination facilitate to prepare DSSCs with high energy conversion efficiency. In this review article, we summarize recent progress in the development of novel photoanodes for DSSCs. Effect of semiconductor material (e.g. TiO2, ZnO, SnO2, N2O5, and nano carbon), preparation, morphology and structure (e.g. nanoparticles, nanorods, nanofibers, nanotubes, fiber/particle composites, and hierarchical structure) on photovoltaic performance of DSSCs is described. The possibility of replacing silicon-based solar cells with DSSCs is discussed.

  8. Progress in nanostructured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian; Liu, Yong; Lin, Tong

    2016-05-01

    Solar cells represent a principal energy technology to convert light into electricity. Commercial solar cells are at present predominately produced by single- or multi-crystalline silicon wafers. The main drawback to silicon-based solar cells, however, is high material and manufacturing costs. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted much attention during recent years because of the low production cost and other advantages. The photoanode (working electrode) plays a key role in determining the performance of DSSCs. In particular, nanostructured photoanodes with a large surface area, high electron transfer efficiency, and low electron recombination facilitate to prepare DSSCs with high energy conversion efficiency. In this review article, we summarize recent progress in the development of novel photoanodes for DSSCs. Effect of semiconductor material (e.g. TiO2, ZnO, SnO2, N2O5, and nano carbon), preparation, morphology and structure (e.g. nanoparticles, nanorods, nanofibers, nanotubes, fiber/particle composites, and hierarchical structure) on photovoltaic performance of DSSCs is described. The possibility of replacing silicon-based solar cells with DSSCs is discussed.

  9. Effects of cell area on the performance of dye sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatani, Mehboob, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Hamid, Nor Hisham, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Samsudin, Adel, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices (COINN), UTP (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have significant advantage over the current silicon cells by having low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. Therefore, DSCs are expected to be used as the next generation solar cell device that covers wide range of new applications. In order to achieve highly efficient DSCs for practical application, study on the effect of increasing the cell’s area on the performance of dye sensitized solar need to be carried out. Three different DSC cell areas namely, 1, 12.96 and 93.5 cm{sup 2} respectively were fabricated and analyzed through solar simulator and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it was observed that the cell’s electron lifetime was influenced significantly by the cell’s area. Although the collection efficiency of all cells recorded to be approximately 100% but higher recombination rate with increased cell area reduced the performance of the cell.

  10. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for Economically Viable Photovoltaic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2013-05-16

    TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a significant level of scientific and technological interest for their potential as economically viable photovoltaic devices. While DSSCs have multiple benefits such as material abundance, a short energy payback period, constant power output, and compatibility with flexible applications, there are still several challenges that hold back large scale commercialization. Critical factors determining the future of DSSCs involve energy conversion efficiency, long-term stability, and production cost. Continuous advancement of their long-term stability suggests that state-of-the-art DSSCs will operate for over 20 years without a significant decrease in performance. Nevertheless, key questions remain in regards to energy conversion efficiency improvements and material cost reduction. In this Perspective, the present state of the field and the ongoing efforts to address the requirements of DSSCs are summarized with views on the future of DSSCs.

  11. To probe the equivalence and opulence of nanocrystal and nanotube based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Divya; Mohan, Devendra

    2016-05-01

    Dye-Sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 nanocrystal and TiO2 nanotubes have been fabricated by a simple sol-gel hydrothermal process and their performances have been compared. Current density and voltage (JV) characteristics and incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) plots have been set as criterion to check which one is better as a photoanode candidate in dye-sensitized solar cell. It has been observed that although open circuit voltage values for both type of cells do not differ much still, nanotube based dye-sensitized solar cells are more successful having an efficiency value of 7.28%.

  12. Organic photovoltaic solar cells based on some pure and sensitized dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.D. (Jodhpur Univ. (IN). Dept. of Physics); Mathur, S.C.; Dube, D.C. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Delhi (IN). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-12-15

    Organic photovoltaic solar cells based on metal-dye or sensitized dye-SnO{sub 2} junctions are formed. The electrical and photovoltaic characteristics of these Schottky junctions have been studied on two pure and sensitized dyes (Eriochrome Blue Black B and Rodamine B). From the photovoltaic action spectra the active region responsible for electric power generation was found to be confined to the SnO{sub 2}-dye interface. The effect of sensitization, electrode material and intensity on photovoltaic and electric parameters has also been discussed in detail. Finally the C-V characteristics are discussed in detail. (author).

  13. Triphenylamine-based indoline derivatives for dye-sensitized solar cells: a density functional theory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xue-Feng; Kang, Guo-Jun; He, Qiong-Qiong

    2016-01-01

    A new series of triphenylamine-based indoline dye sensitizers were molecularly designed and investigated for their potential use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Theoretical calculations revealed that modifying donor part of D149 by triphenylamine significantly altered the electronic structures, MO energies, and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) absorption band. Key parameters associated with the light-harvesting efficiency at a given wavelength LHE(λ), the driving force ΔG inject, and the open-circuit photovoltage V oc were characterized. More importantly, these designed (dimeric) dye sensitizers were found to have similar broad absorption spectra to their corresponding monomers, indicating that modifying the donor part with triphenylamine may stop unfavorable dye aggregation. Further analyses of the dye-(TiO2)9 cluster interaction confirmed that there was strong electronic coupling at the interface. These results are expected to provide useful guidance in the molecular design of new highly efficient metal-free organic dyes. PMID:26659403

  14. Natural dyes as sensitizers to increase the efficiency in sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Bayron; Sivakumar, R.; Paulraj, M.

    2016-05-01

    A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a sandwich type solar cell consisting of a photoelectrode, a counter electrode and a liquid electrolyte. The photo electrode comprises of a titanium dioxide semiconducting thin film grown over a glass substrate which in-turn has a transparent thin conducting layer of tin oxide film doped with fluorine (FTO) coated over it. The aim of this work is to develop photoelectrodes with different dyes to increase the efficiency of this type of solar cells. Dyes obtained from fresh sources of maqui, black myrtle, spinach and a dye mixture of spinach and spinach-maqui-myrtle were used. The technique used for the extraction of the dyes was maceration for one day, in methanol. Colourants and photoelectrodes were studied using, UV-vis spectrophotometer for their spectral properties. Their photovoltaic properties such as efficiency, fill factor, open circuit voltage and short circuit current were studied using a solar simulator and source meter unit.

  15. Optimizing porphyrins for dye sensitized solar cells using large-scale ab initio calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnsø, Kristian Baruël; Pedersen, Christian S.; García Lastra, Juan Maria;

    2014-01-01

    In the search for sustainable energy sources, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) represent an attractive solution due to their low cost, relatively high efficiencies, and flexible design. Porphyrin-based dyes are characterized by strong absorption in the visible part of the spectrum and easy cust...

  16. Nanobeads of zinc oxide with rhodamine B dye as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baviskar, P.K. [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001, MS (India); Zhang, J.B. [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Gupta, V.; Chand, S. [Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sankapal, B.R., E-mail: brsankapal@rediffmail.com [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001, MS (India)

    2012-01-05

    Highlights: > Synthesis of ZnO film was done at room temperature (27 deg. C). > Simple and inexpensive chemical bath deposition method was employed. > The as deposited film consists of mixed phases of hydroxide and oxide. > The post annealing was done at 200 deg. C in order to remove hydroxide phase. > Low-cost, metal free Rhodamine B dye was used for DSSC application. - Abstract: Cost effective, ruthenium metal free rhodamine B dye has been chemically adsorbed on ZnO films consisting of nanobeads to serve as a photo anode in dye sensitized solar cells. These ZnO films were chemically synthesized at room temperature (27 deg. C) on to fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates followed by annealing at 200 deg. C. These films consisting of inter connected nanobeads (20-40 nm) which are due to the agglomeration of very small size particles (3-5 nm) leading to high surface area. The film shows wurtzite structure having high crystallinity with optical direct band gap of 3.3 eV. Optical absorbance measurements for rhodamine B dye covered ZnO film revealed the good coverage in the visible region (460-590 nm) of the solar spectrum. With poly-iodide liquid as an electrolyte, device exhibits photon to electric energy conversion efficiency ({eta}) of 1.26% under AM 1.5G illumination at 100 mW/cm{sup 2}.

  17. Enhanced Photovoltaic Performances of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Co-Sensitization of Benzothiadiazole and Squaraine-Based Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ashraful; Akhtaruzzaman, Md; Chowdhury, Towhid H; Qin, Chuanjiang; Han, Liyuan; Bedja, Idriss M; Stalder, Romain; Schanze, Kirk S; Reynolds, John R

    2016-02-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on a donor-acceptor-donor oligothienylene dye containing benzothiadiazole (T4BTD-A) were cosensitized with dyes containing cis-configured squaraine rings (HSQ3 and HSQ4). The cosensitized dyes showed incident monochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) greater than 70% in the 300-850 nm wavelength region. The individual overall conversion efficiencies of the sensitizers T4BTD-A, HSQ3, and HSQ4 were 6.4%, 4.8%, and 5.8%, respectively. Improved power conversion efficiencies of 7.0% and 7.7% were observed when T4BTD-A was cosensitized with HSQ3 and HSQ4, respectively, thanks to a significant increase in current density (JSC) for the cosensitized DSSCs. Intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy results showed a longer lifetime for cosensitized T4BTD-A+HSQ3 and T4BTD-A+HSQ4 compared to that of HSQ3 and HSQ4, respectively.

  18. In Situ Mapping of the Molecular Arrangement of Amphiphilic Dye Molecules at the TiO 2 Surface of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Voïtchovsky, Kislon

    2015-05-27

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Amphiphilic sensitizers are central to the function of dye-sensitized solar cells. It is known that the cell\\'s performance depends on the molecular arrangement and the density of the dye on the semiconductor surface, but a molecular-level picture of the cell-electrolyte interface is still lacking. Here, we present subnanometer in situ atomic force microscopy images of the Z907 dye at the surface of TiO2 in a relevant liquid. Our results reveal changes in the conformation and the lateral arrangement of the dye molecules, depending on their average packing density on the surface. Complementary quantitative measurements on the ensemble of the film are obtained by the quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation technique. An atomistic picture of the dye coverage-dependent packing, the effectiveness of the hydrophobic alkyl chains as blocking layer, and the solvent accessibility is obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. (Figure Presented).

  19. Dyes Extracted from Safflower, Medicago Sativa, and Ros Marinus Oficinalis as Photosensitizers for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan A. Taya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, three extracts of plant leaves were used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. These plants are Safflower, Medicago sativa and Ros marinus oficinalis. The natural dyes were extracted before and after grinding the plant leaves. The UV-VIS absorption spectra of the three extracts in ethyl alcohol solution were measured. The DSSCs were assembled using TiO2 films on Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO coated glass. The DSSCs sensitized with the extracts of grinded leaves showed a better performance compared to those sensitized with un-grinded leaves with the highest efficiency of 0.115 % was obtained for the DSSC sensitized with Medicago sativa. The performance of the DSSCs sensitized with Safflower and Ros marinus oficinalis was significantly improved by acid treatment of the FTO substrates. Impedance spectroscopy of the fabricated cells was also carried out.

  20. EH AND S ANALYSIS OF DYE-SENSITIZED PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWERMAN,B.; FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-10-01

    Photovoltaic solar cells based on a dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide photoelectrode have been researched and reported since the early 1990's. Commercial production of dye-sensitized photovoltaic solar cells has recently been reported in Australia. In this report, current manufacturing methods are described, and estimates are made of annual chemical use and emissions during production. Environmental, health and safety considerations for handling these materials are discussed. This preliminary EH and S evaluation of dye-sensitized titanium dioxide solar cells indicates that some precautions will be necessary to mitigate hazards that could result in worker exposure. Additional information required for a more complete assessment is identified.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutikno, Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi, Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10-4%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  2. A Versatile Cell Death Screening Assay Using Dye-Stained Cells and Multivariate Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tony J; Ylanko, Jarkko; Geng, Fei; Andrews, David W

    2015-11-01

    A novel dye-based method for measuring cell death in image-based screens is presented. Unlike conventional high- and medium-throughput cell death assays that measure only one form of cell death accurately, using multivariate analysis of micrographs of cells stained with the inexpensive mix, red dye nonyl acridine orange, and a nuclear stain, it was possible to quantify cell death induced by a variety of different agonists even without a positive control. Surprisingly, using a single known cytotoxic agent as a positive control for training a multivariate classifier allowed accurate quantification of cytotoxicity for mechanistically unrelated compounds enabling generation of dose-response curves. Comparison with low throughput biochemical methods suggested that cell death was accurately distinguished from cell stress induced by low concentrations of the bioactive compounds Tunicamycin and Brefeldin A. High-throughput image-based format analyses of more than 300 kinase inhibitors correctly identified 11 as cytotoxic with only 1 false positive. The simplicity and robustness of this dye-based assay makes it particularly suited to live cell screening for toxic compounds.

  3. Fabrication and analysis of dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dye extracted from dragon fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed Ali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dragon fruit dye has been prepared and used in the fabrication of DSSC as sensitizer. The properties of dragon fruit dye have been investigated by UV-Vis and FTIR technique. The absorption spectrum shows a peak value of 535 nm. Chemically dragon fruit dye shows present of intermolecular H-bond, conjugate C=O stretching and esters acetates C-O-C stretching vibration, which is due to the component of anthocyanin. On the other hand, the resistivity of TiO2 film on ITO glass before it is used for the fabrication of DSSC is also investigated. The TiO2 sheet resistivity increase from 1 layer = 22.1 Ω cm to 2 layers = 369.6 Ω cm. Finally, the efficiency of assemble DSSC was evaluated and simulated using a custom made technique. The result shows fill factor, Pmax and efficiency during the present of halogen lamp are 0.30, 13 μW, 0.22%, respectively. We have successfully showed that the DSSC using dragon fruit as a dye sensitizer is useful for the preparation of environmental friendly and low-cost DSSC.

  4. Co-sensitization of natural dyes for improved efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Ashok; Subalakshmi, K.; Senthilselvan, J.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new approach of co-sensitized DSSC based on natural dyes is investigated to explore the possible way to improve the power conversion efficiency. To realize this purpose 10 DSSC devices were fabricated using mono-sensitization and co-sensitization of ethanolic extracts of natural dye sensitizers obtained from Cactus fruit, Jambolana fruit, Curcumin and Bermuda grass. The optical absorption spectrum of the mono and hybrid dye extracts were studied by UV-Visible absorption spectrum. It shows the characteristic absorption peaks in visible region corresponds to the presence of natural pigments of anthocyanin, betacyanin and chlorophylls. Absorption spectrum of hybrid dyes reveals a wide absorption band in visible region with improved extinction co-efficient and it is favorable for increased light harvesting nature. The power conversion efficiency of DSSC devices were calculated using J-V curve and the maximum efficiency achieved in the present work is noted to be ~0.61% for Cactus-Bermuda co-sensitized DSSC.

  5. High-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells using ferrocene-based electrolytes and natural photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmezoğlu, Savaş; Akyürek, Cafer; Akin, Seçkin

    2012-10-01

    A new and promising dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) bilayer design was developed using an Fe2+/Fe3+ (ferrocene) liquid electrolyte and natural dyes extracted from Hypericum perforatum, Rubia tinctorum L. and Reseda luteola. The photovoltaic parameters controlling the device performance were then investigated. A DSSC based on quercetin dye displayed the most efficient solar to electricity conversion efficiency compared with other dyes with a maximum η value of 2.17%. Maximum overall conversion efficiencies under simulated sunlight that was comparable to natural photosynthesis were increased by 15%. The identification of appropriate additives for improving VOC without causing dye degradation may result in further enhancement of cell performance, making the practical application of such systems more suitable for achieving economically viable solar energy devices.

  6. Henna (Lawsonia inermis L. Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Titania Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ebrahim Jasim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost solar cells have been the subject of intensive research activities for over half century ago. More recently, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs emerged as a new class of low-cost solar cells that can be easily prepared. Natural-dye-sensitized solar cells (NDSSCs are shown to be excellent examples of mimicking photosynthesis. The NDSSC acts as a green energy generator in which dyes molecules adsorbed to nanocrystalline layer of wide bandgap semiconductor material harvest photons. In this paper we investigate the structural, optical, electrical, and photovoltaic characterization of two types of natural dyes, namely, the Bahraini Henna and the Yemeni Henna, extracted using the Soxhlet extractor. Solar cells from both materials were prepared and characterized. It was found that the levels of open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current are concentration dependent. Further suggestions to improve the efficiency of NDSSC are discussed.

  7. Correction: Dye adsorption mechanisms in TiO2 films, and their effects on the photodynamic and photovoltaic properties in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-Jun; Shim, Wang-Geun; Kim, Dajung; An, Jongdeok; Im, Chan; Kim, Youngjin; Kim, Gunwoo; Choi, Chulmin; Kang, Sang Ook; Cho, Dae Won

    2016-02-21

    Correction for 'Dye adsorption mechanisms in TiO2 films, and their effects on the photodynamic and photovoltaic properties in dye-sensitized solar cells' by Kyung-Jun Hwang et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, 17, 21974-21981.

  8. Enhancement of power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by co-sensitization of Phloxine B and Bromophenol blue dyes on ZnO photoanode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, Suman; Bahadur, Lal, E-mail: lbahadur@bhu.ac.in

    2015-05-15

    A single dye usually absorbs light only in a limited range of solar spectrum. In order to widen the absorption range, a combination of dyes, namely, Phloxine B and Bromophenol blue have been used as sensitizers in ZnO based dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). It has been found that the DSSC sensitized by mixed dyes exhibited better photovoltaic performance than those observed with the DSSCs using test dyes individually. It has been ascribed to the enhanced absorption of light particularly in higher energy region (λ=400–550 nm) when both dyes were used together as was evident from the absorption spectra of dyes adsorbed onto ZnO electrode. The DSSC using ZnO electrode sensitized by mixed dyes provided J{sub SC}=5.6 mA cm{sup −2}, V{sub OC}=0.606 V, FF=0.53 and maximum energy conversion efficiency (η) of 1.35% on illuminating the cell with visible light of 150 mW cm{sup −2} intensity. - Highlights: • Phloxine B and Bromophenol blue have been used as sensitizers in ZnO based DSSC. • DSSC sensitized by mixed dyes exhibited better photovoltaic performance than those observed with the DSSCs using test dyes individually. • Enhanced absorption of light particularly in higher energy region (λ=400–550 nm) have been observed when both dyes were used together. • The DSSC using ZnO electrode sensitized by mixed dyes provided J{sub sc}=5.6 mA cm{sup −2}, V{sub oc}=0.606 V, FF=0.53. • Efficiency of 1.35% is achieved at visible light intensity of 150 mW cm{sup −2}.

  9. A panchromatic anthracene-fused porphyrin sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ball, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of ruthenium-free sensitizers which absorb light over a broad range of the solar spectrum is important for improving the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Here we study three chemically tailored porphyrin-based dyes. We show that by fusing the porphyrin core to an anthracene unit, we can extend the conjugation length and lower the optical gap, shifting the absorption spectrum into the near-infrared (NIR). All three dyes were tested in dye-sensitized solar cells, using both titanium dioxide and tin dioxide as the electron-transport material. Solar cells incorporating the anthracene-fused porphyrin dye exhibit photocurrent collection at wavelengths up to about 1100 nm, which is the longest reported for a porphyrin-based system. Despite extending the photon absorption bandwidth, device efficiency is found to be low, which is a common property of cells based on porphyrin dyes with NIR absorption. We show that in the present case the efficiency is reduced by inefficient electron injection into the oxide, as opposed to dye regeneration, and highlight some important design considerations for panchromatic sensitizers. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. TDDFT screening auxiliary withdrawing group and design the novel D-A-π-A organic dyes based on indoline dye for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenqing; Liu, Yun; Liu, Chunmeng; Lin, Chundan; Shao, Changjin

    2016-10-01

    Based on the experimentally synthesized dye JZ145, we designed a series of novel D-A-π-A dyes SPL201-SPL211 with different π-conjugated bridges and a new auxiliary withdrawing group for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT(TDDFT). The molecular structures, energy levels, absorption spectra, light-harvesting efficiency (LHE), driving force of injection(ΔGinj) and regeneration(ΔGreg), electron dipole moment (μnormal) and lifetime of the first excited state(τ) were all scrutinized in details. Results reveal that the additional withdrawing group A2 and the π-conjugated group di-η-hexyl-substituted cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT) are more promising functional groups for the organic dyes with D-A-π-A structure. We further designed SPL212 and SPL213 by employing indoline group as donor, the above screened functional groups as π-conjugated bridge and additional withdrawing group, biscarbodithiolic acid and dicyanovinyl sulfonic acid groups as acceptor group. We found that SPL212 exhibits not only a higher molar extinction coefficient with an increment of 30.8%, larger excited state lifetime and an obvious redshift of 201 nm but also a broader absorption spectrum covering the entire visible range even up to near-IR of 1200 nm compared to JZ145. So, SPL212 can be used as a promising candidate for DSSCs. In addition, the results also prove that biscarbodithiolic acid may be more favorable than dicyanovinylsulfonic acid as acceptor group in DSSCs.

  11. TDDFT screening auxiliary withdrawing group and design the novel D-A-π-A organic dyes based on indoline dye for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenqing; Liu, Yun; Liu, Chunmeng; Lin, Chundan; Shao, Changjin

    2016-10-01

    Based on the experimentally synthesized dye JZ145, we designed a series of novel D-A-π-A dyes SPL201-SPL211 with different π-conjugated bridges and a new auxiliary withdrawing group for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT(TDDFT). The molecular structures, energy levels, absorption spectra, light-harvesting efficiency (LHE), driving force of injection(ΔGinj) and regeneration(ΔGreg), electron dipole moment (μnormal) and lifetime of the first excited state(τ) were all scrutinized in details. Results reveal that the additional withdrawing group A2 and the π-conjugated group di-η-hexyl-substituted cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT) are more promising functional groups for the organic dyes with D-A-π-A structure. We further designed SPL212 and SPL213 by employing indoline group as donor, the above screened functional groups as π-conjugated bridge and additional withdrawing group, biscarbodithiolic acid and dicyanovinyl sulfonic acid groups as acceptor group. We found that SPL212 exhibits not only a higher molar extinction coefficient with an increment of 30.8%, larger excited state lifetime and an obvious redshift of 201nm but also a broader absorption spectrum covering the entire visible range even up to near-IR of 1200nm compared to JZ145. So, SPL212 can be used as a promising candidate for DSSCs. In addition, the results also prove that biscarbodithiolic acid may be more favorable than dicyanovinylsulfonic acid as acceptor group in DSSCs. PMID:27269476

  12. Blue-Coloured Highly Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Implementing the Diketopyrrolopyrrole Chromophore

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Ho Yum; Thomas W. Holcombe; Yongjoo Kim; Kasparas Rakstys; Thomas Moehl; Joel Teuscher; Delcamp, Jared H.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammed K.; Michael Grätzel

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) – towards donor- π bridge-acceptor (D-π-A) dyes – increases the performances of DSCs and challenges established design principles. Framed by this shifting landscape, a series of four diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based sensitizers utilizing the donor-chromophore-anchor (D-C-A) motif were investigated computationally, spectroscopically, and fabricated by systematic evaluation of finished photovoltaic cells. In all cases, the [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+ ...

  13. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Mesocarbon Microbead-Based Counter Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Te Hsieh; Bing-Hao Yang; Wei-Yu Chen

    2012-01-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) equipped with mesocarbon microbead (MCMB)-based counter electrodes were explored to examine their cell performance. Three types of nanosized additives including platinum, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and carbon black (CB) are well dispersed and coated over microscaled MCMB powders. In the design of the counter electrodes, the MCMB graphite offers an excellent medium that allows charge transfer from the ITO substrate to the dye molecule. The active materials s...

  14. Solar cells based on dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Andreas

    1994-01-01

    This thesis presents a new type of photovoltaic solar cell based on dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide electrodes. In contrast to conventional solar cells, where light absorption is due to band gap excitation of the semiconductor itself, TiO2 with its wide band gap is transparent in the visible spectrum. The light is rather absorbed by a dye, e.g. a ruthenium polypyridine complex or a chlorophyll derivative, attached to the semiconductor surface. Charge separation occurs by elect...

  15. Peptide-templating dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae Hee; Moon, Hyoung-Seok; Hwang, Jin Ok; Seok, Sang Il; Im, Sang Hyuk; Ouk Kim, Sang

    2010-05-01

    A hollow TiO2 nanoribbon network electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) was fabricated by a biotemplating process combining peptide self-assembly and atomic layer deposition (ALD). An aromatic peptide of diphenylalanine was assembled into a three-dimensional network consisting of highly entangled nanoribbons. A thin TiO2 layer was deposited at the surface of the peptide template via the ALD process. After the pyrolysis of the peptide template, a highly entangled nanotubular TiO2 framework was successfully prepared. Evolution of the crystal phase and crystallite size of the TiO2 nanostructure was exploited by controlling the calcination temperature. Finally, the hollow TiO2 nanoribbon network electrode was integrated into DSSC devices and their photochemical performances were investigated. Hollow TiO2 nanoribbon-based DSSCs exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 3.8%, which is comparable to the conventional TiO2 nanoparticle-based DSSCs (3.5%). Our approach offers a novel pathway for DSSCs consisting of TiO2 electrodes via biotemplating.

  16. Peptide-templating dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hollow TiO2 nanoribbon network electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) was fabricated by a biotemplating process combining peptide self-assembly and atomic layer deposition (ALD). An aromatic peptide of diphenylalanine was assembled into a three-dimensional network consisting of highly entangled nanoribbons. A thin TiO2 layer was deposited at the surface of the peptide template via the ALD process. After the pyrolysis of the peptide template, a highly entangled nanotubular TiO2 framework was successfully prepared. Evolution of the crystal phase and crystallite size of the TiO2 nanostructure was exploited by controlling the calcination temperature. Finally, the hollow TiO2 nanoribbon network electrode was integrated into DSSC devices and their photochemical performances were investigated. Hollow TiO2 nanoribbon-based DSSCs exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 3.8%, which is comparable to the conventional TiO2 nanoparticle-based DSSCs (3.5%). Our approach offers a novel pathway for DSSCs consisting of TiO2 electrodes via biotemplating.

  17. Peptide-templating dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Tae Hee; Moon, Hyoung-Seok; Hwang, Jin Ok; Kim, Sang Ouk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Sang Il; Im, Sang Hyuk, E-mail: imromy@krict.re.kr, E-mail: sangouk.kim@kaist.ac.kr [KRICT-EPFL Global Research Laboratory, Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-07

    A hollow TiO{sub 2} nanoribbon network electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) was fabricated by a biotemplating process combining peptide self-assembly and atomic layer deposition (ALD). An aromatic peptide of diphenylalanine was assembled into a three-dimensional network consisting of highly entangled nanoribbons. A thin TiO{sub 2} layer was deposited at the surface of the peptide template via the ALD process. After the pyrolysis of the peptide template, a highly entangled nanotubular TiO{sub 2} framework was successfully prepared. Evolution of the crystal phase and crystallite size of the TiO{sub 2} nanostructure was exploited by controlling the calcination temperature. Finally, the hollow TiO{sub 2} nanoribbon network electrode was integrated into DSSC devices and their photochemical performances were investigated. Hollow TiO{sub 2} nanoribbon-based DSSCs exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 3.8%, which is comparable to the conventional TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle-based DSSCs (3.5%). Our approach offers a novel pathway for DSSCs consisting of TiO{sub 2} electrodes via biotemplating.

  18. Fabrication of highly efficient flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H., E-mail: f10381@ntut.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No.1 Sec.3, Chung Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Chen, T.L. [Department of Industrial Design, National Taipei University of Technology, No.1 Sec.3, Chung Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Huang, K.D. [Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No.1 Sec.3, Chung Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Chien, S.H. [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, No. 128 Sec.2, Academia Rd., Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Hung, K.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No.1 Sec.3, Chung Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    The paper studies the fabrication of a flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The photoelectrode substrates are flexible stainless steel sheet with thickness 0.07 mm and titanium (Ti) sheet with thickness 0.25 mm. For the photoelectrode fabrication process, eletrophoresis deposition (EPD) was employed for its merits of low-cost and fast fabrication. With an electric field of 40 V/cm, after undergoing EPD process twice, the TiO{sub 2} nanofilm thickness could be controlled to around 13 {mu}m thick. In addition, to achieve counter electrode, sputtering method was applied to deposit Pt on ITO-PET, resulting in thin films with four different thicknesses of 5, 8, 11 and 14 nm. The experimental results showed that the best colloid solution used in EPD process was a mixture of 100 ml isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and 0.4 g commercial TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, Degussa P25. The best flatness for a 13 {mu}m thick film could be acquired under an electric field of 40 V/cm. Comparing the photoelectric conversion efficiency values of DSSC assembled by counter electrodes with different Pt thicknesses, the experimental results showed that the best Pt thickness was 11 nm, and the conversion efficiency could reach as high as 2.91%.

  19. Molecular Design of D-Tr-A Type II Organic Sensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李士锋; 杨希川; 瞿定峰; 王维瀚; 王瑜; 孙立成

    2012-01-01

    Four new type II organic dyes with D-n-A structure (donor-n-conjugated-acceptor) and two typical type II sen- sitizers based on catechol as reference dyes are synthesized and applied in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The four dyes can be adsorbed on TiO2 through hydroxyl group directly. Electron injection can occur not only through the anchoring group (hydroxyl group) but also through the electron-withdrawing group (-CN) located close to the semiconductor surface. Experimental results show that the type II sensitizers with a D-π-A system obviously out- perform the typical type II sensitizers providing much higher conversion efficiency due to the strong electronic push-pull effect. Among these dyes, LS223 gives the best solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.6%, with Jsc = 7.3 mAocm 2, Voc=0.69 V, FF=0.71, the maximum IPCE value reaches 74.9%.

