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Sample records for cell dye n719

  1. Photostability of the solar cell dye sensitizer N719

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz

    The photostability of the sensitizer dye [Ru(dcbpyH)2(NCS)2] (Bu4N)2 (referred to as N719) was investigated in a simple model system instead of a complete nanocrystaline dye sensitized titanium dioxide solar cells (nc-DSSC). The applied model system consisted of N719 dyed titanium dioxide...... it was possible to calculate an average value for the oxidative degradation rate of the N719 dye attached to the TiO2 nanoparticles, kdeg = 4 × 10–2 s–1 . Heating and illumination of the model system in the presence of 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-TBP), the commonly used additive in nc-DSSC, revealed the possible...

  2. In Vitro Polarized Resonance Raman Study of N719 and N719-TBP in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, Søren; Jernshøj, Kit Drescher; Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The working efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) depends on the long-term stability of the dye itself and on the microscopic structure of the dye-semiconductor interface. Previous experimental studies of DSCs based on ruthenium dye with bipyridine ligands (N719) adsorbed...

  3. Charge Transport and Photocurrent Generation Characteristics in Dye Solar Cells Containing Thermally Degraded N719 Dye Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. R.; Halme, J.; Lund, T.

    2011-01-01

    By deliberately introducing the thermally degraded form of the dye solar cell sensitizer N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) using synthetically prepared N719-TBP ([Ru(L-H)(2)(NCS)(4-tert-butylpyridine)](-+)N-(Bu)(4)), we have investigated the devastating influence of this ligand substitution...... in the absorption spectrum of the dye, ca. 50% shorter electron diffusion length due to lower electron recombination resistance, and ca. 14% lower charge separation efficiency, which most likely can be ascribed to decreased dye regeneration efficiency caused by the replacement of one NCS ligand with TBP...... in the substitution product. The observations made in this study of DSC cells dyed with the substitution product, representing a worst case scenario of cells with 100% degraded dye, are in agreement with the characteristics of N719-dyed solar cells degraded at 85 degrees C, where the effect of ligand substitution...

  4. Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells from mesoporous zinc oxide nanostructures sensitized by N719 dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, G. R. A.; Deshapriya, U.; Ranasinghe, C. S. K.; Jayaweera, E. N.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.

    2018-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have attracted a great deal of attention due to their low-cost and high power conversion efficiencies. They usually utilize an interconnected nanoparticle layer of TiO2 as the electron transport medium. From the fundamental point of view, faster mobility of electrons in ZnO is expected to contribute to better performance in DSCs than TiO2, though the actual practical situation is quite the opposite. In this research, we addressed this problem by first applying a dense layer of ZnO on FTO followed by a mesoporous layer of interconnected ZnO nanoparticle layer, both were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. The best cell shows a power conversion efficiency of 5.2% when the mesoporous layer thickness is 14 μm and the concentration of the N719 dye in dye coating solution is 0.3 mM, while a cell without a dense layer shows 4.2% under identical conditions. The surface concentration of dye adsorbed in the cell with a dense layer and that without a dense layer are 5.00 × 10‑7 and 3.34 × 10‑7 mol/cm2, respectively. The cell with the dense layer has an electron lifetime of 54.81 ms whereas that without the dense layer is 11.08 ms. As such, the presence of the dense layer improves DSC characteristics of ZnO-based DSCs.

  5. Thermal Thiocyanate Ligand Substitution Kinetics of the Solar Cell Dye N719 by Acetonitrile, 3-Methoxypropionitrile, and 4-tert-Butylpyridine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thai Hoang; Minh, Ha; Lund, Torben

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics of the thiocyanate substitution of the solar cell sensitizer [Ru(Hdcbpy)B2B(NCS)B2B]P2-P, 2 (n-CB4BHB9B)B4BNP+)P, (HB2Bdcbpy = L = 2,2´-bipyridine-4,4´-dicarboxylic acid), known as N719, by acetonitrile, 3-methoxypropionitrile, and 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-TBP) have been determined in...... by a factor of 2-10; it thus may be used as an additive to prevent the thermal degradation of thiocyanate-based ruthenium complexes in DSSC solar cells.......The kinetics of the thiocyanate substitution of the solar cell sensitizer [Ru(Hdcbpy)B2B(NCS)B2B]P2-P, 2 (n-CB4BHB9B)B4BNP+)P, (HB2Bdcbpy = L = 2,2´-bipyridine-4,4´-dicarboxylic acid), known as N719, by acetonitrile, 3-methoxypropionitrile, and 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-TBP) have been determined...... with acetonitrile and 4-TBP as solvent and additive are therefore not expected to be able to pass a 1000-h thermal stress test in the dark at 85°C due to thermal degradation of the N719 dye. Adding guanidine thiocyanate to the colloidal solutions, however, decreased the rate of [RuL2(NCS)(4-TBP)]+ formation...

  6. Influence of TiO2 Nanocrystals Fabricating Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell on the Absorption Spectra of N719 Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puhong Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The absorption spectra of N719 sensitizer anchored on the films prepared by TiO2 nanocrystals with different morphology and size were investigated for improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. We find that the morphology and size of TiO2 nanocrystals can affect the UV-vis and FT-IR spectra of the sensitizer anchored on their surfaces. In particular, the low-energy metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transitions (MLCT band in the visible absorption spectra of N719 is strongly affected, and locations of these MLCT bands revealed larger differences. The results indicate that there is a red shift of MLCT band in the spectra obtained by using TiO2 nanocrystals with long morphology and large size compared to that in solution. And it produced a larger red-shift on the MLCT band after TiO2 nanocrystals with small size mixed with some long nanocrystals. Accordingly, the utilization rate to visible light is increased. This is a reason why the DSC prepared by using such film as a photoelectrode has better performance than before mixing.

  7. The effect of 4-tert-butylpyridine and Li+ on the thermal degradation of TiO2 - bound ruthenium dye N719

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lund, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Thermal stability experiments were performed at 100 °C of the dye-sensitized solar cell ruthenium dye N719. The experiments were performed as simple test-tube experiments carried out with colloidal solutions of N719-loaded TiO2 particles. The dye degradation was followed by the use of HPLC...

  8. Degradation chemistry of N719 and Z-907 dyes at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben; Nguyen, Hoang Thai; Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet

    2009-01-01

    C).       Recently we have established the mechanism and kinetics of these thiocyanate exchange reactions in both homogeneous solutions and colloidal mixtures with the dyes attached to TiO2 particles.2,3 The half life’s at 85 ºC of  the N719 and Z-907 bound to TiO2 particles in colloidal solutions of 3......Degradation chemistry of N719 and Z-907 dyes at elevated temperatures.   Torben Lunda, Phuong Tuyet Nguyena and Hoang Thai Nguyenb aDepartment of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000, Denmark bDepartment of Chemistry, University of Sciences, HoChiMinh City, Vietnam......      The popular dye sensitized solar cell dyes N719 and Z-907 are in general accepted to be very stable under solar cell conditions below 45 ºC.1 The dyes, however, may undergo thiocyanate ligand substitution reactions with the DSC solvent and additive molecules at elevated temperatures (80-100 º...

  9. Degradation chemistry of N719 and Z-907 dyes at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben; Nguyen, Hoang Thai; Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet

    2009-01-01

         The popular dye sensitized solar cell dyes N719 and Z-907 are in general accepted to be very stable under solar cell conditions below 45 ºC.1 The dyes, however, may undergo thiocyanate ligand substitution reactions with the DSC solvent and additive molecules at elevated temperatures (80-100 º......Degradation chemistry of N719 and Z-907 dyes at elevated temperatures.   Torben Lunda, Phuong Tuyet Nguyena and Hoang Thai Nguyenb aDepartment of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000, Denmark bDepartment of Chemistry, University of Sciences, HoChiMinh City, Vietnam......C).       Recently we have established the mechanism and kinetics of these thiocyanate exchange reactions in both homogeneous solutions and colloidal mixtures with the dyes attached to TiO2 particles.2,3 The half life’s at 85 ºC of  the N719 and Z-907 bound to TiO2 particles in colloidal solutions of 3...

  10. Photovoltaic Performance and Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Prepared with the N719 Thermal Degradation Products Ru(LH)(2)(NCS)(4-tert-butylpyridine) N(Bu)(4) and Ru(LH)(2)(NCS)(1-methylbenzimidazole) N(Bu)(4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, P. T.; Binh, X. T. L.; Andersen, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    by electrospray mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs or DSSCs) prepared with 1 and 2 have efficiencies that are three and two times lower than N719 cells, respectively. Analysis of the UV/Vis and incident-photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) spectra indicates that the main...

  11. Determination of the light-induced degradation rate of the solar cell sensitizer N719 on TiO2 nanocrystalline particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Doan Nguyen, Sau; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2005-01-01

    The oxidative degradation rate, kdeg of the solar cell dye (Bu4N+)2 [Ru(dcbpyH)2(NCS)2]2–, referred to as N719 or [RuL2(NCS)2], was obtained by applying a simple model system. Colloidal solutions of N719-dyed TiO2 particles in acetonitrile were irradiated with 532-nm monochromatic light, and the ......The oxidative degradation rate, kdeg of the solar cell dye (Bu4N+)2 [Ru(dcbpyH)2(NCS)2]2–, referred to as N719 or [RuL2(NCS)2], was obtained by applying a simple model system. Colloidal solutions of N719-dyed TiO2 particles in acetonitrile were irradiated with 532-nm monochromatic light...... range. By using the relation kdeg = deg × kback and back electron transfer reaction rates, kback, obtained using photoinduced absorption spectroscopy, it was possible to calculate an average value for the oxidative degradation rate of N719 dye attached to TiO2 particles, kdeg = 4 × 10–2 s–1....... The stability of N719 dye during solar cell operation was discussed based on this number, and on values of the electron transfer rate between [Ru(III) L2(NCS) 2] and iodide that are available in the literature....

  12. The effect of 4-tert-butylpyridine and Li+ on the thermal degradation of TiO2 – bound ruthenium dye N719

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lund, Torben

    C and are based on simple test-tube experiments carried out in colloidal solutions of N719-loaded TiO2 particles (TiO2|N719). The dye degradation was followed by the use of HPLC-coupled electrospray mass spectrometry and investigations of the formation of complexes between Li+ ions and 4-TBP was analyzed...

  13. Integration of High-Performance Nanocrystalline TiO2 Photoelectrodes for N719-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jian Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on enhanced performance of N719-sensitized TiO2 solar cells (DSCs incorporating size and photoelectron diffusion-controlled TiO2 as sensitizer-matched light-scatter layers on conventional nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes. The double-layered N719/TiO2 composite electrode with a high dye-loading capacity exhibits the diffused reflectance of more than 50% in the range of λ = 650–800 nm, even when the films are coupled with the titania nanocrystalline underlayer in the device. As a result, the increased near-infrared light-harvesting produces a high light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of over 9% mainly due to the significant increase of Jsc. Such an optical effect of the NIR-light scattering TiO2 electrodes will be beneficial when the sensitizers with low molar extinction coefficients, such as N719, are introduced in the device.

  14. Studies of the absorbance peak on the N719 dye influence by combination between Cadmium Selenide (CdSeQDs and Zinc Sulfide(ZnSQDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Mohammad Azren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The absorption rate of the photoanode can be influenced by the combination between the difference semiconductor quantum dot sensitizer. Six samples were prepared with difference weight percent (wt% of ZnS from 0% to 50% and constant wt% of CdSe which then will be called as semiconductor QDs were immersed in 0.5mM of N719 dye. The purity of ZnS powder and CdSe powder was determined using x-ray diffraction (XRD.The ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (Uv-Vis use to investigate the absorption spectrum and absorbance peak of this sample. 50 wt% of ZnS is the best composition to increase the absorbance peak of the photoanode. The Cyclic voltammetry (CV of varying wt% of ZnS, found that the 40 wt% of ZnS is suitable combination for a DSSC’s photoanode and produced the higher current.

  15. Broadband optical absorption enhancement of N719 dye in ethanol by gold-silver alloy nanoparticles fabricated under laser ablation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azawi, Mohammed A.; Bidin, Noriah; Abbas, Khaldoon N.; Bououdina, Mohamed; Azzez, Shrook A.

    2016-04-01

    The formation of gold-silver alloy nanoparticles (Au-Ag alloy NPs) by a two-step process with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser without any additives is presented. Mixtures of Au and Ag colloidal suspensions were separately obtained by 1064-nm laser ablation of metallic targets immersed in ethanol. Subsequently, the as-mixed colloidal suspensions were reirradiated by laser-induced heating at the second-harmonic generation (532 nm) for different irradiation periods of time. The absorption spectra and morphology of the colloidal alloys were studied as a function of exposure time to laser irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of monodispersed spherical nanoparticles with a homogeneous size distribution in all the synthesized samples. UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements were also employed to characterize the changes in the light absorption and emission of N719 dye solution with different concentrations of Au-Ag colloidal alloys, respectively. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au-Ag alloy NPs enhanced the absorption and fluorescence peak of the dye solution. The mixture of dye molecules with a higher concentration of alloy NPs exhibited an additional coupling of dipole moments with the LSPR, thereby contributing to the improvement of the optical properties of the mixture.

  16. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  17. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-05

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An investigation of the photosubstitution reaction between N719-dyed nanocrystalline TiO2 particles and 4-tert-butylpyridine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Nguyen, Thai Hoang; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    The effect of high concentrations of the solar cell additive 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-TBP) on the stability and lifetime of the sensitizer [Ru(Hdcbpy)2(NCS)2]2-, 2(n-C4H9)4N+, (H2dcbpy=2,2′-bipyridine-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid), known as N719, has been evaluated based on kinetic data obtained from si......s-1, of the reaction between TiO2|N719+ and iodide. We conclude that the addition of 4-TBP to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) does not decrease the lifetime of the N719 dye during normal solar cell operation at room temperature. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved...

  19. Multiple electron injection dynamics in linearly-linked two dye co-sensitized nanocrystalline metal oxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Ogomi, Yuhei; Park, Byung-wook; Inoue, Takafumi; Pandey, Shyam S; Miyamoto, Akari; Fujita, Shinsuke; Katayama, Kenji; Toyoda, Taro; Hayase, Shuzi

    2012-04-07

    Understanding the electron transfer dynamics at the interface between dye sensitizer and semiconductor nanoparticle is very important for both a fundamental study and development of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), which are a potential candidate for next generation solar cells. In this study, we have characterized the ultrafast photoexcited electron dynamics in a newly produced linearly-linked two dye co-sensitized solar cell using both a transient absorption (TA) and an improved transient grating (TG) technique, in which tin(IV) 2,11,20,29-tetra-tert-butyl-2,3-naphthalocyanine (NcSn) and cis-diisothiocyanato-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)ruthenium(II) bis(tetrabutylammonium) (N719) are molecularly and linearly linked and are bonded to the surface of a nanocrystalline tin dioxide (SnO(2)) electrode by a metal-O-metal linkage (i.e. SnO(2)-NcSn-N719). By comparing the TA and TG kinetics of NcSn, N719, and hybrid NcSn-N719 molecules adsorbed onto both of the SnO(2) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO(2)) nanocrystalline films, the forward and backward electron transfer dynamics in SnO(2)-NcSn-N719 were clarified. We found that there are two pathways for electron injection from the linearly-linked two dye molecules (NcSn-N719) to SnO(2). The first is a stepwise electron injection, in which photoexcited electrons first transfer from N719 to NcSn with a transfer time of 0.95 ps and then transfer from NcSn to the conduction band (CB) of SnO(2) with two timescales of 1.6 ps and 4.2 ps. The second is direct photoexcited electron transfer from N719 to the CB of SnO(2) with a timescale of 20-30 ps. On the other hand, back electron transfer from SnO(2) to NcSn is on a timescale of about 2 ns, which is about three orders of magnitude slower compared to the forward electron transfer from NcSn to SnO(2). The back electron transfer from NcSn to N719 is on a timescale of about 40 ps, which is about one order slower compared to the forward electron transfer from N719 to Nc

  20. Efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) by addition of synthetic dye into natural dye (anthocyanin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2017-02-01

    This article reported combination of anthocyanin and synthetic dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) applications. This study aims was to improve the performance of DSSC by addition of synthetic dye into anthocyanin dye. Anthocyanin dye was extracted from red cabbage and synthetic dye was obtained from N719. We prepared anthocyanin and synthetic dyes at 2 different volume, anthocyanin dye at volume of 10 ml and combination dyes with anthocyanin and synthetic dyes at volume of 8 mL : 2 mL. The DSSCs were designed into sandwich structure on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using TiO2 electrode, carbon electrode, anthocyanin and synthetic dyes, and redox electrolyte. The absorption wavelength of anthocyanin dye of red cabbage was 450 nm - 580 nm, the combination of anthocyanin and synthetic dyes can increase the absorbance peak only. The IPCE characteristic with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage and combination dyes resulted quantum efficiency of 0.081% and 0.092% at wavelength maximum about 430 nm. The DSSC by anthocyanin dye of red cabbage achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.024%, while the DSSC by combination dyes achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.054%, combination dyes by addition synthetic dye into anthocyanin dye enhanced the conversion efficiency up to 125%.

  1. Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance via Co-sensitization of Ruthenium (II)-Based Complex Sensitizers with Metal-Free Indoline Dye in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Swati; Patel, Mohan; Verma, Anil Kumar; Singh, Surya Prakash; Tiwari, Sanjay

    2017-11-01

    Co-sensitization is shown to be an effective method to improve the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells wherein ruthenium (ii)-based complex sensitizers (N749, N719) is co-sensitized with the metal-free indoline dye (D149), where photovoltaic efficiency of 5.40% is achieved by co-sensitized N749+D149 and efficiency of 4.94% is achieved by co-sensitized N719+D149. The assembled dye-sensitized solar cells were studied by UVvis absorption measurements of dye solutions, the absorption spectra of the dye-sensitized TiO2 film along with co-sensitized TiO2 film and current-voltage characteristics. The co-sensitized based device exhibits better photovoltaic performance compared to the devices fabricated from individual sensitizers. Upon optimization, the device made of co-sensitized N749+D149 yielded Jsc = 13.6 mA/cm2, Voc = 690 mV, FF = 0.576 and η = 5.40% and the device made of co-sensitized N719+D149 yielded Jsc = 13.3 mA/cm2, Voc = 660mV, FF = 0.563 and η = 4.94%. This demonstrated that the performance of co-sensitized devices is improved from that of the devices sensitized with either N749 (4.56%), N719 (4.24%) or D149 (4.06%) under the same fabrication conditions.

  2. The influence of the addition of dye surface modifier on the performance of transparent dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Erlyta Septa; Shobih, Retnaningsih, Lilis; Muliani, Lia; Hidayat, Jojo

    2017-11-01

    The light-harvesting properties and charge injection kinetics of dye molecules play a significant role to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Dyes based on metal complexes with ruthenium complexes also a variety of metal-organic dyes such as Zn-porphyrin derivatives have been used. The requirements for dye to function as a photosensitizer in DSSC are the absorption in the visible or near-infrared regions of the solar spectrum and the binding to the semiconductor TiO2. In order to interact with the TiO2 surface it is preferable that the dye has a functional group as anchoring group such as carboxylic or other peripheral acidic. The carboxylic group is the most frequently used anchoring group, as in ruthenium-complex based dyes. However, carboxylic acid as an anchoring group is still not enough for conducting in electron injection to TiO2. In this research, 0.87 mg phosphonic acid is added to N719 and Z907 ruthenium-complex based dyes, rspectively, as a surface modifier to strengthen the anchoring group. The addition of dyes surface modifier on the transparent DSSC device performance is investigated. Under illumination of 500 Wm-2, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSC using N719 ruthenium increases from 2.09 % to 3.22 % by the addition of surface modifier. However, different results are obtained on Z907 dye, where efficiency decreases from 2.02 % to 1.58 %.

  3. Enhancement of electrical and optical performance of N719 by co-sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikoh, Ali Sephar; Ahmad, Zubair; Touati, Farid; Al-Muhtaseb, Shaheen A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals with the electrical, optical and electrochemical properties of a metal-free dye C78H74O8 (AS-2), which has been used to improve the photo-detection properties of C58H86N8O8RuS2 (N719) based Dye sensitized photo-sensors (DSPSs). Both dyes were mixed together in various proportions and the most promising ratio N719/AS-2 (1:0.25) was selected for staining photo-anodes for DSPS integration. The fabricated DSPSs were studied in terms of electrical parameters and photodetection properties. The N719/AS-2 (1:0.25) based DSPS were found to have a reduced leakage current, increased breakdown voltage and a closer proximity to an ideal diode, as compared to the N719 based DSPS. Further, the N719/AS-2 (1:0.25) based DSPS was also found to have better linearity at high irradiance levels, thus rendering the co-sensitized device useful as a photosensor in various applications. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis was also performed to explain the interfacial charge recombination process.

  4. Organic Dyes Containing Coplanar Dihexyl-Substituted Dithienosilole Groups for Efficient Dye-Sensitised Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran Lyons

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A chromophore containing a coplanar dihexyl-substituted dithienosilole (CL1 synthesised for use in dye-sensitised solar cells displayed an energy conversion efficiency of 6.90% under AM 1.5 sunlight irradiation. The new sensitiser showed a similar fill factor and open-circuit voltage when compared with N719. Impedance measurements showed that, in the dark, the charge-transfer resistance of a cell using CL1 in the intermediate-frequency region was higher compared to N719 (69.8 versus 41.3 Ω. Under illumination at AM 1.5G-simulated conditions, the charge-transfer resistances were comparable, indicative of similar recombination rates by the oxidised form of the redox couple. The dye showed instability in ethanol solution, but excellent stability when attached to TiO2. Classical molecular dynamics indicated that interactions between ethanol and the dye are likely to reduce the stability of CL1 in solution form. Time-dependent density functional theory studies were performed to ascertain the absorption spectrum of the dye and assess the contribution of various transitions to optical excitation, which showed good agreement with experimental results.

  5. Ultradurable Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells under 120°C Using Cross-Linkage Dye and Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A double-bond-edged Ru dye (code name: SG1051 has been studied as a novel sensitizing dye for ultradurable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. The SG1051 Ru dye showed the quick dye-uptake time (1 h for the optimized condition: η=9.2%, using volatile electrolyte and the strong adsorption strength compared with standard Ru dyes (N719 and Z907, which was checked by successive dipping of dye-adsorbed nanocrystalline-TiO2 electrodes into NaOH aqueous. solution and acetonitrile. The resulting DSCs using SG1051 Ru dye and ionic-liquid electrolyte survived the durability test at 120°C for 480 h, which can be the strong interest of the industrial groups.

  6. Formation of double-layered TiO2 structures with selectively-positioned molecular dyes for efficient flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Yi; Yu, Sora; Moon, Jeong Hoon; Yoo, Seon Mi; Kim, Chulhee; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Lee, Wan In

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel flexible tandem dye-sensitized solar cell, selectively loading different dyes in discrete layers, was successfully formed on a plastic substrate by transferring the high-temperature-processed N719/TiO 2 over an organic dye-adsorbed TiO 2 film by a typical compression process at room temperature. -- Highlights: • A novel flexible dye-sensitized solar cell, selectively loading two different dyes in discrete layers, was successfully formed on a plastic substrate. • η of the flexible tandem cell obtained by transferring the high-temperature-processed TiO 2 layer was enhanced from 2.91% to 6.86%. • Interface control between two TiO 2 layers is crucial for the efficient transport of photo-injected electrons from the top to bottom TiO 2 layer. -- Abstract: To fabricate flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) utilizing full solar spectrum, the double-layered TiO 2 films, selectively loading two different dyes in discrete layers, were formed on a plastic substrate by transferring the high-temperature-processed N719/TiO 2 over an organic dye (TA-St-CA)-sensitized TiO 2 film by a typical compression process at room temperature. It was found that interface control between two TiO 2 layers is crucial for the efficient transport of photo-injected electrons from the N719/TiO 2 to the TA-St-CA/TiO 2 layer. Electron impedance spectra (EIS) and transient photoelectron spectroscopic analyses exhibited that introduction of a thin interfacial TiO 2 layer between the two TiO 2 layers remarkably decreased the resistance at the interface, while increasing the electron diffusion constant (D e ) by ∼10 times. As a result, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency (η) of the flexible tandem DSC was 6.64%, whereas that of the flexible cell derived from the single TA-St-CA/TiO 2 layer was only 2.98%. Another organic dye (HC-acid), absorbing a short wavelength region of solar spectrum, was also applied to fabricate flexible tandem DSC. The η of the cell

  7. Effectiveness of dye sensitised solar cell under low light condition using wide band dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: ahmadzsahmer@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Zaine, Siti Nur Azella, E-mail: ct.azella@gmail.com [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Dye sensistised solar cell (DSC) based on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} has the potential to be used in indoor consumer power application. In realizing this, the DSC must be optimized to generate power under low lighting condition and under wider visible light range. The use of wide band dye N749 which has a wider spectrum sensitivity increases the photon conversion to electron between the visible light spectrums of 390nm to 700nm. This paper reports the study on the effectiveness of the dye solar cell with N749 dye under low light condition in generating usable power which can be used for indoor consumer application. The DSC was fabricated using fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with screen printing method and the deposited TiO{sub 2} film was sintered at 500°C. The TiO{sub 2} coated FTO glass was then soaked in the N749 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m{sup 2} with AM1.5 solar soaker. The use of the 43T mesh for the dual pass screen printing TiO{sub 2} paste gives a uniform TiO{sub 2} film layer of 16 µm. The low light condition was simulated using 1/3 filtered irradiance with the solar soaker. The fabricated DSC test cell with the N749 dye was found to have a higher efficiency of 6.491% under low light condition compared to the N719 dye. Under the standard test condition at 1 sun the N749 test cell efficiency is 4.55%. The increases in efficiency is attributed to the wider spectral capture of photon of the DSC with N749 dye. Furthermore, the use of N749 dye is more effective under low light condition as the V{sub OC} decrement is less significant compared to the latter.

  8. Dye-sensitized nanoarrays with discotic liquid crystals as interlayer for high-efficiency inverted polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yueqin; Tan, Licheng; Chen, Yiwang

    2014-10-22

    The well-aligned and highly uniform one-dimensional ZnO with organic dyes core/shell (ZNs) and ZnO with dyes and liquid crystals core/double-shells nanoarrays (ZNLs) with controllable lengths were fabricated as electron transport layers (ETLs) in inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). Ditetrabutylammonium cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato) ruthenium(II) dye (N719) was presented to reduce the surface defects of ZnO nanoarrays (NAs). In addition, the shell modification could decrease the electron injection barrier between ZnO and active layer, thereby facilitating electron injection effectively and forming a direct electron transport channel into the cathode. Due to the orientation of nanoarrays and the self-organization of 3,6,7,10,11-pentakis(hexyloxy)-2-hydroxytriphenylene liquid crystals (LCs) in liquid crystalline mesophase and isotropic phase transition, the components of active layer would be driven rearrange and infiltrate among the interspaces of nanoarrays more orderly. The increased interfacial contact between cathode and active layer would benefit charge generation, transportation and collection. On the basis of these advantages, it was found the N719 shell and N719/LCs double-shells modifications of ZnO NAs could boost the photovoltaic performance of PSCs with the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.3% and 8.0%, respectively.

  9. First principles modeling of panchromatic dyes for solar cells applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Felice, Rosa; Calzolari, Arrigo; Dong, Rui; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco

    2013-03-01

    The state-of-the-art dye in Grätzel solar cells, N719, exhibits a total solar-to-electric conversion efficiency of 11.2%. However, it severely lacks absorption in the red and the near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, which represent more than 70% of the solar radiation spectrum. Using calculations from first principles in the time-dependent domain, we have studied the electronic and optical response of a novel class of panchromatic sensitizers that can harvest solar energy efficiently across the visible and near infrared regions, which have been recently synthesized [A. El-Shafei, M. Hussain, A. Atiq, A. Islam, and L. Han, J. Mater. Chem. 22, 24048 (2012)]. Our calculations show that, by tuning the properties of antenna groups, one can achieve a substantial improvement of the optical properties.

  10. Effect of co-adsorption dye on the electrode interface (Ru complex/TiO2 of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Honda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The co-adsorption interface structure of isothiocyanate (R-N=C=S in N719 dye was investigated using a system of N719 alone and an N719 + D131 co-adsorption system. The sulfur core level (S 1s and sulfur K absorption edge (S K-edge were examined in detail using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS, respectively. The S 1s XPS spectra revealed that the binding energies were shifted approximately 9 eV higher in N719 alone because of interactions between the R-N=C=S of N719 and nanocrystalline TiO2. However, this strong interaction disappeared in the N719 + D131 co-adsorption system. Comparing the S K-edge NEXAFS spectra against the case of N719 alone revealed that the resonance adsorption peak at 2483 eV, which was attributed to an interaction between sulfur and the substrate, did not appear in the N719 + D131 co-adsorption system. This peak was observed under oblique incidence, but was almost indiscernible under normal incidence. These results indicate that the interface structure of sulfur atoms that strongly interacts with nanocrystalline TiO2 substrate changes to become non-interacting in the N719 + D131 co-adsorption system. We conclude that the co-adsorption dye has the unique property of inhibiting strong interactions between the S atom in the R-N=C=S group of the N719 dye and the nanocrystalline TiO2 surface.

  11. Anthocyanines as light harvesters in the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolsky, M.; Kaiser, M.; Cirak, J.; Kusko, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper anthocyanine extracted from blackberry was used instead of widely used dyes based on Ru and N3 complexes such as N3, N719 or 'black dye', on which one of the highest efficiencies where measured (10.0 % to 11 %). DSSC were successfully fabricated using anthocyanine dye extracted from blackberries. The open circuit voltage of 419.0 mV, short circuit current of 380.40 μA, fill factor of 41.2 % and efficiency of 0.0164 % were evaluated. The cell shows degradation in performance over time of the exponential type with a drop in the open circuit voltage to 406 mV in 15 minutes. (authors)

  12. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2... rightCollaborations and Links © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za head2rightAcknowledgements BACKGROUND head2rightSA is dry: Annual rainfall average of 450 mm compared with a world average of 860 mm head2rightOn upside, we have some...

  13. Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetics of Gardenia Blue on TiO2 Photoelectrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured porous TiO2 paste was deposited on the FTO conductive glass using squeeze printing technique in order to obtain a TiO2 thin film with a thickness of 10 μm and an area of 4 cm2. Gardenia blue (GB extracted from Gardenia jasminode Ellis was employed as the natural dye for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. Adsorption studies indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of GB on the surface of TiO2 thin film was approximately 417 mg GB/g TiO2 photoelectrode. The commercial and natural dyes, N-719 and GB, respectively, were employed to measure the adsorption kinetic data, which were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The energy conversion efficiency of the TiO2 electrode with successive adsorptions of GB dye was about 0.2%.

  14. Light harvesting via energy transfer in the dye solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegers, Conrad

    2007-11-09

    ratio was varied between 1 and 9. The different donor acceptor sensitizers were then incorporated into dye solar cells. Additionally, cells were prepared by the coadsorption of [Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2] (N719), which is today's standard dye for DSC applications, and a carboxy-functionalized Fluorol. Hence DSCs resulted that were sensitized via (i) coadsorbed chromophores, (ii) the dyad, and (iii) above-mentioned polymers. The resulting devices were characterized via current-voltage, transmission and external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements. The current-voltage measurements were carried out under simulated sunlight (AM1.5G) as well as under monochromatic blue and green illumination. This data allowed the calculation of the ratio of short circuit currents acquired under blue and green illumination, which indicates to what extent the current output of the solar cell may be enhanced by energy transfer. Furthermore, the energy transfer efficiency (ETE) was calculated from the DSC's spectral properties. All three concepts for the implementation of donor acceptor systems in the DSC revealed high ETEs (up to 90%). The introduction of an additional donor chromophore via coadsorption led to an increase of the monochromatic power conversion efficiency. The last-mentioned increase was more pronounced if covalently assembled donor acceptor sensitizers were used. The relative energy-transfer-mediated current gain was 21%, 24% and up to 179%, when coadsorbed chromophores, the dyad and donor acceptor polymers were used as sensitizers, respectively (in relation to the current generated by selective excitation of the acceptor component within the cell). These values confirm that energy transfer from fluorescent dyes being poor electron donors in themselves to good electroactive dyes (e.g. Ru-complexes) is also a viable process for light-to-electricity conversion in DSCs. Further optimization of the concepts investigated in this thesis (notably with respect to enhancing the light

  15. Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Greg D.

    2009-12-21

    This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

  16. Change of Dye Bath for Sensitisation of Nanocrystalline TiO Films: Enhances Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malapaka Chandrasekharam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic performance of the heteroleptic H102 and HRD2 sensitizers was measured in DSSC and compared with that of reference N719 under similar fabrication and evaluation conditions. The Dye-Sensitised TiO2 electrodes were prepared by staining the electrodes in ethanol bath and 1/1 v/v acetonitrile/tert-butanol (binary liquid mixture bath separately and the DSSCs based on these sensitizers show that the change of dye bath from ethanol to the binary liquid mixture enhances the photocurrent action spectrum and solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies, (η. Using ethanol for sensitisation of TiO2 electrodes, the efficiencies obtained for H102, HRD2 and N719 are 4.31%, 4.62%, and 5.46%, respectively, while in binary liquid mixture bath, the corresponding values are enhanced to 5.89%, 4.87%, and 7.23%, respectively, under comparable conditions.

  17. Dispersion and Solvation Effects on the Structure and Dynamics of N719 Adsorbed to Anatase Titania (101) Surfaces in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids: An ab Initio Molecular Simulation Study

    KAUST Repository

    Byrne, Aaron

    2015-12-24

    Ab initio, density functional theory (DFT)-based molecular dynamics (MD) has been carried out to investigate the effect of explicit solvation on the dynamical and structural properties of a [bmim][NTf2] room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), solvating a N719 sensitizing dye adsorbed onto an anatase titania (101) surface. The effect of explicit dispersion on the properties of this dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) interface has also been studied. Upon inclusion of dispersion interactions in simulations of the solvated system, the average separation between the cations and anions decreases by 0.6 Å; the mean distance between the cations and the surface decreases by about 0.5 Å; and the layering of the RTIL is significantly altered in the first layer surrounding the dye, with the cation being on average 1.5 Å further from the center of the dye. Inclusion of dispersion effects when a solvent is not explicitly included (to dampen longer-range interactions) can result in unphysical "kinking" of the adsorbed dye\\'s configuration. The inclusion of solvent shifts the HOMO and LUMO levels of the titania surface by +3 eV. At this interface, the interplay between the effects of dispersion and solvation combines in ways that are often subtle, such as enhancement or inhibition of specific vibrational modes. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  18. Influence of polyoxyethylene phytosterol addition in ionic liquid-based electrolyte on photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Sato, Kei; Sakurai, Sho; Kobayashi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The ionic liquid solution of less solvophilic BPS exhibits a better surface active property and a weaker dye-desorption effect. • Photovoltaic performances of the N719- and NKX2677-sensitized DSSCs can be improved by the BPS addition to the IL-based electrolyte. • BPS added to the electrolyte plays a key role in reducing charge-transfer resistance and increasing electron lifetime in the TiO 2 electrode. - Abstract: In this work, we studied influence of polyoxyethylene phytosterol (BPS) addition in ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte on photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide as an IL. Surface tension, photocurrent density-voltage characteristics and electrochemical impedance spectra were measured to clarify the role of BPS in the DSSCs using three different dyes. The results showed that the IL solution of less solvophilic BPS-EO5 exhibited a better surface active property and a weaker dye-desorption effect than BPS-EO30 and BPS-PO7/EO30. Short-circuit current densities of the N719- and NKX2677-sensitized cells were found to be noticeably increased by the addition of either BPS-EO5 or BPS-EO30 to the IL-based electrolyte in the concentration range of 0.001–0.01 mol dm −3 . Enhanced photovoltaic conversion efficiencies were obtained for these DSSCs, which most likely resulted from the effects of BPS on reducing charge-transfer resistance at the TiO 2 /dye/electrolyte interface and on increasing electron lifetime within the TiO 2 photoanode.

  19. Simple metal-free organic D-pi-A dyes with alkoxy- or fluorine substitutions: application in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharam, M; Chiranjeevi, B; Gupta, K S V; Singh, Surya Prakash; Islam, A; Han, L; Kantam, M Lakshmi

    2012-06-01

    Two new metal-free organic sensitizers with simplest structural variations have been synthesized for application in nanocrystalline TiO2 sensitized solar cells. The donor-pi-bridge-acceptor (D-pi-A) structure dyes, Y2 and Y3 each designed with three parts, an electron donor unit (substituted phenyl), a linker unit (thiophene), and an anchor unit (cyanoacrylic acid) showed maximal monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) in a device reaching upto 67% and 82% respectively. The organic sensitizers with 3,4,5-trimethoxy phenyl (Y3) as donor moieties obtained better solar light to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of 3.30% where as the organic sensitizer with 2,4-difluoro phenyl as donor (Y2) showed comparatively lower efficiency of 1.02%. The efficiency obtained with the reference sensitizer N719 under similar fabrication and evaluation conditions was 5.84%.

  20. Spacer Thickness-Dependent Electron Transport Performance of Titanium Dioxide Thick Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda E. El-Shater

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A titanium dioxide (P25 film was deposited by cast coating as conductive photoelectrode and subsequently immersed in dye solution (N719 to fabricate the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. A plastic spacer was used as a separation and sealant layer between the photoanode and the counter electrode. The effect of the thickness of this spacer on the transfer of electrons in the liquid electrolyte of the DSSCs was studied by means of both IV curves and electrochemical impedance. Using a spacer thickness range of 20 μm to 50 μm, efficiency ranges from 3.73% to 7.22%. The highest efficiency of 7.22% was obtained with an optimal spacer thickness of 40 μm.

  1. A Comparison of the Performances of Different Mesoporous Titanias in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Latini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at optimizing titanium dioxide morphology for dye-sensitized solar cells applications. Five different anatase phase mesoporous titanias were prepared and tested as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. The materials were prepared by using a template approach. Two materials were synthesized by using monodisperse silica nanospheres and the other three using two different organic templating agents (Pluronic P123 and Brij 58. A complete characterization of the obtained materials was performed by powder XRD, FEG-SEM, UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, BET surface area measurements, and TG-DTA. Several cells were assembled using N719 as dye and a nonvolatile electrolyte based on benzonitrile. The cells were tested by means of J-V curves under simulated solar radiation, IPCE, and dark current measurements. The highest efficiencies were achieved with titania prepared by using Pluronic P123 as template (ηmax=6.8%, while the lowest efficiencies were recorded with using titania samples prepared with the silica nanospheres template (ηmin=5.7%. The different performances of the samples are examined and discussed.

  2. Triazoloisoquinoline-Based/Ruthenium-Hybrid Sensitizer for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Lung Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Triazoloisoquinoline-based organic dyestuffs were synthesized and used in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. After cosensitization with ruthenium complex, the triazoloisoquinoline-based organic dyestuffs overcame the deficiency of ruthenium dyestuff absorption in the blue part of the visible spectrum. This method also fills the blanks of ruthenium dyestuff sensitized TiO2 film and forms a compact insulating molecular layer due to the nature of small molecular organic dyestuffs. The incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of N719 at shorter wavelength regions is 49%. After addition of a triazoloisoquinoline-based dyestuff for co-sensitization, the IPCE at 350–500 nm increased significantly. This can be attributed to the increased photocurrent of the cells, which improves the dye-sensitized photoelectric conversion efficiency from 6.23% to 7.84%, and the overall conversion efficiency increased by about 26%. As a consequence, this low molecular weight organic dyestuff is a promising candidate as coadsorbent and cosensitizer for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  3. Metal Complex Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Recent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 9. Metal Complex Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: ... Author Affiliations. N Sekar1 Vishal Y Gehlot. Dyestuff Technology Department Institute of Chemical Technology (Formerly UDCT) Nathalal Parekh Marg Matunga Mumbai 400 019, India.

  4. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsatorn Amornpitoksuk

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell is a new type of solar cell. The operating system of this solar cell type is similar to plant’s photosynthesis process. The sensitizer is available for absorption light and transfer electrons to nanocrystalline metal oxide semiconductor. The ruthenium(II complexes with polypyridyl ligands are usually used as the sensitizers in solar cell. At the present time, the complex of [Ru(2,2',2'’-(COOH3- terpy(NCS3] is the most efficient sensitizer. The total photon to current conversion efficiency was approximately 10% at AM = 1.5.

  5. Self-assembled ultra small ZnO nanocrystals for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Astam K.; Dutta, Arghya; Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail: msab@iacs.res.in

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a facile chemical approach to produce self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous zinc oxide nanocrystals using sodium salicylate (SS) as a template under hydrothermal conditions. These ZnO nanomaterials have been successfully fabricated as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in the presence of N719 dye and iodine–triiodide electrolyte. The structural features, crystallinity, purity, mesophase and morphology of the nanostructure ZnO are investigated by several characterization tools. N{sub 2} sorption analysis revealed high surface areas (203 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and narrow pore size distributions (5.1–5.4 nm) for different samples. The mesoporous structure and strong photoluminescence facilitates the high dye loading at the mesoscopic void spaces and light harvesting in DSSC. By utilizing this ultra-small ZnO photoelectrode with film thickness of about 7 μm in the DSSC with an open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.74 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 3.83 mA cm{sup −2} and an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved. - Graphical abstract: Ultra-small ZnO nanocrystals have been synthesized with sodium salicylate as a template and using it as a photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar cell 1.12% power conversion efficiency has been observed. - Highlights: • Synthesis of self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous ZnO nanocrystals by using sodium salicylate as a template. • Mesoporous ZnO materials have high BET surface areas and void space. • ZnO nanoparticles serve as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). • Using ZnO nanocrystals as photoelectrode power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved.

  6. Barium Staminate as Semiconductor Working Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-an Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs are fabricated with perovskite-type BaSnO3 as the photoelectrode materials. Different preparation methods including coprecipitation, hydrothermal, and solid state reaction are employed to synthesize BaSnO3 particles to optimize the photoelectric activities of electrode materials. The photoelectric properties of BaSnO3 particles and the performances of DSSCs are investigated by surface photovoltage spectroscopy and current-voltage measurements. The light-to-electricity conversion of 1.1% is preliminarily reached on the DSSC made of the coprecipitation-derived BaSnO3 particles. Large current density of hole injection into the HOMO level of N719 dye from the valence band of BaSnO3 and reduced photogenerated charge recombination in BaSnO3 could be responsible for the observed solar cell performance of the DSSC fabricated from the coprecipitation-derived BaSnO3 particles.

  7. Ytterbium oxide nanodots via block copolymer self-assembly and their efficacy to dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwang-Won; Ahn, Sungwoo; Lim, Sung-Hwan; Jin, Ming Hao; Song, Jeemin; Yun, Seung-Young [Department of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Mo; Kim, Gi Jeong [Sooyang Chemtec Co., Ltd., Digital-ro 32-gil, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-777 (Korea, Republic of); Ok, Kang Min [Department of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jongin, E-mail: hongj@cau.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel phosphor, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, was developed as a UV-absorbing spectral converter for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). • The ordered Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanodots trap more light and prevent charge recombination at the interfaces. • Their multifunctionality improves DSSC performance for both Ru-based and organic dyes. - Abstract: In this study, we develop a novel phosphor, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, to be used as the spectral converter in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) for the efficient capture of ultraviolet light via down-conversion. These zero-dimensional nanodots with a high refractive index also allow more light to be trapped and can prevent charge recombination at the interfaces in the DSSCs. Compared to DSSCs without the nanodots, the DSSCs fabricated with the Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanodots exhibits higher power-conversion efficiencies for both the N719 (10.5%) and CSD-01 (20.5%) dyes. The multifunctionality of the Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanodots provides a new route for improving the performance of DSSCs.

  8. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Sancun; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Yunfang; Lin, Jianming [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China)

    2006-02-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The I{sub SC} from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the V{sub OC} from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and P{sub max} from 58{mu}W to 327{mu}W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts. In the extracts of natural fruit, leaves and flower chosen, the black rice extract performed the best photosensitized effect, which was due to the better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin molecule on black rice extract and the surface of TiO{sub 2} porous film. The blue-shift of absorption wavelength of the black rice extract in ethanol solution on TiO{sub 2} film and the blue-shift phenomenon from absorption spectrum to photoaction spectrum of DSC sensitized with black rice extract are discussed in the paper. Because of the simple preparation technique, widely available and low cheap cost natural dye as an alternative sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell is promising. (author)

  9. Multi-layered hierarchical nanostructures for transparent monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Luca; Fumagalli, Francesco; Perego, Andrea; Bellani, Sebastiano; Mazzolini, Piero; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    Monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) architectures hold great potential for building-integrated photovoltaics applications. They indeed benefit from lower weight and manufacturing costs as they avoid the use of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-coated glass counter electrode. In this work, a transparent monolithic DSC comprising a hierarchical 1D nanostructure stack is fabricated by physical vapor deposition techniques. The proof of concept device comprises hyperbranched TiO2 nanostructures, sensitized by the prototypical N719, as photoanode, a hierarchical nanoporous Al2O3 spacer, and a microporous indium tin oxide (ITO) top electrode. An overall 3.12% power conversion efficiency with 60% transmittance outside the dye absorption spectral window is demonstrated. The introduction of a porous TCO layer allows an efficient trade-off between transparency and power conversion. The porous ITO exhibits submicrometer voids and supports annealing temperatures above 400 °C without compromising its optoelectronical properties. After thermal annealing at 500 °C, the resistivity, mobility, and carrier concentration of the 800 nm-thick porous ITO layer are found to be respectively 2.3 × 10-3 Ω cm-1, 11 cm2 V-1 s-1, and 1.62 × 1020 cm-3, resulting in a series resistance in the complete device architecture of 45 Ω. Electrochemical impedance and intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy give insight into the electronic charge dynamic within the hierarchical monolithic DSCs, paving the way for potential device architecture improvements.

  10. Sea-Urchin-Like ZnO Nanoparticle Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wen Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present novel sea-urchin-like ZnO nanoparticles synthesized using a chemical solution method. Solution approaches to synthesizing ZnO nanostructures have several advantages including low growth temperatures and high potential for scaling up. We investigated the influence of reaction times on the thickness and morphology of sea-urchin-like ZnO nanoparticles, and XRD patterns show strong intensity in every direction. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were developed using the synthesized ZnO nanostructures as photoanodes. The DSSCs comprised a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glass with dense ZnO nanostructures as the working electrode, a platinized FTO glass as the counter electrode, N719-based dye, and I-/I3-liquid electrolyte. The DSSC fabricated using such nanostructures yielded a high power conversion efficiency of 1.16% with an incident photo-to-current efficiency (IPCE as high as 15.32%. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the characteristics of DSSCs. An improvement in the electron transport in the ZnO photoanode was also observed.

  11. Rehydrating dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hellert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs are silicon free, simply producible solar cells. Longevity, however, is a longstanding problem for DSSCs. Due to liquid electrolytes being commonly used, evaporation of the electrolyte causes a dramatic drop in electric output as cells continue to be used unmaintained. Stopping evaporation has been tried in different ways in the past, albeit with differing degrees of success. In a recent project, a different route was chosen, exploring ways of revitalizing DSSCs after varying periods of usage. For this, we focused on rehydration of the cells using distilled water as well as the electrolyte contained in the cells. The results show a significant influence of these rehydration procedures on the solar cell efficiency. In possible applications of DSSCs in tents etc., morning dew may thus be used for rehydration of solar cells. Refillable DSSCs can also be used in tropical climates or specific types of farms and greenhouses where high humidity serves the purpose of rehydrating DSSCs.

  12. Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 on mesoporous nanoITO: conductive core-shell photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibabaei, Leila; Farnum, Byron H; Kalanyan, Berç; Brennaman, M Kyle; Losego, Mark D; Parsons, Gregory N; Meyer, Thomas J

    2014-06-11

    Core-shell structures consisting of thin shells of conformal TiO2 deposited on high surface area, conductive Sn-doped In2O3 nanoparticle. Mesoscopic films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition and studied for application in dye-sensitized solar cells. Results obtained with the N719 dye show that short-circuit current densities, open-circuit voltages, and back electron transfer lifetimes all increased with increasing TiO2 shell thickness up to 1.8-2.4 nm and then decline as the thickness was increased further. At higher shell thicknesses, back electron transfer to -Ru(III) is increasingly competitive with transport to the nanoITO core resulting in decreased device efficiencies.

  13. Mesoporous multi-shelled ZnO microspheres for the scattering layer of dye sensitized solar cell with a high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Weiwei; Mei, Chao; Zeng, Xianghua, E-mail: xhzeng@yzu.edu.cn; Wu, Guoqing; Shen, Xiaoshuang [College of Physics Science and Technology and Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Chang, Shuai [Beijing Key Laboratory of Nanophotonics and Ultrafine Optoelectronic Systems, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-03-14

    Both light scattering and dye adsorbing are important for the power conversion efficiency PCE performance of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Nanostructured scattering layers with a large specific surface area are regarded as an efficient way to improve the PCE by increasing dye adsorbing, but excess adsorbed dye will hinder light scattering and light penetration. Thus, how to balance the dye adsorbing and light penetration is a key problem to improve the PCE performance. Here, multiple-shelled ZnO microspheres with a mesoporous surface are fabricated by a hydrothermal method and are used as scattering layers on the TiO{sub 2} photoanode of the DSSC in the presence of N719 dye and iodine–based electrolyte, and the results reveal that the DSSCs based on triple shelled ZnO microsphere with a mesoporous surface exhibit an enhanced PCE of 7.66%, which is 13.0% higher than those without the scattering layers (6.78%), indicating that multiple-shelled microspheres with a mesoporous surface can ensure enough light scattering between the shells, and a favorable concentration of the adsorbed dye can improve the light penetration. These results may provide a promising pathway to obtain the high efficient DSSCs.

  14. Series-Interconnected Plastic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Prepared by Low- Temperature Binder-Free Titania Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlyta Septa Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC. This was implemented on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate using a mixture of transparent and scattered mesoporous anatase-titania as the electron transport layer for the photoelectrode. This mixture of anatase titania performed a dual function of light scattering and efficient dye absorption. In this study, a porous nano-TiO2 film was prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET by using a binder-free titania paste; on it, a DSSC was fabricated. The paste which contained a mixture of TiO2 nanoparticles, acid chloride, and ethanol was printed on two patterns of 1x6 cm2 active areas followed by sintered at 120 ºC to form TiO2 films. A commercial dye, N719, was adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 films and assembled to two platinized conductive plastic patterns to form a counter electrode and thus a sandwich-type dye cell. Finally, a solution of KI/I2 electrolytes was injected into the cell in which a couple of sandwich-type dye cells with an active area of 6 cm2 for each cell were series interconnected with a z-type interconnection between the photoelectrode of one cell and the counter electrode of another cell. The cell performance was characterized by employing simulated solar light at an intensity of 50 mW/cm2. The results showed interconnected cells generating a short-circuit photocurrent density of 2.34 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 1.10 volt, and overall 0.172% power conversion efficiency.

  15. Metal Complex Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Recent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) provide a technically and economically credible alternative concept to present day p–n junction photovoltaic devices. In contrast to the conventional systems where the semiconductor acts as light absorbent and charge carrier transport, the two functions are separated in DSSC.

  16. High-efficient dye-sensitized solar cell based on novel TiO2 nanorod/nanoparticle bilayer electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Hafez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hoda Hafez1,2, Zhang Lan2, Qinghua Li2, Jihuai Wu21Environmental Studies and Research Institute, Minoufiya University, Sadat City, Egypt, 2Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, ChinaAbstract: High light-to-energy conversion efficiency was achieved by applying novel TiO2 nanorod/nanoparticle (NR/NP bilayer electrode in the N719 dye-sensitized solar cells. The short-circuit current density (JSC, the open-circuit voltage (VOC, the fill factor (FF, and the overall efficiency (η were 14.45 mA/cm2, 0.756 V, 0.65, and 7.1%, respectively. The single-crystalline TiO2 NRs with length 200–500 nm and diameter 30–50 nm were prepared by simple hydrothermal methods. The dye-sensitized solar cells with pure TiO2 NR and pure TiO2 NP electrodes showed only a lower light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 4.4% and 5.8%, respectively, compared with single-crystalline TiO2 NRs. This can be attributed to the new NR/NP bilayer design that can possess the advantages of both building blocks, ie, the high surface area of NP aggregates and rapid electron transport rate and the light scattering effect of single-crystalline NRs.Keywords: dye-sensitized solar cell, TiO2 nanorod, bilayer electrode

  17. UV Filtering of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Effects of Varying the UV Cut-Off upon Cell Performance and Incident Photon-to-Electron Conversion Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Carnie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With current technology, UV filters are essential to ensure long-term dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC stability. Blocking photons, however, will have an obvious effect on device performance and upon its incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE. Filters have been applied to DSC devices with a range of cut-off wavelengths in order to assess how different levels of filtering affect the performance and IPCE of devices made with three different dyes, namely N719, Z907, and N749. It is shown that dyes that extend their IPCE further into the NIR region suffer lesser relative efficiency losses due to UV filtering than dyes with narrower action spectra. Furthermore, the results are encouraging to those working towards the industrialisation of DSC technology. From the results presented it can be estimated that filtering at a level intended to prevent direct band gap excitation of the TiO2 semiconductor should cause a relative drop in cell efficiency of no more than 10% in forward illuminated devices and no more than 2% in reverse illuminated devices.

  18. Metal octacarboxyphthalocyanines on multiwalled carbon nanotubes for dye solar cells application: Synthesis and characterisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available to sustain about 108 turnover cycles for about 20 years when exposed to light ? Thermal and photochemical stability ? CSIR 2011 www.csir.co.za Alternative photosensitiser N HOOC HOOC N N N COOH COOH N N COOH COOH N... HOOC HOOC N M N NCS NCS COOH HOOC COOH Ru N N N HOOC N NCS NCS HOOC COOH Ru N N N COO- +TBA TBA+ -OOC a b ? Main components ? light driven process N3 dye N719 dye Metal octacarboxyphthalocyanines The use of MPC...

  19. Substitution of Carbazole Modified Fluorenes as π-Extension in Ru(II Complex-Influence on Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malapaka Chandrasekharam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new high molar extinction coefficient ruthenium(II bipyridyl complex “cis-Ru(4,4-bis(9,9-dibutyl-7-(3,6-di-tert-butyl-9H-carbazol-9-yl-9H-fluoren-2-yl-2,2-bipyridine(2,2-bipyridine-4,4-dicarboxylic acid(NCS2, BPFC” has been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and ESI-MASS spectroscopes. The sensitizer showed molar extinction coefficient of 18.5×103 M−1cm−1, larger as compared to the reference N719, which showed 14.4×103 M−1cm−1. The test cells fabricated using BPFC sensitizer employing high performance volatile electrolyte, (E01 containing 0.05 M I2, 0.1 M LiI, 0.6 M 1,2-dimethyl-3-n-propylimidazolium iodide, 0.5 M 4-tert-butylpyridine in acetonitrile solvent, exhibited solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiency (η of 4.65% (short-circuit current density (SC = 11.52 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage (OC = 566 mV, fill factor = 0.72 under Air Mass 1.5 sunlight, lower as compared to the reference N719 sensitized solar cell, fabricated under similar conditions, which exhibited η-value of 6.5% (SC = 14.3 mA/cm2, OC = 640 mV, fill factor = 0.71. UV-Vis measurements conducted on TiO2 films showed decreased film absorption ratios for BPFC as compared to those of reference N719. Staining TiO2 electrodes immediately after sonication of dye solutions enhanced film absorption ratios of BPFC relative to those of N719. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT calculations show higher oscillation strengths for 4,4-bis(9,9-dibutyl-7-(3,6-di-tert-butyl-9H-carbazol-9-yl-9H-fluoren-2-yl-2,2-bipyridine relative to 2,2-bipyridine-4,4-dicarboxylic acid and increased spectral response for the corresponding BPFC complex.

  20. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre

    2015-11-07

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grätzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications.

  1. Monolithic multiscale bilayer inverse opal electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Woo; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-03-12

    Multilayer structures in which the layers are both electrically and physically connected are critical to be used as high-performance electrodes for photovoltaic devices. We present the first multiscale bilayer inverse opal (IO) structures for application as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A bilayer of a mesoscopic IO layer (70 nm pore diameter) and a top macroporous IO layer (215 nm and 250 nm pore diameters) was fabricated as the high-specific-area electrode and the light-harvesting enhancing layer, respectively. The mesoscopic IO layer exhibits a dye-adsorption density, which is approximately 4 times greater than that of the macroporous IO structure because of its small pore size. The macroporous IO layer exhibits a photonic bandgap reflection in the visible-light wavelength range. We incorporated the bilayer IO electrodes into DSCs and compared the effects of the pore sizes of the macroporous layers on the photocurrent densities of the DSCs. We observed that the bilayer IO electrode DSCs that contained a 250 nm IO layer exhibited photocurrent densities greater than those of 215 nm IO DSCs. This enhanced photocurrent density was achieved because the photonic bandgap (PBG) reflection wavelength matches the wavelength range in which the N719 dye has a small light-absorption coefficient. The fabrication of this structurally homogeneous IO bilayer allows a strong contact between the layers, and the resulting bilayer, therefore, exhibits a high photovoltaic performance. We believe that this bilayer structure provides an alternative approach to the development of optimized electrode structures for various devices.