  20. BIOSORPTION OF TEXTILE DYE USING IMMOBILIZED BACTERIAL (PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND FUNGAL (PHANEROCHATE CHRYSOSPORIUM CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Saravanan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater containing dyes presents a serious problem due to its high toxicity which leads to creating enormous environmental pollution and ecological hazards. Therefore the removal of the high stable dyes from the textile effluents is of major importance. The purpose of this study is to remove the reactive dye Procion Blue 2G from textile dye solution by biosorption process using immobilized cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Phanerochate chrysosporium. It was found that maximum dye uptake is 1.648 mg g-1 of bead for P. aeruginosa and it is 1.242 mg g-1 of bead for P. chrysosporium. Both the results are derived from higher initial dye concentration (100 mg L-1 and high cell concentration (in terms of volume of inoculum 20 mL and at low mass of biosorbent (5 g of bead. Comparatively better results are produced by the beads having the cells of P. aeruginosa than P. chrysosporium. Further, due to the cell immobilization, both the cell beads can be utilized repeatedly in continuous reactors by selecting suitable eluent in industrial scale with the advantage of avoiding wash out of cells.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of organic dyes with various electron-accepting substituents for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidelener, Martin; Powar, Satvasheel; Kast, Hannelore; Yu, Ze; Boix, Pablo P; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Geiger, Thomas; Kuster, Simon; Nüesch, Frank; Bach, Udo; Mishra, Amaresh; Bäuerle, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Four new donor-π-acceptor dyes differing in their acceptor group have been synthesized and employed as model systems to study the influence of the acceptor groups on the photophysical properties and in NiO-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. UV/Vis absorption spectra showed a broad range of absorption coverage with maxima between 331 and 653 nm. Redox potentials as well as HOMO and LUMO energies of the dyes were determined from cyclic voltammetry measurements and evaluated concerning their potential use as sensitizers in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs). Quantum-chemical density functional theory calculations gave further insight into the frontier orbital distributions, which are relevant for the electronic processes in p-DSCs. In p-DSCs using an iodide/triiodide-based electrolyte, the polycyclic 9,10-dicyano-acenaphtho[1,2-b]quinoxaline (DCANQ) acceptor-containing dye gave the highest power conversion efficiency of 0.08%, which is comparable to that obtained with the perylenemonoimide (PMI)-containing dye. Interestingly, devices containing the DCANQ-based dye achieve a higher V(OC) of 163 mV compared to 158 mV for the PMI-containing dye. The result was further confirmed by impedance spectroscopic analysis showing higher recombination resistance and thus a lower recombination rate for devices containing the DCANQ dye than for PMI dye-based devices. However, the use of the strong electron-accepting tricyanofurane (TCF) group played a negative role in the device performance, yielding an efficiency of only 0.01% due to a low-lying LUMO energy level, thus resulting in an insufficient driving force for efficient dye regeneration. The results demonstrate that a careful molecular design with a proper choice of the acceptor unit is essential for development of sensitizers for p-DSCs.

  2. Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of octacarboxy-metallophthalocyanine dyes applied in dye-sensitized solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Ling; Chen Wei; Chen Dajun

    2012-01-01

    A series of octacarboxy-metallophthalocyanine dyes, i.e., MgOCPc, MnOCPc, FeOCPc and ZnOCPc with different central metal ions were designed and synthesized by microwave irradiation. The effects of the introduction of different metal ions with variant 3d orbitals (3d0, 3d5, 3d6, and 3d10, respectively) in the centre of the phthalocyanine rings on the thermal, photophysical, and electrochemical properties of octacarboxy-metallophthalocyanines were characterized and evaluated in details. ...

  3. Highly stable tandem solar cell monolithically integrating dye-sensitized and CIGS solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sang Youn; Park, Se Jin; Joo, Oh-Shim; Jun, Yongseok; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    A highly stable monolithic tandem solar cell was developed by combining the heterogeneous photovoltaic technologies of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and solution-processed CuInxGa1-xSeyS1-y (CIGS) thin film solar cells. The durability of the tandem cell was dramatically enhanced by replacing the redox couple from to [Co(bpy)3]2+ /[Co(bpy)3]3+), accompanied by a well-matched counter electrode (PEDOT:PSS) and sensitizer (Y123). A 1000 h durability test of the DSSC/CIGS tandem solar cell in ambient conditions resulted in only a 5% decrease in solar cell efficiency. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical cell measurement, the enhanced stability of the tandem cell is attributed to minimal corrosion by the cobalt-based polypyridine complex redox couple. PMID:27489138

  4. Dynamics of dye release from nanocarriers of different types in model cell membranes and living cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkacheva T. N.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the dynamics of lipophilic content release from nanocarriers of different types, organic molecular ensembles and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs in vitro experiments. Methods. Two-channel ratiometric fluorescence detection method based on Forster Resonance Energy Transfer, fluorescent spectroscopy and micro-spectroscopy have been used. Results. It has been found that the profiles of lipophilic dyes release from organic nanocarriers (PC liposomes and SDS micelles and inorganic ones (GdYVO4:Eu3+ and CeO2 NPs are well fitted by the first-order reaction kinetics in both model cell membranes and living cells (rat hepatocytes. The dye release constants (K and half-lives (t1/2 were analyzed. Conclusions. GdYVO4:Eu3+ and CeO2 NPs have been shown to provide faster lipophilic content release in model cell membranes as compared to PC liposomes. Negatively charged or lipophilic compounds added into nanocarriers can decrease the rate of lipophilic dyes release. Specific interaction of GdYVO4:Eu3+ NPs with rat hepatocytes has been observed.

  5. Photoelectrochemical Characterizations Of ZnO Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Baviskar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs based on organic dyes adsorbed on nano-particles of zinc oxide (ZnO electrode have received considerable attention because of their high incident solar light to power conversion efficiency and low production cost. Multiple organic dyes with different chemical structure have been developed so far. They have been tested for their photovoltaic performances with combinations of different photo-anodes. In order to produce efficient DSSCs, it is imperative to develop effective organic sensitizers. The sensitizers need to be optimized for the chemical structures to provide beneficial electron communication between a ZnO electrode and electrolyte for good light-harvesting future. . The current investigation focuses on synthesis of ZnO photo-anode by simple and inexpensive chemical bath deposition method at room temperature, which can be potentially used for mass production. The photoelectrochemical characteristic of ZnO based DSSCs with liquid electrolyte as hole conductor & platinum as a counter electrode was also studied. Different types of dyes e.g. Rose Bengal (metal free and N3 (Ru-metal dyes were examined as sensitizers for ZnO based DSSCs. The photoelectrochemical characteris­tics were measured under simulated sunlight with the radiant power of 100 mW/cm2 at AM 1.5 (1 sun conditions. The photocurrent density versus photovoltage char­acteristics was measured with electrochemical analyzer (Potentiostat/Galvanostat. Moreover, two types of dyes (metallic and metal free were adsorbed on photoanode to examine its photoelectrochemical behavior. It was found that metal free Rose Bengal dye has better photoelectrochemical performance than N3 dye. The calculated efficiencies for ZnO based DSSCs are 0.34 % and 0.68 % for N3 and Rose Bengal dyes respectively with the structure FTO/ZnO/Dye/Electrolyte/Pt.

  6. Polypeptide micelles with dual pH activatable dyes for sensing cells and cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Yang, Yueting; Yi, Huqiang; Fang, Shengtao; Zhang, Pengfei; Sheng, Zonghai; Gao, Guanhui; Gao, Duyang; Cai, Lintao

    2014-05-21

    pH is an important control parameter for maintenance of cell viability and tissue functions. pH monitoring provides valuable information on cell metabolic processes and the living environment. In this study, we prepared dual pH-sensitive, fluorescent dye-loaded polypeptide nanoparticles (DPNs) for ratiometric sensing of pH changes in living cells. DPNs contain two types of dyes: N-(rhodamine B) lactam cystamine (RBLC), an acid activatable fluorescent dye with increased fluorescence in an acidic environment, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), a base activatable fluorescent dye with enhanced fluorescence in an alkaline environment. Hence, DPNs exhibited a dual response signal with strong red fluorescence and weak green fluorescence under acidic conditions; in contrast, they showed strong green fluorescence and almost no red fluorescence under alkaline and neutral conditions. The favorable inverse pH responses of the two fluorescent dyes resulted in ratiometric pH determination for DPNs with an optimized pH-sensitive range of pH 4.5-7.5. Quantitative analysis of the intracellular pH of intact MCF-7 cells has been successfully demonstrated with our nanosensor. Moreover, single acid activatable fluorescent dye doped polypeptide nanoparticles that only contained RBLC can distinguish tumor tissue from normal tissue by monitoring the acidic extracellular environment.

  7. Effects of the aspect ratio on the dye adsorption of ZnO nanorods grown by using a sonochemical method for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seok Cheol; Yun, Won Suk; Sohn, Sang Ho; Oh, Sang Jin

    2012-11-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods for the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were grown via a sonochemical method, and the effects of their aspect ratios on the dye adsorption in DSSCs were studied. The control of the aspect ratio of well-aligned ZnO nanorods was performed by tuning the mole concentration of zinc acetate dehydrate in the range of 0.04-0.06M. The dye amounts adsorbed in the ZnO nanorods were estimated from the UV-Visible absorbance by using the Beer-Lambert law. The efficiency of DSSCs with ZnO nanorods was measured to investigate the effects of the aspect ratio of the ZnO nanorods on the dye adsorption properties. A change in the aspect ratio of the ZnO nanorods was founded to yield a change in their dye adsorption ability, resulting in a change in the efficiency of the DSSCs.

  8. Assessment of dye distribution in sensitized solar cells by microprobe techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiros, M.A., E-mail: alexandra.barreiros@lneg.pt [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LEN/UES, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Corregidor, V. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [C2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Guimarães, F. [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LGM/UCTM, Rua da Amieira, Apartado 1089, 4466-901 S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Mascarenhas, J.; Torres, E.; Brites, M.J. [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LEN/UES, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received considerable attention once this technology offers economic and environmental advantages over conventional photovoltaic (PV) devices. The PV performance of a DSC relies on the characteristics of its photoanode, which typically consists of a nanocrystalline porous TiO{sub 2} film, enabled with a large adsorptive surface area. Dye molecules that capture photons from light during device operation are attached to the film nanoparticles. The effective loading of the dye in the TiO{sub 2} electrode is of paramount relevance for controlling and optimizing solar cell parameters. Relatively few methods are known today for quantitative evaluation of the total dye adsorbed on the film. In this context, microprobe techniques come out as suitable tools to evaluate the dye surface distribution and depth profile in sensitized films. Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Ion Beam Analytical (IBA) techniques using a micro-ion beam were used to quantify and to study the distribution of the Ru organometallic dye in TiO{sub 2} films, making use of the different penetration depth and beam sizes of each technique. Different 1D nanostructured TiO{sub 2} films were prepared, morphologically characterized by SEM, sensitized and analyzed by the referred techniques. Dye load evaluation in different TiO{sub 2} films by three different techniques (PIXE, RBS and EPMA/WDS) provided similar results of Ru/Ti mass fraction ratio. Moreover, it was possible to assess dye surface distribution and its depth profile, by means of Ru signal, and to visualize the dye distribution in sample cross-section through X-ray mapping by EPMA/EDS. PIXE maps of Ru and Ti indicated an homogeneous surface distribution. The assessment of Ru depth profile by RBS showed that some films have homogeneous Ru depth distribution while others present different Ru concentration in the top layer (2 μm thickness). These results are consistent with the EPMA/EDS maps obtained.

  9. Perylene anhydride fused porphyrins as near-infrared sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2011-07-15

    Two perylene anhydride fused porphyrins 1 and 2 have been synthesized and employed successfully in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Both compounds showed broad incident monochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra covering the entire visible spectral region and even extending into the near-infrared (NIR) region up to 1000 nm, which is impressive for ruthenium-free dyes in DSCs. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Rose bengal-sensitized nanocrystalline ceria photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUHAIL A A R SAYYED; NIYAMAT I BEEDRI; VISHAL S KADAM; HABIB M PATHAN

    2016-10-01

    For efficient charge injection and transportation, wide bandgap nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors with dye adsorption surface and higher electron mobility are essential properties for photoanode in dyesensitizedsolar cells (DSSCs). TiO$_2$-based DSSCs are well established and so far have demonstrated maximum power conversion efficiency when sensitized with ruthenium-based dyes. Quest for new materials and/or methods is continuous process in scientific investigation, for getting desired comparative results. The conduction band (CB) position of CeO$_2$ photoanode lies below lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level (LUMO) of rose bengal (RB) dye.Due to this, faster electron transfer from LUMO level of RB dye to CB of CeO$_2$ is facilitated. Recombination rate of electrons is less in CeO$_2$ photoanode than that of TiO$_2$ photoanode. Hence, the lifetime of electrons is more in CeO$_2$ photoanode. Therefore, we have replaced TiO$_2$ by ceria (CeO$_2$) and expensive ruthenium-based dye by a low cost RB dye. In this study, we have synthesized CeO$_2$ nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the formation of CeO$_2$ with particle size $\\sim$7 nm by Scherrer formula. The bandgap of 2.93 eV is calculated using UV–visibleabsorption data. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show formation of porous structure of photoanode, which is useful for dye adsorption. The energy dispersive spectroscopy is in confirmation with XRD results,confirming the presence of Ce and O in the ratio of 1:2. UV–visible absorption under diffused reflectance spectra of dye-loaded photoanode confirms the successful dye loading. UV–visible transmission spectrum of CeO2 photoanodeconfirms the transparency of photoanode in visible region. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis confirms less recombination rate and more electron lifetime in RB-sensitized CeO$_2$ than TiO$_2$ photoanode.We foundthat CeO$_2$ also showed with considerable difference between

  11. Light harvesting over a wide range of wavelength using natural dyes of gardenia and cochineal for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Tae-Young; Han, Shin; Ko, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Suk-Ho; Song, Yong-Min; Kim, Jung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Wook

    2014-07-01

    Two natural dyes extracted from gardenia yellow (Gardenia jasminoides) and cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) were used as sensitizers in the assembly of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to harvest light over a wide range of wavelengths. The adsorption characteristics, electrochemical properties and photovoltaic efficiencies of the natural DSSCs were investigated. The adsorption kinetics data of the dyes were obtained in a small adsorption chamber and fitted with a pseudo-second-order model. The photovoltaic performance of a photo-electrode adsorbed with single-dye (gardenia or cochineal) or the mixture or successive adsorption of the two dyes, was evaluated from current-voltage measurements. The energy conversion efficiency of the TiO2 electrode with the successive adsorption of cochineal and gardenia dyes was 0.48%, which was enhanced compared to single-dye adsorption. Overall, a double layer of the two natural dyes as sensitizers was successfully formulated on the nanoporous TiO2 surface based on the differences in their adsorption affinities of gardenia and cochineal.

  12. Influence of Dye Adsorbtion Time on TiO2 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Krokot Extract (Portulaca Oleracea. L as A Natural Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Krisdiyanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC photoelectrodes were fabricated using titanium oxide (TiO2 and sensitized with the krokot extract dye. This study investigated the effect of dye adsorption time to an efficiency of the solar cells. The fabrication cells immersed with krokot extract dye for 1, 8 and 26 hours. The photochemical performance of the DSSC showed that the open circuit voltage (Voc were 0.33, 0.036 and 0.27 V with short photocurrent density (Isc 8.00 x 10-5, 6.80 x 10-7 and 3.10 x 10-4. The photo-to-electric conversion efficiency of the DSSC reached 4.63 x 10-3 % for 26 hours adsorption time.

  13. Mondo Grass Berry Pigment for Visible to Near Infrared Absorption in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilva, L. A. A.; Pitigala, P. K. D. D. P.; Perera, A. G. U.

    2013-03-01

    The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Synthesis of artificial dyes with broad response is important in developing an efficient DSSC. Artificial dyes can add up to the cost of the device; therefore, it is important to identify natural dyes with broad abortion and required energy levels. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 degree C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2 were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination and have a broad spectral response extending from 400 nm to 750 nm. This work is supported by COSM at UWG.

  14. Carbon nanomaterials as counter electrodes for dye solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitola, K.

    2012-07-01

    The dye solar cell (DSC) is an interesting emerging technology for photovoltaic conversion of solar electromagnetic energy to electrical energy. The DSC is based mainly on cheap starting materials and it can be manufactured by roll-to-roll deposition techniques on flexible substrates, which is considered as one option for cost-effective large-scale solar cell production. The most expensive component of the DSC is the transparent conductive oxide glass substrate, and considerable cost reductions can be achieved by changing it to e.g. a plastic substrate. Plastic substrates are very flexible, lightweight and transparent. The state of the art DSC catalyst is thermally deposited or sputtered platinum, but platinum is a rare and expensive metal. Carbon, on the other hand, is widely available and some of its nanomaterials conduct electricity and are catalytic toward the DSC counter electrode (CE) reduction reaction. In this work, carbon nanomaterials and their composites were studied as the DSC CE active material. The materials were random network single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film on glass and plastic substrate, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube 'forest' film on steel and quartz substrate and carbon nanoparticle composite film on indium tin oxidepolyethylene terephthalate (ITO-PET) substrate. After comparison of the materials, the SWCNT network film on PET was chosen as the main CE type of this study, since it offers superior conductivity, transparency and flexibility over the other carbon-based CEs, it is also the thinnest and contains only one active material component. When a 30 % transparent SWCNT network film on PET was tested as a DSC CE, it was found out that such a film is not catalytic and conductive enough for a full 1 sun illumination DSC device, but the film could be suitable for a indoor illumination level application. The catalytic properties of a 10 % transparent SWCNT film were improved by depositing conductive PEDOT

  15. Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based on Nanocrystalline TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last quarter of the twentieth century there have been intensive research activities looking for green sources of energy. The main aim of the green generators or converters of energy is to replace the conventional (fossil) energy sources, hence reducing further accumulation of the green house gasses GHGs. Conventional silicon and III-V semiconductor solar cell based on crystalline bulk, quantum well and quantum dots structure or amorphous and thin film structures provided a feasible solution. However, natural dye sensitized solar cells NDSSC are a promising class of photovoltaic cells with the capability of generating green energy at low production cost since no vacuum systems or expensive equipment are required in their fabrication. Also, natural dyes are abundant, easily extracted and safe materials. In NDSSC, once dye molecules exposed to light they become oxidized and transfer electrons to a nano structured layer of wide bandgap semiconductors such as TiO2. The generated electrons are drawn outside the cell through ohmic contact to a load. In this paper we review the structure and operation principles of the dye sensitized solar cell DSSC. We discuss preparation procedures, optical and electrical characterization of the NDSSC using local dyes extracted from Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.), pomegranate, cherries and Bahraini raspberries (Rubus spp.). These natural organic dyes are potential candidates to replace some of the man-made dyes used as sensitizer in many commercialized photoelectrochemical cells. Factors limiting the operation of the DSSC are discussed. NDSSCs are expected to be a favored choice in the building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) due to their robustness, therefore, requiring no special shielding from natural events such as tree strikes or hails. (author)

  16. Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (NDSSCs From Opuntia Prickly Pear Dye Using ZnO Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Prabu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural dye-sensitized solar cells (NDSSCs have gained considerable attention in the field of solar energy due to their simple fabrication, good efficiency, and low production cost. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted natural dyes. We investigated the influence of various factors in the extraction process, such as utilization of different extraction approaches, the acidity of extraction solvent, and different compounds of solvents on the optical absorption spectra. It was found that we could considerably enhance the optical absorptivity of dye and consequently the performance of DSSC by choosing a proper mixture of ethanol, methanol and water. In this study, a photo electrode using ZnO doped TiO2 nanoparticles was prepared by sol-gel method. In this paper we investigate the optical absorption, functional group, surface morphology and elementary composition of pure TiO2, ZnO doped TiO2 nanoparticles and opuntia prickly pear dye extract by using UV-Visible, PL-Studies, FT-IR, FE-SEM and EDS analysis. Finally photocurrent-voltaic characterization of nanocrystaline natural dye solar cell using I-V studies. It was found that the levels of short-circuit current (Jsc, open-circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF and overall conversion efficiency (η.

  17. Molecular engineering of D-D-π-A type organic dyes incorporating indoloquinoxaline and phenothiazine for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xing; Wang, Xiaoying; Shao, Li; Li, Hongmei; Yan, Rucai; Hou, Linxi

    2016-09-01

    Four metal-free organic dyes QX05-08 based on indoloquinoxaline and phenothiazine have been successfully designed and synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells. The D-D-π-A type dyes QX07 and QX08 consist of an indoloquinoxaline donor, a phenothiazine donor, a cyanoacrylic acid acceptor/anchoring group and a thiophene or furan π-bridge. Other simple D-π-A type dyes QX05 and QX06 based on indoloquinoxaline and phenothiazine respectively have also been synthesized for comparison. The D-D-π-A type dyes QX07 and QX08 present good balanced structures and show excellent photoelectric properties. Especially, the dye QX07 with a thiophene unit as the π-bridge exhibits the best photovoltaic performances in solar cells. A high power conversion efficiency up to 8.28% with a Jsc of 15.3 mA cm-2 and a Voc of 757 mV have been achieved by the dye QX07 using an iodine electrolyte under standard conditions.

  18. Development of dye-sensitized solar cells based on naturally extracted dye from the maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyrer, Julio; Hunter, Renato; Rubilar, Monica; Pavez, Boris; Morales, Eduardo; Torres, Simont

    2016-10-01

    The mini modules of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated for their conversion efficiency using anthocyanin-enriched extracts from maqui berry, which to date has never been tested in a DSSC. Anthocyanins are a group of red, purple, violet and blue water-soluble polyphenolic pigments widely found in berry fruits. Maqui berries are a particularly rich source. The aqueous extract concentrations of maqui fruit were tested at 750 and 1500 mg of anthocyanin/L. The immersion time to produce sensitized TiO2 film was 8 h. According to the experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSC prepared with 750 mg of anthocyanin/L was 0.14%, with an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.43 V, a short-circuit current density (JSC) of 0.38 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.450. The conversion efficiency attained with 1500 mg of anthocyanin/L was 0.19%, with (VOC) of 0.45 V, (JSC) of 0.44 mA/cm2 and FF of 0.55. Therefore, a higher concentration brought about a higher photosensitized performance. The maqui extracts were successfully dye sensitized over a layer of TiO2 nanoparticles, providing useful information for further studies related to the use of natural pigments as sensitizers for solar cells.

  19. Multicolour single molecule imaging in cells with near infra-red dyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Tynan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The autofluorescence background of biological samples impedes the detection of single molecules when imaging. The most common method of reducing the background is to use evanescent field excitation, which is incompatible with imaging beyond the surface of biological samples. An alternative would be to use probes that can be excited in the near infra-red region of the spectrum, where autofluorescence is low. Such probes could also increase the number of labels that can be imaged in multicolour single molecule microscopes. Despite being widely used in ensemble imaging, there is a currently a shortage of information available for selecting appropriate commercial near infra-red dyes for single molecule work. It is therefore important to characterise available near infra-red dyes relevant to multicolour single molecule imaging. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A range of commercially available near infra-red dyes compatible with multi-colour imaging was screened to find the brightest and most photostable candidates. Image series of immobilised samples of the brightest dyes (Alexa 700, IRDye 700DX, Alexa 790 and IRDye 800CW were analysed to obtain the mean intensity of single dye molecules, their photobleaching rates and long period blinking kinetics. Using the optimum dye pair, we have demonstrated for the first time widefield, multi-colour, near infra-red single molecule imaging using a supercontinuum light source in MCF-7 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have demonstrated that near infra-red dyes can be used to avoid autofluorescence background in samples where restricting the illumination volume of visible light fails or is inappropriate. We have also shown that supercontinuum sources are suited to single molecule multicolour imaging throughout the 470-1000 nm range. Our measurements of near infra-red dye properties will enable others to select optimal dyes for single molecule imaging.

  20. Size-controlled anatase titania single crystals with octahedron-like morphology for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Jia-Wei; Lan, Chi-Ming; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Hui-Ping; Huang, Wei-Kai; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2012-12-21

    A simple hydrothermal method with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as a precursor and triethanolamine (TEOA) as a chelating agent enabled growth in the presence of a base (diethylamine, DEA) of anatase titania nanocrystals (HD1-HD5) of controlled size. DEA played a key role to expedite this growth, for which a biphasic crystal growth mechanism is proposed. The produced single crystals of titania show octahedron-like morphology with sizes in a broad range of 30-400 nm; a typical, extra large, octahedral single crystal (HD5) of length 410 nm and width 260 nm was obtained after repeating a sequential hydrothermal treatment using HD3 and then HD4 as a seed crystal. The nanocrystals of size ~30 nm (HD1) and ~300 nm (HD5) served as active layer and scattering layer, respectively, to fabricate N719-sensitized solar cells. These HD devices showed greater V(OC) than devices of conventional nanoparticle (NP) type; the overall device performance of HD attained an efficiency of 10.2% power conversion at a total film thickness of 28 μm, which is superior to that of a NP-based reference device (η = 9.6%) optimized at a total film thickness of 18-20 μm. According to results obtained from transient photoelectric and charge extraction measurements, this superior performance of HD devices relative to their NP counterparts is due to the more rapid electron transport and greater TiO(2) potential. PMID:23116194

  1. Enhanced performance of natural dye sensitised solar cells fabricated using rutile TIO2 nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akila, Y.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Agilan, S.; Mallick, Tapas K.; Senthilarasu, S.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2016-08-01

    Due to the lower cost, natural dye molecules are good alternatives for the ruthenium based sensitizers in the dye-sensitized solar cells. In this article, we have reported the natural sensitizer based dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated using TiO2 nanorods. Rutile phase TiO2 nanorods have been synthesized by template free hydrothermal method which results in TiO2 nanorods in the form of acropora corals. These TiO2 nanorods have been sensitized by flowers of Sesbania grandiflora, leaves of Camellia sinensis and roots of Rubia tinctorum. The maximum conversion efficiency of 1.53% has been obtained for TiO2 nanorods based solar cells sensitized with the leaves of Camellia sinensis. The flowers of Sesbania grandiflora and roots of Rubia tinctorum sensitized TiO2 nanorods based solar cells exhibited an efficiency of 0.65% and 1.28% respectively.

  2. Low Sheet Resistance Counter Electrode in Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui Qiang WANG; Rui Feng LIN; Miao WANG; Chang Neng ZHANG; Yuan LIN; Xu Rui XIAO; Xue Ping LI

    2004-01-01

    In order to search for the high efficiency and low sheet resistance counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cell, we used Ti plate as the conducting substrate to prepare the counter electrode by thermal decomposition of H2PtCl6. Ti plate counter electrode shows low sheet resistance, good reflecting performance and matching kinetics. The dye-sensitized solar cell with the Ti plate counter electrode shows better photovoltaic performance than that of the cell with the fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass counter electrode.

  3. Efficiency Investigations of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid ZnO Nanoparticles Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satbir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research study focuses upon the synthesis, characterization, and performances of optoelectronic properties of organic-inorganic (hybrid ZnO based dye sensitized solar cells. Initially, polymer dye A was synthesized using condensation reaction between 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and polyethylenimine and was capped to ZnO nanoparticles. Size and morphology of polymer dye A capped ZnO nanoparticles were analyzed using DLS, SEM, and XRD analysis. Further, the polymer dye was added to ruthenium metal complex (RuCl3 to form polymer-ruthenium composite dye B. Absorption and emission profiles of polymer dye A and polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO nanoparticles were monitored using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Polymer dye A and polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO nanoparticles were further processed to solar cells using wet precipitation method under room temperature. The results of investigations revealed that, after addition of ruthenium chloride (RuCl3 metal complex dye, the light harvesting capacity of ZnO solar cell was enhanced compared to polymer dye A capped ZnO based solar cell. The polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO solar cell exhibited good photovoltaic performance with excellent cell parameters, that is, exciting open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.70 V, a short circuit current density (Jsc of 11.6 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF of 0.65. A maximum photovoltaic cell efficiency of 5.28% had been recorded under standard air mass (AM 1.5 simulated solar illuminations for polymer-ruthenium composite dye B based hybrid ZnO solar cell. The power conversion efficiency of hybrid ZnO based dye sensitized solar cell was enhanced by 1.78% and 3.88% compared to polymer dye A (concentrated and polymer dye A (diluted capped ZnO based dye sensitized solar cells, respectively. The hybrid organic/inorganic ZnO nanostructures can be implemented in a variety of optoelectronic applications in the future of clean and

  4. Decolorization of acid and basic dyes: understanding the metabolic degradation and cell-induced adsorption/precipitation by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerboneschi, Matteo; Corsi, Massimo; Bianchini, Roberto; Bonanni, Marco; Tegli, Stefania

    2015-10-01

    Escherichia coli strain DH5α was successfully employed in the decolorization of commercial anthraquinone and azo dyes, belonging to the general classes of acid or basic dyes. The bacteria showed an aptitude to survive at different pH values on any dye solution tested, and a rapid decolorization was obtained under aerobic conditions for the whole collection of dyes. A deep investigation about the mode of action of E. coli was carried out to demonstrate that dye decolorization mainly occurred via three different pathways, specifically bacterial induced precipitation, cell wall adsorption, and metabolism, whose weight was correlated with the chemical nature of the dye. In the case of basic azo dyes, an unexpected fast decolorization was observed after just 2-h postinoculation under aerobic conditions, suggesting that metabolism was the main mechanism involved in basic azo dye degradation, as unequivocally demonstrated by mass spectrometric analysis. The reductive cleavage of the azo group by E. coli on basic azo dyes was also further demonstrated by the inhibition of decolorization occurring when glucose was added to the dye solution. Moreover, no residual toxicity was found in the E. coli-treated basic azo dye solutions by performing Daphnia magna acute toxicity assays. The results of the present study demonstrated that E. coli can be simply exploited for its natural metabolic pathways, without applying any recombinant technology. The high versatility and adaptability of this bacterium could encourage its involvement in industrial bioremediation of textile and leather dyeing wastewaters.

  5. Optimisation of Ruthenium Dye Sensitised Solar Cells Efficiency via Sn Diffusion into the TiO2 Mesoporous Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Codrin Andrei; Dominic Zerulla

    2013-01-01

    Dye sensitised solar cells (DSCs) typically include a mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffold, sensitised with an adsorbed dye, as the main active element responsible for the photon absorption and charge separation functionalities. The sintering process employed in the TiO2 active layer fabrication plays a crucial role in the formation of the nanoparticle (NP) scaffold and hence in the performance of a dye sensitised solar cell, as it allows the particles to form efficient inter-crystalli...

  6. Strategies to Optimizing Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Organic Sensitizers, Tandem Device Structures, and Numerical Device Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Wenger, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) constitute a novel class of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. At the heart of the device is a mesoporous film of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, which are coated with a monolayer of dye sensitive to the visible region of the solar spectrum. The role of the dye is similar to the role of chlorophyll in plants; it harvests solar light and transfers the energy via electron transfer to a suitable material (here ...

  7. A Study of Mixed Vegetable Dyes with Different Extraction Concentrations for Use as a Sensitizer for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Ching Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two vegetable dyes are used for the study: chlorophyll dye from sweet potato leaf extract and anthocyanin dye from extracts of blueberry, purple cabbage, and grape. The chlorophyll and anthocyanin dyes are blended in a cocktail in equal proportions, by volume. This study determines the effect of different extraction concentrations and different vegetable dyes on the photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. In order to make the electrode for the experiments, P25 TiO2 powder was coated on the ITO conducting surface, using a medical blade, to form a thin film with a thickness of around 35 μm. The experimental results show that the cocktail dye blended using extracts of sweet potato leaf and blueberries, in the volumetric proportion 1 : 1, at a weight concentration of 40%, using an extraction temperature of 50°C and an extraction heating time of 10 min produces the greatest photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of up to 1.57%, an open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.61 V, and a short-circuit current density (JSC of 4.75 mA/cm2.

  8. Influence of polar solvents on photovoltaic performance of Monascusred dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Wook; Kim, Tae Young; Ko, Hyun Seok; Han, Shin; Lee, Suk-Ho; Park, Kyung Hee

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled using natural dyes extracted from Monascus red pigment as a sensitizer. In this work, we studied the adsorption characteristics for harvesting sunlight and the electrochemical behavior for electron transfer in Monascus red DSSC using different solvents. The effect of polar aprotic and protic solvents including water, ethanol, and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) used in the sensitization process was investigated for the improvement in conversion efficiency of a cell. As for the Monascus red dye-sensitized electrode in DMSO solvent, the solar cell yields a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 1.23 mA/cm2, a photovoltage (Voc) of 0.75 V, and a fill factor of 0.72, corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.66%.

  9. SnO₂(β-Bi₂O₃)/Bi₂Sn₂O₇ nanohybrids doped with Pt and Pd nanoparticles: applications in visible light photocatalysis, electrical conductivity and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, M; Mohamed, Mohamed Mokhtar

    2015-09-01

    anisotropy measurements were combined to clarify the process of FRET from the excited Pd/β-Bi2O3-Bi2Sn2O7 to SD N719. This indicates that the latter structure can be proposed as a multifunctional candidate for use in dye-sensitized solar cells, as an electrical material and as an efficient photocatalyst based on its versatile structure.

  10. An enhanced mangiferaindica for dye sensitized solar cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium dioxide (T1O2) is preferred to Zinc oxide as mesoporous oxide layer because it raised the efficiency of DSSCs from 1% to 7%. The chemistry of the process however seem rigorous to allow the light induced electron injection from the adsorbed dye into the nanocrystallites i.e. which renders the TiO2 conductive. The DSSC fabricated consist of 2.25 cm2 active area of titanium dioxide coated on FTO glass (fluorine tin oxide) immersed in ethanol solution of natural dye extracted as an anode (electrode) and counter electrode. These two electrodes were coupled together and the space between them was filled with the Iodolyte AN-50 as solid electrolyte or redox mediator. The photo electrochemical parameters of the dye extracted (Mango fruit Peel) from the results obtained are short circuit current (Isc)= 1.22×10−2, current density (Jsc)=4.07×10−2, open circuit voltage (voc) =0.53V, fill factor (FF) of 0.16 and the overall conversion efficiency (Eff) =0.345%

  11. An enhanced mangiferaindica for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, U. E.; Emetere, M. E.; Fadipe, L. A.; Oluranti, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (T1O2) is preferred to Zinc oxide as mesoporous oxide layer because it raised the efficiency of DSSCs from 1% to 7%. The chemistry of the process however seem rigorous to allow the light induced electron injection from the adsorbed dye into the nanocrystallites i.e. which renders the TiO2 conductive. The DSSC fabricated consist of 2.25 cm2 active area of titanium dioxide coated on FTO glass (fluorine tin oxide) immersed in ethanol solution of natural dye extracted as an anode (electrode) and counter electrode. These two electrodes were coupled together and the space between them was filled with the Iodolyte AN-50 as solid electrolyte or redox mediator. The photo electrochemical parameters of the dye extracted (Mango fruit Peel) from the results obtained are short circuit current (Isc)= 1.22×10-2, current density (Jsc)=4.07×10-2, open circuit voltage (voc) =0.53V, fill factor (FF) of 0.16 and the overall conversion efficiency (Eff) =0.345%.

  12. An enhanced mangiferaindica for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, U. E., E-mail: moses.emetere@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Minna (Nigeria); Emetere, M. E., E-mail: uno-essang@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Physics, Covenant University, Ota (Nigeria); Fadipe, L. A. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna (Nigeria); Oluranti, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.oluranti@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Computer & Information Sciences, Covenant University, Ota (Nigeria)

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (T1O2) is preferred to Zinc oxide as mesoporous oxide layer because it raised the efficiency of DSSCs from 1% to 7%. The chemistry of the process however seem rigorous to allow the light induced electron injection from the adsorbed dye into the nanocrystallites i.e. which renders the TiO{sub 2} conductive. The DSSC fabricated consist of 2.25 cm{sup 2} active area of titanium dioxide coated on FTO glass (fluorine tin oxide) immersed in ethanol solution of natural dye extracted as an anode (electrode) and counter electrode. These two electrodes were coupled together and the space between them was filled with the Iodolyte AN-50 as solid electrolyte or redox mediator. The photo electrochemical parameters of the dye extracted (Mango fruit Peel) from the results obtained are short circuit current (Isc)= 1.22×10{sup −2}, current density (Jsc)=4.07×10{sup −2}, open circuit voltage (voc) =0.53V, fill factor (FF) of 0.16 and the overall conversion efficiency (Eff) =0.345%.

  13. The emergence of copper(I)-based dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housecroft, Catherine E; Constable, Edwin C

    2015-12-01

    Since the discovery of Grätzel-type dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) in the early 1990s, there has been an exponential growth in the number of publications dealing with their optimization and new design concepts. Conventional Grätzel DSCs use ruthenium(II) complexes as sensitizers, and the highest photon-to-electrical current conversion efficiency for a ruthenium dye is ≈12%. However, ruthenium is both rare and expensive, and replacement by cheaper and more sustainable metals is desirable. In this Tutorial Review, we describe strategies for assembling copper(I) complexes for use as dyes in DSCs, a research area that has been active since ≈2008. We demonstrate design principles for (I) ligands to anchor the complex to a semiconductor surface and promote electron transfer from dye to semiconductor, and (II) ancillary ligands to tune the light absorption properties of the dye and facilitate electron transfer from electrolyte to dye in the DSC. We assess the progress made in terms of light-harvesting and overall photoconversion efficiencies of copper(I)-containing DSCs and highlight areas that remain ripe for development and improvement.

  14. Imine-linked receptors decorated ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SATBIR SINGH; AMARPAL SINGH; NAVNEET KAUR

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of imine-linked receptors decorated ZnO nanoparticles using wet precipitation method. Initially, polymer dye 3 was synthesized usingcondensation reaction between 2-furancarboxaldehyde 1 and polyethylenimine 2. The decoration of imine-linked receptors on ZnO nanoparticles (sample A) was characterized and investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronmicroscope and dynamic light scattering spectroscopic studies. Further, polymer dye 3 was added to ruthenium chloride (RuCl$_3$) to form a polymer–ruthenium-based composite dye-capped ZnO nanoparticles (sample B).The optical properties of sample A were evaluated by fluorescence and UV–Vis spectroscopy. The samples A and B were further processed to dye-sensitized solar cells using wet precipitation method. The results of observationsrevealed that the addition of ruthenium–polymer dye molecules increased the light harvesting capacity of ZnO-based DSSCs. A maximum solar power to electricity conversion efficiency ($\\eta$) of 3.83% was recorded for sample B-based DSSCs with ruthenium–metal complex dye as a good photosensitizer. The recorded photovoltaic efficiency of sample B-based DSSCs was enhanced by 1.36% compared to sample A-based DSSCs.

  15. Characterization and Performance Evaluation of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Using Nanostructured TiO2 Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Erten-Ela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-free organic sensitizer consisting of donor, electron conducting, and anchoring anhydride groups was engineered at molecular level and synthesized. Dye sensitized solar cells based on conjugated naphthalene dye were fabricated using nanoporous electrode. Photoelectrodes with a 7 μm thick nanoporous layer and a 5 μm thick light-scattering layer were used to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells. DSSCs were fabricated in a FTO/nc-TiO2/organic dye/I-/I3-/Pt/FTO device geometry. Dye sensitized solar cell was characterized by current density-voltage (J-V measurement. All current-voltage (I-V measurements were done under 100 mW/cm2 light intensity and AM 1.5 conditions. The photovoltaic data revealed a short circuit photocurrent density of 1.86 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 430 mV, and a fill factor of 0.63, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 0.53%.

  16. Mechanisms of electron transfer between a styrylquinolinium dye and yeast in biofuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenova, Yolina; Bakalska, Rumyana; Hubenova, Eleonora; Mitov, Mario

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, the influence of the recently synthesized styrylquinolinium dye 4-{(E)-2-[4-(dimethylamino)naphthalen-1-yl]ethenyl}-1-methylquinolinium iodide (DANSQI) on the intracellular processes as well as the electrical outputs of Candida melibiosica 2491 yeast-based biofuel cell was investigated. The addition of nanomolar quantities of DANSQI to the yeast suspension results in an increase of the current outputs right after the startup of the biofuel cells, associated with an electrooxidation of the dye on the anode. After that, the formed cation radical of the dye penetrates the yeast cells, provoking a set of intracellular changes. Studies of the subcellular anolyte fractions show that 1μM dye increased the peroxisomal catalase activity 30-times (1.15±0.06Unit/mg protein) and over twice the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity (92±5Unit/mg protein). The results obtained by electrochemical and spectrophotometric analyses let to the supposition that the dye acts as subcellular shuttle, on account of its specific intramolecular charge transfer properties. The transition between its benzoid, quinolyl radical and ion forms and their putative role for the extracellular and intracellular charge transfer mechanisms are discussed. PMID:26924617

  17. Decolorization of industrial synthetic dyes using engineered Pseudomonas putida cells with surface-immobilized bacterial laccase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial laccases are highly useful in textile effluent dye biodegradation. However, the bioavailability of cellularly expressed or purified laccases in continuous operations is usually limited by mass transfer impediment or enzyme regeneration difficulty. Therefore, this study develops a regenerable bacterial surface-displaying system for industrial synthetic dye decolorization, and evaluates its effects on independent and continuous operations. Results A bacterial laccase (WlacD was engineered onto the cell surface of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Ice nucleation protein (InaQ anchor was employed, and the ability of 1 to 3 tandemly aligned N-terminal repeats to direct WlacD display were compared. Immobilized WlacD was determined to be surface-displayed in functional form using Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and whole-cell enzymatic activity assay. Engineered P. putida cells were then applied to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Acid Green (AG 25 and diazo-dye Acid Red (AR 18. The results showed that decolorization of both dyes is Cu2+- and mediator-independent, with an optimum temperature of 35°C and pH of 3.0, and can be stably performed across a temperature range of 15°C to 45°C. A high activity toward AG25 (1 g/l with relative decolorization values of 91.2% (3 h and 97.1% (18 h, as well as high activity to AR18 (1 g/l by 80.5% (3 h and 89.0% (18 h, was recorded. The engineered system exhibited a comparably high activity compared with those of separate dyes in a continuous three-round shake-flask decolorization of AG25/AR18 mixed dye (each 1 g/l. No significant decline in decolorization efficacy was noted during first two-rounds but reaction equilibriums were elongated, and the residual laccase activity eventually decreased to low levels. However, the decolorizing capacity of the system was easily retrieved

  18. Restricted movement of lipid and aqueous dyes through pores formed by influenza hemagglutinin during cell fusion

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The fusion of cells by influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is the best characterized example of protein-mediated membrane fusion. In simultaneous measurements of pairs of assays for fusion, we determined the order of detectable events during fusion. Fusion pore formation in HA-triggered cell-cell fusion was first detected by changes in cell membrane capacitance, next by a flux of fluorescent lipid, and finally by flux of aqueous fluorescent dye. Fusion pore conductance increased by small steps. A re...

  19. Mechanism of degradation of electrolyte solutions for dye-sensitized solar cells under ultraviolet light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shohei; Katoh, Ryuzi

    2015-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of the degradation of I-/I3--containing electrolyte solutions for dye-sensitized solar cells under UV light irradiation. The yellow electrolyte solutions underwent achromatization during irradiation, indicating the reduction of I3-. We propose a mechanism involving the production of holes in TiO2, reaction of the holes with solvent molecules, and subsequent reduction of I3- by electrons remaining in the TiO2. Although the quantum yield of the photodegradation reaction is estimated to be low (3 × 10-3), this reaction can nevertheless be expected to affect the long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cell devices.

  20. Review on development of electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since the prototype of a dye-sensitized solar cell(DSSC)was reported in 1991 by M. Gratzel,it has aroused intensive interest over the past decade due to its low cost and simple preparation procedure.The typical cell consists of a dye-coated mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO_2 film sandwiched between two transparent electroldes.A liquid electrolyte,traditionally containing the trioidide/iodide redox couple,fills the pores of the mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO_2 film and contacts the nanoparticles.Photoexcite...

  1. Potential development in dye-sensitized solar cells for renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Pandikumar, Alagarsamy

    2013-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic technology is expected to solve problems related to energy shortages and environmental pollution caused by the use of fossil fuels. Dye-sensitizedsolar cells (DSSCs) are promising next-generation alternatives to conventional silicon-based photovoltaic devices owing to their low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. This special topic volume addresses recent advances in the research on dye-sensitized solar cells. The focus of this special topic volume is on materials development (sensitizers, nanostructured oxide films, and electrolyte),

  2. Synthesis and photoelectric properties of an organic dye containing benzo[1,2-b∶4,5-b']dithiophene for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Rong Gao; Ling-Ling Chu; Wei Guo; Ting-Li Ma

    2013-01-01

    A novel benzodithiophene-containing organic dye BDT was synthesized and characterized as a sensitizer for a nanocrystalline TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cell.The BDT dye shows two major electronic absorptions.The absorption of the BDT dye covers a broad visible range from 300 nm to 550 nm.The benzodithiophene unit was used as a π bridge with several advantages:(1) It facilitates the electron transfer from the donor to the acceptor; (2) A facile structural modification on the 4,8-positions in the benzodithiophene unit can be achieved; (3) Fusing benzene with two flanking thiophene units improves the thermal stability.Under simulated AM1.5G solar light (100 mW/cm2) illumination,the DSC based on BDT gives a power conversion efficiency of 1.78%.

  3. Optimized Stem Cell Detection Using the DyeCycle-Triggered Side Population Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Maximilian; Wolf, Dominik; Sopper, Sieghart

    2016-01-01

    Tissue and cancer stem cells are highly attractive target populations for regenerative medicine and novel potentially curative anticancer therapeutics. In order to get a better understanding of stem cell biology and function, it is essential to reproducibly identify these stem cells from biological samples for subsequent characterization or isolation. ABC drug transporter expression is a hallmark of stem cells. This is utilized to identify (cancer) stem cells by exploiting their dye extrusion properties, which is referred to as the “side population assay.” Initially described for high-end flow cytometers equipped with ultraviolet lasers, this technique is now also amenable for a broader scientific community, owing to the increasing availability of violet laser-furnished cytometers and the advent of DyeCycle Violet (DCV). Here, we describe important technical aspects of the DCV-based side population assay and discuss potential pitfalls and caveats helping scientists to establish a valid and reproducible DCV-based side population assay. In addition, we investigate the suitability of blue laser-excitable DyeCycle dyes for side population detection. This knowledge will help to improve and standardize detection and isolation of stem cells based on their expression of ABC drug transporters. PMID:26798352

  4. Optimized Stem Cell Detection Using the DyeCycle-Triggered Side Population Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Boesch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue and cancer stem cells are highly attractive target populations for regenerative medicine and novel potentially curative anticancer therapeutics. In order to get a better understanding of stem cell biology and function, it is essential to reproducibly identify these stem cells from biological samples for subsequent characterization or isolation. ABC drug transporter expression is a hallmark of stem cells. This is utilized to identify (cancer stem cells by exploiting their dye extrusion properties, which is referred to as the “side population assay.” Initially described for high-end flow cytometers equipped with ultraviolet lasers, this technique is now also amenable for a broader scientific community, owing to the increasing availability of violet laser-furnished cytometers and the advent of DyeCycle Violet (DCV. Here, we describe important technical aspects of the DCV-based side population assay and discuss potential pitfalls and caveats helping scientists to establish a valid and reproducible DCV-based side population assay. In addition, we investigate the suitability of blue laser-excitable DyeCycle dyes for side population detection. This knowledge will help to improve and standardize detection and isolation of stem cells based on their expression of ABC drug transporters.

  5. Enrichment of Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells by the Stem Cell Dye CDy1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatsu-Shinohara, Mito; Morimoto, Hiroko; Shinohara, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) comprise a small population of germ cells with self-renewal potential. Previous studies have shown that SSCs share several common features with stem cells in other self-renewing tissues, including surface markers and proliferative machinery. However, studies of SSCs are severely handicapped by the small number of SSCs and the lack of SSC-specific markers. In the present study, we examined the utility of CDy1 and Rh123, both of which are used for the collection of stem cells in several self-renewing tissues. CDy1 stained germline stem (GS) cells, cultured spermatogonia enriched for SSC activity, after in vitro incubation without exerting toxic effects. Unlike previously reported stem cell-specific dyes, CDy1 was also useful for enrichment of SSCs in both GS cell culture and mature adult testes. Spermatogonial transplantation showed that ∼1 in 66.7 cells exhibited SSC activity after CDH1-based magnetic cell selection and CDy1 staining. In contrast, although Rh123 was previously used successfully to collect SSCs from cryptorchid testes, it was not possible to recover SSCs from both GS cell cultures and wild-type testes. Thus, CDy1 staining will provide a useful strategy for the enrichment of SSCs and may be used in conjunction with other reagents for the enrichment of SSCs.

  6. Fused-Thiophene Based Materials for Organic Photovoltaics and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabakaran Kumaresan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic photovoltaics (OPVs and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have drawn great interest from both academics and industry, due to the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy at reasonable efficiencies. This review focuses on recent progress in molecular engineering and technological aspects of fused-thiophene-based organic dye molecules for applications in solar cells. Particular attention has been paid to the design principles and stability of these dye molecules, as well as on the effects of various electrolyte systems for DSSCs. Importantly, it has been found that incorporation of a fused-thiophene unit into the sensitizer has several advantages, such as red-shift of the intramolecular charge transfer band, tuning of the frontier molecular energy level, and improvements in both photovoltaic performance and stability. This work also examines the correlation between the physical properties and placement of fused-thiophene in the molecular structure with regard to their performance in OPVs and DSSCs.

  7. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on different nano-oxides on plastic PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Milan; Gemeiner, Pavol; Beková, Zuzana; Dvonka, Vladimír; Búc, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) foils and glass slides coated with thin conductive layers were used as substrates for TiO2 or ZnO based photoactive electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) with organo-metallic Ru-dye, standard iodine electrolyte and Pt coated FTO/glass counterelectrode (CE). Different compositions of nanoparticle oxides in forms of alcohol pastes as well as the CE paste were applied onto the substrates by screen printing or by doctor blade techniques. Photocurrents and I-V loading characteristics were measured depending on the solar cell structure and preparation, including the oxide composition, electrode conductivity and the dye type. The influence of thin TiO2 blocking layer prepared by sol-gel technique is also discussed.

  8. Remediation of textile azo dye acid red 114 by hairy roots of Ipomoea carnea Jacq. and assessment of degraded dye toxicity with human keratinocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pamela; Jobby, Renitta; Desai, N S

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation has proven to be the most desirable and cost effective method to counter textile dye pollution. Hairy roots (HRs) of Ipomoea carnea J. were tested for decolourization of 25 textile azo dyes, out of which >90% decolourization was observed in 15 dyes. A diazo dye, Acid Red 114 was decolourized to >98% and hence, was chosen as the model dye. A significant increase in the activities of oxidoreductive enzymes was observed during decolourization of AR114. The phytodegradation of AR114 was confirmed by HPLC, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The possible metabolites were identified by GCMS as 4- aminobenzene sulfonic acid 2-methylaniline and 4- aminophenyl 4-ethyl benzene sulfonate and a probable pathway for the biodegradation of AR114 has been proposed. The nontoxic nature of the metabolites and toxicity of AR114 was confirmed by cytotoxicity tests on human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). When HaCaT cells were treated separately with 150 μg mL(-1) of AR114 and metabolites, MTT assay showed 50% and ≈100% viability respectively. Furthermore, flow cytometry data showed that, as compared to control, the cells in G2-M and death phase increased by 2.4 and 3.6 folds respectively on treatment with AR114 but remained unaltered in cells treated with metabolites.

  9. Optimization of nanoparticle structure for improved conversion efficiency of dye solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructure and Nanodevices, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Zaine, Siti Nur Azella, E-mail: ct.azella@gmail.com.my [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Heavy dye loading and the ability to contain the light within the thin layer (typically ∼12 μm) are the requirement needed for the photoelectrode material in order to enhance the harvesting efficiency of dye solar cell. This can be realized by optimizing the particle size with desirable crystal structure. The paper reports the investigation on the dependency of the dye loading and light scattering on the properties of nanostructured photoelectrode materials by comparing 4 different samples of TiO{sub 2} in the form of nanoparticles and micron-sized TiO{sub 2} aggregates which composed of nanocrystallites. Their properties were evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UVVis spectroscopy while the performance of the fabricated test cells were measured using universal photovoltaic test system (UPTS) under 1000 W/cm{sup 2} intensity of radiation. Nano sized particles provide large surface area which allow for greater dye adsorption but have no ability to retain the incident light in the TiO{sub 2} film. In contrast, micron-sized particles in the form of aggregates can generate light scattering allowing the travelling distance of the light to be extended and increasing the interaction between the photons and dye molecules adsorb on TiO{sub 2}nanocrystallites. This resulted in an improvement in the conversion efficiency of the aggregates that demonstrates the close relation between light scattering effect and the structure of the photolectrode film.

  10. Incorporating graphene in anthocyanin-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of natural dyes as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) offers significant advantages such as attainability and cheaper production cost. However, its low power conversion efficiency (PCE) impedes its wide utilization. In this study, enhancement in efficiency of anthocyanin-based dye sensitized solar cells through the incorporation of graphene was studied. Graphene is a two-dimensional sheet of sp”2-hyridized carbon known for its extraordinary mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. This remarkable material was incorporated in the TiO2 photoanode or with anthocyanin dye dispersion. Current-voltage (IV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out to characterize the anthocyanin-based DSSC. Addition of graphene ration into TiO2 as a photoanode composite and/or in anthocyanin extracts (anthocyanin: graphene dispersion) gave the same positive effect, an increase in PCE from 0.185% without graphene to as high as 0.516% with combined graphene doping of the TiO2 and using an anthocyanin: graphene dye dispersion. Furthermore, a 30% increase in fill factor was obtained for DSSCs in the presence of graphene. EIS data showed a favourable decrease in charge transfer resistance in the TiO2 layer as graphene is added to the DSSC, with increased magnitude of the short-circuit current (Jsc). This is explained by graphene providing added conducting pathways for the photo-generated electrons. (author)

  11. Low Cost Ferritic Stainless Steel in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with Cobalt Complex Electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Miettunen, Kati; Jouttijärvi, Sami; Jiang, Roger; Saukkonen, Tapio; Romu, Jyrki; Halme, Janne; Lund, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cheap ferritic stainless steel is applied here as the counter electrode substrate in dye sensitized solar cells with cobalt complex electrolyte. A 5.0% efficiency was reached with these type of cells which is more than 2.5 times higher compared to previously reported devices with metal counter electrode and cobalt complex electrolyte. The electrochemical impedance spectra analysis showed that the best cells with the ferritic steel counter electrode had as low charge transfer resistance (3.6 Ω...

  12. Copper(I) polypyridine complexes. the sensitizers of the future for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Redondo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    The thesis concerns the development of novel dyes for the photosensitization of titanium dioxide for incorporation into dyes-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The majority of dyes utilized to date are based upon heavy transition metals such as ruthenium. Although these are efficient (>10%), they have disadvantages in the cost of the materials and also in the availability of the very rare platinum group metals. The thesis investigates the use of copper(I) complexes of oligopyridin...

  13. Photoactive curcumin-derived dyes with surface anchoring moieties used in ZnO nanoparticle-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoactive, eco-friendly and high molar extinction coefficient, curcumin-derived dyes (BCMoxo and BCtCM) have been explored in ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The boron complex curcumin dyes modified with di-carboxylic anchor groups (BCtCM) provided surface attachment with a strong UV-vis region absorption than the dye molecule without anchor groups (BCMoxo). Photoanodes primed with poly-dispersive ZnO NPs (∼80-50 nm) specifically devised for these dyes and optimized for the critical thickness, sensitization time and concentration using a solvent-free ionic electrolyte so as to get current density as high as 1.66 mA/cm2 under 80 mW/cm2 irradiation. Therefore, a successful conversion of visible light into electricity by using these curcumin-derived dyes (natural derived photoactive molecules) as photosensitizer in DSSCs would be a great interest in future studies for enhancing further conversion efficiencies.

  14. Photoactive curcumin-derived dyes with surface anchoring moieties used in ZnO nanoparticle-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, T.; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yoon, Seog Joon; Kil, Byung-Ho; Maldar, N.N. [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jin Wook, E-mail: jwhan@hanyang.ac.kr [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sung-Hwan, E-mail: shhan@hanyang.ac.kr [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    Photoactive, eco-friendly and high molar extinction coefficient, curcumin-derived dyes (BCMoxo and BCtCM) have been explored in ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The boron complex curcumin dyes modified with di-carboxylic anchor groups (BCtCM) provided surface attachment with a strong UV-vis region absorption than the dye molecule without anchor groups (BCMoxo). Photoanodes primed with poly-dispersive ZnO NPs ({approx}80-50 nm) specifically devised for these dyes and optimized for the critical thickness, sensitization time and concentration using a solvent-free ionic electrolyte so as to get current density as high as 1.66 mA/cm{sup 2} under 80 mW/cm{sup 2} irradiation. Therefore, a successful conversion of visible light into electricity by using these curcumin-derived dyes (natural derived photoactive molecules) as photosensitizer in DSSCs would be a great interest in future studies for enhancing further conversion efficiencies.

  15. Rhodanine dye-based small molecule acceptors for organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yujeong; Song, Chang Eun; Moon, Sang-Jin; Lim, Eunhee

    2014-08-01

    The solution-processable small molecules based on carbazole or fluorene containing rhodanine dyes at both ends were synthesized and introduced as acceptors in organic photovoltaic cells. The high energy levels of their lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals resulted in a power conversion efficiency of 3.08% and an open circuit voltage of up to 1.03 V.

  16. Enhanced light harvesting of dye-sensitized solar cells with up/down conversion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare-earth doped ZnO up/down-conversion materials were prepared and introduced into photoelectrodes to enhance the photovoltaic efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this paper, we achieved a optimal efficiency of 5.13% with the incorporation of ZnO:Eu3+,Tb3+ and ZnO:Er3+, Yb3+, which is about 70% higher than that of dye-sensitized solar cells based on pure TiO2. This is probably due to the enhancement of light harvesting via converting ultraviolet and near infrared radiation to visible emission by downconversion and upconversion luminescence process, respectively. In addition, the ZnO:Eu3+,Tb3+ film acted as a blocking layer inhibit the charge recombination, suppressing the dark current for DSSCs. Results indicate that the ZnO:Eu3+,Tb3+/TiO2:ZnO:Er3+, Yb3+ double composite layers can obviously improve the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells, and the combine of the up and down conversion materials is an effective method to extend the response both to ultraviolet and near-infrared radiation in dye-sensitized solar cells

  17. High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Three-Dimensional Photoanode

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2011-11-09

    Herein, we present a straightforward bottom-up synthesis of a high electron mobility and highly light scattering macroporous photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The dense three-dimensional Al/ZnO, SnO2, or TiO 2 host integrates a conformal passivation thin film to reduce recombination and a large surface-area mesoporous anatase guest for high dye loading. This novel photoanode is designed to improve the charge extraction resulting in higher fill factor and photovoltage for DSCs. An increase in photovoltage of up to 110 mV over state-of-the-art DSC is demonstrated. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veerender, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Saxena, Vibha, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Jha, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Koiry, S. P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Aswal, D. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gupta, S. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

  19. Enhanced Light Harvesting in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using External Lightguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hui Chien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An external lightguide (EL for enhancing the light-harvesting efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was designed and developed. The EL attached to the exterior of a DSSC photoelectrode directed light on a dye-covered nanoporous TiO2 film (D-NTF of the photoelectrode. Experimental tests confirmed that the EL increased the light-harvesting efficiency of a DSSC with an active area of 0.25 cm2 by 30.69%. Photocurrent density and the power conversion efficiency were also increased by 38.12% and 25.09%, respectively.

  20. Anvendelse af Deep Eutectic Solvents i Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kenneth Jack; Bisgaard, Stefan; Rasmussen, Michelle Hundevad; Nielsen, Cecilie Lønbæk; Yasen, Fahima; Christensen, Helene Huldgaard; Ravichandran, Prince

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of this project, we have investigated the new type of ionic liquids called Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES), as well as the application of a specific DES as electrolyte in a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSC). To assess the application, we have conducted results in form of viscosity, conductivity, stability of the dye and efficiency of the DES electrolyte, compared to two applied electrolytes, A and B, found in the literature. Of these electrolytes, A is nitrile based and B is imidaz...