  2. Predicting Solar-Cell Dyes for Cosensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, Sam L. [Cavendish; Cole, Jacqueline M. [Cavendish; Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Institute; Waddell, Paul G. [Cavendish; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234, Australia; McKechnie, Scott [Cavendish; Liu, Xiaogang [Cavendish

    2014-06-19

    A major limitation of using organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) has been their lack of broad optical absorption. Co-sensitization, in which two complementary dyes are incorporated into a DSC, offers a route to combat this problem. Here we construct and implement a design route for materials discovery of new dyes for co-sensitization, beginning with a chemically compatible series of existing laser dyes which are without an anchor group necessary for DSC use. We determine the crystal structures for this dye series, and use their geometries to establish the DSC molecular design prerequisites aided by density-functional theory and time-dependent density-functional theory calculations. Based on insights gained from these existing dyes, modified sensitizers are computationally designed to include a suitable anchor group. A DSC co-sensitization strategy for these modified sensitizers is predicted, using the central features of highest-occupied, and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbital positioning, optical absorption properties, intramolecular charge-transfer characteristics, and steric effects as selection criteria. Through this molecular engineering of a series of existing non-DSC dyes, we predict new materials for DSC co-sensitization.

  3. Pyridinium molten salts as co-adsorbents in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jui-Cheng; Sun, I-Wen [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701 (China); Yang, Cheng-Hsien; Yang, Hao-Hsun; Hsueh, Mao-Lin [Nano-Powder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Tainan 709 (China); Ho, Wen-Yueh [Institute of Cosmetic Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717 (China); Chang, Jia-Yaw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The influence of using pyridinium molten salts as co-adsorbents to modify the monolayer of a TiO{sub 2} semiconductor on the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell is studied. The current-voltage characteristics are measured under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm{sup -2}). The pyridinium molten salts significantly enhance the open-circuit photovoltage (V{sub oc}), the short circuit photocurrent density (J{sub sc}) as well as the solar energy conversion efficiency ({eta}). 1-Ethyl-3-carboxypyridinium iodide ([ECP][I]) is applied successfully to prepare an insulating molecular layer with N719, and achieve high energy conversion efficiency as high as 4.49% at 100 mW cm{sup -2} and AM 1.5. The resulting efficiency is 20% higher than that of a non-additive device. This enhancement of conversion efficiency is attributed to the negative shift of the conduction band (CB) edge and the abundant concentration of I{sup -} on the surface of the electrode when using [ECP][I] as the co-adsorbent. (author)

  4. Review of Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fan-Tai Kong; Song-Yuan Dai; Kong-Jia Wang

    2007-01-01

    We introduced the structure and the principle of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC). The latest results about the critical technology and the industrialization research on dye-sensitized solar cells were reviewed. The development of key components, including nanoporous semiconductor films, dye sensitizers, redox electrolyte, counter electrode, and conducting substrate in dye-sensitized solar cells was reviewed in detail. The developing progress and prospect of dye-sensitized solar cells from sma...

  5. Electrochemistry and dye-sensitized solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2017), s. 88-98 ISSN 2451-9103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * dye-sensitized cells * photoelectrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis)

  6. Characterising dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Laura L.; O'Reilly, Thomas; Zerulla, Dominic; Sheridan, John T.

    2009-08-01

    With growing energy and environmental concerns due to fossil fuel depletion and global warming there is an increasing attention being attracted by alternative and/or renewable sources of power such as biomass, hydropower, geothermal, wind and solar energy. In today's society there is a vast and in many cases not fully appreciated dependence on electrical power for everyday life and therefore devices such as PV cells are of enormous importance. The more widely used and commercially available silicon (semiconductor) based cells currently have the greatest efficiencies, however the manufacturing of these cells is complex and costly due to the cost and difficulty of producing and processing pure silicon. One new direction being explored is the development of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC). The SFI Strategic Research Centre for Solar Energy Conversion is a new research cluster based in Ireland, formed with the express intention of bringing together industry and academia to produce renewable energy solutions. Our specific area of research is in biomimetic dye sensitised solar cells and their electrical properties. We are currently working to develop test equipment, and optoelectronic models describing the performance and behaviors of dye-sensitised solar cells (Grätzel Cells). In this paper we describe some of the background to our work and also some of our initial experimental results. Based on these results we intend to characterise the opto-electrical properties and bulk characteristics of simple dye-sensitised solar cells and then to proceed to test new cell compositions.

  7. Review of Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Tai Kong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduced the structure and the principle of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. The latest results about the critical technology and the industrialization research on dye-sensitized solar cells were reviewed. The development of key components, including nanoporous semiconductor films, dye sensitizers, redox electrolyte, counter electrode, and conducting substrate in dye-sensitized solar cells was reviewed in detail. The developing progress and prospect of dye-sensitized solar cells from small cells in the laboratory to industrialization large-scale production were reviewed. At last, the future development of DSC was prospective for the tendency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  8. Dye-sensitised solar cell (artificial photosynthesis)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel system that harnesses solar energy is the nano-crystalline TiO dye-sensitised solar cell (DSC), in conjunction with several new concepts, such as nanotechnology and molecular devices. An efficient and low-cost cell can be produced by using...

  9. Dye-sensitised solar cell (artificial photosynthesis)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available is the nano- crystalline TiO2dye- sensitised solar cell (DSC), in conjunction with several new concepts, such as nanotechnology and molecular devices. An efficient and low-cost cell can be produced by using simple materials. The production process generates...

  10. Nicotinic acid as a new co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet, E-mail: ntphuong@hcmus.edu.vn [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Vinh Son; Phan, Thu Anh Pham; Le, Tan Nhut Van; Le, Duyen My; Le, Duy Dang; Tran, Vy Anh [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Huynh, Tuan Van [Faculty of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Lund, Torben [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University DK-4000 (Denmark)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Adsorption of Nicotinic acid on TiO{sub 2} surface is characterized by IR and XPS analysis. • The blocking effect of Nicotinic acid toward electron transfer on TiO{sub 2} electrode is indicated by recent developed method of cyclic voltammetry. • Low concentration of Nicotinic acid (<10 mM) helps to increase the amount of dye loading on TiO{sub 2} surface. • The use of Nicotinic acid at optimum concentration improves the efficiency of the resulting DSC from 3.14 to 5.02%. • Nicotinic acid enhances the cell performance by the same extend as other standard co-adsorbents at optimum concentrations. - Abstract: With the aim of introduction a new inexpensive co-adsorbent to improve solar cell performance, the influence of nicotinic acid (NTA) used as a co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was investigated. The findings showed that low concentrations of NTA (<10 mM) increased the N719 ruthenium dye loading on the TiO{sub 2} electrode surface by 10–12%, whereas higher concentrations of NTA lowered the dye loading. The adsorption of NTA onto the TiO{sub 2} electrode surface was studied by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the blocking effect of NTA toward electron transfer between the electrode and 1,4-dicyanonaphthalene (redox couple electrolyte probe) was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Subsequently, the performance of NTA in functional DSCs was evaluated by current–voltage (J–V) DSC characterization and compared with that of DSCs fabricated with two well-established co-adsorbents i.e., chenodeoxycholic acid (CDA) and octadecylphosphonic acid (OPA). The findings showed that under optimized co-adsorbent concentration (1 mM NTA, 0.03 mM CDA, 0.015 mM OPA), the efficiency of the corresponding solar cells increased to the same extent. Specifically, the use of NTA at optimum concentration improved the efficiency of the resulting DSC from 3.14 to 5.02%.

  11. Discovery of Black Dye Crystal Structure Polymorphs: Implications for Dye Conformational Variation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jacqueline M; Low, Kian Sing; Gong, Yun

    2015-12-23

    We present the discovery of a new crystal structure polymorph (1) and pseudopolymorph (2) of the Black Dye, one of the world's leading dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSCs (10.4% device performance efficiency). This reveals that Black Dye molecules can adopt multiple low-energy conformers. This is significant since it challenges existing models of the Black Dye···TiO2 adsorption process that renders a DSSC working electrode; these have assumed a single molecular conformation that refers to the previously reported Black Dye crystal structure (3). The marked structural differences observed between 1, 2, and 3 make the need for modeling multiple conformations more acute. Additionally, the ordered form of the Black Dye (1) provides a more appropriate depiction of its anionic structure, especially regarding its anchoring group and NCS bonding descriptions. The tendency toward NCS ligand isomerism, evidenced via the disordered form 2, has consequences for electron injection and electron recombination in Black Dye embedded DSSC devices. Dyes 2 and 3 differ primarily by the absence or presence of a solvent of crystallization, respectively; solvent environment effects on the dye are thereby elucidated. This discovery of multiple Black Dye conformers from diffraction, with atomic-level definition, complements recently reported nanoscopic evidence for multiple dye conformations existing at a dye···TiO2 interface, for a chemically similar DSSC dye; those results emanated from imaging and spectroscopy, but were unresolved at the submolecular level. Taken together, these findings lead to the general notion that multiple dye conformations should be explicitly considered when modeling dye···TiO2 interfaces in DSSCs, at least for ruthenium-based dye complexes.

  12. Multi-layered hierarchical nanostructures for transparent monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Luca; Fumagalli, Francesco; Perego, Andrea; Bellani, Sebastiano; Mazzolini, Piero; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2017-06-16

    Monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) architectures hold great potential for building-integrated photovoltaics applications. They indeed benefit from lower weight and manufacturing costs as they avoid the use of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-coated glass counter electrode. In this work, a transparent monolithic DSC comprising a hierarchical 1D nanostructure stack is fabricated by physical vapor deposition techniques. The proof of concept device comprises hyperbranched TiO 2 nanostructures, sensitized by the prototypical N719, as photoanode, a hierarchical nanoporous Al 2 O 3 spacer, and a microporous indium tin oxide (ITO) top electrode. An overall 3.12% power conversion efficiency with 60% transmittance outside the dye absorption spectral window is demonstrated. The introduction of a porous TCO layer allows an efficient trade-off between transparency and power conversion. The porous ITO exhibits submicrometer voids and supports annealing temperatures above 400 °C without compromising its optoelectronical properties. After thermal annealing at 500 °C, the resistivity, mobility, and carrier concentration of the 800 nm-thick porous ITO layer are found to be respectively 2.3 × 10 -3 Ω cm -1 , 11 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , and 1.62 × 10 20 cm -3 , resulting in a series resistance in the complete device architecture of 45 Ω. Electrochemical impedance and intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy give insight into the electronic charge dynamic within the hierarchical monolithic DSCs, paving the way for potential device architecture improvements.

  13. Pulsed laser deposited porous nano-carpets of indium tin oxide and their use as charge collectors in core-shell structures for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Timothy R.; Farnum, Byron H.; Lopez, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Porous In2O3:Sn (ITO) films resembling from brush carpets to open moss-like discrete nanostructures were grown by pulsed laser deposition under low to high background gas pressures, respectively. The charge transport properties of these mesoporous substrates were probed by pulsed laser photo-current and -voltage transient measurements in N719 dye sensitized devices. Although the cyclic voltammetry and dye adsorption measurements suggest a lower proportion of electro-active dye molecules for films deposited at the high-end background gas pressures, the transient measurements indicate similar electron transport rates within the films. Solar cell operation was achieved by the deposition of a conformal TiO2 shell layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Much of the device improvement was shown to be due to the TiO2 shell blocking the recombination of photoelectrons with the electrolyte as recombination lifetimes increased drastically from a few seconds in uncoated ITO to over 50 minutes in the ITO with a TiO2 shell layer. Additionally, an order of magnitude increase in the electron transport rate in ITO/TiO2 (core/shell) films was observed, giving the core-shell structure a superior ratio of recombination/transport times.Porous In2O3:Sn (ITO) films resembling from brush carpets to open moss-like discrete nanostructures were grown by pulsed laser deposition under low to high background gas pressures, respectively. The charge transport properties of these mesoporous substrates were probed by pulsed laser photo-current and -voltage transient measurements in N719 dye sensitized devices. Although the cyclic voltammetry and dye adsorption measurements suggest a lower proportion of electro-active dye molecules for films deposited at the high-end background gas pressures, the transient measurements indicate similar electron transport rates within the films. Solar cell operation was achieved by the deposition of a conformal TiO2 shell layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Much

  14. Properties and microstructure of the Ru-coated carbon nano tube counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeungjo; Yu, Byungkwan; Noh, Yunyoung; Suh, Young Joon; Kim, Moon J; Yoo, Kicheon; Ko, Min Jae; Song, Ohsung

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with the ruthenium (Ru) coated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on the counter electrode (CE). High purity MWCNT (0.01~0.06 g) was sprayed on glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). Then 30 nm-thick Ru thin films were coated on a MWCNT template at low temperature by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using RuDi and O2 as precursor to prepare Ru-CNT CE and the 0.45 cm2 DSSC device of glass/FTO/TiO2/Dye (N719)/electrolyte (C6DMII, GSCN)/Ru-CNT CE was fabricated. The surface morphology of CEs and the energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC device were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and photocurrent-voltage (I-V) measurement. We confirmed that effective surface of the CE increased linearly as the amount of MWCNT spray increased and the crystallized Ru was deposited very conformally around the MWCNT nano template. Moreover, the efficiency of the DSSC increased up to 3.3% as the amount of MWCNT increased.

  15. Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2009-06-21

    Conventional dye-sensitized solar cells have excellent charge collection efficiencies, high open-circuit voltages and good fill factors. However, dye-sensitized solar cells do not completely absorb all of the photons from the visible and near-infrared domain and consequently have lower short-circuit photocurrent densities than inorganic photovoltaic devices. Here, we present a new design where high-energy photons are absorbed by highly photoluminescent chromophores unattached to the titania and undergo Förster resonant energy transfer to the sensitizing dye. This novel architecture allows for broader spectral absorption, an increase in dye loading, and relaxes the design requirements for the sensitizing dye. We demonstrate a 26% increase in power conversion efficiency when using an energy relay dye (PTCDI) with an organic sensitizing dye (TT1). We estimate the average excitation transfer efficiency in this system to be at least 47%. This system offers a viable pathway to develop more efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  16. Photochromic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah M. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication and characterization of photochromic dye sensitized solar cells that possess the ability to change color depending on external lighting conditions. This device can be used as a “smart” window shade that tints, collects the sun's energy, and blocks sunlight when the sun shines, and is completely transparent at night.

  17. Plasmonic enhancement of light-harvesting efficiency in tandem dye-sensitized solar cells using multiplexed gold core/silica shell nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Tao, Xia; Zhang, Jin-Wen; Lai, Xue-Sen; Li, Nan

    2018-02-01

    Incorporation of plasmonic metal nanocrystals is a promising approach for broadening and enhancing the light harvesting of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this work, we report a facile and versatile route to tune the photoresponse of tandem DSSCs via incorporating Au nanorods with multiplexed length-to-diameter aspect ratios in the two sub-cells. Plasmonic Au nanorods with length-to-diameter aspect ratio of 2.5 (Au NRs-1) and 3.9 (Au NRs-2) are prepared, exhibiting their plasmon band at 500-700 nm and 500-900 nm, respectively. Au NRs-1 core/SiO2 shell (Au NRs@SiO2-1) and Au NRs-2 core/SiO2 shell (Au NRs@SiO2-2) are separately incorporated in TiO2 photoanodes and then coupled with commercial dye N719 and N749 for the top and bottom sub-cells of a tandem DSSC, achieving a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.73% for relative to 9.02% of reference (TiO2 only) devices. By virtue of morphological, spectral and electrochemical characterizations and analysis, we find that the integration of Au NRs within dye-sensitized TiO2 photoanode film enables to increase the sunlight harvesting from visible to near infrared region by plasmonic enhancement effect, reduce the charge recombination probability and facilitate charge transport via Au NRs, leading to enhancement of PCE.

  18. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, E. M.; Hafez, H. S.; Bakir, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k = 1.6, 2.1 and 1.9 × 10-3 min-1 for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (η) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100 mW cm-2, reveals highly stable DSSCs.

  19. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, E M; Hafez, H S; Bakir, E; Abdel-Mottaleb, M S A

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k=1.6, 2.1 and 1.9×10(-3)min(-1) for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (η) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100mWcm(-2), reveals highly stable DSSCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on anatase TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite nanofibers photoanode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Pingfan; Song, Lixin; Xiong, Jie; Li, Ni; Wang, Lijun; Xi, Zhenqiang; Wang, Naiyan; Gao, Linhui; Zhu, Hongliang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► TiO 2 /multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid nanofibers are prepared via electrospinning. ► Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are assembled using TiO 2 /MWCNTs nanofibers film as photoanode. ► Energy conversion efficiency of DSSCs is greatly dependent on the content of MWCNTs. ► Moderate MWCNTs incorporation can substantially enhance the performance of DSSCs. - Abstract: Anatase TiO 2 /multi-walled carbon nanotubes (TiO 2 /MWCNTs) hybrid nanofibers (NFs) film was prepared via a facile electrospinning method. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on TiO 2 /MWCNTs composite NFs photoanodes with different contents of MWCNTs (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1 wt.%) were assembled using N719 dye as sensitizer. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Raman spectrometer were used to characterize the TiO 2 /MWCNTs electrode films. The photocurrent–voltage (I–V) characteristic, incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectrum, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out to evaluate the photoelectric properties of the DSSCs. The results reveal that the energy conversion efficiency is greatly dependent on the content of MWCNTs in the composite NFs film, and a moderate incorporation of MWCNTs can substantially enhance the performance of DSSCs. When the electrode contains 0.3 wt.% MWCNTs, the corresponding solar cell yield the highest efficiency of 5.63%. This efficiency value is approximately 26% larger than that of the unmodified counterpart.

  1. Metal Complex Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Recent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compared with organic dyes, inorganic metal complex dyes have high thermal and chemical stability. Among these complexes, polypyridyl ruthenium sensitizers were widely used and investi- gated for their high stability and outstanding redox properties and good response to natural visible sunlight. The sensitizers an-.

  2. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2010-08-11

    The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4- dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3.5% to 4.5%. The unattached DCM dyes exhibit an average excitation transfer efficiency (EÌ?TE) of 96% inside TT1-covered, mesostructured TiO2 films. Further performance increases were limited by the solubility of DCM in an acetonitrile based electrolyte. This demonstration shows that energy relay dyes can be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2011-01-05

    Panchromatic response is essential to increase the light-harvesting efficiency in solar conversion systems. Herein we show increased light harvesting from using multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse from 400-590 nm matching the optical window of the zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer was observed due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the two energy relay dyes to the sensitizing dye. The complementary absorption spectra of the energy relay dyes and high excitation transfer efficiencies result in a 35% increase in photovoltaic performance. © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA.

  4. Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2010-12-14

    This image presents a scanning electron microscopy image of solid state dye-sensitized solar cell with a plasmonic back reflector, overlaid with simulated field intensity plots when monochromatic light is incident on the device. Plasmonic back reflectors, which consist of 2D arrays of silver nanodomes, can enhance absorption through excitation of plasmonic modes and increased light scattering, as reported by Michael D. McGehee, Yi Cui, and co-workers.

  5. Plastic encapsulated, dye sensitised photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, R.J.; Otley, L.C.; Durrant, J.R.; Haque, S.; Xu, C. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Holmes, A.B.; Park, T.; Schulte, N. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The report presents the results of a collaborative project that aimed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a plastic-encapsulated, solid state, dye-sensitised solar cell (DSSC) with an energy conversion efficiency (ECE) of at least 3%. DSSCs offer a possible 'step change' in photovoltaic technology resulting in lower costs compared with existing technologies. The project involved a series of eight main tasks: the development of first and second generation HTM electrolytes; the development of polymer-supported electrolytes; the development of low temperature electrode coating procedures; dye development; cell assembly and testing; component integration; and overall process development. A wide range of innovative HTMs have been synthesised, including materials incorporating both hole-transporting and ion-chelating functional groups. The ruthenium-based dye, N3, remained the preferred sensitising component. The project has produced a system that can routinely achieve over 5% ECE at 0.1 Sun illumination on 1 cm{sup 2} cells using polymer-supported electrolytes.

  6. Characterization of Natural Dye Extracted from Wormwood and Purple Cabbage for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used natural dyes as sensitizers of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to replace expensive chemical synthetic dyes. We prepared two natural dyes, chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye, by extracting them from wormwood and purple cabbage, respectively. Moreover, we mixed the prepared chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye at 5 different volume ratios to form cocktail dyes. For preparation of photoelectrode, P25 TiO2 nanoparticles were used to prepare paste, which was coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO conductive glass by the spin coating method at different spin coating speeds in order to form TiO2 thin films with different thicknesses. The DSSC prepared by the cocktail dye achieves photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 1.95%, open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.765 V, and short-circuit current density (JSC of 5.83 mA/cm2. Moreover, the prepared DSSC sensitized solely by chlorophyll extract of wormwood achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 0.9%, whereas the DSSC sensitized solely by anthocyanin extract of purple cabbage achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 1.47%, achieving the longest lifetime of electrons amongst these three dyes.

  7. Investigation into Photoconductivity in Single CNF/TiO2-Dye Core–Shell Nanowire Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochford Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A vertically aligned carbon nanofiber array coated with anatase TiO2 (CNF/TiO2 is an attractive possible replacement for the sintered TiO2 nanoparticle network in the original dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC design due to the potential for improved charge transport and reduced charge recombination. Although the reported efficiency of 1.1% in these modified DSSC’s is encouraging, the limiting factors must be identified before a higher efficiency can be obtained. This work employs a single nanowire approach to investigate the charge transport in individual CNF/TiO2 core–shell nanowires with adsorbed N719 dye molecules in dark and under illumination. The results shed light on the role of charge traps and dye adsorption on the (photo conductivity of nanocrystalline TiO2 CNF’s as related to dye-sensitized solar cell performance.

  8. DFT Studies on the electronic structures of indoline dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIE XU

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of indoline dyes with promising efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were studied using the density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31g (d level. The ground-state geometries, electronic structures and absorption spectra of these dyes are reported. The calculated results indicate that the energy levels of the HOMOs and LUMOs of these dyes are advantageous for electron injection. Their intense and broad absorption bands as well as favorable excited-state energy levels are key factor for their outstanding efficiencies in DSSCs.

  9. Dye solar cell research: EU delegation presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-09

    Full Text Available Franscious Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 13 November 2009 © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za CONTENT head2right...Background head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2rightCollaborations and Links head2rightAcknowledgements © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za BACKGROUND head2rightSA is dry: Annual rainfall average of 450 mm compared with a world average...

  10. Investigating dye-sensitised solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Laura L.; O'Reilly, Thomas; Zerulla, Dominic; Sheridan, John T.

    2010-05-01

    At present there is considerable global concern in relation to environmental issues and future energy supplies, for instance climate change (global warming) and the rapid depletion of fossil fuel resources. This trepidation has initiated a more critical investigation into alternative and renewable sources of power such as geothermal, biomass, hydropower, wind and solar energy. The immense dependence on electrical power in today's society has prompted the manufacturing of devices such as photovoltaic (PV) cells to help alleviate and replace current electrical demands of the power grid. The most popular and commercially available PV cells are silicon solar cells which have to date the greatest efficiencies for PV cells. The drawback however is that the manufacturing of these cells is complex and costly due to the expense and difficulty of producing and processing pure silicon. One relatively inexpensive alternative to silicon PV cells that we are currently studying are dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC or Grätzel Cells). DSSC are biomimetic solar cells which are based on the process of photosynthesis. The SFI Strategic Research Centre for Solar Energy Conversion is a research cluster based in Ireland formed with the express intention of bringing together industry and academia to produce renewable energy solutions. Our specific research area is in DSSC and their electrical properties. We are currently developing testing equipment for arrays of DSSC and developing optoelectronic models which todescribe the performance and behaviour of DSSCs.

  11. Transforming Benzophenoxazine Laser Dyes into Chromophores for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Molecular Engineering Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schröder, Florian A. Y. N. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK; Cole, Jacqueline M. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK; Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; International Institute for Complex Adaptive Matter, University of California Davis, Davis CA 95616 USA; Waddell, Paul G. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 Australia; McKechnie, Scott [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK

    2015-02-03

    The re-functionalization of a series of four well-known industrial laser dyes, based on benzophenoxazine, is explored with the prospect of molecularly engineering new chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) applications. Such engineering is important since a lack of suitable dyes is stifling the progress of DSC technology. The conceptual idea involves making laser dyes DSC-active by chemical modification, while maintaining their key property attributes that are attractive to DSC applications. This molecular engineering follows a step-wise approach. Firstly, molecular structures and optical absorption properties are determined for the parent laser dyes: Cresyl Violet (1); Oxazine 170 (2); Nile Blue A (3), Oxazine 750 (4). These reveal structure-property relationships which define the prerequisites for computational molecular design of DSC dyes; the nature of their molecular architecture (D-π-A) and intramolecular charge transfer. Secondly, new DSC dyes are computationally designed by the in silico addition of a carboxylic acid anchor at various chemical substitution points in the parent laser dyes. A comparison of the resulting frontier molecular orbital energy levels with the conduction band edge of a TiO2 DSC photoanode and the redox potential of two electrolyte options I-/I3- and Co(II/III)tris(bipyridyl) suggests promise for these computationally designed dyes as co-sensitizers for DSC applications.

  12. Dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dyes as sensitizers from Malaysia local fruit `Buah Mertajam'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Roshidah, N.; Hashim, M. Norhafiz; Mohamad, I. S.; Saad, N. Hidayah; Norizan, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the high conversion efficiency, low cost, green technology and easy to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using natural anthocyanin dyes as sensitizers. The DSSCs was fabricated by using natural anthocyanin dyes which were extracted from different parts of the plants inclusive `Buah Mertajam', `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. The natural anthocyanin dyes that found in flower, leaves and fruits were extracted by the simple procedures. This anthocyanin dye is used to replace the expensive chemical synthetic dyes due to its ability to effectively attach into the surface of Titanium dioxide (TiO2). A natural anthocyanin dyes molecule adsorbs to each particle of the TiO2 and acts as the absorber of the visible light. A natural anthocyanin dye from Buah Mertajam shows the best performance with the conversion efficiency of 5.948% and fill factor of 0.708 followed by natural anthocyanin dyes from `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. Buah Mertajam or scientifically known as eriglossum rubiginosum is a local Malaysia fruit.

  13. Extension lifetime for dye-sensitized solar cells through multiple dye adsorption/desorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Fang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Shen, Po-Shen; Chen, Peter; Guo, Tzung-Fang

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we propose a novel concept of extending the lifetime of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and reducing the costs of re-conditioning DSCs by recycling the FTO/TiO2 substrates. The photovoltaic performances of DSCs using substrates with various cycles of dye uptake and rinse off history are tested. The results show that dye adsorption and Voc are significantly increased under multiple dye adsorption/desorption process and resulted in the improvement of power conversion efficiency. Moreover, the dyeing kinetics is faster after multiple recycling processes, which is favorable for the industrial application. With surface analysis and charge transport characteristics, we also demonstrate the optimal functionality of TiO2/dye interface for the improved Voc and efficiency. The results confirm that the improved performances are due to increased dye loading and dense packing of dye molecules. Our results are beneficial for the understanding on the extension of DSCs lifetime after long-term operation in the application of DSC modules. This approach may also be applied in the replacement of newly synthesized photosensitizes to the active cells.

  14. A strategy to enhance the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by the highly efficient TiO2/ZnS photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, S; Punnoose, Dinah; Venkata Tulasivarma, Ch; Pavan Kumar, C H S S; Gopi, Chandu V V M; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-02-07

    In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the TiO2 photoanode film plays an important role in increasing the power conversion efficiency. In this work, TiO2 nanoparticles were first coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide by the doctor-blade method, and then a thin film of zinc sulfide (ZnS) was successfully fabricated on the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. The performance of the DSSCs was examined in detail using a cobalt sulfide counter electrode and I(-)/I3(-) electrolyte. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements were used to find the composition of the films. Characterization with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the recombination rate decreased drastically during the electron transportation. The DSSCs based on ZnS coated TiO2 photoanode achieved a power conversion efficiency of 5.90% under 1 sunlight illumination, which is higher than that of the bare TiO2 photoanode (4.43%). This suggests that the promising ZnS-coated TiO2 nanoparticles accumulate a large number of photo-injected electrons in the conduction band of the photoanode and the N719 dye lowers the recombination of photo-injected electrons with the redox electrolyte.

  15. Preparation and characterization of Sm3+-doped SrSnO3 and its photoelectric performance as photo-anode of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shanshan; Hao, Hongshun; Guo, Weihua; Yu, Yishan; Hou, Hongman; Zhang, Gongliang; Yan, Shuang; Gao, Wenyuan; Liu, Guishan

    2017-08-01

    Sm3+-doped SrSnO3 (SrSnO3:Sm3+) nanopowders were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method and followed by a heat treatment process. The as-synthesized nanopowders were assembled in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to investigate their photoelectric properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) confirmed the formation of SrSnO3:Sm3+ nanopowders with perovskite structure. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra indicate a down-conversion from ultraviolet light to visible light which matches the strong absorption region of the N719 dye. The DSSC based on SrSnO3:Sm3+ photo-anode improved its photoelectric conversion efficiency ( η) via the down-conversion of doped Sm3+. Under the irradiation of the simulated sunlight with 100 mW/cm2, the DSSC based on SrSnO3 doping with Sm3+ of 0.6 wt% showed the highest η of 1.54%, which improved 71.11% compared with the DSSC based on pure SrSnO3. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Effects of Taiwan Roselle anthocyanin treatment and single-walled carbon nanotube addition on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. S.; Tsai, P. J.; Wu, P.; Shu, G. G.; Huang, Y. H.; Chen, Y. S.

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) sensitized by a natural sensitizer of Taiwan Roselle anthocyanin (TRA) and fabrication process conditions of the DSSC. A set of systematic experiments has been carried out at various soaking temperatures, soaking periods, sensitizer concentrations, pH values, and additions of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). An absorption peak (520 nm) is found for TRA, and it is close to that of the N719 dye (518 nm). At a fixed concentration of TRA and a fixed soaking period, a lower pH of the extract or a lower soaking temperature is found favorable to the formation of pigment cations, which leads to an enhanced power conversion efficiency (η) of DSSC. For instance, by applying 17.53 mg/100ml TRA at 30 for 10 h, as the pH of the extract decreases to 2.00 from 2.33 (the original pH of TRA), the η of DSSC with TiO2+SWCNT electrode increases to 0.67% from 0.11% of a traditional DSSC with TiO2 electrode. This performance improvement can be explained by the combined effect of the pH of sensitizer and the additions of SWCNT, a first investigation in DSSC using the natural sensitizer with SWCNT.

  17. Study of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Scanning Electron Micrograph Observation and Thickness Optimization of Porous TiO2 Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the photoenergy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, it is important to optimize their porous TiO2 electrodes. This paper examines the surface and cross-sectional views of the electrodes using scanning electron micrography. Two types of samples for cross-sectional viewing were prepared by mechanically breaking the substrate and by using an Ar-ion etching beam. The former displays the surface of the TiO2 particles and the latter shows the cross-section of the TiO2 particles. We found interesting surface and cross-sectional structures in the scattering layer containing the 400 nm diameter particles, which have an angular and horned shape. The influence of TiO2 particle size and the thickness of the nanocrystalline-TiO2 electrode in DSCs using four kinds of sensitizing dyes (D149, K19, N719 and Z907 and two kinds of electrolytes (acetonitrile-based and ionic-liquid electrolytes are discussed in regards to conversion efficiency, which this paper aims to optimize.

  18. Photoelectrode nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cell | Kimpa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study used carica papaya (pawpaw leaf) extracts as natural organic dye for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Pawpaw leaf extract is rich in chlorophyll and was extracted using ethanol as the extracting solvent and serve as the sensitizer for DSSC. The specialty of the DSSC relative to other types of solar cells is the use ...

  19. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) reengineering using TiO2 with natural dye (anthocyanin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subodro, Rohmat; Kristiawan, Budi; Ramelan, Ari Handono; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti; Munawaroh, Hanik; Hanif, Qonita Awliya; Saputri, Liya Nikmatul Maula Zulfa

    2017-01-01

    This research on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) reengineering was carried out using TiO2 with natural dye (anthocyanin). The fabrication of active carbon layer/TiO2 DSSC solar cell was based on natural dye containing anthocyanins such as mangosteen peel, red rose flower, black glutinous rice, and purple eggplant peel. DSSC was prepared with TiO2 thin layer doped with active carbon; Natural dye was analyzed using UV-Vis and TiO2 was analyzed using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), meanwhile scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to obtain the size of the crystal. Keithley instrument test was carried out to find out I-V characteristics indicating that the highest efficiency occurred in DSSCs solar cell with 24-hour soaking with mangosteen peel 0.00047%.

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from achiote seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ortiz, N.M.; Vazquez-Maldonado, I.A.; Azamar-Barrios, J.A.; Oskam, G. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Merida, Yuc. 97310 (Mexico); Perez-Espadas, A.R.; Mena-Rejon, G.J. [Laboratorio de Quimica Organica de Investigacion, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Merida, Yuc. 97150 (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    We have explored the application of natural dyes extracted from the seeds of the achiote shrub (Bixa orellana L.) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The main pigments are bixin and norbixin, which were obtained by separation and purification from the dark-red extract (annatto). The dyes were characterized using {sup 1}H-NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Solar cells were prepared using TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanostructured, mesoporous films and the annatto, bixin, and norbixin as sensitizers. The best results were obtained with bixin-sensitized TiO{sub 2} solar cells with efficiencies of up to 0.53%, illustrating the importance of purification of dyes from natural extracts. (author)

  1. Modeling the efficiency of Förster resonant energy transfer from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hoke, Eric T.

    2010-02-11

    Förster resonant energy transfer can improve the spectral breadth, absorption and energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. In this design, unattached relay dyes absorb the high energy photons and transfer the excitation to sensitizing dye molecules by Förster resonant energy transfer. We use an analytic theory to calculate the excitation transfer efficiency from the relay dye to the sensitizing dye accounting for dynamic quenching and relay dye diffusion. We present calculations for pores of cylindrical and spherical geometry and examine the effects of the Förster radius, the pore size, sensitizing dye surface concentration, collisional quenching rate, and relay dye lifetime. We find that the excitation transfer efficiency can easily exceed 90% for appropriately chosen dyes and propose two different strategies for selecting dyes to achieve record power conversion efficiencies. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

  2. Enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by the incorporation of dual-mode luminescent NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Pan, Kai; Wang, Guofeng; Jiang, Baojiang; Tian, Chungui; Zhou, Wei; Qu, Yang; Liu, Shuai; Feng, Li; Fu, Honggang

    2013-06-14

    This work focuses on the design of composite photoanodes with dual-mode luminescent function as well as the effects of luminescent phosphors on the photoelectric properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. Specifically, hexagonal phase NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) microcrystals were prepared by a hydrothermal method and added to the TiO2 photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells. The results indicated that the TiO2-NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) composite photoanodes can emit visible light under 495 or 980 nm excitation, and then the visible light can be absorbed by dye N719 to improve light harvesting and thereby the efficiency of the solar cell. Under simulated solar radiation in the wavelength range of λ≥ 400 nm, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of TiO2-NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) cell was increased by 10% compared to pure TiO2 cell. For the electrodes with the same thickness, the amount of dye adsorption of the photoanodes decreased a little after adding NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+), which was attributed to the decrease of TiO2 in the photoanodes. The electron transport and interfacial recombination kinetics were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy. The TiO2-NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) cell has longer electron recombination time as well as electron transport time than pure TiO2 cell. The charge collection efficiency of TiO2-NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) cell was little lower than that of pure TiO2 cell. In addition, the interfacial resistance of the TiO2-dye|I3(-)/I(-) electrolyte interface of TiO2-NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) cell was much bigger than that of pure TiO2 cell. All these results indicated that the charge transport cannot be improved by adding NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+). And thus, the enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiencies of TiO2-NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) cells were closely related to the dual-mode luminescent function of NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+).

  3. A high-light-harvesting-efficiency coumarin dye for stable dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.S.; Cui, Y.; Hara, K. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial, Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Dan-oh, Y.; Kasada, C.; Shinpo, A. [Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., Okayama (Japan)

    2007-04-20

    A new coumarin dye for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is reported. It exhibits near-unity light harvesting efficiency and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency over a wide spectral region in 6 {mu}m transparent TiO{sub 2} films. DSSCs based on this metal-free organic dye show long-term stability and power-conversion efficiencies of around 6 % under continuous light-soaking stress for up to 1000 h. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Solvent-assisted microstructural evolution and enhanced performance of porous ZnO films for plastic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Hitomi; Hagiwara, Manabu; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2017-02-01

    A low-temperature process for fabricating porous ZnO films on plastic, indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene naphthalate substrates is developed for their use in dye-sensitized solar cells. A special attention is paid to modification of microscopic morphologies for enhancing interparticle connection. ZnO films having two kinds of macroscopic morphologies (flower-like particles and densely packed nanoparticles) are fabricated at temperatures below the heatproof temperature of the substrate, and subsequently immersed in mixed solvents composed of water and ethanol at 90 °C. The immersion leads to the growth of constituting ZnO particles and also the evolution of interparticle connection, depending on solvent compositions. The cell performance is largely improved especially in a short-circuit current density and a power conversion efficiency. The immersion effect is more remarkable for the cell using the densely packed ZnO film, with a 62% increase in the current density and an 84% increase in the conversion efficiency. In consequence, our plastic N719-sensitized ZnO cell shows the conversion efficiency as high as 4.1%.

  5. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on laser-engineered ruthenium dye-functionalized nanoporous gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Lina [Department of Chemistry, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Franzka, Steffen [Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Interdisciplinary Center for Analytics on the Nanoscale (ICAN), University of Duisburg-Essen, 47047 Duisburg (Germany); Biener, Monika; Biener, Jürgen [Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Hartmann, Nils, E-mail: nils.hartmann@uni-due.de [Department of Chemistry, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Interdisciplinary Center for Analytics on the Nanoscale (ICAN), University of Duisburg-Essen, 47047 Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photothermal laser processing is used to modify the surface structure of nanoporous gold. • Laser-fabricated structures exhibit pore sizes in the range from 25 nm to 200 nm and higher. • Ru-dye-functionalized surface structures are used in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies. • Raman peak intensities of N719, a commercial Ru-dye, exhibit a strong dependence on the pore size. • Maximum Raman peak intensities are observed for small pore sizes close to 25 nm. - Abstract: Photothermal processing of nanoporous gold with a microfocused continuous-wave laser at λ = 532 nm provides a facile means in order engineer the pore and ligament size of nanoporous gold. In this report we take advantage of this approach in order to investigate the size-dependence of enhancement effects in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Surface structures with laterally varying pore sizes from 25 nm to ≥200 nm are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and then functionalized with N719, a commercial ruthenium complex, which is widely used in dye-sensitized solar cells. Raman spectroscopy reveals the characteristic spectral features of N719. Peak intensities strongly depend on the pore size. Highest intensities are observed on the native support, i.e. on nanoporous gold with pore sizes around 25 nm. These results demonstrate the particular perspectives of laser-fabricated nanoporous gold structures in fundamental SERS studies. In particular, it is emphasized that laser-engineered porous gold substrates represent a very well defined platform in order to study size-dependent effects with high reproducibility and precision and resolve conflicting results in previous studies.

  6. Stability issues of dye solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asghar, M.I.

    2012-11-01

    The thesis discusses dye solar cells (DSCs) which are emerging as a potential candidate for many applications. The goal of the work was to find more stable and higher performing materials for flexible DSCs, improve understanding of the effects on the DSC stability, and to develop experimental methods that give improved resolution of the degradation mechanisms. First an intensive critical literature review was done to highlight the important degradation mechanisms in DSCs. It was concluded that techniques giving chemical information are needed to understand the degradation reactions and their effect on electrical performance. It would be advantageous to have methods that enable monitoring chemical changes in operating DSCs, or periodically over their lifetime during accelerated ageing tests. Here the focus was on new and advanced in-situ methods that allow continuous study of the aging of the cells. In this regard, optical techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, newly introduced image processing method and recently introduced segmented cell method were employed to bridge the link between the chemical changes in the DSCs and the standard PV measurement methods. Here for instance the image processing was demonstrated to study the bleaching of electrolyte under ultraviolet and visible light at 85 deg C. The results obtained with the image processing method and the standard electrical measurements were in agreement and showed that the bleaching of electrolyte was initiated by TiO2 and slowed down by the presence of the dye. For the roll-to-roll production of DSCs cheap, flexible and stable substrates are required. In this work, a series of metals i.e. StS 304, StS 321, StS 316, StS 316L and Ti were successfully stabilized at the CE of a DSC by using a sputtered Pt catalyst layer that doubled also as a corrosion blocking layer. This work was an important step forward towards stable flexible DSCs. Finally, the degradation due to the manufacturing step related to the

  7. Review of Polymer, Dye-Sensitized, and Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Mohd-Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is now recognized as potential application in developing flexible, large area, and low cost photovoltaic devices. Several conjugated low bandgap polymers, dyes, and underlayer materials based on the previous studies are quoted in this paper, which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. All of these materials are designed to help harvest more sunlight in a wider range of the solar spectrum besides enhancing the rate of charge transfer in a device structure. This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells.

  8. Dye-sensitized solar cells with improved performance using cone-calix[4]arene based dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li-Lin; Liu, Jun-Min; Li, Shao-Yong; Xiao, Li-Min; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Three cone-calix[4]arene-based sensitizers (Calix-1-Calix-3) with multiple donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) moieties are designed, synthesized, and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Their photophysical and electrochemical properties are characterized by measuring UV/Vis absorption and emission spectra, cyclic voltammetry, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Calix-3 has excellent thermo- and photostability, as illustrated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dye-aging tests, respectively. Importantly, a DSSC using the Calix-3 dye displays a conversion efficiency of 5.48 % in under standard AM 1.5 Global solar illumination conditions, much better than corresponding DSSCs that use the rod-shaped dye M-3 with a single D-π-A chain (3.56 %). The dyes offer advantages in terms of higher molar extinction coefficients, longer electron lifetimes, better stability, and stronger binding ability to TiO2 film. This is the first example of calixarene-based sensitizers for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. complexes as sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compared to N719, H112 sensitizer showed enhanced molar extinction coefficient and relatively better monochromatic incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) across the spectral range of 400 to 800 nm with solar energy-to-electrical conversion efficiency () of 2.43% [open circuit photovoltage (VOC) ...

  10. (II) complexes as sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conditions. Compared to N719, H112 sensitizer showed enhanced molar extinction coefficient and relatively better monochromatic incident ... anchor strongly on semiconductor oxide (nanocrystal- line TiO2) surface, to have good ... hyde with tetraethyl 2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-diyldiphosph- onate (scheme 1). In this paper, we ...

  11. Electron migration and stability of dye solar cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitised photoelectrochemical solar cells with four different electrolyte combinations were assembled and characterised using current voltage measurements. The effects that the solvents (acetonitrile - ACN and propionitrile - PN) have...

  12. Molecular modification of coumarin dyes for more efficient dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-de-Armas, Rocio; San-Miguel, Miguel A.; Oviedo, Jaime; Sanz, Javier Fdez. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2012-05-21

    In this work, new coumarin based dyes for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have been designed by introducing several substituent groups in different positions of the NKX-2311 structure. Two types of substitutions have been considered: the introduction of three electron-donating groups (-OH, -NH{sub 2}, and -OCH{sub 3}) and two different substituents with steric effect: -CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}- and -CH{sub 2}-HC=CH-. The electronic absorption spectra (position and width of the first band and absorption threshold) and the position of the LUMO level related to the conduction band have been used as theoretical criteria to evaluate the efficiency of the new dyes. The introduction of a -NH{sub 2} group produces a redshift of the absorption maximum position and the absorption threshold, which could improve the cell efficiency. In contrast, the introduction of -CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}- does not modify significantly the electronic structure of NKX-2311, but it might prevent aggregation. Finally, -CH{sub 2}-HC=CH- produces important changes both in the electronic spectrum and in the electronic structure of the dye, and it would be expected as an improvement of cell efficiency for these dyes.

  13. Molecular modification of coumarin dyes for more efficient dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-de-Armas, Rocio; San-Miguel, Miguel A.; Oviedo, Jaime; Sanz, Javier Fdez.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, new coumarin based dyes for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have been designed by introducing several substituent groups in different positions of the NKX-2311 structure. Two types of substitutions have been considered: the introduction of three electron-donating groups (-OH, -NH 2 , and -OCH 3 ) and two different substituents with steric effect: -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 - and -CH 2 -HC=CH-. The electronic absorption spectra (position and width of the first band and absorption threshold) and the position of the LUMO level related to the conduction band have been used as theoretical criteria to evaluate the efficiency of the new dyes. The introduction of a -NH 2 group produces a redshift of the absorption maximum position and the absorption threshold, which could improve the cell efficiency. In contrast, the introduction of -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 - does not modify significantly the electronic structure of NKX-2311, but it might prevent aggregation. Finally, -CH 2 -HC=CH- produces important changes both in the electronic spectrum and in the electronic structure of the dye, and it would be expected as an improvement of cell efficiency for these dyes.

  14. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A.; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a).

  15. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-25

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamics of Back Electron Transfer in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Featuring 4-tert-Butyl-Pyridine and Atomic-Layer-Deposited Alumina as Surface Modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Michael J; Vermeer, Michael J DeVries; Farha, Omar K; Pellin, Michael J; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-06-18

    A series of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was constructed with TiO2 nanoparticles and N719 dye. The standard I3(-)/I(-) redox shuttle and the Co(1,10-phenanthroline)3(3+/2+) shuttle were employed. DSCs were modified with atomic-layered-deposited (ALD) coatings of Al2O3 and/or with the surface-adsorbing additive 4-tert-butyl-pyridine. Current-voltage data were collected to ascertain the influence of each modification upon the back electron transfer (ET) dynamics of the DSCs. The primary effect of the additives alone or in tandem is to increase the open-circuit voltage. A second is to alter the short-circuit current density, JSC. With dependence on the specifics of the system examined, any of a myriad of dynamics-related effects were observed to come into play, in both favorable (efficiency boosting) and unfavorable (efficiency damaging) ways. These effects include modulation of (a) charge-injection yields, (b) rates of interception of injected electrons by redox shuttles, and (c) rates of recombination of injected electrons with holes on surface-bound dyes. In turn, these influence charge-collection lengths, charge-collection yields, and onset potentials for undesired dark current. The microscopic origins of the effects appear to be related mainly to changes in driving force and/or electronic coupling for underlying component redox reactions. Perhaps surprisingly, only a minor role for modifier-induced shifts in conduction-band-edge energy was found. The combination of DSC-efficiency-relevant effects engendered by the modifiers was found to vary substantially as a function of the chemical identity of the redox shuttle employed. While types of modifiers are effective, a challenge going forward will be to construct systems in ways in which the benefits of organic and inorganic modifiers can be exploited in fully additive, or even synergistic, fashion.

  17. Tunable photovoltaic performance of preferentially oriented rutile TiO2 nanorod photoanodes based dye sensitized solar cells with quasi-state electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T C, Sabari Girisun; C, Jeganathan; N, Pavithra; Anandan, Sambandam

    2017-12-20

    Photoanodes made of highly oriented TiO2 nanorod arrays with different aspect ratios were synthesized via one-step hydrothermal technique. Preferentially oriented single crystalline rutile TiO2 was confirmed by the single peak in XRD pattern (2θ=63o, (0 0 2)). FESEM image evidence the growth of an array of nanorods having different geometry with respect to reaction time and solution refreshment rate. The length, diameter and aspect ratio of the nanorods increased with reaction time as 4 hours (1.98 μm, 121 nm, 15.32), 8 hours (4 μm, 185 nm, 22.70), 12 hours (5.6 μm, 242 nm, 27.24) and 16 hours (8 μm, 254 nm, 38.02) respectively. Unlike conventional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) with a liquid electrolyte, DSSC were fabricated here using 1D rutile TiO2 nanorods based photoanodes, N719 dye and quasi-state electrolyte. The charge transport properties were investigated from current-voltage curves and fitted using one-diode model. Interestingly photovoltaic performance of DSSCs increased exponentially with the length of the nanorod and is attributed to the higher surface to volume ratio, more dye anchoring, and channelized electron transport. Higher photovoltaic performance (Jsc=5.99 mA/cm2, Voc=750 mV, η=3.08%) was observed with photoanodes (16 hours) made of densely packed longest TiO2 nanorods (8 µm, 254 nm). © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Tunable photovoltaic performance of preferentially oriented rutile TiO2 nanorod photoanode based dye sensitized solar cells with quasi-state electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabari Girisun, T. C.; Jeganathan, C.; Pavithra, N.; Anandan, S.

    2018-02-01

    Photoanodes made of highly oriented TiO2 nanorod (NR) arrays with different aspect ratios were synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal technique. Preferentially oriented single crystalline rutile TiO2 was confirmed by the single peak in an XRD pattern (2θ = 63°, (0 0 2)). FESEM images evidenced the growth of an array of NRss having different geometries with respect to reaction time and solution refreshment rate. The length, diameter and aspect ratio of the NRs increased with reaction time as 4 h (1.98 μm, 121 nm, 15.32), 8 h (4 μm, 185 nm, 22.70), 12 h (5.6 μm, 242 nm, 27.24) and 16 h (8 μm, 254 nm, 38.02), respectively. Unlike a conventional dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with a liquid electrolyte, DSSCs were fabricated here using one-dimensional rutile TiO2 NR based photoanodes, N719 dye and a quasi-state electrolyte. The charge transport properties were investigated using current–voltage curves and fitted using the one-diode model. Interestingly the photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs increased exponentially with the length of the NR and was attributed to a higher surface to volume ratio, more dye anchoring, and channelized electron transport. The higher photovoltaic performance (Jsc = 5.99 mA cm‑2, Voc = 750 mV, η = 3.08%) was observed with photoanodes (16 h) made with the longer, densely packed TiO2 NRs (8 μm, 254 nm).

  19. Vibrational spectroscopy of photosensitizer dyes for organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Leon, C.

    2005-11-18

    Ruthenium(II) complexes containing polypyridyl ligands are intensely investigated as potential photosensitizers in organic solar cells. Of particular interest is their use in dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanocrystalline films of TiO{sub 2}. Functional groups of the dye allow for efficient anchoring on the semiconductor surface and promote the electronic communication between the donor orbital of the dye and the conduction band of the semiconductor. In the present work a new dye, [Ru(dcbpyH{sub 2}){sub 2}(bpy-TPA{sub 2})](PF6{sub )2}, and the well known (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}[Ru(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] complex were spectroscopically characterized. The electronic transitions of both dyes showed solvatochromic shifts due to specific interactions of the ligands with the solvent molecules. The surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra of the dyes dissolved in water, ethanol, and acetonitrile were measured in silver and gold colloidal solutions. The results demonstrate that the dyes were adsorbed on the metallic nanoparticles in different ways for different solvents. It was also found that in the gold colloid, the aqueous solutions of both dyes did not produce any SERS signal, whereas in ethanolic solution the SERS effect was very weak. Deprotonation, H-bonding, and donor-acceptor interactions seem to determine these different behaviors. Our results indicate the important role of the charge transfer mechanism in SERS. The adsorption of the dye on two different TiO{sub 2} substrates, anatase paste films and anatase nanopowder, was also studied to clarify the role of the carboxylate groups in the anchoring process of the dyes on the semiconductor surface. The recorded spectra indicate a strong dependence of the anchoring configuration on the morphology of the semiconductor. (orig.)

  20. Novel conjugated organic dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, K.; Sato, T.; Katoh, R.; Furube, A.; Yoshihara, T.; Murai, M.; Kurashige, M.; Arakawa, H. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Ito, S.; Shinpo, A.; Suga, S. [Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., 564-176 Fujita, Okayama 701-0221 (Japan)

    2005-02-01

    Novel conjugated organic dyes that have N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) moieties as the electron donor and a cyanoacetic acid (CAA) moiety as the electron acceptor were developed for use in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline-TiO{sub 2} solar cells (DSSCs). We attained a maximum solar-energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency ({eta}) of 6.8 % under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm{sup -2}) with a DSSC based on 2-cyano-7,7-bis(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)hepta-2,4,6-trienoic acid (NKX-2569): short-circuit photocurrent density (J{sub sc}) = 12.9 mA cm{sup -2}, open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) = 0.71 V, and fill factor (ff) = 0.74. The high performance of the solar cells indicated that highly efficient electron injection from the excited dyes to the conduction band of TiO{sub 2} occurred. The experimental and calculated Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectra clearly showed that these dyes were adsorbed on the TiO{sub 2} surface with the carboxylate coordination form. A molecular-orbital calculation indicated that the electron distribution moved from the DMA moiety to the CAA moiety by photoexcitation of the dye. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Novel organic dyes based on phenyl-substituted benzimidazole for dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltan, Gözde Murat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Celal Bayar University, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Dinçalp, Haluk, E-mail: haluk.dincalp@cbu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Celal Bayar University, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Kıran, Merve; Zafer, Ceylan [Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Erbaş, Seçil Çelik [Celal Bayar University, Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey)

    2015-08-01

    Two new sensitizers derived from benzimidazole core for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications were designed and synthesized as D–π–A structures, in which two phenyl-substituted benzimidazole group, a phenyl ring and a cyanoacrylic acid were used as the electron donor, π-conjugated linkage and the electron acceptor, respectively. Effect of methoxy- and N,N-dimetylamino- moieties attached to the phenyl groups of benzimidazole were investigated by means of optical and photovoltaic measurements. The compounds exhibit broad absorption maximum at 387 nm with the tail extending up to 500 nm on TiO{sub 2}-coated thin film. The longer wavelength absorption band around 360 nm and the much longer decay components could be attributed to the existence of charge transfer state of the dyes in solutions. DSSC device fabricated by using methoxy substituted dye (BI5a) as a sensitizer shows much better incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 64% giving cell efficiency of 2.68%. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Long decay times suggest the delayed fluorescence caused by the existence of ICT. • The best solar energy conversion efficiency was obtained for BI5a dye (2.68%). • More fluorescent BI5a dye gives higher photocurrent generation.

  2. Effect of dye extracting solvents and sensitization time on photovoltaic performance of natural dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Khalid Hossain

    Full Text Available In this study, natural dye sensitizer based solar cells were successfully fabricated and photovoltaic performance was measured. Sensitizer (turmeric sources, dye extraction process, and photoanode sensitization time of the fabricated cells were analyzed and optimized. Dry turmeric, verdant turmeric, and powder turmeric were used as dye sources. Five distinct types of solvents were used for extraction of natural dye from turmeric. Dyes were characterized by UV–Vis spectrophotometric analysis. The extracted turmeric dye was used as a sensitizer in the dye sensitized solar cell’s (DSSC photoanode assembly. Nano-crystalline TiO2 was used as a film coating semiconductor material of the photoanode. TiO2 films on ITO glass substrate were prepared by simple doctor blade technique. The influence of the different parameters VOC, JSC, power density, FF, and η% on the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs was analyzed. The best energy conversion performance was obtained for 2 h adsorption time of dye on TiO2 nano-porous surface with ethanol extracted dye from dry turmeric. Keywords: DSSC, Natural dye, TiO2 photoanode, Dye extracting solvent, Dye-adsorption time

  3. Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    fitted with a Xe bulb and fiber-optic light guide fixture. The absolute spectral irradiance and power output of the solar simulator was captured with a...dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), invented by Michael Grätzel and Brian O’Regan in 1991 (1). As described in their original Nature paper “A Low-Cost...The co-sensitizer dye, an equimolar mix of the two dyes, offered the broadest and highest absorbance of incident light , and thus was used as the

  4. Theoretical Study of Electron Transfer Properties of Squaraine Dyes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwita, Ratna; Tsai, Hui-Hsu Gavin

    2018-01-01

    The environmental issues and high cost of Ru create many scientists to explore cheaper and safer sensitizer as alternative for dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Dyes play an important role in solar energy conversion efficiency. The squaraine (SQ) dyes has good spectral match with the solar spectra, therefore, SQ dyes have great potential for the applications in DSCs. SQ01_CA is an unsymmetrical SQ dye, reported by Grätzel and colleagues in 2007, featuring a D–π–spacer–A framework and has a carboxylic acid anchoring group. The electron donating ability of indolium in SQ01_CA and SQ01_CAA dyes is relatively weak, better performance may be achieved by introducing an additional donor moiety into indolium [1]. In this study, we investigate six unsymmetrical SQ dyes adsorbed on a (TiO2)38 cluster [2] using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT to study electron transfer properties of squaraine dyes on their photophysical. SQ01_CA, WH-SQ01_CA, and WH-SQ02_CA use a carboxylic acid group as its electron acceptor. Furthermore, SQ01_CAA, WH-SQ01_CAA, and WH-SQ02_CAA use a cyanoacrylic acid group as its electron acceptor. WH-SQ01_CA and WH-SQ01_CAA have an alkyl, while WH-SQ02_CA and WH-SQ02_CAA have alkoxyl substituted diarylamines to the indolium donor of sensitizer SQ01_CA. Our calculations show with additional diarylamines in donor tail of WH-SQ02_CAA, the SQ dyes have red-shifted absorption and have slightly larger probability of electron density transferred to TiO2 moiety. Furthermore, an additional ‑CN group as electron a withdrawing group in the acceptor exhibits red-shifted absorption and enhances the electron density transferred to TiO2 and anchoring moiety after photo-excitation. The tendency of calculated probabilities of electron density being delocalized into TiO2 and driving force for excited-state electron injection of these studied SQ dyes is compatible with their experimentally observed.