  1. Adsorption of organic dyes on TiO2 surfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells: interplay of theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Chiara; Mosconi, Edoardo; Pastore, Mariachiara; Ronca, Enrico; De Angelis, Filippo

    2012-12-14

    First-principles computer simulations can contribute to a deeper understanding of the dye/semiconductor interface lying at the heart of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs). Here, we present the results of simulation of dye adsorption onto TiO(2) surfaces, and of their implications for the functioning of the corresponding solar cells. We propose an integrated strategy which combines FT-IR measurements with DFT calculations to individuate the energetically favorable TiO(2) adsorption mode of acetic acid, as a meaningful model for realistic organic dyes. Although we found a sizable variability in the relative stability of the considered adsorption modes with the model system and the method, a bridged bidentate structure was found to closely match the FT-IR frequency pattern, also being calculated as the most stable adsorption mode by calculations in solution. This adsorption mode was found to be the most stable binding also for realistic organic dyes bearing cyanoacrylic anchoring groups, while for a rhodanine-3-acetic acid anchoring group, an undissociated monodentate adsorption mode was found to be of comparable stability. The structural differences induced by the different anchoring groups were related to the different electron injection/recombination with oxidized dye properties which were experimentally assessed for the two classes of dyes. A stronger coupling and a possibly faster electron injection were also calculated for the bridged bidentate mode. We then investigated the adsorption mode and I(2) binding of prototype organic dyes. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and geometry optimizations were performed for two coumarin dyes differing by the length of the π-bridge separating the donor and acceptor moieties. We related the decreasing distance of the carbonylic oxygen from the titania to an increased I(2) concentration in proximity of the oxide surface, which might account for the different observed photovoltaic performances. The interplay between theory

  2. FM dye photo-oxidation as a tool for monitoring membrane recycling in inner hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kamin

    Full Text Available Styryl (FM dyes have been used for more than two decades to investigate exo- and endocytosis in conventional synapses. However, they are difficult to use in the inner hair cells of the auditory pathway (IHCs, as FM dyes appear to penetrate through mechanotransducer channels into the cytosol of IHCs, masking endocytotic uptake. To solve this problem we applied to IHCs the FM dye photo-oxidation technique, which renders the dyes into electron microscopy markers. Photo-oxidation allowed the unambiguous identification of labeled organelles, despite the presence of FM dye in the cytosol. This enabled us to describe the morphologies of several organelles that take up membrane in IHCs, both at rest and during stimulation. At rest, endosome-like organelles were detected in the region of the cuticular plate. Larger tubulo-cisternal organelles dominated the top and nuclear regions. Finally, the basal region, where the IHC active zones are located, contained few labeled organelles. Stimulation increased significantly membrane trafficking in the basal region, inducing the appearance of labeled vesicles and cistern-like organelles. The latter were replaced by small, synaptic-like vesicles during recovery after stimulation. In contrast, no changes in membrane trafficking were induced by stimulation in the cuticular plate region or in the top and nuclear regions. We conclude that synaptic vesicle recycling takes place mostly in the basal region of the IHCs. Other organelles participate in abundant constitutive membrane trafficking throughout the rest of the IHC volume.

  3. Disperse Red 1 (textile dye) induces cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in mouse germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fábio Henrique; Bustos-Obregon, Eduardo; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero

    2015-06-01

    Disperse Red 1 (DR1), which is widely used in the textile industry, is an azo dye that contributes to the toxicity and pollution of wastewater. To assess the toxic effects of DR1 on reproduction, sexually mature male mice (Mus musculus, strain CF-1) were orally (gavage) treated with single doses of the compound at 20, 100 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Testicular features and sperm parameters were evaluated 8.3, 16.6 and 24.9 days after treatments. In addition to testicular toxicity caused by the dye, the data clearly showed an increased frequency of sperm with abnormal morphology and decreased fertility. An increased amount of DNA damage was also detected in testis cells 16.6 and 24.9 days after treatments with 100 and 500 mg/kg. This study demonstrated the toxic and genotoxic effects of DR1, indicating the harmful activity of this dye on reproductive health.

  4. Computational screening of functionalized zinc porphyrins for dye sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnsø, Kristian Baruël; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2013-01-01

    An efficient dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is one possible solution to meet the world's rapidly increasing energy demands and associated climate challenges. This requires inexpensive and stable dyes with well-positioned frontier energy levels for maximal solar absorption, efficient charge...... separation, and high output voltage. Here we demonstrate an extensive computational screening of zinc porphyrins functionalized with electron donating side groups and electron accepting anchoring groups. The trends in frontier energy levels versus side groups are analyzed and a no-loss DSSC level alignment...... quality is estimated. Out of the initial 1029 molecules, we find around 50 candidates with level alignment qualities within 5% of the optimal limit. We show that the level alignment of five zinc porphyrin dyes which were recently used in DSSCs with high efficiencies can be further improved by simple side...

  5. Ruthenium(II) multi carboxylic acid complexes: chemistry and application in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Nasouti, Fahimeh; Sousaraei, Ahmad

    2014-04-01

    Novel ruthenium multi carboxylic complexes (RMCCs) have been synthesized by using ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate, 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (H4btec) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) as photosensitizers for titanium dioxide semiconductor solar cells. The complexes were characterized by (1)H-NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis, ICP and CHN analyses. The reaction details and features were then described. SEM analysis revealed that the penetration of dyes into the pores of the nanocrystalline TiO2 surface was improved by increasing the number of btec units. The solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency of complexes shows that the number of attached carboxylates on a dye has an influence on the photoelectrochemical properties of the dye-sensitized electrode. An incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 13% at 510 nm was obtained for ruthenium complexes with three btec units. PMID:24500312

  6. Novel Organic Sensitizers Containing 2,6-Difunctionalized Anthracene Unit for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiann T. Lin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of new organic dyes comprising different amines as electron donors, 2-(6-substituted-anthracen-2-yl-thiophene as the π-conjugated bridge, and cyanoacrylic acid group as an electron acceptor and anchoring group, have been synthesized. There exists charge transfer transition from arylamine and anthracene to the acceptor in these compounds, as evidenced from the photophysical measurements and the computational results. Under one sun (AM 1.5 illumination, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs using these dyes as the sensitizers exhibited efficiencies ranging from 1.62% to 2.88%, surpassing that using 9,10-difunctionalized anthracene-based sensitizer.

  7. Monolithic-Structured Single-Layered Textile-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Kim, Han Seong; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y.

    2016-10-01

    Textile-structured solar cells are frequently discussed in the literature due to their prospective applications in wearable devices and in building integrated solar cells that utilize their flexibility, mechanical robustness, and aesthetic appearance, but the current approaches for textile-based solar cells—including the preparation of fibre-type solar cells woven into textiles—face several difficulties from high friction and tension during the weaving process. This study proposes a new structural concept and fabrication process for monolithic-structured textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells that are fabricated by a process similar to the cloth-making process, including the preparation of wires and yarns that are woven for use in textiles, printed, dyed, and packaged. The fabricated single-layered textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells successfully act as solar cells in our study, even under bending conditions. By controlling the inter-weft spacing and the number of Ti wires for the photoelectrode conductor, we have found that the performance of this type of dye-sensitized solar cell was notably affected by the spacing between photoelectrodes and counter-electrodes, the exposed areas of Ti wires to photoelectrodes, and photoelectrodes’ surface morphology. We believe that this study provides a process and concept for improved textile-based solar cells that can form the basis for further research.

  8. Large pi-aromatic molecules as potential sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imahori, Hiroshi; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Ito, Seigo

    2009-11-17

    Recently, dye-sensitized solar cells have attracted much attention relevant to global environmental issues. Thus far, ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complexes have proven to be the most efficient TiO(2) sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. However, a gradual increment in the highest power conversion efficiency has been recognized in the past decade. More importantly, considering that ruthenium is a rare metal, novel dyes without metal or using inexpensive metal are desirable for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Large pi-aromatic molecules, such as porphyrins, phthalocyanines, and perylenes, are important classes of potential sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells, owing to their photostability and high light-harvesting capabilities that can allow applications in thinner, low-cost dye-sensitized solar cells. Porphyrins possess an intense Soret band at 400 nm and moderate Q bands at 600 nm. Nevertheless, the poor light-harvesting properties relative to the ruthenium complexes have limited the cell performance of porphyrin-sensitized TiO(2) cells. Elongation of the pi conjugation and loss of symmetry in porphyrins cause broadening and a red shift of the absorption bands together with an increasing intensity of the Q bands relative to that of the Soret band. On the basis of the strategy, the cell performance of porphyrin-sensitized solar cells has been improved intensively by the enhanced light absorption. Actually, some push-pull-type porphyrins have disclosed a remarkably high power conversion efficiency (6-7%) that was close to that of the ruthenium complexes. Phthalocyanines exhibit strong absorption around 300 and 700 nm and redox features that are similar to porphyrins. Moreover, phthalocyanines are transparent over a large region of the visible spectrum, thereby enabling the possibility of using them as "photovoltaic windows". However, the cell performance was poor, owing to strong aggregation and lack of directionality in the

  9. Density functional theory study of new azo dyes with different π-spacers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri Novir, Samaneh; Hashemianzadeh, Seyed Majid

    2015-05-01

    Some of new azo-based metal-free dyes with different π-conjugation spacers, such as carbazole, fluorene, pyrrole, thiophene, furan and thiazole, have been investigated with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations. Theoretical calculations allow us to quantify factors such as light harvesting efficiency (LHE), electron injection driving force (ΔGinject) and the weight of the LUMO orbital on the carboxylic group (QLUMO) related to the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), and to evaluate both charge recombination between the semiconductor conduction band electrons and the oxidized dyes and/or electrolyte, and also the shift of the conduction band of the semiconductor as a result of the adsorption of the dyes onto the semiconductor surface, associated with the open-circuit photovoltage (Voc). According to the results, we could predict that how the π-conjugation spacers influence the Jsc as well as the Voc of DSSCs. Among these dyes, the carbazole and fluorene-based dyes (dyes 1 and 2) show the highest LHE, ΔGinject, QLUMO, and the slowest recombination rate. Consequently, the obtained results show that the carbazole and fluorene-based dyes could have the better Jsc and Voc compared to the other dyes.

  10. Nanosheet-assembling Hierarchical Zinc Stannate Microspheres for Enhanced Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nanosheet-assembling hierarchical Zn2SnO4 microspheres (NHMSs) are proposed. • The NHMSs are used as photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). • The NHMSs based DSSCs enhance the light harvesting within the electrodes. • A high efficiency of 3.43% is achieved with this ternary metal oxide and structure. - Abstract: Nanosheet-assembling hierarchical Zn2SnO4 microspheres (NHMSs) are synthesized via one-pot solvothermal route and used as photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). An overall photoconversion efficiency of 3.43% has been achieved with this ternary metal oxide and structure, significantly higher than that derived from dispersed nanosheets (DNSs) electrode (2.06%). The hierarchical Zn2SnO4 microsphere structure is proven to be favorable for enhancement of overall dye-sensitized solar cells photoconversion efficiency via (1) the hierarchical Zn2SnO4 microspheres can function as efficient light scatters to enhance the light-harvesting efficiency; (2) intersectional contact with one another of the nanosheets of densely packed neighboring microspheres offers the transport channel for fast electron transport, avoiding the high resistance existing in the nanoparticle-based microspheres due to the relatively small interface resistance; (3) these spherical assemblies form large external pores for dye loading, at the same time, provide a “main trunk” for the quick electrolyte diffusion throughout the Zn2SnO4 layer in the film

  11. Photoelectric characterization of fabricated dye-sensitized solar cell using dye extracted from red Siahkooti fruit as natural sensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Saeidi, Mahsa; Rahmanian, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Natural dye extracted from Siahkooti fruit with/without purification by solid phase extraction (SPE) technique was used in the fabrication of DSSC as natural sensitizer. The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were employed to indicate the presence of anthocyanins in the fruit of red Siahkooti. The photoelectrochemical performance and the efficiency of assembled DSSC using Siahkooti fruit dye extract were evaluated and efficiency enhancement was obtained by a preliminary purification of extracted dye. The efficiency and fill factor of the DSSC using purified Siahkooti fruit dye were 0.32% and 0.73%, respectively. The results successfully showed that the DSSC, using Siahkooti fruit extract as a dye sensitizer, is useful for the preparation of environmentally friendly, low-cost, renewable and clean sources of energy.

  12. Effect of Isotopic Substitution on Elementary Processes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Deuterated Amino-Phenyl Acid Dyes on TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Manzhos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the first computational study of the effects of isotopic substitution on the operation of dye-sensitized solar cells. Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the effect of deuteration on light absorption, dye adsorption dynamics, the averaged over vibrations driving force to injection (∆Gi and regeneration (∆Gr, as well as on promotion of electron back-donation in dyes NK1 (2E,4E-2-cyano-5-(4-dimethylaminophenylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid and NK7 (2E,4E-2-cyano-5-(4-diphenylaminophenylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid adsorbed in monodentate molecular and bidentate bridging dissociative configurations on the anatase (101 surface of TiO2. Deuteration causes a red shift of the absorption spectrum of the dye/TiO2 complex by about 5% (dozens of nm, which can noticeably affect the overlap with the solar spectrum in real cells. The dynamics effect on the driving force to injection and recombination (the difference between the averaged <∆Gi,r> and ∆Gi,requil at the equilibrium configuration is strong, yet there is surprisingly little isotopic effect: the average driving force to injection <∆Gi> and to regeneration <∆Gr> changes by only about 10 meV upon deuteration. The nuclear dynamics enhance recombination to the dye ground state due to the approach of the electron-donating group to TiO2, yet this effect is similar for deuterated and non-deuterated dyes. We conclude that the nuclear dynamics of the C-H(D bonds, mostly affected by deuteration, might not be important for the operation of photoelectrochemical cells based on organic dyes. As the expectation value of the ground state energy is higher than its optimum geometry value (by up to 0.1 eV in the present case, nuclear motions will affect dye regeneration by recently proposed redox shuttle-dye combinations operating at low driving forces.

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of Sansevieria trifasciata, Pandanus amaryllifolius and Cassia angustifolia as Photosensitizer for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Mahfudli Fadli, Ulfa; Bayu Prasada, Ashari

    2016-04-01

    Dye sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) is one of the electric cells photochemical consisting of photoelectrode, dye, counter electrode, and electrolyte. The aims of the research to determine of the optical and electrical characteristic of the extract Sansevieria trifasciata, Pandanus amaryllifolius, and Cassia angustifolia. The study is also aimed to determine the effect of natural dyes extract to increase the efficiency of solar cells based DSSC. Sandwich structures formed in the sample consisted of working electrode pair Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and the counter electrode platinum (Pt). Dye extraction process is performed by stirring for 1 hour and then allowed to stand for 24 hours. Absorbance test is measure by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer Lambda 25, conductivity test by using a two-point probes Elkahfi 100, and characterization of current and voltage (I-V) by using a Keithley 2602A. The results showed that the greatest efficiency of 0.160% at Dye Pandanus amaryllifolius.

  14. Hierarchical Porous Carbon Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gui-Qiang; HUANG Cong-Gong; XING Wei; ZHUO Shu-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical porous carbon is prepared by a combination of self-organization and chemical activation and explored as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.Pore structure analysis shows that micropores generated within the mesopore wall and the pristine mesopore structure of mesoporous carbon are preserved during KOH activation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies demonstrate a relatively high electrocatalytic activity of hierarchical porous carbon electrode for triiodide reduction, as compared with a pristine mesoporous carbon electrode. This enhanced electrocatalytic activity is beneficial for improving the photovoltaic performance of dyesensitized solar cells. The overall conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells with the hierarchical porous carbon electrode increased by 11.5% compared with that of the cell with a pristine mesoporous carbon electrode.

  15. Carbon Nanotubes Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drygała A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the carbon nanotubes counter electrode deposited on the FTO glass substrates on the structure and optoelectrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells counter electrode (CE was analysed. Carbon materials have been applied in DSSC s in order to produce low-cost solar cells with reasonable efficiency. Platinum is a preferred material for the counter electrode because of its high conductivity and catalytic activity. However, the costs of manufacturing of the platinum counter electrode limit its use to large-scale applications in solar cells. This paper presents the results of examining the structure and properties of the studied layers, defining optical properties of conductive layers and electrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells manufactured with the use of carbon nanotubes.

  16. Modelling chemical composition in electric systems ? implications to the dynamics of dye-sensitised solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kovanen, T.; Tarhasaari, T.; Kettunen, L.; Korppi-Tommola, J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Classical electromagnetism provides limited means to model electric generators. To extend the classical theory in this respect, additional information on microscopic processes is required. In semiconductor devices and electrochemical generators such information may be obtained by modelling chemical composition. Here we use this approach for the modelling of dye-sensitised solar cells. We simulate the steady-state current-voltage characteristics of such a cell, as well as i...

  17. Enhancing dye-sensitized solar cell efficiency by anode surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chao-Hsuan [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hsin-Han [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chin-Cheng [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hong, Franklin C.-N., E-mail: hong@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    In this study, titanium substrates treated with HF solution and KOH solution sequentially forming micro- and nano-structures were used for the fabrication of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). After wet etching treatments, the titanium substrates were then exposed to the O{sub 2} plasma treatment and further immersed in titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) solution. The process conditions for producing a very thin TiO{sub 2} blocking layer were studied, in order to avoid solar cell current leakage for increasing the solar cell efficiency. Subsequently, TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were spin-coated on Ti substrates with varied thickness. The dye-sensitized solar cells on the titanium substrates were subjected to simulate AM 1.5 G irradiation of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} using backside illumination mode. Surface treatments of Ti substrate and TiO{sub 2} anode were found to play a significant role in improving the efficiency of DSSC. The efficiencies of the backside illumination solar cells were raised from 4.6% to 7.8% by integrating these surface treatments. - Highlights: • The flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) device can be fabricated. • Many effective surface treatment methods to improve DSSC efficiency are elucidated. • The efficiency is dramatically enhanced by integrating surface treatment methods. • The back-illuminated DSSC efficiency was raised from 4.6% to 7.8%.

  18. Upconversion nanoparticles for differential imaging of plant cells and detection of fluorescent dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴笑峰; 刘云新; 胡盼; 胡仕刚; 陈增辉; 严焕元; 唐志军; 席在芳; 余意; 戴港涛

    2016-01-01

    Upconversion NaLuF4 nanoparticles were synthesized by the solvothermal method which could emit multicolor visible light under the excitation of 980 nm near-infrared (NIR) photons. These upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with an acidic ligand could rapidly capture the basic rhodamine-B (RB) in plant cells to generate a close UCNPs@RB system. RB could efficiently absorb the green fluorescence from NaLuF4:18 mol.%Yb3+,2 mol.%Er3+ UCNPs and then emitted red light in the UCNPs@RB system by a robust luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) from UCNPs to RB. The detection limit of RB with these upconversion fluo-rescent nanoprobes could reach 0.25μg/cm3 in plant cell even under an ultra low excitation power source of 0.2 W/mm2. This LRET phenomenon was also extended to NaLuF4:18 mol.%Yb3+,0.5 mol.%Tm3+@Sodium fluorescein (SF) system. In addition, the differ-ential imaging could be achieved by successively incubating plant cells with fluorescent dyes and UCNPs. The fluorescent dyes ag-gregated in cell wall while UCNPs with surface modification distributed both in cell wall and cytoplasm, so that UCNPs@Dyes formed in cell walls which could emit multicolor light by LRET which was different from the emission in cytoplasm with only UCNPs.

  19. Enhancing dye-sensitized solar cell efficiency by anode surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, titanium substrates treated with HF solution and KOH solution sequentially forming micro- and nano-structures were used for the fabrication of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). After wet etching treatments, the titanium substrates were then exposed to the O2 plasma treatment and further immersed in titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) solution. The process conditions for producing a very thin TiO2 blocking layer were studied, in order to avoid solar cell current leakage for increasing the solar cell efficiency. Subsequently, TiO2 nanoparticles were spin-coated on Ti substrates with varied thickness. The dye-sensitized solar cells on the titanium substrates were subjected to simulate AM 1.5 G irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 using backside illumination mode. Surface treatments of Ti substrate and TiO2 anode were found to play a significant role in improving the efficiency of DSSC. The efficiencies of the backside illumination solar cells were raised from 4.6% to 7.8% by integrating these surface treatments. - Highlights: • The flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) device can be fabricated. • Many effective surface treatment methods to improve DSSC efficiency are elucidated. • The efficiency is dramatically enhanced by integrating surface treatment methods. • The back-illuminated DSSC efficiency was raised from 4.6% to 7.8%

  20. A critical review of recent developments in nanomaterials for photoelectrodes in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, C. Clement; Prasanth, R.

    2016-06-01

    In a dye sensitized solar cell the photoanode performs a dual role of acting as a matrix for dye adsorption and as a charge transport medium for electron transport. The surface area and the electronic property of the material determine the current output of the device. So the performance of dye sensitized solar cell is significantly affected by our choice of material to be used as photoanode. High surface area, optimum carrier density, low impedance and efficient carrier transport are requirements for an efficient photoanode material in a DSSC. The goal of this review article is to highlight the fabrication methods used for the preparation of efficient nanostructured photoanodes. The application of these nanostructured photoanode materials and their impact on the device efficiency has been described in detail. The enhancement in the surface area of the material and its impact on the dye adsorption and current generation has been discussed. A detailed analysis of the role of different blocking layers used in improving the open circuit voltage of the device has been done. The outlook and future directions in improving the device performance are also discussed.

  1. Degradation of cyanoacrylic acid-based organic sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Yang, Xichuan; Cheng, Ming; Zhang, Fuguo; Sun, Licheng

    2013-07-01

    Organic dyes have become widely used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their good performance, flexible structural modifications, and low costs. To increase the photostability of organic dye-based DSSCs, we conducted a full study on the degradation mechanism of cyanoacrylic acid-based organic sensitizers in DSSCs. The results showed that with the synergy between water and UV light, the sensitizer could desorb from the TiO2 surface and the cyanoacrylic acid unit of the sensitizer was transformed into the aldehyde group. It was also observed that the water content had a great effect on the degradation process. Our experiments conducted using (18) O-labeled water demonstrated that the oxygen atom of the aldehyde group identified in the degraded dye came from the solvent water in the DSSCs. Therefore, controlling the water content during DSSC fabrication, good sealing of cells, and filtering the UV light are crucial to produce DSSCs that are more durable and robust.

  2. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryanto, Ditia Allindira; Landuma, Suarni; Purwanto, Agus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 632112 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    The Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using Annato seeds has been conducted in this study. Annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn) used as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell. The experimental parameter was concentration of natural dye. Annato seeds was extracted using etanol solution and the concentration was controlled by varying mass of Annato seeds. A semiconductor TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a screen printing method for coating glass use paste of TiO{sub 2}. Construction DSSC used layered systems (sandwich) consists of working electrode (TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-dye) and counter electrode (platina). Both are placed on conductive glass and electrolytes that occur electrons cycle. The characterization of thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was conducted using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscpy) analysis showed the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} thin layer and the cross section of a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} with a thickness of 15–19 μm. Characterization of natural dye extract was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry analysis shows the wavelength range annato seeds is 328–515 nm, and the voltage (V{sub oc}) and electric current (I{sub sc}) resulted in keithley test for 30 gram, 40 gram, and 50 gram were 0,4000 V; 0,4251 V; 0,4502 V and 0,000074 A; 0,000458 A; 0,000857 A, respectively. The efficiencies of the fabricated solar cells using annato seeds as senstizer for each varying mass are 0,00799%, 0,01237%, and 0,05696%.

  3. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Future of Using Earth-Abundant Elements in Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 20/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Joe; Dunn, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Sustainability is an important concept generating traction in the research community. To be really sustainable the full life cycle of a product needs to be carefully considered. A key aspect of this is using elements that are either readily recycled or accessible in the Earth's biosphere. Jigsawing these materials together in compounds to address our future energy needs represents a great opportunity for the current generation of researchers. On page 3802, S. Dunn and J. Briscoe summarize the performance of a selection of alternative materials to replace platinum in the counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:27197641

  4. Influence of capacitance characteristic on dye-sensitized solar cell's IPCE measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hanmin; Liu, Lifei; Liu, Bin; Kui Yuan, Shi; Wang, Xiangyan; Wang, Ying; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

    2009-02-01

    It is found that the traditional monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurement method, such as the American Society for Testing and Materials standard (ASTM), is not suitable for measuring the IPCE of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Experiments showed that the chopper's frequency in this method influences the measured DSSCs' IPCE value considerably, while no such impact was found in that of the Si cell. The quantitative analysis, which is based on equivalent circuits and parameter estimation, proved the existence of capacitance characteristics in DSSCs causing the fluctuation of the measured IPCE. An equivalent circuit parameter was estimated from a typical dye solar cell, which was characterized with the crystalline ingredient, the particle size and the I-V curve. The fluctuations of the measured IPCE were revealed by adjusting the chopper frequencies of one traditional IPCE measurement system. Finally, the method to obtain the real value of DSSCs' IPCE is proposed.

  5. Block copolymer directed synthesis of mesoporous TiO 2 for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nedelcu, Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    The morphology of TiO2 plays an important role in the operation of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. By using polyisoprene-block- ethyleneoxide (PI-b-PEO) copolymers as structure directing agents for a sol-gel based synthesis of mesoporous TiO2, we demonstrate a strategy for the detailed control of the semiconductor morphology on the 10 nm length scale. The careful adjustment of polymer molecular weight and titania precursor content is used to systematically vary the material structure and its influence upon solar cell performance is investigated. Furthermore, the use of a partially sp 2 hybridized structure directing polymer enables the crystallization of porous TiO2 networks at high temperatures without pore collapse, improving its performance in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based on Polyaniline/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Counter Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presented the successful fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell using polyaniline base (EB, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, organic dye (rhodamine B or riboflavin, zinc oxide (ZnO, and indium tin oxide (ITO. The electrical properties of the resultant devices were investigated by measuring the current density voltage (-, capacitance voltage (-, and impedance measurements under both dark and illuminated conditions. The photovoltaic cell characteristics, that is, open circuit voltage (, short circuit current density (, and energy conversion efficiency (, were evaluated under illumination and were found to be 0.48 mA/cm2, 400 mV, and 0.224%, respectively, for ITO/EB-MWCNTs/ZnO-rhodamine B/ITO heterostructure. Using impedance spectra, it was found that the series resistances of this type of solar cell are 62 and 60 Ω under darkness and illumination, respectively.

  7. Interfacial Charge Transfer in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using SCN-Free Terpyridine-Coordinated Ru Complex Dye and Co Complex Redox Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Takahiro; Masaki, Naruhiko; Nishikawa, Masahiro; Tamura, Rei; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Mutsumi; Mori, Shogo

    2016-07-01

    The efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using Ru complex dyes and Co complex redox couples has been increased with a strategy to prevent charge recombination via the addition of bulky or lengthy peripheral units to the dyes. However, despite the efforts, most of the DSSCs are still suffering from nonunity quantum efficiency and fast recombination. We examine the effect of SCN ligand, which has been used for many Ru complex dyes and could attract positively charged Co complexes. We find that replacing the ligands with 2,6-bis(2'-(4'-trifluoromethyl)pyrazolyl)pyridine increases the quantum efficiency and electron lifetime. With the combination of the replacement of SCN ligands and the addition of bulky moiety, ∼80% external quantum efficiency is achieved. These suggest that not only the addition of a blocking effect but also the reduction of electrostatic and dispersion forces between dyes and Co complexes are essential to control the charge separation and recombination processes. PMID:27328462

  8. Proficiency of acceptor-donor-acceptor organic dye with spiro-MeOTAD HTM on the photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramavenkateswari, K.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2016-09-01

    This work investigates the proficiency of acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) organic dye Diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (DIAC) as photosensitizer on the photovoltaic parameters of silver (Ag) doped TiO2 photoanode dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with quasi-solid state electrolyte/hole transport material (HTM) spiro-MeOTAD. TNSs (TiO2 nanosticks) photoanodes are prepared through sol-gel method and hydrothermal technique. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET measurement were used to characterize the structure and morphology of TiO2 nanostructures. The Diisopropyl azodicarboxylate organic dye with TNPs-Ag@TNSs composite photoanode structure and spiro-MeOTAD HTM exhibited better power conversion efficiency (PCE).

  9. Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with dual-function coadsorbent: reducing the surface concentration of dye-iodine complexes concomitant with attenuated charge recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloum-Ardakani, Mohammad; Khoshroo, Alireza

    2015-09-21

    In this paper, we have investigated the effects of oleic acid as a dual-function coadsorbent on recombination and iodine binding in dye-sensitized solar cells. Oleic acid as a dual-function coadsorbent effectively shields the back electron transfer from TiO2 to I3(-) ions and also reduces the surface concentration of dye-I2 complexes via iodine binding to the unsaturated double bond on oleic acid. It was found that interaction between iodine and the double bond of oleic acid keeps the iodine molecules away from the surface and reduces the recombination rate between injected electrons in a semiconductor and iodine molecules and also increases open-circuit voltage. Furthermore, the interaction between iodine molecules and unexcited dyes affects the UV-Vis spectrum of them and prevents an unfavorable blue shift. Overall, the results point to an improved performance for DSC operation and development.

  10. Novel D––A dye sensitizers of polymeric metal complexes with triphenylamine derivatives as donor for dye-sensitized solar cells: synthesis, characterization and application

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guipeng Tang; Jun Zhou; Wei Zhang; Jiaomei Hu; Dahai Peng; Qiufang Xie; Chaofan Zhong

    2015-04-01

    Because of being the key component of dye-sensitized solar cells and acting as an important role, dye sensitizer and its synthesis and application has been extensively researched. In this paper, four novel polymeric metal complexes with D––A structure that use 4-(octyloxymethyl)-N, N-diphenylbenzenamine as donor group (D), C=N bondasa -conjugation linkage (), and transition metal complexes as an acceptor (A), were functionally designed and synthesized. All the four polymeric metal complexes exhibited some photovoltaic performance, the highest photoelectric conversion efficiency of compound P4 reached 1.09% (sc = 2.55 mA cm−2, oc = 0.61 V and FF = 70.14%) under simulate AM 1.5 G solar irradiation. A new path for the synthesis and study of the dye sensitizer was provided.

  11. Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as optofluidic cell sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen;

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid polymer photonic crystal band-edge lasers are chemically activated to covalently bind bio-molecules or for HeLa cell attachment using an anthraquinone (AQ) UV activated photolinker. The lasers change emission wavelength linearly with inhomogeneous cell coverage.......Hybrid polymer photonic crystal band-edge lasers are chemically activated to covalently bind bio-molecules or for HeLa cell attachment using an anthraquinone (AQ) UV activated photolinker. The lasers change emission wavelength linearly with inhomogeneous cell coverage....