  5. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Maiaugree, Wasan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Suriharn, Bhalang [Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Swatsitang, Ekaphan, E-mail: ekaphan@kku.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Extract from husk, cob and silk of purple corn was used as a photosensitizer in DSSC. • Effect of solvents i.e. acetone, ethanol and DI water on DSSC efficiency was studied. • The highest efficiency of 1.06% was obtained in DSSC based on acetone extraction. - Abstract: Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  6. Novel diyne-bridged dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jing-Kun, E-mail: fjk@njust.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei Street No. 200, Nanjing, 210094 (China); Sun, Tengxiao [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei Street No. 200, Nanjing, 210094 (China); Tian, Yi [Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Zhang, Yingjun, E-mail: ZhangYingjun@hec.cn [HEC Pharm Group, HEC R& D Center, Dongguan, 523871 (China); Jin, Chuanfei [HEC Pharm Group, HEC R& D Center, Dongguan, 523871 (China); Xu, Zhimin; Fang, Yu; Hu, Xiangyu; Wang, Haobin [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei Street No. 200, Nanjing, 210094 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Three new metal free organic dyes (FSD101-103) were synthesized to investigate the influence of diyne unit on dye molecules. FSD101 and FSD102 with diyne unit and FSD103 with monoyne unit were applied as sensitizers in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The optical and electrochemical properties, theoretical studies, and photovoltaic parameters of DSSCs sensitized by these dyes were systematically investigated. By replacing the monoyne unit with a diyne unit, FSD101 exhibited broader absorption spectrum, lower IP, higher EA, lower band gap energy, higher oscillator strength, more efficient electron injection ability, broader IPCE response range and higher τ{sub e} in comparison with FSD103. Hence, DSSC sensitized by FSD101 showed higher J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} values, and demonstrated a power conversion efficiency of 3.12%, about 2-fold as that of FSD103 (1.55%). FSD102 showed similar results as FSD101, with a power conversion efficiency of 2.98%, despite a stronger electron withdraw cyanoacrylic acid group was introduced. This may be due to the lower efficiency of the electron injection from dye to TiO{sub 2} and lower τ{sub e} of FSD102 than that of FSD101. These results indicate that the performance of DSSCs can be significantly improved by introducing a diyne unit into this type of organic dyes. - Highlights: • Diyne-bridge was introduced into dye molecules by a transition-metal-free protocol. • Power conversion efficiency grows from 1.55% to 3.12% by replacing monoyne unit with diyne unit. • FSD101 with diyne unit shows the highest electron lifetime resulting in a higher V{sub oc}.

  7. Dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} solar cells based on novel coumarin dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Kohjiro; Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Sayama, Kazuhiro; Sugihara, Hideki; Arakawa, Hironori [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Photoreaction Control Research Center; Ohga, Yasuyo; Shinpo, Akira; Suga, Sadaharu [Hayashibara Biochemical Labs., Okayama (Japan)

    2003-04-30

    We have developed dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} solar cells (DSSCs) based on novel coumarin-dye photosensitizers. The absorption spectra of these novel dyes are red-shifted remarkably in the visible region relative to the spectrum of C343, a conventional coumarin dye. Introduction of a methine unit (-CH=CH-) connecting the cyano (-CN) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups into the coumarin framework expanded the {pi}-conjugation in the dye and thus resulted in a wide absorption in the visible region. These novel dyes performed as efficient photosensitizers for DSSCs. A DSSC based on 2-cyano-5-(1,1,6,6-tetramethyl-10-oxo-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-1H,4H,10H-11-oxa-3a-a= za-benzo[de]anthracen-9-yl)-penta-2,4-dienoic acid (NKX-2311), produced a 6.0% solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency ({eta}), the highest performance among DSSCs based on organic-dye photosensitizers, under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm{sup -2}) with a short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 14.0 mA cm{sup -2}, an open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.60 V, and a fill factor of 0.71. Our results suggests that the structure of NKX-2311 whose carboxyl group is directly connected to the -CH=CH- unit, is advantageous for effective electron injection from the dye into the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}. In addition, the cyano group, owing to its strong electron-withdrawing ability, might play an important role in electron injection in addition to a red shift in the absorption region. On a long-term stability test under continuous irradiation with white light (80 mW cm{sup -2}), stable performance was attained with a solar cell based on the NKX-2311 dye with a turnover number of 2.6x10{sup 7} per one molecule. (Author)

  8. Dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO{sup 2} solar cells based on novel coumarin dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Kohjiro; Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Sayama, Kazuhiro; Sugihara, Hideki; Arakawa, Hironori [Photoreaction Control Research Center (PCRC) Science and Technology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Ohga, Yasuyo; Shinpo, Akira; Suga, Sadaharu [Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., 564-176 Fujita, Okayama 701-0221 (Japan)

    2003-04-30

    We have developed dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} solar cells (DSSCs) based on novel coumarin-dye photosensitizers. The absorption spectra of these novel dyes are red-shifted remarkably in the visible region relative to the spectrum of C343, a conventional coumarin dye. Introduction of a methine unit (-CH==CH-) connecting the cyano (-CN) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups into the coumarin framework expanded the {pi}-conjugation in the dye and thus resulted in a wide absorption in the visible region. These novel dyes performed as efficient photosensitizers for DSSCs. A DSSC based on 2-cyano-5-(1,1,6,6-tetramethyl-10-oxo-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-1H,4H,10H-11-oxa-3a- aza-benzo[de]anthracen-9-yl)-penta-2,4-dienoic acid (NKX-2311), produced a 6.0% solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency ({eta}), the highest performance among DSSCs based on organic-dye photosensitizers, under AM 1.5 irradiation (100mWcm{sup -2}) with a short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 14.0mAcm{sup -2}, an open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.60V, and a fill factor of 0.71. Our results suggests that the structure of NKX-2311 whose carboxyl group is directly connected to the -CH==CH- unit, is advantageous for effective electron injection from the dye into the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}. In addition, the cyano group, owing to its strong electron-withdrawing ability, might play an important role in electron injection in addition to a red shift in the absorption region. On a long-term stability test under continuous irradiation with white light (80mWcm{sup -2}), stable performance was attained with a solar cell based on the NKX-2311 dye with a turnover number of 2.6x10{sup 7} per one molecule.

  9. Panchromatic Response in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Containing Phosphorescent Energy Relay Dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2009-11-23

    Running relay: Incorporating an energyrelay dye (ERD) into the hole transporter of a dye-sensitized solar cell increased power-conversion efficiency by 29% by extending light harvesting into the blue region. In the operating mechanism (see picture), absorption of red photons by the sensitizer transfers an electron into TiO2 and a hole into the electrolyte. Blue photons absorbed by the ERD are transferred by FRET to the sensitizer. Chemical Equitation Presentation © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Cosensitization with Vat-Based Organic Dyes for Enhanced Spectral Response of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinnezhad, Mozhgan

    2017-04-01

    Cosensitization using two organic dyes with supplementary absorption spectra on a photoelectrode is an effective method for improving the photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. Two organic dyes based on indigo and thioindigo have been synthesized, purified, and used to sensitize solar cells with spectral response extending across the entire visible region. To improve their photoelectric properties, different molar ratios were investigated, yielding total efficiency of 6.17% at dye 1:dye 2 = 4:6. The effect of the concentration of Cheno antiaggregation agent on the performance of the dye-sensitized solar cells was also considered. The results demonstrate that higher conversion efficiency ( η = 6.82%) was achieved with 10 × 10-3 M Cheno. Finally, the performance of cosensitized solar cells was measured at different temperatures between 10°C and 50°C. The results indicated that J sc decreased with increasing temperature, directly affecting the conversion efficiency.

  11. Starburst triarylamine based dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhijun; Zhang, Qiong; Wu, Wenjun; Pei, Hongcui; Liu, Bo; Tian, He

    2008-05-16

    We report here on the synthesis and photophysical/electrochemical properties of a series of novel starburst triarylamine-based organic dyes (S1, S2, S3, and S4) as well as their application in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells (DSSCs). For the four designed dyes, the starburst triarylamine group and the cyanoacetic acid take the role of electron donor and electron acceptor, respectively. It was found that the introduction of starburst triarylamine group to form the D-D-pi-A configuration brought about superior performance over the simple D-pi-A configuration, in terms of bathochromically extended absorption spectra, enhanced molar extinction coefficients and better thermo-stability. Moreover, the HOMO and LUMO energy levels tuning can be conveniently accomplished by alternating the donor moiety, which was confirmed by electrochemical measurements and theoretical calculations. The DSSCs based on the dye S4 showed the best photovoltaic performance: a maximum monochromatic incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 85%, a short-circuit photocurrent density (J(sc)) of 13.8 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (V(oc)) of 0.63 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 0.69, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 6.02% under 100 mW cm(-2) irradiation. This work suggests that the dyes based on starburst triphenylamine donor are promising candidates for improvement of the performance of the DSSCs.

  12. Time dependent – density functional theory characterization of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hilal, Rifaat

    2017-06-19

    We aim at providing better insight into the parameters that govern the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photo-injection processes in dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC). Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations are utilized to study the geometry, electronic structure, electrostatic potential (ESP) and absorption spectrum, for a representative donor-π bridge-acceptor (D–π–A) dye for DSSC. The coplanar geometry of the dye (D1) facilitates strong conjugation and considerable delocalization originating the π CT interaction from donor to acceptor orbitals and the hyper-conjugative interactions involving Rydberg states. A model simulating the adsorption of the dye on the TiO surface is utilized to estimate binding energies. The effect of fluorine substituents in the π-spacer on the quantum efficiency of DSSCs was investigated. Gibb’s free energy values, redox potentials, excited state lifetime, non-linear optical properties (NLO) and driving forces for D1 and its fluorinated derivatives were computed.

  13. Rhodanine dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells : spectroscopy, energy levels and photovoltaic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinado, Tannia; Hagberg, Daniel P; Hedlund, Maria; Edvinsson, Tomas; Johansson, Erik M J; Boschloo, Gerrit; Rensmo, Håkan; Brinck, Tore; Sun, Licheng; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2009-01-07

    Three new sensitizers for photoelectrochemical solar cells were synthesized consisting of a triphenylamine donor, a rhodanine-3-acetic acid acceptor and a polyene connection. The conjugation length was systematically increased, which resulted in two effects: first, it led to a red-shift of the optical absorption of the dyes, resulting in an improved spectral overlap with the solar spectrum. Secondly, the oxidation potential decreased systematically. The excited state levels were, however, calculated to be nearly stationary. The experimental trends were in excellent agreement with density functional theory (DFT) computations. The photovoltaic performance of this set of dyes as sensitizers in mesoporous TiO2 solar cells was investigated using electrolytes containing the iodide/triiodide redox couple. The dye with the best absorption characteristics showed the poorest solar cell efficiency, due to losses by recombination of electrons in TiO2 with triiodide. Addition of 4-tert butylpyridine to the electrolyte led to a strongly reduced photocurrent for all dyes due to a reduced electron injection efficiency, caused by a 0.15 V negative shift of the TiO2 conduction band potential.

  14. Selective labelling of cell-surface proteins using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner-McWhirter, Asa; Winkvist, Maria; Bourin, Stephanie; Marouga, Rita

    2008-11-26

    Surface proteins are central to the cell's ability to react to its environment and to interact with neighboring cells. They are known to be inducers of almost all intracellular signaling. Moreover, they play an important role in environmental adaptation and drug treatment, and are often involved in disease pathogenesis and pathology (1). Protein-protein interactions are intrinsic to signaling pathways, and to gain more insight in these complex biological processes, sensitive and reliable methods are needed for studying cell surface proteins. Two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis is used extensively for detection of biomarkers and other targets in complex protein samples to study differential changes. Cell surface proteins, partly due to their low abundance (1 2% of cellular proteins), are difficult to detect in a 2-D gel without fractionation or some other type of enrichment. They are also often poorly represented in 2-D gels due to their hydrophobic nature and high molecular weight (2). In this study, we present a new protocol for intact cells using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes for specific labeling and detection of this important group of proteins. The results showed specific labeling of a large number of cell surface proteins with minimal labeling of intracellular proteins. This protocol is rapid, simple to use, and all three CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes (Cy 2, Cy 3 and Cy 5) can be used to label cell-surface proteins. These features allow for multiplexing using the 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with Ettan DIGE technology and analysis of protein expression changes using DeCyder 2-D Differential Analysis Software. The level of cell-surface proteins was followed during serum starvation of CHO cells for various lengths of time (see Table 1). Small changes in abundance were detected with high accuracy, and results are supported by defined statistical methods.

  15. Effect of Mixing Dyes and Solvent in Electrolyte Toward Characterization of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Using Natural Dyes as The Sensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Nurrisma; Nurul Amalia, Silviyanti S.; Yudoyono, Gatut; Endarko

    2017-07-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) using natural dyes (chlorophyll, curcumin from turmeric extract, and anthocyanin from mangosteen extract) have been successfully fabricated for determining the effect of variation natural dyes, mixing dyes and acetonitrile in electrolyte toward characterization of DSSC. DSSC consists of five parts namely ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) as a substrate; TiO2 as semiconductor materials; natural dyes as an electron donor; electrolyte as electron transfer; and carbon as a catalyst that can convert light energy into electric energy. Two types of gel electrolyte based on PEG that mixed with liquid electrolyte have utilized for analyzing the lifetime of DSSC. Type I used distilled water as a solvent whilst type II used acetonitrile as a solvent with addition of concentration of KI and iodine. The main purpose of study was to investigate influence of solvent in electrolyte, variation of natural dyes and mixing dyes toward an efficiency that resulted by DSSC. The result showed that electrolyte type II is generally better than type I with efficiency 0,0556 and 0,0456 %, respectively. An efficiency values which resulted from a variation of mixed three natural dyes showed the greatest efficiency compared to mixed two natural dyes and one dye, with an efficiency value can be achieved at 0,0194 % for chlorophyll; 0,111 % for turmeric; 0,0105 % for mangosteen; 0,0244% (mangosteen and chlorophyll); 0,0117 % (turmeric and mangosteen); 0,0158 % (turmeric and chlorophyll); and 0.0566 % (mixed three natural dyes).

  16. Natural dye extracted from karkadah and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells: experimental and density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, S M; Soliman, K A

    2016-02-01

    This work presents an experimental and theoretical study of cyanidin natural dye as a sensitizer for ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells. ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using ammonia and oxalic acid as a capping agent. The calculated average size of the synthesized ZnO with different capping agents was found to be 32.1 nm. Electronic properties of cyanidin and delphinidin dye were studied using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT with a B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. By comparing the theoretical results with the experimental data, the cyanidin dye can be used as a sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells. An efficiency of 0.006% under an AM-1.5 illumination at 100  mW/cm(2) was attained. The influence of dye adsorption time on the solar cell performance is discussed.

  17. Structural color-tunable mesoporous bragg stack layers based on graft copolymer self-assembly for high-efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Soo; Park, Jung Tae; Kim, Jong Hak

    2016-08-01

    We present a facile fabrication route for structural color-tunable mesoporous Bragg stack (BS) layers based on the self-assembly of a cost-effective graft copolymer. The mesoporous BS layers are prepared through the alternating deposition of organized mesoporous-TiO2 (OM-TiO2) and -SiO2 (OM-SiO2) films on the non-conducting side of the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The OM layers with controlled porosity, pore size, and refractive index are templated with amphiphilic graft copolymers consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) backbones and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) side chains, i.e., PVC-g-POEM. The morphology and properties of the structural color-tunable mesoporous BS-functionalized electrodes are characterized using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), spectroscopic ellipsometry, and reflectance spectroscopy. The solid-state DSSCs (ssDSSCs) based on a structural color-tunable mesoporous BS counter electrode with a single-component solid electrolyte show an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 7.1%, which is much greater than that of conventional nanocrystalline TiO2-based cells and one of the highest values for N719 dye-based ssDSSCs. The enhancement of η is due to the enhancement of current density (Jsc), attributed to the improved light harvesting properties without considerable decrease in fill factor (FF) or open-circuit voltage (Voc), as confirmed by incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

  18. Towards Rational Designing of Efficient Sensitizers Based on Thiophene and Infrared Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometries, electronic properties, and absorption spectra of the dyes which are a combination of thiophene based dye (THPD and IR dyes (covering IR region; TIRBD1-TIRBD3 were performed using density functional theory (DFT and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT, respectively. Different electron donating groups, electron withdrawing groups, and IR dyes have been substituted on THPD to enhance the efficiency. The bond lengths of new designed dyes are almost the same. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of designed dyes are above the conduction band of TiO2 and the highest occupied molecular orbital energies are below the redox couple revealing that TIRBD1-TIRBD3 would be better sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. The broad spectra and low energy gap also showed that designed materials would be efficient sensitizers.

  19. Biophotovoltaics: Natural pigments in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, Hubert; Bader, Michael; Mair, Peter; Glatzel, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural pigments are photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). • Efficiency is still lower compared to synthetic pigments. • The use of natural pigments such as carotenoids and polyphenols is cheap. • General advantages of DSSCs are flexibility, color and transparency. • Usage under diffuse light and therefore, indoor applications are possible. - Abstract: Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) which are also called Graetzel cells are a novel type of solar cells. Their advantages are mainly low cost production, low energy payback time, flexibility, performance also at diffuse light and multicolor options. DSSCs become more and more interesting since a huge variety of dyes including also natural dyes can be used as light harvesting elements which provide the charge carriers. A wide band gap semiconductor like TiO 2 is used for charge separation and transport. Such a DSSC contains similarities to the photosynthetic apparatus. Therefore, we summarize current available knowledge on natural dyes that have been used in DSSCs which should provide reasonable light harvesting efficiency, sustainability, low cost and easy waste management. Promising natural compounds are carotenoids, polyphenols and chlorophylls

  20. Phenothiazine-Based Dyes in Solar Cell Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Bejan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenothiazine is a fused heterocyclic ring with strong electron-donating character which makes it an important building block for designing organic materials for solar cells applications. The present paper reviews the most recent achievements of phenothiazine-based compounds as dyes in solar cells, with special emphasis on the structure – performance relationship.

  1. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells with multilayer photoanodes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TiO2 NPs. This could show an increase of about 30% in the efficiency compared to the similar cell with a photoanode made of two layers of hydrothermally grown TiO2 NCs. Keywords. Dye-sensitized solar cells; hydrothermal method; TiO2 nanocrystals; multilayer photoanodes; energy conversion efficiency. 1. Introduction.

  2. Effects of TiO2 Film Thickness and Electrolyte Concentration on Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domtau, D. L.; Simiyu, J.; Ayieta, E. O.; Nyakiti, L. O.; Muthoka, B.; Mwabora, J. M.

    Effects of film thickness and electrolyte concentration on the photovoltaic performance of TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) were studied. Nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 thin films with varying thicknesses (3.2-18.9μm) have been deposited on FTO/glass substrates by screen printing method as work electrodes for DSSC. The prepared samples were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy/Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (AFM/STM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optimal thickness of the TiO2 photoanode is 13.5μm. Short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) increases with film thickness due to enlargement of surface area whereas open-circuit voltage decreases with increase in thickness due to increase in electron diffusion length to the electrode. However, the Jsc and Voc of DSSC with a film thickness of 18.9μm (7.5mA/cm2 and 0.687V) are smaller than those of DSSC with a TiO2 film thickness of 13.5μm (9.9mA/cm2 and 0.734V). This is because the increased thickness of TiO2 thin film resulted in the decrease in the transmittance of TiO2 thin films hence reducing the incident light intensity on the N719 dye. Photovoltaic performance also depends greatly on the redox couple concentration in iodide∖triiodide. Jsc decreases as the redox concentration increases as a result of increased viscosity of the solution which lowers ion mobility. Similarly, Voc decreases as the electrolyte concentration increases due to enhanced back electron transfer reaction. An optimum power conversion efficiency of 4.3% was obtained in a DSSC with the TiO2 film thickness of 13.5μm and redox concentration of 0.03mol dm-3 under AM 1.5G illumination at 100mW/cm2.

  3. Dye Oriza sativa glutinosa doped Fe as a active element of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasada, A. B.; Fadli, U. M.; Cari; Supriyanto, A.

    2016-11-01

    The aims of the research are to determine the effect of doping Fe (III) Sulphate into dye Oriza sativa glutinosa on the characteristics parameters of solar cells, to determine the optical characteristic, functional group and electrical characteristic of dye Oriza sativa glutinosa doped Fe (III) sulphate. TiO2 nano size as much as 0.5 gr dissolved in 3 ml ethanol. 100 gr black sticky rice (Oriza sativa glutinosa) was immersed in 80 ml ethanol solution (95%) and kept at room temperature without exposing to light. Then it was filtered with a filter paper no.42, and the extracted result was process with chromatography. Furthermore, it was doped with Fe (III) sulphate respectively of 10-1 M, 10-2 M, 10-3 M. The characteristic of dye solution was measured using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Lambda 25 for absorbance, Elkahfi 100/I-V meter for conductivity amd Keithey 2602A for characterization of current and voltage (I-V). The result showed that the area of dye Oriza sativa glutionosa doped Fe (III) sulphate with concentration 10-1 M the largest, because the value of Voc intercept at 6.40 × 10-1 mV and the value Isc intercept at 1.89 × 10-3 mA, with efficiency value is 0.148%.

  4. Effect of the thickness of the Ru-coating on a counter electrode on the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeungjo; Yoo, Kicheon; Ko, Min Jae; Yu, Byungkwan; Noh, Yunyoung; Song, Ohsung

    2012-02-01

    A ruthenium (Ru) catalytic layer was assessed as the counter electrode (CE) in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by examining the effect of the Ru thickness on the DSSC performance. Ru films with different thicknesses (34, 46, 69 and 90 nm) were deposited on glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates as the CE by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 250 °C using RuDi as the precursor and O2 as the reaction gas. Finally, a 0.45 cm2 DSSC of glass/FTO/TiO2/dye(N719)/electrolyte(C6DMII, GSCN)/Ru CE structure was prepared. The properties of the DSSCs were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), four-point-probe, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), current-voltage (I-V), incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE), and dark current measurements. FESEM showed that the crystallized Ru films had been deposited quite uniformly and conformally on the glass/FTO surface. The sheet resistance of the Ru film decreased with increasing Ru thickness. CV profiling revealed an increase in catalytic activity with increasing film thickness. The charge transfer resistance at the interface between the Ru-coated CE and electrolyte decreased with increasing Ru thickness. I-V profiling showed that the energy conversion efficiency was increased up to 3.40 % by increasing the Ru thickness. Moreover, the IPCE and dark current results showed the efficiency of the Ru-coated CE was comparable to that of a conventional platinum (Pt) CE.

  5. Oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition for the low-temperature direct growth of graphitic nanofibers on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we report an oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method for the direct growth of graphitic nanofibers (GNFs) on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate at a low temperature (550 °C). By adding moderate concentrations of oxygen in a gas mixture of argon, ethylene, and hydrogen during LPCVD, an extremely dense GNF forest can be obtained on a nickel-coated FTO glass substrate. Though this process, the graphitic nanofibers are grown homogenously on a large area of FTO glass. It was observed that oxygen-assisted LPCVD leads to the direct growth of high-quality GNFs as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In combination with an N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with a GNF counter electrode showed a power conversion efficiency of 5.51% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm-2) illumination, which approached that of the DSSC with a Pt counter electrode (5.44%). The results demonstrated that our directly grown GNFs could be promising candidates for counter electrodes to achieve high performance in DSSCs.

  6. Molecular design of the diketopyrrolopyrrole-based dyes with varied donor units for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xu-Feng; Huang, Zu-Sheng; Wu, Han-Lun; Iqbal, Zafar; Wang, Lingyun; Meier, Herbert; Cao, Derong

    2014-12-01

    Three types of novel diketopyrrolopyrrole-based organic dyes (Type 1-3) with phenyl unit as an additional π-bridge and triphenylamine or phenothiazine as the donors are designed and synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Type 1 dyes incorporating the donor segment directly to the diketopyrrolopyrrole core lead to a better electron communication between the donor and acceptor, allowing an efficient charge transfer process. Type 2 and Type 3 dyes with a phenyl unit between the donor and diketopyrrolopyrrole unit show lower delocalization of the excited state. Compared with Type 3 dyes, Type 1 dyes exhibit higher conjugated skeleton co planarity and shorter electron transfer distance from the donor to TiO2, resulting in the red-shifts of absorption and promotion of electron injection, respectively. Moreover, the dyes with triphenylamine as the donor display better UV performance and lower trend of aggregation than the dyes with phenothiazine as the donor. Finally, a power conversion efficiency of 8% with chenodeoxycholic acid as the co-absorbant for the DSSC based on Type 1 dyes with triphenylamine is achieved. The results reveal that the donors, the position and number of phenyl unit of the dyes significantly influence the photovoltaic performance of their DSSCs.

  7. Research progress of triphenylamine dye sensitizers of solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng YU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC attracted widespread attention for its low cost, being easy to manufacture, large-scale production and environmentally friendly features. Sensitizer is a core component of the DSSC which plays a role in collecting sunlight and injecting excited state electron into the conduction band of the semiconductor, which is crucial to the photo-electric conversion efficiency. Organic dyes have a number of advantages such as easy synthesizing and tuning of photo-physical and electrochemical properties through molecular design. Triphenylamine is a strong electron donating group, and its non-planar spatial structure makes the degree of the dye molecules aggregation to be decreased. These properties are conducive to improve the absorption properties of the dye and the electron transport efficiency. In recent years, triphenylamine or substituted triphenylamine as electron donor of organic sensitizers becomes the research focus for improving the photoelectric conversion efficiency of solar cells. In this paper, the progress of triphenylamine photosensitive dyes is described.

  8. Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as optofluidic cell sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2009-01-01

    Dye doped hybrid polymer lasers are implemented as label free evanescent field biosensors for detection of cells. It is demonstrated that although the coverage is irregular and the cells extend over several lattice constants, the emission wavelength depends linearly on the fraction of the surface...... covered by the HeLa cells used as model system. Design parameters relating to photonic crystal sensing of large objects are identified and discussed. The lasers are chemically modified to bind cells and molecules with flexible UV activated linker molecules.......Dye doped hybrid polymer lasers are implemented as label free evanescent field biosensors for detection of cells. It is demonstrated that although the coverage is irregular and the cells extend over several lattice constants, the emission wavelength depends linearly on the fraction of the surface...

  9. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Using Various Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliarto, Brian; Fanani, Fahiem; Fuadi, M. Kasyful; Nugraha

    2010-10-01

    This article reports the development of organic dyes as an attempt to reduce material costs of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Indonesia, a country with variety and considerable number of botanical resources, is suitable to perform the research. Indonesian black rice, curcuma, papaya leaf, and the combination were chosen as organic dyes source. Dyes were extracted using organic solvent and adsorbed on mesoporous Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) which has been optimized in our laboratory. The best dyes light absorbance and performance obtained from papaya leaf as chlorophyll dyes that gives two peaks at 432 nm and 664 nm from UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and performance under 100 mW/cm2 Xenon light solar simulator gives VOC = 0.566 Volt, JSC = 0.24 mA/cm2, Fill Factor = 0.33, and efficiency of energy conversion 0,045%.

  10. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of dye-sensitized solar cells: identification of the dye-electrolyte interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Hanna; Leandri, Valentina; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit; Bergquist, Jonas; Shevchenko, Denys

    2015-05-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have great potential to provide sustainable electricity from sunlight. The photoanode in DSCs consists of a dye-sensitized metal oxide film deposited on a conductive substrate. This configuration makes the photoanode a perfect sample for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). We applied LDI-MS for the study of molecular interactions between a dye and electrolyte on the surface of a TiO2 photoanode. We found that a dye containing polyoxyethylene groups forms complexes with alkali metal cations from the electrolyte, while a dye substituted with alkoxy groups does not. Guanidinium ion forms adducts with neither of the two dyes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed FATHALLAH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC constitutes a real revolution in the conversion of solar energy into electricity after 40 years of the invention of silicon solar cells. The working mechanism is based on a photoelectrochemical system, similar to the photosynthesis in plant leaves. The efficiencies of the DSSC are high as those obtained from amorphous silicon solar cells (10-11 % and intensive efforts are done in different directions to improve this efficiency.

  12. Sensitizer molecular structure-device efficiency relationship in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, John N; Martínez-Ferrero, Eugenia; Viterisi, Aurélien; Palomares, Emilio

    2011-03-01

    In the Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) the dye sensitizer carries out the light harvesting function and is therefore crucial in determining overall cell efficiency. In addition, the dye sensitizer can influence many of the key electron transfer processes occurring at the TiO(2)/dye/electrolyte interface which also determine efficiency. Dye structure can influence and drive forward electron injection into the conduction band of the TiO(2). Conversely, dye structure can help retard loss electron transfer processes such as charge recombination of injected electrons in the TiO(2) with dye cations and also recombination of these electrons with the electrolyte. Therefore tuning dye sensitizer light absorbing properties and control of the aforementioned electron transfer processes through structural design of the dye sensitizer is an important avenue through which optimization of DSSC efficiency should be pursued. In this critical review the latest work focusing on the design of dyes for efficient DSSCs is revised (111 references).

  13. Titania nanofiber photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krýsová, Hana; Trčková-Baráková, J.; Procházka, Jan; Zukal, Arnošt; Maixner, J.; Kavan, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 230, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 234-239 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0814 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrospinning * titanium dioxide * dye-sensitized solar cell Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014

  14. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells with multilayer photoanodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 39 Issue 6 October 2016 pp 1403-1410 ... Keywords. Dye-sensitized solar cells; hydrothermal method; TiO 2 nanocrystals; multilayer photoanodes; energy conversion efficiency. ... Higher energy conversion efficiencies were also attainable using two transparent sub-layers of hydrothermally grown TiO 2 NCs.

  15. Exploiting quantum interference in dye sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggio, Emanuele; Solomon, Gemma C.; Troisi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    A strategy to hinder the charge recombination process in dye sensitized solar cells is developed in analogy with similar approaches to modulate charge transport across nanostructures. The system studied is a TiO2 (anatase)-chromophore interface, with an unsaturated carbon bridge connecting the two...

  16. Decolouration of laboratory dyes by immobilized cells of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyes are indicated as one of the most problematic compounds in industrial effluents. This is due to their high solubility and low degradability. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of external carbon source on decolouration of bromothymol blue, crystal violet and methylene blue by alginate immobilized cells of ...

  17. Exploiting Nanocarbons in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 348, č. 2014 (2014), s. 53-94 ISSN 0340-1022 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Dye sensitized solar cells * Carbon nanotubes * Graphene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.464, year: 2014

  18. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with natural dyes extracted from Jatropha leaves and purple Chrysanthemum flowers as sensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Dahlang; Satriani, Wilda; Gareso, P. L.; Abdullah, B.

    2018-03-01

    DSSC (Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell) prototype has been investigated using Jatropha leaves and purple Chrysanthemum flowers as natural dyes. DSSC consists of working electrode and counter electrode. A working electrode composed of semiconductor nanoparticles TiO2 that has been coated with dye molecules. Dye molecules serve as light photon catchers, while semiconductor nanoparticles TiO2 function to absorb and forward photons into electrons. In the electrode counter given catalyst carbon, serves to accelerate the reaction kinetics of triiodide reduction process on transparent conductive oxide (TCO). DSSC using TiO2 as a semiconductor material and natural dyes as sensitizer from Jatropha leaves and purple Chrysanthemum flowers are successful produced. The physical properties of the working electrode have been determined by using XRD and the chemical properties of the TiO2 powder and dye powder using FTIR and dye solution using UV-Vis. The resulted fabrications are also examined its I-V characteristics. The best performance is generated by mixed dye 1.91 x 10-3 % compared than those DSSC for dye extracted from Jatropha leaves or purple Chrysanthemum. The characterization results show that the higher of the absorption wavelength of the DSSC efficiency is high.

  19. Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system simplifies the transformation process and reduces the time required for its completion. In the present work, four fungal strains with a well-known ability to produce laccase were tested for oxidation of 17 phenolic and non-phenolic precursors into stable and non-toxic dyes. Results An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor. Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium. The immobilized fungal biomass catalyzed the transformation of 1 mM benzene and naphthalene derivatives in liquid cultures yielding stable and non-toxic products with good dyeing properties. The type of fungal strain had a large influence on the absorbance of the coloured products obtained after 48-hour transformation of the selected precursors, and the most effective was Fomes fomentarius (FF25). Whole-cell transformation of AHBS (3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid) into a phenoxazinone dye was carried out in four different systems: in aqueous media comprising low amounts of carbon and nitrogen source, in buffer, and in distilled water. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes. This paper highlights the potential of fungal biomass for replacing isolated enzymes as a cheaper industrial-grade biocatalyst for the synthesis of dyes and other commercially important

  20. Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosz-Wilkołazka Anna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system simplifies the transformation process and reduces the time required for its completion. In the present work, four fungal strains with a well-known ability to produce laccase were tested for oxidation of 17 phenolic and non-phenolic precursors into stable and non-toxic dyes. Results An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor. Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium. The immobilized fungal biomass catalyzed the transformation of 1 mM benzene and naphthalene derivatives in liquid cultures yielding stable and non-toxic products with good dyeing properties. The type of fungal strain had a large influence on the absorbance of the coloured products obtained after 48-hour transformation of the selected precursors, and the most effective was Fomes fomentarius (FF25. Whole-cell transformation of AHBS (3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid into a phenoxazinone dye was carried out in four different systems: in aqueous media comprising low amounts of carbon and nitrogen source, in buffer, and in distilled water. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes. This paper highlights the potential of fungal biomass for replacing isolated enzymes as a cheaper industrial-grade biocatalyst for the synthesis of dyes and other

  1. Improved Electrodes and Electrolytes for Dye-Based Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry R. Allcock; Thomas E. Mallouk; Mark W. Horn

    2011-10-26

    The most important factor in limiting the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells is the use of volatile liquid solvents in the electrolytes, which causes leakage during extended operation especially at elevated temperatures. This, together with the necessary complex sealing of the cells, seriously hampers the industrial-scale manufacturing and commercialization feasibilities of DSSCs. The objective of this program was to bring about a significant improvement in the performance and longevity of dye-based solar cells leading to commercialization. This had been studied in two ways first through development of low volatility solid, gel or liquid electrolytes, second through design and fabrication of TiO2 sculptured thin film electrodes.

  2. QSPR study of absorption maxima of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells based on 3D descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Liang, Guijie; Wang, Luoxin; Shen, Xiaolin; Xu, Weilin

    2010-07-01

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study was performed for the prediction of the absorption maxima ( λmax) of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The entire set of 70 dyes was divided into a training set of 53 dyes and a test set of 17 dyes according to Kennard and Stones algorithm. Three-dimensional (3D) descriptors were calculated to represent the dye molecules. A ten-descriptor model, with a squared correlation coefficient ( R2) of 0.9543 and a standard error of estimation ( s) of 14.7 nm, was produced by using the stepwise multilinear regression analysis (MLRA) on the training set. The reliability of the proposed model was further illustrated using various evaluation techniques: leave-one-out cross-validation procedure, randomization tests, and validation through the external test set. All descriptors involved in the model were derived solely from the chemical structure of the dye molecules, which makes the model very useful to estimate the λmax of dyes before they are actually synthesized.

  3. Numerical Procedure for Optimizing Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Razvan Mitroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a numerical procedure consisting of a simplified physical model and a numerical method with the aim of optimizing the performance parameters of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. We calculate the real rate of absorbed photons (in the dye spectral range Grealx by introducing a factor β<1 in order to simplify the light absorption and reflection on TCO electrode. We consider the electrical transport to be purely diffusive and the recombination process only to occur between electrons from the TiO2 conduction band and anions from the electrolyte. The used numerical method permits solving the system of differential equations resulting from the physical model. We apply the proposed numerical procedure on a classical DSSC based on Ruthenium dye in order to validate it. For this, we simulate the J-V characteristics and calculate the main parameters: short-circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc, fill factor FF, and power conversion efficiency η. We analyze the influence of the nature of semiconductor (TiO2 and dye and also the influence of different technological parameters on the performance parameters of DSSCs. The obtained results show that the proposed numerical procedure is suitable for developing a numerical simulation platform for improving the DSSCs performance by choosing the optimal parameters.

  4. Recent Advances in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is an abundant and accessible source of renewable energy available on earth, and many types of photovoltaic (PV devices like organic, inorganic, and hybrid cells have been developed to harness the energy. PV cells directly convert solar radiation into electricity without affecting the environment. Although silicon based solar cells (inorganic cells are widely used because of their high efficiency, they are rigid and manufacturing costs are high. Researchers have focused on organic solar cells to overcome these disadvantages. DSSCs comprise a sensitized semiconductor (photoelectrode and a catalytic electrode (counter electrode with an electrolyte sandwiched between them and their efficiency depends on many factors. The maximum electrical conversion efficiency of DSSCs attained so far is 11.1%, which is still low for commercial applications. This review examines the working principle, factors affecting the efficiency, and key challenges facing DSSCs.

  5. Dyes adsorption on magnetically modified Chlorella vulgaris cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafaříková, Miroslava; Pona, B. M. R.; Mosiniewicz-Szablewska, E.; Weyda, František; Šafařík, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2008), s. 486-492 ISSN 1018-4619 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 108; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Chlorella vulgaris * magnetically modified cells * dyes Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.463, year: 2008

  6. Recent Advances in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. Lenzmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes recent advances in the research on dye-sensitized solar cells. After a brief discussion of the general operation principles and a presentation of record efficiencies, stability data and key technology drivers, current trends will be reviewed. The focus of this review is on materials development (sensitizers, nanostructured oxide films, and electrolyte, but commercialization aspects will also be briefly addressed. The review describes the most relevant characteristics and major trends in a compact way.

  7. Liquid Redox Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Ze

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on liquid redox electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A liquid redox electrolyte, as one of the key constituents in DSCs, typically consists of a redox mediator, additives and a solvent. This thesis work concerns all these three aspects of liquid electrolytes, aiming through fundamental insights to enhance the photovoltaic performances of liquid DSCs. Initial attention has been paid to the iodine concentration effects in ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolytes. I...

  8. A Study on the Efficiency Improvement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) by Repeated Dye Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Ho; Choi, Eun Chang; Hong, Byungyou

    2015-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is being extensively investigated as the next generation energy source. Despite of the attractive features like simple fabrication process and its economic efficiency, there are some problems such as low efficiency, long fabrication time and low long-term stability. Conventionally, the dye adsorption on TiO2 photo-electrode film needs long time in the solvent with low concentration of dye to get the high efficiency. In this work, the dye coating process was considerably shortened, albeit plenty of dye was used comparing with the conventional way. Our needs were met for the best result in our working environment and the relevant conditions to our work were obtained, which were the coating temperature of 70 °C, the dye concentration of 10 mM and the coating time of 3 min. And this coating process was successively repeated several times to maximize the dye adsorption and to improve the cell efficiency. Therefore, the efficiency increased by 13% in the proper condition.

  9. Brief overview of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagfeldt, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are based on molecular and nanometer-scale components. Record cell efficiencies of 12%, promising stability data and means of energy-efficient production methods have been accomplished. As selling points for the DSC technology the prospect of low-cost investments and fabrication are key features. DSCs offer the possibilities to design solar cells with a large flexibility in shape, color, and transparency. The basic principles of the operation of DSC, the state-of-the-art as well as the potentials for future development are described.

  10. Photovoltaic characteristics of natural light harvesting dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, H. S.; Shenouda, S. S.; Fadel, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work of research, anthocyanin as a natural dye obtained from raspberry fruits, was used and tested as a photon harvesting/electron donating dye in titanium dioxide nanoparticle-based DSSCs. A working photoelectrode made from TiO2 nanoparticles with an average particle size (10-40 nm) that is coated on Florine doped tin-oxide substrate, was prepared via a simple and low cost hydrothermal method. A detailed structural and morphological analysis of the TiO2 photoactive electrode was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectrometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Complete photovoltaic characteristics including (current, voltage, outpower, and responsivity) of the natural anthocyanin based dye sensitized solar cell have been investigated under different illumination intensity ranging from 10 to 100 mW.cm- 2. The cell responsivity and efficiency of the fabricated solar cell under different illumination intensity were found to be in the range (R = 15.6-23.8 mA.W- 1 and η = 0.13-0.25) at AM = 1.5 conditions. This study is important for enhancing the future applications of the promising DSSC technology.

  11. Solution Processed Silver Nanoparticles in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Berginc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A plasmonic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs is studied. The solutions of silver nitrate in isopropanol, ethylene glycol, or in TiO2 sol were examined as possible precursors for Ag NPs formation. The solutions were dip-coated on the top of the porous TiO2 layer. The results of optical measurements confirmed the formation of Ag NPs throughout the porous TiO2 layer after the heat treatment of the layers above 100°C. Heat treatment at 220°C was found to be optimal regarding the formation of the Ag NPs. The porous TiO2 layers with Ag NPs have been evaluated also in DSSC by measuring current-voltage characteristics and the external quantum efficiency of the cells. In addition, the amount of adsorbed dye has been determined to prove the plasmonic effect in the cells. The I-V characterization of the DSSCs revealed an increase of the short circuit current in the presence of Ag NPs although the amount of the attached dye molecules decreased. These results confirm that the performance enhancement is related to the plasmonic effect. However, neither a thin sol-gel TiO2 layer nor poly(4-vinylpyridine shells provide effective protection for the long term stability of the Ag NPs against the corrosion of I3-/I- based electrolyte.

  12. PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL SOLAR CELLS BASED ON DYE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventional solid-state solar cells convert light into electricity by ... network via diffusion [2] due to electron scattering to the conductive .... The surface network morphology of these film layers was examined with an atomic force microscope in contact mode. (AFM: Nanoscope Illa from digital instruments version 4.42r4).

  13. Edge-selenated graphene nanoplatelets as durable metal-free catalysts for iodine reduction reaction in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Myung Jong; Jeon, In-Yup; Kim, Hong Mo; Choi, Ji Il; Jung, Sun-Min; Seo, Jeong-Min; Choi, In Taek; Kang, Sung Ho; Kim, Han Seul; Noh, Min Jong; Lee, Jae-Joon; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2016-06-01

    Metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are sufficiently active in Co(II)/Co(III) electrolytes but are not satisfactory in the most commonly used iodide/triiodide (I(-)/I3 (-)) electrolytes. Thus, developing active and stable metal-free electrocatalysts in both electrolytes is one of the most important issues in DSSC research. We report the synthesis of edge-selenated graphene nanoplatelets (SeGnPs) prepared by a simple mechanochemical reaction between graphite and selenium (Se) powders, and their application to the counter electrode (CE) for DSSCs in both I(-)/I3 (-) and Co(II)/Co(III) electrolytes. The edge-selective doping and the preservation of the pristine graphene basal plane in the SeGnPs were confirmed by various analytical techniques, including atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Tested as the DSSC CE in both Co(bpy)3 (2+/3+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and I(-)/I3 (-) electrolytes, the SeGnP-CEs exhibited outstanding electrocatalytic performance with ultimately high stability. The SeGnP-CE-based DSSCs displayed a higher photovoltaic performance than did the Pt-CE-based DSSCs in both SM315 sensitizer with Co(bpy)3 (2+/3+) and N719 sensitizer with I(-)/I3 (-) electrolytes. Furthermore, the I3 (-) reduction mechanism, which has not been fully understood in carbon-based CE materials to date, was clarified by an electrochemical kinetics study combined with density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's function calculations.

  14. Functional supramolecular ruthenium cyclodextrin dyes for nanocrystalline solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiz, J.; Pikramenou, Z. [School of Chemistry, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Philippopoulos, A.I.; Kontos, A.G.; Falaras, P. [NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Institute of Physical Chemistry, Aghia Paraskevi Atiikis, 15310, Athens (Greece)

    2007-01-05

    A supramolecular complex [Ru(dcb){sub 2}({alpha}-CD-5-bpy)]Cl{sub 2} (1-{alpha}-CD) (dcb = 4,4'-dicarboxyl-2,2'-bipyridine, {alpha}-CD-5-bpy = 6-mono[5-methyl(5'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-permethylated {alpha}-CD) (CD: cyclodextrin) based on a ruthenium tris-bipyridyl core with an appended {alpha}-CD cavity is designed and synthesised, in order to facilitate dye/redox couple interaction and dye regeneration in nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} solar cells. The luminescent complex is fully characterized and anchored on mesoporous titania electrodes showing increased power-conversion efficiency in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells using a composite polymer electrolyte. Direct comparison of the properties of the CD complex with an analogous ruthenium complex [Ru(dcb){sub 2}(5,5'-dmbpy)]Cl{sub 2} (2) (5,5'-dmbpy = 5,5'-dimethylbipyridine) without the CD cavity reveals that the photovoltaic performance of 1-{alpha}-CD is enhanced by about 40 % compared to 2. Independent studies have shown complexation of the iodide redox couple to the CD in 1-{alpha}-CD. These results indicate that the CD moiety is able to act as a mediator and fine tune the photoelectrode/electrolyte interface. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh; Wu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingkui; Vomiero, Alberto; Concina, Isabella; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. The results demonstrated that B18 dye has better photovoltaic properties compared to other two dyes (BTD-R and CPTD-R) and each dye has higher current density (Jsc) when applied to hierarchical ZnO nanocrystallites than the standard TiO2 mesoporous film. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements (TCD/TVD) were applied to systematically study the charge transport and recombination kinetics in these devices, showing the electron life time (τR) of B18 dye in ZnO and TiO2 based DSSCs is higher than CPTD-R and BTD-R based DSSCs, which is consistent with the photovoltaic performances. The conversion efficiency in ZnO based DSSCs can be further boosted by 35%, when a compact ZnO blocking layer (BL) is applied to inhibit electron back reaction. PMID:26738698

  16. Concrete embedded dye-synthesized photovoltaic solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, T; Flores-Vivian, I; Sobolev, K; Kouklin, N

    2013-09-25

    This work presents the concept of a monolithic concrete-integrated dye-synthesized photovoltaic solar cell for optical-to-electrical energy conversion and on-site power generation. The transport measurements carried out in the dark revealed the presence of VOC of ~190 mV and ISC of ~9 μA, induced by the electrochemical conversion of concrete-supplied ionic impurities at the electrodes. The current-voltage measurements performed under illumination at incident optical powers of ~46 mW confirmed the generation of electrical power of ~0.64 μW with almost half generated via battery effect. This work presents a first step towards realizing the additional pathways to low-cost electrical power production in urban environments based on a combined use of organic dyes, nanotitania and concrete technology.

  17. Metal oxide-encapsulated dye-sensitized photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Son, Ho-Jin

    2016-01-12

    Dye-sensitized semiconducting metal oxide films for photoanodes, photoanodes incorporating the films and DSCs incorporating the photoanodes are provided. Also provided are methods for making the dye sensitized semiconducting metal oxide films. The methods of making the films are based on the deposition of an encapsulating layer of a semiconducting metal oxide around the molecular anchoring groups of photosensitizing dye molecules adsorbed to a porous film of the semiconducting metal oxide. The encapsulating layer of semiconducting metal oxide is formed in such a way that it is not coated over the chromophores of the adsorbed dye molecules and, therefore, allows the dye molecules to remain electrochemically addressable.

  18. Phototransistor Behavior Based on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X. Q.; Cai, C. B.; Wang, Y. F.; Zhou, W. Q.; Lu, Y. M.; Liu, Z. Y.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, a light-controlled device cell is established based on the dye-sensitized solar cell using nanocrystalline TiO2 films. Voltage-current curves are characterized by three types of transport behaviors: linear increase, saturated plateau and breakdown-like increase, which are actually of the typical performances for a photo-gated transistor. Moreover, an asymmetric behavior is observed in the voltage-current loops, which is believed to arise from the difference in the effecti...

  19. Evaluation of chemical fluorescent dyes as a protein conjugation partner for live cell imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hayashi-Takanaka

    Full Text Available To optimize live cell fluorescence imaging, the choice of fluorescent substrate is a critical factor. Although genetically encoded fluorescent proteins have been used widely, chemical fluorescent dyes are still useful when conjugated to proteins or ligands. However, little information is available for the suitability of different fluorescent dyes for live imaging. We here systematically analyzed the property of a number of commercial fluorescent dyes when conjugated with antigen-binding (Fab fragments directed against specific histone modifications, in particular, phosphorylated H3S28 (H3S28ph and acetylated H3K9 (H3K9ac. These Fab fragments were conjugated with a fluorescent dye and loaded into living HeLa cells. H3S28ph-specific Fab fragments were expected to be enriched in condensed chromosomes, as H3S28 is phosphorylated during mitosis. However, the degree of Fab fragment enrichment on mitotic chromosomes varied depending on the conjugated dye. In general, green fluorescent dyes showed higher enrichment, compared to red and far-red fluorescent dyes, even when dye:protein conjugation ratios were similar. These differences are partly explained by an altered affinity of Fab fragment after dye-conjugation; some dyes have less effect on the affinity, while others can affect it more. Moreover, red and far-red fluorescent dyes tended to form aggregates in the cytoplasm. Similar results were observed when H3K9ac-specific Fab fragments were used, suggesting that the properties of each dye affect different Fab fragments similarly. According to our analysis, conjugation with green fluorescent dyes, like Alexa Fluor 488 and Dylight 488, has the least effect on Fab affinity and is the best for live cell imaging, although these dyes are less photostable than red fluorescent dyes. When multicolor imaging is required, we recommend the following dye combinations for optimal results: Alexa Fluor 488 (green, Cy3 (red, and Cy5 or CF640 (far-red.

  20. Co-sensitization promoted light harvesting with a new mixed-addenda polyoxometalate [Cu(C12H8N2)2]2[V2W4O19]·4H2O in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sha-Sha; Chen, Wei-Lin; Wang, Yan-Hua; Li, Yang-Guang; Liu, Zhu-Jun; Shan, Chun-Hui; Su, Zhong-Min; Wang, En-Bo

    2015-11-14

    A di-vanadium-substituted Lindqvist-type polyoxometalate [Cu(C12H8N2)2]2[V2W4O19]·4H2O (1) was hydrothermally synthesized and characterized structurally by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy disperse spectroscopy tests further prove the existence of vanadium. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theoretical studies indicate that the energy level of 1 matches well with the conduction band of the TiO2. Furthermore, considering the semiconductor-like nature of 1 and the introduction of transition metal element Cu synchronously extends the absorption to the visible region, which should also be beneficial to the photovoltaic device performance. 1-Doped TiO2 composites (denoted as 1@TiO2) have been successfully fabricated by a simple sol-gel method, and introduced into the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as co-sensitizers in N719-sensitized photoanodes by mixing 1@TiO2 with P25 nanoparticles with different weight ratios to enhance the photoelectric conversion efficiency. The investigations show that the DSSC assembled with 1@TiO2/19P25 photoanode has the best performance and the overall improvement of the efficiency is 21.6% compared with pure P25. Furthermore, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay investigations show that the cosensitization of 1 and N719 can promote electron transfer and restrain charge recombinations in the DSSCs, resulting in a longer electron lifetime.

  1. Photosynthesis in a test tube- dye sensitized solar cells as a teaching tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raturi, Atul; Fepuleai, Yoheni [Division of Physics, School of Engineering and Physics, The University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji)

    2010-05-15

    Dye sensitized solar cells employing natural plant dyes as phosensitizers can be effectively used to train students in the science and technology of solar cells. This is especially relevant to developing countries where facilities for silicon cell fabrication are non-existent. The cross-disciplinary nature of this device makes it very attractive for student projects. The present work describes such a project where anthocyanin dye from hibiscus flowers has been used as the electron harvester. (author)

  2. Counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jihuai; Lan, Zhang; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang; Huang, Yunfang; Fan, Leqing; Luo, Genggeng; Lin, Yu; Xie, Yimin; Wei, Yuelin

    2017-10-02

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are regarded as prospective solar cells for the next generation of photovoltaic technologies and have become research hotspots in the PV field. The counter electrode, as a crucial component of DSSCs, collects electrons from the external circuit and catalyzes the redox reduction in the electrolyte, which has a significant influence on the photovoltaic performance, long-term stability and cost of the devices. Solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, as well as the structure, principle, preparation and characterization of counter electrodes are mentioned in the introduction section. The next six sections discuss the counter electrodes based on transparency and flexibility, metals and alloys, carbon materials, conductive polymers, transition metal compounds, and hybrids, respectively. The special features and performance, advantages and disadvantages, preparation, characterization, mechanisms, important events and development histories of various counter electrodes are presented. In the eighth section, the development of counter electrodes is summarized with an outlook. This article panoramically reviews the counter electrodes in DSSCs, which is of great significance for enhancing the development levels of DSSCs and other photoelectrochemical devices.

  3. Dye solar cells ( and PV's) in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available /DSC PROJECT STRUCTURE CSIR-EaP Dye Solar Cell CSIR nano technology Centre for Polymer Technology Solid electrolytes University of Port Elizabeth Field testing University of Fort Hare Real life testing National Metrology Lab Surface and Particle... NMMU FH UJ CSIR © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za PVs in South Africa NMMU UJ CSIR FH UWC CuInSe2 Field testing facilities DSC Real life DSC testing nc-Si and a-Si © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za CSIR NANO...

  4. New Components for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Caramori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs are among the most promising solar energy conversion devices of new generation, since coupling ease of fabrication and low cost offer the possibility of building integration in photovoltaic windows and facades. Although in their earliest configuration these systems are close to commercialization, fundamental studies are still required for developing new molecules and materials with more desirable properties as well as improving our understanding of the fundamental processes at the basis of the functioning of photoactive heterogeneous interfaces. In this contribution, some recent advances, made in the effort of improving DSSC devices by finding alternative materials and configurations, are reviewed.

  5. Concrete Embedded Dye-Synthesized Photovoltaic Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, T.; Flores-Vivian, I.; Sobolev, K.; Kouklin, N.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the concept of a monolithic concrete-integrated dye-synthesized photovoltaic solar cell for optical-to-electrical energy conversion and on-site power generation. The transport measurements carried out in the dark revealed the presence of VOC of ~190?mV and ISC of ~9??A, induced by the electrochemical conversion of concrete-supplied ionic impurities at the electrodes. The current-voltage measurements performed under illumination at incident optical powers of ~46?mW confirmed...

  6. Novel nanostructures for next generation dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we review our latest advancements in nanostructured photoanodes for next generation photovoltaics in general and dye-sensitized solar cells in particular. Bottom-up self-assembly techniques are developed to fabricate large-area 3D nanostructures that enable enhanced charge extraction and light harvesting through optical scattering or photonic crystal effects to improve photocurrent, photovoltage and fill factor. Using generalized techniques to fabricate specialized nanostructures enables specific optoelectronic and physical characteristics like conduction, charge extraction, injection, recombination and light harvesting but also helps improve mechanical flexibility and long-term stability in low cost materials. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Free standing TiO2 nanotube array electrodes with an ultra-thin Al2O3 barrier layer and TiCl4 surface modification for highly efficient dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xianfeng; Guan, Dongsheng; Huo, Jingwan; Chen, Junhong; Yuan, Chris

    2013-10-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated with free standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT) array films, which were prepared by template assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) with precise wall thickness control. Efforts to improve the photovoltaic performance were made by using Al2O3 barrier layer coating in conjunction with TiCl4 surface modification. An Al2O3 thin layer was deposited on the TNT electrode by ALD to serve as the charge recombination barrier, but it suffers from the drawback of decreasing the photoelectron injection from dye into TiO2 when the barrier layer became too thick. With the TiCl4 treatment in combination with optimal thickness coating, this problem could be avoided. The co-surface treated electrode presents superior surface property with low recombination rate and good electron transport property. A high conversion efficiency of 8.62% is obtained, which is about 1.8 times that of the device without surface modifications.Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated with free standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT) array films, which were prepared by template assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) with precise wall thickness control. Efforts to improve the photovoltaic performance were made by using Al2O3 barrier layer coating in conjunction with TiCl4 surface modification. An Al2O3 thin layer was deposited on the TNT electrode by ALD to serve as the charge recombination barrier, but it suffers from the drawback of decreasing the photoelectron injection from dye into TiO2 when the barrier layer became too thick. With the TiCl4 treatment in combination with optimal thickness coating, this problem could be avoided. The co-surface treated electrode presents superior surface property with low recombination rate and good electron transport property. A high conversion efficiency of 8.62% is obtained, which is about 1.8 times that of the device without surface modifications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: UV-Vis spectra of desorbed N719 dyes from

  8. Deciphering synergistic characteristics of microbial fuel cell-assisted dye decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ke; Yueh, Pei-Lin; Qin, Lian-Jie; Hsueh, Chuan-Chung; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2015-11-01

    This study provided a novel evaluation scheme to quantitatively reveal "synergistic" stimulation of microbial fuel cell (MFC)-assisted dye decolorization for industrial practicability. This work also disclosed why dye decolorization was more electrochemically favorable during simultaneous bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization (SBG&DD). Quantitative assessment upon stimulating effects of different decolorized metabolites on BG and DD alone was also implemented for conclusive remarks. Apparently, using MFC as the method of dye decontamination could considerably increase ca. 40-70% of electron transfer capabilities for SBG&DD, thereby significantly improving the performance of dye decontamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Review on Metallic and Plastic Flexible Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugis, A R; Mansa, R F; Sipaut, C S

    2015-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are a promising alternative for the development of a new generation of photovoltaic devices. DSSCs have promoted intense research due to their low cost and eco-friendly advantage over conventional silicon-based crystalline solar cells. In recent years, lightweight flexible types of DSSCs have attracted much intention because of drastic reduction in production cost and more extensive application. The substrate that used as electrode of the DSSCs has a dominant impact on the methods and materials that can be applied to the cell and consequently on the resulting performance of DSSCs. Furthermore, the substrates influence significantly the stability of the device. Although the power conversion efficiency still low compared to traditional glass based DSSCs, flexible DSSCs still have potential to be the most efficient and easily implemented technology. (paper)

  10. Application of a non-hazardous vital dye for cell counting with automated cell counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo In; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Ho-Jae; Lee, Kiwon; Hong, Dongpyo; Lim, Hyunchang; Cho, Keunchang; Jung, Neoncheol; Yi, Yong Weon

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in automated cell counters enable us to count cells more easily with consistency. However, the wide use of the traditional vital dye trypan blue (TB) raises environmental and health concerns due to its potential teratogenic effects. To avoid this chemical hazard, it is of importance to introduce an alternative non-hazardous vital dye that is compatible with automated cell counters. Erythrosin B (EB) is a vital dye that is impermeable to biological membranes and is used as a food additive. Similarly to TB, EB stains only nonviable cells with disintegrated membranes. However, EB is less popular than TB and is seldom used with automated cell counters. We found that cell counting accuracy with EB was comparable to that with TB. EB was found to be an effective dye for accurate counting of cells with different viabilities across three different automated cell counters. In contrast to TB, EB was less toxic to cultured HL-60 cells during the cell counting process. These results indicate that replacing TB with EB for use with automated cell counters will significantly reduce the hazardous risk while producing comparable results. Copyright © 2015 Logos Biosystems, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance Enhancement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Natural Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Arifin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs based on natural sensitizers have become a topic of significant research because of their urgency and importance in the energy conversion field and the following advantages: ease of fabrication, low-cost solar cell, and usage of nontoxic materials. In this study, the chlorophyll extracted from papaya leaves was used as a natural sensitizer. Dye molecules were adsorbed by TiO2 nanoparticle surfaces when submerged in the dye solution for 24 h. The concentration of the dye solution influences both the amount of dye loading and the DSSC performance. The amount of adsorbed dye molecules by TiO2 nanoparticle was calculated using a desorption method. As the concentration of dye solution was increased, the dye loading capacity and power conversion efficiency increased. Above 90 mM dye solution concentration, however, the DSSC efficiency decreased because dye precipitated on the TiO2 nanostructure. These characteristics of DSSCs were analyzed under the irradiation of 100 mW/cm2. The best performance of DSSCs was obtained at 90 mM dye solution, with the values of Voc, Jsc,  FF, and efficiency of DSSCs being 0.561 V, 0.402 mA/cm2, 41.65%, and 0.094%, respectively.

  12. Performance enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using a natural sensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Zainal; Soeparman, Sudjito; Widhiyanuriyawan, Denny; Sutanto, Bayu; Suyitno

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on natural sensitizers have become a topic of significant research because of their urgency and importance in the energy conversion field and the following advantages: ease of fabrication, low-cost solar cell, and usage of nontoxic materials. The natural sensitizer in DSSCs is responsible for the absorption of light as well as the injection of charges to the conduction band of the semiconductor such as TiO2 nanoparticles. In this study, the chlorophyll extracted from papaya leaves was used as a natural sensitizer. Dye molecules were adsorbed by TiO2 nanoparticle surfaces when submerged in the dye solution for 24 h. The concentration of the dye solution influences both the amount of dye loading and the DSSC performance. The amount of adsorbed dye molecules by TiO2 nanoparticle was calculated using a desorption method. As the concentration of dye solution was increased, the dye loading capacity and power conversion efficiency increased. Above 90 mM dye solution concentration, however, the DSSC efficiency decreased because dye precipitated on the TiO2 nanostructure. These characteristics of DSSCs were analyzed under the irradiation of 100 mW/cm2. The best performance of DSSCs was obtained at 90 mM dye solution, with the values of Voc, Jsc, FF, and efficiency of DSSCs being 0.561 V, 0.402 mA/cm2, 41.65%, and 0.094%, respectively.

  13. Karakteristik Pasta TiO2 Suhu Rendah untuk Aplikasi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Al Qibtiya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pada tulisan ini, diuraikan karakteristik pasta TiO2 suhu rendah untuk aplikasi sel surya berbasis dye-sensitized yang dipreparasi dengan penambahan serbuk TiO2 reflektor. Penambahan TiO2 reflektor sebagai light scattering layer pada pasta dilakukan untuk melihat pengaruhnya terhadap karakteristik listrik sel surya yang dihasilkan. Preparasi pasta dilakukan menggunakan bahan komersial yaitu pasta T-Nanooxide D-L (Solaronix dan serbuk pasta WER2-O (Dyesiol sebagai bahan reflector. Bahan tersebut dianalisis struktur kristalnya. Hasil karakterisasi X-Ray Diffraction (XRD menunjukan bahwa bahan TiO2 serbuk yang digunakan adalah nanokristal dengan struktur kristal anatase. Pasta ini dideposisi di atas permukaan plastik dan kaca konduktif (ITO-PET dan FTO dengan metode doctor blade printing. Proses sintering lapisan TiO2 dilakukan pada suhu rendah yaitu 120 ˚C selama 4 jam. Morfologi permukaan lapisan TiO2 dianalisa menggunakan Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Lapisan TiO2 yang terbentuk diaplikasikan pada DSSC sebagai fotoelektroda. Pewarnaan dengan larutan N-719 (Ruthenium Complex, lapisan elektroda kerja platina dan larutan elektrolit iodine. Karakteristik kurva I-V dengan ukuran sel daerah aktif 1 cm2 diukur menggunakan Sun Simulator AM1,5 dengan sumber cahaya Xenon dan intensitas 50 mW/cm2. Hasil pengukuran menunjukkan penambahan serbuk TiO2 reflektor dapat meningkatkan unjuk kerja sel surya fleksibel yang dihasilkan. Efisiensi terbaik DSSC yang dihasilkan adalah 0,166% untuk substrat plastik dan 0,167% untuk substrat kaca.

  14. Enhancing the efficiency of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells utilizing natural dye extracted from Azadirachta indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahare, Sanjay; Veldurthi, Naresh; Singh, Ranbir; Swarnkar, A. K.; Salunkhe, Manauti; Bhave, Tejashree

    2015-10-01

    The natural dye extracted from Azadirechta indica (neem) was used as a sensitizer in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The fabricated DSSC exhibited open circuit voltage of 0.538 V with 2.81% power conversion efficiency (η) in back-illuminated mode which is higher than that reported in the literature. In order to understand the characteristics of DSSC, systematic study of solar cell component materials was carried out. Anatase TiO2 (30-40 nm) nanoparticles were synthesized by DC arc plasma method and deposited electrophoretically on a flexible titanium (Ti) substrate. A platinum-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was used as a counter electrode to construct flexible DSSC. The structural and optical behavior of neem-dye sensitized TiO2 thin film has been studied using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. We have observed that the neem dye gives a very good sensitization effect. In addition, the dye has good prospects as a low-cost and environmental friendly alternative to ruthenium-based sensitizers which are normally used in DSSCs.

  15. Photoelectrochemistry of metallo-octacarboxyphthalocyanines for the development of dye solar cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant attention is being paid to dye solar cells (DSCs) as the next generation in solar cell technology for their low cost alternative as compared to solid state solar cells....

  16. Pt-graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Hajime; Tanaka, Shumpei; Miyoshi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene films with Pt nanoparticles were prepared from commercial graphene. • Pt consumption can be reduced by using Pt-graphene films. • The film showed improved catalytic activity for the reaction I 3 − /I − . • The film can be used as the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). • The performance of DSSC was superior to that of the Pt electrode. - Abstract: A simple paste method for fabricating graphene films with Pt nanoparticles was developed. First, graphene pastes with Pt nanoparticles were prepared from commercially available graphene. The resulting films of graphene nanoplatelet aggregates with Pt nanoparticles (Pt-GNA) contained Pt nanoparticles distributed over the entire three-dimensional surface of the GNA. Then, the catalytic activity for the I 3 − /I − redox reaction was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. The GNA electrode exhibited higher activity than a graphene nanoplatelet electrode because of its higher effective surface area. Addition of Pt nanoparticles to the electrodes improved the catalytic activity. In particular, a large Faradaic current for the I 3 − /I − reaction was observed for the Pt-GNA electrode. As the counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), their performance was consistent with the cyclic voltammetry results. In particular, the DSSC performance of the Pt-GNA electrode was superior to that of the Pt electrodes commonly used in DSSCs

  17. Gold leaf counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuhiro; Toyoda, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a gold leaf 100 nm thin film is used as the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. The traditional method of hammering gold foil to obtain a thin gold leaf, which requires only small amounts of gold, was employed. The gold leaf was then attached to the substrate using an adhesive to produce the gold electrode. The proposed approach for fabricating counter electrodes is demonstrated to be facile and cost-effective, as opposed to existing techniques. Compared with electrodes prepared with gold foil and sputtered gold, the gold leaf counter electrode demonstrates higher catalytic activity with a cobalt-complex electrolyte and higher cell efficiency. The origin of the improved performance was investigated by surface morphology examination (scanning electron microscopy), various electrochemical analyses (cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), and crystalline analysis (X-ray diffractometry).

  18. Dye stabilization and enhanced photoelectrode wettability in water-based dye-sensitized solar cells through post-assembly atomic layer deposition of TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ho-Jin; Prasittichai, Chaiya; Mondloch, Joseph E; Luo, Langli; Wu, Jinsong; Kim, Dong Wook; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2013-08-07

    Detachment (desorption) of molecular dyes from photoelectrodes is one of the major limitations for the long-term operation of dye-sensitized solar cells. Here we demonstrate a method to greatly inhibit this loss by growing a transparent metal oxide (TiO2) on the dye-coated photoelectrode via atomic layer deposition (ALD). TiO2-enshrouded sensitizers largely resist detachment, even in pH 10.7 ethanol, a standard solution for intentional removal of molecular dyes from photoelectrodes. Additionally, the ALD post-treatment renders the otherwise hydrophobic dye-coated surface hydrophilic, thereby enhancing photoelectrode pore-filling with aqueous solution.

  19. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Chih-Ping [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yu, Pin-Feng [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jyhpyng [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jiunn-Yuan [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Mu [SuperbIN Co., Ltd., Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Chen, Szu-yuan, E-mail: sychen@ltl.iams.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-15

    The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP), and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.

  20. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Yen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP, and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.

  1. Molecular design of new hydrazone dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: Synthesis, characterization and DFT study

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.

    2012-07-01

    Three new sensitizers 2-{4-[2-(4-Nitrobenzylidene)hydrazino)]phenyl} ethylene-1,1,2-tricarbonitrile (NBHPET), 2-{4-[2-p-Chlorobenzylidenehydrazino] phenyl}- ethylene-1,1,2-tri carbonitrile (CBHPET) and 2-{4-[2-p- Bromobenzylidenehydrazino] phenyl}ethylene-1,1,2-tricarbonitrile (BBHPET) have been synthesized. The dyes showed pronounced solvatochromic effects as the polarity of the solvents increased. The structures have been optimized at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The torsion in E-isomer is smaller than Z-isomer and azo isomers. The highest occupied molecular orbitals are delocalized on whole molecule while lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals are distributed on the tricarbonitrile. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies are above the conduction band of titanium dioxide, highest occupied molecular orbitals of the dyes are below the redox couple of new synthesized dyes and small energy gap revealed these dyes would be better sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Design of new coumarin dyes having thiophene moieties for highly efficient organic-dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohjiro, Hara; Mitsuhiko, Kurashige; Kazuhiro, Sayama; Hironori, Arakawa [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Sciences and Technology, Photoreaction Control Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Yasufumi, Dan-Oh; Chiaki, Kasada; Akira, Shinpo; Sadaharu, Suga [Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., Okayama (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    We have developed new coumarin dyes having thiophene moieties in order to improve the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} solar cells based on the organic dyes as photo-sensitizers. A solar-energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency ({eta}) of 7.7% was attained under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm''-''2) with a short-circuit current density (J{sub s}c) of 14.3 mA cm''-''2, an open-circuit voltage (V{sub o}c) of 0.73 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 0.74. (authors)

  3. Low temperature processing solid-state dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C. Y.; Koh, W. L.; Leung, M. Y.; Chiam, S. Y.; Wu, J. S.; Zhang, J.

    2012-03-01

    A study on low temperature processed solid state dye sensitized solar cell (LT-SDSC) is reported. The LT-SDSC uses a photoelectrode with a mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) film fabricated from a binder-free nanoparticle-TiO2 paste at room temperature, and a blocking layer of an amorphous TiO2 thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 150 °C. A power conversion efficiency of 1.30% is obtained from the LT-SDSC with 0.9 μm mp-TiO2 layer and 20 nm ALD-TiO2 blocking layer, in cooperating with organic indoline dyes and a hole conductor, 2,2',7,7'-Tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD). The lower electron conductivity of the low-temperature-processed mp-TiO2 film and the amorphous blocking layer is equilibrated by using smaller thicknesses of the films. Ways to further boost the LT-SDSC performance are proposed. These LT-SDSC are potentially compatible with low cost plastic substrates and show promising manufacturing potential for low cost flexible SDSCs.

  4. Studi Eksperimental Pengaruh Intensitas Cahaya terhadap Performa DSSC (Dye Sensitized Solar Cell dengan Ekstrak Buah dan Sayur Sebagai Dye Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiruz Zadit Taqwa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sel surya adalah peralatan yang dapat mengubah energi matahari menjadi energi listrik dengan menggunakan efek photovoltaic. Desain dan konstruksi dari solar cell mengalami perkembangan seiring dengan berkembangnya teknologi saat ini, hingga pada tahun 1991 ditemukan DSSC (Dye Sensitized Solar Cell. Sampai saat ini bahan yang umum digunakan sebagai dye pada pembuatan DSSC adalah ruthenium complex yang berharga mahal dan sulit untuk disintesa. Karena itu perlu dilakukannya penelitian tentang penggunaan bahan lain yang murah dan mudah untuk disintesa sebagai bahan dye, karena itu perlu diadakan pengujian terhadap performa yang dihasilkan dari DSSC dengan bahan dye tersebut dan apa saja variabel yang mempengaruhinya. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah studi eksperimental terhadap prototype DSSC dengan variasi bahan dye sensitizer dari ekstrak kulit manggis (Garcinia mangostana, ekstrak daun bayam (Amaranthus hybridus l. ekstrak buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus. Pengujian prototype DSSC dilakukan dengan cara menyinarinya menggunakan cahaya lampu halogen yang diatur tegangannya menggunakan sebuah dimmer untuk mengendalikan temperatur dari lampu, sehingga lampu tersebut menghasilkan variasi tintensitas cahaya sebesar 29 W/m2, 36 W/m2 dan 49 W/m2. Selanjutnya pengujian dilakukian dengan cara yang sama, tetapi dengan ditambahkan pendingin berupa air yang mengalir dibawah permukaan prototype DSSC. Penilitian ini menghasilkan kesimpulan bahwa semakin tinggi intensitas cahaya, maka semakin tinggi Pmax yang dihasilkan oleh prototype. Semakin bertambah temperatur pencahayaan maka semakin berkurang performa dari prototype DSSC. Efisiensi yang paling besar dihasilkan oleh prototype dengan bahan dye dari ekstrak kulit manggis pada intensitas 29 W/m2 sebesar 0,73%,Pendinginan yang diberikan kepada prototype mampu memperbaiki efisiensi dari prototype DSSC yang dibuat akan tetapi tidak signifikan.

  5. Power Conversion Efficiency of Arylamine Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) Explicit to Cobalt Electrolyte: Understanding the Structural Attributes Using a Direct QSPR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Supratik Kar; Juganta K. Roy; Danuta Leszczynska; Jerzy Leszczynski

    2016-01-01

    Post silicon solar cell era involves light-absorbing dyes for dye-sensitized solar systems (DSSCs). Therefore, there is great interest in the design of competent organic dyes for DSSCs with high power conversion efficiency (PCE) to bypass some of the disadvantages of silicon-based solar cell technologies, such as high cost, heavy weight, limited silicon resources, and production methods that lead to high environmental pollution. The DSSC has the unique feature of a distance-dependent electron...

  6. Green Nanochemistry Approach to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle, Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    New research into third-generation solar cells has just begun. These technologies include polymer -based solar cells, nanocrystalline cells, and...silicon solar cells. The dyes and electrolyte solution degrade over time, which makes DSSCs less efficient than silicon solar cells. However, the...their ability to absorb light and convert it into electrons in a natural and inexpensive way (5). Anthocyanin dyes are also powerful antioxidants and

  7. Triphenylamine based organic dyes for dye sensitized solar cells: A theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohankumar, V.; Pandian, Muthu Senthil; Ramasamy, P., E-mail: ramasamyp@ssn.edu.in [SSN Research Centre, SSN College of Engineering, Chennai-603110, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    The geometry, electronic structure and absorption spectra for newly designed triphenylamine based organic dyes were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) with the Becke 3-Parameter-Lee-Yang-parr(B3LYP) functional, where the 6-31G(d,p) basis set was employed. All calculations were performed using the Gaussian 09 software package. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs in the molecule. Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectrum was simulated by TD-DFT in gas phase. The calculation shows that all of the dyes can potentially be good sensitizers for DSSC. The LUMOs are just above the conduction band of TiO{sub 2} and their HOMOs are under the reduction potential energy of the electrolytes (I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −}) which can facilitate electron transfer from the excited dye to TiO{sub 2} and charge regeneration process after photo oxidation respectively. The simulated absorption spectrum of dyes match with solar spectrum. Frontier molecular orbital results show that among all the three dyes, the “dye 3” can be used as potential sensitizer for DSSC.

  8. Plasmonic effect of Ag@TiO{sub 2} core–shell nanocubes on dye-sensitized solar cell performance based on reduced graphene oxide–TiO{sub 2} nanotube composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekhar, P.S., E-mail: pschandrasekhar9@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Chander, Nikhil [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Anjaneyulu, Oruganti [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Komarala, Vamsi K., E-mail: vamsi@ces.iitd.ac.in [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2015-11-02

    The role of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and plasmonic Ag@TiO{sub 2} core–shell nanocubes has been investigated on dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance based on 1-D TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TNTs) as photoanodes. A series of cells are fabricated with different amounts of RGO (0.2 to 1.0 wt.%) in TNTs. The incorporation of RGO in TNTs is confirmed by photoluminescence, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. The best performance is achieved with 0.8 wt.% RGO–TNT composite, which exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.26%, while with bare TNTs, it showed a PCE of 2.85%. The ~ 49% enhancement in PCE with RGO is attributed to the improved dye loading, reduced charge carrier recombination, and high electron transfer efficiency. The enhancement in open circuit voltage (maximum of 50 mV) is also observed with RGO, which is due to the increased electron density in the conduction band of TiO{sub 2} leading to the change in position of quasi Fermi level to higher levels, resulting in shifts towards negative potential side. To further enhance the PCE of DSSCs based on RGO–TNT composites, surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) of silver (Ag) @TiO{sub 2} core–shell nanocubes are also exploited by integrating differing concentrations from 0.1 to 0.3 wt.%. The PCE of plasmonic DSSC is further enhanced to 5.19% with 0.2 wt.% Ag nanocubes. The strong near-fields around the nanocubes (SPR peak spread from 600 to 1000 nm) stimulated the N719 dye for generating more photoelectrons with enhanced light absorption process in broad wavelength region. - Highlights: • Systematic investigation is carried out based on reduced graphene oxide (RGO)–TiO{sub 2} nanotube (TNT) composites as photoanodes. • Surface Plasmon Resonance of Ag@TiO{sub 2} core–shell nanocubes are incorporated in RGO–TNTs to improve the light absorption in near IR regions. • RGO improved the electron transportation by suppressing charge recombination, and also increases the dye

  9. Progress in nanostructured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian; Liu, Yong; Lin, Tong

    2016-09-01

    Solar cells represent a principal energy technology to convert light into electricity. Commercial solar cells are at present predominately produced by single- or multi-crystalline silicon wafers. The main drawback to silicon-based solar cells, however, is high material and manufacturing costs. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted much attention during recent years because of the low production cost and other advantages. The photoanode (working electrode) plays a key role in determining the performance of DSSCs. In particular, nanostructured photoanodes with a large surface area, high electron transfer efficiency, and low electron recombination facilitate to prepare DSSCs with high energy conversion efficiency. In this review article, we summarize recent progress in the development of novel photoanodes for DSSCs. Effect of semiconductor material (e.g. TiO2, ZnO, SnO2, N2O5, and nano carbon), preparation, morphology and structure (e.g. nanoparticles, nanorods, nanofibers, nanotubes, fiber/particle composites, and hierarchical structure) on photovoltaic performance of DSSCs is described. The possibility of replacing silicon-based solar cells with DSSCs is discussed.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of natural dye and counter electrode thin films with different carbon materials for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Chen, Tien-Li; Kao, Mu-Jung; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chien, Shu-Hua; Jiang, Lii-Jenq

    2011-08-01

    This study aims to deal with the film of the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and the preparation, structure and characteristics of the extract of natural dye. This study adopts different commercial carbon materials such as black lead, carbon black and self-made TiO2-MWCNT compound nanoparticle as the film of the counter electrodes. Moreover, for the preparation of natural dyes, anthocyanins and chlorophyll dyes are extracted from mulberry and pomegranate respectively. Furthermore, the extracted anthocyanins and chlorophyll are blended into cocktail dye to complete the preparation of natural dye. Results show that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the single-layer TiO2-MWCNT counter electrode film and the cocktail dye of the DSSCs is 0.462%.

  11. Density Functional Theory (DFT Study of Coumarin-based Dyes Adsorbed on TiO2 Nanoclusters—Applications to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai A. Gîrţu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coumarin-based dyes have been successfully used in dye-sensitized solar cells, leading to photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of up to about 8%. Given the need to better understand the behavior of the dye adsorbed on the TiO2 nanoparticle, we report results of density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT studies of several coumarin-based dyes, as well as complex systems consisting of the dye bound to a TiO2 cluster. We provide the electronic structure and simulated UV-Vis spectra of the dyes alone and adsorbed to the cluster and discuss the matching with the solar spectrum. We display the energy level diagrams and the electron density of the key molecular orbitals and analyze the electron transfer from the dye to the oxide. Finally, we compare our theoretical results with the experimental data available and discuss the key issues that influence the device performance.

  12. Density Functional Theory (DFT) Study of Coumarin-based Dyes Adsorbed on TiO2 Nanoclusters—Applications to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Corneliu I.; Panait, Petre; Cimpoesu, Fanica; Ferbinteanu, Marilena; Gîrţu, Mihai A.

    2013-01-01

    Coumarin-based dyes have been successfully used in dye-sensitized solar cells, leading to photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of up to about 8%. Given the need to better understand the behavior of the dye adsorbed on the TiO2 nanoparticle, we report results of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) studies of several coumarin-based dyes, as well as complex systems consisting of the dye bound to a TiO2 cluster. We provide the electronic structure and simulated UV-Vis spectra of the dyes alone and adsorbed to the cluster and discuss the matching with the solar spectrum. We display the energy level diagrams and the electron density of the key molecular orbitals and analyze the electron transfer from the dye to the oxide. Finally, we compare our theoretical results with the experimental data available and discuss the key issues that influence the device performance. PMID:28809278

  13. Electrical characterization of dye sensitized nano solar cell using natural pomegranate juice as photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adithi, U.; Thomas, Sara; Uma, V.; Pradeep, N.

    2013-02-01

    This paper shows Electrical characterization of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell using natural dye, extracted from the pomegranate as a photo sensitizer and ZnO nanoparticles as semiconductor. The constituents of fabricated dye sensitized solar cell were working electrode, dye, electrolyte and counter electrode. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and used as semiconductor in working electrode. Carbon soot was used as counter electrode. The resistance of ZnO film on ITO film was found out. There was an increase in the resistance of the film and film changes from conducting to semiconducting. Photovoltaic parameters of the fabricated cell like Short circuit current, open circuit voltage, Fill factor and Efficiency were found out. This paper shows that usage of natural dyes like pomegranate juice as sensitizer enables faster and simpler production of cheaper and environmental friendly solar cell.

  14. Recent advances in plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Won-Yeop; Song, Da Hyun; Yang, Hwa-Young; Kim, Ho-Sub; Son, Byung Sung; Suh, Jung Sang; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are among the best devices in generating electrons from solar light energy due to their high efficiency, low-cost in processing and transparency in building integrated photovoltaics. There are several ways to improve their energy-conversion efficiency, such as increasing light harvesting and electron transport, of which plasmon and 3-dimensional nanostructures are greatly capable. We review recent advances in plasmonic effects which depend on optimizing sizes, shapes, alloy compositions and integration of metal nanoparticles. Different methods to integrate metal nanoparticles into 3-dimensional nanostructures are also discussed. This review presents a guideline for enhancing the energy-conversion efficiency of DSSCs by utilizing metal nanoparticles that are incorporated into 3-dimensional nanostructures.

  15. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for Economically Viable Photovoltaic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2013-05-16

    TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a significant level of scientific and technological interest for their potential as economically viable photovoltaic devices. While DSSCs have multiple benefits such as material abundance, a short energy payback period, constant power output, and compatibility with flexible applications, there are still several challenges that hold back large scale commercialization. Critical factors determining the future of DSSCs involve energy conversion efficiency, long-term stability, and production cost. Continuous advancement of their long-term stability suggests that state-of-the-art DSSCs will operate for over 20 years without a significant decrease in performance. Nevertheless, key questions remain in regards to energy conversion efficiency improvements and material cost reduction. In this Perspective, the present state of the field and the ongoing efforts to address the requirements of DSSCs are summarized with views on the future of DSSCs.

  16. Starburst triarylamine based dyes bearing a 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene linker for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li-Lin; Chen, Hong-Yan; Hao, Li-Feng; Shen, Yong; Xiao, Li-Min; Liu, Jun-Min; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2013-07-28

    Starburst triarylamine-based organic dyes (D1, D2, and D3) have been synthesized. For the three designed dyes, the starburst triarylamine group, thiophene (or 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), and cyanoacetic acid take the role of electron donor, π-conjugation bridge, and electron acceptor, respectively. These compounds are characterized by photophysical, electrochemical, and theoretical computational methods. Nanocrystalline TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using these molecules as light-harvesting sensitizers. The overall efficiencies of the sensitized cells range from 5.48 to 6.15%. It was found that the introduction of the EDOT group in D3 bathochromically extended the absorption spectra, resulting in a leap in the photovoltaic performance in comparison to D2. Incorporation of a hydrophobic carbazole-containing segment at D2 relative with D1 retarded the electron transfer from TiO2 to the oxidized dye or electrolyte, leading to an increase of electron lifetime.

  17. Dye sensitized solar cell based on environmental friendly eosin Y dye and Al doped titanium dioxide nano particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Swati S.; Bodkhe, Gajanan A.; Shirsat, Sumedh M.; Hussaini, S. S.; Shejwal, N. N.; Shirsat, Mahendra D.

    2018-03-01

    Present communication deals with the development of cost effective dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with eco-friendly materials. Eco-friendly Eosin Y dye was used to sensitize photo anode which was fabricated using undoped and Aluminium doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. Undoped and Aluminium doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by simple and cost effective sol-gel method. Aluminium doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible, FT-IR spectroscopy, x-ray Diffraction, and Scanning Electron Micrograph with EDX. The photo-voltaic activity of the cell was studied under light irradiation of 100 milliwatt cm-2. Aluminium doped TiO2 nanoparticle photo electrode exhibits more than 60% increase in cell efficiency as compared to the undoped TiO2 nanoparticle photo electrode.

  18. Spectral sensitization of TiO2 by new hemicyanine dyes in dye solar cell yielding enhanced photovoltage: Probing chain length effect on performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadadu, Kishan B.; Soni, Saurabh S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: New hemicyanine dyes based on indolenine moiety were utilized as light harvesting materials in dye sensitized solar cell. Chain lengths of the molecules were varied in order to study its effect of chain length on the performance of DSSC. Electron transfer kinetic of the solar cell was studied and it was found that the chain length changes the electron transfer kinetic. We have achieved remarkable photovoltage and overall performance of DSSC. Highlights: ► New hemicyanine dyes based on indolenine moiety were utilized as light harvesting materials in dye sensitized solar cell. ► Chain lengths of the molecules were varied in order to study its effect of chain length on the performance of DSSC. ► Electron transfer kinetic of the solar cell was studied and it was found that the chain length changes the electron transfer kinetic. -- Abstract: New hemicyanine dyes having indole nucleus with different alkyl chain length were synthesized and characterized using 1 H NMR and mass spectroscopy. These dyes were used to sensitize the TiO 2 film in dye sensitized solar cell. Nanocrystalline dye solar cells were fabricated and characterized using various electrochemical techniques. It has been found that the alkyl chain length present in the dye molecules greatly affects the overall performance of dye solar cell. Molecules having longer alkyl chain are having better sensitizers which enhance V oc to significant extent. Chain length dependent performance was further investigated using Tafel polarization and impedance method. Hemicyanine dye having hexyl chain has outperformed by attaining 2.9% solar to electricity conversion efficiency

  19. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles biosynthesis for dye sensitized solar cells application: review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbonyiryivuze, A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available -sensitized solar cells, in air and water purification, due to their potential oxidation strength, high photo stability and non-toxicity. Till now, titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the cornerstone semiconductors for dye-sensitized (DSSC) nanostructured electrodes for dye...

  20. Optimizing porphyrins for dye sensitized solar cells using large-scale ab initio calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnsø, Kristian Baruël; Pedersen, Christian S.; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the search for sustainable energy sources, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) represent an attractive solution due to their low cost, relatively high efficiencies, and flexible design. Porphyrin-based dyes are characterized by strong absorption in the visible part of the spectrum and easy...

  1. Zinc oxide based dye sensitized solar cell using eosin – Y as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A zinc oxide based Dye sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) has been fabricated, using Eosin-Y as the dye adsorbed on a nanocrystalline zinc oxide - fluorine doped tin oxide electrode, for the sensitization of the large band gap semiconductor. The absorption spectrum of Eosin-Y showed high absorption of visible light between ...

  2. The chemical bonds effect of anthocyanin and chlorophyll dyes on TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahliha, A. H.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Kusumaningsih, T.

    2017-11-01

    Anthocyanin and chlorophyll dyes have been blended as the photosensitizer of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). The results study showed the effect of chemical bond dyes on TiO2 and the efficiency of DSSC. Ratio blend of the anthocyanin and chlorophyll dyes are 1:1. The absorbance of dyes and TiO2 were characterized using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. The chemical bonds contained in TiO2-dyes were characterized using FT-IR spectrophotometer. The efficiency of DSSC was calculated using I-V meter. The absorption spectra of chlorophyll: anthocyanin blend dye solutions and TiO2 films can increase after the dye adsorption. Absorbance characterization of anthocyanin and chlorophyll dye blend solutions showed three peaks at the wavelength of 412 nm; 535.5 nm; and 656.5 nm. Absorbance characterization of spinach before being blend with anthocyanin dyes solutions showed two peaks at the wavelength of 431 nm and 665.5 nm. The absorption spectra of TiO2 films can increase after the dyes adsorption at the wavelength of 400 nm. FT-IR spectra of TiO2 founded the functional groups C-Br, C=C, and O-H. The functional groups founded in anthocyanin: chlorophyll dye blended on the surface of TiO2 are C-Br, C-O, O-H, C-H, C=C, C=O, and O-H. The result showed that the greatest efficiency of 0.0544% at dye red cabbage-spinach. Adsorption blends of anthocyanin and chlorophyll dyes on the surface of TiO2 can be used as the photosensitizer for DSSC.

  3. In Situ Mapping of the Molecular Arrangement of Amphiphilic Dye Molecules at the TiO 2 Surface of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Voïtchovsky, Kislon

    2015-05-27

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Amphiphilic sensitizers are central to the function of dye-sensitized solar cells. It is known that the cell\\'s performance depends on the molecular arrangement and the density of the dye on the semiconductor surface, but a molecular-level picture of the cell-electrolyte interface is still lacking. Here, we present subnanometer in situ atomic force microscopy images of the Z907 dye at the surface of TiO2 in a relevant liquid. Our results reveal changes in the conformation and the lateral arrangement of the dye molecules, depending on their average packing density on the surface. Complementary quantitative measurements on the ensemble of the film are obtained by the quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation technique. An atomistic picture of the dye coverage-dependent packing, the effectiveness of the hydrophobic alkyl chains as blocking layer, and the solvent accessibility is obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. (Figure Presented).

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutikno, E-mail: smadnasri@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Semarang State University D7 Building, 2nd Floor, Unnes, Sekaran Campus, Semarang, Indonesia, 50229 (Indonesia); Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi,; Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma [Faculty of Computer Science, Dian Nuswantoro University Jl. Nakula I No. 5, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10{sup −4}%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  5. Carbon coated stainless steel as counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Shejale Kiran; Sharma, Rakesh K.; Roy, Mahesh S.; Kumar, Mahesh

    2014-10-01

    A new type of counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells has been fabricated using a stainless steel sheet as substrate and graphite, graphene and multiwall carbon nanotubes as the catalytic material which applied by screen printing technique. The sheet resistances of the substrates and there influence on the dye sensitized solar cells has been studied. The fabricated counter electrodes i.e. SS-graphite, SS-graphene SS-MWCNT and SS-platinum were tested for their photovoltaic response in the form of dye sensitized solar cells.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutikno, Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi, Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10-4%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  7. Cell damage and dye reduction in the quantitative nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, A W; Levi, A J

    1975-01-01

    Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) is toxic to neutrophils; an effect which is greatly enhanced by endotoxin and latex particles. Cell damage, measured by the release of the cytoplasmic marker enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), was closely related to dye reduction. This suggests that, in this test, dye reduction occurs largely as a result of contact between intracellular reducing compounds and NBT following damage of the outer cell membrane. The expression of dye reduction as a function of LDH release should enhance the sensitivity of the quantitative NBT test by correcting for the observed intersubject variation in cell damage. The relationship between cell damage and dye reduction is a measure of the reducing capacity of the cell. This was normal in immature, bone marrow neutrophils, but diminished in neutrophils of patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Images Fig. 3 PMID:1212802

  8. Photoelectric Dye Used for Okayama University-Type Retinal Prosthesis Reduces the Apoptosis of Photoreceptor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shihui; Matsuo, Toshihiko; Hosoya, Osamu; Uchida, Tetsuya

    2017-04-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that photoelectric dye-coupled polyethylene film (Okayama University-type retinal prosthesis), which was implanted in subretinal space of the eyes of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, prevented retinal neurons from apoptotic death. In this study, we aimed to examine whether photoelectric dye itself would protect retinal neurons from apoptosis in RCS rats. RCS rats received intravitreous injection of different concentrations of the dye in the left eye and housed under a 12-h light-dark cycle. Saline injection in the right eye served as control. In addition, RCS rats with dye injection were kept in 24-h daily dark condition. Sections were processed for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated fluorescein-conjugated-dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and immunohistochemical staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and protein kinase Cα (PKCα). The number of TUNEL-positive cells significantly decreased in the retina of dye-injected eyes compared with those in saline-injected eyes (P = 0.0001, 2-factor analysis of variance [ANOVA]), under 12-h light-dark cycle. Significant decrease of TUNEL-positive cells was noted in the retina of rats with dye injection compared with those with saline injection, kept under 24-h dark condition (P = 0.0001, 2-factor ANOVA). Immunoreactive area for GFAP decreased significantly in the retina of dye-injected eyes compared with that in controls (P = 0.0001, 2-factor ANOVA), whereas immunoreactive area for PKCα increased significantly in the retina of dye-injected eyes compared with that in controls (P = 0.01, 2-factor ANOVA). Photoelectric dye inhibits apoptotic death of photoreceptor cells in RCS rats and downregulates GFAP expression in retinal Müller cells. Photoelectric dye may be a candidate agent for neuroprotection in retinitis pigmentosa and other retinal diseases.

  9. Enhancement of power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by co-sensitization of Phloxine B and Bromophenol blue dyes on ZnO photoanode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, Suman; Bahadur, Lal, E-mail: lbahadur@bhu.ac.in

    2015-05-15

    A single dye usually absorbs light only in a limited range of solar spectrum. In order to widen the absorption range, a combination of dyes, namely, Phloxine B and Bromophenol blue have been used as sensitizers in ZnO based dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). It has been found that the DSSC sensitized by mixed dyes exhibited better photovoltaic performance than those observed with the DSSCs using test dyes individually. It has been ascribed to the enhanced absorption of light particularly in higher energy region (λ=400–550 nm) when both dyes were used together as was evident from the absorption spectra of dyes adsorbed onto ZnO electrode. The DSSC using ZnO electrode sensitized by mixed dyes provided J{sub SC}=5.6 mA cm{sup −2}, V{sub OC}=0.606 V, FF=0.53 and maximum energy conversion efficiency (η) of 1.35% on illuminating the cell with visible light of 150 mW cm{sup −2} intensity. - Highlights: • Phloxine B and Bromophenol blue have been used as sensitizers in ZnO based DSSC. • DSSC sensitized by mixed dyes exhibited better photovoltaic performance than those observed with the DSSCs using test dyes individually. • Enhanced absorption of light particularly in higher energy region (λ=400–550 nm) have been observed when both dyes were used together. • The DSSC using ZnO electrode sensitized by mixed dyes provided J{sub sc}=5.6 mA cm{sup −2}, V{sub oc}=0.606 V, FF=0.53. • Efficiency of 1.35% is achieved at visible light intensity of 150 mW cm{sup −2}.

  10. Interfacial energy levels and related properties of atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on nanoporous TiO{sub 2} electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, Ta-Chang; Pan, Fu-Ming [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 300, Taiwan (China); Wang, Lih-Ping; Lee, Chia-Hua; Tung, Yung-Liang; Tsai, Song-Yeu [Photovoltaics Technology Center, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 310, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ching; Tsai, Feng-Yu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, Su-Jen, E-mail: tien@itri.org.t [Nanotechnology Research Center, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 310, Taiwan (China)

    2009-07-29

    Low-temperature ({approx}150 {sup 0}C), atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on nanoporous TiO{sub 2} electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated using electron spectroscopy. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSCs was increased from 5.7% to 6.5%, an improvement of 14%, with one monolayer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with a thickness of {approx}0.2 nm. The formation of Ti-O-Al(OH){sub 2} and interfacial dipole layers exhibited a strong influence on the work function of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} over-layers, while the thicker Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} over-layers caused the values of valence band maximum and band gap to approach the values associated with pure Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. A work function difference ({Delta}{Phi}{sub A-T}) of 0.4 eV and a recombination barrier height ({epsilon}{sub RB}) of 0.1 eV were associated with the highest PCE achieved by the first monolayer of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. Thicker Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} over-layers, however, caused significant reduction of PCE with negative {Delta}{Phi}{sub T-A} and increased interfacial energy barrier height (*{epsilon}{sub IB}) between the N719 dyes and TiO{sub 2} electrodes. It was concluded that the PCE of the DSSCs may correlate with {Delta}{Phi}{sub A-T}, {epsilon}{sub RB}, and *{epsilon}{sub IB} resulting from various thicknesses of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} over-layers and that interfacial reactions, such as the formation of Ti-O-Al(OH){sub 2} and dipole layers, play an important role in determining the interfacial energy levels required to achieve optimal performance of dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} solar cells.

  11. A panchromatic anthracene-fused porphyrin sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ball, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of ruthenium-free sensitizers which absorb light over a broad range of the solar spectrum is important for improving the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Here we study three chemically tailored porphyrin-based dyes. We show that by fusing the porphyrin core to an anthracene unit, we can extend the conjugation length and lower the optical gap, shifting the absorption spectrum into the near-infrared (NIR). All three dyes were tested in dye-sensitized solar cells, using both titanium dioxide and tin dioxide as the electron-transport material. Solar cells incorporating the anthracene-fused porphyrin dye exhibit photocurrent collection at wavelengths up to about 1100 nm, which is the longest reported for a porphyrin-based system. Despite extending the photon absorption bandwidth, device efficiency is found to be low, which is a common property of cells based on porphyrin dyes with NIR absorption. We show that in the present case the efficiency is reduced by inefficient electron injection into the oxide, as opposed to dye regeneration, and highlight some important design considerations for panchromatic sensitizers. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Zinc octacarboxyphthalocyanine/Multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid for the development of dye solar cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, N

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available octacarboxyphthalocyanine / Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid for the Development of Dye Solar Cells Nonhlanhla Mphahlele Materials Science & Manufacturing: Energy & Processes (EaP) 7 September 2010 OUTLINE ? INTRODUCTION ? OBJECTIVES ? EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE...

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells: Atomic scale investigation of interface structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wei; Zhang Fan; Meng Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) research is reviewed, focusing on atomic-scale investigations of the interface electronic structures and dynamical processes, including the structure of dye adsorption onto TiO 2 , ultrafast electron injection, hot-electron injection, multiple-exciton generation, and electron—hole recombination. Advanced experimental techniques and theoretical approaches are briefly summarized, and then progressive achievements in photovoltaic device optimization based on insights from atomic scale investigations are introduced. Finally, some challenges and opportunities for further improvement of dye solar cells are presented. (invited review — international conference on nanoscience and technology, china 2013)

  14. A NIR-remote controlled upconverting nanoparticle: an improved tool for living cell dye-labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Bin; Gong, Xiaoqun; Wang, Hanjie; Wang, Sheng; Chang, Jin; Wang, Huiquan; Li, Wei; Tan, Jian

    2015-01-01

    In living cells, due to the selective permeability and complicated cellular environment, the uptake efficiency and fluorescence decay of organic dyes during dye-labeling may be influenced, which may eventually result in poor fluorescent imaging. In this work, a protocol of UCNs@mSiO 2 -(FA and Azo) core–shell nanocarriers was designed and prepared successfully. The core–shell nanocarriers were assembled from two parts, including a mesoporous silica shell surface modified by folate (FA) and azobenzene (Azo), and an upconverting nanocrystal (UCN) core. The mesoporous silica shell is used for loading organic dyes and conjugating folate which helps to enhance the cellular uptake of nanocarriers. The UCN core works as a transducer to convert near infrared (NIR) light to local UV and visible light to activate a back-and-forth wagging motion of azobenzene molecules on the surface, while the azobenzene acts as a molecular impeller for propelling the release of organic dyes. The nanocarriers of loading organic dyes can maintain the stability of the fluorescent imaging effect better than free organic dyes. The experimental results show that with the help of the nanoparticle, cell uptake efficiency of the model dyes of rhodamine and 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) was significantly improved. The release of dyes can only be triggered by NIR light exposure and their quantity is highly dependent on the duration of NIR light exposure, thus realizing NIR-regulated dye release spatiotemporally. Our work may open a novel avenue for precisely controlling UCN-based living cell imaging in biotechnology and diagnostics, as well as studying cell dynamics, cell–cell interactions, and tissue morphogenesis. (paper)

  15. Peptide-templating dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae Hee; Moon, Hyoung-Seok; Hwang, Jin Ok; Seok, Sang Il; Im, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2010-05-07

    A hollow TiO(2) nanoribbon network electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) was fabricated by a biotemplating process combining peptide self-assembly and atomic layer deposition (ALD). An aromatic peptide of diphenylalanine was assembled into a three-dimensional network consisting of highly entangled nanoribbons. A thin TiO(2) layer was deposited at the surface of the peptide template via the ALD process. After the pyrolysis of the peptide template, a highly entangled nanotubular TiO(2) framework was successfully prepared. Evolution of the crystal phase and crystallite size of the TiO(2) nanostructure was exploited by controlling the calcination temperature. Finally, the hollow TiO(2) nanoribbon network electrode was integrated into DSSC devices and their photochemical performances were investigated. Hollow TiO(2) nanoribbon-based DSSCs exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 3.8%, which is comparable to the conventional TiO(2) nanoparticle-based DSSCs (3.5%). Our approach offers a novel pathway for DSSCs consisting of TiO(2) electrodes via biotemplating.

  16. Nanostructured Semiconductor Materials for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cavallo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since O’Regan and Grätzel’s first report in 1991, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs appeared immediately as a promising low-cost photovoltaic technology. In fact, though being far less efficient than conventional silicon-based photovoltaics (being the maximum, lab scale prototype reported efficiency around 13%, the simple design of the device and the absence of the strict and expensive manufacturing processes needed for conventional photovoltaics make them attractive in small-power applications especially in low-light conditions, where they outperform their silicon counterparts. Nanomaterials are at the very heart of DSSC, as the success of its design is due to the use of nanostructures at both the anode and the cathode. In this review, we present the state of the art for both n-type and p-type semiconductors used in the photoelectrodes of DSSCs, showing the evolution of the materials during the 25 years of history of this kind of devices. In the case of p-type semiconductors, also some other energy conversion applications are touched upon.

  17. Performance improvement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) by using dyes mixture from chlorophyll and anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Kusumandari; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2017-11-01

    This article showed the effect of single and mixture natural dyes on the DSSC performance. The single dyes extracted from moss chlorophyll and mangosteen peels anthocyanin. The dyes mixture was prepared by mixing from both chlorophyll and anthocyanin. The absorbance of dyes solution and the adsorption of the dye onto the working electrode were analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photocurrent-photovoltage of DSSCs were measured using I-V meter. The dyes mixture has an increased absorption at visible spectrum range as compared to single dye. The adsorption of the dyes mixture onto the TiO2 electrode has higher absorbance than single dye. The DSSC with single dye from moss chlorophyll and mangosteen peels anthocyanin resulted the conversion efficiency of 0.049% and 0.042% respectively. The dyes mixture of chlorophyll and anthocyanin improved the conversion efficiency of 0.154%.

  18. Investigation of the Stability of the Ruthenium based Dye (N719) Utilizing the Polarization Properties of Dispersive Raman Modes and/or of the Fluorescent Emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, Søren; Jernshøj, Kit Drescher; Phuong, Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    for short) is possible by exploiting a combination of the polarization properties of the dispersive Raman modes with the small spectral change in the visible absorption spectrum and/or the difference in the polarization of the fluorescence related to the difference in molecular configuration. By measuring...

  19. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Saravana Kumar, G; Murugakoothan, P

    2015-02-25

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The electronic structure engineering of organic dye sensitizers for solar cells: The case of JK derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-Rong; Ma, Jin-Gang; Zhe, Jian-Wu; Jin, Neng-Zhi; Shen, Yu-Lin; Wu, You-Zhi; Chen, Yu-Hong; Liu, Zi-Jiang; Chen, Hong-Shan

    2015-11-05

    The design and development of novel dye sensitizers are effective method to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because dye sensitizers have significant influence on photo-to-current conversion efficiency. In the procedure of dye sensitizer design, it is very important to understand how to tune their electronic structures and related properties through the substitution of electronic donors, acceptors, and conjugated bridges in dye sensitizers. Here, the electronic structures and excited-state properties of organic JK dye sensitizers are calculated by using density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT methods. Based upon the calculated results, we investigated the role of different electronic donors, acceptors, and π-conjugated bridges in the modification of electronic structures, absorption properties, as well as the free energy variations for electron injection and dye regeneration. In terms of the analysis of transition configurations and molecular orbitals, the effective chromophores which are favorable for electron injection in DSSCs are addressed. Meanwhile, considering the absorption spectra and free energy variation, the promising electronic donors, π-conjugated bridges, and acceptors are presented to design dye sensitizers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A difunctional squarylium indocyanine dye distinguishes dead cells through diverse staining of the cell nuclei/membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Guo, Kunru; Shen, Jie; Yang, Wantai; Yin, Meizhen

    2014-04-09

    Functionalized fluorescent dyes have attracted great interest for the specific staining of subcellular organelles in multicellular organisms. A novel nanometer-sized water-soluble multi-functional squarylium indocyanine dye (D1) that contains four primary amines is synthesized. The dye exhibits good photostability, non-toxicity and biocompatibility. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrates that an affinity between D1 and DNA is higher than that between D1 and analogue of phospholipids. Analysis of circular dichroism spectra indicates that D1 targets to the DNA minor groove and aggregates to a helix. Because of the distinct affinity between the dye and subcellular organelles, the dye exhibits difunctional abilities to label the cell nuclei in fixed cells/tissue and the cell membranes in live cells/tissue. By combination of the two staining capabilities, the dye is further explored as a specific marker to distinguish apoptotic cells in live cells/tissue. The research opens a new way to design novel multifunctional dyes for life science applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Dynamics of dye release from nanocarriers of different types in model cell membranes and living cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkacheva T. N.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the dynamics of lipophilic content release from nanocarriers of different types, organic molecular ensembles and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs in vitro experiments. Methods. Two-channel ratiometric fluorescence detection method based on Forster Resonance Energy Transfer, fluorescent spectroscopy and micro-spectroscopy have been used. Results. It has been found that the profiles of lipophilic dyes release from organic nanocarriers (PC liposomes and SDS micelles and inorganic ones (GdYVO4:Eu3+ and CeO2 NPs are well fitted by the first-order reaction kinetics in both model cell membranes and living cells (rat hepatocytes. The dye release constants (K and half-lives (t1/2 were analyzed. Conclusions. GdYVO4:Eu3+ and CeO2 NPs have been shown to provide faster lipophilic content release in model cell membranes as compared to PC liposomes. Negatively charged or lipophilic compounds added into nanocarriers can decrease the rate of lipophilic dyes release. Specific interaction of GdYVO4:Eu3+ NPs with rat hepatocytes has been observed.

  3. Computational design of molecules for dye sensitized solar cells and nano electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnsø, Kristian Baruël

    sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in terms of a loss-less level alignment quality. This scoring only takes into account a simplified absorption spectrum of the dye in combination with the alignment between the molecular levels, the semi-conductor conduction band edge and the redox mediator. To improve on this......, using redox mediators with a lower internal reorganization energy would allow for a less constrained choice of dye, possibly boosting the efficiency. The obtained data is furthermore used to search for suitable pairs of porphyrins for a novel type of DSSC schemes, using two dyes in a molecular two...

  4. Fundamental studies of nanoarchitectured dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenzhen

    2011-12-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are a promising candidate for next-generation photovoltaic panels due to their low cost, easy fabrication processes and relatively high efficiency. Despite the considerable effort on the advancement of DSSCs, the efficiency of DSSCs has been stalled for nearly two decades due to the complex interplay among various DSSC parameters. Particularly, in a conventional DSSC, a thicker semiconductor photovoltaic (PV) layer, i.e., a dye-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticle layer, is required to accommodate more light-induced charge separation centers to enhance light harvesting efficiency. However, a thicker PV layer concurrently increases the charge transport distance in the PV layer; so the system suffers from more charge recombination, leading to significant deterioration in charge collection efficiency. The conflicting demands on the thickness of PV layer by these two critical elementary photoelectrochemical processes becomes a fundamental limitation for further advancement in DSSCs and limits the choice of redox mediators and electrode materials in DSSCs. Hence, the focus of this dissertation research work is to systematically explore a transformative way to fundamentally resolve the conflicting interplay between light harvesting and charge transport. First, our strategy is to allocate part of the roughness factor to the collecting anode instead of imparting all the roughness factors onto the semiconductor PV layer attached to the anode. As a proof of concept, we first synthesized and characterized a microscopically rough Zn collecting anode, on which ZnO nanotips are grown. For the same surface roughness factor, the length of the ZnO nanotips supported on such a rough Zn anode can be much shorter than that of the ZnO nanowires supported on a planar anode. Our Zn-microtip|ZnO-nanotip DSSCs exhibit enhanced fill factor, Voc and Jsc. The investigation of kinetics indicates that the electron collection time is much faster than the electron

  5. Diffusion Length Mapping for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Cinà

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion length (L of photogenerated carriers in the nanoporous electrode is a key parameter that summarizes the collection efficiency behavior in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. At present, there are few techniques able to spatially resolve L over the active area of the device. Most of them require contact patterning and, hence, are intrinsically destructive. Here, we present the first electron diffusion length mapping system for DSCs based on steady state incident photon to collected electron (IPCE conversion efficiency ( η I P C E analysis. The measurement is conducted by acquiring complete transmittance ( T DSC and η I P C E spectra from the photo electrode (PE and counter electrode (CE for each spatial point in a raster scan manner. L ( x , y is obtained by a least square fitting of the IPCE ratio spectrum ( I P C E R = η I P C E -CE η I P C E -PE . An advanced feature is the ability to acquire η I P C E spectra using low-intensity probe illumination under weakly-absorbed background light (625 nm with the device biased close to open circuit voltage. These homogeneous conditions permit the linearization of the free electron continuity equation and, hence, to obtain the collection efficiency expressions ( η COL-PE and η COL-CE . The influence of the parameter’s uncertainty has been quantified by a sensitivity study of L. The result has been validated by quantitatively comparing the average value of L map with the value estimated from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Peng; Yang, Dingyu; Zhu, Xinghua; Sun, Hui; Li, Jitao

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated based on natural dyes extracting from carrot, mulberry, purple cabbage, potato, and grapes. The ultraviolet-visible spectra suggested purple cabbage and mulberry possess better absorption at 300-550 nm. The solar cells using purple cabbage as dye achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.162% with short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 0.621 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.541 V and fill factor (FF) of 0.484. The Infrared spectra revealed the bond of Osbnd H, Csbnd C, Csbnd O, Csbnd H were existed in purple cabbage. Finally, the optimal extraction time of dyes is also presented.

  7. Assessment of dye distribution in sensitized solar cells by microprobe techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiros, M.A., E-mail: alexandra.barreiros@lneg.pt [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LEN/UES, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Corregidor, V. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [C2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Guimarães, F. [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LGM/UCTM, Rua da Amieira, Apartado 1089, 4466-901 S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Mascarenhas, J.; Torres, E.; Brites, M.J. [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LEN/UES, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received considerable attention once this technology offers economic and environmental advantages over conventional photovoltaic (PV) devices. The PV performance of a DSC relies on the characteristics of its photoanode, which typically consists of a nanocrystalline porous TiO{sub 2} film, enabled with a large adsorptive surface area. Dye molecules that capture photons from light during device operation are attached to the film nanoparticles. The effective loading of the dye in the TiO{sub 2} electrode is of paramount relevance for controlling and optimizing solar cell parameters. Relatively few methods are known today for quantitative evaluation of the total dye adsorbed on the film. In this context, microprobe techniques come out as suitable tools to evaluate the dye surface distribution and depth profile in sensitized films. Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Ion Beam Analytical (IBA) techniques using a micro-ion beam were used to quantify and to study the distribution of the Ru organometallic dye in TiO{sub 2} films, making use of the different penetration depth and beam sizes of each technique. Different 1D nanostructured TiO{sub 2} films were prepared, morphologically characterized by SEM, sensitized and analyzed by the referred techniques. Dye load evaluation in different TiO{sub 2} films by three different techniques (PIXE, RBS and EPMA/WDS) provided similar results of Ru/Ti mass fraction ratio. Moreover, it was possible to assess dye surface distribution and its depth profile, by means of Ru signal, and to visualize the dye distribution in sample cross-section through X-ray mapping by EPMA/EDS. PIXE maps of Ru and Ti indicated an homogeneous surface distribution. The assessment of Ru depth profile by RBS showed that some films have homogeneous Ru depth distribution while others present different Ru concentration in the top layer (2 μm thickness). These results are consistent with the EPMA/EDS maps obtained.