  12. Efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized solar cells by including inverse opals with controlled layer thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hanbin; Shah, Said Karim; Abbas, Mamatimin; Ly, Isabelle; Rivera, Thomas; Almeida, Rui M.; Hirsch, Lionel; Toupance, Thierry; Ravaine, Serge

    2016-09-01

    The photoconversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells can be enhanced by the incorporation of light management nanostructures such as photonic crystals. Here, we present a facile route to incorporate titania inverse opals into solid state dye sensitized solar cells and report photoconversion efficiency enhancements of up to 56% compared with a model system without the inverse opal. Our approach is based on the precise design of titania inverse opals with a predetermined thickness that can be controlled at the individual layer level. By choosing an inverse opal exhibiting a photonic bandgap which overlaps the absorption bands of the dye, our results show that there is an optimal thickness of the inverse opal structure for maximum efficiency enhancement of the cell. This is the first experimental proof that the thickness of a titania inverse opal plays a pivotal role in cell efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized solar cells.

  13. Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Based on Flower-like ZnO Nanoparticles as Photoanode and Natural Dye as Photosensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Agus Sumiarna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was reported the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell utilizing flower-like ZnO nanoparticle as photoanode and natural dye (anthocyanin extracted from Lampeni (Ardisia humilis Vahl fruit as photosensitizer. Anthocyanin dye extracted from Lampeni (Ardisia humilis Vahl fruit shows a wide range of absorption spectra covering from 400 nm to 600 nm, which suitable for application as sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cell. Flower-like ZnO was synthesized by precipitation method from mixed solution of zinc acetate dihydrate and KOH. X-ray diffraction analysis of ZnO was found a hexagonal structure with lattice parameters a = b = 3.25 Ǻ and c = 5.21 Ǻ, while average crystal size (ACS was found 23.403 nm. The observation by SEM shows a flower-like structure arranged from ZnO nanorods. Optical absorption spectra of ZnO shows a strong absorption under 350 nm, and sharp absorption transition occurs around 350 nm from which the bandgap energy of ZnO was determined. Using Tauc plot method, bandgap energy of ZnO was found 3.2 eV. The assembled solar cell has energy conversion efficiency about of 0.03 % with fill factor of 0.25 and maximum power output of 12.8 μWatt.

  14. Dye-sensitized solar cells and solar module using polymer electrolytes: Stability and performance investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Jilian Nei de Freitas; Viviane Carvalho Nogueira; Bruno Ieiri Ito; Mauro Alfredo Soto-Oviedo; Claudia Longo; Marco-Aurelio De Paoli; Ana Flávia Nogueira

    2006-01-01

    We present recent results on solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell research using a polymer electrolyte based on a poly(ethylene oxide) derivative. The stability and performance of the devices have been improved by a modification in the method of assembly of the cells and by the addition of plasticizers in the electrolyte. After 30 days of solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) no changes in the cell's efficiency were observed using this new method. The effect of the active area size on cell perform...

  15. Density Functional Theory Study on the Electronic Structures of Oxadiazole Based Dyes as Photosensitizer for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structures and UV-visible absorption spectra of complex photosensitizers comprising oxadiazole isomers as the π-bridges were analyzed by density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT. The ground state and excited state oxidation potentials, HOMOs and LUMOs energy levels, and electron injection from the dyes to semiconductor TiO2 have been computed in vacuum here. The results show that all of the dyes may potentially be good photosensitizers in DSSC. To justify the simulation basis, N3 dye was also simulated under the similar conditions. Simulated absorption spectrum, HOMO, LUMO, and band gap values of N3 were compared with the experimental values. We also computed the electronic structure properties and absorption spectra of dye/(TiO28 systems to elucidate the electron injection efficiency at the interface. This work is expected to give proper orientation for experimental synthesis.

  16. Photochemical solar cells based on dye-sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, S.K.; Ellingson, R.; Ferrere, S.; Frank, A.J.; Gregg, B.A.; Nozik, A.J.; Park, N.; Schlichthoerl, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A photoelectrochemical solar cell that is based on the dye-sensitization of thin nanocrystalline films of TiO{sub 2} (anatase) nanoparticles in contact with a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte is described. The cell, fabricated at NREL, shows a conversion efficiency of {approximately} 9.2% at AM1.5, which approaches the best reported value of 10--11% by Graetzel at EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland. The femtosecond (fs) pump-probe spectroscopy has been used to time resolve the injection of electrons into the conduction band of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films under ambient conditions following photoexcitation of the adsorbed Ru(II)-complex dye. The measurement indicates an instrument-limited {minus}50 fs upper limit on the electron injection time. The authors also report the sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} by a novel iron-based dye, CIS-[Fe{sup II}(2,2{prime}-bipyridine-4,4,{prime}-dicarboxylic acid){sub 2}(CN){sub 2}], a chromophore with an extremely short-lived, nonemissive excited state. The dye also exhibits a unique band selective sensitization through one of its two absorption bands. The operational principle of the device has been studied through the measurement of electric field distribution within the device structure and studies on the pH dependence of dye-redox potential. The incorporation of WO{sub 3}-based electrochromic layer into this device has led to a novel photoelectrochromic device structure for smart window application.

  17. Ground and excited state properties of high performance anthocyanidin dyes-sensitized solar cells in the basic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prima, Eka Cahya [Advanced Functional Material Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Computational Material Design and Quantum Engineering Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); International Program on Science Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (Indonesia); Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman, E-mail: yatman@tf.itb.ac.id [Advanced Functional Material Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno [Computational Material Design and Quantum Engineering Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    The aglycones of anthocyanidin dyes were previously reported to form carbinol pseudobase, cis-chalcone, and trans-chalcone due to the basic levels. The further investigations of ground and excited state properties of the dyes were characterized using density functional theory with PCM(UFF)/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level in the basic solutions. However, to the best of our knowledge, the theoretical investigation of their potential photosensitizers has never been reported before. In this paper, the theoretical photovoltaic properties sensitized by dyes have been successfully investigated including the electron injections, the ground and excited state oxidation potentials, the estimated open circuit voltages, and the light harvesting efficiencies. The results prove that the electronic properties represented by dyes’ LUMO-HOMO levels will affect to the photovoltaic performances. Cis-chalcone dye is the best anthocyanidin aglycone dye with the electron injection spontaneity of −1.208 eV, the theoretical open circuit voltage of 1.781 V, and light harvesting efficiency of 56.55% due to the best HOMO-LUMO levels. Moreover, the ethanol solvent slightly contributes to the better cell performance than the water solvent dye because of the better oxidation potential stabilization in the ground state as well as in the excited state. These results are in good agreement with the known experimental report that the aglycones of anthocyanidin dyes in basic solvent are the high potential photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell.

  18. Stabilized Conversion Efficiency and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells from Beta vulgaris Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Vargas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs, based on TiO2 and assembled using a dye from Beta vulgaris extract (BVE with Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, are reported. The dye BVE/TEOS increased its UV resistance, rendering an increase in the cell lifetime; the performance of these solar cells was compared to those prepared with BVE without TEOS. The efficiency η for the solar energy conversion was, for BVE and BVE/TEOS, of 0.89% ± 0.006% and 0.68% ± 0.006% with a current density Jsc of 2.71 ± 0.003 mA/cm2 and 2.08 ± 0.003 mA/cm2, respectively, using in both cases an irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at 25 °C. The efficiency of the BVE solar cell dropped from 0.9 ± 0.006 to 0.85 ± 0.006 after 72 h of operation, whereas for the BVE/TEOS, the efficiency remained practically constant in the same period of time.

  19. Organic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC): Properties from computation, progress and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obotowo, I. N.; Obot, I. B.; Ekpe, U. J.

    2016-10-01

    The advent of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) came at a time when the quest for alternative energy was high, replacing p-n junction photovoltaic devices. Its uniqueness arises from the fact that unlike the conventional systems where the semiconductor assumes the task of light absorption and charge transport, the two functions are separated in DSSC. Organic sensitizers have been used to harvest a large fraction of sunlight ranging from the UV region to the near infrared region of the spectrum leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to ∼ 10.65 % for metal-free organic sensitizers. Currently, experimental analysis of photo sensitizers utilized in DSSCs is often a trial and error process, often laborious and require extensive and expensive chemical synthesis. In most cases, disappointing results from late-stage of the dye synthesis indicate an urgent need to understand the properties of the dyes at a molecular level, before experiments take place. Fortunately, the use of quantum chemical calculations especially Density Functional Theory (DFT) to screen potential dyes has helped in developing efficient sensitizers and to reduce cost. In the present review article, we discuss the current state of the field, new concepts, design strategies, challenges facing the theoretical design and development of organic sensitizers for DSSCs and future perspectives.

  20. Hyperbranched quasi-1D nanostructures for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Luca; Ghods, Farbod; Docampo, Pablo; Abrusci, Agnese; Martí-Rujas, Javier; Ghidelli, Matteo; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Binda, Maddalena; Guarnera, Simone; Li Bassi, Andrea; Casari, Carlo Spartaco; Snaith, Henry J; Petrozza, Annamaria; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2013-11-26

    In this work we demonstrate hyperbranched nanostructures, grown by pulsed laser deposition, composed of one-dimensional anatase single crystals assembled in arrays of high aspect ratio hierarchical mesostructures. The proposed growth mechanism relies on a two-step process: self-assembly from the gas phase of amorphous TiO2 clusters in a forest of tree-shaped hierarchical mesostructures with high aspect ratio; oriented crystallization of the branches upon thermal treatment. Structural and morphological characteristics can be optimized to achieve both high specific surface area for optimal dye uptake and broadband light scattering thanks to the microscopic feature size. Solid-state dye sensitized solar cells fabricated with arrays of hyperbranched TiO2 nanostructures on FTO-glass sensitized with D102 dye showed a significant 66% increase in efficiency with respect to a reference mesoporous photoanode and reached a maximum efficiency of 3.96% (among the highest reported for this system). This result was achieved mainly thanks to an increase in photogenerated current directly resulting from improved light harvesting efficiency of the hierarchical photoanode. The proposed photoanode overcomes typical limitations of 1D TiO2 nanostructures applied to ss-DSC and emerges as a promising foundation for next-generation high-efficiency solid-state devices comprosed of dyes, polymers, or quantum dots as sensitizers.

  1. Ligand Engineering for the Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Ruthenium Sensitizers and Cobalt Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazada, Sadig; Gao, Peng; Yella, Aswani; Marotta, Gabriele; Moehl, Thomas; Teuscher, Joël; Moser, Jacques-E; De Angelis, Filippo; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, ruthenium(II)-based dyes have played a pivotal role in turning dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) into a mature technology for the third generation of photovoltaics. However, the classic I3(-)/I(-) redox couple limits the performance and application of this technique. Simply replacing the iodine-based redox couple by new types like cobalt(3+/2+) complexes was not successful because of the poor compatibility between the ruthenium(II) sensitizer and the cobalt redox species. To address this problem and achieve higher power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), we introduce here six new cyclometalated ruthenium(II)-based dyes developed through ligand engineering. We tested DSCs employing these ruthenium(II) complexes and achieved PCEs of up to 9.4% using cobalt(3+/2+)-based electrolytes, which is the record efficiency to date featuring a ruthenium-based dye. In view of the complicated liquid DSC system, the disagreement found between different characterizations enlightens us about the importance of the sensitizer loading on TiO2, which is a subtle but equally important factor in the electronic properties of the sensitizers. PMID:27322854

  2. Structurally stabilized mesoporous TiO2 nanofibres for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fargol Hasani Bijarbooneh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1D TiO2 nanostructures are very desirable for providing fascinating properties and features, such as high electron mobility, quantum confinement effects, and high specific surface area. Herein, 1D mesoporous TiO2 nanofibres were prepared using the electrospinning method to verify their potential for use as the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The 1D mesoporous nanofibres, 300 nm in diameter and 10-20 μm in length, were aggregated from anatase nanoparticles 20-30 nm in size. The employment of these novel 1D mesoporous nanofibres significantly improved dye loading and light scattering of the DSSC photoanode, and resulted in conversion cell efficiency of 8.14%, corresponding to an ∼35% enhancement over the Degussa P25 reference photoanode.

  3. A home-made system for IPCE measurement of standard and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Giuseppina; Cozzarini, Luca; Capria, Ennio; Fraleoni-Morgera, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    A home-made system for incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) characterization, based on a double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer, has been set up. In addition to its low cost (compared to the commercially available apparatuses), the double-beam configuration gives the advantage to measure, autonomously and with no need for supplementary equipment, the lamp power in real time, compensating possible variations of the spectral emission intensity and quality, thus reducing measurement times. To manage the optical and electronic components of the system, a custom software has been developed. Validations carried out on a common silicon-based photodiode and on a dye-sensitized solar cell confirm the possibility to adopt this system for determining the IPCE of solar cells, including dye-sensitized ones.

  4. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Mesocarbon Microbead-Based Counter Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Te Hsieh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs equipped with mesocarbon microbead (MCMB-based counter electrodes were explored to examine their cell performance. Three types of nanosized additives including platinum, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, and carbon black (CB are well dispersed and coated over microscaled MCMB powders. In the design of the counter electrodes, the MCMB graphite offers an excellent medium that allows charge transfer from the ITO substrate to the dye molecule. The active materials such as Pt, CNT, and nanosize CB act as an active site provider for the redox reaction. Among these counter electrodes, the DSCs fabricated with CB electrode exhibit the highest power conversion efficiency. This improved efficiency can be attributed to the fact that the CB nanoparticles not only offer a large number of catalytic sites but also low charge transfer resistance, facilitating a rapid reaction kinetics. Such design of carbon counter electrode has been confirmed to be a promising candidate for replacing Pt electrodes.

  5. Laser annealed composite titanium dioxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells on glass and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Heng; Ko, Seung Hwan; Misra, Nipun; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2009-02-01

    We report a rapid and low temperature process for fabricating composite TiO2 electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells on glass and plastics by in tandem spray deposition and laser annealing. A homogenized KrF excimer laser beam (248 nm) was used to layer-by-layer anneal spray deposited TiO2 nanoparticles. The produced TiO2 film is crack free and contains small particles (30 nm) mixed with different fractions of larger particles (100-200 nm) controlled by the applied laser fluence. Laser annealed double-layered structure is demonstrated for both doctor-blade deposited and spray-deposited electrodes and performance enhancement can be observed. The highest demonstrated all-laser-annealed cells utilizing ruthenium dye and liquid electrolyte showed power conversion efficiency of ˜3.8% under simulated illumination of 100 mW/cm2.

  6. A home-made system for IPCE measurement of standard and dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A home-made system for incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) characterization, based on a double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer, has been set up. In addition to its low cost (compared to the commercially available apparatuses), the double-beam configuration gives the advantage to measure, autonomously and with no need for supplementary equipment, the lamp power in real time, compensating possible variations of the spectral emission intensity and quality, thus reducing measurement times. To manage the optical and electronic components of the system, a custom software has been developed. Validations carried out on a common silicon-based photodiode and on a dye-sensitized solar cell confirm the possibility to adopt this system for determining the IPCE of solar cells, including dye-sensitized ones

  7. Incorporating hydrangea-like titanium dioxide light scatterer with high dye-loading on the photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Chen; Tang, Bing-Hong; Lu, Yen-Wei; Yu, Wan-Chin; Lin, Lu-Yin; Wu, Ren-Jang

    2016-07-01

    The light scattering layer is significant for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to harvest incident light more efficiently and excite larger amounts of electrons. Hydrangea-like TiO2 (Hsbnd TiO2) and coral-like TiO2 (Csbnd TiO2) nanostructures are synthesized via a hydrothermal method without using templates. Both of the nanostructures are applied as the light scattering layer for DSSCs with the commercial P90 TiO2 nanoparticles as the dye-adsorbed underlayer in the photoanodes. The DSSC with Hsbnd TiO2 as the light scattering layer achieves a higher light-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 7.50% than those of 6.70% and 6.61% for the cells with Csbnd TiO2 and commercial TiO2 as the light scattering layer, and of 6.41% for the DSSC without a light scattering layer in its photoanode, mainly due to the enhanced photocurrent density through the abundant dye adsorption coupled with the inherent light scattering ability for the former case. The results indicate that not only the importance of the light scattering layer in the photoanode but the morphology of the nanostructure composed of the light scattering layer plays great roles on the light scattering and the dye-adsorbing capabilities. The incident photon-to-current efficiency the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements are also applied to analyze the electrochemical performance of the resulting DSSCs.

  8. Variasi Temperatur dan Waktu Tahan Kalsinasi terhadap Unjuk Kerja Semikonduktor TiO2 sebagai Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC dengan Dye dari Ekstrak Buah Naga Merah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahat M. R. Nadaek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu energi alternatif yang mempunyai potensi sumber energi yang sangat besar untuk mencegah terjadinya krisis energi namun sering kali terabaikan adalah sinar matahari. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk  menghasilkan prototype dalam mengkonversi energi cahaya matahari menjadi energi listrik. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC telah difabrikasi dengan menggunakan serbuk Titanium Dioksida (TiO2 yang dilapisi ke kaca Indium Tin Oxide dan diberi variasi temperatur 350oC, 450oC, dan 550oC dengan waktu tahan kalsinasi 30 dan 60 menit yang kemudian disensitisasi ke dalam larutan dye ekstrak buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus. DSSC di-assembling dengan coating Pd/Au yang telah di-sputtering ke kaca Indium Tin Oxide yang selanjutnya ditetesi dengan larutan elektrolit. Kemudian lapisan TiO2 tersebut dikarakterisasi menggunakan uji (SEM dan (XRD. Luas permukaan aktif partikel diidentifikasi dengan menggunakan BET analyzer. Dari hasil XRD dapat diketahui struktur kristalnya tetragonal. Hasil SEM menunjukkan bahwa bentuk partikel TiO2 adalah spherical. Untuk luas permukaan aktif yang dihasilkan menunjukkan nilai yang berbanding lurus dengan kenaikan nilai kelistrikan DSSC buah naga. Dari uji kelistrikan didapatkan hasil optimum pada temperatur 550oC dan waktu tahan 60 menit dengan voltase 562 mV, kuat arus 0.307 mA, dan memiliki efisiensi sebesar 0.089%. Kata kunci: Dye ekstrak buah naga merah, dye sensitized solar cell, temperatur kalsinasi, TiO2, waktu tahan kalsinasi.

  9. Effects of nano anatase-rutile TiO2 volume fraction with natural dye containing anthocyanin on the dye sensitized solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustini, S.; Wahyuono, R. A.; Sawitri, D.; Risanti, D. D.

    2013-09-01

    Since its first development, efforts to improve efficiency of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) are continuously carried out, either through selection of dye materials, the type of semiconductor, counter electrode design or the sandwiched structure. It is widely known that anatase and rutile are phases of TiO2 that often being used for fabrication of DSSC. Rutile is thermodynamically more stable phase having band-gap suitable for absorption of sunlight spectrum. On the other hand, anatase has higher electrical conductivity, capability to adsorp dye as well as higher electron diffusion coefficient than those of rutile. Present research uses mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea extracted in ethanol as natural dye containing anthocyanin. These dyes were characterized by using UV-Vis and FTIR, showing that the absorption maxima peaks obtained at 389 nm and 413 nm, for mangosteen and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively. The nano TiO2 was prepared by means of co-precipitation method. The particle size were 9-11 nm and 54.5 nm for anatase and rutile, respectively, according to Scherrer's equation. DSSCs were fabricated in various volume fractions of anatase and rutile TiO2. The fabricated DSSCs were tested under 17 mW/cm2 of solar irradiation. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of DSSCs employing 75%: 25% volume fraction of anatase and rutile TiO2 have outstanding result than others. The highest conversion efficiencies of 0.037% and 0.013% are obtained for DSSC employing natural dye extract from mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively.

  10. Electrolytes in solid-state dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Hongli; XUE Bofei; LI Dongmei; MENG Qingbo; GUO Lin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the structure and operating principle of the dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells (DSSC) are discussed. The electrolytes can be divided into three types: liquid electrolyte, quasi-solid electrolyte and solid electrolyte. Based on the rele vant study of our group, we summarized mainly the research progress of the quasi-solid electrolyte and solid electrolyte in solid-state DSSC.

  11. See-Through Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photonic Reflectors for Tandem and Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Heiniger, Leo-Philipp

    2013-08-21

    See-through dye-sensitized solar cells with 1D photonic crystal Bragg reflector photoanodes show an increase in peak external quantum efficiency of 47% while still maintaining high fill factors, resulting in an almost 40% increase in power conversion efficiency. These photoanodes are ideally suited for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Activatable photodynamic destruction of cancer cells by NIR dye/photosensitizer loaded liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ahu; Tang, Xiaolei; Qiu, Xuefeng; Jiang, Ke; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao

    2015-02-25

    The phototoxicity of Chlorin e6 (Ce6) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) was found to be effectively suppressed by indocyanine green (ICG), a near infrared (NIR) dye. Upon NIR laser irradiation at 808 nm, ICG in the liposomes containing ICG and Ce6 could be degraded, while the phototoxicity of Ce6 could be recovered. In addition, we demonstrate that this newly developed liposomal component can be successfully used for activatable PDT to destroy cancer cells in vitro.

  13. Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Nanostructure Graphene Electron Transfer Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Hung Hsu; Jia-Ren Wu; Lung-Chien Chen; Po-Shun Chan; Cheng-Chiang Chen

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of nanostructure graphene thin films as electron transfer layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was demonstrated. The effect of a nanostructure graphene thin film in DSSC structure was examined. The nanostructure graphene thin films provides a great electron transfer channel for the photogenerated electrons from TiO2 to indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. Obvious improvements in short-circuit current density of the DSSCs were observed by using the graphene electron transport l...

  14. Barium Staminate as Semiconductor Working Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Weifeng Zhang; Guoqiang Li; Fu-an Guo

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated with perovskite-type BaSnO3 as the photoelectrode materials. Different preparation methods including coprecipitation, hydrothermal, and solid state reaction are employed to synthesize BaSnO3 particles to optimize the photoelectric activities of electrode materials. The photoelectric properties of BaSnO3 particles and the performances of DSSCs are investigated by surface photovoltage spectroscopy and current-voltage measurements. The light-to-e...

  15. Photoelectrode Fabrication of Dye-Sensitized Nanosolar Cells Using Multiple Spray Coating Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Chih Chen; Chen-Ching Ting

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a spray coating technique for fabricating nanoporous film of photoelectrode in dye-sensitized nanosolar cells (DSSCs). Spray coating can quickly fabricate nanoporous film of the photoelectrode with lower cost, which can further help the DSSCs to be commercialized in the future. This paper analyzed photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs using spray coated photoelectrode in comparison with the photoelectrode made with the doctor blade method. Spray coating can easi...

  16. Ruthenium Sensitizers and Their Applications in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yuancheng Qin; Qiang Peng

    2012-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy. The DSSCs-based ruthenium complexes as sensitizers show high efficiency and excellent stability, implying potential practical applications. This review focuses on recent advances in design and preparation of efficient ruthenium sensitizers and their applications in DSSCs, including thiocyanate ruthenium sensitizers and thiocyanate-free ...

  17. Optical Fiber/Nanowire Hybrid Structures for Efficient Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Weintraub, Benjamin

    2009-11-09

    Wired up: The energy conversion efficiency of three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in a hybrid structure that integrates optical fibers and nanowire arrays is greater than that of a two-dimensional device. Internal axial illumination enhances the energy conversion efficiency of a rectangular fiber-based hybrid structure (see picture) by a factor of up to six compared to light illumination normal to the fiber axis from outside the device.

  18. Ruthenium Sensitizers and Their Applications in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuancheng Qin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy. The DSSCs-based ruthenium complexes as sensitizers show high efficiency and excellent stability, implying potential practical applications. This review focuses on recent advances in design and preparation of efficient ruthenium sensitizers and their applications in DSSCs, including thiocyanate ruthenium sensitizers and thiocyanate-free ruthenium sensitizers.

  19. Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Performances of Pyridine Based Monomer and Polymer Capped ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satbir; Raj, Tilak; Singh, Amarpal; Kaur, Navneet

    2016-06-01

    The present research work describes the comparative analysis and performance characteristics of 4-pyridine based monomer and polymer capped ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells. The N, N-dimethyl-N4-((pyridine-4yl)methylene) propaneamine (4,monomer) and polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base (5, polymer) dyes were synthesized through one step condensation reaction between 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde 1 and N, N-dimethylpropylamine 2/polyamine 3. Products obtained N, N-dimethyl-N4-((pyridine-4yl)methylene)propaneamine (4) and polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base (5) were purified and characterized using 1H, 13C NMR, mass, IR and CHN spectroscopy. Both the dyes 4 and 5 were further coated over ZnO nanoparticles and characterized using SEM, DLS and XRD analysis. Absorption profile and emission profile was monitored using fluorescence and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. A thick layer of these inbuilt dye linked ZnO nanoparticles of dyes (4) and (5) was pasted on one of the conductive side of ITO glass followed with a liquid electrolyte and counter electrode of the same conductive glass. Polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base polymer (5) decorated dye sensitized solar cell has shown better exciting photovoltaic properties in the form of short circuit current density (J(sc) = 6.3 mA/cm2), open circuit photo voltage (V(oc) = 0.7 V), fill factor (FF = 0.736) than monomer decorated dye sensitized solar cell. Polymer dye (5) based ZnO solar cell has shown a maximum solar power to electrical conversion efficiency of 3.25%, which is enhanced by 2.16% in case of monomer dye based ZnO solar cell under AM 1.5 sun illuminations.

  20. Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Performances of Pyridine Based Monomer and Polymer Capped ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satbir; Raj, Tilak; Singh, Amarpal; Kaur, Navneet

    2016-06-01

    The present research work describes the comparative analysis and performance characteristics of 4-pyridine based monomer and polymer capped ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells. The N, N-dimethyl-N4-((pyridine-4yl)methylene) propaneamine (4,monomer) and polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base (5, polymer) dyes were synthesized through one step condensation reaction between 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde 1 and N, N-dimethylpropylamine 2/polyamine 3. Products obtained N, N-dimethyl-N4-((pyridine-4yl)methylene)propaneamine (4) and polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base (5) were purified and characterized using 1H, 13C NMR, mass, IR and CHN spectroscopy. Both the dyes 4 and 5 were further coated over ZnO nanoparticles and characterized using SEM, DLS and XRD analysis. Absorption profile and emission profile was monitored using fluorescence and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. A thick layer of these inbuilt dye linked ZnO nanoparticles of dyes (4) and (5) was pasted on one of the conductive side of ITO glass followed with a liquid electrolyte and counter electrode of the same conductive glass. Polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base polymer (5) decorated dye sensitized solar cell has shown better exciting photovoltaic properties in the form of short circuit current density (J(sc) = 6.3 mA/cm2), open circuit photo voltage (V(oc) = 0.7 V), fill factor (FF = 0.736) than monomer decorated dye sensitized solar cell. Polymer dye (5) based ZnO solar cell has shown a maximum solar power to electrical conversion efficiency of 3.25%, which is enhanced by 2.16% in case of monomer dye based ZnO solar cell under AM 1.5 sun illuminations. PMID:27427659

  1. Increased efficiencies on CdTe solar cells via luminescence down-shifting with excitation energy transfer between dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Danos, Lefteris; Parel, Thomas; Markvart, Tom; Barrioz, Vincent; Brooks, William; Irvine, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The external quantum efficiencies of CdTe solar cells fabricated by the atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapour deposition (AP–MOCVD) method have been measured with one and two dye doped luminescence down-shifting (LDS) layers on top. Excitation energy transfer between the dyes is used to extend the absorption ability of the LDS layer to λ=350 nm and increase the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the cells for wavelengths λ

  2. Patterned 3-dimensional metal grid electrodes as alternative electron collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Julianto; Mathews, Nripan; Jennings, James R; Yang, Guangwu; Wang, Qing; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G

    2011-11-21

    We describe the application of 3-dimensional metal grid electrodes (3D-MGEs) as electron collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as a replacement for fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes. Requirements, structure, advantages, and limitations of the metal grid electrodes are discussed. Solar conversion efficiencies of 6.2% have been achieved in 3D-MGE based solar cells, comparable to that fabricated on FTO (7.1%). The charge transport properties and collection efficiencies in these novel solar cells have been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  3. Photoelectrochemical cell using dye sensitized zinc oxide nanowires grown on carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unalan, Husnu Emrah; Wei, Di; Suzuki, Kenichi; Dalal, Sharvari; Hiralal, Pritesh; Matsumoto, Hidetoshi; Imaizumi, Shinji; Minagawa, Mie; Tanioka, Akihiko; Flewitt, Andrew J.; Milne, William I.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.

    2008-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) grown on carbon fibers using a vapor transport and condensation approach are used as the cathode of a photoelectrochemical cell. The carbon fibers were obtained by electrospray deposition and take the form of a flexible carbon fabric. The ZnO NW on carbon fiber anode is combined with a "black dye" photoabsorber, an electrolyte, and a platinum (Pt) counterelectrode to complete the cell. The results show that ZnO NW and carbon fibers can be used for photoinduced charge separation/charge transport and current collection, respectively, in a photoelectrochemical cell.

  4. Combination of Small Molecule Microarray and Confocal Microscopy Techniques for Live Cell Staining Fluorescent Dye Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Bokros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Discovering new fluorochromes is significantly advanced by high-throughput screening (HTS methods. In the present study a combination of small molecule microarray (SMM prescreening and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM was developed in order to discover novel cell staining fluorescent dyes. Compounds with high native fluorescence were selected from a 14,585-member library and further tested on living cells under the microscope. Eleven compartment-specific, cell-permeable (or plasma membrane-targeted fluorochromes were identified. Their cytotoxicity was tested and found that between 1–10 micromolar range, they were non-toxic even during long-term incubations.

  5. Investigation of Temperature and Aging Effects in Nanostructured Dye Solar Cells Studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Toivola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of aging and cyclically varying temperature on the electrical parameters of dye solar cells were analyzed with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Photoelectrode total resistance increased as a function of time due to increasing electron transport resistance in the TiO2 film. On the other hand, photoelectrode recombination resistance was generally larger, electron lifetimes in the TiO2 were film longer, and charge transfer resistance on the counter electrode was smaller after the temperature treatments than before them. These effects correlated with the slower deterioration rate of the temperature-treated cells, in comparison to the reference cells.

  6. Spatial modulation spectroscopy for imaging and quantitative analysis of single dye-doped organic nanoparticles inside cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadas, Mary Sajini; Devkota, Tuphan; Guha, Samit; Shaw, Scott K.; Smith, Bradley D.; Hartland, Gregory V.