  8. Assessment of dye distribution in sensitized solar cells by microprobe techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiros, M.A.; Corregidor, V.; Alves, L.C.; Guimarães, F.; Mascarenhas, J.; Torres, E.; Brites, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received considerable attention once this technology offers economic and environmental advantages over conventional photovoltaic (PV) devices. The PV performance of a DSC relies on the characteristics of its photoanode, which typically consists of a nanocrystalline porous TiO 2 film, enabled with a large adsorptive surface area. Dye molecules that capture photons from light during device operation are attached to the film nanoparticles. The effective loading of the dye in the TiO 2 electrode is of paramount relevance for controlling and optimizing solar cell parameters. Relatively few methods are known today for quantitative evaluation of the total dye adsorbed on the film. In this context, microprobe techniques come out as suitable tools to evaluate the dye surface distribution and depth profile in sensitized films. Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Ion Beam Analytical (IBA) techniques using a micro-ion beam were used to quantify and to study the distribution of the Ru organometallic dye in TiO 2 films, making use of the different penetration depth and beam sizes of each technique. Different 1D nanostructured TiO 2 films were prepared, morphologically characterized by SEM, sensitized and analyzed by the referred techniques. Dye load evaluation in different TiO 2 films by three different techniques (PIXE, RBS and EPMA/WDS) provided similar results of Ru/Ti mass fraction ratio. Moreover, it was possible to assess dye surface distribution and its depth profile, by means of Ru signal, and to visualize the dye distribution in sample cross-section through X-ray mapping by EPMA/EDS. PIXE maps of Ru and Ti indicated an homogeneous surface distribution. The assessment of Ru depth profile by RBS showed that some films have homogeneous Ru depth distribution while others present different Ru concentration in the top layer (2 μm thickness). These results are consistent with the EPMA/EDS maps obtained

  9. Electrochemical Properties of Cu(II/I)-Based Redox Mediators for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Saygili, Y.; Freitag, M.; Zakeeruddin, S. M.; Hagfeldt, A.; Grätzel, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 227, FEB 2017 (2017), s. 194-202 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Graphene * Dye sensitized solar cell * Cu-complexes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis ) Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  10. Electrochemical Properties of Cu(II/I)-Based Redox Mediators for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Saygili, Y.; Freitag, M.; Zakeeruddin, S. M.; Hagfeldt, A.; Grätzel, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 227, FEB 2017 (2017), s. 194-202 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Graphene * Dye sensitized solar cell * Cu-complexes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  11. Perylene anhydride fused porphyrins as near-infrared sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2011-07-15

    Two perylene anhydride fused porphyrins 1 and 2 have been synthesized and employed successfully in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Both compounds showed broad incident monochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra covering the entire visible spectral region and even extending into the near-infrared (NIR) region up to 1000 nm, which is impressive for ruthenium-free dyes in DSCs. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Effect of Donor Strength and Bulk on Thieno[3,4-b]-pyrazine-Based Panchromatic Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Nalaka P; Cheema, Hammad; Baumann, Alexandra R; Zylstra, Alexa R; Delcamp, Jared H

    2017-06-22

    Near-infrared-absorbing organic dyes are critically needed in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine (TPz) based dyes can access the NIR spectral region and show power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of up to 8.1 % with sunlight being converted at wavelengths up to 800 nm for 17.6 mA cm -2 of photocurrent in a co-sensitized DSC device. Precisely controlling dye excited-state energies is critical for good performances in NIR DSCs. Strategies to control TPz dye energetics with stronger donor groups and TPz substituent choice are evaluated here. Additionally, donor size influence versus dye loading on TPz dyes is analyzed with respect to the TiO 2 surface protection designed to prevent recombination of electrons in TiO 2 with the redox shuttle. Importantly, the dyes evaluated were demonstrated to work well with low Li + concentration electrolytes, with iodine and cobalt redox shuttle systems, and efficiently as part of co-sensitized devices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Light harvesting over a wide range of wavelength using natural dyes of gardenia and cochineal for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Tae-Young; Han, Shin; Ko, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Suk-Ho; Song, Yong-Min; Kim, Jung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Wook

    2014-07-01

    Two natural dyes extracted from gardenia yellow (Gardenia jasminoides) and cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) were used as sensitizers in the assembly of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to harvest light over a wide range of wavelengths. The adsorption characteristics, electrochemical properties and photovoltaic efficiencies of the natural DSSCs were investigated. The adsorption kinetics data of the dyes were obtained in a small adsorption chamber and fitted with a pseudo-second-order model. The photovoltaic performance of a photo-electrode adsorbed with single-dye (gardenia or cochineal) or the mixture or successive adsorption of the two dyes, was evaluated from current-voltage measurements. The energy conversion efficiency of the TiO2 electrode with the successive adsorption of cochineal and gardenia dyes was 0.48%, which was enhanced compared to single-dye adsorption. Overall, a double layer of the two natural dyes as sensitizers was successfully formulated on the nanoporous TiO2 surface based on the differences in their adsorption affinities of gardenia and cochineal.

  14. Influence of Dye Adsorbtion Time on TiO2 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Krokot Extract (Portulaca Oleracea. L as A Natural Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Krisdiyanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC photoelectrodes were fabricated using titanium oxide (TiO2 and sensitized with the krokot extract dye. This study investigated the effect of dye adsorption time to an efficiency of the solar cells. The fabrication cells immersed with krokot extract dye for 1, 8 and 26 hours. The photochemical performance of the DSSC showed that the open circuit voltage (Voc were 0.33, 0.036 and 0.27 V with short photocurrent density (Isc 8.00 x 10-5, 6.80 x 10-7 and 3.10 x 10-4. The photo-to-electric conversion efficiency of the DSSC reached 4.63 x 10-3 % for 26 hours adsorption time.

  15. Potential of roselle and blue pea in the dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayang, S.; Irwanto, M.; Gomesh, N.; Ismail, B.

    2017-09-01

    This paper discovers the use of natural dyes from Roselle flower and Blue Pea flower which act as a sensitizer in DSSC and in addition has a potential in absorbing visible light spectrum. The dyes were extracted using distilled water (DI) and ethanol (E) extract solvent in an ultrasonic cleaner for 30 minutes with a frequency of 37 Hz by using `degas' mode at the temperature of 30°C. Absorption spectra of roselle dye and blue pea dye with different extract solvent were tested using Evolution 201 UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. It was found that Roselle dye absorbs at a range of 400 nm - 620 nm and Blue Pea absorbs at the range of wavelength 500 nm - 680 nm. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) was used to identify the functional active group in extract dye. The concept of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) similar to photosynthesis process has attracted much attention since it demonstrates a great potential due to the use of low-cost materials and environmentally friendly sources of technology.

  16. Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based on Nanocrystalline TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasim, K.E.

    2012-01-01

    During the last quarter of the twentieth century there have been intensive research activities looking for green sources of energy. The main aim of the green generators or converters of energy is to replace the conventional (fossil) energy sources, hence reducing further accumulation of the green house gasses GHGs. Conventional silicon and III-V semiconductor solar cell based on crystalline bulk, quantum well and quantum dots structure or amorphous and thin film structures provided a feasible solution. However, natural dye sensitized solar cells NDSSC are a promising class of photovoltaic cells with the capability of generating green energy at low production cost since no vacuum systems or expensive equipment are required in their fabrication. Also, natural dyes are abundant, easily extracted and safe materials. In NDSSC, once dye molecules exposed to light they become oxidized and transfer electrons to a nano structured layer of wide bandgap semiconductors such as TiO 2 . The generated electrons are drawn outside the cell through ohmic contact to a load. In this paper we review the structure and operation principles of the dye sensitized solar cell DSSC. We discuss preparation procedures, optical and electrical characterization of the NDSSC using local dyes extracted from Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.), pomegranate, cherries and Bahraini raspberries (Rubus spp.). These natural organic dyes are potential candidates to replace some of the man-made dyes used as sensitizer in many commercialized photoelectrochemical cells. Factors limiting the operation of the DSSC are discussed. NDSSCs are expected to be a favored choice in the building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) due to their robustness, therefore, requiring no special shielding from natural events such as tree strikes or hails. (author)

  17. A combined experimental and computational investigation on pyrene based D-π-A dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamrang, Themmila; Velusamy, Marappan; Jaccob, Madhavan; Ramesh, Mohan; Kathiresan, Murugavel; Kathiravan, Arunkumar

    2018-02-28

    The geometry (twist vs. planar) of a dye is one of the most pivotal factors for determining intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), light harvesting and photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. In order to comprehend the role of dye geometry on the above properties, we have devised the pyrene based D-π-A dyes namely 2-cyano-3-(5-pyren-1-yl-furan-2-yl)-acrylic acid (PFCC) and 2-cyano-3-(5-pyren-1-ylethynyl-furan-2-yl)-acrylic acid (PEFCC). The synthesized pyrene dyes were well characterized by NMR and EI-MS spectrometry. In both the dyes, the donor (pyrene) and acceptor (cyanoacrylic acid) segments remained the same. The varied π-spacers were furan and ethynyl furan. The influences of the ethynyl spacer on the energy levels, light absorption, dynamics of excited states and photovoltaic properties of the DSCs were systematically investigated via theoretical calculations and spectroscopic measurements. UV-visible absorption spectral measurements indicated that the introduction of the ethynyl spacer enhances the molar absorptivity of a dye (PEFCC) in the order of 2, but does not shift the absorption range, which is consistent with the results obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The theoretical analysis indicated that the charge transfer transition is mainly constituted of the HOMO to the LUMO that were found to be located on donor and acceptor segments, respectively, which is supportive for efficient charge separation and electron injection processes. TDDFT calculations highlighted that the LUMO of the PEFCC dye is more stabilized by the incorporation of the ethynyl group between the pyrene and furan moieties that aid to inject electrons efficiently into TiO 2 thereby resulting in an enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.47% when compared to the PFCC dye. Notably, the overall conversion efficiency of the PEFCC dye reached 60% with respect to that of an N719-based device (4.12%) fabricated under similar conditions. Transient

  18. Multicolour single molecule imaging in cells with near infra-red dyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Tynan

    Full Text Available The autofluorescence background of biological samples impedes the detection of single molecules when imaging. The most common method of reducing the background is to use evanescent field excitation, which is incompatible with imaging beyond the surface of biological samples. An alternative would be to use probes that can be excited in the near infra-red region of the spectrum, where autofluorescence is low. Such probes could also increase the number of labels that can be imaged in multicolour single molecule microscopes. Despite being widely used in ensemble imaging, there is a currently a shortage of information available for selecting appropriate commercial near infra-red dyes for single molecule work. It is therefore important to characterise available near infra-red dyes relevant to multicolour single molecule imaging.A range of commercially available near infra-red dyes compatible with multi-colour imaging was screened to find the brightest and most photostable candidates. Image series of immobilised samples of the brightest dyes (Alexa 700, IRDye 700DX, Alexa 790 and IRDye 800CW were analysed to obtain the mean intensity of single dye molecules, their photobleaching rates and long period blinking kinetics. Using the optimum dye pair, we have demonstrated for the first time widefield, multi-colour, near infra-red single molecule imaging using a supercontinuum light source in MCF-7 cells.We have demonstrated that near infra-red dyes can be used to avoid autofluorescence background in samples where restricting the illumination volume of visible light fails or is inappropriate. We have also shown that supercontinuum sources are suited to single molecule multicolour imaging throughout the 470-1000 nm range. Our measurements of near infra-red dye properties will enable others to select optimal dyes for single molecule imaging.

  19. Multicolour Single Molecule Imaging in Cells with Near Infra-Red Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Christopher J.; Clarke, David T.; Coles, Benjamin C.; Rolfe, Daniel J.; Martin-Fernandez, Marisa L.; Webb, Stephen E. D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The autofluorescence background of biological samples impedes the detection of single molecules when imaging. The most common method of reducing the background is to use evanescent field excitation, which is incompatible with imaging beyond the surface of biological samples. An alternative would be to use probes that can be excited in the near infra-red region of the spectrum, where autofluorescence is low. Such probes could also increase the number of labels that can be imaged in multicolour single molecule microscopes. Despite being widely used in ensemble imaging, there is a currently a shortage of information available for selecting appropriate commercial near infra-red dyes for single molecule work. It is therefore important to characterise available near infra-red dyes relevant to multicolour single molecule imaging. Methodology/Principal Findings A range of commercially available near infra-red dyes compatible with multi-colour imaging was screened to find the brightest and most photostable candidates. Image series of immobilised samples of the brightest dyes (Alexa 700, IRDye 700DX, Alexa 790 and IRDye 800CW) were analysed to obtain the mean intensity of single dye molecules, their photobleaching rates and long period blinking kinetics. Using the optimum dye pair, we have demonstrated for the first time widefield, multi-colour, near infra-red single molecule imaging using a supercontinuum light source in MCF-7 cells. Conclusions/Significance We have demonstrated that near infra-red dyes can be used to avoid autofluorescence background in samples where restricting the illumination volume of visible light fails or is inappropriate. We have also shown that supercontinuum sources are suited to single molecule multicolour imaging throughout the 470–1000 nm range. Our measurements of near infra-red dye properties will enable others to select optimal dyes for single molecule imaging. PMID:22558412

  20. Rose Bengal sensitized niobium pentaoxide photoanode for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedri, Niyamat I.; Sayyed, Suhail A. A. R.; Jadkar, Sandesh R.; Pathan, Habib M.

    2017-05-01

    The present work deals with the study of Nb2O5 photoanode with low cost rose Bengal dye for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. Chemical route was used for preparation of nano-crystalline niobium pentaoxide (Nb2O5) and doctor blade method was employed for deposition of Nb2O5 films. The morphological and structural analysis of Nb2O5 photoanodes were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. The SEM micrograph shows spherical granular grains with porous structure useful for dye adsorption. The XRD analysis shows the formation of pure orthorhombic phase of Nb2O5. The band gap value for Nb2O5 photoanode was calculated as 3.2 eV using diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). As an alternative to conventional ruthenium dye, we used rose Bengal (4, 5, 6, 7-tetrachloro- 20, 40, 50, 70 tetra-iodo-fluorescein) dye, which acts as a photo-sensitizer for DSSCs. The absorbance spectra of the rose Bengal dye was investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The cell shows open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit photocurrent (Jsc) and fill factor around 0.53V, 0.13mA /cm2 and 22% respectively.

  1. Role of Dyestuff in Improving Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia Selim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells DSSCs have attracted great attention for their simple fabrication process, low production costs, relatively high conversion efficiency, and being environmental friendly.DSSC are a combination of materials, consisting of a transparent electrode coated with a dye-sensitized mesoporous film of nanocrystalline particles of TiO2, an electrolyte containing a suitable redox-couple and a electrode.DSSCs use organic dye assist to produce electricity in a wide range of light conditions, indoors and outdoors.The dye in the solar cell is the key element since it is responsible for light harvesting ability, photoelectron generation (the creation of free charges after injection of electrons into the nanostructured semi-conducting oxide and electron transfer.For this reason, this paper gives a background of dyestuff, types and limitations. The motivation of this work is to design a simple, easy and prepare an efficient organic dye sensitizer.Also, this paper investigates the important criteria which are considered for selecting dye to enhance DSSC efficiency. 

  2. Efficiency Investigations of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid ZnO Nanoparticles Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satbir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research study focuses upon the synthesis, characterization, and performances of optoelectronic properties of organic-inorganic (hybrid ZnO based dye sensitized solar cells. Initially, polymer dye A was synthesized using condensation reaction between 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and polyethylenimine and was capped to ZnO nanoparticles. Size and morphology of polymer dye A capped ZnO nanoparticles were analyzed using DLS, SEM, and XRD analysis. Further, the polymer dye was added to ruthenium metal complex (RuCl3 to form polymer-ruthenium composite dye B. Absorption and emission profiles of polymer dye A and polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO nanoparticles were monitored using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Polymer dye A and polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO nanoparticles were further processed to solar cells using wet precipitation method under room temperature. The results of investigations revealed that, after addition of ruthenium chloride (RuCl3 metal complex dye, the light harvesting capacity of ZnO solar cell was enhanced compared to polymer dye A capped ZnO based solar cell. The polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO solar cell exhibited good photovoltaic performance with excellent cell parameters, that is, exciting open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.70 V, a short circuit current density (Jsc of 11.6 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF of 0.65. A maximum photovoltaic cell efficiency of 5.28% had been recorded under standard air mass (AM 1.5 simulated solar illuminations for polymer-ruthenium composite dye B based hybrid ZnO solar cell. The power conversion efficiency of hybrid ZnO based dye sensitized solar cell was enhanced by 1.78% and 3.88% compared to polymer dye A (concentrated and polymer dye A (diluted capped ZnO based dye sensitized solar cells, respectively. The hybrid organic/inorganic ZnO nanostructures can be implemented in a variety of optoelectronic applications in the future of clean and

  3. Decolorization of acid and basic dyes: understanding the metabolic degradation and cell-induced adsorption/precipitation by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerboneschi, Matteo; Corsi, Massimo; Bianchini, Roberto; Bonanni, Marco; Tegli, Stefania

    2015-10-01

    Escherichia coli strain DH5α was successfully employed in the decolorization of commercial anthraquinone and azo dyes, belonging to the general classes of acid or basic dyes. The bacteria showed an aptitude to survive at different pH values on any dye solution tested, and a rapid decolorization was obtained under aerobic conditions for the whole collection of dyes. A deep investigation about the mode of action of E. coli was carried out to demonstrate that dye decolorization mainly occurred via three different pathways, specifically bacterial induced precipitation, cell wall adsorption, and metabolism, whose weight was correlated with the chemical nature of the dye. In the case of basic azo dyes, an unexpected fast decolorization was observed after just 2-h postinoculation under aerobic conditions, suggesting that metabolism was the main mechanism involved in basic azo dye degradation, as unequivocally demonstrated by mass spectrometric analysis. The reductive cleavage of the azo group by E. coli on basic azo dyes was also further demonstrated by the inhibition of decolorization occurring when glucose was added to the dye solution. Moreover, no residual toxicity was found in the E. coli-treated basic azo dye solutions by performing Daphnia magna acute toxicity assays. The results of the present study demonstrated that E. coli can be simply exploited for its natural metabolic pathways, without applying any recombinant technology. The high versatility and adaptability of this bacterium could encourage its involvement in industrial bioremediation of textile and leather dyeing wastewaters.

  4. Spectroscopic and impedance studies of reverse biased degraded dye solar cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The work that is presented here is focused on the results that were obtained during studies of the performance of Dye Solar Cells under certain reverse bias conditions. This reverse voltage could permanently modify or damage a cell...

  5. Process optimization of dye-sensitized solar cells using TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These TGR nanocomposite films after tethering with black dyewere employed as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of solar cells at varying concentrationsof graphene (in photoandes) was also investigated. TGR 0.25 wt% nanocomposite showed the highest photocurrent density(JSC) of 18.4 ...

  6. Degradation chemistry of RuLL´(NCS)2 complexes in the Dye-sensitized solar cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben

    In the last decade dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have extensively been studied. From an economical point of view DSCs are of high interest because the manufacturing costs of DSCs devices are significantly lower in contrast to the costs of other solar devices such as silicon cells. One of the ...

  7. Application of dyes extracted from Alternanthera dentata leaves and Musa acuminata bracts as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alwani, Mahmoud A. M.; Ludin, Norasikin A.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abd. Amir H.; Mukhlus, Abduljabbar

    2018-03-01

    The natural dyes anthocyanin and chlorophyll were extracted from Musa acuminata bracts and Alternanthera dentata leaves, respectively. The dyes were then applied as sensitizers in TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The ethanol extracts of the dyes had maximum absorbance. High dye yields were obtained under extraction temperatures of 70 to 80 °C, and the optimal extraction temperature was approximately 80 °C. Moreover, dye concentration sharply decreased under extraction temperatures that exceeded 80 °C. High dye concentrations were obtained using acidic extraction solutions, particularly those with a pH value of 4. The DSSC fabricated with anthocyanin from M. acuminata bracts had a conversion efficiency of 0.31%, short-circuit current (Isc) of 0.9 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.58 V, and fill factor (FF) of 62.22%. The DSSC sensitized with chlorophyll from A. dentata leaves had a conversion efficiency of 0.13%, Isc of 0.4 mA/cm- 2,Voc of 0.54 V, and FF of 67.5%. The DSSC sensitized with anthocyanin from M. acuminata bracts had a maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 42%, which was higher than that of the DSSC sensitized with chlorophyll from A. dentata leaves (23%). Anthocyanin from M. acuminata bracts exhibited the best photosensitization effects.

  8. A Study of Mixed Vegetable Dyes with Different Extraction Concentrations for Use as a Sensitizer for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Ching Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two vegetable dyes are used for the study: chlorophyll dye from sweet potato leaf extract and anthocyanin dye from extracts of blueberry, purple cabbage, and grape. The chlorophyll and anthocyanin dyes are blended in a cocktail in equal proportions, by volume. This study determines the effect of different extraction concentrations and different vegetable dyes on the photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. In order to make the electrode for the experiments, P25 TiO2 powder was coated on the ITO conducting surface, using a medical blade, to form a thin film with a thickness of around 35 μm. The experimental results show that the cocktail dye blended using extracts of sweet potato leaf and blueberries, in the volumetric proportion 1 : 1, at a weight concentration of 40%, using an extraction temperature of 50°C and an extraction heating time of 10 min produces the greatest photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of up to 1.57%, an open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.61 V, and a short-circuit current density (JSC of 4.75 mA/cm2.

  9. Rationalization of dye uptake on titania slides for dye-sensitized solar cells by a combined chemometric and structural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Valentina; Favaro, Giada; Bonandini, Luca; Palin, Luca; Croce, Gianluca; Boccaleri, Enrico; Artuso, Emma; van Beek, Wouter; Barolo, Claudia; Milanesio, Marco

    2014-11-01

    A model photosensitizer (D5) for application in dye-sensitized solar cells has been studied by a combination of XRD, theoretical calculations, and spectroscopic/chemometric methods. The conformational stability and flexibility of D5 and molecular interactions between adjacent molecules were characterized to obtain the driving forces that govern D5 uptake and grafting and to infer the most likely arrangement of the molecules on the surface of TiO2. A spectroscopic/chemometric approach was then used to yield information about the correlations between three variables that govern the uptake itself: D5 concentration, dispersant (chenodeoxycholic acid; CDCA) concentration, and contact time. The obtained regression model shows that large uptakes can be obtained at high D5 concentrations in the presence of CDCA with a long contact time, or in absence of CDCA if the contact time is short, which suggests how dye uptake and photovoltaic device preparation can be optimized. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. An enhanced mangiferaindica for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, U. E., E-mail: moses.emetere@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Minna (Nigeria); Emetere, M. E., E-mail: uno-essang@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Physics, Covenant University, Ota (Nigeria); Fadipe, L. A. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna (Nigeria); Oluranti, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.oluranti@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Computer & Information Sciences, Covenant University, Ota (Nigeria)

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (T1O2) is preferred to Zinc oxide as mesoporous oxide layer because it raised the efficiency of DSSCs from 1% to 7%. The chemistry of the process however seem rigorous to allow the light induced electron injection from the adsorbed dye into the nanocrystallites i.e. which renders the TiO{sub 2} conductive. The DSSC fabricated consist of 2.25 cm{sup 2} active area of titanium dioxide coated on FTO glass (fluorine tin oxide) immersed in ethanol solution of natural dye extracted as an anode (electrode) and counter electrode. These two electrodes were coupled together and the space between them was filled with the Iodolyte AN-50 as solid electrolyte or redox mediator. The photo electrochemical parameters of the dye extracted (Mango fruit Peel) from the results obtained are short circuit current (Isc)= 1.22×10{sup −2}, current density (Jsc)=4.07×10{sup −2}, open circuit voltage (voc) =0.53V, fill factor (FF) of 0.16 and the overall conversion efficiency (Eff) =0.345%.

  11. Dye sensitization of antimony-doped CdS photoelectrochemical solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Zayat, M.Y.; Saed, A.O.; El-Dessouki, M.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2002-01-31

    Sb-doped CdS single crystal was used as a photoanode to fabricate a photoelectrochemical solar (PECS) cell. The three organic dyes; eosin, thymol blue and rhodamin 6G were used as sensitizers in (PECS) cell. In the absence of the dye, the results showed that with Sb-doped CdS single crystal electrode, a higher power conversion efficiency 9.27% has been achieved compared to 5.7-7.4% for pure crystal. Application of the dye in PECS cell increases the efficiency to about 13%. The efficiency reaches its maximum value when the dye concentration is (2.5x10{sup -5})M, sufficient to cover the surface of the semiconductor electrode with a continuous monolayer of the dye. Exceeding this value resulted in a gradual decrease of the efficiency from its maximum value. Mott-Schottky plots gave a doping density of 3.14x10{sup 17}cm{sup -3} and a space charge width of 4.95x10{sup -6}cm for the sample used. A flat-band potential equal to -0.84V, independent of both frequency and pH, was also predicted. Cyclic voltammetry (c.v.) measurements showed an anodic current peak at 0.4V vs. SCE. The disappearance of this peak after excess addition of the reducing agent Na{sub 2}S, indicates that this peak is due to the PEC corrosion of the semiconductor electrode.

  12. Characterization and Performance Evaluation of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Using Nanostructured TiO2 Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Erten-Ela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-free organic sensitizer consisting of donor, electron conducting, and anchoring anhydride groups was engineered at molecular level and synthesized. Dye sensitized solar cells based on conjugated naphthalene dye were fabricated using nanoporous electrode. Photoelectrodes with a 7 μm thick nanoporous layer and a 5 μm thick light-scattering layer were used to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells. DSSCs were fabricated in a FTO/nc-TiO2/organic dye/I-/I3-/Pt/FTO device geometry. Dye sensitized solar cell was characterized by current density-voltage (J-V measurement. All current-voltage (I-V measurements were done under 100 mW/cm2 light intensity and AM 1.5 conditions. The photovoltaic data revealed a short circuit photocurrent density of 1.86 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 430 mV, and a fill factor of 0.63, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 0.53%.

  13. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Employing Extracts from Four Cassia Flowers as Natural Sensitizers: Studies on Dye Ingredient Effect on Photovoltaic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Ishwar Chandra; Singh, Shalini; Neetu; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj; Bahadur, Lal

    2018-01-01

    Natural dyes extracted from four different flowers, namely, Cassia surattensis, Cassia tora, Cassia alata and Cassia occidentalis were used as sensitizers for TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The dye extracts from flowers were obtained by a simple extraction technique and used without any further purification. Optical characteristics of dye extracts were studied. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were used to identify the constituents of extracted dyes. The photovoltaic performance of DSSC employing dye-capped TiO2 photoanodes was measured. The sensitization performance related to anchoring groups present and interaction between dyes with TiO2 surface is demonstrated. An attempt has been made to rationalize the observations by light absorption of the dye extracts and their adsorption on TiO2. The short-circuit current density ( I SC) values ranged from 0.06 mA/cm2 to 0.20 mA/cm2; open circuit voltage ( V OC) from 0.292 V to 0.833 V; fill factor (FF) from 0.7 to 0.9; efficiencies ( η) from 0.013% to 0.15% and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency from 13% to 20%, were obtained for DSSC using these natural dye extracts. Cassia occidentalis showed the highest current density of 0.20 mA/cm2 and power conversion efficiency of 0.15%, which was due to better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl group of the anthocyanin molecule of C. occidentalis and surface of TiO2 film. The red and blue shift of absorption wavelength of C. surattensis and the blue shift of absorption wavelength of the C. tora, C. alata and C. occidentalis extract in ethanol solution compared to that on TiO2 film has been used for the interpretation of obtained results.

  14. Decolorization of industrial synthetic dyes using engineered Pseudomonas putida cells with surface-immobilized bacterial laccase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Microbial laccases are highly useful in textile effluent dye biodegradation. However, the bioavailability of cellularly expressed or purified laccases in continuous operations is usually limited by mass transfer impediment or enzyme regeneration difficulty. Therefore, this study develops a regenerable bacterial surface-displaying system for industrial synthetic dye decolorization, and evaluates its effects on independent and continuous operations. Results A bacterial laccase (WlacD) was engineered onto the cell surface of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Ice nucleation protein (InaQ) anchor was employed, and the ability of 1 to 3 tandemly aligned N-terminal repeats to direct WlacD display were compared. Immobilized WlacD was determined to be surface-displayed in functional form using Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and whole-cell enzymatic activity assay. Engineered P. putida cells were then applied to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Acid Green (AG) 25 and diazo-dye Acid Red (AR) 18. The results showed that decolorization of both dyes is Cu2+- and mediator-independent, with an optimum temperature of 35°C and pH of 3.0, and can be stably performed across a temperature range of 15°C to 45°C. A high activity toward AG25 (1 g/l) with relative decolorization values of 91.2% (3 h) and 97.1% (18 h), as well as high activity to AR18 (1 g/l) by 80.5% (3 h) and 89.0% (18 h), was recorded. The engineered system exhibited a comparably high activity compared with those of separate dyes in a continuous three-round shake-flask decolorization of AG25/AR18 mixed dye (each 1 g/l). No significant decline in decolorization efficacy was noted during first two-rounds but reaction equilibriums were elongated, and the residual laccase activity eventually decreased to low levels. However, the decolorizing capacity of the system was easily retrieved via a subsequent 4-h

  15. Decolorization of industrial synthetic dyes using engineered Pseudomonas putida cells with surface-immobilized bacterial laccase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial laccases are highly useful in textile effluent dye biodegradation. However, the bioavailability of cellularly expressed or purified laccases in continuous operations is usually limited by mass transfer impediment or enzyme regeneration difficulty. Therefore, this study develops a regenerable bacterial surface-displaying system for industrial synthetic dye decolorization, and evaluates its effects on independent and continuous operations. Results A bacterial laccase (WlacD was engineered onto the cell surface of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Ice nucleation protein (InaQ anchor was employed, and the ability of 1 to 3 tandemly aligned N-terminal repeats to direct WlacD display were compared. Immobilized WlacD was determined to be surface-displayed in functional form using Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and whole-cell enzymatic activity assay. Engineered P. putida cells were then applied to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Acid Green (AG 25 and diazo-dye Acid Red (AR 18. The results showed that decolorization of both dyes is Cu2+- and mediator-independent, with an optimum temperature of 35°C and pH of 3.0, and can be stably performed across a temperature range of 15°C to 45°C. A high activity toward AG25 (1 g/l with relative decolorization values of 91.2% (3 h and 97.1% (18 h, as well as high activity to AR18 (1 g/l by 80.5% (3 h and 89.0% (18 h, was recorded. The engineered system exhibited a comparably high activity compared with those of separate dyes in a continuous three-round shake-flask decolorization of AG25/AR18 mixed dye (each 1 g/l. No significant decline in decolorization efficacy was noted during first two-rounds but reaction equilibriums were elongated, and the residual laccase activity eventually decreased to low levels. However, the decolorizing capacity of the system was easily retrieved

  16. Potential development in dye-sensitized solar cells for renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Pandikumar, Alagarsamy

    2013-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic technology is expected to solve problems related to energy shortages and environmental pollution caused by the use of fossil fuels. Dye-sensitizedsolar cells (DSSCs) are promising next-generation alternatives to conventional silicon-based photovoltaic devices owing to their low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. This special topic volume addresses recent advances in the research on dye-sensitized solar cells. The focus of this special topic volume is on materials development (sensitizers, nanostructured oxide films, and electrolyte),

  17. TiO2 nanotubes and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Poulomi; Kim, Doohun; Lee, Kiyoung; Spiecker, Erdmann; Schmuki, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    The present article reviews the current status of using TiO(2) nanotubes in Grätzel-type, dye-sensitized solar cells and extends the overview with the latest results and findings. Critical factors in tube geometry (length, diameter, top morphology), crystal structure (amorphous, anatase, rutile) as well as factors affecting dye loading or electron mobility are addressed. The highest solar cell efficiencies today for pure nanotube systems reach approximately 4% while for some mixed systems, around 7% has been reported. For both systems significant room for enhancement is anticipated and some key points and strategies for improvement are outlined.

  18. Power Conversion Efficiency of Arylamine Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs Explicit to Cobalt Electrolyte: Understanding the Structural Attributes Using a Direct QSPR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supratik Kar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Post silicon solar cell era involves light-absorbing dyes for dye-sensitized solar systems (DSSCs. Therefore, there is great interest in the design of competent organic dyes for DSSCs with high power conversion efficiency (PCE to bypass some of the disadvantages of silicon-based solar cell technologies, such as high cost, heavy weight, limited silicon resources, and production methods that lead to high environmental pollution. The DSSC has the unique feature of a distance-dependent electron transfer step. This depends on the relative position of the sensitized organic dye in the metal oxide composite system. In the present work, we developed quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR models to set up the quantitative relationship between the overall PCE and quantum chemical molecular descriptors. They were calculated from density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT methods as well as from DRAGON software. This allows for understanding the basic electron transfer mechanism along with the structural attributes of arylamine-organic dye sensitizers for the DSSCs explicit to cobalt electrolyte. The identified properties and structural fragments are particularly valuable for guiding time-saving synthetic efforts for development of efficient arylamine organic dyes with improved power conversion efficiency.

  19. Synthesis of dye-sensitized solar cells. Efficiency cells as a thickness of titanium dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szura Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Defying the influence of the thickness of TiO2 efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell. It was confirmed that the compatibility of printed layers with the parameters closely related with the DSSC. It was found that the increase in thickness of the titanium dioxide layer, increases the distance between the electrodes, determined by the thickness of the Surlyn foil. With the rise of thickness of dyed layer of TiO2 established decrease in the value of its transmittance. Greatest transparency and aesthetic value obtained for photovoltaic modules with a single layer of titanium dioxide. The improved performance efficiency and preferred yields maximum power were noticed and exhibited by the cells covered with three layers of TiO2. It was established that the behaviour of economic efficiency in the production process, provides a range of cells with two layers of oxide, showing a similar performance and greater transparency.

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on different nano-oxides on plastic PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Milan; Gemeiner, Pavol; Beková, Zuzana; Dvonka, Vladimír; Búc, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) foils and glass slides coated with thin conductive layers were used as substrates for TiO2 or ZnO based photoactive electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) with organo-metallic Ru-dye, standard iodine electrolyte and Pt coated FTO/glass counterelectrode (CE). Different compositions of nanoparticle oxides in forms of alcohol pastes as well as the CE paste were applied onto the substrates by screen printing or by doctor blade techniques. Photocurrents and I-V loading characteristics were measured depending on the solar cell structure and preparation, including the oxide composition, electrode conductivity and the dye type. The influence of thin TiO2 blocking layer prepared by sol-gel technique is also discussed.

  1. Shiso leaf pigments for dye-sensitized solid-state solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumara, G.R.A.; Kaneko, S.; Okuya, M.; Konno, A. [Department of Material Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1, Johoku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Onwona-Agyeman, B.; Tennakone, K. [Innovative Joint Research Center, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1, Johoku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan)

    2006-05-23

    A dye-sensitized solar cell made by coating pigments in an extract from shiso leaves on a nanocrystalline film of TiO{sub 2} and subsequent deposition of p-CuI is found to have an energy conversion efficiency of {approx}1.3%. Both shisonin and chlorophyll contribute to light energy harvesting as seen from the photocurrent action spectrum of the cell. This is the first successful example of synergistic sensitization by dye cocktail extracted from a single natural resource. The usefulness of studies of this nature in understanding the role of multiple pigments in photosynthesis and broadening of the spectral response of dye-sensitized devices is commented, indicating also the pedagogic value of the experiment. (author)

  2. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Bi4Ti3O12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12 particles were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment and nanoporous thin films were prepared on conducting glass substrates. The structures and morphologies of the samples were examined with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Significant absorbance spectra emerged in visible region which indicated the efficient sensitization of Bi4Ti3O12 with N3 dye. Surface photovoltaic properties of the samples were investigated by surface photovoltage. The results further indicate that N3 can extend the photovoltaic response range of Bi4Ti3O12 nanoparticles to the visible region, which shows potential application in dye-sensitized solar cell. As a working electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, the overall efficiency reached 0.48% after TiO2 modification.

  3. Fused-Thiophene Based Materials for Organic Photovoltaics and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabakaran Kumaresan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic photovoltaics (OPVs and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have drawn great interest from both academics and industry, due to the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy at reasonable efficiencies. This review focuses on recent progress in molecular engineering and technological aspects of fused-thiophene-based organic dye molecules for applications in solar cells. Particular attention has been paid to the design principles and stability of these dye molecules, as well as on the effects of various electrolyte systems for DSSCs. Importantly, it has been found that incorporation of a fused-thiophene unit into the sensitizer has several advantages, such as red-shift of the intramolecular charge transfer band, tuning of the frontier molecular energy level, and improvements in both photovoltaic performance and stability. This work also examines the correlation between the physical properties and placement of fused-thiophene in the molecular structure with regard to their performance in OPVs and DSSCs.

  4. Theoretical study on the effect of solvents in chlorophyll solution for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhi Faiz, Mohamad; Widhiyanuriyawan, Denny; Siswanto, Eko; Wardana, I. N. G.

    2018-01-01

    Using the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT), we have theoretically studied the electron excitation and absorption spectra of chlorophyll solution with several solvents for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) application. The solvents were aceton, acetonitrile, DMSO, ethanol, hexane, methanol, THF and water. Also, energy level, oscilator strength, light harvesting efficiency and electron injection have been investigated. The studied dye in the presence of the solvents showed a smaller gap of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) - the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and a higher light harvesting, oscillator strength and red shift in the absorption spectra. These changes facilitate the charge transfer phenomena in the nano structure of the chlorophyll as dye and improve the solar cell efficiency.

  5. The Effects of Phosphonic Acids in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Keith Edward

    Novel methods for the construction of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were developed. A thin dense underlayer of TiO2 was applied on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass using as a precursor Tyzor AA-105. Subsequently a mesoporous film of P-25 TiO2 was applied by spreading a suspension uniformly over the surface of the underlayer and allowing the plate to slowly dry while resting on a level surface. After sintering at 500° C slides were treated with TCPP as a sensitizing dye and assembled into DSSCs. A novel method was used to seal the cells; strips of ParafilmRTM were used as spacers between the electrodes and to secure the electrodes together. The cells were filled with a redox electrolyte and sealed by dipping into molten paraffin. A series of phosphonic acids and one arsonic acid were employed as coadsorbates in DSSCs. The coadsorbates were found to compete for binding sites, resulting in lower levels of dye adsorption. The resulting loss of photocurrent was not linear with the reduction of dye loading, and in some cases photocurrent and efficiency were higher for cells with lower levels of dye loading. Electrodes were treated with coadsorbates by procedures including pre-adsorption, simultaneous (sim-adsorption), and post-adsorption, using a range of concentrations and treatment times and a variety of solvents. Most cells were tested using an iodide-triiodide based electrolyte (I3I-1) but some cells were tested using electrolytes based on a Co(II)/Co(III) redox couple (CoBpy electrolytes). Phosphonic acid post-adsorbates increased the Voc of cells using CoBpy electrolytes but caused a decrease in the Voc of cells using I3I-1 electrolyte. Phosphonic acids as sim-adsorbates resulted in a significant increase in efficiency and Jsc, and they show promise as a treatment for TCPP DSSCs.

  6. Carrier-free, water dispersible and highly luminescent dye nanoparticles for targeted cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xiaojun; Li, Wei; Yu, Jia; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Xiujuan; Yang, Yinlong; An, Feifei; Liu, Zhuang; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2012-08-01

    We develop a new strategy of using surface functionalized small molecule organic dye nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted cell imaging. Organic dye (2-tert-butyl-9,10-di(naphthalen-2-yl)anthracene, TBADN) was fabricated into NPs and this was followed by surface modification with an amphipathic surfactant poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene)-polyethylene glycol (C18PMH-PEG) through hydrophobic interactions to achieve good water dispersibility and bio-environmental stability. It should be noted that no additional inert materials were added as carriers, thus the dye-loading capacity of the resulting TBADN NPs is obviously higher than those of previously reported carrier-based structures. This would lead to much larger absorption and then much higher brightness. The resulting TBADN NPs possess comparable, if not higher, brightness than CdSe/ZnS quantum dots under the same conditions, with favorable biocompatibility. Significantly, TBADN NPs are readily conjugated with folic acid, and successfully applied in targeted cell imaging. These results show that water dispersible and highly stable organic NPs would be a promising new class of fluorescent probe for bioapplications in cellular imaging and labeling. This strategy may be straightforwardly extended to other organic dyes to achieve water dispersible NPs for cell imaging and drug delivery.We develop a new strategy of using surface functionalized small molecule organic dye nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted cell imaging. Organic dye (2-tert-butyl-9,10-di(naphthalen-2-yl)anthracene, TBADN) was fabricated into NPs and this was followed by surface modification with an amphipathic surfactant poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene)-polyethylene glycol (C18PMH-PEG) through hydrophobic interactions to achieve good water dispersibility and bio-environmental stability. It should be noted that no additional inert materials were added as carriers, thus the dye-loading capacity of the resulting TBADN NPs is obviously higher than

  7. Optimization of nanoparticle structure for improved conversion efficiency of dye solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructure and Nanodevices, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Zaine, Siti Nur Azella, E-mail: ct.azella@gmail.com.my [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Heavy dye loading and the ability to contain the light within the thin layer (typically ∼12 μm) are the requirement needed for the photoelectrode material in order to enhance the harvesting efficiency of dye solar cell. This can be realized by optimizing the particle size with desirable crystal structure. The paper reports the investigation on the dependency of the dye loading and light scattering on the properties of nanostructured photoelectrode materials by comparing 4 different samples of TiO{sub 2} in the form of nanoparticles and micron-sized TiO{sub 2} aggregates which composed of nanocrystallites. Their properties were evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UVVis spectroscopy while the performance of the fabricated test cells were measured using universal photovoltaic test system (UPTS) under 1000 W/cm{sup 2} intensity of radiation. Nano sized particles provide large surface area which allow for greater dye adsorption but have no ability to retain the incident light in the TiO{sub 2} film. In contrast, micron-sized particles in the form of aggregates can generate light scattering allowing the travelling distance of the light to be extended and increasing the interaction between the photons and dye molecules adsorb on TiO{sub 2}nanocrystallites. This resulted in an improvement in the conversion efficiency of the aggregates that demonstrates the close relation between light scattering effect and the structure of the photolectrode film.

  8. Effect of sintering time on the performance of turmeric dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuki, Hidajat, R. Lullus Lambang G.; Suyitno, Kristiawan, Budi; Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the effect of sintering time on the performance of the dye-sensitized solar cells with turmeric dyes as sensitizers. Sintering TiO2 semiconductors were conducted at a temperature of 450°C for 30, 50, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes. The natural dye was extracted from dried turmeric powders with ethanol solvent. The results show that size of grains and the opening area of TiO2 semiconductor depended on the sintering time. The improvement of the properties of TiO2 semiconductor allowed more turmeric dyes were adsorbed by the semiconductors and then improved the performance of solar cells. The sintering time of 150 minutes produced large grains with an average diameter of 68.87 nm, and a porosity area of 26.51% caused the performance of DSSCs was the highest among other sintering time. The Voc, Jsc, and efficiency of DSSCs with turmeric-based natural dyes 0.64 V, 0.47 mA/cm2, and 0.2%, respectively.

  9. Piper Ornatum and Piper Betle as Organic Dyes for TiO2 and SnO2 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Azwar; Putra, A. Erwin E.; Amaliyah, Novriany; Hayase, Shuzi; Pandey, Shyam. S.

    2018-03-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) mimics the principle of natural photosynthesis are now currently investigated due to low manufacturing cost as compared to silicon based solar cells. In this report, we utilized Piper ornatum (PO) and Piper betle (PB) as sensitizer to fabricate low cost DSSCs. We compared the photovoltaic performance of both sensitizers with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Tin dioxide (SnO2) semiconductors. The results show that PO and PB dyes have higher Short circuit current (Jsc) when applied in SnO2 compared to standard TiO2 photo-anode film even though the Open circuit voltage (Voc) was hampered on SnO2 device. In conclusion, from the result, higher electron injections can be achieved by choosing appropriate semiconductors with band gap that match with dyes energy level as one of strategy for further low cost solar cell.

  10. Nano-technology: solar cells with dyes; Nanotechnologies: des cellules solaires avec des colorants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-10-15

    Elexcel, a firm of the Japanese group Daiichi Kogyo Seiyaku, has developed two new types of solar cells sensitized by dye. Their particularity is that their manufacture does not apply the use of platinum or iodine. One of these cells is composed of an electrolyte on the form of a gel of polyalkylene oxide. These cells are less expensive than those containing platinum and can be used at lower temperature. (O.M.)

  11. Dye sensitized photovoltaic cells: Attaching conjugated polymers to zwitterionic ruthenium dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Biancardo, M.

    2006-01-01

    and the complex was adsorbed onto the surface before evaporation of gold electrodes. Alternative devices were obtained by spincoating of the polymer solution onto PEDOT:PSS covered indium-doped tin oxide substrates. PEC solar cells gave the best results and the main finding was that the polymer chain served...

  12. Photoactive curcumin-derived dyes with surface anchoring moieties used in ZnO nanoparticle-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, T.; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yoon, Seog Joon; Kil, Byung-Ho; Maldar, N.N.; Han, Jin Wook; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Photoactive, eco-friendly and high molar extinction coefficient, curcumin-derived dyes (BCMoxo and BCtCM) have been explored in ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The boron complex curcumin dyes modified with di-carboxylic anchor groups (BCtCM) provided surface attachment with a strong UV-vis region absorption than the dye molecule without anchor groups (BCMoxo). Photoanodes primed with poly-dispersive ZnO NPs (∼80-50 nm) specifically devised for these dyes and optimized for the critical thickness, sensitization time and concentration using a solvent-free ionic electrolyte so as to get current density as high as 1.66 mA/cm 2 under 80 mW/cm 2 irradiation. Therefore, a successful conversion of visible light into electricity by using these curcumin-derived dyes (natural derived photoactive molecules) as photosensitizer in DSSCs would be a great interest in future studies for enhancing further conversion efficiencies.

  13. Photoactive curcumin-derived dyes with surface anchoring moieties used in ZnO nanoparticle-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, T.; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yoon, Seog Joon; Kil, Byung-Ho; Maldar, N.N. [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jin Wook, E-mail: jwhan@hanyang.ac.kr [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sung-Hwan, E-mail: shhan@hanyang.ac.kr [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    Photoactive, eco-friendly and high molar extinction coefficient, curcumin-derived dyes (BCMoxo and BCtCM) have been explored in ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The boron complex curcumin dyes modified with di-carboxylic anchor groups (BCtCM) provided surface attachment with a strong UV-vis region absorption than the dye molecule without anchor groups (BCMoxo). Photoanodes primed with poly-dispersive ZnO NPs ({approx}80-50 nm) specifically devised for these dyes and optimized for the critical thickness, sensitization time and concentration using a solvent-free ionic electrolyte so as to get current density as high as 1.66 mA/cm{sup 2} under 80 mW/cm{sup 2} irradiation. Therefore, a successful conversion of visible light into electricity by using these curcumin-derived dyes (natural derived photoactive molecules) as photosensitizer in DSSCs would be a great interest in future studies for enhancing further conversion efficiencies.

  14. Efficiency-limiting processes in cyclopentadithiophene-bridged donor-acceptor-type dyes for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hinkel, Felix

    2018-01-26

    The charge generation and recombination processes in three novel push-pull photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are studied by ps–μs transient absorption (TA) and quasi-steady-state photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy. The three cyclopentadithiophene-based photosensitizer dye molecules exhibit comparably low power conversion efficiencies ranging from 0.8% to 1.7% in solid-state DSSCs. We find that the photocurrents increase in the presence of Li-salt additives. Both TA and PIA measurements observe long-lived dye cations created by electron injection from the dyes’ excited state for two dyes from the series. However, the third dye shows significantly lower performance as a consequence of the less efficient electron injection even after the addition of Li-salts and faster electron-hole recombination on the ns-μs time scale. In essence, the prerequisites for this class of donor-π bridge-acceptor photosensitizers to reach higher charge generation efficiencies are a combination of strong dipole moments and fine tuning of the electronic landscape at the titania-dye interface by Li-salt addition.

  15. DyeTiO2interfacial structure of dye-sensitised solar cell working electrodes buried under a solution of I-/I3-redox electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCree-Grey, Jonathan; Cole, Jacqueline M; Holt, Stephen A; Evans, Peter J; Gong, Yun

    2017-08-17

    Dye-sensitised solar cells (DSCs) have niche prospects for electricity-generating windows that could equip buildings for energy-sustainable future cities. However, this 'smart window' technology is being held back by a lack of understanding in how the dye interacts with its device environment at the molecular level. A better appreciation of the dyeTiO 2 interfacial structure of the DSC working electrodes would be particularly valuable since associated structure-function relationships could be established; these rules would provide a 'toolkit' for the molecular engineering of more suitable DSC dyes via rational design. Previous materials characterisation efforts have been limited to determining this interfacial structure within an environment exposed to air or situated in a solvent medium. This study is the first to reveal the structure of this buried interface within the functional device environment, and represents the first application of in situ neutron reflectometry to DSC research. By incorporating the electrolyte into the structural model of this buried interface, we reveal how lithium cations from the electrolyte constituents influence the dyeTiO 2 binding configuration of an organic sensitiser, MK-44, via Li + complexation to the cyanoacrylate group. This dye is the molecular congener of the high-performance MK-2 DSC dye, whose hexa-alkyl chains appear to stabilise it from Li + complexation. Our in situ neutron reflectometry findings are built up from auxiliary structural models derived from ex situ X-ray reflectometry and corroborated via density functional theory and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy. Significant differences between the in situ and ex situ dyeTiO 2 interfacial structures are found, highlighting the need to characterise the molecular structure of DSC working electrodes while in a fully assembled device.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dye as light-harvesting materials extracted from Acanthus sennii chiovenda flower and Euphorbia cotinifolia leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuletaw Andargie Ayalew

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. In this study, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated using natural dyes light harvesting materials. The natural dyes were extracted from Acanthus sennii chiovenda flower and Euphorbia cotinifolia leaf. In the as-prepared DSSC, a quasi-solid state electrolyte was sandwiched between the working electrode (photoanode and counter electrode (PEDOT-coated FTO glass. The photoelectrochemical performance of the as-prepared quasi-solid state DSSCs showed open-circuit voltages (VOC varied from 0.475 to 0.507 V, the short-circuit current densities (JSC ranged from 0.352 to 0.642 mA cm−2 and the fill factors (FF varied from 47 to 60% at 100 mWcm−2 light intensity. The dye extracted from A. sennii chiovenda flower, using acidified ethanol (in 1% HCl as extracting solvent, exhibited best conversion efficiency with a maximum open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.507 V, short-circuit current density (JSC of 0.491 mA cm−2, fill factor (FF of 0.60 and an overall conversion efficiency (η of 0.15%. On the other hand, the maximum power conversion efficiency of the dye extracted from E. cotinifolia leaf was 0.136%. This is the first study that reports the fabrication of DSSC using natural dye sensitizers extracted from these plants in the presence of quasi-solid state electrolyte and PEDOT as a counter electrode.

  17. Electrochemical design of ZnO hierarchical structures for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guerin, V. M.; Rathouský, Jiří; Pauporté, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 102, JUL 2012 (2012), s. 8-14 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100400702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : ZnO hierarchical structures * epitaxy * dye-sensitized solar cell Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.630, year: 2012

  18. Studies of effect of heterocyclic dyes in photogalvanic cells for solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 116; Issue 6. Studies of effect of heterocyclic dyes in photogalvanic cells for solar energy conversion and storage: NaLS-ascorbic acid system. K R Genwa Anju Chouhan. Volume 116 Issue 6 November 2004 pp 339-345 ...

  19. Dye-sensitized solar cells and complexes between pyridines and iodines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet; Krake, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between triiodide (I3–) and 4-tert-butylpyridine (4TBP) as postulated in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are investigated by means of 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy supported by DFT calculations. The charge transfer (CT) complex 4TBP∙I2 and potential salts such as (4TBP)2I+, I3– were s...

  20. Studies of effect of heterocyclic dyes in photogalvanic cells for solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Studies of effect of heterocyclic dyes in photogalvanic cells for solar energy conversion and storage: NaLS–ascorbic acid system. K R GENWA* and ANJU CHOUHAN. Department of Chemistry, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur 342 001, India e-mail: krg2004@rediffmail.com. MS received 3 March 2004; revised 12 ...

  1. Efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells with addition of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of addition of single and binary additives on the performance of dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells based on electrolytes containing an ionic liquid (IL), 1,2-dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (DMPII) has been studied. Among the seven additives used, the addition of 2-(dimethylamino)-pyridine (DMAP) to ...

  2. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on composite TiO2 nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) and bi-layer TiO2 nanoparti- cle/nanorod (NP/NR) with the optimized diameter of NRs had been prepared as anode layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Morphology and thickness of anode layers were provided by field emission ...

  3. Sol–Gel Titanium Dioxide Blocking Layers for Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells: Electrochemical Characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Zukalová, Markéta; Vik, O.; Havlíček, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2014), s. 1056-1061 ISSN 1439-4235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : TiO2 * electrochemistry * dye-sensitized solar cell Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.419, year: 2014

  4. Copper Bipyridyl Redox Mediators for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with High Photovoltage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saygili, Y.; Söderberg, M.; Pellet, N.; Giordano, F.; Cao, Y.; Munoz-García, A. B.; Zakeeruddin, S. M.; Vlachopoulos, N.; Pavone, M.; Boschloo, G.; Kavan, Ladislav; Moser, J. E.; Grätzel, M.; Hagfeldt, A.; Freitag, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 45 (2016), s. 15087-15096 ISSN 0002-7863 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Conversion efficiency * Copper * Dye-sensitized solar cells Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 13.858, year: 2016

  5. Optically Transparent FTO-Free Cathode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Liska, P.; Zakeeruddin, S. M.; Grätzel, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 24 (2014), s. 22343-22350 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Dye sensitized solar cells * electrochemical impendance spectroscopy * tungsten electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 6.723, year: 2014

  6. TiO2 nanotube-based dye solar cell research in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertically orientated titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes hold great potential for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as they provide an unscathed, one-dimensional transport route for photo-generated charge carriers, thereby increasing...

  7. The effect of molecular aggregates over the interfacial charge transfer processes on dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planells, Miquel; Forneli, Amparo; Martínez-Ferrero, Eugenia; Sánchez-Díaz, Antonio; Sarmentero, Maria Angeles; Ballester, Pablo; Palomares, Emilio; O'Regan, Brian C.

    2008-04-01

    The electron transfer reaction between the photoinjected electrons in the nanocrystalline TiO2 mesoporous sensitized films and the oxidized electrolyte in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) plays a major role on the device efficiency. In this communication we show that, although the presence of molecular aggregates on the free base porphyrin DSSC limits the device photocurrent response under illumination, they form an effective hydrophobic barrier against the oxidized electrolyte impeding fast back-electron transfer kinetics. Therefore, their drawback can be overcome by designing dyes with peripheral moieties that prevent the formation of the aggregates and are able to achieve efficiencies as high as 3.2% under full sun.

  8. Enhanced Light Harvesting in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using External Lightguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hui Chien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An external lightguide (EL for enhancing the light-harvesting efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was designed and developed. The EL attached to the exterior of a DSSC photoelectrode directed light on a dye-covered nanoporous TiO2 film (D-NTF of the photoelectrode. Experimental tests confirmed that the EL increased the light-harvesting efficiency of a DSSC with an active area of 0.25 cm2 by 30.69%. Photocurrent density and the power conversion efficiency were also increased by 38.12% and 25.09%, respectively.

  9. High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Three-Dimensional Photoanode

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2011-11-09

    Herein, we present a straightforward bottom-up synthesis of a high electron mobility and highly light scattering macroporous photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The dense three-dimensional Al/ZnO, SnO2, or TiO 2 host integrates a conformal passivation thin film to reduce recombination and a large surface-area mesoporous anatase guest for high dye loading. This novel photoanode is designed to improve the charge extraction resulting in higher fill factor and photovoltage for DSCs. An increase in photovoltage of up to 110 mV over state-of-the-art DSC is demonstrated. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Monolithic-Structured Single-Layered Textile-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Kim, Han Seong; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y.

    2016-10-01

    Textile-structured solar cells are frequently discussed in the literature due to their prospective applications in wearable devices and in building integrated solar cells that utilize their flexibility, mechanical robustness, and aesthetic appearance, but the current approaches for textile-based solar cells—including the preparation of fibre-type solar cells woven into textiles—face several difficulties from high friction and tension during the weaving process. This study proposes a new structural concept and fabrication process for monolithic-structured textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells that are fabricated by a process similar to the cloth-making process, including the preparation of wires and yarns that are woven for use in textiles, printed, dyed, and packaged. The fabricated single-layered textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells successfully act as solar cells in our study, even under bending conditions. By controlling the inter-weft spacing and the number of Ti wires for the photoelectrode conductor, we have found that the performance of this type of dye-sensitized solar cell was notably affected by the spacing between photoelectrodes and counter-electrodes, the exposed areas of Ti wires to photoelectrodes, and photoelectrodes’ surface morphology. We believe that this study provides a process and concept for improved textile-based solar cells that can form the basis for further research.

  11. Monolithic-Structured Single-Layered Textile-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Kim, Han Seong; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y.

    2016-01-01

    Textile-structured solar cells are frequently discussed in the literature due to their prospective applications in wearable devices and in building integrated solar cells that utilize their flexibility, mechanical robustness, and aesthetic appearance, but the current approaches for textile-based solar cells—including the preparation of fibre-type solar cells woven into textiles—face several difficulties from high friction and tension during the weaving process. This study proposes a new structural concept and fabrication process for monolithic-structured textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells that are fabricated by a process similar to the cloth-making process, including the preparation of wires and yarns that are woven for use in textiles, printed, dyed, and packaged. The fabricated single-layered textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells successfully act as solar cells in our study, even under bending conditions. By controlling the inter-weft spacing and the number of Ti wires for the photoelectrode conductor, we have found that the performance of this type of dye-sensitized solar cell was notably affected by the spacing between photoelectrodes and counter-electrodes, the exposed areas of Ti wires to photoelectrodes, and photoelectrodes’ surface morphology. We believe that this study provides a process and concept for improved textile-based solar cells that can form the basis for further research. PMID:27708359

  12. ZnO Photoanode Effect on the Efficiency Performance of Organic Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, I. S.; Ismail, S. S.; Norizan, M. N.; Murad, S. A. Z.; Abdullah, M. M. A.