    2015-05-01

    Imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticles in complex biological environments, such as the cell cytosol, is a challenging problem. For metal nanoparticles, Rayleigh scattering methods can be used, but for organic nanoparticles, such as dye-doped polymer beads or lipid nanoparticles, light scattering does not provide good contrast. In this paper, spatial modulation spectroscopy (SMS) is used to image single organic nanoparticles doped with non-fluorescent, near-IR croconaine dye. SMS is a quantitative imaging technique that yields the absolute extinction cross-section of the nanoparticles, which can be used to determine the number of dye molecules per particle. SMS images were recorded for particles within EMT-6 breast cancer cells. The measurements allowed mapping of the nanoparticle location and the amount of dye in a single cell. The results demonstrate how SMS can facilitate efforts to optimize dye-doped nanoparticles for effective photothermal therapy of cancer.Imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticles in complex biological environments, such as the cell cytosol, is a challenging problem. For metal nanoparticles, Rayleigh scattering methods can be used, but for organic nanoparticles, such as dye-doped polymer beads or lipid nanoparticles, light scattering does not provide good contrast. In this paper, spatial modulation spectroscopy (SMS) is used to image single organic nanoparticles doped with non-fluorescent, near-IR croconaine dye. SMS is a quantitative imaging technique that yields the absolute extinction cross-section of the nanoparticles, which can be used to determine the number of dye molecules per particle. SMS images were recorded for particles within EMT-6 breast cancer cells. The measurements allowed mapping of the nanoparticle location and the amount of dye in a single cell. The results demonstrate how SMS can facilitate efforts to optimize dye-doped nanoparticles for effective photothermal therapy of cancer. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  7. The isolated anatase for dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmi, Irfan; Kartin, Indriana; Ohtani, Bunsho; Suyanta, Wang, Kunlei

    2015-09-01

    The isolation of crystallite anatase from commercial TiO2 P25 Degussa was investigated. The aim of this research was to study of isolated anatase based DSSC as an effort to develop industrial DSSC. The crystal phase, crystallite size and crystal shape both of original P25 and isolated anatase were characterized by XRD and TEM. By observing DSSC parameters such as FF, Jsc and Voc resulted in cell test, the efficiency of samples based DSSC was known. The isolation of anatase crystal was done by dissolving P25 in ammonia catalyzed hydrogen peroxide solution for 15 hours followed by washing and drying. DSSC cell performance was evaluated by applying the isolated anantase and original P25 as photoanode in the Gratzel cell system. The observation of cell efficiency was measured under 100 mW /cm2 with active area 1.5 cm2. X-ray diffraction pattern showed obviously that no rutile contaminant in produced isolated anatase. TEM image shows typical anatase crystal with the particle size 21 nm. Surface area measurement exhibits that surface area of isolated anatase was 64.7m2/g. I-V measurement showed that the efficiency of anatase based cell and P25 based cell is 0.79% and 0.51% respectively.

  8. The isolated anatase for dye sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilmi, Irfan, E-mail: irfan.ilmi149@gmail.com [Postgraduate Program, Department of Chemistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Functional Coating Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Kartin, Indriana; Suyanta [Functional Coating Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Department of Chemistry,Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Ohtani, Bunsho; Wang, Kunlei [Graduate School of Environmental and Earth Science, Hokkaido University Japan (Japan)

    2015-09-30

    The isolation of crystallite anatase from commercial TiO{sub 2} P25 Degussa was investigated. The aim of this research was to study of isolated anatase based DSSC as an effort to develop industrial DSSC. The crystal phase, crystallite size and crystal shape both of original P25 and isolated anatase were characterized by XRD and TEM. By observing DSSC parameters such as FF, Jsc and Voc resulted in cell test, the efficiency of samples based DSSC was known. The isolation of anatase crystal was done by dissolving P25 in ammonia catalyzed hydrogen peroxide solution for 15 hours followed by washing and drying. DSSC cell performance was evaluated by applying the isolated anantase and original P25 as photoanode in the Gratzel cell system. The observation of cell efficiency was measured under 100 mW /cm{sup 2} with active area 1.5 cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction pattern showed obviously that no rutile contaminant in produced isolated anatase. TEM image shows typical anatase crystal with the particle size 21 nm. Surface area measurement exhibits that surface area of isolated anatase was 64.7m{sup 2}/g. I-V measurement showed that the efficiency of anatase based cell and P25 based cell is 0.79% and 0.51% respectively.

  9. Blood analyte sensing using fluorescent dye-loaded red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Shao, Xiaole; Cooley, Nicholas; Milanick, Mark A.; Glass, Timothy E.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of blood analytes provides crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Due to analyte transporters on red blood cell (RBC) membranes that equilibrate intracellular and extracellular analyte levels, RBCs serve as an attractive alternative for encapsulating analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, the functionalized RBCs may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed sensing system utilizes the ability of the RBCs to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before lysis, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. While at low temperature, analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution diffuse into the perforated RBCs and become entrapped upon restoration of temperature and osmolarity. Since the fluorescent signal from the entrapped dye reports on changes in the analyte level of the extracellular solution via the RBC transporters, interactions between the RBCs and the dye are critical to the efficacy of this technique. In this work, we study the use of a near infrared pH sensitive dye encapsulated within RBCs and assess the ability to measure dye fluorescence in vivo.

  10. Ultrafast and slow charge recombination dynamics of diketopyrrolopyrrole-NiO dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Favereau, Ludovic; Farré, Yoann; Mijangos, Edgar; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Odobel, Fabrice; Hammarström, Leif

    2016-07-21

    In a photophysical study, two diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based sensitizers functionalized with 4-thiophenecarboxylic acid as an anchoring group and a bromo (DPPBr) or dicyanovinyl (DPPCN2) group, and a dyad consisting of a DPP unit linked to a naphthalenediimide group (DPP-NDI), were investigated both in solution and grafted on mesoporous NiO films. Femtosecond transient absorption measurements indicate that ultrafast hole injection occurred predominantly on a timescale of ∼200 fs, whereas the subsequent charge recombination occurred on a surprisingly wide range of timescales, from tens of ps to tens of μs; this kinetic heterogeneity is much greater than is typically observed for dye-sensitized TiO2 or ZnO. Also, in contrast to what is typically observed for dye-sensitized TiO2, there was no significant dependence on the excitation power of the recombination kinetics, which can be explained by the hole density being comparatively higher near the valence band of NiO before excitation. The additional acceptor group in DPP-NDI provided a rapid electron shift and stabilized charge separation up to the μs timescale. This enabled efficient (∼95%) regeneration of NDI by a Co(III)(dtb)3 electrolyte (dtb = 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine), according to transient absorption measurements. The regeneration of DPPBr and DPPCN2 by Co(III)(dtb)3 was instead inefficient, as most recombination for these dyes occurred on the sub-ns timescale. The transient spectroscopy data thus corroborated the trend of the published photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on these dyes on mesoporous NiO, and show the potential of a design strategy with a secondary acceptor bound to the dye. The study identifies rapid initial recombination between the dye and NiO as the main obstacle to obtaining high efficiencies in NiO-based DSSCs; these recombination components may be overlooked when studies are conducted using only methods with ns resolution or slower. PMID

  11. Charge Transfer Dynamics of Highly Efficient Cyanidin-3-O- Glucoside Sensitizer for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prima, E. C.; Yuliarto, B.; Suyatman; Dipojono, H. K.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the novel efficiency achievement of black rice-based natural dye- sensitized solar cells. The higher dye concentration, the longer dye extraction as well as dye immersion onto a TiO2 film, and the co-adsorption addition are key strategies for improved-cell performance compared to the highest previous achievement. The black rice dye containing 1.38 mM cyanidin-3-O-glucoside has been extracted without purification for 3 weeks at dark condition and room temperature. The anatase TiO2 photoanode was dipped into dye solution within 4 days. Its electrode was firmly sealed to be a cell and was filled by I-/I3- electrolyte using vacuum technique. As a result, the overall solar-to-energy conversion efficiency was 1.49% at AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW.cm-2). The voltametric analysis has reported the interfacial electronic band edges of TiO2-Dye-Electrolyte. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has shown the kinetic of interfacial electron transfer dynamics among TiO2-dye-electrolyte. The cell has the transfer resistance (Rt) of 12.5 ω, the recombination resistance (Rr) of 266.8 ω, effective electron diffusion coefficients (Dn) of 1.4 × 10-3 cm2/s, Dye-TiO2 effective electron transfer (τd) of 26.6 μs, effective diffusion length (Ln)of 33.78 μm, chemical capacitance (Cμ) of 12.43 μF, and electron lifetime (τn) of 3.32 ms.

  12. Colour removal from aqueous solutions of metal-complex azo dyes using bacterial cells of Shewanella strain J18 143.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tie; Guthrie, James Thomas

    2010-06-01

    The decoloration treatment of textile dye effluents through biodegradation, using bacterial cells, has been studied as a possible means of solving some of the problems that are associated with the pollution of water sources by colorants. In this paper, the use of whole bacterial cells of Shewanella J18 143 for the reduction of aqueous solutions of selected mono-azo, metal-complex dyes, namely Irgalan Grey GLN, Irgalan Black RBLN and Irgalan Blue 3GL, was investigated. The effects of temperature, pH and dye concentration on colour removal were also investigated and shown to be important. The operative conditions for the removal of colour were 30 degrees C, at pH 6.8, with a final dye concentration of 0.12 g/L in the colour reduction system. This study provides an extension to the application of Shewanella strain J18 143 bacterial cells in the decoloration of textile wastewaters. PMID:20167478

  13. A study of charge transfer kinetics in dye-sensitized surface conductivity solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Dennis

    2011-05-15

    The efficiency of the quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell developed by Junghaenel and Tributsch, the so-called Nano Surface Conductivity Solar Cell (NSCSC), was improved from 2% to 3.5% introducing a compact TiO{sub 2} underlayer, modifying the surface of the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} electrode, optimizing the deposition process of the electrolyte film, and replacing the platinum counter electrode by a carbon layer. Space-resolved photocurrent images revealed the importance of a homogeneous distribution of the electrolyte film. An uneven dispersion led to localized areas of high and low photocurrents, whereas the latter were attributed to an insufficient concentration of the redox couple. Impedance spectroscopy was performed on cells containing different concentrations of the redox couple. By modeling the spectra using an equivalent circuit with a transmission line of resistive and capacitive elements, the characteristic parameters of electron transport in the TiO{sub 2}, such as diffusion length and electron lifetime were obtained. The measurements indicated that the transport of the positive charge to the counter electrode is the main process limiting the efficiency of the cells. Excess charge carrier decay in functioning devices was analyzed by contactless transient photoconductance measurements in the microwave frequency range (TRMC). The lifetime of the photogenerated charge carriers was observed to decrease with increasing applied potential, reaching its maximum close to the opencircuit potential of the cell, where the photocurrent density was minimal, i.e. the potential dependent decay observed was limited by the injection of electrons into the front contact. The functioning of this NSCSC indicated that the transport of the positive charge occurs by solid-state diffusion at the surface of the TiO{sub 2} particles. TRMC measurements on subset devices in the form of sensitized TiO{sub 2} layers revealed charge carrier kinetics strongly dependent on the

  14. Fluorescent Carbon Quantum Dots Incorporated into Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Photoanodes with Dual Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Na, Yong; Su, Ting; Li, Liang; Yu, Jia; Fan, Ruiqing; Yang, Yulin

    2016-06-22

    Fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) were prepared through bottom-up synthesis, which possess excitation wavelength-dependent photoluminescence properties upon excitation by near visible light. For the first time, CQDs were incorporated into N719-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes as the electron-transport medium, presenting dual contributions to the photo-to-electrical energy conversion: 1) spectral response compensation for the dye-sensitized TiO2 film at around 400 nm was successfully observed in the incident photon-to-current conversion measurements; and 2) intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy showed that the electron transport time, charge collection efficiency, and electron diffusion length in the TiO2 electrode were all improved after CQDs incorporation. An example of using the CQDs- containing photoanode in a solar cell device resulted in enhancements of 32 % and 21 % for the short-circuit current density and photo-to-electrical conversion efficiency, respectively. PMID:27218888

  15. Improving Electron Transfer from Dye to TiO2 by Using CdTe Nanostructure Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshkar, Farshad; Sabet, Mohammad; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2015-08-01

    In this work, TiO2 P25 was deposited successfully on the FTO glass by electrophoresis method. Different chemical methods were served for deposition of nanosized CdTe such as successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and drop-cast. Dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated from prepared electrodes, Pt as a counter electrode, dye solution, and electrolyte. The effects of chemical deposition methods were investigated on the surface quality, optical properties, and solar cell efficiency. It was observed that deposition method has an important role on the solar cell performance. It was also seen that deposition method affects directly on surface thickness and the amount of dye adsorption. In fact, each deposition method creates different surfaces, and hence, they act variously in electron transfer across the electrode surface. Among different deposition methods that were used in this experimental work, SILAR method showed the best performance and the surface that was created by this method could transfer the electrons across the electrode faster than the other ones. But this chemical method cannot improve solar cell efficiency due to some different reasons that we mentioned in this paper.

  16. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology (China)

    2010-10-15

    This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

  17. 6H-Indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline-based organic dyes containing different electron-rich conjugated linkers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xing; Gao, Huan-Huan; Zhu, Yi-Zhou; Lu, Lin; Zheng, Jian-Yu

    2015-04-01

    A new class of organic dyes based on 6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline are synthesized and applied as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. Different electron-rich π-conjugated bridges such as oligothiophene, thienyl carbazole, and furyl carbazole are introduced to cooperate with 6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline and cyanoacrylic acid anchoring group to give the dyes JY01, JY02, and JY03, respectively. Their photophysical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties are further investigated. All three dyes show good performances as photosensitizers. In particular, DSSC based on JY01 shows the best photovoltaic performance with a short-circuit photocurrent density of 16.0 mA cm-2, an open-circuit photovoltage of 708 mV and a fill factor of 0.67, corresponding to an overall power conversion efficiency of 7.62% under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm-2).

  18. Post-assembly atomic layer deposition of ultrathin metal-oxide coatings enhances the performance of an organic dye-sensitized solar cell by suppressing dye aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ho-Jin; Kim, Chul Hoon; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Nak Cheon; Prasittichai, Chaiya; Luo, Langli; Wu, Jinsong; Farha, Omar K; Wasielewski, Michael R; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-03-11

    Dye aggregation and concomitant reduction of dye excited-state lifetimes and electron-injection yields constitute a significant mechanism for diminution of light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies in many dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). For TiO2-based DSCs prepared with an archetypal donor-acceptor organic dye, (E)-2-cyano-3-(5'-(5''-(p-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-thiophen-2''-yl)thiophen-2'-yl)acrylic acid (OrgD), we find, in part via ultrafast spectroscopy measurements, that postdye-adsorption atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ultrathin layers of either TiO2 or Al2O3 effectively reverses residual aggregation. Notably, the ALD treatment is significantly more effective than the widely used aggregation-inhibiting coadsorbent, chenodeoxycholic acid. Primarily because of reversal of OrgD aggregation, and resulting improved injection yields, ALD post-treatment engenders a 30+% increase in overall energy conversion efficiency. A secondary contributor to increased currents and efficiencies is an ALD-induced attenuation of the rate of interception of injected electrons, resulting in slightly more efficient charge collection.

  19. Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline ZnO Solar Cells Based on Ruthenium(II Phendione Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Shahroosvand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal complexes (RuII (phen2(phendione(PF62(1, [RuII (phen(bpy(phendione(PF62 (2, and (RuII (bpy2(phendione(PF62 (3 (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine and phendione = 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione have been synthesized as photo sensitizers for ZnO semiconductor in solar cells. FT-IR and absorption spectra showed the favorable interfacial binding between the dye-molecules and ZnO surface. The surface analysis and size of adsorbed dye on nanostructure ZnO were further examined with AFM and SEM. The AFM images clearly show both, the outgrowth of the complexes which are adsorbed on ZnO thin film and the depression of ZnO thin film. We have studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phendione complexes, which gave power conversion efficiency of (η of 1.54% under the standard AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm−2 with a short-circuit photocurrent density (sc of 3.42 mA cm−2, an open-circuit photovoltage (oc of 0.622 V, and a fill factor (ff of 0.72. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 38% at 485 nm.

  20. Red Sicilian orange and purple eggplant fruits as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Marco, Gaetano Di [CNR, Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (Sede di Messina) Salita Sperone, C. da Papardo, I-98158 Faro Superiore Messina (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using red Sicilian orange juice (Citrus Sinensis) and the purple extract of eggplant peels (Solanum melongena, L.) as natural sensitizers of TiO{sub 2} films. Conversion of solar light into electricity was successfully accomplished with both fruit-based solar cells. The best solar energy conversion efficiency ({eta}=0.66%) was obtained by red orange juice dye that, under AM 1.5 illumination, achieved up to J{sub sc}=3.84 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.340 V and fill factor=0.50. In the case of the extract of eggplant peels, the values determined were up to J{sub sc}=3.40 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.350 V and fill factor=0.40. Cyanidine-3-glucoside (cyanine) and delphinidin 3-[4-(p-coumaroyl)-L-rhamnosyl(1-6)-glucopyranoside]-5-glucopyranoside (nasunin) are the main pigments of cocktail dyes for red orange and eggplant, respectively. Actually, their application is far below the industrial requirements. Nevertheless, their study is an interesting multidisciplinary exercise useful for dissemination of knowledge and to educate people on renewable energy sources. Here, we report and discuss the role of the structure, the absorption spectra and the sensitization activity of the mentioned compounds. (author)

  1. A UV-prepared linear polymer electrolyte membrane for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imperiyka, M., E-mail: imperiyka@gmail.com [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kufra Campus, University of Benghazi, Al Kufrah (Libya); Ahmad, A.; Hanifah, S.A. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bella, F. [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    The effects of LiClO{sub 4} and LiFS{sub 3}SO{sub 3} on poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-based solid polymer electrolyte and its photoelectrochemical performance in a dye sensitized solar cell consisting of FTO/TiO{sub 2}–dye/P(GMA)–LiClO{sub 4}–EC/Pt were investigated. The electrochemical stability of films was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The highest ionic conductivities obtained were 4.2×10{sup −5} and 3.7×10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} for the film containing 30 wt% LiClO{sub 4} and 25 wt% LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, respectively. The polymer electrolytes showed electrochemical stability windows up to 3 V and 2.8 V for LiClO{sub 4} and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, respectively. The assembled dye-sensitized solar cell showed a sunlight conversion efficiency of 0.679% (J{sub sc}=3 mA cm{sup −2}, V{sub oc}=0.48 V and FF=0.47), under light intensity of 100 mW cm{sup −2}.

  2. Determination of the light-induced degradation rate of the solar cell sensitizer N719 on TiO2 nanocrystalline particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Doan Nguyen, Sau; Boschloo, Gerrit;

    2005-01-01

    , and the sum of the quantum yields for the oxidative degradation products [RuL2(CN)2], [RuL2(NCS)(CN)], and [RuL2(NCS)(ACN)], deg , were obtained at eight different light intensities in the range of 0.1–16.30 mW/cm2 by LC-UV-MS. The deg values decreased from 3.3 × 10–3 to 2 × 10–4 in the applied intensity...

  3. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Mei Lee; Yi-Shyan Chen; Chih-Chien Lin; Kuan-Hung Chen

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone ...

  4. Exploring the phytoremediation potential of cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm. Dyck.) cell cultures for textile dye degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adki, Vinayak S; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Bapat, Vishwas A

    2012-07-01

    Cactaceae Nopalea cochenillifera cell cultures and intact plants (cladodes) transform various toxic textile dyes, including Red HE7B into less phytotoxic, non-hazardous metabolites. The [tentative] pathway analysis demonstrates that Red HE7B is transformed into 3-amino-5-imino-5,8-dihydronaphthalen-2-ol, 2-amino-6-(carboxycarbonyl)-3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-aminophenol, and phenoL The significant induction of the activities of intracellular laccase (687%), tyrosinase (219%), azoreductase (144%), and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (167%) indicated the involvement of these enzymes in the transformation pathways of Red HE7B but these enzymes have not been definitively linked to the phytotransformation of this toxic dye. The present foundation work could add another plant candidate for phytoremediation of undesirable products from industry wastes and harmful chemicals.

  5. Development of high efficiency 100% aqueous cobalt electrolyte dye-sensitised solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Hanna; Jiang, Roger; Ye, Sofie; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2016-03-28

    In this study we report the application of three cobalt redox shuttles in 100% aqueous electrolyte dye-sensitised solar cells (DSCs). By using chloride as a counter-ion for cobalt bipyridine, cobalt phenanthroline and cobalt bipyridine pyrazole, the redox shuttles were made water soluble; no surfactant or further treatment was necessary. A simple system of merely the redox shuttles and 1-methylbenzimidazole (MBI) in water as an electrolyte in combination with an organic dye and a mesoporous PEDOT counter electrode was optimised. The optimisation resulted in an average efficiency of 5.5% (record efficiency of 5.7%) at 1 sun. The results of this study present promising routes for further improvements of aqueous cobalt electrolyte DSCs. PMID:26931779

  6. Synthesis of nanostructural ZnO using hydrothermal method for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanocrystals with different morphologies were successful synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method combined with and without hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB).The phases and morphologies of the products were measured using X-ray diffraction(XRD),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),and transmission electron microscopy(TEM),respectively.The results indicated that the ZnO nanocrystals with different morphologies were of hexagonal wurtzite structure.ZnO nanorods were obtained without using CTAB,and then the morphology of ZnO changed to ZnO nanoflower and the density of nanoflower became denser with the increase of CTAB concentration.ZnO nanoflower and ZnO nanorod as photoanode were applied to dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSC),respectively.The nanoflower shows a higher dye loading,so DSSC with the use of the ZnO nanoflower possesses a higher conversion efficiency than ZnO nanorod.

  7. Potential complex of rhodamine B and copper (II) for dye sensitizer on solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, Harsasi; Purwaningsih, Aning; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko; Hamami, Rochman, Faidur; Permana, Ahmadi Jaya

    2016-03-01

    A complex from copper(II) and rhodamine B as ligand was synthesized, characterized and applied as potential dye sensitizer on solar cell. A complex was synthesized from the reaction of copper(II) salts and rhodamine B with mole ratio 1:3. A complex showing Metal Ligand Charge Transfer (MLCT) phenomenon at 260 nm. Metal-ligand bonding through carbonyl (CO) groups at 617.22 cm-1 and methoxy (CH3O) groups at 339.47 cm-1. Electrical conductivity analysis confirms that the complex was ionic compound. The complex was applied as potential dye sensitizer with open circuit voltage 0.48775 V, short circuit current 0.01025 mA/cm2 and efficiency 0.0039 %.

  8. Genotoxicity assessment of reactive and disperse textile dyes using human dermal equivalent (3D cell culture system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Primo, Fernando Lucas; Gobo, Graciely Gomides; da Costa, Cleber Rafael Vieira; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of dyes are marketed daily for different purposes, including textile dyeing. However, there are several studies reporting attributing to dyes deleterious human effects such as DNA damage. Humans may be exposed to toxic dyes through either ingestion of contaminated waters or dermal contact with colored garments. With respect to dermal exposure, human skin equivalents are promising tools to assess in vitro genotoxicity of dermally applied chemicals using a three-dimensional (3D) model to mimic tissue behavior. This study investigated the sensitivity of an in-house human dermal equivalent (DE) for detecting genotoxicity of textile dyes. Two azo (reactive green 19 [RG19] and disperse red 1[DR1]) dyes and one anthraquinone (reactive blue 2 [RB2]) dye were analyzed. RG19 was genotoxic for DE in a dose-responsive manner, whereas RB2 and DR1 were nongenotoxic under the conditions tested. These findings are not in agreement with previous genotoxicological assessment of these dyes carried out using two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, which showed that DR1 was genotoxic in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and RG19 was nongenotoxic for normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). These discrepant results probably may be due to differences between metabolic activities of each cell type (organ-specific genotoxicity, HepG2 and fibroblasts) and the test setup systems used in each study (fibroblasts cultured at 2D and three-dimensional [3D] culture systems). Genotoxicological assessment of textile dyes in context of organ-specific genotoxicity and using in vitro models that more closely resemble in vivo tissue architecture and physiology may provide more reliable estimates of genotoxic potential of these chemicals.

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on porous conjugated polymer counter electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torabi, Naeimeh; Behjat, Abbas, E-mail: abehjat@yazd.ac.ir; Jafari, Fatemeh

    2014-12-31

    In this paper, we report platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cells that were fabricated using a grown porous poly-3-methyl-thiophene (P3MT) counter electrode. The growing of the porous P3MT was performed by an electrochemical deposition method. This method is easy and affordable unlike the common expensive deposition methods. The morphology of P3MT films was studied by scanning electron microscopy images. It was observed that polymer layers grown with a current density of 2 mA/cm{sup 2} have a clear porous and rough structure as compared to layers grown with a lower current density. To understand the reaction kinetics and the catalytic activities of the counter electrodes with P3MT for 3I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −} redox reaction, cyclic voltammetry (CV) was performed. Based on the analysis of CV, it was shown that this layer can be used as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The electro deposition conditions during the growth of polymer layers such as current density, the morphology of polymer films and the duration of polymerization have a significant role in the current–voltage characterization of the fabricated solar cells. The performance of the fabricated solar cells was improved by optimization of these parameters. The highest efficiency of 2.76% was obtained by using porous P3MT in the counter electrode. - Highlights: • Poly-3-methyl-thiophene (P3MT) layers were grown using electrochemical deposition method. • By controlling the growth conditions, porous P3MT can be produced. • Grown P3MT layers can be used as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. • The growth rate of P3MT layers plays an essential role in the cell performance.

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on porous conjugated polymer counter electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cells that were fabricated using a grown porous poly-3-methyl-thiophene (P3MT) counter electrode. The growing of the porous P3MT was performed by an electrochemical deposition method. This method is easy and affordable unlike the common expensive deposition methods. The morphology of P3MT films was studied by scanning electron microscopy images. It was observed that polymer layers grown with a current density of 2 mA/cm2 have a clear porous and rough structure as compared to layers grown with a lower current density. To understand the reaction kinetics and the catalytic activities of the counter electrodes with P3MT for 3I−/I3− redox reaction, cyclic voltammetry (CV) was performed. Based on the analysis of CV, it was shown that this layer can be used as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The electro deposition conditions during the growth of polymer layers such as current density, the morphology of polymer films and the duration of polymerization have a significant role in the current–voltage characterization of the fabricated solar cells. The performance of the fabricated solar cells was improved by optimization of these parameters. The highest efficiency of 2.76% was obtained by using porous P3MT in the counter electrode. - Highlights: • Poly-3-methyl-thiophene (P3MT) layers were grown using electrochemical deposition method. • By controlling the growth conditions, porous P3MT can be produced. • Grown P3MT layers can be used as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. • The growth rate of P3MT layers plays an essential role in the cell performance

  11. Porphyrin Dye-Sensitized Zinc Oxide Aggregated Anodes for Use in Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syu, Yu-Kai; Tingare, Yogesh; Lin, Shou-Yen; Yeh, Chen-Yu; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Porphyrin YD2-o-C8-based dyes were employed to sensitize room-temperature (RT) chemical-assembled ZnO aggregated anodes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To reduce the acidity of the YD2-o-C8 dye solution, the proton in the carboxyl group of a porphyrin dye was replaced with tetrabuthyl ammonium (TBA⁺) in this work. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) of the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSCs is higher than that of the YD2-o-C8-sensitized cells, resulting in the improvement of the efficiency of the YD2-o-C8-based ZnO DSSCs. With an appropriate incorporation of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) as coadsorbate, the Jsc and efficiency of the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSC are enhanced due to the improvement of the incident-photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) values in the wavelength range of 400-450 nm. Moreover, a considerable increase in Jsc is achieved by the addition of a light scattering layer in the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO photoanodes. Significant IPCE enhancement in the range 475-600 nm is not attainable by tuning the YD2-o-C8-TBA sensitization processes for the anodes without light scattering layers. Using the RT chemical-assembled ZnO aggregated anode with a light scattering layer, an efficiency of 3.43% was achieved in the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSC. PMID:27527136

  12. Porphyrin Dye-Sensitized Zinc Oxide Aggregated Anodes for Use in Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Syu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrin YD2-o-C8-based dyes were employed to sensitize room-temperature (RT chemical-assembled ZnO aggregated anodes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. To reduce the acidity of the YD2-o-C8 dye solution, the proton in the carboxyl group of a porphyrin dye was replaced with tetrabuthyl ammonium (TBA+ in this work. The short-circuit current density (Jsc of the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSCs is higher than that of the YD2-o-C8-sensitized cells, resulting in the improvement of the efficiency of the YD2-o-C8-based ZnO DSSCs. With an appropriate incorporation of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA as coadsorbate, the Jsc and efficiency of the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSC are enhanced due to the improvement of the incident-photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE values in the wavelength range of 400–450 nm. Moreover, a considerable increase in Jsc is achieved by the addition of a light scattering layer in the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO photoanodes. Significant IPCE enhancement in the range 475–600 nm is not attainable by tuning the YD2-o-C8-TBA sensitization processes for the anodes without light scattering layers. Using the RT chemical-assembled ZnO aggregated anode with a light scattering layer, an efficiency of 3.43% was achieved in the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSC.

  13. Composite Electrode SnO2/TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Bin XIA; Fu You LI; Shu Ming YANG; Chun Hui HUANG

    2004-01-01

    Composite nanoporous electrode SnO2/TiO2 was fabricated for the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with N3 (Cis-Ru). After introducing of TiO2, the open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) was higher than that of the pure SnO2 electrode, while short-circuit photocurrent (Isc) was varied with the ratio of the TiO2. Appropriate content of the TiO2 can be beneficial to the efficiency of the solar cell, and it gives negative impact on the composite electrode when the content of TiO2 is higher.

  14. Performance Degradation of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Induced by Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Ru-Yuan Yang; Huang-Yu Chen; Fu-Der Lai

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the change of the electric characteristics in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) when the electrolyte has been injected and measured initially and lately for a period of time. It was found that the short-circuit current density decreased from 9.799 mA/cm2 to 7.056 mA/cm2 and the fill factor increased from 0.406 to 0.559 when the cell had stood for an hour, while the open-circuit photovoltage did not change due to fixed difference between the Fermi level of TiO2 and the oxidation...

  15. Optimizations of large area quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, M.; West, K.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we address optimizations of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) through the combination of important issues like semi-transparency, quasi-solid-state constructions and low-cost realization of serially connected modules. DSSCs with a transparency of 50% in the visible region, moderate...... efficiency similar to 1%, and long lifetime allow solar cells application in building elements like windows, facades and semi-transparent roofs. The use in DSSCs of gel polymer electrolytes prepared by liquid electrolyte incorporation into a polymer matrix such as poly-methyl-methacrylate presents...