    2017-06-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell has been emerged as one of the most promising candidates for photovoltaics applications in good quality of their low manufacturing cost and impressive conversion energy. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) which is used as photoanode in the market has the advantage of wide bandgap energy but low in electron mobility (∼10 cm2/(V.s)). Ruthenium in the other hand, as the dye sensitizer is a rare noble metal and harmful to human health. Thus, this article reveals the performance of photo-to-electric conversion efficiency with the usage of Zinc Oxide as photoanode with higher electron mobility (155 cm2/(V.s)) compared to TiO2 utilizing three natural fruit dyes of Prunus domestica, Magnifera indica and Citrus limon. ZnO and TiO2 photoanodes were fabricated using sol gel and dr blade method respectively. The morphology of the photoanodes were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope and the efficiency of the complete DSSC with all different fruit dyes were characterized using Semiconductor Parametric Analyzer. The different property of electron mobility photoanodes effect in DSSC proved to give better performance with the photoconversion efficiency of 3.082% using ZnO with Prunus domestica dye. This article also reveals that pH indicator does not affect the selection and the performance of DSSC.

  13. Computational screening of functionalized zinc porphyrins for dye sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnsø, Kristian Baruël; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2013-01-01

    An efficient dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is one possible solution to meet the world's rapidly increasing energy demands and associated climate challenges. This requires inexpensive and stable dyes with well-positioned frontier energy levels for maximal solar absorption, efficient charge...... separation, and high output voltage. Here we demonstrate an extensive computational screening of zinc porphyrins functionalized with electron donating side groups and electron accepting anchoring groups. The trends in frontier energy levels versus side groups are analyzed and a no-loss DSSC level alignment...... quality is estimated. Out of the initial 1029 molecules, we find around 50 candidates with level alignment qualities within 5% of the optimal limit. We show that the level alignment of five zinc porphyrin dyes which were recently used in DSSCs with high efficiencies can be further improved by simple side...

  14. Dye-sensitized solar cell employing zinc oxide aggregates grown in the presence of lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qifeng; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-10-15

    Provided are a novel ZnO dye-sensitized solar cell and method of fabricating the same. In one embodiment, deliberately added lithium ions are used to mediate the growth of ZnO aggregates. The use of lithium provides ZnO aggregates that have advantageous microstructure, morphology, crystallinity, and operational characteristics. Employing lithium during aggregate synthesis results in a polydisperse collection of ZnO aggregates favorable for porosity and light scattering. The resulting nanocrystallites forming the aggregates have improved crystallinity and more favorable facets for dye molecule absorption. The lithium synthesis improves the surface stability of ZnO in acidic dyes. The procedures developed and disclosed herein also help ensure the formation of an aggregate film that has a high homogeneity of thickness, a high packing density, a high specific surface area, and good electrical contact between the film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode and among the aggregate particles.

  15. Evaluation of cell viability dyes in antiviral assays with RNA viruses that exhibit different cytopathogenic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smee, Donald F; Hurst, Brett L; Evans, W Joseph; Clyde, Nathan; Wright, Sean; Peterson, Christopher; Jung, Kie-Hoon; Day, Craig W

    2017-08-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the performance of four dyes in assessing antiviral activities of compounds against three RNA viruses with differing cytopathogenic properties. Dyes included alamarBlue ® measured by absorbance (ALB-A) and fluorescence (ALB-F), neutral red (NR), Viral ToxGlo™ (VTG), and WST-1. Viruses were chikungunya, dengue type 2, and Junin, which generally cause 100, 80-90, and 50% maximal cytopathic effect (CPE), respectively, in Vero or Vero 76 cells Compounds evaluated were 6-azauridine, BCX-4430, 3-deazaguanine, EICAR, favipiravir, infergen, mycophenolic acid (MPA), ribavirin, and tiazofurin. The 50% virus-inhibitory (EC 50 ) values for each inhibitor and virus combination did not vary significantly based on the dye used. However, dyes varied in distinguishing the vitality of virus-infected cultures when not all cells were killed by virus infection. For example, VTG uptake into dengue-infected cells was nearly 50% when visual examination showed only 10-20% cell survival. ALB-A measured infected cell viability differently than ALB-F as follows: 16% versus 32% (dengue-infected), respectively, and 51% versus 72% (Junin-infected), respectively. Cytotoxicity (CC 50 ) assays with dyes in uninfected proliferating cells produced similar CC 50 values for EICAR (1.5-8.9μM) and MPA (0.8-2.5μM). 6-Azauridine toxicity was 6.1-17.5μM with NR, VTG, and WST-1, compared to 48-92μM with ALB-A and ALB-F (P<0.001). Curiously, the CC 50 values for 3-deazaguanine were 83-93μM with ALB-F versus 2.4-7.0μM with all other dyes including ALB-A (P<0.001). Overall, ALB minimized the toxicities detected with these two inhibitors. Because the choice of dyes affected CC 50 values, this impacted on the resulting in vitro selectivity indexes (calculated as CC 50 /EC 50 ratio). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electric field assisted sintering to improve the performance of nanostructured dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeifar, Mohsen; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Fathollahi, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Herein, we report the application of electric field assisted sintering (EFAS) procedure in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The EFAS process improved DSSC performance by enhancing optical and electrical characteristics simultaneously. The EFAS procedure is shown to be capable of reducing the TiO2 nanoparticle aggregation leading to the higher surface area for dye molecules adsorbates. Lower nanoparticle aggregation can be evidently observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy imaging. By applying an external electric field, the current density and conversion efficiency improved significantly about 30% and 45%, respectively. UV-Visible spectra of the desorbed dye molecules on the porous nanoparticles bedding confirm a higher amount of dye loading in the presence of an external electric field. Correspondingly, comprehensive J-V characteristics modeling reveals the enhancement of the diffusion coefficient by EFAS process. The proposed method can be applied to improve the efficiency of the mesostructured hybrid perovskite solar cells, photodetectors, and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, as well as reduction of the surface area loss in all porous media.

  17. Artificial Red Blood Cells as Potential Photosensitizers in Dye Laser Treatment Against Port-Wine Stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikihisa, Naoaki; Watanabe, Shoji; Saito, Yoshiaki; Sakai, Hiromi

    2017-04-13

    We suggest a novel method that uses artificial blood cells (hemoglobin vesicles, Hb-Vs) as photosensitizers in dye laser treatment (at 595-nm wavelength) for port-wine stains (i.e., capillary malformations presenting as red birthmarks) based on the results of animal experiments. As compared with human red blood cells, Hb-Vs have the same absorbance of 595 nm wavelength light and produce the same level of heat following dye laser irradiation. Small sized Hb-Vs (250 nm) distribute in the plasma phase in blood and tend to flow in the marginal zone of microvessels. Intravenous injections of Hb-Vs caused the dilatation of microvessels, and dye laser treatment with Hb-Vs destroyed the vessel wall effectively. Following the intravenous injection of Hb-Vs, the microvessels contained more Hb that absorbed laser photons and produced heat. This extra Hb tended to flow near the endothelial cells, which were the target of the laser treatment. These attributes of Hb-Vs will potentially contribute to enhancing the efficacy of dye laser treatment for port-wine stains. Hemoglobin is a type of porphyrin. Thus, our proposed treatment may have aspects of photodynamic therapy using porphyrin that leads to a cytotoxicity effect by active oxygen.

  18. Seeking effective dyes for a mediated glucose-air alkaline battery/fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustis, Ross; Tsang, Tsz Ming; Yang, Brigham; Scott, Daniel; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2014-02-01

    A significant level of power generation from an abiotic, air breathing, mediated reducing sugar-air alkaline battery/fuel cell has been achieved in our laboratories at room temperature without complicated catalysis or membrane separation in the reaction chamber. Our prior studies suggested that mass transport limitation by the mediator is a limiting factor in power generation. New and effective mediators were sought here to improve charge transfer and power density. Forty-five redox dyes were studied to identify if any can facilitate mass transport in alkaline electrolyte solution; namely, by increasing the solubility and mobility of the dye, and the valence charge carried per molecule. Indigo dyes were studied more closely to understand the complexity involved in mass transport. The viability of water-miscible co-solvents was also explored to understand their effect on solubility and mass transport of the dyes. Using a 2.0 mL solution, 20% methanol by volume, with 100 mM indigo carmine, 1.0 M glucose and 2.5 M sodium hydroxide, the glucose-air alkaline battery/fuel cell attained 8 mA cm-2 at short-circuit and 800 μW cm-2 at the maximum power point. This work shall aid future optimization of mediated charge transfer mechanism in batteries or fuel cells.

  19. Photoelectric characterization of fabricated dye-sensitized solar cell using dye extracted from red Siahkooti fruit as natural sensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Saeidi, Mahsa; Rahmanian, Reza

    2015-05-05

    Natural dye extracted from Siahkooti fruit with/without purification by solid phase extraction (SPE) technique was used in the fabrication of DSSC as natural sensitizer. The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were employed to indicate the presence of anthocyanins in the fruit of red Siahkooti. The photoelectrochemical performance and the efficiency of assembled DSSC using Siahkooti fruit dye extract were evaluated and efficiency enhancement was obtained by a preliminary purification of extracted dye. The efficiency and fill factor of the DSSC using purified Siahkooti fruit dye were 0.32% and 0.73%, respectively. The results successfully showed that the DSSC, using Siahkooti fruit extract as a dye sensitizer, is useful for the preparation of environmentally friendly, low-cost, renewable and clean sources of energy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simplifying the construction of dye-sensitized solar cells to increase their accessibility for community education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleyard, Steve [Department of Environment and Conservation, PO Box K822, Perth, WA 6842 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Simple dye-sensitized solar cells were developed using blackboard chalk as a substrate for mixed ZnO and SnO{sub 2} films that were sensitized with Mercurochrome (Merbromine) dye. Graphite pencil 'leads' were used as counter electrodes for the cells and the electrolyte consisted of an aqueous solution of iodine and potassium iodide that was gelled with a disinfectant containing quaternary ammonium compounds and cyanoacrylate adhesive (Superglue {sup registered}). The open circuit potential of constructed cells was typically 0.50-0.64 V and the short circuit current varied between 0.5 and 2.0 mA cm{sup -2}. The cells were developed as an educational resource that could be simply and safely constructed in a home or school environment with readily accessible materials. (author)

  1. Carbon Nanotubes Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drygała A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the carbon nanotubes counter electrode deposited on the FTO glass substrates on the structure and optoelectrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells counter electrode (CE was analysed. Carbon materials have been applied in DSSC s in order to produce low-cost solar cells with reasonable efficiency. Platinum is a preferred material for the counter electrode because of its high conductivity and catalytic activity. However, the costs of manufacturing of the platinum counter electrode limit its use to large-scale applications in solar cells. This paper presents the results of examining the structure and properties of the studied layers, defining optical properties of conductive layers and electrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells manufactured with the use of carbon nanotubes.

  2. Effect of Isotopic Substitution on Elementary Processes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Deuterated Amino-Phenyl Acid Dyes on TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Manzhos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the first computational study of the effects of isotopic substitution on the operation of dye-sensitized solar cells. Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the effect of deuteration on light absorption, dye adsorption dynamics, the averaged over vibrations driving force to injection (∆Gi and regeneration (∆Gr, as well as on promotion of electron back-donation in dyes NK1 (2E,4E-2-cyano-5-(4-dimethylaminophenylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid and NK7 (2E,4E-2-cyano-5-(4-diphenylaminophenylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid adsorbed in monodentate molecular and bidentate bridging dissociative configurations on the anatase (101 surface of TiO2. Deuteration causes a red shift of the absorption spectrum of the dye/TiO2 complex by about 5% (dozens of nm, which can noticeably affect the overlap with the solar spectrum in real cells. The dynamics effect on the driving force to injection and recombination (the difference between the averaged <∆Gi,r> and ∆Gi,requil at the equilibrium configuration is strong, yet there is surprisingly little isotopic effect: the average driving force to injection <∆Gi> and to regeneration <∆Gr> changes by only about 10 meV upon deuteration. The nuclear dynamics enhance recombination to the dye ground state due to the approach of the electron-donating group to TiO2, yet this effect is similar for deuterated and non-deuterated dyes. We conclude that the nuclear dynamics of the C-H(D bonds, mostly affected by deuteration, might not be important for the operation of photoelectrochemical cells based on organic dyes. As the expectation value of the ground state energy is higher than its optimum geometry value (by up to 0.1 eV in the present case, nuclear motions will affect dye regeneration by recently proposed redox shuttle-dye combinations operating at low driving forces.

  3. SnO₂(β-Bi₂O₃)/Bi₂Sn₂O₇ nanohybrids doped with Pt and Pd nanoparticles: applications in visible light photocatalysis, electrical conductivity and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, M; Mohamed, Mohamed Mokhtar

    2015-09-07

    anisotropy measurements were combined to clarify the process of FRET from the excited Pd/β-Bi2O3-Bi2Sn2O7 to SD N719. This indicates that the latter structure can be proposed as a multifunctional candidate for use in dye-sensitized solar cells, as an electrical material and as an efficient photocatalyst based on its versatile structure.

  4. Molecular Design of Efficient Organic D-A-pi-A Dye Featuring Triphenylamine as Donor Fragment for Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferdowsi, P.; Saygili, Y.; Zhang, W.; Edvinson, T.; Kavan, Ladislav; Mokhtari, J.; Zakeerudin, S. M.; Grätzel, M.; Hagfeldt, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2018), s. 494-502 ISSN 1864-5631 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells * Electrolytes * Donor-acceptor systems Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 7.226, year: 2016

  5. Helmholtz resonance cells for pulsed dye laser-excited high resolution optoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The signal waveform observed in optoacoustic measurements is complex and highly dependent on sample for open-cavity cells and pulsed optical excitation. A Helmholtz resonator (HR) cell has been employed to reduce this dependence on sample and thus simplify signal processing. The cell background signal is likewise reduced with the HR cell. An optoacoustic (OA) spectrum of holmium oxide powder is presented to demonstrate the utility of this cell with pulsed dye laser excitation for acquistion of high resolution OA spectra of solids

  6. Nanoarchitectures in dye-sensitized solar cells: metal oxides, oxide perovskites and carbon-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Jasmin S; Shaikh, Navajsharif S; Mali, Sawanta S; Patil, Jyoti V; Pawar, Krishna K; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Hong, Chang Kook; Kim, J H; Patil, Pramod S

    2018-03-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have aroused great interest and been regarded as a potential renewable energy resource among the third-generation solar cell technologies to fulfill the 21 st century global energy demand. DSSCs have notable advantages such as low cost, easy fabrication process and being eco-friendly in nature. The progress of DSSCs over the last 20 years has been nearly constant due to some limitations, like poor long-term stability, narrow absorption spectrum, charge carrier transportation and collection losses and poor charge transfer mechanism for regeneration of dye molecules. The main challenge for the scientific community is to improve the performance of DSSCs by using different approaches, like finding new electrode materials with suitable nanoarchitectures, dyes in composition with promising semiconductors and metal quantum dot fluorescent dyes, and cost-effective hole transporting materials (HTMs). This review focuses on DSSC photo-physics, which includes charge separation, effective transportation, collection and recombination processes. Different nanostructured materials, including metal oxides, oxide perovskites and carbon-based composites, have been studied for photoanodes, and counter electrodes, which are crucial to achieve DSSC devices with higher efficiency and better stability.

  7. The effect of Cu doping into Oriza sativa L. indica dye as photosensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadli, U. M.; Prasada, A. B.; Cari; Supriyanto, A.

    2016-11-01

    The aims of the research to are know the effect of Cu doping into natural dye in increasing the efficiency of DSCC, to determine of the optical and electrical characteristic of natural dye Cu doping. Sandwich structures formed in the sample consisted of working electrode pair Titanium Oxide (TiO2) and the counter electrode Platina (Pt). Absorbance test is measure by using UV-Visible spectrophotometer Lambda 25, conductivity test by using a two- point probe El Kahfi/I-V Meter, and characterization of current and voltage (I-V) by using a Keithley 2602A. The Cu doping into dye was increasing the efficiency of 71%.

  8. Incorporation of graphene into SnO{sub 2} photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia); Dadkhah, Mahnaz; Shearer, Cameron J. [Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia); Biggs, Mark J. [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); School of Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Shapter, Joseph G., E-mail: joe.shapter@flinders.edu.au [Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia)

    2016-11-30

    Graphical abstract: Incorporation of a graphene structure into SnO{sub 2} dye-sensitized solar cell photoanode films has been demonstrated for the first time. The use of graphene in the SnO{sub 2} has been found to be a promising strategy to address many problems of photovoltaic cells based on SnO{sub 2} photoanodes. - Highlights: • SnO{sub 2}-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid is prepared using a microwave technique. • The first SnO{sub 2}-RGO photoanode based DSSC is fabricated. • Use of RGO addresses the major shortcoming of SnO{sub 2} when employed as a DSSC photoanode. • RGO significantly improved the electron transport rate within the DSSC devices. • Incorporation of RGO into the SnO{sub 2} photoanode enhanced the DSSC efficiency by 91.5%. - Abstract: In dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanodes, tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) structures present a promising alternative semiconducting oxide to the conventional titania (TiO{sub 2}), but they suffer from poor photovoltaic (PV) efficiency caused by insufficient dye adsorption and low energy value of the conduction band. A hybrid structure consisting of SnO{sub 2} and reduced graphene oxide (SnO{sub 2}-RGO) was synthesized via a microwave-assisted method and has been employed as a photoanode in DSSCs. Incorporation of RGO into the SnO{sub 2} photoanode enhanced the power conversion efficiency of DSSC device by 91.5%, as compared to the device assembled without RGO. This efficiency improvement can be attributed to increased dye loading, enhanced electron transfer and addition of suitable energy levels in the photoanode. Finally, the use of RGO addresses the major shortcoming of SnO{sub 2} when employed as a DSSC photoanode, namely poor dye adsorption and slow electron transfer rate.

  9. Incorporation of graphene into SnO2 photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar; Dadkhah, Mahnaz; Shearer, Cameron J.; Biggs, Mark J.; Shapter, Joseph G.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Incorporation of a graphene structure into SnO 2 dye-sensitized solar cell photoanode films has been demonstrated for the first time. The use of graphene in the SnO 2 has been found to be a promising strategy to address many problems of photovoltaic cells based on SnO 2 photoanodes. - Highlights: • SnO 2 -reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid is prepared using a microwave technique. • The first SnO 2 -RGO photoanode based DSSC is fabricated. • Use of RGO addresses the major shortcoming of SnO 2 when employed as a DSSC photoanode. • RGO significantly improved the electron transport rate within the DSSC devices. • Incorporation of RGO into the SnO 2 photoanode enhanced the DSSC efficiency by 91.5%. - Abstract: In dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanodes, tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) structures present a promising alternative semiconducting oxide to the conventional titania (TiO 2 ), but they suffer from poor photovoltaic (PV) efficiency caused by insufficient dye adsorption and low energy value of the conduction band. A hybrid structure consisting of SnO 2 and reduced graphene oxide (SnO 2 -RGO) was synthesized via a microwave-assisted method and has been employed as a photoanode in DSSCs. Incorporation of RGO into the SnO 2 photoanode enhanced the power conversion efficiency of DSSC device by 91.5%, as compared to the device assembled without RGO. This efficiency improvement can be attributed to increased dye loading, enhanced electron transfer and addition of suitable energy levels in the photoanode. Finally, the use of RGO addresses the major shortcoming of SnO 2 when employed as a DSSC photoanode, namely poor dye adsorption and slow electron transfer rate.

  10. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryanto, Ditia Allindira; Landuma, Suarni; Purwanto, Agus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 632112 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    The Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using Annato seeds has been conducted in this study. Annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn) used as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell. The experimental parameter was concentration of natural dye. Annato seeds was extracted using etanol solution and the concentration was controlled by varying mass of Annato seeds. A semiconductor TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a screen printing method for coating glass use paste of TiO{sub 2}. Construction DSSC used layered systems (sandwich) consists of working electrode (TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-dye) and counter electrode (platina). Both are placed on conductive glass and electrolytes that occur electrons cycle. The characterization of thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was conducted using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscpy) analysis showed the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} thin layer and the cross section of a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} with a thickness of 15–19 μm. Characterization of natural dye extract was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry analysis shows the wavelength range annato seeds is 328–515 nm, and the voltage (V{sub oc}) and electric current (I{sub sc}) resulted in keithley test for 30 gram, 40 gram, and 50 gram were 0,4000 V; 0,4251 V; 0,4502 V and 0,000074 A; 0,000458 A; 0,000857 A, respectively. The efficiencies of the fabricated solar cells using annato seeds as senstizer for each varying mass are 0,00799%, 0,01237%, and 0,05696%.

  11. Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as optofluidic cell sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid polymer photonic crystal band-edge lasers are chemically activated to covalently bind bio-molecules or for HeLa cell attachment using an anthraquinone (AQ) UV activated photolinker. The lasers change emission wavelength linearly with inhomogeneous cell coverage.......Hybrid polymer photonic crystal band-edge lasers are chemically activated to covalently bind bio-molecules or for HeLa cell attachment using an anthraquinone (AQ) UV activated photolinker. The lasers change emission wavelength linearly with inhomogeneous cell coverage....

  12. Recent development of carbon nanotubes materials as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malekshahi Byranvand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells present promising low-cost alternatives to the conventional Silicon (Si-based solar cells. The counter electrode  generally consists of Pt deposited onto FTO plate. Since Pt is rare and expensive metal, nanostructured carbonaceous materials have been widely investigated as a promising alternative to replace it. Carbon nanotubes  have shown significant properties such as cost-effectiveness, environmental friendliness, availability, corrosion resistance and excellent catalytic activity towards the redox species make them ideal for replacing Pt in the CEs of DSCs. The review presented below gives a succinct summary of the Carbon nanotubes materials in use as counter electrode  in dye-sensitized solar cells .

  13. Block copolymer directed synthesis of mesoporous TiO 2 for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nedelcu, Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    The morphology of TiO2 plays an important role in the operation of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. By using polyisoprene-block- ethyleneoxide (PI-b-PEO) copolymers as structure directing agents for a sol-gel based synthesis of mesoporous TiO2, we demonstrate a strategy for the detailed control of the semiconductor morphology on the 10 nm length scale. The careful adjustment of polymer molecular weight and titania precursor content is used to systematically vary the material structure and its influence upon solar cell performance is investigated. Furthermore, the use of a partially sp 2 hybridized structure directing polymer enables the crystallization of porous TiO2 networks at high temperatures without pore collapse, improving its performance in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells with multilayer photoanodes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sensitized solar cells. The aim of this study was to search how a thin sub-layer of the hydrothermally grown TiO2 NCs in the photoanodes could improve the efficiency of TiO2 P25-based solar cells. The highest efficiency of 6.5% was achieved for a cell ...

  15. Fabrication of green dye-sensitized solar cell based on ZnO nanoparticles as a photoanode and graphene quantum dots as a photo-sensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, Golnoush; Bagheri, Samira

    2018-02-01

    Zero-dimensional graphene quantum dots (GQDs) consist of single- or few-layer graphene with a size less than 20 nm and stand for a new type of QDs with unique properties combining the graphene nature and size-resulted quantum effects. GQDs possess unique optical and electronic properties, and in particular possess a band-gap less than 2.0 eV because of quantum confinement and edge effects. In this study, we investigated the performance of DSSCs using different thicknesses of ZnO nanoparticles as a photo-anode and GQDs as a green photosensitizer. The current voltage (I-V) test results indicate that the performance of DSSCs is improved by increasing the thickness of the photo-anode and the thickness of 40 μm shows the highest efficiency for DSSC device based on ZnO nanoparticles photo-anodes. The DSSC using ZnO nanoparticles as a photo-anode with thickness of 40 μm shows almost same efficiency when we replaced N-719 with GQDs which is confirmed that using GQDs as an alternative to ruthenium based dyes is a new approach for DSSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of vital dyes on retinal pigmented epithelial cell viability and apoptosis: implications for chromovitrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penha, Fernando M; Pons, Marianne; Costa, Elaine Fiod; Rodrigues, Eduardo B.; Maia, Mauricio; Marin-Castaño, Maria E; Farah, Michel Eid

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate in vitro effect of vital dyes on toxicity and apoptosis in a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line. Methods ARPE-19 cells were exposed to brilliant blue-BriB, evans blue-EB, bromophenol blue-BroB, indocyanine green-ICG, infracyanine green-IfCG, light green-LG, fast green-FG, indigo carmine-IC and congo red-CR. BSS was used as the control. Five different concentrations and two times were tested. Cell viability was determined by MTS assay and apoptosis by Bax expression on western blot. Results All dyes significantly reduced cell viability after 3 minutes of exposure at all concentrations (pdyes exposure, except BriB; ICG had the highest Bax expression (pdye was BriB followed by LG, IfCG, FG, CR, IC, BroB, RB and ICG. ICG was toxic at all concentrations and exposure times tested. Moreover, BriB was the only dye that did not induce apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. PMID:24022718

  17. TiO2-Anatase Nanowire Dispersed Composite Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asagoe, K; Suzuki, Y; Ngamsinlapasathian, S; Yoshikawa, S

    2007-01-01

    TiO 2 anatase nanowires have been prepared by a hydrothermal process followed by post-heat treatment in air. TiO 2 nanoparticle/TiO 2 nanowire composite electrodes were prepared for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) in order to improve light-to-electricity conversion efficiency. The TiO 2 NP/TiO 2 NW composite cells showed higher DSC performance than ordinary nanoparticle cells and fully nanowire cells: efficiency (η = 6.53 % for DSC with 10% nanowire, whereas 5.59% for 0% nanowire, and 2.42% for 100% nanowire

  18. Microbial fuel cell operation using monoazo and diazo dyes as terminal electron acceptor for simultaneous decolourisation and bioelectricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oon, Yoong-Sin [Water Research Group (WAREG), School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600, Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Ong, Soon-An, E-mail: ongsoonan@yahoo.com [Water Research Group (WAREG), School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600, Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Ho, Li-Ngee [School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600, Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Wong, Yee-Shian; Oon, Yoong-Ling; Lehl, Harvinder Kaur; Thung, Wei-Eng [Water Research Group (WAREG), School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600, Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Nordin, Noradiba [School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600, Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2017-03-05

    Highlights: • Monoazo and diazo dyes were used as electron acceptor in the abiotic cathode of MFC. • Simultaneous decolourisation and bioelectricity generation were achieved. • Azo dye structures influenced the decolourisation performance. • Positive relation between decolourisation rate and power performance. - Abstract: Monoazo and diazo dyes [New coccine (NC), Acid orange 7 (AO7), Reactive red 120 (RR120) and Reactive green 19 (RG19)] were employed as electron acceptors in the abiotic cathode of microbial fuel cell. The electrons and protons generated from microbial organic oxidation at the anode which were utilized for electrochemical azo dye reduction at the cathodic chamber was successfully demonstrated. When NC was employed as the electron acceptor, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and dye decolourisation efficiencies obtained at the anodic and cathodic chamber were 73 ± 3% and 95.1 ± 1.1%, respectively. This study demonstrated that the decolourisation rates of monoazo dyes were ∼50% higher than diazo dyes. The maximum power density in relation to NC decolourisation was 20.64 mW/m{sup 2}, corresponding to current density of 120.24 mA/m{sup 2}. The decolourisation rate and power output of different azo dyes were in the order of NC > AO7 > RR120 > RG19. The findings revealed that the structure of dye influenced the decolourisation and power performance of MFC. Azo dye with electron-withdrawing group at para substituent to azo bond would draw electrons from azo bond; hence the azo dye became more electrophilic and more favourable for dye reduction.

  19. Density Functional Theory Study on the Electronic Structures of Oxadiazole Based Dyes as Photosensitizer for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structures and UV-visible absorption spectra of complex photosensitizers comprising oxadiazole isomers as the π-bridges were analyzed by density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT. The ground state and excited state oxidation potentials, HOMOs and LUMOs energy levels, and electron injection from the dyes to semiconductor TiO2 have been computed in vacuum here. The results show that all of the dyes may potentially be good photosensitizers in DSSC. To justify the simulation basis, N3 dye was also simulated under the similar conditions. Simulated absorption spectrum, HOMO, LUMO, and band gap values of N3 were compared with the experimental values. We also computed the electronic structure properties and absorption spectra of dye/(TiO28 systems to elucidate the electron injection efficiency at the interface. This work is expected to give proper orientation for experimental synthesis.

  20. Molecular and Material Approaches to Overcome Kinetic and Energetic Constraints in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Thomas [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-08-14

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a lot of interest as they proffer the possibility of extremely inexpensive and efficient solar energy conversion. The excellent performance of the most efficient DSSCs relies on two main features: 1) a high surface area nanoparticle semiconductor photoanode to allow for excellent light absorption with moderate extinction molecular dyes and 2) slow recombination rates from the photoanode to I3- allowing good charge collection. The I3-/I- couple, however, has some disadvantages, notably the redox potential limits the maximum open-circuit voltage, and the dye regeneration requires a large driving force which constrains the light harvesting ability. Thus, the design features that allow DSSCs to perform as well as they do also prevent further significant improvements in performance. As a consequence, the most efficient device configuration, and the maximum efficiency, has remained essentially unchanged over the last 16 years. Significant gains in performance are possible; however it will likely require a substantial paradigm shift. The general goal of this project is to understand the fundamental role of dye-sensitized solar cell, DSSC, components (sensitizer, redox shuttle, and photoanode) involved in key processes in order to overcome the kinetic and energetic constraints of current generation DSSCs. For example, the key to achieving high energy conversion efficiency DSSCs is the realization of a redox shuttle which fulfills the dual requirements of 1) efficient dye regeneration with a minimal driving force and 2) efficient charge collection. In current generation DSSCs, however, only one or the other of these requirements is met. We are currently primarily interested in understanding the physical underpinnings of the regeneration and recombination reactions. Our approach is to systematically vary the components involved in reactions and interrogate them with a

  1. Stabilized Conversion Efficiency and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells from Beta vulgaris Pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Angel Ramon; Estévez, Miriam; Vargas, Susana; Rodríguez, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs), based on TiO2 and assembled using a dye from Beta vulgaris extract (BVE) with Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), are reported. The dye BVE/TEOS increased its UV resistance, rendering an increase in the cell lifetime; the performance of these solar cells was compared to those prepared with BVE without TEOS. The efficiency η for the solar energy conversion was, for BVE and BVE/TEOS, of 0.89% ± 0.006% and 0.68% ± 0.006% with a current density Jsc of 2.71 ± 0.003 mA/cm2 and 2.08 ± 0.003 mA/cm2, respectively, using in both cases an irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at 25 °C. The efficiency of the BVE solar cell dropped from 0.9 ± 0.006 to 0.85 ± 0.006 after 72 h of operation, whereas for the BVE/TEOS, the efficiency remained practically constant in the same period of time. PMID:23429194

  2. Efficiency enhancement using voltage biasing for ferroelectric polarization in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmo; Song, Myoung Geun; Bark, Chung Wung

    2018-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are one of the most promising third generation solar cells that have been extensively researched over the past decade as alternative to silicon-based solar cells, due to their low production cost and high energy-conversion efficiency. In general, a DSSC consists of a transparent electrode, a counter electrode, and an electrolyte such as dye. To achieve high power-conversion efficiency in cells, many research groups have focused their efforts on developing efficient dyes for liquid electrolytes. In this work, we report on the photovoltaic properties of DSSCs fabricated using a mixture of TiO2 with nanosized Fe-doped bismuth lanthanum titanate (nFe-BLT) powder). Firstly, nFe-BLT powders were prepared using a high-energy ball milling process and then, TiO2 and nFe-BLT powders were stoichiometrically blended. Direct current (DC) bias of 20 MV/m was applied to lab-made DSSCs. With the optimal concentration of nFe-BLT doped in the electrode, their light-to-electricity conversion efficiency could be improved by ∼64% compared with DSSCs where no DC bias was applied.

  3. Carbon Nanomaterials Application as a Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L. A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the structure investigation of a counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells using the carbon nanomaterials. Solar cells were fabricated on the glass with transparent conductive oxide TCO (10Ω/sq. Nanocrystalline titania based photoanode was prepared by spreading TiO2 paste onto TCO glass and subsequently annealed at 450°C for at least 30 min to convert anatase phase and make an interparticle network. After then the nanostructured titania films was immersed into an ethanolic solution of the ruthenium-based dye. As a counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells composite films of carbon nanomaterials and polystyrene sulfonate doped poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene PEDOT-PSS (Sigma-Aldrich were deposited onto TCO substrates. Because carbon nanoelements and titanium oxide consist of nano-metric structural units to determine the properties of the cells and their parameters several surface sensitive techniques and methods, i.e. Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, and electric properties of conductive layers were used.

  4. Ground and excited state properties of high performance anthocyanidin dyes-sensitized solar cells in the basic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prima, Eka Cahya [Advanced Functional Material Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Computational Material Design and Quantum Engineering Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); International Program on Science Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (Indonesia); Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman, E-mail: yatman@tf.itb.ac.id [Advanced Functional Material Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno [Computational Material Design and Quantum Engineering Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    The aglycones of anthocyanidin dyes were previously reported to form carbinol pseudobase, cis-chalcone, and trans-chalcone due to the basic levels. The further investigations of ground and excited state properties of the dyes were characterized using density functional theory with PCM(UFF)/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level in the basic solutions. However, to the best of our knowledge, the theoretical investigation of their potential photosensitizers has never been reported before. In this paper, the theoretical photovoltaic properties sensitized by dyes have been successfully investigated including the electron injections, the ground and excited state oxidation potentials, the estimated open circuit voltages, and the light harvesting efficiencies. The results prove that the electronic properties represented by dyes’ LUMO-HOMO levels will affect to the photovoltaic performances. Cis-chalcone dye is the best anthocyanidin aglycone dye with the electron injection spontaneity of −1.208 eV, the theoretical open circuit voltage of 1.781 V, and light harvesting efficiency of 56.55% due to the best HOMO-LUMO levels. Moreover, the ethanol solvent slightly contributes to the better cell performance than the water solvent dye because of the better oxidation potential stabilization in the ground state as well as in the excited state. These results are in good agreement with the known experimental report that the aglycones of anthocyanidin dyes in basic solvent are the high potential photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell.

  5. Ground and excited state properties of high performance anthocyanidin dyes-sensitized solar cells in the basic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prima, Eka Cahya; Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman; Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno

    2015-01-01

    The aglycones of anthocyanidin dyes were previously reported to form carbinol pseudobase, cis-chalcone, and trans-chalcone due to the basic levels. The further investigations of ground and excited state properties of the dyes were characterized using density functional theory with PCM(UFF)/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level in the basic solutions. However, to the best of our knowledge, the theoretical investigation of their potential photosensitizers has never been reported before. In this paper, the theoretical photovoltaic properties sensitized by dyes have been successfully investigated including the electron injections, the ground and excited state oxidation potentials, the estimated open circuit voltages, and the light harvesting efficiencies. The results prove that the electronic properties represented by dyes’ LUMO-HOMO levels will affect to the photovoltaic performances. Cis-chalcone dye is the best anthocyanidin aglycone dye with the electron injection spontaneity of −1.208 eV, the theoretical open circuit voltage of 1.781 V, and light harvesting efficiency of 56.55% due to the best HOMO-LUMO levels. Moreover, the ethanol solvent slightly contributes to the better cell performance than the water solvent dye because of the better oxidation potential stabilization in the ground state as well as in the excited state. These results are in good agreement with the known experimental report that the aglycones of anthocyanidin dyes in basic solvent are the high potential photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

  6. Cycloruthenated sensitizers: improving the dye-sensitized solar cell with classical inorganic chemistry principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Kiyoshi C D; Bomben, Paolo G; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2012-07-14

    A divergence from the conventional approach to chromophore design has led to the establishment of many exciting new benchmarks for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), including the first documented power conversion efficiency in excess of 12% at 1 sun illumination [Yella et al., Science 2011, 334, 629]. Paramount to these advances is the deviation from polypyridyl ruthenium dyes bearing NCS(-) ligands, such as [Ru(dcbpy)(2)(NCS)(2)] (N3; dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine). While metal-free and porphyrin dyes have demonstrated much promise, the discovery that the NCS(-) ligands of N3 can be replaced by anionic, chelating cyclometalating ligands without compromising device efficiencies has ushered in a new era of ruthenium dye development. A particularly appealing feature of this class of dyestuff is that they offer acute control of the frontier molecular orbitals to enable the precise attenuation of both the ground and excited state redox potentials through judicious chemical modification of the aryl ring. This Perspective summarizes very recent developments in the field, and demonstrates how the new and rapidly expanding class of Ru-based sensitizers provides a conduit for enhancing the performance (and potentially the stability) of the DSSC.

  7. Incorporation of graphene into SnO2 photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar; Dadkhah, Mahnaz; Shearer, Cameron J.; Biggs, Mark J.; Shapter, Joseph G.

    2016-11-01

    In dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanodes, tin dioxide (SnO2) structures present a promising alternative semiconducting oxide to the conventional titania (TiO2), but they suffer from poor photovoltaic (PV) efficiency caused by insufficient dye adsorption and low energy value of the conduction band. A hybrid structure consisting of SnO2 and reduced graphene oxide (SnO2-RGO) was synthesized via a microwave-assisted method and has been employed as a photoanode in DSSCs. Incorporation of RGO into the SnO2 photoanode enhanced the power conversion efficiency of DSSC device by 91.5%, as compared to the device assembled without RGO. This efficiency improvement can be attributed to increased dye loading, enhanced electron transfer and addition of suitable energy levels in the photoanode. Finally, the use of RGO addresses the major shortcoming of SnO2 when employed as a DSSC photoanode, namely poor dye adsorption and slow electron transfer rate.

  8. Elucidating the structure-property relationships of donor-π-acceptor dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) through rapid library synthesis by a one-pot procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Shinichiro; Sugiyama, Sakae; Maitani, Masato M; Wada, Yuji; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi; Katoh, Ryuzi; Kaiho, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Takashi

    2014-08-18

    The creation of organic dyes with excellent high power conversion efficiency (PCE) is important for the further improvement of dye-sensitized solar cells. We wish to describe the rapid synthesis of a 112-membered donor-π-acceptor dye library by a one-pot procedure, evaluation of PCEs, and elucidation of structure-property relationships. No obvious correlations between ε, and the η were observed, whereas the HOMO and LUMO levels of the dyes were critical for η. The dyes with a more positive E(HOMO), and with an E(LUMO)dyes; nevertheless, that was not sufficient for identifying the best combination of donor, π, and acceptor blocks. Combinatorial synthesis and evaluation was important for identifying the best dye. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Performance engineering of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using Ag modified titania as photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ranjith G.; Mathan Kumar, P.; Samdarshi, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    Present work reports the fabrication of silver (Ag) modified titania photoanode as an efficient photoanode for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Pristine and Ag modified Titania nanomaterials were prepared using sol gel method. The structural analyses confirm the high crystallinity of the samples with crystallite size distribution in nanorange. TEM micrograph confirms that the synthesized nanomaterials are in uniform size. A red shift is observed in the UV DRS spectra compared to pristine Titania and which confirm the incorporation of Ag inside titania. A prototype DSSC was fabricated using the pristine and modified Titania as photoanode, Ruthenium dye as sensitizer, I-/I-3 as redox electrolyte and platinum counter electrode. The cell with Ag modified titania photoanode showed 15 times enhanced photoconversion efficiency (PCE) than the pristine one. This improved performance of the Ag modified DSSC can be ascribed to reduced recombination and improved charge carrier transport of electrons/holes at the interfaces.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of nanowalls CdS/dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulelah, Haider; Ali, Basil; Mahdi, M. A.; Hassan, J. J.; Al-Taay, H. F.; Jennings, P.

    2017-06-01

    A microwave assisted chemical bath deposition (MA-CBD) was adopted to fabricate nanowalls CdS nanocrystalline thin film. Nanomaterials (such as nanowalls structure) have attracted significant attention due to their fascinating properties and unique applications, especially in optoelectronic nanodevices. Here we describe the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based nanowalls cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanocrystalline thin films. The surface morphology, crystalline structure, and optical properties of the prepared nanocrystalline thin films are investigated. Rhodamine B, Malachite green, Eosin methylene blue, and Cresyl violet perchlorate dyes are used to fabricate the DSSCS devices. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics show that the nanowall CdS/Eosin methylene blue device is the highest conversion efficiency of 0.89% under 100 mW/cm2. However, heat treatment of the fabricated solar cells causes significant enhancement in the output of all devices.

  11. Structurally stabilized mesoporous TiO2 nanofibres for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fargol Hasani Bijarbooneh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1D TiO2 nanostructures are very desirable for providing fascinating properties and features, such as high electron mobility, quantum confinement effects, and high specific surface area. Herein, 1D mesoporous TiO2 nanofibres were prepared using the electrospinning method to verify their potential for use as the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The 1D mesoporous nanofibres, 300 nm in diameter and 10-20 μm in length, were aggregated from anatase nanoparticles 20-30 nm in size. The employment of these novel 1D mesoporous nanofibres significantly improved dye loading and light scattering of the DSSC photoanode, and resulted in conversion cell efficiency of 8.14%, corresponding to an ∼35% enhancement over the Degussa P25 reference photoanode.

  12. Variasi Temperatur dan Waktu Tahan Kalsinasi terhadap Unjuk Kerja Semikonduktor TiO2 sebagai Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC dengan Dye dari Ekstrak Buah Naga Merah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahat M. R. Nadaek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu energi alternatif yang mempunyai potensi sumber energi yang sangat besar untuk mencegah terjadinya krisis energi namun sering kali terabaikan adalah sinar matahari. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk  menghasilkan prototype dalam mengkonversi energi cahaya matahari menjadi energi listrik. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC telah difabrikasi dengan menggunakan serbuk Titanium Dioksida (TiO2 yang dilapisi ke kaca Indium Tin Oxide dan diberi variasi temperatur 350oC, 450oC, dan 550oC dengan waktu tahan kalsinasi 30 dan 60 menit yang kemudian disensitisasi ke dalam larutan dye ekstrak buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus. DSSC di-assembling dengan coating Pd/Au yang telah di-sputtering ke kaca Indium Tin Oxide yang selanjutnya ditetesi dengan larutan elektrolit. Kemudian lapisan TiO2 tersebut dikarakterisasi menggunakan uji (SEM dan (XRD. Luas permukaan aktif partikel diidentifikasi dengan menggunakan BET analyzer. Dari hasil XRD dapat diketahui struktur kristalnya tetragonal. Hasil SEM menunjukkan bahwa bentuk partikel TiO2 adalah spherical. Untuk luas permukaan aktif yang dihasilkan menunjukkan nilai yang berbanding lurus dengan kenaikan nilai kelistrikan DSSC buah naga. Dari uji kelistrikan didapatkan hasil optimum pada temperatur 550oC dan waktu tahan 60 menit dengan voltase 562 mV, kuat arus 0.307 mA, dan memiliki efisiensi sebesar 0.089%. Kata kunci: Dye ekstrak buah naga merah, dye sensitized solar cell, temperatur kalsinasi, TiO2, waktu tahan kalsinasi.

  13. Effect of different photoanode nanostructures on the initial charge separation and electron injection process in dye sensitized solar cells: A photophysical study with indoline dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idígoras, Jesús [Nanostructured Solar Cells Group, Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. Utrera, km 1, ES-41013 Seville (Spain); Sobuś, Jan [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Jancelewicz, Mariusz [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Azaceta, Eneko; Tena-Zaera, Ramon [Materials Division, IK4-CIDETEC, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, Paseo Miramón 196, Donostia-San Sebastián, 20009 (Spain); Anta, Juan A. [Nanostructured Solar Cells Group, Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. Utrera, km 1, ES-41013 Seville (Spain); Ziółek, Marcin, E-mail: marziol@amu.edu.pl [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    Ultrafast and fast charge separation processes were investigated for complete cells based on several ZnO-based photoanode nanostructures and standard TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle layers sensitized with the indoline dye coded D358. Different ZnO morphologies (nanoparticles, nanowires, mesoporous), synthesis methods (hydrothermal, gas-phase, electrodeposition in aqueous media and ionic liquid media) and coatings (ZnO–ZnO core–shell, ZnO–TiO{sub 2} core–shell) were measured by transient absorption techniques in the time scale from 100 fs to 100 μs and in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. All of ZnO cells show worse electron injection yields with respect to those with standard TiO{sub 2} material. Lower refractive index of ZnO than that of TiO{sub 2} is suggested to be an additional factor, not considered so far, that can decrease the performance of ZnO-based solar cells. Evidence of the participation of the excited charge transfer state of the dye in the charge separation process is provided here. The lifetime of this state in fully working devices extends from several ps to several tens of ps, which is much longer than the typically postulated electron injection times in all-organic dye-sensitized solar cells. The results here provided, comprising a wide variety of morphologies and preparation methods, point to the universality of the poor performance of ZnO as photoanode material with respect to standard TiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Wide variety of morphologies and preparation methods has been checked for ZnO cells. • All ZnO cells work worse than TiO{sub 2} ones. • Effective refractive index might be an additional factor in solar cell performance. • Excited charge transfer state of indoline dyes participates in the charge separation.

  14. Activatable photodynamic destruction of cancer cells by NIR dye/photosensitizer loaded liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ahu; Tang, Xiaolei; Qiu, Xuefeng; Jiang, Ke; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao

    2015-02-25

    The phototoxicity of Chlorin e6 (Ce6) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) was found to be effectively suppressed by indocyanine green (ICG), a near infrared (NIR) dye. Upon NIR laser irradiation at 808 nm, ICG in the liposomes containing ICG and Ce6 could be degraded, while the phototoxicity of Ce6 could be recovered. In addition, we demonstrate that this newly developed liposomal component can be successfully used for activatable PDT to destroy cancer cells in vitro.

  15. Ruthenium Sensitizers and Their Applications in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuancheng Qin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy. The DSSCs-based ruthenium complexes as sensitizers show high efficiency and excellent stability, implying potential practical applications. This review focuses on recent advances in design and preparation of efficient ruthenium sensitizers and their applications in DSSCs, including thiocyanate ruthenium sensitizers and thiocyanate-free ruthenium sensitizers.

  16. Metal complex-based electron-transfer mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, C. Michael; Sapp, Shawn A.; Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto; Contado, Cristiano; Caramori, Stefano

    2006-03-28

    This present invention provides a metal-ligand complex and methods for using and preparing the same. In particular, the metal-ligand complex of the present invention is of the formula: L.sub.a-M-X.sub.b where L, M, X, a, and b are those define herein. The metal-ligand complexes of the present invention are useful in a variety of applications including as electron-transfer mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells and related photoelectrochromic devices.

  17. The Application of Electrospun Titania Nanofibers in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krýsová, Hana; Zukal, Arnošt; Trčková-Baraková, J.; Chandiran, A. K.; Nazeeruddin, M. K.; Grätzel, M.; Kavan, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 3 (2013), s. 149-154 ISSN 0009-4293 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA ČR GA203/08/0604 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : dye-sensitized solar cells * electrospinning * titanium dioxide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.091, year: 2013

  18. Application of graphene-based nanostructures in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Yum, J. H.; Graetzel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 250, č. 12 (2013), s. 2643-2648 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S; GA ČR GA13-31783S Grant - others:European Commission CORDIS(XE) FP7-ENERGY-2010-FET, projekt 256617 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : counter electrode * dye-sensitized solar cell s * electrocatalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2013

  19. Optically Transparent Cathode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Graphene Nanoplatelets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Yum, J. H.; Graetzel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2011), s. 165-172 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : graphene * dye sensitized solar cells * electrochemical impendance Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 10.774, year: 2011

  20. Optical Fiber/Nanowire Hybrid Structures for Efficient Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Weintraub, Benjamin

    2009-11-09

    Wired up: The energy conversion efficiency of three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in a hybrid structure that integrates optical fibers and nanowire arrays is greater than that of a two-dimensional device. Internal axial illumination enhances the energy conversion efficiency of a rectangular fiber-based hybrid structure (see picture) by a factor of up to six compared to light illumination normal to the fiber axis from outside the device.

  1. Graphene Nanoplatelet Cathode for Co(III)/(II) Mediated Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Yum, J. H.; Nazeeruddin, M. K.; Grätzel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 11 (2011), s. 9171-9178 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : graphene * dye sensitized solar cell * cobalt redox shuttle Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 10.774, year: 2011

  2. Barium Staminate as Semiconductor Working Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fu-an Guo; Guoqiang Li; Weifeng Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated with perovskite-type BaSnO3 as the photoelectrode materials. Different preparation methods including coprecipitation, hydrothermal, and solid state reaction are employed to synthesize BaSnO3 particles to optimize the photoelectric activities of electrode materials. The photoelectric properties of BaSnO3 particles and the performances of DSSCs are investigated by surface photovoltage spectroscopy and current-voltage measurements. The light-to-e...

  3. See-Through Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photonic Reflectors for Tandem and Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Heiniger, Leo-Philipp

    2013-08-21

    See-through dye-sensitized solar cells with 1D photonic crystal Bragg reflector photoanodes show an increase in peak external quantum efficiency of 47% while still maintaining high fill factors, resulting in an almost 40% increase in power conversion efficiency. These photoanodes are ideally suited for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effects of nano anatase-rutile TiO2 volume fraction with natural dye containing anthocyanin on the dye sensitized solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustini, S.; Wahyuono, R. A.; Sawitri, D.; Risanti, D. D.

    2013-09-01

    Since its first development, efforts to improve efficiency of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) are continuously carried out, either through selection of dye materials, the type of semiconductor, counter electrode design or the sandwiched structure. It is widely known that anatase and rutile are phases of TiO2 that often being used for fabrication of DSSC. Rutile is thermodynamically more stable phase having band-gap suitable for absorption of sunlight spectrum. On the other hand, anatase has higher electrical conductivity, capability to adsorp dye as well as higher electron diffusion coefficient than those of rutile. Present research uses mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea extracted in ethanol as natural dye containing anthocyanin. These dyes were characterized by using UV-Vis and FTIR, showing that the absorption maxima peaks obtained at 389 nm and 413 nm, for mangosteen and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively. The nano TiO2 was prepared by means of co-precipitation method. The particle size were 9-11 nm and 54.5 nm for anatase and rutile, respectively, according to Scherrer's equation. DSSCs were fabricated in various volume fractions of anatase and rutile TiO2. The fabricated DSSCs were tested under 17 mW/cm2 of solar irradiation. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of DSSCs employing 75%: 25% volume fraction of anatase and rutile TiO2 have outstanding result than others. The highest conversion efficiencies of 0.037% and 0.013% are obtained for DSSC employing natural dye extract from mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively.

  5. The isolated anatase for dye sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilmi, Irfan, E-mail: irfan.ilmi149@gmail.com [Postgraduate Program, Department of Chemistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Functional Coating Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Kartin, Indriana; Suyanta [Functional Coating Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Department of Chemistry,Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Ohtani, Bunsho; Wang, Kunlei [Graduate School of Environmental and Earth Science, Hokkaido University Japan (Japan)

    2015-09-30

    The isolation of crystallite anatase from commercial TiO{sub 2} P25 Degussa was investigated. The aim of this research was to study of isolated anatase based DSSC as an effort to develop industrial DSSC. The crystal phase, crystallite size and crystal shape both of original P25 and isolated anatase were characterized by XRD and TEM. By observing DSSC parameters such as FF, Jsc and Voc resulted in cell test, the efficiency of samples based DSSC was known. The isolation of anatase crystal was done by dissolving P25 in ammonia catalyzed hydrogen peroxide solution for 15 hours followed by washing and drying. DSSC cell performance was evaluated by applying the isolated anantase and original P25 as photoanode in the Gratzel cell system. The observation of cell efficiency was measured under 100 mW /cm{sup 2} with active area 1.5 cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction pattern showed obviously that no rutile contaminant in produced isolated anatase. TEM image shows typical anatase crystal with the particle size 21 nm. Surface area measurement exhibits that surface area of isolated anatase was 64.7m{sup 2}/g. I-V measurement showed that the efficiency of anatase based cell and P25 based cell is 0.79% and 0.51% respectively.

  6. Application of 3A molecular sieve layer in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yuan; Wang, Jinzhong, E-mail: jinzhong-wang@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: qingjiang.yu@hit.edu.cn; Yu, Qingjiang, E-mail: jinzhong-wang@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: qingjiang.yu@hit.edu.cn; Huang, Yuewu; Chang, Quanhong; Hao, Chunlei; Jiao, Shujie; Gao, Shiyong; Li, Hongtao; Wang, Dongbo [Department of Opto-Electric Information Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 Harbin (China)

    2014-08-25

    3A molecular sieve layer was used as dehydration and electronic-insulation layer on the TiO{sub 2} electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. This layer diminished the effect of water in electrolyte efficiently and enhanced the performance of cells. The conversion efficiency increased from 9.58% to 10.2%. The good moisture resistance of cells was attributed to the three-dimensional interconnecting structure of 3A molecular sieve with strong adsorption of water molecule. While the performance enhancement benefited from the suppression of the charge recombination of electronic-insulation layer and scattering effect of large particles.

  7. Combination of Small Molecule Microarray and Confocal Microscopy Techniques for Live Cell Staining Fluorescent Dye Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Bokros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Discovering new fluorochromes is significantly advanced by high-throughput screening (HTS methods. In the present study a combination of small molecule microarray (SMM prescreening and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM was developed in order to discover novel cell staining fluorescent dyes. Compounds with high native fluorescence were selected from a 14,585-member library and further tested on living cells under the microscope. Eleven compartment-specific, cell-permeable (or plasma membrane-targeted fluorochromes were identified. Their cytotoxicity was tested and found that between 1–10 micromolar range, they were non-toxic even during long-term incubations.

  8. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Optimal Gel Electrolyte Using the Taguchi Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Kai Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Taguchi method was adopted to determine the optimal gel electrolyte used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Since electrolyte is a very important factor in fabrication of high performance and long-term stability DSSCs, to find the optimal composition of gel electrolyte is desired. In this paper, the common ingredients used in the liquid electrolyte were chosen. The ingredients then mixed with cheap ionic liquids and poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP were added to form colloidal electrolyte (gel. The optimal composition of each materials in the gel electrolyte determined by Taguchi method consists of 0.03 M I2, 0.15 M KI, 0.6 M LiI, 0.5 M 4-tertbutylpyridine (TBP, and 10% PVDF-HFP dissolved in the acetonitrile and 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN solution with volume ratio of 2 : 1. The short circuit current density of 14.11 mA/cm2, the conversion efficiency (η of 5.52%, and the lifetime of over 110 days were observed for the dye-sensitized solar cell assembled with optimal gel electrolyte. The lifetime increases 10 times when compared with the conventional dye-sensitized solar cell assembled with liquid electrolyte.

  9. Pemanfaatan Antosianin dari Ekstrak Kol Merah (Brassica oleracea var sebagai Pewarna Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinasti Dwi Pratiwi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC utilizing anthocyanin extract from red cabbage was fabricated. This study aims to determine the wavelength absorption of dye contributed in highest efficiency. The sandwich structure of DSSC consists of TiO2 as working electrode, carbon layer as counter electrode, anthocyanin dye as photosensitizer, and electrolyte as electron transfer media. The absorbance of dye was characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the efficiency of DSSC was calculated using I-V Meter Keithley, and the quantum efficiency was characterized using IPCE Measurement System. The absorption of dye anthocyanin of red cabbage is 450 nm–580 nm wavelengths, I-V characteristic curves resulted efficiency of 0,029%, and IPCE characteristic resulted highest efficiency at wavelength of 420 nm with efficiency of 0,099%.

  10. Natural pigment sensitized solar cells based on ZnO-TiO2-Fe2O3 nanocomposite in quasi-solid state electrolyte system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mebrahtu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of Zn-Ti-Fe oxide using zinc as a host with different ratios of precursor salts were prepared by co-precipitation method to use as semiconductors for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. DSSCs based on the new semiconductors and di-tetrabutylammoniumcis-bis(isothiocyanatobis(2,2’-bipyridyl-4,4’-dicarboxylato-ruthenium(II (N719 dye has been constructed and characterized. Stability towards dissolution of deposited films of semiconductors in the acidic dye and conversion efficiency was obtained in the order of: ZnO(100% N719 dye and Salvia luecantha, respectively.

  11. Charge Transfer Dynamics of Highly Efficient Cyanidin-3-O- Glucoside Sensitizer for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prima, E C; Yuliarto, B; Suyatman; Dipojono, H K

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the novel efficiency achievement of black rice-based natural dye- sensitized solar cells. The higher dye concentration, the longer dye extraction as well as dye immersion onto a TiO 2 film, and the co-adsorption addition are key strategies for improved-cell performance compared to the highest previous achievement. The black rice dye containing 1.38 mM cyanidin-3-O-glucoside has been extracted without purification for 3 weeks at dark condition and room temperature. The anatase TiO 2 photoanode was dipped into dye solution within 4 days. Its electrode was firmly sealed to be a cell and was filled by I - /I 3 - electrolyte using vacuum technique. As a result, the overall solar-to-energy conversion efficiency was 1.49% at AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW.cm -2 ). The voltametric analysis has reported the interfacial electronic band edges of TiO 2 -Dye-Electrolyte. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has shown the kinetic of interfacial electron transfer dynamics among TiO 2 -dye-electrolyte. The cell has the transfer resistance (Rt) of 12.5 ω, the recombination resistance (Rr) of 266.8 ω, effective electron diffusion coefficients (Dn) of 1.4 × 10 -3 cm 2 /s, Dye-TiO 2 effective electron transfer (τ d ) of 26.6 μs, effective diffusion length (L n )of 33.78 μm, chemical capacitance (C μ ) of 12.43 μF, and electron lifetime (τ n ) of 3.32 ms. (paper)

  12. Extraction, preparation and application of pigments from Cordyline fruticosa and Hylocereus polyrhizus as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alwani, Mahmoud A. M.; Ludin, Norasikin A.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abd. Amir H.; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2017-05-01

    Current study employs mixture of chlorophyll-anthocyanin dye extracted from leaves of Cordyline fruticosa as new sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs), as well as betalains dye obtained from fruit of Hylocereus polyrhizus. Among ten pigments solvents, the ethanol and methanol extracts revealed higher absorption spectra of pigments extracted from C. fruticosa and H. polyrhizus respectively. A major effect of temperature increase was studied to increase the extraction yield. The results indicated that extraction temperature between 70 and 80 °C exhibited a high dye concentration of each plant than other temperatures. The optimal temperature was around 80 °C and there was a sharp decrease of dye concentration at temperatures higher than this temperature. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of DSSC fabricated by mixture of chlorophyll and anthocyanin dyes from C. fruticosa leaves is 0.5% with short-circuit current (Isc) of 1.3 mA/cm- 2, open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.62 V and fill factor (FF) of 60.16%. The higher photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC prepared from the extract of H. polyrhizus was 0.16%, with Voc of 0.5 V, Isc of 0.4 mA/cm- 2 and FF of 79.16%. The DSSC based betalain dye extracted from fruit of H. polyrhizus shows higher maximum IPCE of 44% than that of the DSSCs sensitized with mixed chlorophyll-anthocyanin dye from C. fruticosa (42%).

  13. Investigation of effect of anti-aggregation agent on the performance of nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinnezhad, M.; Moradian, S.; Gharanjig, K.

    2015-06-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on indigo dyes exhibit suitable conversion efficiency. These organic dyes have been undergone for aggregation. Electron transfer process is reduced due to an aggregation of molecular dyes. Therefore, anti-aggregation agent is commonly utilized in fabrication of DSSCs. In the present study, two anti-aggregation agents namely as 3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid (cheno) and 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid (cholic acid) were added to indigo dye solution in DSSCs in order to determine the photovoltaic parameters such as short circuit photocurrent, open circuit voltage and conversion efficiency of each individual dye in the absence and presence of anti-aggregation agents. The results show that the conversion efficiencies are improved with reduced aggregation. Spectrophotometric evaluations of the indigo dyes in solution and on a TiO2 substrate were carried out in the absence and presence of anti-aggregation agents in order to estimate changes in the status of the dyes in different environments. J-type aggregates on the nano TiO2 are reduced in the presence of anti-aggregation agents.

  14. Photoelectrochemical solar cells based on dye-sensitization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, we investigated the photoelectrochemical properties of mesoporous colloidal anatase films in connection with their potential application in liquid junction photovoltaic cells. A respectable light to electric energy conversion efficiency of about 9.5% in 9 mW/cm2 (∼ 1/10 Sun) was obtained. In comparison (a Isc = 2.2 ...

  15. Dye solar cells: a different approach to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An attractive and cheaper alternative to siliconbased photovoltaic (PV) cells for the conversion of solar light into electrical energy is to utilise dyeadsorbed, large-band-gap metal oxide materials such as TiO2 to absorb the solar light...

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cell and photocatalytic performance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sensitized solar cells) and photocatalysis properties (decomposition of methomyl) was investigated. In all investigated cases, the sample C, which was formed by anodizing in a ethylene glycol electrolyte containing 9 mM K 3 Fe(CN) 6 , exhibited ...

  17. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells with multilayer photoanodes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The highest efficiency of 6.5% was achieved for a cell with a photoanodecomposed of one transparent sub-layer of hydrothermally grown TiO 2 NCs and two over-layers of P25 NPs. Higher energy conversion efficiencies were also attainable using two transparent sub-layers of hydrothermally grown TiO 2 NCs. In this case ...

  18. Influence of the pH value of anthocyanins on the electrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irén Juhász Junger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the harvesting of renewable energies became of great importance. This led to a rapid development of dye-sensitized solar cells which can be produced from low-purity materials. The best electrical properties are provided by cells prepared using synthetical, ruthenium based dyes. Unfortunately, most of them are toxic and expensive. The anthocyanins extracted for example from hibiscus flowers yield a more cost-effective and eco-friendly alternative to toxic dyes, however, with a loss of solar cell efficiency. In this article the possibility of improvement of the conversion efficiency by modification of the pH value of the dye is investigated. By decrease of the pH value, an increase of efficiency by a factor of two was achieved.

  19. A study of charge transfer kinetics in dye-sensitized surface conductivity solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Dennis

    2011-05-15

    The efficiency of the quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell developed by Junghaenel and Tributsch, the so-called Nano Surface Conductivity Solar Cell (NSCSC), was improved from 2% to 3.5% introducing a compact TiO{sub 2} underlayer, modifying the surface of the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} electrode, optimizing the deposition process of the electrolyte film, and replacing the platinum counter electrode by a carbon layer. Space-resolved photocurrent images revealed the importance of a homogeneous distribution of the electrolyte film. An uneven dispersion led to localized areas of high and low photocurrents, whereas the latter were attributed to an insufficient concentration of the redox couple. Impedance spectroscopy was performed on cells containing different concentrations of the redox couple. By modeling the spectra using an equivalent circuit with a transmission line of resistive and capacitive elements, the characteristic parameters of electron transport in the TiO{sub 2}, such as diffusion length and electron lifetime were obtained. The measurements indicated that the transport of the positive charge to the counter electrode is the main process limiting the efficiency of the cells. Excess charge carrier decay in functioning devices was analyzed by contactless transient photoconductance measurements in the microwave frequency range (TRMC). The lifetime of the photogenerated charge carriers was observed to decrease with increasing applied potential, reaching its maximum close to the opencircuit potential of the cell, where the photocurrent density was minimal, i.e. the potential dependent decay observed was limited by the injection of electrons into the front contact. The functioning of this NSCSC indicated that the transport of the positive charge occurs by solid-state diffusion at the surface of the TiO{sub 2} particles. TRMC measurements on subset devices in the form of sensitized TiO{sub 2} layers revealed charge carrier kinetics strongly dependent on the

  20. Effects of carboxyl and ester anchoring groups on solar conversion efficiencies of TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehrifard, A.; Stublla, A.; Haftchenary, S.; Chen, S.; Potvin, P.; Morin, S. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which 2 new Ruthenium (Ru(2)) dyes bearing different anchoring groups were applied to sensitize TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The solar conversion efficiencies were measured. Results for 2 of the dyes which carried ester and carboxyl anchoring groups were presented. The extent and nature of the surface binding was studied using electrochemical, UV-visible, fluorescence and FTIR measurements. Solar cell performance was discussed in terms of surface concentration of chemisorbed dyes, electronic properties of the photoanodes and electrochemical properties of adsorbed dyes. The study showed that carboxylic acid groups offer better dye adsorption than ester groups. However, sensitization with warm solutions improved the adsorption of the esterified dye, most likely through transesterification. It was concluded that this may be a useful means of improving solar conversion efficiencies of ester-bearing dyes. 6 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  1. Development of carbon nanotube paste for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Masaya; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Oya, Takahide

    2012-09-01

    We propose a new type of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) using carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Recently, global warming due to CO2 generated from power plants, cars, and so on has received much attention. Therefore, clean power, e.g., solar power, is gaining in importance. In this study, we focused on a DSC that uses CNTs. Generally, sensitized dyes on semiconducting and metallic electrodes are used for constructing DSCs. In contrast, CNTs have many excellent properties. In particular, they have metallic and semiconducting properties that are used for the electrodes of DSCs. Therefore, we applied CNTs for fabricating a new "painting-type" DSC with semiconducting and metallic electrodes. CNTs are dispersed in water with surfactant to prepare CNT-paste for painting. This resulting CNT-paste has the same properties as a normal CNT. A DSC is comprised of two electrodes. One is a semiconducting electrode with a sensitized dye and another is a metallic one, as mentioned above. We fabricated the two electrodes by painting the CNT-paste onto substrates. Thus, this type of DSC can be applied to various objects, for example, the wall and car and housetop. An electrolyte is required and must be put between the electrodes. The method for fabricating a painting type DSC is very simple. First, two versions of the paste are used. One is a semiconducting CNT-paste that adsorbs a dye and the other is a CNT-paste without a dye. Second, we paint each paste onto two substrates. Finally, the two substrates are stacked. We drip about 10μl of an electrolyte onto the stacked substrates and irradiate them with solar light (1300 W/m2). An electromotive force (EMF) is generated by excited electrons from the dye, which are adsorbed on the semiconducting electrode. The maximum EMF reached about 250 mV and the current reached about 10 μA. These results indicate that the proposed painting-type DSC can be used a new type of solar cell.

  2. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology (China)

    2010-10-15

    This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

  3. Post-assembly atomic layer deposition of ultrathin metal-oxide coatings enhances the performance of an organic dye-sensitized solar cell by suppressing dye aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ho-Jin; Kim, Chul Hoon; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Nak Cheon; Prasittichai, Chaiya; Luo, Langli; Wu, Jinsong; Farha, Omar K; Wasielewski, Michael R; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-03-11

    Dye aggregation and concomitant reduction of dye excited-state lifetimes and electron-injection yields constitute a significant mechanism for diminution of light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies in many dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). For TiO2-based DSCs prepared with an archetypal donor-acceptor organic dye, (E)-2-cyano-3-(5'-(5''-(p-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-thiophen-2''-yl)thiophen-2'-yl)acrylic acid (OrgD), we find, in part via ultrafast spectroscopy measurements, that postdye-adsorption atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ultrathin layers of either TiO2 or Al2O3 effectively reverses residual aggregation. Notably, the ALD treatment is significantly more effective than the widely used aggregation-inhibiting coadsorbent, chenodeoxycholic acid. Primarily because of reversal of OrgD aggregation, and resulting improved injection yields, ALD post-treatment engenders a 30+% increase in overall energy conversion efficiency. A secondary contributor to increased currents and efficiencies is an ALD-induced attenuation of the rate of interception of injected electrons, resulting in slightly more efficient charge collection.

  4. Red Sicilian orange and purple eggplant fruits as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Marco, Gaetano Di [CNR, Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (Sede di Messina) Salita Sperone, C. da Papardo, I-98158 Faro Superiore Messina (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using red Sicilian orange juice (Citrus Sinensis) and the purple extract of eggplant peels (Solanum melongena, L.) as natural sensitizers of TiO{sub 2} films. Conversion of solar light into electricity was successfully accomplished with both fruit-based solar cells. The best solar energy conversion efficiency ({eta}=0.66%) was obtained by red orange juice dye that, under AM 1.5 illumination, achieved up to J{sub sc}=3.84 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.340 V and fill factor=0.50. In the case of the extract of eggplant peels, the values determined were up to J{sub sc}=3.40 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.350 V and fill factor=0.40. Cyanidine-3-glucoside (cyanine) and delphinidin 3-[4-(p-coumaroyl)-L-rhamnosyl(1-6)-glucopyranoside]-5-glucopyranoside (nasunin) are the main pigments of cocktail dyes for red orange and eggplant, respectively. Actually, their application is far below the industrial requirements. Nevertheless, their study is an interesting multidisciplinary exercise useful for dissemination of knowledge and to educate people on renewable energy sources. Here, we report and discuss the role of the structure, the absorption spectra and the sensitization activity of the mentioned compounds. (author)

  5. Microstructure characterization of onion (A.cepa) peels and thin films for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abodunrin, T.; Boyo, A.; Usikalu, M.; Obafemi, L.; Oladapo, O.; Kotsedi, L.; Yenus, Z.; Maaza, M.

    2017-03-01

    A.cepa peels are obtained from mature onion bulbs. Because of the continuous need for energy, alternative avenues for producing energy are gaining importance. The motivation for this work is based on an urgent need to source energy from readily available waste materials like domestic onion peels. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated via doctor blade method and high temperature sintering from waste (onion peels) are investigated for their ability to convert solar to electrical energy. The charge carriers were revealed under phytochemical screening. Functional groups of compounds present in A.cepa peel were analyzed with Fourier transform in infrared (FTIR). The influence of different electrolyte sensitizer is observed on the DSSCs under standard air mass conditions of 1.5 AM. The microstructure properties of these A.cepa DSSCs were explored using scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), x-ray diffraction and Fluorecence spectroscopy (XRF). The interfacial boundary between A.cepa dye, TiO2 framework of TiO2 and indium doped tin oxide (ITO) reveals several prominent anatase and rutile peaks. Photoelectric results, revealed dye-sensitized solar cells with a maximum power output of 126 W and incident photon to conversion energy (IPCE) of 0.13%.This work has established that A.cepa peels can be used as a source of micro-energy generation.

  6. Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline ZnO Solar Cells Based on Ruthenium(II Phendione Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Shahroosvand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal complexes (RuII (phen2(phendione(PF62(1, [RuII (phen(bpy(phendione(PF62 (2, and (RuII (bpy2(phendione(PF62 (3 (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine and phendione = 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione have been synthesized as photo sensitizers for ZnO semiconductor in solar cells. FT-IR and absorption spectra showed the favorable interfacial binding between the dye-molecules and ZnO surface. The surface analysis and size of adsorbed dye on nanostructure ZnO were further examined with AFM and SEM. The AFM images clearly show both, the outgrowth of the complexes which are adsorbed on ZnO thin film and the depression of ZnO thin film. We have studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phendione complexes, which gave power conversion efficiency of (η of 1.54% under the standard AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm−2 with a short-circuit photocurrent density (sc of 3.42 mA cm−2, an open-circuit photovoltage (oc of 0.622 V, and a fill factor (ff of 0.72. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 38% at 485 nm.

  7. Dye-sensitized solar cells using Aloe Vera and Cladode of Cactus extracts as natural sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, D.; Jara, J.; Villanueva, R.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) from natural plant-based dyes, extracted from the Cladode (nopal) of the Thornless Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica), the gel of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis miller), and the combination of Cladode and Aloe Vera extracts on side-by-side configuration. Optical properties were analyzed using UV-Vis Absorption and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Open circuit voltages (Voc) varied from 0.440 to 0.676 V, fill factors (FF) were greater than 40%, short-circuit photocurrent densities (Jsc) ranged from 0.112 to 0.290 mA/cm2 and highest conversion efficiency of 0.740% was reported for the Cladode DSSC.

  8. One-Dimensional TiO2 Nanostructures as Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is star materials due to its remarkable optical and electronic properties, resulting in various applications, especially in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Photoanode is the most important part of the DSSCs, which help to adsorb dye molecules and transport the injected electrons. The size, structure, and morphology of TiO2 photoanode have been found to show significant influence on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. In this paper, we briefly summarize the synthesis and properties of one-dimensional (1D TiO2 nanomaterials (bare 1D TiO2 nanomaterial and 1D hierarchical TiO2 and their photovoltaic performance in DSSCs.

  9. Genotoxicity assessment of reactive and disperse textile dyes using human dermal equivalent (3D cell culture system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Primo, Fernando Lucas; Gobo, Graciely Gomides; da Costa, Cleber Rafael Vieira; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of dyes are marketed daily for different purposes, including textile dyeing. However, there are several studies reporting attributing to dyes deleterious human effects such as DNA damage. Humans may be exposed to toxic dyes through either ingestion of contaminated waters or dermal contact with colored garments. With respect to dermal exposure, human skin equivalents are promising tools to assess in vitro genotoxicity of dermally applied chemicals using a three-dimensional (3D) model to mimic tissue behavior. This study investigated the sensitivity of an in-house human dermal equivalent (DE) for detecting genotoxicity of textile dyes. Two azo (reactive green 19 [RG19] and disperse red 1[DR1]) dyes and one anthraquinone (reactive blue 2 [RB2]) dye were analyzed. RG19 was genotoxic for DE in a dose-responsive manner, whereas RB2 and DR1 were nongenotoxic under the conditions tested. These findings are not in agreement with previous genotoxicological assessment of these dyes carried out using two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, which showed that DR1 was genotoxic in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and RG19 was nongenotoxic for normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). These discrepant results probably may be due to differences between metabolic activities of each cell type (organ-specific genotoxicity, HepG2 and fibroblasts) and the test setup systems used in each study (fibroblasts cultured at 2D and three-dimensional [3D] culture systems). Genotoxicological assessment of textile dyes in context of organ-specific genotoxicity and using in vitro models that more closely resemble in vivo tissue architecture and physiology may provide more reliable estimates of genotoxic potential of these chemicals.

  10. Porphyrin Dye-Sensitized Zinc Oxide Aggregated Anodes for Use in Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Syu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrin YD2-o-C8-based dyes were employed to sensitize room-temperature (RT chemical-assembled ZnO aggregated anodes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. To reduce the acidity of the YD2-o-C8 dye solution, the proton in the carboxyl group of a porphyrin dye was replaced with tetrabuthyl ammonium (TBA+ in this work. The short-circuit current density (Jsc of the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSCs is higher than that of the YD2-o-C8-sensitized cells, resulting in the improvement of the efficiency of the YD2-o-C8-based ZnO DSSCs. With an appropriate incorporation of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA as coadsorbate, the Jsc and efficiency of the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSC are enhanced due to the improvement of the incident-photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE values in the wavelength range of 400–450 nm. Moreover, a considerable increase in Jsc is achieved by the addition of a light scattering layer in the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO photoanodes. Significant IPCE enhancement in the range 475–600 nm is not attainable by tuning the YD2-o-C8-TBA sensitization processes for the anodes without light scattering layers. Using the RT chemical-assembled ZnO aggregated anode with a light scattering layer, an efficiency of 3.43% was achieved in the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSC.

  11. A new sight towards dye-sensitized solar cells material and theoretical

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) technology is emerging, against the current background of drastic consumption-rates of irreplaceable natural resources, as the Cinderella solution to many energy-related problems, Almost since its first appearance, it has been regarded as being the most promising alternative to conventional silicon solar cell technology due to the tremendous advantages of low cost and high theoretical energy-conversion efficiency. Review from Book News Inc.: Eight invited and peer-reviewed papers comprise this special-topic volume on a possible alternative to conventional silico

  12. Nanographite-TiO{sub 2} photoanode for dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S. S., E-mail: sharmass2@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Government Women Engineering College, Ajmer-305002 (India); Sharma, Khushboo [Department of Physics, Government Women Engineering College, Ajmer-305002 (India); Department of Physics, Bhagwant University, Ajmer-305004 (India); Sharma, Vinay [Centre for Conversing Technology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302012 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Nanographite-TiO{sub 2} (NG-TiO{sub 2}) composite was successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method and its performance as the photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was investigated. Environmental Scanning electron microscope (E-SEM) micrographs show the uniform distribution of TiO{sub 2} nanoflowers deposited over nanographite sheets. The average performance characteristics of the assembled cell in terms of short-ciruit current density (J{sub SC}), open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}), fill factor (FF) and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) were measured.

  13. Genetic damage induced by a food coloring dye (sunset yellow) on meristematic cells of Brassica campestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Kshama; Kumar, Girjesh

    2015-01-01

    We have performed the present piece of work to evaluate the effect of synthetic food coloring azo dye (sunset yellow) on actively dividing root tip cells of Brassica campestris L. Three doses of azo dye were administered for the treatment of actively dividing root tip cells, namely, 1%, 3%, and 5%, for 6-hour duration along with control. Mitotic analysis clearly revealed the azo dye induced endpoint deviation like reduction in the frequency of normal divisions in a dose dependent manner. Mitotic divisions in the control sets were found to be perfectly normal while dose based reduction in MI was registered in the treated sets. Azo dye has induced several chromosomal aberrations (genotoxic effect) at various stages of cell cycle such as stickiness of chromosomes, micronuclei formation, precocious migration of chromosome, unorientation, forward movement of chromosome, laggards, and chromatin bridge. Among all, stickiness of chromosomes was present in the highest frequency followed by partial genome elimination as micronuclei. The present study suggests that extensive use of synthetic dye should be forbidden due to genotoxic and cytotoxic impacts on living cells. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess potential hazardous effects of these dyes on other test systems like human and nonhuman biota for better scrutiny.

  14. Genetic Damage Induced by a Food Coloring Dye (Sunset Yellow on Meristematic Cells of Brassica campestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshama Dwivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed the present piece of work to evaluate the effect of synthetic food coloring azo dye (sunset yellow on actively dividing root tip cells of Brassica campestris L. Three doses of azo dye were administered for the treatment of actively dividing root tip cells, namely, 1%, 3%, and 5%, for 6-hour duration along with control. Mitotic analysis clearly revealed the azo dye induced endpoint deviation like reduction in the frequency of normal divisions in a dose dependent manner. Mitotic divisions in the control sets were found to be perfectly normal while dose based reduction in MI was registered in the treated sets. Azo dye has induced several chromosomal aberrations (genotoxic effect at various stages of cell cycle such as stickiness of chromosomes, micronuclei formation, precocious migration of chromosome, unorientation, forward movement of chromosome, laggards, and chromatin bridge. Among all, stickiness of chromosomes was present in the highest frequency followed by partial genome elimination as micronuclei. The present study suggests that extensive use of synthetic dye should be forbidden due to genotoxic and cytotoxic impacts on living cells. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess potential hazardous effects of these dyes on other test systems like human and nonhuman biota for better scrutiny.

  15. Natural Pigments from Plants Used as Sensitizers for TiO2 Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Kushwaha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four natural pigments, extracted from the leaves of teak (Tectona grandis, tamarind (Tamarindus indica, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus, and the flower of crimson bottle brush (Callistemon citrinus, were used as sensitizers for TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The dyes have shown absorption in broad range of the visible region (400–700 nm of the solar spectrum and appreciable adsorption onto the semiconductor (TiO2 surface. The DSSCs made using the extracted dyes have shown that the open circuit voltages (Voc varied from 0.430 to 0.610 V and the short circuit photocurrent densities (Jsc ranged from 0.11 to 0.29 mA cm−2. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCE varied from 12–37%. Among the four dyes studied, the extract obtained from teak has shown the best photosensitization effects in terms of the cell output.

  16. Insertion of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells in Textiles using a Conventional Weaving Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Seo, Seon Hee; Kim, Han Seong; Lee, Dong Y.

    2015-06-01

    Increasing demands for wearable energy sources and highly flexible, lightweight photovoltaic devices have stimulated the development of textile-structured solar cells. However, the former approach of wire-type solar cell fabrication, followed by weaving of these devices, has had limited success, due to device failure caused by high friction forces and tension forces during the weaving process. To overcome this limitation, we present a new approach for textile solar cell fabrication, in which dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) electrodes are incorporated into the textile during the weaving process, using the textile warp as a spacer to maintain the DSSC structure. Porous, dye-loaded TiO2-coated holed metal ribbon and Pt nanoparticle-loaded carbon yarn were used as the photoanode and counterelectrode, respectively. The highly flexible textile-based solar cell was fabricated using a common weaving process with a loom. The inserted DSSCs in the textile demonstrated an energy conversion efficiency of 2.63% (at 1 sun, 1.5 A.M.). Our results revealed that additional performance enhancement was possible by considering other electrode materials and textile structures, as well as where and how the DSSC electrodes are inserted. In addition, we demonstrated that the inserted DSSCs could be electrically connected using a parallel configuration.

  17. Mesoporous anatase TiO2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles delivering enhanced dye-loading and charge transport for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Liang; Qin, Zhengfei; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jian; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing’ao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photoelectrodes of DSSCs consisted of mesoporous anatase TiO 2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles. The interconnected nanoparticles enhance dye-loading capacity and charge transport. - Highlights: • The mesoporous anatase TiO 2 microspheres were synthesized by a template-free, one-step fast solvothermal process. • The mesoporous anatase TiO 2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles have the advantages of large surface area and connected-structure for electron transfer. • The mesoporous anatase TiO 2 microspheres were further utilized as efficient photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. - Abstract: Mesoporous anatase TiO 2 microspheres with interconnected nanostructures meet both large surface area and connected-structure for electron transfer as ideal nano/micromaterials for application in solar cells, energy storage, catalysis, water splitting and gas sensing. In this work, mesoporous anatase TiO 2 microspheres consisting of interconnected nanoparticles were synthesized by template-free, one-step fast solvothermal process, where urea was used as capping agent to control phase and promote oriented growth. The morphology was assembled by nucleation-growth-assembly-mechanism. The mesoporous anatase TiO 2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles were further utilized as efficient photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which were beneficial to capacity of dye loading and charge transfer. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) based on the optimized thickness of TiO 2 photoelectrodes was up to 7.13% under standard AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW/cm 2 ).

  18. Photoactive layer based on T-shaped benzimidazole dyes used for solar cell: from photoelectric properties to molecular design

    OpenAIRE

    Beibei Xu; Yuanzuo Li; Peng Song; Fengcai Ma; Mengtao Sun

    2017-01-01

    Three benzimidazole-based organic dyes, possessing the same triphenylamine donors and cyanoacrylic acid acceptors with the bithiophene ?-bridges combined in different nuclear positions of benzimidazole, were investigated in the utility of dye-sensitizer solar cells. The structure, molecular orbital and energy, absorption spectra and some important parameters (such as light harvesting efficiency (LHE), electron injection driving force, the electron injection time, chemical reactivity parameter...

  19. A Review on Current Status of Stability and Knowledge on Liquid Electrolyte-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sauvage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to gather the current background in materials development and provide the reader with an accurate image of today’s knowledge regarding the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. This contribution highlights the literature from the 1970s to the present day on nanostructured TiO2, dye, Pt counter electrode, and liquid electrolyte for which this review is focused on.

  20. Near Field Enhanced Photocurrent Generation in P-type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobao; Cui, Jin; Han, Junbo; Zhang, Junpei; Zhang, Yibo; Luan, Lin; Alemu, Getachew; Wang, Zhong; Shen, Yan; Xiong, Dehua; Chen, Wei; Wei, Zhanhua; Yang, Shihe; Hu, Bin; Cheng, Yibing; Wang, Mingkui

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the field of p-type dye-sensitized solar cell (p-DSSC) devices has undergone tremendous advances, in which Cu-based delafossite nanocrystal is of prime interest. This paper presents an augment of about 87% improvement in photocurrent observed in a particular configuration of organic dye P1 sensitized CuCrO2 delafossite nanocrystal electrode coupled with organic redox shuttle, 1-methy-1H- tetrazole-5-thiolate and its disulfide dimer when Au nanoparticles (NPs, with diameter of about 20 nm) is added into the photocathode, achieving a power convert efficiency of 0.31% (measured under standard AM 1.5 G test conditions). Detailed investigation shows that the local electrical-magnetic field effect, induced by Au NPs among the mesoporous CuCrO2 film, can improve the charge injection efficiency at dye/semiconductor interface, which is responsible for the bulk of the gain in photocurrent. PMID:24492539

  1. Stability of dye-sensitized solar cells under extended thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Surendra K; Ravishankar, Sandheep; Pescetelli, Sara; Agresti, Antonio; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2017-08-23

    In the last few decades, dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) technology has been demonstrated to be a promising candidate for low cost energy production due to cost-effective materials and fabrication processes. Arguably, DSC stability is the biggest challenge for making this technology appealing for industrial exploitation. This work provides further insight into the stability of DSCs by considering specific dye-electrolyte systems characterized by Raman and impedance spectroscopy analysis. In particular, two ruthenium-based dyes, Z907 and Ru505, and two commercially available electrolytes, namely, the high stability electrolyte (HSE) and solvent-free Livion 12 (L-12), were tested. After 4700 h of thermal stress at 85 °C, the least stable device composed of Z907/HSE showed an efficiency degradation rate of ∼14%/1000 h, while the Ru505/L-12 system retained 96% of its initial efficiency by losing ∼1% each 1000 h. The present results show a viable route to stabilize the DSC technology under prolonged annealing conditions complying with the IEC standard requirements.

  2. Feasibility study on the use of liquid crystal/dye cells for digital signage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaya, Shunsuke; Azumi, Nada Dianah B. M.; Ohta, Masamichi; Ozawa, Shintaro; Fujieda, Ichiro

    2016-03-01

    Elongated dye molecules orient themselves with surrounding liquid crystal molecules. We propose to incorporate such a guest-host cell in a screen of a projection display. This configuration might be applied for digital signage to be installed on building walls. Dual-mode operation is realized by the bias applied to the cell. In display-mode, the dye molecules are oriented in parallel to the substrate of the cell. When excited by ultra-violet light, photoluminescence (PL) is generated. Because it is mostly perpendicular to the long axis of the molecule, it exits the cell efficiently. In powerharvesting mode, they are oriented vertically. The PL generated by ambient light is directed to edge surfaces where solar cells are mounted. In experiment, we fabricated a cell with commonly-available materials (coumarin 6 and a nematic liquid crystal). Anti-parallel alignment condition was adopted. We recorded PL spectra from the cell for the two excitation conditions. First, the center of the cell was irradiated by a 1.69mW blue laser beam. Second, the whole cell was uniformly exposed to the light from a fluorescent lamp at illuminance of 800lx. From the measured spectra for these cases, the contrast of luminance is calculated to be 3.2 ×105 . This factor is improved to 5 7.5×105 by attaching a polarizer sheet on the cell surface. The optical power reaching its edge surfaces is measured and it roughly agrees with the prediction by a simple model neglecting self-absorption. Development of phosphor materials with a large Stokes shift is desired to boost performance of the proposed system.

  3. ZnO/TiO{sub 2} particles and their solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerli, S., E-mail: suleymankerli@ksu.edu.tr [Department of EnergySystemsEngineering, Faculty of Elbistan Technology, Kahramanmaras SutcuImamUniversity, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Akgül, Ö., E-mail: omeraakgul@gmail.com [Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Dept. of Physics, 46100 K.Maras-Turkey (Turkey); Alver, Ü., E-mail: ualver@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Eng. 61080, Trabzon-Turkey (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    ZnO/TiO{sub 2} particles were investigated for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Nano-structured ZnO particles were produced by the hydrothermal method. TiO{sub 2} (P25) nanoparticles, was bought from the company of Degussa. Crystal structures and morphological properties of particles were examined by XRD and SEM. As an application, dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated from nano-structured produced metal oxide particles. The working electrodes of the DSSCs were obtained by mixture of ZnO and TiO{sub 2} powders. I-V characteristics of the cells were measured by using a solar simulator and the efficiency of the solar cells were obtained by using I-V graphs. ZnO cells sensitized with Ruthenium 535-bisTBA (N719) dyes yield higher efficiencies than corresponding TiO{sub 2} cells. By increasing TiO{sub 2} amount in the mixture of ZnO/TiO{sub 2}, it was observed that efficiencies of cells are getting lower.

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibre membrane gel electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissanayake, M.A.K.L.; Divarathne, H.K.D.W.M.N.R.; Thotawatthage, C.A.; Dissanayake, C.B.; Senadeera, G.K.R.; Bandara, B.M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dye sensitized solar cells based on nanofibre membrane gel electrolyte, PAN:KI:PC:I 2 were fabricated and characterized. • The solar cell with membrane electrolyte of thickness 9.14 μm showed the highest efficiency of 5.2%. • An identical solar cell based on corresponding liquid electrolyte showed an efficiency of 5.3%. • The open circuit voltage and short circuit current density of the nanofibre based solar cell were 0.67 V and 13.31 mA cm −2 . • Dye solar cells with nanofibre gel electrolytes can yield efficiencies comparable to cells with solution electrolytes. - Abstract: Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) based on electrospun nanofibre membrane electrolytes offer several advantages over liquid electrolyte based solar cells. Nanofibre membranes having different thicknesses were prepared by electrospinning on platinum electrodes from a 11 wt% solution of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at an applied voltage of 8 kV. The membranes were then activated by immersing in a solution containing potassium iodide (KI) (0.06 g), propylene carbonate (PC) (0.8 g) and iodine (I 2 ) (0.0092 g) for 30 minutes to obtain “gel” type membrane electrolytes with different thicknesses. These nanofibre membrane electrolytes were used to fabricate quasi-solid state (gel) DSSCs and the performance of these solar cells were compared with DSSCs fabricated with liquid electrolyte (KI:PC:I 2 ) and conventional PAN based gel electrolyte (PAN:KI:PC:I 2 ). DSSC with nanofibre membrane electrolyte of thickness 9.14 μm showed the highest light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 5.2% whereas an identical cell based on corresponding liquid electrolyte showed an efficiency of 5.3%. The open circuit voltage (V OC ), short circuit current density (J Sc ) and fill factor for the solar cell based on this electrolyte was 0.67 V, 13.31 mA cm −2 and 59% respectively at an incident light intensity of 1000 W m −2 with a 1.5 AM filter

  5. Surface Design in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Effects of Zwitterionic Co-adsorbents on Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2009-07-10

    In solid-state dye sensitized solar cells (SSDSCs) charge recombination at the dye-hole transporting material interface plays a critical role in the cell efficiency. For the first time we report on the influence of dipolar coadsorbents on the photovoltaic performance of sensitized hetero-junction solar cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of two zwitterionic butyric acid derivatives differing only in the polar moiety attached to their common 4 carbon-chain acid, i.e., 4-guanidinobutyric acid (GBA) and 4-aminobutyric acid (ABA). These two molecules were implemented as coadsorbents in conjunction with Z907Na dye on the SSDSC. It was found that a Z907Na/GBA dye/co-adsorbent combination increases both the open circuit voltage (V oc) and short-circuit current density ( Jsc) as compared to using Z907Na dye alone. The Z907Na/ABA dye/co-adsorbent combination increases the Jsc. Impedance and transient photovoltage investigations elucidate the cause of these remarkable observations. ©2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Aplikasi Semikonduktor TiO2 dengan Variasi Temperatur dan Waktu Tahan Kalsinasi sebagai Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC dengan Dye dari Ekstrak Buah Terung Belanda (Solanum betaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maula Nafi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai dye sensitized solar cell dilakukan dengan dye dari ekstrak buah terung belanda sebagai sumber energi alternatif dari tenaga surya. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC dibuat dengan menggunakan semikonduktor TiO2 yang dilapiskan pada kaca konduktif Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide (FTO dan dikalsinasi  dengan variasi temperatur 5500C, 6500C, dan 7500C, dengan waktu tahan 60 dan 120 menit pada tiap temperaturnya. Lapisan TiO2 pada substrat dikarakterisasi dengan menggunakan SEM dan XRD. Luas permukaan aktif diukur dengan pengujian BET. Hasil SEM menunjukkan ukuran bentuk partikel TiO2 berupa sphere. Hasil XRD menunjukkan struktur kristal TiO2 adalah body centered tetragonal. Luas permukaan aktif dibandingkan dengan hasil kelistrikan DSSC, yang selaras meningkat dari temperatur 5500C ke 6500C, namun menurun pada 7500C. Densitas arus dan voltase maksimum diperoleh pada variasi temperatur 650oC dengan waktu tahan 60 menit yaitu sebesar 0,356 mA/cm2 dan 593,1 mV. Efisiensi maksimum yang diperoleh sebesar 0,469208%. DSSC dimodifikasi dengan menambahkan pembungkus plastik, sehingga dapat memperlambat penurunan daya yang terjadi saat DSSC bekerja.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of Ag nanowires: Improved performance in dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia A. Kazmi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs with good photovoltaic parameters is an active research area of current global interest. Recently, one dimensional nanomaterial, such as nanorods and nanotubes has replaced the nanoparticles used in DSSCs anode because of their ability to improve the electron transport leading to enhanced electron collection efficiency. In the present work, rapid synthesis of silver nanowires (AgNWs was done. The XRD characterization was performed to confirm the formation and size of synthesized AgNWs. It was observed that FWHM of the diffraction peaks was increased with AgNWs concentration in TiO2. The synthesized TiO2AgNWs nanocomposite was used as the photo anode of Dye sensitized solar cell. The I–V characteristics of the solar cell were drawn using standard conditions. It was observed that TiO2AgNWs based solar cells have significantly increased photocurrent density resulting in improved conversion efficiency as compared to pure TiO2 based DSSC.

  8. Photocurrent enhanced by singlet fission in a dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauben, Joel N; Zhao, Yixin; Mercado, Candy; Dron, Paul I; Ryerson, Joseph L; Michl, Josef; Zhu, Kai; Johnson, Justin C

    2015-02-04

    Investigations of singlet fission have accelerated recently because of its potential utility in solar photoconversion, although only a few reports definitively identify the role of singlet fission in a complete solar cell. Evidence of the influence of singlet fission in a dye-sensitized solar cell using 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPIBF, 1) as the sensitizer is reported here. Self-assembly of the blue-absorbing 1 with co-adsorbed oxidation products on mesoporous TiO2 yields a cell with a peak internal quantum efficiency of ∼70% and a power conversion efficiency of ∼1.1%. Introducing a ZrO2 spacer layer of thickness varying from 2 to 20 Å modulates the short-circuit photocurrent such that it is initially reduced as thickness increases but 1 with 10-15 Å of added ZrO2. This rise can be explained as being due to a reduced rate of injection of electrons from the S1 state of 1 such that singlet fission, known to occur with a 30 ps time constant in polycrystalline films, has the opportunity to proceed efficiently and produce two T1 states per absorbed photon that can subsequently inject electrons into TiO2. Transient spectroscopy and kinetic simulations confirm this novel mode of dye-sensitized solar cell operation and its potential utility for enhanced solar photoconversion.

  9. Advantages of using Ti-mesh type electrodes for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weizhen; Qiu, Jijun; Zhuge, Fuwei; Li, Xiaomin; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Yang-Do; Kim, Hyung-Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2012-06-08

    We used Ti meshes for both the photoanodes and counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to improve the flexibility and conductivity of the electrodes. These mesh type electrodes showed good transparency and high bendability when subjected to an external force. We demonstrated the advantages of cells using such electrodes compared to traditional transparent conducting oxide based electrodes and back side illuminated DSSCs, such as low sheet resistance, elevated photo-induced current and enhanced sunlight utilization. Nanotube layers of different thicknesses were investigated to determine their effect on the photovoltaic parameters of the cell. The overall efficiency of the best cells was approximately 5.3% under standard air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5 G) solar conditions. Furthermore, the DSSCs showed an efficiency of approximately 3.15% due to the all Ti-mesh type electrodes even after illumination from the back side.

  10. BaSnO3 perovskite nanoparticles for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Shin, Seong Sik; Lee, Sangwook; Cho, In Sun; Kim, Dong Hoe; Lee, Chan Woo; Jung, Hyun Suk; Hong, Kug Sun

    2013-03-01

    The synthesis of highly crystalline perovskite BaSnO3 nanoparticles for use as photoanode materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is reported, and the photovoltaic properties of DSSCs based on BaSnO3 nanoparticles (BaSnO3 cells) are demonstrated. The resulting DSSCs exhibit remarkably rapid charge collection and a DSSC fabricated with a BaSnO3 film thickness of 43 µm leads to a high energy conversion efficiency of 5.2 %, which is one of the highest reported for ternary oxide-based DSSCs. More importantly, the BaSnO3 cells show superior charge collection in nanoparticle films compared to TiO2 cells and could offer a breakthrough in the efficiencies of DSSCs. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. ZnO@SnO2 engineered composite photoanodes for dye sensitized solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    R. Milan; G. S. Selopal; M. Epifani; M. M. Natile; G. Sberveglieri; A. Vomiero; I. Concina

    2015-01-01

    Layered multi-oxide concept was applied for fabrication of photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO and SnO2, capitalizing on the beneficial properties of each oxide. The effect of different combinations of ZnO@SnO2 layers was investigated, aimed at exploiting the high carrier mobility provided by the ZnO and the higher stability under UV irradiation pledged by SnO2. Bi-oxide photoanodes performed much better in terms of photoconversion efficiency (PCE) (4.96%) compared to bare...

  12. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on High Surface Area Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Srinivasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High surface area nanocrystalline zinc oxide material is fabricated using mesoporous nanostructured carbon as a sacrificial template through combustion process. The resulting material is characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, HR-SEM, and HR-TEM. The nitrogen adsorption measurement indicates that the materials possess BET specific surface area ca. 30 m2/g. Electron microscopy images prove that the zinc oxide spheres possess particle size in the range of 0.12 μm–0.17 μm. The nanocrystalline zinc oxide spheres show 1.0% of energy conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  13. Photoanode for Aqueous Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells based on a Novel Multicomponent Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Samantha; Lima, Lucas F; Roman, Lucimara S; Zarbin, Aldo J G

    2018-02-13

    Most of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) developed so far use organic electrolytes and water-sensible sensitizers. The search for aqueous DSSCs, a promising technology for solar-energy conversion, implies finding materials that are stable in aqueous solution. In this study, Prussian blue (PB) was utilized as an innovative sensitizer in a photoanode for DSSCs and a novel synthetic approach to a carbon nanotubes/TiO 2 /PB nanocomposite thin film was developed. The photoresponse was evaluated in a total aqueous electrolyte, and photocurrents of 600 μA cm -2 were achieved. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. (Invited) Atomic Layer Deposition for Novel Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Herein we present the latest fabrication and characterization techniques for atomic layer deposition of Al 2O 3, ZnO, SnO 2, Nb 2O 5, HfO 2, Ga 2O 3 and TiO 2 for research on dye-sensitized solar cell. In particular, we review the fabrication of state-of-the-art 3D host-passivation-guest photoanodes and ZnO nanowires as well as characterize the deposited thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, X-ray diffraction, Hall effect, J-V curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. ©The Electrochemical Society.

  15. CoS-Graphene Composite Counter Electrode for High Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Wu, Congcong; Tan, Yuan; Jin, Tetsuro; Chi, Bo; Pu, Jian; Jian, Li

    2015-02-01

    CoS-graphene composite counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was prepared by coating hydrothermal synthesized CoS with graphene onto the FTO conductive glass. SEM shows that CoS particles are uniformly dispersed in the graphene. The result confirms that the prepared composite counter electrode is of highly electrocatalytic activity towards iodine reduction, which is even better than Pt electrode. And cyclic voltammetry measurement also shows that the composite counter electrode has good stability after 100 scan cycles. DSSC with CoS-graphene as composite counter electrode achieves a maximum power conversion efficiency of 6.31%, which is better than Pt electrode.

  16. High performance dye-sensitized solar cell based on hydrothermally deposited multiwall carbon nanotube counter electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriroj, Sumeth; Pimanpang, Samuk; Towannang, Madsakorn; Maiaugree, Wasan; Phumying, Santi; Jarernboon, Wirat; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya

    2012-06-01

    Conductive glass was coated with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a hydrothermal method. MWCNTs films were subsequently used as dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) counter electrodes. The performance of hydrothermal MWCNT DSSC was ˜2.37%. After film annealing in an Ar atmosphere, annealed-hydrothermal MWCNT (AHT-CNT) DSSC efficiency was significantly increased to ˜7.66%, in comparison to ˜8.01% for sputtered-Pt DSSC. Improvement of AHT-CNT DSSC performance is attributed to a decrease in charge-transfer resistance from 1500 Ω to 30 Ω as observed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  17. Towards Renewable Iodide Sources for Electrolytes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sagaidak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel family of iodide salts and ionic liquids based on different carbohydrate core units is herein described for application in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. The influence of the molecular skeleton and the cationic structure on the electrolyte properties, device performance and on interfacial charge transfer has been investigated. In combination with the C106 polypyridyl ruthenium sensitizer, power conversion efficiencies lying between 5.0% and 7.3% under standard Air Mass (A.M. 1.5G conditions were obtained in association with a low volatile methoxypropionitrile (MPN-based electrolyte.

  18. Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Nanostructure Graphene Electron Transfer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of nanostructure graphene thin films as electron transfer layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was demonstrated. The effect of a nanostructure graphene thin film in DSSC structure was examined. The nanostructure graphene thin films provides a great electron transfer channel for the photogenerated electrons from TiO2 to indium tin oxide (ITO glass. Obvious improvements in short-circuit current density of the DSSCs were observed by using the graphene electron transport layer modified photoelectrode. The graphene electron transport layer reduces effectively the back reaction in the interface between the ITO transparent conductive film and the electrolyte in the DSSC.

  19. Fabrication of Monolithic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using Ionic Liquid Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the durability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, monolithic DSCs with ionic liquid electrolyte were studied. Deposited by screen printing, a carbon layer was successfully fabricated that did not crack or peel when annealing was employed beforehand. Optimized electrodes exhibited photovoltaic characteristics of 0.608 V open-circuit voltage, 6.90 cm−2 mA short-circuit current, and 0.491 fill factor, yielding 2.06% power conversion efficiency. The monolithic DSC using ionic liquid electrolyte was thermally durable and operated stably for 1000 h at 80°C.

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cell with natural gel polymer electrolytes and f-MWCNT as counter-electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Ekwealor, A. B. C.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

    2015-05-01

    Samples of DSSCs were made with gel polymer electrolytes using agar, gelatin and DNA as the polymer hosts. Anthocyanine dye from Hildegardia barteri flower is used to sensitize the TiO2 electrode, and the spectrum of the dye indicates strong absorptions in the blue region of the solar spectrum. The XRD pattern of the TiO2 shows that the adsorption of the dye did not affect the crystallinity of the electrode. The f-MWCNT indicates graphite structure of the MWCNTs were acid oxidized without significant damage. Efficiencies of 3.38 and 0.1% were obtained using gelatin and DNA gel polymer electrolytes, respectively, for the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells.

  1. One-dimensional titania nanostructures: Synthesis and applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Guo, Zhiguang; Wang, Shimin; Liu, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) titania (TiO 2 ) in the form of nanorods, nanowires, nanobelts and nanotubes have attracted much attention due to their unique physical, chemical and optical properties enabling extraordinary performance in biomedicine, sensors, energy storage, solar cells and photocatalysis. In this review, we mainly focus on synthetic methods for 1D TiO 2 nanostructures and the applications of 1D TiO 2 nanostructures in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Traditional nanoparticle-based DSCs have numerous grain boundaries and surface defects, which increase the charge recombination from photoanode to electrolyte. 1D TiO 2 nanostructures can provide direct and rapid electron transport to the electron collecting electrode, indicating a promising choice for DSCs. We divide the applications of 1D TiO 2 nanostructures in DSCs into four parts, that is, 1D TiO 2 nanostructures only, 1D TiO 2 nanostructure/nanoparticle composites, branched 1D TiO 2 nanostructures, and 1D TiO 2 nanostructures combined with other materials. This work will provide guidance for preparing 1D TiO 2 nanostructures, and using them as photoanodes in efficient DSCs. - Graphical abstract: 1D TiO 2 nanostructures which can provide direct and rapid pathways for electron transport have promising applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The synthetic methods and applications of 1D TiO 2 nanostructures in DSCs are summarized in this review article.

  2. Efficiency improvement in dye sensitized solar cells by the plasmonic effect of green synthesized silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has been remarkably increased by incorporation of green synthesized silver nanoparticles into TiO2 photoanodes. Uniform silver nanoparticles were developed by treating silver ions with Peltophorum pterocarpum flower extract at room temperature. The obtained silver nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-vis. spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction analysis and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the obtained silver nanoparticles were polycrystalline in nature with face centered cubic lattice. Silver nanoparticles, with an approximate size in the range of 20–50 nm were examined by the TEM. The plasmonic nanocomposite material was prepared by mixing different green synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag content of 1, 2 and 3 wt% with P25TiO2 nanoparticles and used as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. Due to the plasmonic effect of the modified electrode, the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell was improved from 2.83% to 3.62% with increment around 28% after incorporation of the 2 wt% of the silver nanoparticles. Maximum increases in open-circuit voltage (up to 12.1% and in short-circuit current density (up to 10.7% were observed.

  3. Comparing electron recombination via interfacial modifications in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Luping; Chen, Shikai; Xu, Cheng; Zhao, Yang; Rudawski, Nicholas G; Ziegler, Kirk J

    2014-12-10

    Establishing a blocking layer between the interfaces of the photoanode is an effective approach to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this work, HfO2 blocking layers are deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) and TiO2. In both cases, addition of the blocking layer increases cell efficiencies to greater than 7%. The improved performance for a HfO2 layer inserted between the ITO/TiO2 interface is associated with an energy barrier that reduces electron recombination. HfO2 blocking layers between the TiO2/dye interface show more complex behavior and are more sensitive to the number of ALD cycles. For thin blocking layers on TiO2, the improved device performance is attributed to the passivation of surface states in TiO2. A distinct transition in dark current and electron lifetime are observed after 4 ALD cycles. These changes to performance indicate thick HfO2 layers on TiO2 formed an energy barrier that significantly hinders cell performance.

  4. Recent advances in alloy counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Qunwei; Duan, Jialong; Duan, Yanyan; He, Benlin; Yu, Liangmin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent advances on alloy CEs for DSSCs are reviewed. • Pt-free CEs with nonmetal species suffer from structure deviation or collapse at cell operation. • Alloyed CEs exhibit enhanced catalytic activity for triiodide reduction. • Alloyed CEs display enhanced dissolution resistance in liquid electrolyte. - Abstract: Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has been considered as a potentially cost-effective alternative to silicon solar cell. By optimizing three components of a typical DSSC including a dye-sensitized wide-bandgap semiconductor photoanode for creating and transporting electrons, n redox electrolyte, and a counter electrode (CE) for reducing oxidized species in electrolyte, a maximum power conversion efficiency of 13% has been determined. The high cost of DSSCs is to a large part dictated by the high loading of Pt required to catalyze the triiodide reduction reaction. Arguably one of the arising routes to reduce fabrication cost of DSSCs with no sacrifice of catalytic activity of CEs is to alloy Pt with other metals/nonmetals or to replace Pt with Pt-free alloys. In this perspective paper, we outline the advances of alloy CEs in comparison with other alternatives such as carbonaceous materials and conductive polymers and their hybrids including design concepts, fabrication approaches, and properties. Finally, this review launches prospects and challenges of promising alloy CEs for their applications in high-efficiency DSSCs.

  5. O2 plasma sintering study of TiO2 photoelectrodes in dye solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, R. S.; Gonçalves, A. D.; Stegemann, C.; da Silva Sobrinho, A. S.; Miyakawa, W.; Massi, M.

    2017-08-01

    The development of more efficient photoelectrochemical solar cells has been, over the years, the subject of many scientific researches. In this paper a methodology was established to carry out the sintering process of nanoporous TiO2 layer by using plasma, which was compared with sintered layers made by the conventional sintering process in a furnace. The TiO2 commercial paste was spread by doctor-blading technique and subjected to different sintering processes. Porous layer samples were subjected to structural and morphological analyses. Then photoelectrodes dye-loading was measured by optical spectrophotometry. The quality of the layers under plasma sintering process in terms of weight loss and removal of organic compounds was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry and FT-IR. The results showed that the plasma sintering process favors the adsorption of dye on the layer surface due to the creation of active states caused by O2 reactive plasma. Furthermore the O2 plasma process provides enough energy for removing organic compounds arising from the TiO2 paste and for providing nanoparticle sintering. Solar cells assembled with the plasma-sintered layers had a power conversion efficiency 20.1% higher than the obtained in solar cells sintered in a conventional furnace, proving the efficiency of the plasma sintering process.

  6. Controlling the microstructure and properties of titania nanopowders for high efficiency dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalan, A.E.; Rashad, M.M.; Yu, Youhai; Lira-Cantú, Mónica; Abdel-Mottaleb, M.S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) A highly ordered, vertically oriented TiO 2 nanorods compared with TiO 2 nanopaticles and (b) Dye sensitized solar cell fabricated using sealing technique. Highlights: ► TiO 2 nanorods particles size of 3–5 nm was synthesized hydrothermally at 100 °C. ► S BET was 78.14 m 2 /g and the band gap energy was 3.2 eV. ► (J sc ) and (V oc ) of the DSSC were in the range 10.84–13.23 mA cm −2 and 0.71–0.78 V. ► Conversion efficiency of DSSCs was 7.2%. ► IPCE analyses of the DSSC showed two peaks, at ∼350 and 520 nm. -- Abstract: A low temperature hydrothermal process have been developed to synthesize titania nanorods (NRs) and nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled size for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Effect of calcination temperature on the performance of TiO 2 nanoparticles for solar cells was investigated and discussed. The crystallite size and the relative crystallinity of the anatase phase were increased with increasing the calcination temperature. The structures and morphologies of both (TiO 2 nanorods and nanoparticles) were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM/HRTEM, UV–vis Spectroscopy, FTIR and BET specific surface area (S BET ) as well as pore-size distribution by BJH. The size of the titania nanorods was 6.7 nm width and 22 nm length while it was 13 nm for nanoparticles. Efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated with oriented TiO 2 nanorods was reported to be more superior compared to DSSC based on mesoporous TiO 2 nanoparticles due to their high surface area, hierarchically mesoporous structures, low charge recombination and fast electron-transfer rate. With increasing calcination temperature of the prepared nanopowders, the light-electricity conversion efficiency (η) decreased. The efficiency of the assembly solar cells was decreased due to the agglomeration of the particles and difficulty of electron movement. The power efficiency was enhanced from 1.7% for TiO 2 nanoparticles cells at

  7. Dye sensitized solar cells based on nanowire sculptured thin film titanium dioxide photoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursel, Sean M.

    Energy harvested from the sun using photovoltaics (PVs) is a renewable resource in high demand. Photovoltaics convert photons into electron-hole pairs which are then separated and used for electrical power. 75 TW of energy arrives from the sun every year onto US soil. Harvesting it all would provide enough energy to power the entire world for more than five years. It is this abundance of energy that makes PVs an attractive alternative to fossil fuels. PVs currently produce 0.15% of the energy consumed in the US. Production needs to grow as the worldwide demand for energy is projected to almost double by 2050. Fundamental and device based PV research have made steady efficiency gains in silicon based devices and thin film devices have started to become commercially viable. However, less expensive devices with suitable efficiency have not been fully developed. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are one such device which has been optimized using standard components. However, device efficiency has not increased significantly since DSSCs were first conceived in 1991. Interestingly, none of the standard components are optimized, but act in a synergistic way in the most efficient devices. This research, along with other parallel research, attempts to optimize a single component of DSSCs with the goal of combining efforts to produce a device with increased efficiency. This research attempts to optimize the TiO2 photoanode used in DSSCs in terms of electron collection, dye coverage, light harvesting, and novel electrolyte infiltration by replacing the standard colloidal structure with nanowires deposited using physical vapor deposition at an oblique angle to form sculptured thin films. The results are quantified through standard photovoltaic testing, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, and general materials characterization techniques. The nanowire photoanodes are engineered during deposition using reactive evaporation, substrate heating

  8. Optimizations of large area quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, M.; West, K.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we address optimizations of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) through the combination of important issues like semi-transparency, quasi-solid-state constructions and low-cost realization of serially connected modules. DSSCs with a transparency of 50% in the visible region, moderate...... efficiency similar to 1%, and long lifetime allow solar cells application in building elements like windows, facades and semi-transparent roofs. The use in DSSCs of gel polymer electrolytes prepared by liquid electrolyte incorporation into a polymer matrix such as poly-methyl-methacrylate presents...... encouraging results. A short circuit current (I-sc) of 4.45 mA cm(-2) with an open circuit voltage (V-oc) of 0.5 V were recorded in standard solar cells sensitized by cis-bis(thiocyano) ruthenium(II)-bis-2, 2'-bipyridine-4, 4'-dicarboxylate. Up-scaling tests demonstrate the easy realization of a 625 cm(2...

  9. Rhodamine dyes as potential agents for photochemotherapy of cancer in human bladder carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, C.R.; Chen, N.; Wimberly, J.; Hasan, T.

    1989-01-01

    The phototoxicity in vitro of rhodamine 123 and tetrabromo rhodamine 123 (TBR) was compared, in order to assess their photochemotherapeutic potential. Exposure to 514.5-nm radiation from an argon ion laser caused phototoxicity in MGH-U1 bladder carcinoma cells previously treated with either dye at 10 microM for 30 min. As assessed by colony formation and cellular morphology, TBR was markedly more phototoxic than rhodamine 123, reflecting increased intersystem crossing of TBR to the triplet manifold via spin-orbital coupling induced by the heavy bromine atoms. Photoreactions of TBR very efficiently generated singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) in solution; furthermore, irradiation of TBR-treated cells was significantly more toxic when performed in the presence of deuterium oxide, an enhancer of damage caused by 1 O 2 . Retention of fluorescence in TBR-treated cells was enhanced by irradiation, indicating that a stable photoproduct may be formed in reaction with cellular components

  10. Application of Large Area TiO2 Photoelectrode on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Nursam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scale-up of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC has been a big issue as the DSSC technology process progresses from laboratory scale to large area applications. Meanwhile, this type of solar cell has been of great interest among PV scientist and academics as it can be produced in lower-cost processes compared to the conventional solar cells which are mostly fabricated from silicon. The fabrication of DSSC prototypes with a relatively large active area of 9x9 cm2 are demonstrated in this paper. Large area of TiO2 surface has been shown to significantly increase the ISC, as well as VOC and Pmax. Nevertheless, deterioration of fill factor (FF was observed as the result of the increase on series resistance with respect to the increase in the photoelectrode area.