  16. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Integrated Triplet-Triplet Annihilation Upconversion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattestad, Andrew; Cheng, Yuen Yap; MacQueen, Rowan W; Schulze, Tim F; Thompson, Fletcher W; Mozer, Attila J; Fückel, Burkhard; Khoury, Tony; Crossley, Maxwell J; Lips, Klaus; Wallace, Gordon G; Schmidt, Timothy W

    2013-06-20

    Photon upconversion (UC) by triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA-UC) is employed in order to enhance the response of solar cells to sub-bandgap light. Here, we present the first report of an integrated photovoltaic device, combining a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) and TTA-UC system. The integrated device displays enhanced current under sub-bandgap illumination, resulting in a figure of merit (FoM) under low concentration (3 suns), which is competitive with the best values recorded to date for nonintegrated systems. Thus, we demonstrate both the compatibility of DSC and TTA-UC and a viable method for device integration.

  17. A new sight towards dye-sensitized solar cells material and theoretical

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) technology is emerging, against the current background of drastic consumption-rates of irreplaceable natural resources, as the Cinderella solution to many energy-related problems, Almost since its first appearance, it has been regarded as being the most promising alternative to conventional silicon solar cell technology due to the tremendous advantages of low cost and high theoretical energy-conversion efficiency. Review from Book News Inc.: Eight invited and peer-reviewed papers comprise this special-topic volume on a possible alternative to conventional silico

  18. ZnO disk-like structures and their application in dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. X.; Yang, Y.; Sun, X. W.

    2016-08-01

    Hexagonal ZnO nanodisks, nanorings and porous nanodisks were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The morphologies, structure and their optical properties of the various ZnO disk-like structures were characterized and their growth mechanism was investigated. The prepared ZnO disk-like nanostructures were used in the fabrication of the dye-sensitized solar cells. Improved photovoltaic properties were achieved for the porous disk solar cells due to their special geometry enabled better light harvesting and reduced recombination.

  19. Challenges in the simulation of dye-sensitized ZnO solar cells: quantum confinement, alignment of energy levels and excited state nature at the dye/semiconductor interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Anna; De Angelis, Filippo

    2012-08-14

    We report a first principles density functional theory/time-dependent density functional theory (DFT/TDDFT) computational investigation on a prototypical perylene dye anchored to realistic ZnO nanostructures, approaching the size of the ZnO nanowires used in dye-sensitized solar cells devices. DFT calculations were performed on (ZnO)(n) clusters of increasing size, with n up to 222, of 1.3 × 1.5 × 3.4 nm dimensions, and for the related dye-sensitized models. We show that quantum confinement in the ZnO nanostructures substantially affects the dye/semiconductor alignment of energy levels, with smaller ZnO models providing unfavourable electron injection. An increasing broadening of the dye LUMO is found moving to larger substrates, substantially contributing to the interfacial electronic coupling. TDDFT excited state calculations for the investigated dye@(ZnO)(222) system are fully consistent with experimental data, quantitatively reproducing the red-shift and broadening of the visible absorption spectrum observed for the ZnO-anchored dye compared to the dye in solution. TDDFT calculations on the fully interacting system also introduce a contribution to the dye/semiconductor admixture, due to configurational excited state mixing. Our results highlight the importance of quantum confinement in dye-sensitized ZnO interfaces, and provide the fundamental insight lying at the heart of the associated DSC devices. PMID:22743544

  20. Genetic damage induced by a food coloring dye (sunset yellow) on meristematic cells of Brassica campestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Kshama; Kumar, Girjesh

    2015-01-01

    We have performed the present piece of work to evaluate the effect of synthetic food coloring azo dye (sunset yellow) on actively dividing root tip cells of Brassica campestris L. Three doses of azo dye were administered for the treatment of actively dividing root tip cells, namely, 1%, 3%, and 5%, for 6-hour duration along with control. Mitotic analysis clearly revealed the azo dye induced endpoint deviation like reduction in the frequency of normal divisions in a dose dependent manner. Mitotic divisions in the control sets were found to be perfectly normal while dose based reduction in MI was registered in the treated sets. Azo dye has induced several chromosomal aberrations (genotoxic effect) at various stages of cell cycle such as stickiness of chromosomes, micronuclei formation, precocious migration of chromosome, unorientation, forward movement of chromosome, laggards, and chromatin bridge. Among all, stickiness of chromosomes was present in the highest frequency followed by partial genome elimination as micronuclei. The present study suggests that extensive use of synthetic dye should be forbidden due to genotoxic and cytotoxic impacts on living cells. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess potential hazardous effects of these dyes on other test systems like human and nonhuman biota for better scrutiny.

  1. Genetic Damage Induced by a Food Coloring Dye (Sunset Yellow on Meristematic Cells of Brassica campestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshama Dwivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed the present piece of work to evaluate the effect of synthetic food coloring azo dye (sunset yellow on actively dividing root tip cells of Brassica campestris L. Three doses of azo dye were administered for the treatment of actively dividing root tip cells, namely, 1%, 3%, and 5%, for 6-hour duration along with control. Mitotic analysis clearly revealed the azo dye induced endpoint deviation like reduction in the frequency of normal divisions in a dose dependent manner. Mitotic divisions in the control sets were found to be perfectly normal while dose based reduction in MI was registered in the treated sets. Azo dye has induced several chromosomal aberrations (genotoxic effect at various stages of cell cycle such as stickiness of chromosomes, micronuclei formation, precocious migration of chromosome, unorientation, forward movement of chromosome, laggards, and chromatin bridge. Among all, stickiness of chromosomes was present in the highest frequency followed by partial genome elimination as micronuclei. The present study suggests that extensive use of synthetic dye should be forbidden due to genotoxic and cytotoxic impacts on living cells. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess potential hazardous effects of these dyes on other test systems like human and nonhuman biota for better scrutiny.

  2. π-Conjugated Donor-Acceptor Systems as Metal-Free Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakeeruddin S. M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High extinction coefficients and easily tunable spectral properties of π- conjugated donor-acceptor dyes are of superior advantage for the design of new metalfree organic sensitizers for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy on the femtosecond and nanosecond time scales provided deep insights into the dependence of charge carrier dynamics in fully organic dye/TiO2 systems on i the donor-acceptor distance, ii the π-conjugation length, and iii the coupling to TiO2 by different anchoring groups. Importantly, the observed differences in charge transfer dynamics justify the variations of photovoltaic performances of the dyes as applied in solar cell devices. This leads to the conclusion that the photoconversion efficiencies strongly depend on a delicate interplay between the dyes’ building blocks, i.e. the donor, the π-conjugated spacer and the anchor/acceptor moieties, and may easily be tuned by molecular design.

  3. Doping CuSCN films for enhancement of conductivity: application in dye-sensitized solid-state solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, V.P.S. [Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy (Sri Lanka); Open Univ., Nawala (Sri Lanka). Dept. of Physics; Senevirathna, M.K.I.; Pitigala, P.K.D.D.P.; Tennakone, K. [Open Univ., Nawala (Sri Lanka). Dept. of Physics

    2005-03-31

    Construction of dye-sensitized solid-state solar cells requires high band-gap (therefore, transparent) hole collectors which can be deposited on a dye-coated nanocrystalline semiconductor surface without denaturing the dye. Copper (I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) is an important p-type semiconductor satisfying the above requirements. However, the conductivity of this material, which depends on excess SCN, is not sufficiently high and polymerization of SCN prevents incorporation of sufficient amount of excess SCN during the process of synthesis of CuSCN. We have found that the conductivity of solid CuSCN can be increased by exposure to halogen gases which generate SCN or to a solution of (SCN){sub 2} in CCl{sub 4}. The latter method is suitable for doping of CuSCN films in dye-sensitized solid-state solar cells. (Author)

  4. Natural Pigments from Plants Used as Sensitizers for TiO2 Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Kushwaha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four natural pigments, extracted from the leaves of teak (Tectona grandis, tamarind (Tamarindus indica, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus, and the flower of crimson bottle brush (Callistemon citrinus, were used as sensitizers for TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The dyes have shown absorption in broad range of the visible region (400–700 nm of the solar spectrum and appreciable adsorption onto the semiconductor (TiO2 surface. The DSSCs made using the extracted dyes have shown that the open circuit voltages (Voc varied from 0.430 to 0.610 V and the short circuit photocurrent densities (Jsc ranged from 0.11 to 0.29 mA cm−2. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCE varied from 12–37%. Among the four dyes studied, the extract obtained from teak has shown the best photosensitization effects in terms of the cell output.

  5. A Review on Current Status of Stability and Knowledge on Liquid Electrolyte-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sauvage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to gather the current background in materials development and provide the reader with an accurate image of today’s knowledge regarding the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. This contribution highlights the literature from the 1970s to the present day on nanostructured TiO2, dye, Pt counter electrode, and liquid electrolyte for which this review is focused on.

  6. Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells: a strategy to enhance overall efficiency based on transparent polyaniline electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jinhui; Li, Yan; Tang, Qunwei; Yue, Gentian; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang; Meng, Lijian

    2014-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a promising solution to global energy and environmental problems because of its clean, low-cost, high efficiency, good durability, and easy fabrication. However, enhancing the efficiency of the DSSC still is an important issue. Here we devise a bifacial DSSC based on a transparent polyaniline (PANI) counter electrode (CE). Owing to the sunlight irradiation simultaneously from the front and the rear sides, more dye molecules are excited and more carriers are...

  7. Dye-sensitized solar cells and solar module using polymer electrolytes: Stability and performance investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilian Nei de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present recent results on solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell research using a polymer electrolyte based on a poly(ethylene oxide derivative. The stability and performance of the devices have been improved by a modification in the method of assembly of the cells and by the addition of plasticizers in the electrolyte. After 30 days of solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2 no changes in the cell's efficiency were observed using this new method. The effect of the active area size on cell performance and the first results obtained for the first solar module composed of 4.5 cm2 solid-state solar cells are also presented.

  8. Application of the Organic Photosensitizers Bearing Two Carboxylic Acid Groups to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-Hua; YAO Yi-Shan; LI Chao; WANG Wei-Bo; CHENG Xue-Xin; WANG Xue-Song; ZHANG Bao-Wen

    2008-01-01

    Three electron donor-n bridge-electron acceptor(D-π-A)organic dyes bearing two carboxylic acid groups were applied to dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSC)as sensitizers,in Which one triphenylamine or modified triphenylamine and two rhodanine-3-acetic acid fragments act as D and A.respectively.It was found that the introduction of t-butyl or methoxy group in the triphenylamine subunit could lead to more efficient photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer,thus improving the overall photoelectric conversion efficiency of the resultant DSSC.Under global AM 1.5 solar irradiation(73 mW·cm-2),the dye molecule based on methoxy-substituted triphenylamine achieved the best photovoltaic performance:a short circuit photocurrent density(Jsc)of 12.63 mA·cm-2,an open circuit voltage(Voc)of 0.55 V,a fill factor(FF)of 0.62,corresponding to an overall efficiency(η)of 5.9%.

  9. Characterization of the Pore Filling of Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with Photoinduced Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Olson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Near steady-state photoinduced absorption (PIA and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy are used to characterize the pore filling of spiro-MeOTAD (2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine9,9′-spirobifluorene into the nanoparticulate TiO2 electrode of a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (ssDSC. The volumetric ratio of filled to unfilled pore volumes, as well as the optical signature of interacting chemical species, that is, the hole-transfer yield (HTY, are investigated. PIA spectroscopy is used to measure the HTY, relative to the amount of spiro-MeOTAD present, without needing to determine the extinction coefficients of the dye and spiro-MeOTAD cation species. The Beer-Lambert law is used to relate the relative PIA signal to the penetration length of the hole-conductor in the TiO2 film. For the sample thickness range of 1.4–5 μm investigated here, the optimum characteristic penetration length is determined to be 3.1+0.46 μm, which is compared to 1.4 μm for the 200 mg mL−1 concentration of spiro-MeOTAD conventionally used. Therefore, doubling the effective penetration of spiro-MeOTAD is necessary to functionalize all the dye molecules in a ssDSC.

  10. New Amphiphilic Polypyridyl Ruthenium(Ⅱ) Sensitizer and Its Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Fan-Tai; DAI Song-Yuan; WANG Kong-Jia

    2007-01-01

    Amphiphilic polypyridyl ruthenium(Ⅱ) complex cis-di(isothiocyanato)(4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)(4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(Ⅱ) (K005) has been synthesized and characterized by cyclic voltammetry, 1H NMR, UV-Vis, and FT-IR spectroscopies. The sensitizer sensitizes TiO2 over a notably broad spectral range due to its intense metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) bands at 537 and 418 nm. The photophysical and photochemical studies of K005 were contrasted with those of cis-Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2, known as the N3 dye, and the amphiphilic ruthenium(Ⅱ) dye Z907. A reversible couple at E1/2=0.725 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE) with a separation of 0.08 V between the anodic and cathodic peaks, was observed due to the RuⅡ/Ⅲ couple by cyclic voltammetry.Furthermore, this amphiphilic ruthenium complex was successfully used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells with the efficiency of 3.72% at the 100 mW·cm-2 irradiance of air mass 1.5 simulated sunlight without optimization of TiO2 films and the electrolyte.

  11. Universal electron injection dynamics at nanointerfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Hai-Yu; Fang, Hong-Hua; Gao, Bing-Rong; Chen, Qi-Dai [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Wang, Hai; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Hong-Bo [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun (China); College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Han, Wei [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun (China)

    2012-07-10

    Initial nanointerfacial electron transfer dynamics are studied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in which the free energy and kinetics vary over a broad range. Surprisingly, it is found that the decay profiles, reflecting the electron transfer behavior, show a universal shape despite the different kinds of dye and semiconductor nanocrystalline films, even across different device types. This renews intuitive knowledge about the electron injection process in DSSCs. In order to quantitatively comprehend the universal behavior, a static inhomogeneous electronic coupling model with a Gaussian distribution of local injection energetics is proposed in which only the electron injection rate is a variant. It is confirmed that this model can be extended to CdSe quantum dot-sensitized films. These unambiguous results indicate exactly the same physical distribution in electron injection process of different sensitization films, providing limited simple and important parameters describing the electron injection process including electronic coupling constant and reorganization energy. The results provide insight into photoconversion physics and the design of optimal metal-free organic dye-sensitized photovoltaic devices by molecular engineering. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Feasibility study on the use of liquid crystal/dye cells for digital signage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaya, Shunsuke; Azumi, Nada Dianah B. M.; Ohta, Masamichi; Ozawa, Shintaro; Fujieda, Ichiro

    2016-03-01

    Elongated dye molecules orient themselves with surrounding liquid crystal molecules. We propose to incorporate such a guest-host cell in a screen of a projection display. This configuration might be applied for digital signage to be installed on building walls. Dual-mode operation is realized by the bias applied to the cell. In display-mode, the dye molecules are oriented in parallel to the substrate of the cell. When excited by ultra-violet light, photoluminescence (PL) is generated. Because it is mostly perpendicular to the long axis of the molecule, it exits the cell efficiently. In powerharvesting mode, they are oriented vertically. The PL generated by ambient light is directed to edge surfaces where solar cells are mounted. In experiment, we fabricated a cell with commonly-available materials (coumarin 6 and a nematic liquid crystal). Anti-parallel alignment condition was adopted. We recorded PL spectra from the cell for the two excitation conditions. First, the center of the cell was irradiated by a 1.69mW blue laser beam. Second, the whole cell was uniformly exposed to the light from a fluorescent lamp at illuminance of 800lx. From the measured spectra for these cases, the contrast of luminance is calculated to be 3.2 ×105 . This factor is improved to 5 7.5×105 by attaching a polarizer sheet on the cell surface. The optical power reaching its edge surfaces is measured and it roughly agrees with the prediction by a simple model neglecting self-absorption. Development of phosphor materials with a large Stokes shift is desired to boost performance of the proposed system.

  13. Surface Design in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Effects of Zwitterionic Co-adsorbents on Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2009-07-10

    In solid-state dye sensitized solar cells (SSDSCs) charge recombination at the dye-hole transporting material interface plays a critical role in the cell efficiency. For the first time we report on the influence of dipolar coadsorbents on the photovoltaic performance of sensitized hetero-junction solar cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of two zwitterionic butyric acid derivatives differing only in the polar moiety attached to their common 4 carbon-chain acid, i.e., 4-guanidinobutyric acid (GBA) and 4-aminobutyric acid (ABA). These two molecules were implemented as coadsorbents in conjunction with Z907Na dye on the SSDSC. It was found that a Z907Na/GBA dye/co-adsorbent combination increases both the open circuit voltage (V oc) and short-circuit current density ( Jsc) as compared to using Z907Na dye alone. The Z907Na/ABA dye/co-adsorbent combination increases the Jsc. Impedance and transient photovoltage investigations elucidate the cause of these remarkable observations. ©2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. 2,3-Dipentyldithieno[3,2-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline-Based Organic Dyes for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Effect of π-Bridges and Electron Donors on Solar Cell Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zu-Sheng; Zang, Xu-Feng; Hua, Tao; Wang, Lingyun; Meier, Herbert; Cao, Derong

    2015-09-16

    Five novel metal-free organic dyes DQ1-5 containing a dipentyldithieno[3,2-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline (DPQ) unit were synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), where DPQ was employed as a π-spacer for the first time. Their photophysical, electrochemical, and theoretical calculations and photovoltaic properties were systematically investigated. All the five dyes show broad photoresponse. Especially the absorption edges of DQ3-5 extend to 800 nm on the TiO2 films. The inserted electron-rich unit 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene or electron-withdrawing group benzothiadiazole (BTD) in DPQ-based dyes can greatly influence the optoelectronic properties of the dyes. In addition, the different electron donors also significantly affect the performance of the DSSCs. Under standard global AM 1.5 solar light conditions, the DQ5 sensitized solar cell obtained a power conversion efficiency of 7.12%. The result indicates that the rigid DPQ-based organic dye is a promising candidate for efficient DSSCs.

  15. Aplikasi Semikonduktor TiO2 dengan Variasi Temperatur dan Waktu Tahan Kalsinasi sebagai Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC dengan Dye dari Ekstrak Buah Terung Belanda (Solanum betaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maula Nafi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai dye sensitized solar cell dilakukan dengan dye dari ekstrak buah terung belanda sebagai sumber energi alternatif dari tenaga surya. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC dibuat dengan menggunakan semikonduktor TiO2 yang dilapiskan pada kaca konduktif Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide (FTO dan dikalsinasi  dengan variasi temperatur 5500C, 6500C, dan 7500C, dengan waktu tahan 60 dan 120 menit pada tiap temperaturnya. Lapisan TiO2 pada substrat dikarakterisasi dengan menggunakan SEM dan XRD. Luas permukaan aktif diukur dengan pengujian BET. Hasil SEM menunjukkan ukuran bentuk partikel TiO2 berupa sphere. Hasil XRD menunjukkan struktur kristal TiO2 adalah body centered tetragonal. Luas permukaan aktif dibandingkan dengan hasil kelistrikan DSSC, yang selaras meningkat dari temperatur 5500C ke 6500C, namun menurun pada 7500C. Densitas arus dan voltase maksimum diperoleh pada variasi temperatur 650oC dengan waktu tahan 60 menit yaitu sebesar 0,356 mA/cm2 dan 593,1 mV. Efisiensi maksimum yang diperoleh sebesar 0,469208%. DSSC dimodifikasi dengan menambahkan pembungkus plastik, sehingga dapat memperlambat penurunan daya yang terjadi saat DSSC bekerja.

  16. Characteristics of Polyaniline/Si Heterojunction Solar Cell By Electrochemical Dye Sensitization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jian-bang; REN Ju; HOU Chao-qi

    2005-01-01

    Using the electrochemical polymerization dye sensitization(ECDS) method, polyaniline (PAn),which is used as top region material in solar cells, is sensitized with direct blue dye(DS), and sensitized Al grid/DS-PAn/n-Si/Al heterojunction solar cells is prepared by ECDS. Influences of the ECDS on the absorption spectrum and the junction characteristics of the solar cell were discussed, and the output characteristics were measured. The results show that the absorption spectrum of the sensitized PAn films is much wider and stronger in Vis-range; the diode quality factor is about 6.3 and the height of latent barrier potential of p-n junction is 0.89 eV; the short-circuit current and the conversion efficiency of sensitized DSPAn/Si heterojunction solar cells are greatly improved, which the short-circuit current can increase 6 times,the fill factor is 57% and the efficiency can reach 1.42% under the illumination of 37.2 W/m2 , respectively.

  17. Improving the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cell by graphene/titania photoanode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A colloid of graphene/titania is prepared, and thus a graphene/titania film is made. • The film shows high porosity, large surface area and small transfer resistance. • The cell with graphene/titania photoanode obtains a conversion efficiency of 7.52%. • Which is increased by 18% compared to the cell with pristine titania electrode. - Abstract: A mixed colloid of graphene and titania is synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal reaction, thus a graphene/titania film photoanode is prepared. The graphene/titania film shows high porosity and large specific surface area, which favors a full adsorption of sensitized dye. On the other hand, the graphene/titania electrode has smaller charge transfer resistance than the pristine titania electrode, which replies that the graphene/titania electrode accelerates electronic transportation and suppresses the charge recombination. Under an optimal condition, the dye-sensitized solar cell based on graphene/titania photoanode achieve a power conversion efficiency of 7.52%, which is increased by 17.7% compared to the cell based on the pristine titania electrode under a simulated solar light irradiation of 100 mW·cm−2

  18. Comparison of photovoltaic parameters of CdSe QD and Safranin Dye based solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation, comparison between photovoltaic parameters of FTO/TiO2 /CdSe.QDs/Pt/FTO and FTO/TiO2 /Safaranin Dye/Pt/FTO are presented. Photo electrodes are prepared on FTO coated glass with three layers; titanium isopropoxide with spin coating, TiO2 nano- crystalline paste using doctor-blade technique, and a thin layer of titanium chloride with spin coating. Counter electrodes are prepared with sputtering on FTO. CdSe quantum dots are synthesized in three neck flask using trioctylphosphine oxide. Higher photovoltage V∞ in QDSSC has been observed whereas higher photocurrents have been measured in DSSC solar cell. At 100 mW/cm-2 power density, maximum power is achieved in Safranin dye based solar cell. The capacitance -voltage characteristics of the cell were measured in a wide range of frequencies. It shows a behavior from positive to negative capacitance due to injection of electrons from FTO electrode into TiO2 . Key words: Quantum dots, Solar cells, Photo electrode, Electrolyte, Impedance spectroscopy

  19. Microfluidic housing system: a useful tool for the analysis of dye-sensitized solar cell components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, A.; Lamberti, A.; Pugliese, D.; Chiodoni, A.; Shahzad, N.; Bianco, S.; Quaglio, M.; Gazia, R.; Tresso, E.; Pirri, C. F.

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand the behavior of the different dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) components, an in-situ analysis should give fundamental help but it is impossible to be performed without compromising the integrity of the cell. Our recently proposed novel microfluidic approach for the fabrication of DSCs is based on a reversible sealing of the two transparent electrodes and it allows the easy assembling and disassembling of the cell, making possible an analysis of the components over time. The aim of this work is not to investigate the different degradation mechanisms of a standard DSC: we want to show that, by using a microfluidic architecture, it is possible to perform a non-destructive analysis and to monitor the photoanode and the counter electrode properties during their lifetime. Morphological (field emission scanning electron microscopy), wetting (contact angle), optical (UV-visible spectroscopy) and electrical (current-voltage and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements under standard AM1.5G illumination) characterizations have been performed over a period of three weeks. The results show how the variation of the wetting and morphological properties at the counter electrode and of the dye absorbance at the photoanode are strongly related to the decrease of the cell performances as evidenced by electrical characterization, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of the use of our structure in this kind of studies.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Ag nanowires: Improved performance in dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia A. Kazmi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs with good photovoltaic parameters is an active research area of current global interest. Recently, one dimensional nanomaterial, such as nanorods and nanotubes has replaced the nanoparticles used in DSSCs anode because of their ability to improve the electron transport leading to enhanced electron collection efficiency. In the present work, rapid synthesis of silver nanowires (AgNWs was done. The XRD characterization was performed to confirm the formation and size of synthesized AgNWs. It was observed that FWHM of the diffraction peaks was increased with AgNWs concentration in TiO2. The synthesized TiO2AgNWs nanocomposite was used as the photo anode of Dye sensitized solar cell. The I–V characteristics of the solar cell were drawn using standard conditions. It was observed that TiO2AgNWs based solar cells have significantly increased photocurrent density resulting in improved conversion efficiency as compared to pure TiO2 based DSSC.

  1. Printable electrolytes based on polyacrylonitrile and gamma-butyrolactone for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Shanmugam; Su, Song-Chuan; Hung, Wei-Ning; Liu, I.-Ping; Teng, Hsisheng; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2015-12-01

    Printable electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are prepared using a low volatile solvent, gamma-butyrolactone (gBL). Various polymers including polyvinyl acetate (PVA), polyacrylonotrile (PAN), and poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinylacetate) (PAN-VA) are used to regulate the viscosity of the electrolytes. The results show that PAN is the best polymer interms of viscosity, conductivity, and performance of the DSSCs. Increasing the concentration of PAN increases the viscosity of the electrolyte paste, which is advantageous to the operation of a printing process but decreases the electrolyte conductivity and cell performance. This drawback can be compensated by introducing of TiO2 or TiC nanofillers. The quasi-solid-state DSSC prepared using a printing process achieves a conversion efficiency (7.85%) similar to that of the corresponding liquid cell (7.87%). The stability test shows that the presence of TiO2 nanofillers triggers a gradual desorption of dye, decreasing DSSC performance. However, this problem does not appear for the electrolyte using TiC nanofillers, with cell efficiency retaining 96% of its initial value after a 500 h test.

  2. Dye-sensitized solar cells using retinoic acid and carotenoic acids: Dependence of performance on the conjugation length and the dye concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Fujii, Ritsuko; Ito, Seigo; Koyama, Yasushi; Yamano, Yumiko; Ito, Masayoshi; Kitamura, Takayuki; Yanagida, Shozo

    2005-11-01

    Titanium oxide-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were fabricated by the use of retinoic acid and carotenoic acids having the number of conjugated double bonds, n = 5-13. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency, the photocurrent density and the solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency exhibited the highest values at n = 7, and then decreased toward both sides. The effects of dilution of CA7 with deoxycholic acid were also examined. The above parameters per unit CA7 concentration progressively increased toward the lowest concentration, which is ascribed to the isolated excitation free from singlet-triplet annihilation in the dye molecules on the TiO 2 layer.

  3. One pot synthesis of multi-functional tin oxide nanostructures for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wali, Qamar; Fakharuddin, Azhar; Yasin, Amina; Ab Rahim, Mohd Hasbi; Ismail, Jamil; Jose, Rajan, E-mail: rjose@ump.edu.my

    2015-10-15

    Photoanode plays a key role in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as a scaffold for dye molecules, transport medium for photogenerated electrons, and scatters light for improved absorption. Herein, tin oxide nanostructures unifying the above three characteristics were optimized by a hydrothermal process and used as photoanode in DSSCs. The optimized morphology is a combination of hollow porous nanoparticles of size ∼50 nm and micron sized spheres with BET surface area (up to 29 m{sup 2}/g) to allow large dye-loading and light scattering as well as high crystallinity to support efficient charge transport. The optimized morphology gave the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency (∼7.5%), so far achieved in DSSCs with high open circuit voltage (∼700 mV) and short circuit current density (∼21 mA/cm{sup 2}) employing conventional N3 dye and iodide/triiodide electrolyte. The best performing device achieved an incident photon to current conversion efficiency of ∼90%. The performance of the optimized tin oxide nanostructures was comparable to that of conventional titanium based DSSCs fabricated at similar conditions. - Graphical abstract: Tin oxide hollow nanostructure simultaneously supporting improved light scattering, dye-loading, and charge transport yielded high photovoltaic conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells. - Highlights: • Uniformly and bimodelly distributed tin oxide hollow nanospheres (HNS) are synthesized. • Uniform HNS are of size ∼10 nm; bimodel HNS has additional size up to ∼800 nm. • They are evaluated as photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). • The uniform HNS increase dye-loading and the larger increase light scattering in DSSCs. • Photo conversion efficiency ∼7.5% is achieved using bimodel HNS.

  4. One-step electrochemically-codeposited polyaniline-platinum for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiangkaew, Anongnad; Keothongkham, Khamsone; Maiaugree, Wasan; Jarernboon, Wirat [Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand); Kamwanna, Teerasak; Pimanpang, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand); Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Khon Kaen (Thailand)

    2014-05-15

    Platinum, polyaniline and composite polyaniline-platinum films were coated on conductive glass by using electrochemical deposition. They were then used as dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrodes. The efficiencies of platinum, polyaniline and composite polyaniline-platinum cells were 2.47, 4.47 and 6.62%, respectively. The improvement of composite polyaniline-platinum solar cell efficiency over pure polyaniline and platinum cells is because of an increase in the film's catalytic activity and a decrease in charge-transfer resistance between its counter electrode and electrolyte, as observed by using cyclic voltammogram and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, respectively. Co-deposition of polyaniline and Pt catalysts was confirmed by the presence of Pt and N peaks in the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum.

  5. Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells using a composite electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bofei, Xue; Hongxia, Wang; Yongsheng, Hu; Hong, Li; Zaoxiang, Wang; Qingbo, Meng; Xuejie, Huang; Liquan, Chen [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Osamu, Sato; Akira, Fujishima [Research Laboratory for Optical Science, Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Sakado Kawasaki (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    A dye-sensitized solar cell with efficiency over 4% has been fabricated using a composite electrolyte containing LiI(CH{sub 3}OH){sub 4}-I{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2} particles and an ionic liquid, triethylamine hydro-thiocyanate (THT). The ionic liquid is used as a cooperative electrolyte. Nano-sized SiO{sub 2} particles act as both an inhibitor of crystal growth of the solid-state electrolyte and an insulator layer between the photo-anode and the counter electrode. (authors)

  6. Theoretical modeling of the series resistance effect on dye-sensitized solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Dai, Songyuan; Chen, Shuanghong; Zhang, Changneng; Sui, Yifeng; Xiao, Shangfeng; Hu, Linhua

    2009-12-01

    Based on the continuity equations and the equivalent circuit, the conductivity of substrates and the resistances of silver grid in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) are investigated. The complete I-V characteristics of DSC are obtained with different internal resistances. The theoretical and experimental results show internal resistances dominate the fill factor of DSC. At the same time, DSC module is investigated by numerical simulation under parallel connection with different illumination intensities. It can be found the high resistivity of substrates and the high illumination intensity lead to a lower optimal width in the DSC module.

  7. Low resistivity molybdenum thin film towards the back contact of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vuong Son; Tran Thi Ha; Luong T Thu Thuy; Nguyen Ngoc Ha; Nguyen Duc Chien; Mai Anh Tuan

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the optimization of the molybdenum thin film electrode as the back contact of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The molybdenum thin film was grown on the glass substrate by direct current sputtering techniques of which the sputtering power was 150Wat 18 sccm flow rate of Ar. At such sputtering parameters, the Mo film can reach the lowest resistivity of 1.28E−6 cm at 400 nm thick. And the reflection of Mo membrane was 82%. This value is considered as a very good result for preparation of the back contact of DSSC.

  8. Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Nanostructure Graphene Electron Transfer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of nanostructure graphene thin films as electron transfer layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was demonstrated. The effect of a nanostructure graphene thin film in DSSC structure was examined. The nanostructure graphene thin films provides a great electron transfer channel for the photogenerated electrons from TiO2 to indium tin oxide (ITO glass. Obvious improvements in short-circuit current density of the DSSCs were observed by using the graphene electron transport layer modified photoelectrode. The graphene electron transport layer reduces effectively the back reaction in the interface between the ITO transparent conductive film and the electrolyte in the DSSC.

  9. Electrochemical reaction rates in a dye sentisised solar cell - the iodide/tri-iodide redox system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Winter-Jensen, Bjørn;

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction rate of the redox couple iodide / tri-iodide in acetonitrile is characterised by impedance spectroscopy. Different electrode materials relevant for the function of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) are investigated. Preferably, the reaction with the iodide / tri......), and polyaniline (PANI) - all deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. Both Pt and PEDOT are found to have sufficiently high catalytic activities for practical use as counter electrode in DSSC. The reaction resistance on FTO and anatase confirmed the beneficial effect of a compact anatase layer on top...

  10. Application of a hybrid blocking layer in dye-sensitized solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lellig, P.

    2011-01-01

    In dye-sensitized solar cells a blocking layer between the transparent electrode and the mesoporous titanium dioxide film is used to prevent short-circuits between the hole-conductor and the front electrode. The conventional approach is to use a compact layer of titanium dioxide prepared by spin coating or spray pyrolysis. The thickness of the blocking layer is critical. On one hand, the layer has to be thick enough to cover the rough substrate completely. On the other hand, the serial resist...

  11. Block copolymer directed synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nedelcu, M.; Lee, J.; Crossland, E. J. W.; Warren, S.C.; Orilall, M. C.; Guldin, S.; Huettner, S.; Ducati, C.; Eder, D.; Wiesner, U.; Steiner, U.; Snaith, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    The morphology of TiO2 plays an important role in the operation of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. By using polyisoprene-block-ethyleneoxide (PI-b-PEO) copolymers as structure directing agents for a sol-gel based synthesis of mesoporous TiO2, we demonstrate a strategy for the detailed control of the semiconductor morphology on the 10 nm length scale. The careful adjustment of polymer molecular weight and titania precursor content is used to systematically vary the material structure a...

  12. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on High Surface Area Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Srinivasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High surface area nanocrystalline zinc oxide material is fabricated using mesoporous nanostructured carbon as a sacrificial template through combustion process. The resulting material is characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, HR-SEM, and HR-TEM. The nitrogen adsorption measurement indicates that the materials possess BET specific surface area ca. 30 m2/g. Electron microscopy images prove that the zinc oxide spheres possess particle size in the range of 0.12 μm–0.17 μm. The nanocrystalline zinc oxide spheres show 1.0% of energy conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  13. A new type counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI WeiWei; CAI Ning; ZHAO Ying; ZHANG XiaoDan; SUN Jian; WEI ChangChun; YUAN CunDa; LI Yuan; SU Yan; XIONG ShaoZhen

    2009-01-01

    A new type counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was proposed which consists of aubstrate, aluminum film and platinum film. The new type counter electrode can obviously improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSCs from 3.46% to 7.07% under the standard AM1.5 irradiation condition. Advantages and shortcomings of this new type counter electrode in terms of electrical properties, optical properties and anti-corrosive properties were analyzed. As a result, some improvements were proposed.

  14. Fabrication of Monolithic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using Ionic Liquid Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the durability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, monolithic DSCs with ionic liquid electrolyte were studied. Deposited by screen printing, a carbon layer was successfully fabricated that did not crack or peel when annealing was employed beforehand. Optimized electrodes exhibited photovoltaic characteristics of 0.608 V open-circuit voltage, 6.90 cm−2 mA short-circuit current, and 0.491 fill factor, yielding 2.06% power conversion efficiency. The monolithic DSC using ionic liquid electrolyte was thermally durable and operated stably for 1000 h at 80°C.

  15. A new type counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A new type counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was proposed which consists of substrate, aluminum film and platinum film. The new type counter electrode can obviously improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSCs from 3.46% to 7.07% under the standard AM1.5 irradiation condition. Advantages and shortcomings of this new type counter electrode in terms of electrical properties, optical properties and anti-corrosive properties were analyzed. As a result, some improvements were proposed.

  16. Application of microporous polyaniline counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qinghua; Wu, Jihuai; Tang, Qunwei; Lan, Zhang; Li, Pinjiang; Lin, Jianming; Fan, Leqing [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Fengze Area, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China)

    2008-09-15

    An inexpensive microporous polyaniline (PANI) is used as a substitute for platinum to construct the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The PANI counter electrode with microporosity and a size diameter of about 100 nm possesses lower charge-transfer resistance and higher electrocatalytic activity for the I{sub 3}{sup -}/ I{sup -} redox reaction than Pt electrode does. The overall energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC with PANI counter electrode reaches 7.15%, which is higher than that of the DSSC with Pt counter electrode. The excellent photoelectric properties, simple preparation procedure and inexpensive cost allow PANI electrode to be a credible alternative for DSSCs. (author)

  17. Towards Renewable Iodide Sources for Electrolytes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sagaidak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel family of iodide salts and ionic liquids based on different carbohydrate core units is herein described for application in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. The influence of the molecular skeleton and the cationic structure on the electrolyte properties, device performance and on interfacial charge transfer has been investigated. In combination with the C106 polypyridyl ruthenium sensitizer, power conversion efficiencies lying between 5.0% and 7.3% under standard Air Mass (A.M. 1.5G conditions were obtained in association with a low volatile methoxypropionitrile (MPN-based electrolyte.

  18. Recent Progress of Counter Electrodes in Nanocrystalline Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) consists a combination of several different materials: photoanodes with nanoparticulated semiconductors, sensitizers, electrolytes and counter electrodes (CEs). Each materials performs specific task for the conversion of solar energy into electricity. The main function of CE is to transfer electrons to the redox electrolyte and regenerate iodide ion. The work of CE is mainly focused on the studies of the kinetic performance and stability of the traditional CEs to improve the overall efficiency of DSC, seeking novel design concepts or new materials. In this review, the development and research progress of different CEmaterials and their electrochemical performance, and the problems are discussed.

  19. (Invited) Atomic Layer Deposition for Novel Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Herein we present the latest fabrication and characterization techniques for atomic layer deposition of Al 2O 3, ZnO, SnO 2, Nb 2O 5, HfO 2, Ga 2O 3 and TiO 2 for research on dye-sensitized solar cell. In particular, we review the fabrication of state-of-the-art 3D host-passivation-guest photoanodes and ZnO nanowires as well as characterize the deposited thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, X-ray diffraction, Hall effect, J-V curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. ©The Electrochemical Society.

  20. Optimization of the dye-sensitized solar cell performance by mechanical compression

    OpenAIRE

    Meen, Teen Hang; Tsai, Jenn Kai; Tu, Yu Shin; Wu, Tian Chiuan; Hsu, Wen Dung; Chang, Shoou-Jinn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the P25 titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle (NP) thin film was coated on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate by a doctor blade method. The film then compressed mechanically to be the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Various compression pressures on TiO2 NP film were tested to optimize the performance of DSSCs. The mechanical compression reduces TiO2 inter-particle distance improving the electron transport efficiency. The UV–vis spectrophotometer...

  1. Deep-red to near-infrared fluorescent dyes: Synthesis, photophysical properties, and application in cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Liu, Weimin; Wu, Jiasheng; Zhou, Bingjiang; Niu, Guangle; Zhang, Hongyan; Ge, Jiechao; Wang, Pengfei

    2016-07-01

    More and more attention has been paid to the design of new fluorescent imaging agents with good photostability and water solubility, especially those with emissions in the deep-red and near-infrared regions. In this work, we designed and synthesized four novel fluorescent dyes with deep-red or NIR fluorescence by hybridizing coumarin and pyronin moieties based on our previous work. Introduction of carboxylic acid in the dyes not only imparted the dyes with water solubility but also provided a versatile sensing platform for designing the fluorescent probes and sensors of biomolecules. The photophysical properties of these new dyes were investigated through absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Cell imaging experiments showed that esterification products could selectively stain lysosomes with good photostability, thereby indicating that they could be useful in the development of fluorescent probes for bioimaging.

  2. Dye-sensitized solar cell with natural gel polymer electrolytes and f-MWCNT as counter-electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Ekwealor, A. B. C.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

    2015-05-01

    Samples of DSSCs were made with gel polymer electrolytes using agar, gelatin and DNA as the polymer hosts. Anthocyanine dye from Hildegardia barteri flower is used to sensitize the TiO2 electrode, and the spectrum of the dye indicates strong absorptions in the blue region of the solar spectrum. The XRD pattern of the TiO2 shows that the adsorption of the dye did not affect the crystallinity of the electrode. The f-MWCNT indicates graphite structure of the MWCNTs were acid oxidized without significant damage. Efficiencies of 3.38 and 0.1% were obtained using gelatin and DNA gel polymer electrolytes, respectively, for the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells.

  3. Study of azo dye decolorization and determination of cathode microorganism profile in air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumru, Mert; Eren, Hilal; Catal, Tunc; Bermek, Hakan; Akarsubaşi, Alper Tunga

    2012-09-01

    Five textile azo dyes, as part of an artificial mixture, were treated in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells while simultaneously utilizing acetate for electricity production. Remazol Black, Remazol Brilliant Blue, Remazol Turquoise Blue, Reactive Yellow and Reactive Red at concentrations of 40 or 80 mg L(-1) were decolorized to a similar extent, at averages of 78, 95, 53, 93 and 74%, respectively, in 24 hours. During the process of decolorization, electricity generation from acetate oxidation continued. Power densities obtained in the presence of textile dyes ranged from 347 to 521 mW m(-2) at the current density range of 0.071 - 0.086 mA cm(-2). Microbial community analyses of cathode biofilm exhibited dynamic changes in abundant species following dye decolorization. Upon the addition of the first dye, a major change (63%) in microbial diversity was observed; however, subsequent addition of other dyes did not affect the community profile significantly. Actinobacteria, Aquamicrobium, Mesorhizobium, Ochrobactrum, Thauera, Paracoccus, Achromobacter and Chelatacoccus affiliated phylotypes were the major phylotypes detected. Our results demonstrate that microbial fuel cells could be a promising alternative for treatment of textile wastewaters and an active bacterial community can rapidly be established for simultaneous azo dye decolorization and sustainable electricity generation.

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for Greenhouse Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum-Jong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed dye-sensitized solar cells using novel sensitizers with enhanced transmittance of red (625–675 nm and blue (425–475 nm wavebands to control the illumination condition in the greenhouse. Novel ruthenium bipyridyl sensitizers with general formulas (Me3PhN4[Ru(dcbpy2(NCS2] (JJ-7 and (Me3BnN4[Ru(dcbpy2(NCS2] (JJ-9 have been synthesized and demonstrated as efficient sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells for greenhouse application. Under standard AM 1.5 sunlight, the solar cell of JJ-7 using a liquid-based electrolyte exhibits a short-circuit photocurrent density of 8.49 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.83 V, and a fill factor of 0.71, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 4.96% on 5 μm TiO2 film. The transmittance of JJ-7 and JJ-9 shows 62.0% and 61.0% at 660 nm and 18.0% and 15.0% at 440 nm for cultivation on 5 μm TiO2 film, respectively.

  5. Stainless steel electrode characterizations by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanta, A.-F., E-mail: abdoul.kanta@umons.ac.be [Service de Science des Materiaux, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Decroly, A. [Service de Science des Materiaux, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2011-11-30

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to understand the electrochemical mechanisms which appear in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This qualitative and quantitative technique permits identification of the phenomena proceeding within the different elements composing the cell and at their interfaces. In this study, the classical conducting glass substrate was replaced by a protected stainless steel (304 type) substrate as the counter-electrode (cathode) in dye-sensitized solar cells. Platinum was deposited at the substrate surface to optimize the charge transfer resistance of the electrode. After a few days of immersion in the electrolytic solution, stainless steel substrates coated with low thickness of Pt show pitting corrosion due to iodine. Defects in the Pt layer such as discontinuity of the film and micro-cracks may explain the corrosion of the stainless steel substrate. However the Pt layer degradation is retarded for thicker films. On the other hand, polished substrates show a better behaviour probably due to the elimination of the defects on the stainless steel surface. Electrolytic solution was optimized. For this, components such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (BMII), guanidine thiocyanate (GT) and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) were added. No corrosion phenomena on stainless steel 304 appeared within 3 days when TBP was added. This means that TBP acts as a corrosion inhibitor. A schematic equivalent circuit is also proposed.

  6. Connecting Direct C-H Arylation Reactions with Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Shortcut to D-A-π-A Organic Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Han; Lu, Te-Jui; Cai, Deng-Jhou; Lee, Kun-Mu; Liu, Ching-Yuan

    2015-10-12

    A step-economical synthetic strategy is developed to target thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD)-based D-A-π-A organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Through sequential Pd-catalyzed direct C-H (hetero)arylation reaction, synthesis of the push-pull-type small molecules is reduced from the traditional six steps to two steps. In this report, we focus on the optimization of the key C-H monoarylation of TPD by screening ligands, acid additives, bases, and solvents. The reaction proves versatile toward new D-A-π-A organic dyes with a variety of different donor groups, and several derivatives are efficiently prepared under optimum reaction conditions. The sensitive aldehyde functionality that is a required intermediate for conversion into anchoring groups for TiO2 is well tolerated. Based on our synthetic study, DSSCs are fabricated and characterized using two designed sensitizers. The photovoltaic characterization of the devices affords an open-circuit voltage of 0.60-0.69 V, a short-circuit current density of 10.85-11.07 mA cm(-2), and a fill factor of 69.9-70.8 %, which corresponds to an overall power conversion efficiency of 4.61-5.33 %.

  7. Biodecolorization of azo dye Remazol orange by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH and toxicity (oxidative stress) reduction in Allium cepa root cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Shekhar B; Surwase, Shripad N; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Gurav, Ranjit G; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2012-11-01

    In this report a textile azo dye Remazol orange was degraded and detoxified by bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH in plain distilled water. This bacterial decolorization performance was found to be pH and temperature dependent with maximum decolorization observed at pH 8 and temperature 30 °C. Bacterium tolerated higher dye concentrations up to 400 mg l(-1). Effect of initial cell mass showed that higher cell mass concentration can accelerate decolorization process with maximum of 92 % decolorization observed at 2.5 g l(-1) cell mass within 6.5 h. Effect of various metal ions showed Mn has inducing effect whereas Zn strongly inhibited the decolorization process at 5 mM concentration. Analysis of biodegradation products carried out with UV-vis spectroscopy, HPTLC and FTIR confirmed the decolorization and degradation of Remazol orange. Possible route for the degradation of dye was proposed based on GC-MS analysis. During toxicological scrutiny in Allium cepa root cells, induction in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and inhibition of catalase (CAT) along with raised levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in dye treated samples were detected which conclusively indicated the generation of oxidative stress. Less toxic nature of the dye degraded products was observed after bacterial treatment.

  8. Methods of Measuring Energy Conversion Efficiency in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Naoki; Chiba, Yasuo; Han, Liyuan

    2005-06-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) were measured and compared with those of crystalline silicon solar cells. It was found that the energy conversion efficiency of DSCs is dependent on voltage sweep direction and sampling delay time (Td). Measurement of the transient photocurrent revealed that this dependence is due to the longer time constant of DSCs. This dependence was also confirmed in a simulation of current-voltage curves based on an equivalent circuit model of DSCs. Analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of polymer-based bulk heterojunction solar cells (BHSCs) and simulated measurements showed that the longer time constant is due to slow movement of ions in the electrolyte. To improve accuracy, the I-V measurement should be carried out from short circuit to open circuit with Td of 100 ms or longer.

  9. Electric Characterization and Modeling of Microfluidic-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Sacco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric response to an external periodic voltage of small amplitude of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs made up with an alternative architecture has been investigated. DSCs have been fabricated with a reversible sealing structure, based on microfluidic concepts, with a precise control on the geometric parameters of the active chamber. Cells with different electrolyte thicknesses have been characterized, without varying the thickness of the TiO2 layer, both under illumination and in dark conditions. Measurements of the electric impedance have been performed in the presence of an external bias ranging from 0 V to 0.8 V. The experimental data have been analyzed in terms of a transmission line model, with two transport channels. The results show that the photovoltaic performances of the microfluidic cell are comparable with those obtained in irreversibly sealed structures, actually demonstrating the reliability of the proposed device.

  10. Counter electrodes from conducting polymer intercalated graphene for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru; Tang, Qunwei; Yu, Liangmin; Yan, Xuefeng; Zhang, Zhiming; Yang, Peizhi

    2016-03-01

    Creation of cost-effective and platinum-free counter electrodes (CEs) is persistent for developing advanced dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We present here the fabrication of conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PANi), polypyrole (PPy), or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) intercalated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) CEs on flexible Ti foil or polyethylene-terephthalate substrate for liquid-junction DSSC applications. The ration architecture integrates the high electron-conducting ability of graphene and good electrocatalytic activity of a conducting polymer into a single CE material. The preliminary results demonstrate that the resultant CEs follow an order of rGO/PPy > rGO/PANi > rGO/PEDOT > rGO. A maximal cell efficiency of 6.23% is determined on the optimized solar cell device, yielding 104.9% enhancement in comparison to rGO based device.

  11. One electron changes everything: a multispecies copper redox shuttle for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffeditz, William L.; Katz, Michael J.; Deria, Pravas; Cutsail, George E.; Pellin, Michael J.; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2016-02-25

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are an established alternative photovoltaic technology that offers numerous potential advantages in solar energy applications. However, this technology has been limited by the availability of molecular redox couples that are both noncorrosive/nontoxic and do not diminish the performance of the device. In an effort to overcome these shortcomings, a copper-containing redox shuttle derived from 1,8-bis(2'-pyridyl)-3,6-dithiaoctane (PDTO) ligand and the common DSC additive 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) was investigated. Electrochemical measurements, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies reveal that, upon removal of one metal-centered electron, PDTO-enshrouded copper ions completely shed the tetradentate PDTO ligand and replace it with four or more TBP ligands. Thus, the Cu(I) and Cu(II) forms of the electron shuttle have completely different coordination spheres and are characterized by widely differing Cu(II/I) formal potentials and reactivities for forward versus reverse electron transfer. Notably, the coordination-sphere replacement process is fully reversed upon converting Cu(II) back to Cu(I). In cells featuring an adsorbed organic dye and a nano- and mesoparticulate, TiO2-based, photoelectrode, the dual species redox shuttle system engenders performance superior to that obtained with shuttles based on the (II/I) forms of either of the coordination complexes in isolation.

  12. Detailed analysis of ultrathin fluorescent red dye interlayer for organic photovoltaic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zang Yue; Yu Jun-Sheng; Wang Na-Na; Jiang Ya-Dong

    2011-01-01

    The influence of an ultrathin 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) fluorescent dye layer at donor/acceptor heterojunction on the performance of small-molecule organic photovoltaic (OPV) cell is studied. The structure of OPV cell is of indium-tin oxide (ITO)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/DCJTB/fullerene (C60)/bathophenanthroline (Bphen)/Ag. The results show that open circuit voltage (Voc)increases to 0.57 V as the fihn thicknees of DCJTB layer increases from 0.2 to 2.0 nm. By using an equivalent circuit model, the enhancement of Voc is found to be attributed to the reduced reverse saturation current density (Js) which is due to the lower highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level in DCJTB than that in CuPc. Also, the short circuit current density (Jsc) is affected when the DCJTB layer becomes thicker, resulting from the high series resistance RsA due to the low charge carrier mobility of fluorescent red dye.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis of hierarchical WO{sub 3} nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, M.M. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, P.O. Box 87, Cairo (Egypt); Shalan, A.E. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, P.O. Box 87, Cairo (Egypt); Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (i-MEET), Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Hierarchical architectures consisting of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures are of great interest for potential use in energy and environmental applications in recent years. In this work, hierarchical tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route from ammonium metatungstate hydrate and implemented as photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The urchin-like WO{sub 3} micro-patterns are constructed by self-organized nanoscale length 1D building blocks, which are single crystalline in nature, grown along (001) direction and confirm an orthorhombic crystal phase. The obtained powders were investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on WO{sub 3} photoanodes was investigated. With increasing the calcination temperature of the prepared nanopowders, the light-electricity conversion efficiency (η) was increased. The results were attributed to increase the crystallinity of the particles and ease of electron movement. The DSSC based on hierarchical WO{sub 3} showed a short-circuit current, an open-circuit voltage, a fill factor, and a conversion efficiency of 4.241 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.656 V, 66.74, and 1.85 %, respectively. (orig.)

  14. Investigating the role of graphene in the photovoltaic performance improvement of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Brijesh, E-mail: brijesh.tripathi@sse.pdpu.ac.in [School of Technology, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar 382007 (India); School of Solar Energy, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar 382007 (India); Yadav, Pankaj; Pandey, Kavita; Kanade, Pooja [School of Solar Energy, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar 382007 (India); Kumar, Manjeet [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Pune 411025 (India); Kumar, Manoj, E-mail: manoj.kumar@sse.pdpu.ac.in [School of Technology, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar 382007 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Graphene catalytic activity in dye-sensitized solar cell is evaluated. • Two-diode model is used for performance evaluation. • Optical performance of graphene is analyzed. • 36% increase in efficiency has been reported using graphene-coupled counter electrode. - Abstract: This article compares and describes the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) consisting of platinum (Pt) and graphene-coupled-platinum based counter electrodes (CE). The power conversion efficiency of DSSC could be enhanced by 36% with multi-layer graphene flakes (MGF)/Pt CE as compared to Pt CE. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry analysis show that DSSC with an MGF/Pt CE exhibits a higher electro-catalytic activity with lower series resistance. Two-diode model has been used to extract the recombination governing and the performance indicating parameters of a DSSC. An enhancement of ≈76% in short-circuit current of MGF/CE based DSSC, as compared to Pt CE, could be attributed to optical and catalytic properties of graphene. This study provides an insight into electronic transport mechanism of DSSC, which changes under the influence of highly catalytic materials such as graphene.

  15. Transparent platinum counter electrode for efficient semi-transparent dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iefanova, Anastasiia; Nepal, Jeevan; Poudel, Prashant; Davoux, Daren; Gautam, Umesh [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Mallam, Venkataiah [Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Qiao, Qiquan [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Logue, Brian [Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Baroughi, Mahdi Farrokh, E-mail: m.farrokhbaroughi@sdstate.edu [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A method for fabrication of highly transparent platinum counter electrodes (CEs) has been developed based on spray coating of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on hot substrates. This method leads to 86% reduction in Pt consumption reducing the Pt cost per peak watt of counter electrode from $0.79/Wp down to $0.11/Wp compared to the conventional Pt counter electrodes made by sputter deposition. The simplicity and low cost of this method provide a basis for an up-scalable fabrication process. The Pt NP layer is over 88% transparent, leading to overall transparency of 80% when incorporated with indium tin oxide/glass substrates for functional counter electrodes. This counter electrode exhibits a large surface area and high catalytic activity, comparable to that of the conventional opaque CEs. Semi-transparent dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated based on this counter electrode showed 6.17% power conversion efficiency. - Highlights: • Counter electrode (CE) prepared by spraying nanoparticle (NP) Pt on hot substrate. • Low cost and scalable fabrication process of CE. • The spray deposited CE uses 10 times less Pt compared to the sputtering method. • The CE is 80% transparent and exhibits a large surface and high catalytic activity. • A semitransparent dye-sensitized solar cell with Pt NP CE was 6.17% efficient.

  16. Dye-sensitised photoelectrochemical solar cells with polyacrylonitrile based solid polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ileperuma, O.A.; Somasundaram, S. [University of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Dept. of Chemistry; Dissanayake, M.A.K.L. [University of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Dept. of Physics

    2002-07-05

    Novel all solid state dye-sensitised photoelectrochemical solar cells of the type, FTO-TiO{sub 2}-dye-PAN, EC, PC, Pr{sub 4}N{sup +}I{sup -}, I{sub 2}-Pt-FTO, have been fabricated and characterised using current-voltage characteristics and action spectra. Liquid electrolyte generally used for such solar cells has been successfully replaced by a quasi solid electrolyte comprised of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) as plasticisers and Pr{sub 4}N{sup +}I{sup -}/I{sub 2} redox couple with tetrapropylammoniumiodide as the complexing salt. For the polymer electrolyte, the optimum conductivity of 2.95 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} was obtained for the electrolyte composition, PAN:EC:PC=15:35:50 (wt.%). The short circuit current density (J{sub SC}) and the open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) obtained for an incident light intensity of 600 W m{sup -2} were 3.73 mA cm{sup -2} and 0.69 V, respectively. This corresponds to an overall quantum efficiency of 2.99%. From the action spectrum, the maximum incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 33% was obtained for incident light of wavelength 480 nm.(author)

  17. Aggregates of plasmonic nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have not been effective in improving the overall performance of the cells with micrometer-thick absorbing layers mainly due to the parasitic optical dissipation in the metal. Here, using both experiment and theory, we demonstrate that aggregates of metallic NPs enhance the light absorption of dye-sensitized solar cells of a few micrometer-thick light absorbing layers. The composite electrode containing the optimal concentration of 5 wt% Au@SiO2 aggregates shows the enhancement of 80% and 52% in external quantum efficiency and photocurrent density, respectively. The superior performance of the aggregates relative to NP is attributed to their larger scattering efficiency using full-wave optical simulations. This is further confirmed by optical spectroscopic measurements showing that a large fraction of the incident light couples into the diffused components because of the presence of these metallic aggregates. The optical absorption enhancement is broadband and it is particularly strong at wavelengths larger than 680 nm where the optical absorption of dye molecules is weak. (paper)

  18. Dynamical Orientation of Large Molecules on Oxide Surfaces and its Implications for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.

    2013-11-12

    A dual experimental-computational approach utilizing near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and density functional theory-molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) is presented for determining the orientation of a large adsorbate on an oxide substrate. A system of interest in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells is studied: an organic cyanoacrylic acid-based donor-π-acceptor dye (WN1) bound to anatase TiO2. Assessment of nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS spectra is supported by calculations of the electronic structure that indicate energetically discrete transitions associated with the two π systems of the C-N triple bond in the cyanoacrylic acid portion of the dye. Angle-resolved NEXAFS spectra are fitted to determine the orientation of these two orbital systems, and the results indicate an upright orientation of the adsorbed dye, 63 from the TiO2 surface plane. These experimental results are then compared to computational studies of the WN1 dye on an anatase (101) TiO2 slab. The ground state structure obtained from standard DFT optimization is less upright (45 from the surface) than the NEXAFS results. However, DFT-MD simulations, which provide a more realistic depiction of the dye at room temperature, exhibit excellent agreement - within 2 on average - with the angles determined via NEXAFS, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the dynamic nature of adsorbate-substrate interactions and DFT-MD\\'s powerful predictive abilities. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Cation control of energetics on dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stux, Arnold M.

    Regenerative solar cells based on nanocrystalline TiO2 (anatase) and the dye Ru(deeb)(bpy)2(PF6)2, where deeb is 4,4'-(CO2CH2CH3)2-2,2 '-bipyridine and bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, have increased efficiency when in the presence of a high concentration of cations with a large charge-to-radius ratio. Concentration-dependent photoluminescence (PL) quenching and increased quantum yield for interfacial charge separation have been explored for mono- and divalent cations by absorbance, time-resolved and steady-state PL. Cation adsorption stabilizes TiO2 acceptor states resulting in energetically favorable electron transfer from the dye into the semiconductor conduction band. Quenching of the PL of excited states is reversible. A new luminescence approach for sensing alkali and alkaline earth metal cations utilizes the surface-adsorption/desorption induced energetic shifts of a semiconductor conduction band to alter the electron transfer quenching efficiency of a photoluminescent dye such as Ru(deeb)(bpy)2(PF 6)2 anchored to TiO2 nanoparticles. This approach yields intensity, lifetime, and wavelength-ratiometric calcium ion sensors that are sensitive to 5 x 10-4 M concentrations. In situ photoluminescence of a regenerative solar cell has been demonstrated as a probe of injection and efficiencies. The smaller the alkali cation, the higher the photocurrent and the more quenched the photoluminescence. The extent of quenching in 0.1 M iodide/0.01 M iodine electrolytes was 10-fold with LiI and 3-fold with NaI. A millimolar threshold concentration is observed for Li+ at which point a red shift in absorbance and photoluminescence spectra concomitant with significant static and dynamic quenching occurs. For Na+, the threshold concentration for observable red shift is more than an order of magnitude higher than for Li+. Cation adsorption was also observed on planar TiO2 surfaces in the absence of dye. The flat band potentials of single crystal TiO 2 (rutile) with cations in propylene

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cell architecture based on indium-tin oxide nanowires coated with titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new architecture for dye-sensitized solar cells is employed, based on a nanostructured transparent conducting oxide protruding from the substrate, covered with a separate active oxide layer. The objective is to decrease electron-hole recombination. The concept was tested by growing branched indium-tin oxide nanowires on glass using pulsed laser deposition followed by deposition of a sputtered titanium dioxide layer covering the wires. The separation of charge generation and charge transport functions opens many possibilities for dye-sensitized solar cell optimization