  11. Low-cost carbon-based counter electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberio, M; Imbrogno, A; Bonanno, A; Xu, F; Grosso, D R

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present the realization of four carbon-based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The photovoltaic behaviours of counter electrodes realized with graphene, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and nanocomposites of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and metal nanoparticles are compared with those of classical electrodes (amorphous carbon and platinum). Our results show an increase of about 50% in PCE for graphene and Ag/carbon nanotube electrodes with respect to amorphous carbon and of 25% in comparison to platinum. An improvement in cell stability is also observed; in fact, the PCE of all carbon-based cells assumes a constant value during a period of one month while that with the Pt electrode decreases by 50% in one week. (paper)

  12. Electric Characterization and Modeling of Microfluidic-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Sacco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric response to an external periodic voltage of small amplitude of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs made up with an alternative architecture has been investigated. DSCs have been fabricated with a reversible sealing structure, based on microfluidic concepts, with a precise control on the geometric parameters of the active chamber. Cells with different electrolyte thicknesses have been characterized, without varying the thickness of the TiO2 layer, both under illumination and in dark conditions. Measurements of the electric impedance have been performed in the presence of an external bias ranging from 0 V to 0.8 V. The experimental data have been analyzed in terms of a transmission line model, with two transport channels. The results show that the photovoltaic performances of the microfluidic cell are comparable with those obtained in irreversibly sealed structures, actually demonstrating the reliability of the proposed device.

  13. Performance Maintenance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Latent Heat Storage Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, Naoto; Horibe, Akihiko

    2017-07-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in various renewable energies. Among them, solar cell production has increased markedly because the photovoltaic is a clean and safe power generation method. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has attracted much attention as an alternative to silicon solar cells due to lower manufacturing costs and plentiful resources for DSSC production. However, the performance of DSSCs has been limited by their durability and low photoelectric conversion efficiency. Temperature control of DSSCs via phase-change materials (PCMs) is expected to improve performance. In this study, DSSCs were heated or cooled with a heat exchanger copper block that was in contact with a PCM (heptadecane), while being irradiated by a solar simulator light source. The durability and photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC improved under PCM temperature control.

  14. Black-Dye-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells using the Electrolyte Solutions Containing a Quaternary Phosphonium Iodide with a Various Alkyl Chain Length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Hironobu; Urayama, Ayako; Arakawa, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    Solar cell performances of the cosensitized dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with Black dye and D131 using the electrolyte solution containing a quaternary phosphonium iodide with a various alkyl chain length have been evaluated by the photoelectrochemical and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements. Effects of the difference of the central atom between the quaternary phosphonium iodide and the quaternary ammonium iodide on the solar cell performances have been clarified. The DSC using the electrolyte solution containing tetrabutylphosphonium iodide showed higher Jsc. value and lower Voc and FF values compared to those of the DSC using the electrolyte solution containing tetrabutylammonium iodide. In addition, effects of the alkyl chain length of the quaternary phosphonium iodide on the solar cell performances have been also investigated. The blocking effect of the quaternary phosphonium cation for the access of I 3 − to the TiO 2 surface was found to be improved with increasing the alkyl chain length. The highest conversion efficiency (11.3%) could be obtained in the cosensitized DSC with Black dye and D131 using the electrolyte solution containing a moderate concentration of tetraoctylphosphonium iodide under AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm 2 ) irradiation. This study demonstrated that the quaternary phosphonium iodide with a longer alkyl chain is also effective for the improvement of the conversion efficiency of the DSCs due to both the improvement of the electron lifetime in the TiO 2 photoelectrode and the slight increment of the conduction band energy of the TiO 2 .

  15. Self-Assembled ZnO Nanosheet-Based Spherical Structure as Photoanode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Mohsen; Raoufi, Meysam; Zamani-Meymian, M.-R.; Samavat, Feridoun; Fathollahi, M.-R.; Mohajerani, Ezeddin

    2018-03-01

    High surface area and enhanced light scattering of ZnO nanosheet aggregates have made them a promising active layer candidate material for fabrication of nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cells. Here, we propose a facile preparation method of such ZnO nanosheet structures, and in order to verify their applicability as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells, we employ morphological, optical, structural and electrical measurements. The results reveal the high surface area available for dye molecules for enhancing adsorption, high light scattering and competitive power conversion efficiencies compared to the works in literature. Finally, the device is optimized with respect to the photoanode thickness. The favorable features shown here can extend the application of the structure to other types of sensitization-based perovskite and quantum dot solar cells.

  16. Development of stable current collectors for large area dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Isabel; Martins, Jorge; Tavares, Carlos José; Andrade, Luísa; Mendes, Adélio

    2017-11-01

    The substrate sheet resistance effect in a large area dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) device is still the main factor responsible for low energy conversion efficiencies. In this work, current collectors made of metal lines were applied by magnetron sputtering on a transparent conducting glass substrate. The introduction of these metal lines enabled a decrease in the sheet resistance from 7.26 Ω·□-1 to 2.52 Ω·□-1, by depositing an optimized 1.0 μm tungsten thick layer on the top of 1.5 μm thick molybdenum lines. These Mo/W lines withstanded long-term stability when in contact with iodide/triiodide redox couple. Large area dye-sensitized solar cells with 36 cm2 of active area were assembled and the power conversion efficiency increased from 0.54% to 1.62% when ten metal lines were applied in both electrodes. As a final design, Mo/W lines were only applied onto the counter-electrode and protected with an indium-tin oxide layer; the resulting device showed a power conversion efficiency of 3.43%, compared with the reference efficiency of 2.38%.

  17. Low-Temperature Processing of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji Al Dahoudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the low-temperature processing of different organofunctional silanes like TEOS, GPTS, and MPTS to incorporate within TiO2 network, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs processed at low temperatures were obtained. The UV-cured MPTS-modified layer exhibited better performance over the TEOS and GPTS, where better mechanical stable layer is achieved in addition to better interconnection between the TiO2 nanoparticles. The J-V characteristics of the DSC composed of silane-based layer showed that the improved cell performance was due to the high photocurrent density accompanied with more dye adsorption and higher charge injection from TiO2 to FTO substrate resulting from the formation of an ohmic contact with the substrate. The highest conversion efficiency attained for MPTS-TiO2 layer cured with UV and followed by heating at 300∘C was 3.75±0.07%, which is 2.8 times better than the GPTS-based layer.

  18. Optical, electrical and electrochemical evaluation of sputtered platinum counter electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, R. S.; Saito, E.; Leite, D. M. G.; Massi, M.; da Silva Sobrinho, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Since Grätzel and O'Regan started in 1991, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have been extensively studied around the world. In addition to increasing efficiency, their characteristics such as low cost materials and inexpensive manufacturing processes are attractive for organic solar cells. Several parts of DSSC devices are being researched such as semiconductor engineering, low cost counter electrodes, electrolytes, and dyes. In this work, platinum (Pt) thin films were deposited by sputtering technique to produce counter electrodes for DSSC. The films were characterized by profilometry, elipsometry, four-point probe sheet resistance, spectrophotometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode response was also compared to that built from a commercial platinum solution. The results allow us to determine the minimum Pt film thickness necessary to achieve a relevant reduction of the sheet resistance and charge transfer resistance, which preserve a significant electrode transparency. The 22 nm and 24.8 nm thick films combined low charge transfer resistance and good transparency. The 122 nm Pt film presented the lowest charge transfer resistance.

  19. Paper-based quasi-solid dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bella, Federico; Pugliese, Diego; Zolin, Lorenzo; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural cellulose fibres as photoanode and electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells. • TiO 2 -laden paper foils as photoanodes obtained by papermaking. • Nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose as polymer electrolyte. • Efficiencies as high as 3.55% under 1 sun irradiation. • Stability equal to 96% after 1000 h of accelerated aging test. - Abstract: Natural cellulose fibres are proposed as promising components for bioderived photoanodes and polymer electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In particular, TiO 2 -laden paper foils, prepared by simple papermaking, can be applied to several substrates (conductive glass or plastics) instead of the high-temperature sintered traditional commercial pastes. In addition, nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose is used as reinforcing filler in acrylate/methacrylate-based thermo-set polymer electrolyte membranes prepared by means of fast, low-cost and green UV-induced free-radical photopolymerization. The laboratory-scale quasi-solid state paper-DSSCs assembled with cellulose-based electrodes and electrolytes guarantee sunlight conversion efficiencies as high as 3.55 and 5.20% at simulated light intensities of 1 and 0.2 sun, respectively, along with an excellent efficiency retention of 96% after 1000 h of accelerated aging test. The simple, low cost and green approach here specifically developed opens up intriguing prospects in the design of bio-inspired energy conversion devices showing high performance, outstanding durability and truly sustainable characteristics.

  20. Transition Metal Polypyridine Complexes: Studies of Mediation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Charge Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. Michael [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Prieto, Amy L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-02-08

    The Elliott group has long been supported by DOE for studies of cobalt(II/III) trisbypiridine (DTB) mediator complexes in dye sensitized solar cells. Previous work demonstrated that Co(II/III) chemistry is sensitive to the environment, showing unprecedented electrode-surface and electrolyte dependant voltammetry. In electrolytes that have large lipophilic cations, voltammetry of the [Co(DTB)3]2+/3+ couple is nearly Nernstian in appearance on nominally oxide-free metal surfaces. In contrast, on semiconductor electrodes in electrolytes with small, hard cations such as Li+, the electron transfer rates are so slow that it is difficult to measure any Faradaic current even at overpotentials of ±1 V. These studies are of direct relevance to the operation of cobalt-based mediators in solar cells. The research has also shown that these mediators are compatible with copper phenantroline based dyes, in contrast to I- due to the insolubility of CuI.

  1. Electrospun polymethylacrylate nanofibers membranes for quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fathy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymethylacrylate (PMA nanofibers membranes are fabricated by electrospinning technique and applied to the polymer matrix in quasi-solid-state electrolytes for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. There is no previous studies reporting the production of PMA nanofibers. The electrospinning parameters such as polymer concentration, applied voltage, feed rate, tip to collector distance and solvent were optimized. Electrospun PMA fibrous membrane with average fiber diameter of 350 nm was prepared from a 10 wt% solution of PMA in a mixture of acetone/N,N-dimethylacetamide (6:4 v/v at an applied voltage of 20 kV. It was then activated by immersing it in 0.5 M LiI, 0.05 M I2, and 0.5 M 4-tert-butylpyridine in 3-methoxyproponitrile to obtain the corresponding membrane electrolyte with an ionic conductivity of 2.4 × 10−3 S cm−1 at 25 °C. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs employing the quasi solid-state electrolyte have an open-circuit voltage (Voc of 0.65 V and a short circuit current (Jsc of 6.5 mA cm−2 and photoelectric energy conversion efficiency (η of 1.4% at an incident light intensity of 100 mW cm−2.

  2. Direct fluorescent-dye labeling of α-tubulin in mammalian cells for live cell and superresolution imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartz, Tomer; Aloush, Noa; Goliand, Inna; Segal, Inbar; Nachmias, Dikla; Arbely, Eyal; Elia, Natalie

    2017-10-15

    Genetic code expansion and bioorthogonal labeling provide for the first time a way for direct, site-specific labeling of proteins with fluorescent-dyes in live cells. Although the small size and superb photophysical parameters of fluorescent-dyes offer unique advantages for high-resolution microscopy, this approach has yet to be embraced as a tool in live cell imaging. Here we evaluated the feasibility of this approach by applying it for α-tubulin labeling. After a series of calibrations, we site-specifically labeled α-tubulin with silicon rhodamine (SiR) in live mammalian cells in an efficient and robust manner. SiR-labeled tubulin successfully incorporated into endogenous microtubules at high density, enabling video recording of microtubule dynamics in interphase and mitotic cells. Applying this labeling approach to structured illumination microscopy resulted in an increase in resolution, highlighting the advantages in using a smaller, brighter tag. Therefore, using our optimized assay, genetic code expansion provides an attractive tool for labeling proteins with a minimal, bright tag in quantitative high-resolution imaging. © 2017 Schvartz et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. Dynamical Orientation of Large Molecules on Oxide Surfaces and its Implications for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.

    2013-11-12

    A dual experimental-computational approach utilizing near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and density functional theory-molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) is presented for determining the orientation of a large adsorbate on an oxide substrate. A system of interest in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells is studied: an organic cyanoacrylic acid-based donor-π-acceptor dye (WN1) bound to anatase TiO2. Assessment of nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS spectra is supported by calculations of the electronic structure that indicate energetically discrete transitions associated with the two π systems of the C-N triple bond in the cyanoacrylic acid portion of the dye. Angle-resolved NEXAFS spectra are fitted to determine the orientation of these two orbital systems, and the results indicate an upright orientation of the adsorbed dye, 63 from the TiO2 surface plane. These experimental results are then compared to computational studies of the WN1 dye on an anatase (101) TiO2 slab. The ground state structure obtained from standard DFT optimization is less upright (45 from the surface) than the NEXAFS results. However, DFT-MD simulations, which provide a more realistic depiction of the dye at room temperature, exhibit excellent agreement - within 2 on average - with the angles determined via NEXAFS, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the dynamic nature of adsorbate-substrate interactions and DFT-MD\\'s powerful predictive abilities. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Fabrication and characterization dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on TiO2/SnO2 composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyaro'ah, Huda, Ichsanul; Indayani, Wahyu; Gunawan, Bodi; Yudhoyono, G.; Endarko

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on TiO2/SnO2 composite electrode has been fabricated. In this research, modifications TiO2 electrode in the form of composite TiO2/SnO2 which aims to optimize the process of transfer and charge separation that reduces premature recombination in the cells, so as to increase the conversion efficiency and stability of dye-sensitized solar cell performance. In this study, DSSC is composed of several components, among others, a semiconductor oxide, a layer of dye, a counter electrode, and an electrolyte. This study used three types of semiconductors at the working electrode is pure TiO2, composite TiO2/SnO2 and pure SnO2, electrolyte gel based polymer PEG with BM 1000, plate carbon as the counter electrode (cathode), and the use of dye from synthetic materials N-749 as dye sensitizer. This study tested with xenon lamp light source intensity of 100mW/cm2. Results of research and calculations showed that the DSSC based composite electrode TiO2/SnO2 better than the DSSC based pure TiO2 electrodes and based pure SnO2 electrodes, this is indicated by the value efficient as follows: 0.041%, 0.019%, and 0.0114%.

  5. Discovery of S···C≡N Intramolecular Bonding in a Thiophenylcyanoacrylate-Based Dye: Realizing Charge Transfer Pathways and Dye···TiO 2 Anchoring Characteristics for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Jacqueline M. [Cavendish; ISIS; Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Department; Blood-Forsythe, Martin A. [Cavendish; Lin, Tze-Chia [Cavendish; Pattison, Philip [Swiss; Gong, Yun [Cavendish; Vázquez-Mayagoitia, Álvaro [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Waddell, Paul G. [Cavendish; Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering, Australian Nuclear Science; Zhang, Lei [Cavendish; Koumura, Nagatoshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565, Japan; Mori, Shogo [Division

    2017-07-25

    Donor-pi-acceptor dyes containing thiophenyl pi-conjugated units and cyanoacrylate acceptor groups are among the best-performing organic chromophores used in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) applications. Yet, the molecular origins of their high photovoltaic output have remained unclear until now. This synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction study elucidates these origins for the high-performance thiophenylcyanoacrylate-based dye MK-2 (7.7% DSC device efficiency) and its molecular building block, MK-44. The crystal structures of MK-2 and MK-44 are both determined, while a high-resolution charge-density mapping of the smaller molecule was also possible, enabling the nature of its bonding to be detailed. A strong S center dot center dot center dot C equivalent to N intramolecular interaction is discovered, which bears a bond critical point, thus proving that this interaction should be formally classified as a chemical bond. A topological analysis of the pi-conjugated portion of MK-44 shows that this S center dot center dot center dot C equivalent to N bonding underpins the highly efficient intramolecular charge transfer(ICT) in thiophenylcyanoacrylate dyes. This manifests as two bipartite ICT pathways bearing carboxylate and nitrile end points. In turn, these pathways dictate a preferred COO/CN anchoring mode for the dye as it adsorbs onto TiO2 surfaces, to form the dye TiO2 interface that constitutes the DSC working electrode. These results corroborate a recent proposal that all cyanoacrylate groups anchor onto TiO2 in this COO/CN binding configuration. Conformational analysis of the MK-44 and MK-2 crystal structures reveals that this S center dot center dot center dot C equivalent to N bonding will persist in MK-2. Accordingly, this newly discovered bond affords a rational explanation for the attractive photovoltaic properties of,MK-2. More generally, this study provides the first unequivocal evidence for an S center dot center dot center dot C equivalent to N

  6. Application of TiO2 nanotubes in dye-sensitised solar cells for improved charge transport

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available their operation • 20 years onwards and big strides have been made, however head2right Efficiency of best manufactured DSCs ~ 11% mark and 7% for DSC panels Dye-sensitised Solar Cells • Relatively inexpensive – Made in non-vacuum setting – Simple... in dye- sensitised solar cells for improved charge transport Franscious Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing © CSIR 2010 Slide 1 Rhodes Workshop 7 – 8 September 2010 circle6 Background circle6 Problem Statement...

  7. Dye-sensitized solar cell architecture based on indium-tin oxide nanowires coated with titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joanni, Ednan; Savu, Raluca; Sousa Goes, Marcio de; Bueno, Paulo Roberto; Nei de Freitas, Jilian; Nogueira, Ana Flavia; Longo, Elson; Varela, Jose Arana

    2007-01-01

    A new architecture for dye-sensitized solar cells is employed, based on a nanostructured transparent conducting oxide protruding from the substrate, covered with a separate active oxide layer. The objective is to decrease electron-hole recombination. The concept was tested by growing branched indium-tin oxide nanowires on glass using pulsed laser deposition followed by deposition of a sputtered titanium dioxide layer covering the wires. The separation of charge generation and charge transport functions opens many possibilities for dye-sensitized solar cell optimization

  8. Enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating nanomica in gel electrolytes☆

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yi-Hsuan

    2010-04-01

    Gel-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated with 5.0 wt% polyvinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene (PVDF-HFP) in methoxy propionitrile (MPN) as gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (BMII)/iodine (I2) as redox couple, 4-tertiary butyl pyridine (TBP) and guanidine thiocyanate as additives. The incorporation of alkyl-modified nanomica (AMNM) in the PVDF-HFP gel electrolytes caused the reduction of crystallization of PVDF-HFP, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The short-circuit current density (JSC) of the cell increased due to the decrease of diffusion resistance, as judged by the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) analysis, while the open-circuit voltage (VOC) remained almost the same. As the loading of AMNM in the PVDF-HFP gel electrolyte was increased to 3.0 wt%, the JSC and power conversion efficiency (η) of the cells increased from 8.3 to 13.6 mA/cm2 and 3.5% to 5.7%, respectively. However, the JSC decreased as the loading of AMNM exceeded 3.0 wt%. At higher AMNM loadings, nanomica acted as a barrier interface between the electrolyte and the dye molecules to hinder electron transfer, and thus reducing the cell\\'s photocurrent density. Furthermore, the DSSCs fabricated by dispersing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microspheres in the TiO2 electrode with the GPE containing 3.0 wt% AMNM improved the η to 6.70%. The TiO2 films would exhibit larger porosity by blending with PMMA, leading the penetration of GPEs into the porous TiO2 easier, thus improving the contact between the dye-adsorbed TiO2 surfaces and the GPEs, as characterized by EIS. Moreover, the η of gel-type DSSCs with a 25 μm thickness of surlyn reached 7.96% as compared with 6.70% for the DSSCs with a 60 μm surlyn. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with black raspberry, black carrot and rosella juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekerek, S.; Kudret, A.; Alver, Ü.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC's) were constructed from black raspberry ( Rubus Ideaus), black carrot ( Daucuscarota L.) and rosella juice ( Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.). In order to fabricate a DSSC the fluorine-doped tin (IV) oxide (FTO) thin films obtained by using spray pyrolysis technique were used as a substrate. TiO2 films on FTO layers were prepared by doctor-blading technique. Platinum-coated counter electrode and liquid Iodide/Iodine electrolyte solution were used to fabricate DSSC's. The efficiencies of solar cells produced with black carrot, rosella and black raspberry juice were calculated as 0.25%, 0.16% and 0.16% respectively, under a sunny day in Kahramanmaraş-Turkey.

  10. Simulation on the Performance of Dye Solar Cell Incorporated with TiO2 Passivation Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unan Yusmaniar Oktiawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye Solar Cell (DSC has started to gain interest in the recent years for practical application because of its ecofriendly, low cost, and easy fabrication. However, its efficiency is still not as competitive as the conventional silicon based solar cell. One of the research efforts to improve the efficiency of DSC is to use the passivation layer in between the photoelectrode material and the conductive oxide substrate. Thus, the objective of this simulation study is to investigate the effect of passivation layer on the performance of DSC. Properties from literatures which are based on physical work were captured as the input for the simulation using process, ATHENA, and device, ATLAS, simulator. Results have shown that the addition of two-20 nm TiO2 passivation layers on DSC can enhance the efficiency by 11% as the result of less recombination, higher electron mobility, and longer electron lifetime.

  11. Curcuma longa extract as a histological dye for collagen fibres and red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avwioro, O G; Onwuka, S K; Moody, J O; Agbedahunsi, J M; Oduola, T; Ekpo, O E; Oladele, A A

    2007-01-01

    Crude ethanolic extract and column chromatographic fractions of the Allepey cultivar of Curcuma longa Roxb, commonly called turmeric (tumeric) in commerce, were used as a stain for tissue sections. Staining was carried out under basic, acidic and neutral media conditions. Inorganic and organic dissolution solvents were used. The stain was used as a counterstain after alum and iron haematoxylins. C. longa stained collagen fibres, cytoplasm, red blood cells and muscle cells yellow. It also stained in a fashion similar to eosin, except for its intense yellow colour. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation of the active column fraction revealed that it contained flavonoids, free anthraquinone and deoxy sugar. A cheap, natural dye can thus be obtained from C. longa. PMID:17451535

  12. Dye-sensitized solar cells using ionic liquids as redox mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denizalti, Serpil; Ali, Abdulrahman Khalaf; Ela, Çağatay; Ekmekci, Mesut; Erten-Ela, Sule

    2018-01-01

    In this research, the influence of ionic liquid on the conversion efficiency, incident photons to converted electrons (IPCE) and performance of fabricated solar cell was investigated using various ionic liquids. Ionic liquids with different substituents and ions were prepared and used as redox mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Ionic liquids were characterized 1H and 13C NMR spectra. We practically investigated the performance of ionic liquid salts were used as the mobile ions and found that the efficiencies of DSSCs were increased up to 40% comparing commercial electrolyte system. The ionic liquid compounds were incorporated in DSSCs to obtain an efficient charge transfer, solving the corrosion problem of platinum layer in counter electrode compared to commercial electrolyte.

  13. New 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Based Photosensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,3,4-Oxadiazole based photosensitizers with biphenyl, naphthalene, anthracene, and triphenylamine as the electron-donating moiety were synthesized for solar cell applications. In these photosensitizers, cyano groups were introduced as the electron acceptor and the anchor group because of their high electron-withdrawing ability and strong bonding to the semiconductor. Oxadiazole isomers were used as the π-conjugation system, which bridges the donor-acceptor systems. The electrochemical and optical properties of the sensitizers were investigated both in their native form and upon incorporation into dye sensitized solar cells. The results of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements, and photocurrent voltage characteristics indicate that 1,3,4-oxadiazole pi-spacer with the anthracene moiety has the highest efficiency of 2.58%. Density functional theory was employed to optimize the structures of the sensitizers and the TiO2 cluster.

  14. Smart photovoltaics based on dye-sensitized solar cells using photochromic spiropyran derivatives as photosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Shengbo; Ting, Hungkit; Ma, Yingzhuang; Zheng, Lingling; Zhang, Miwei; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, smart photovoltaic (SPV) devices, integrating both functions of solar cells and smart windows, was fabricated based on dye-sensitized solar cells using photochromic spiropyran derivatives SIBT as photosensitizers. SPV devices have self-regulated power conversion efficiency (PCE) and light transmission responding to the incident spectra due to the photoisomerization of SIBT. SIBT isomerize from closed-ring form to open-ring form under UV illumination, accompanied with enhanced visible light absorption and electron delocalization. Therefore, increased PCE and absorption in SPV devices were observed under UV treatment and the devices can be restored gradually to the initial status when kept in dark. The SPV devices have self-regulation of PCE and sunlight transmission responding to the changing sun spectra in different times of a day, providing a proper energy usage and a better sun-shading

  15. Anthocyanin modified triphenylamine based organic sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) - A theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounraj, P.; Mohankumar, V.; Pandian, Muthu Senthil; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-05-01

    Three triphenylamine based dyes (Dye 1, 2 & 3) and three anthocyanin modified triphenylamine based dyes (Dye 4, 5 &6) are designed and the geometry, electronic structure and absorption spectra of newly designed dyes were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) with the Becke 3-Parameter-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) functional, where the 6-311++G (d, p) basis set was employed. All calculations were performed using the Gaussian 09 software package. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level of these dyes could ensure the positive effect on the process of electron injection and dye regeneration. The LUMOs are just above the conduction band of TiO2 and their HOMOs are under the reduction potential energy of the electrolytes (I-/I3-) which can facilitate electron transfer from the excited dye to TiO2 and charge regeneration process after photo oxidation respectively. The simulated absorption spectrum of dyes matches with solar spectrum. The simulated absorption spectrum of dyes shows better absorption. The calculated quantum mechanical results shows that among all six dyes, the "dye 6" can be used as potential sensitizer for DSSC.

  16. High Molar Extinction Coefficient Ru(II-Mixed Ligand Polypyridyl Complexes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malapaka Chandrasekharam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new ruthenium(II mixed ligand terpyridine complexes, “Ru(Htcterpy(NCS(L1 (N(C4H94, mLBD1” and Ru(Htcterpy(NCS(L2(N(C4H94, mLBD2 were synthesized and fully characterized by UV-Vis, emission, cyclic voltammogram, and other spectroscopic means, and the structures of the compounds are confirmed by 1H-NMR, ESI-MASS, and FT-IR spectroscopes. The influence of the substitution of L1 and L2 on solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency (η of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was evaluated relative to reference black dye. The dyes showed molar extinction coefficients of 17600 M−1 cm−1 for mLBD1 and 21300 M−1 cm−1 for mLBD2 both at λ maximum of 512 nm, while black dye has shown 8660 M−1 cm−1 at λ maximum of 615 nm. The monochromatic incident photon-to-collected electron conversion efficiencies of 60.71% and 75.89% were obtained for mLBD1 and mLBD2 dyes, respectively. The energy conversion efficiencies of mLBD1 and mLBD2 dyes are 3.15% (SC=11.86 mA/cm2, OC=613 mV, ff=0.4337 and 3.36% (SC=12.71 mA/cm2, OC=655 mV, ff=0.4042, respectively, measured at the AM1.5G conditions, the reference black dye-sensitized solar cell, fabricated and evaluated under identical conditions exhibited η-value of 2.69% (SC=10.95 mA/cm2, OC=655 mV, ff=0.3750.

  17. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Nanostructured Electrodes for Use in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiawei

    Among various photovoltaic technologies available in the emerging market, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are deemed as an effective, competitive solution to the increasing demand for high-efficiency PV devices. To move towards full commercialization, challenges remain in further improvement of device stability as well as reduction of material and manufacturing costs. This study aims at rational synthesis and photovoltaic characterization of two nanostructured electrode materials (i.e. SnO2 nanofibers and activated graphene nanoplatelets) for use as photoanode and counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. The main objective is to explore the favorable charge transport features of SnO2 nanofiber network and simultaneously replace the high-priced conventional electrocatalytic nanomaterials (e.g. Pt nanoparticles) used in existing counter electrode of DSSCs. To achieve this objective, a multiphysics model of electrode kinetics was developed to optimize various design parameters and cell configurations. The porous hollow SnO2 nanofibers were successfully synthesized via a facile route consisting of electrospinning precursor polymer nanofibers, followed by controlled carbonization. The novel SnO2/TiO2 composite photoanode materials carry advantages of SnO2 nanofiber network (e.g. nanostructural continuity, high electron mobility) and TiO2 nanoparticles (e.g. high specific area), and therefore show excellent photovoltaic properties including improved short-circuit current and fill factors. In addition, hydrothermally activated graphene nanoplatelets (aGNP) were used as a catalytic counter electrode material to substitute for conventionally used platinum nanoparticles. Improved catalytic performance of aGNP electrode was achieved through increased surface area and better control of morphology. Dye-sensitized solar cells using these aGNP electrodes had power conversion efficiencies comparable to those using platinum nanoparticles with I-/I3- redox mediators

  18. Solution processable titanium dioxide precursor and nanoparticulated ink: application in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Jimenez, Pau; Yu, Youhai; Lira-Cantu, Mónica; Domingo, Concepción; Ayllón, José A

    2014-02-15

    Colloidal TiO2 anatase nanoparticles of 4-8 nm diameter capped with 3,6,9-trioxadecanoic acid (TODA) were synthesized at low temperature using water and ethanol as the solvents. ATR-FTIR and (1)H NMR characterization showed the capping acid capability of stabilizing the TiO2 nanoparticles through labile hydrogen bonds. The presence of the capping ligand permitted the further preparation of homogeneous and stable colloidal dispersions of the TiO2 powder in aqueous media. Moreover, after solvent evaporation, the ligand could be easily eliminated by soft treatments, such as UV irradiation or low-temperature thermal annealing. These properties have been used in this work to fabricate mesoporous TiO2 electrodes, which can be applied as photoanodes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). For the preparation of the electrodes, the as-synthesized mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles were mixed with commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25) and deposited on FTO substrates by using the doctor blade technique. A mixture of water and ethanol was used as the solvent. A soft thermal treatment at 140 °C for 2h eliminated the organic compound and produced a sintered mesoporous layer of 6 μm thickness. The photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs applying these electrodes sensitized with the N3 dye resulted in 5.6% power conversion efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of Y123 dye-sensitized solar cell performance using plasmonic gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, P S; Parashar, Piyush K; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Dutta, Viresh; Komarala, Vamsi K

    2018-04-04

    The role of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of gold nanorods (Au NRs) on the performance of Y123 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) was investigated. DSSCs were fabricated by incorporating different concentrations (0.6 to 3.0 wt%) of Au NRs into TiO2 photoanodes. With an increase in the concentration of the Au NRs, the light absorption by the Y123 dye loaded photoanodes enhanced linearly, but the charge extraction was susceptible to the concentration of the Au NRs. With optimized concentrations (∼1.8 wt%) of the Au NRs, the photocurrent of the DSSC enhanced from 12.45 to 15.74 mA cm-2, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) improved from 5.31 to 8.86%. The DSSC performance was also verified using Au nanoparticles (the PCE was enhanced from 5.31 to 7.72%) for comparison with the Au NR DSSC performance, which demonstrated the advantage of the Au NRs' shape effect with longitudinal SPR due to the modified light interaction. To explain the experimental observations of the plasmonic DSSC, the Au NRs' extinction efficiency and spatial distribution of the near-fields in complete and porous TiO2 media were also estimated using the finite-element method.

  20. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene/Platinum Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Chinan

    2014-12-17

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (NGR) was utilized in dye-sensitized solar cells for energy harvesting. NGR on a Pt-sputtered fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate (NGR/Pt/FTO) as counter electrodes (CEs) achieves the high efficiency of 9.38% via the nitrogen doping into graphene. This is due to (i) the hole-cascading transport at the interface of electrolyte/CEs via controlling the valence band maximum of NGR located between the redox potential of the I-/I- redox couple and the Fermi level of Pt by nitrogen doping, (ii) the extended electron transfer surface effect provided by large-surface-area NGR, (iii) the high charge transfer efficiency due to superior catalytic characteristics of NGR via nitrogen doping, and (iv) the superior light-reflection effect of NGR/Pt/FTO CEs, facilitating the electron transfer from CEs to I3 - ions of the electrolyte and light absorption of dye. The result demonstrated that the NGR/Pt hybrid structure is promising in the catalysis field. (Chemical Presented). © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  1. Fabrication of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with a 3D Nanostructured Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC scheme for better solar conversion efficiency is proposed. The distinctive characteristic of this novel scheme is that the conventional thin film electrode is replaced by a 3D nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO electrode, which was fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering with an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template. The template was prepared by immersing the barrier-layer side of an AAO film into a 30 wt% phosphoric acid solution to produce a contrasting surface. RF magnetron sputtering was then used to deposit a 3D nanostructured ITO thin film on the template. The crystallinity and conductivity of the 3D ITO films were further enhanced by annealing. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were electrophoretically deposited on the 3D ITO film after which the proposed DSSC was formed by filling vacant spaces in the 3D nanostructured ITO electrode with dye. The measured solar conversion efficiency of the device was 0.125%. It presents a 5-fold improvement over that of conventional spin-coated TiO2 film electrode DSSCs.

  2. Tin oxide as a photoanode for dye-sensitised solar cells: Current progress and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Qamar; Fakharuddin, Azhar; Jose, Rajan

    2015-10-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) is a candidate for applications requiring high electrical conductivity and optical transparency, such as a photoanode in dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSCs), due to its higher electron mobility and wider optical transparency than many other metal oxide semiconductors (MOS), such as TiO2 and ZnO. However, DSSCs employing SnO2 show significantly lower photoconversion efficiency, compared to that achieved by popular choices, such as TiO2, due to its intrinsic limitations such as lower conduction band energy and isoelectric point. A survey of literature shows a revived interest in SnO2-based DSSCs, for example, strategies to (i) increase the dye uptake, (ii) increase its Fermi energy level, and (iii) reduce the recombination, such as by increasing surface roughness and novel morphologies towards (i), and doping of transition metals for (ii) and (iii). In response to these improvements, SnO2-based DSSCs showed similar open circuit voltage and superior short circuit current to that achieved by TiO2. We have undertaken a critical review on the progress made in overcoming the limitations and capitalising the advantages of SnO2 to fabricate more efficient DSSCs. We identify that more investment is required to reduce the recombination in SnO2 for it to emerge as an efficiency record holder in DSSCs.

  3. Effects of Ethyl Cellulose on Performance of Titania Photoanode for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting-Chien; Wu, Chih-Chung; Huang, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Chih-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Ethyl cellulose (EC) was added to a titania (TiO2) paste from 2 wt.% to 18 wt.% as a binder/dispersant, and its effects on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated. The TiO2 mesoporous film constructed on the photoanode exhibited a dense and network structure composed of well-interconnected TiO2 nanoparticles when using a proper amount of EC (10 wt.%). Excessive and deficient addition of EC resulted in aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles and formation of pores, respectively, in the TiO2 film. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSC showed a strong dependence on the EC content and the highest PCE of 7.53% with the highest short-circuit current density ( J SC) of 12.7 mA/cm2 was achieved when the content of EC was 10 wt.%. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results indicated that the TiO2 mesoporous film fabricated using a proper EC addition was beneficial for electron generation (also confirmed by dye desorption experiments) and electron transport, and, therefore, improved the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs.

  4. Analisa Pengaruh Komposisi Graphene- TiO2 Terhadap Unjuk Kerja Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indera Cahya Pradana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini,  89,5% pembangkit tenaga listrik di Indonesia menggunakan energi fosil yang tidak dapat diperbaharui. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mencari sumber energi alternatif dengan memanfaatkan energi surya yang dikonversikan menjadi energi listrik menggunakan dye-sensitized solar cell. Material semikonduktor pada fotoelektroda DSSC penelitian ini terdiri dari komposit TiO2 dengan graphene. Graphene yang dikompositkan merupakan hasil sintesis dengan metode modifikasi Hummer sebagai salah satu komponennya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh komposisi 0; 5; 10 dan 15% wt graphene pada komposit graphene- TiO2 yang terbaik untuk didapatkan efisiensi unjuk kerja yang maksimal. Pada penelitian ini, digunakan dye dari ekstrak bunga Geranium (Geranium sylvaticum. Unjuk kerja DSSC pada penelitian ini didasarkan pada efisiensi dan fill factor DSSC. Efisiensi dan Fill Factor terbaik didapatkan pada komposisi 10% wt graphene pada komposit graphene- TiO2 dengan nilai efisiensi sebesar 0,00532% dan fill factor sebesar 0,69 (69%.

  5. Impedance Spectroscopic Investigation of the Degraded Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell due to Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Bhatt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of ageing on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. The electrical characterization of fresh and degraded DSCs is done under AM1.5G spectrum and the current density-voltage (J-V characteristics are analyzed. Short circuit current density (JSC decreases significantly whereas a noticeable increase in open circuit voltage is observed. These results have been further investigated electroanalytically using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. An increase in net resistance results in a lower JSC for the degraded DSC. This decrease in current is mainly due to degradation of TiO2-dye interface, which is observed from light and dark J-V characteristics and is further confirmed by EIS measurements. A reduction in the chemical capacitance of the degraded DSC is observed, which is responsible for the shifting of Fermi level with respect to conduction band edge that further results in an increase of open circuit voltage for the degraded DSC. It is also confirmed from EIS that the degradation leads to a better contact formation between the electrolyte and Pt electrode, which improves the fill factor of the DSC. But the recombination throughout the DSC is found to increase along with degradation. This study suggests that the DSC should be used under low illumination conditions and around room temperature for a longer life.

  6. N-Annulated perylene substituted zinc–porphyrins with different linking modes and electron acceptors for dye sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie

    2016-05-03

    Three new N-annulated perylene (NP) substituted porphyrin dyes WW-7-WW-9 with different linking modes and accepting groups were synthesized and applied in Co(ii)/(iii) based dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The bay-linked porphyrins WW-7 and WW-8 exhibited moderate power conversion efficiency (PCE = 4.4% and 4.8%, respectively), while the peri-linked porphyrin dye WW-9 showed a PCE up to 9.2% which is slightly lower than that of our reference dye WW-6. Detailed physical measurements (optical and electrochemical), DFT calculations, and photovoltaic characterizations were performed to understand how the structural changes affect their light-harvesting ability, molecular orbital profile, energy level alignment, and eventually the photovoltaic performance. It turned out that the lower efficiencies of the cells based on WW-7 and WW-8 could be ascribed to the weak π-conjugation between the bay-substituted NP and phenylethynyl substituted porphyrin unit. The introduction of a benzothiadiazole acceptor at the anchoring group has induced a significant red shift of the IPCE action spectra of WW-8 and WW-9, by about 90 nm and 50 nm as compared to that of WW-7 and WW-6, respectively. However, less efficient electron injection was observed. Our studies gave some insight into the important role of electronic interactions between different components when one designs a dye for high-efficiency DSCs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  7. Modification of circuit module of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) for solar windows applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, S. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2016-11-01

    This research has been conducted to obtain a modification of circuit producing the best efficiency of solar window modules as an alternative energy for daily usage. Solar window module was constructed by DSSC cells. In the previous research, solar window was created by a single cell of DSSC. Because it had small size, it could not be applied in the manufacture of solar window. Fabrication of solar window required a larger size of DSSC cell. Therefore, in the next research, a module of solar window was fabricated by connecting few cells of DSSC. It was done by using external electrical circuit method which was modified in the formation of series circuit and parallel circuit. Its fabrication used six cells of DSSC with the size of each cell was 1 cm × 9 cm. DSSC cells were sandwich structures constructed by an active layer of TiO2 as the working electrode, electrolyte solution, dye, and carbon layer. Characterization of module was started one by one, from one cell, two cells, three cells, until six cells of a module. It was conducted to recognize the increasing efficiency value as the larger surface area given. The efficiency of solar window module with series circuit was 0.06%, while using parallel circuit was 0.006%. Module with series circuit generated the higher voltage as the larger surface area. Meanwhile, module through parallel circuit tended to produce the constant voltage as the larger surface area. It was caused by the influence of resistance within the cable in each module. Module with circuit parallel used a longer cable than module with series circuit, so that its resistance increased. Therefore, module with parallel circuit generated voltage that tended to be constant and resulted small efficiency compared to the module with series circuit. It could be concluded that series external circuit was the best modification which could produce the higher efficiency.

  8. Near infrared organic semiconducting materials for bulk heterojunction and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surya Prakash; Sharma, G D

    2014-06-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have been the subject of intensive academic interest over the past two decades, and significant commercial effort has been directed towards this area with the vison of developing the next generation of low cost solar cells. Materials development has played a vital role in the dramatic improvement of both DSSC and BHJ solar cell performance in the recent years. Organic conjugated polymers and small molecules that absorb solar light in the visible and near infrared (NIR) regions represent a class of emering materials and show a great potential for the use of different optoelectronic devices such as DSSCs and BHJ solar cells. This account describes the emering class of near infrared (NIR) organic polymers and small molecules having donor and acceptors units, and explores their potential applications in the DSSCs and BHJ solar cells. Copyright © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Efficiency enhancement of hybridized solar cells through co-sensitization and fast charge extraction by up-converted polyethylene glycol modified carbon quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wanlu; Duan, Jialong; Duan, Yanyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qunwei

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaics are promising solutions to energy crisis and environmental pollution problems. The dye-sensitized solar cells with mesoscopic structures have attracted growing interests because of zero emissions, easy fabrication, scalable materials and techniques, etc. However, the state-of-the-art dye-sensitized solar cells have narrow spectral absorption for photoelectric conversion and high electron-hole recombination rate under sunlight illumination. Therefore, it is a persistent object to make wide-spectral absorption and fast charge extraction solar cells for energy harvest in both solar and dark-light conditions. To address this issue, we present here experimental realization of a category of solar cells converting visible and near-infrared light into electricity by co-sensitizing photoanode with N719 dye and polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified carbon quantum dots (PEG-m-CQDs), arising from up-conversion and hole-transporting behaviors of PEG-m-CQDs as well as photofluorescence of green-emitting long persistence phosphors. The optimized solar cell yields maximized photoelectric conversion efficiencies of 9.89% and 25.81% under simulated sunlight (air mass 1.5, 100 mW cm-2) illumination and dark conditions, respectively. This work is far from optimization, but the physical proof-of-concept hybridized solar cell may markedly increase electricity generation time and total power output of photovoltaic platforms.

  10. Doping saturation in dye-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO:Ga nanostructured photoanodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Agnaldo S. [Dpto. de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Prof. Francisco Degni n. 55, 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Institute of Chemistry, State University of Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Goes, Marcio S. [Dpto. de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Prof. Francisco Degni n. 55, 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco, E-mail: fran.fabregat@fca.uji.es [Grup de Dispositius Fotovotaics i Optoelectronics, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071, Castello (Spain); Moehl, Thomas [Grup de Dispositius Fotovotaics i Optoelectronics, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071, Castello (Spain); Davolos, Marian R. [Dpto. de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Prof. Francisco Degni n. 55, 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Bisquert, Juan [Grup de Dispositius Fotovotaics i Optoelectronics, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071, Castello (Spain); Yanagida, Shozo [Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Nogueira, Ana F. [Institute of Chemistry, State University of Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bueno, Paulo R., E-mail: prbueno@iq.unesp.br [Dpto. de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Prof. Francisco Degni n. 55, 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > ZnO:Ga-based photoelectrodes were compared to analogous ZnO solar cells. > The photoelectrodes capacitance is governed by Ga doping. > Short circuit current is determined by the increasing roughness factor. > The estimated donor density level exceeds 1021 cm-3. - Abstract: The origins of the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO:Ga nanostructured photoelectrodes, compared to analogous ZnO solar cells, were studied by means of impedance spectroscopy under illumination as a function of forward bias voltage. The film capacitance is governed by Ga doping. It can be assumed that the higher donor density of states of ZnO materials and, principally, ZnO:Ga-doped materials pin the Fermi level at a certain shallow energy level so that there is no photovoltage variation as a function of doping level. On the other hand, short circuit current is determined by the increasing roughness factor obtained at the higher doping levels while the lower fill factor values of DSCs based on ZnO:Ga, compared to analogous ZnO, were attributed to the higher ohmic resistive losses associated with the increasing photocurrent densities. In any case, the microstructure and morphological aspects were also considered as a possible origin of the low fill factor values. The estimated donor density level exceeds 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}, indicating a high doping level in the semiconductor. As a consequence of the synthesis process of ZnO:Ga nanoparticles its size diminishes with the higher Ga contents producing an increase in the overall roughness factor of the films, and then a larger dye upload and short circuit current.

  11. Alternative bases to 4-tert-butylpyridine for dye-sensitized solar cells employing copper redox mediator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferdowsi, P.; Saygili, Y.; Zakeeruddin, S. M.; Mokhtari, J.; Grätzel, M.; Hagfeldt, A.; Kavan, Ladislav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 265, MAR 1 (2018), s. 194-201 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrolytes * efficient * cathodes * shuttle * Dye-sensitized solar cells * Copper(II/I) redox mediators * Pyridine bases * Electrochemical characterization Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells , batteries, fuel cells , corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  12. Broadband dye-sensitized upconverting nanocrystals enabled near-infrared planar perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xuesen; Li, Xitao; Lv, Xinding; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Meng, Fanli; Tao, Xia

    2017-12-01

    Extending the spectral absorption of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) from visible into near-infrared (NIR) range is a promising strategy to minimize non-absorption loss of solar photons and enhance the cell photovoltaic performance. Herein, we report on for the first time a viable strategy of incorporating IR806 dye-sensitized upconversion nanocrystals (IR806-UCNCs) into planar PSC for broadband upconversion of NIR light (800-1000 nm) into perovskite absorber-responsive visible emissions. A smart trick is firstly adopted to prepare hydrophilic IR806-UCNCs via a NOBF4 assisted two-step ligand-exchange that allows incorporating with perovskite precursor for in-situ growth of upconverting planar perovskite film. Unlike typically reported upconverting nanoparticles with narrow NIR absorption, the as-prepared IR806-UCNCs are able to harvest NIR light broadly and then transfer the captured energy to the UCNCs for an efficient visible upconversion. The IR806-UCNCs-incorporated cell exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 17.49%, corresponding to 29% increment from that of the pristine cell (13.52%). This strategy provides a feasible way to enable the most efficient harvesting of NIR sunlight for solar cells and other optoelectric devices.

  13. Performance of 7-cells Dye Sensitized Solar Module in Z-type Series Interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Anggraini, Putri; Muliani, Lia; Maulani Nursam, Natalita; Hidayat, Jojo

    2018-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is becoming attractive research topic as third generation solar cells technology since it provides clean energy and low cost fabrication. In this study, DSSC was fabricated into module scale, which is important for practical applications. The module was prepared in sandwich structure consisting of TiO2 working electrode and Pt counter electrode on conductive substrate with an area of 100 mm x 100 mm, which was distributed into seven active cells. TiO2 paste was deposited on FTO glass as working electrode with a size of 10 mm x 98 mm per unit cell by screen printing method. Each cell was connected in Z-type series that able to produce high voltage. I - V measurement was applied in two methods consisting of laboratory testing using sun simulator under 500 W/m2 of illumination and outdoor testing using a digital multimeter under direct sunlight. The result shows that DSSC module has photoconversion efficiency of 1.08% and 1.17% for laboratory and outdoor testing, respectively. The module was also tested in three different times to monitor its stability performance.

  14. Optically Transparent Cathode for Co(III/II) Mediated Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Graphene Oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Yum, J. H.; Graetzel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 12 (2012), s. 6998-7005 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : graphene oxide * reduced graphene oxide * dye-sensitized solar cell Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 5.008, year: 2012

  15. Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells based on HfO2 modified TiO2 electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Kang, Moon-Sung; Cha, Hyeon-Jung; Kim, Jinkwon

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► HfO 2 has been used to modify TiO 2 electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells. ► HfO 2 layer increases the dye adsorption. ► Diffusion coefficient (D e ) and lifetime (τ e ) of the photoelectrons were increased. ► Solar cell efficiency (η) was greatly improved from 5.67 to 9.59%. -- Abstract: In this article, we describe the use of hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) as a new and efficient blocking layer material to modify TiO 2 electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells. Different thicknesses of HfO 2 over-layers were prepared by simple dip coating from two different precursors and their effects on the performance of DSSCs were studied. The HfO 2 modification remarkably increases dye adsorption, resulting from the fact that the surface of HfO 2 is more basic than that of TiO 2 . Furthermore, the HfO 2 coating demonstrated increased diffusion coefficient (D e ) and lifetime (τ e ) of the photoelectrons, indicating the improved retardation of the back electron transfer, which increases short-circuit current (J sc ) and open-circuit voltage (V oc ). Thereby, the photo conversion efficiency (η) of the solar cell was greatly improved from 5.67 to 9.59% (an improvement of 69.02%) as the HfO 2 layer was coated over TiO 2 films.

  16. Structural parameters controlling the performance of organized mesoporous TiO2 films in dye sensitized solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukalová, Markéta; Procházka, Jan; Zukal, Arnošt; Yum, J. H.; Kavan, Ladislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 361, č. 3 (2007), s. 656-662 ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100500652 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : dye sensitized solar cells * titanium dioxide Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.713, year: 2007

  17. Structural parameters controlling the performance of organized mesoporous TiO2 films in dye sensitized solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukalová, Markéta; Procházka, Jan; Zukal, Arnošt; Yum, J. H.; Kavan, Ladislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 361, č. 3 (2008), s. 656-662 ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100500652 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : dye sensitized solar cells * titanium dioxide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.940, year: 2008

  18. Effect of retinol and cigarette-smoke and condensate on dye-coupled intercellular communication between hamster tracheal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Haan, L.H.J.de; Hendriksen, E.G.J.; Koeman, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The dye-coupled intercellular communication across gap junctions in primary hamster tracheal epithelial cells has been studied in serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. In the absence of vitamin A, non-cytotoxic concentrations of cigarette-smoke condensate (CSC) inhibited intercellular

  19. Electrodeposited Nanoporous versus Nanoparticulate ZnO Films of Similar Roughness for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guerin, V. M.; Magne, C.; Pauporté, T.; Le Bahers, T.; Rathouský, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 12 (2010), s. 3677-3685 ISSN 1944-8244 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : ZnO * dye sensitized solar cells * electrodeposition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2010

  20. Interface Modification of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells with Pivalic Acid to Enhance the Open-circuit Voltage

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Pivalic acid (PVA) was used as a new coadsorbent to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) to modify the interface between the TiO2 films and electrolyte. The addition of PVA improved the light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of devices by 8% by enhancing the open-circuit voltage. Copyright © 2009 The Chemical Society of Japan.

  1. Metal Nanoparticles and Carbon-Based Nanostructures as Advanced Materials for Cathode Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Calandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the most advanced methods for the fabrication of cathodes for dye-sensitized solar cells employing nanostructured materials. The attention is focused on metal nanoparticles and nanostructured carbon, among which nanotubes and graphene, whose good catalytic properties make them ideal for the development of counter electrode substrates, transparent conducting oxide, and advanced catalyst materials.

  2. Nanofibrous TiO2 improving performance of mesoporous TiO2 electrode in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukalová, Markéta; Kavan, Ladislav; Procházka, Jan; Zukal, Arnošt; Yum, J. H.; Grätzel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 5 (2013), s. 1640 ISSN 1388-0764 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0814 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : dye-sensitized solar cells * titanium dioxide * nanofibers Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2013

  3. Highly efficient betanin dye based ZnO and ZnO/Au Schottky barrier solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thankappan, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.subhash@gmail.com [International School of Photonics (ISP), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India); Inter University Centre for Nanomaterials and Devices (IUCND), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India); Divya, S.; Augustine, Anju K.; Girijavallaban, C.P.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Thomas, Sheenu; Nampoori, V.P.N. [International School of Photonics (ISP), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India)

    2015-05-29

    Performance of dye sensitized solar cells based on betanin natural dye from red beets with various nanostructured photoanodes on transparent conducting glass has been investigated. In four different electrolyte systems cell efficiency of 2.99% and overall photon to current conversion efficiency of 20% were achieved using ZnO nanosheet electrode with iodide based electrolyte in acetonitrile solution. To enhance solar harvesting in organic solar cells, uniform sized metal nanoparticles (gold (Au) of ~ 8 nm) synthesized via microwave irradiation method were incorporated into the device consisting of ZnO. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 1.71% was achieved with ZnO/Au nanocomposite compared to the 0.868% efficiency of the bare ZnO nanosheet cell with ferrocene based electrolyte. - Highlights: • The influence of electrolytes has been studied. • Cell efficiency of 2.99% was achieved by ZnO. • Enhancement of efficiency with incorporation of Au nano.

  4. Simplified and quick electrical modeling for dye sensitized solar cells: An experimental and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Rocelito Lopes; de Oliveira, Matheus Costa; Kohlrausch, Emerson Cristofer; Santos, Marcos José Leite

    2018-05-01

    This work presents a new and simple method for determining IPH (current source dependent on luminance), I0 (reverse saturation current), n (ideality factor), RP and RS, (parallel and series resistance) to build an electrical model for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The electrical circuit parameters used in the simulation and to generate theoretical curves for the single diode electrical model were extracted from I-V curves of assembled DSSCs. Model validation was performed by assembling five different types of DSSCs and evaluating the following parameters: effect of a TiO2 blocking/adhesive layer, thickness of the TiO2 layer and the presence of a light scattering layer. In addition, irradiance, temperature, series and parallel resistance, ideality factor and reverse saturation current were simulated.

  5. Development of High Efficiency, Low-Cost Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-30

    3.01% Jsc 8.87mA Uoc 539.59mV Figure 21: IV curve of the B1 dye adsorbed on a 8µ TiO2 photoelectrode containing a 4µ...0.46 Module Uoc 778.20 mV Cell Uoc 778.20 mV Isc -2.035 mA Jsc norm -13.75 mA/cm 2 Upmax 622.70 mV Ipmax -12.9 mA/cm 2 Powerout 8.01...Step : 0.1 s, 10 mV 99.2% Sun Thermopileref 7.107 Sun Currentref -3.830 mA Powerin 99.225 mW/cm 2 Norm. Std. Dev. 0.33 Module Uoc 741.51

  6. Photovoltaic performance and long-term stability of dye-sensitized mesoscopic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of electric power generation by dye-sensitized mesoscopic photovoltaic cells has been progressing steadily over the last years reaching now 11% in full sunlight. An important question for practical applications concerns the stability of these devices under prolonged exposure to light or heat. Strikingly stable operation can be obtained by judicious selection of the sensitizer, electrolyte and sealant rendering feasible a service life of at least 20 years under normal outdoor conditions. The sensitizer playing a central role in the light energy conversion process, we analyze the kinetic requirements for it to sustain the required one hundred million turnovers. We also review recent results on the use of self-assembled monolayers of amphiphilic sensitizers and co-adsorbents to enhance the thermal robustness of the device. (author)

  7. Electrochemical Impedance Spectra of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Fundamentals and Spreadsheet Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Sarker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS is one of the most important tools to elucidate the charge transfer and transport processes in various electrochemical systems including dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Even though there are many books and reports on EIS, it is often very difficult to explain the EIS spectra of DSSCs. Understanding EIS through calculating EIS spectra on spreadsheet can be a powerful approach as the user, without having any programming knowledge, can go through each step of calculation on a spreadsheet and get instant feedback by visualizing the calculated results or plot on the same spreadsheet. Here, a brief account of the EIS of DSSCs is given with fundamental aspects and their spreadsheet calculation. The review should help one to develop a basic understanding about EIS of DSSCs through interacting with spreadsheet.

  8. Metal octacarboxyphthalocyanine / multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid for the development of dye solar cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION 1.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW 1 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT 2 1.3 OBJECTIVES 3 1.4 DISSERTATION LAYOUT 4 2 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE SURVEY 2.1 PHOTOVOLTAICS 5 2.1.1 Introduction 5 2.1.2 Solid-State Solar Cell 5 2.1.3 Basic Operation Of A Traditional... for Sensitisers 12 2.3.4 Types of Photosensitisers 13 2.3.5 Ruthenium Complexes 13 2.3.5.1 Mechanism: Light Absorption Via Ligand-To-Metal Charge transfer (LMCT) Excitation 14 2.3.5.2 Organic Dyes 15 2.3.6 Platinum Electrode 16 2.3.7 Electrolytes 16 2...

  9. Comparison of dye solar cell counter electrodes based on different carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitola, Kerttu; Halme, Janne; Halonen, Niina; Kaskela, Antti; Toivola, Minna; Nasibulin, Albert G.; Kordas, Krisztian; Toth, Geza; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Lund, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    Three characteristically different carbon nanomaterials were compared and analyzed as platinum-free counter electrodes for dye solar cells: 1) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) random network films on glass, 2) aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) forest films on Inconel steel and quartz, and 3) pressed carbon nanoparticle composite films on indium tin oxide-polyethylene terephtalate plastic. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electron microscopy were discussed in terms of the catalytic activity, conductivity, thickness, transparency and flexibility of the electrode films. The SWCNT films showed reasonable catalytic performance at similar series resistance compared to platinized fluorine doped tin oxide-coated glass. The MWCNTs had similar catalytic activity, but the electrochemical performance of the films was limited by their high porosity. Carbon nanoparticle films had the lowest charge transfer resistance resulting from a combination of high catalytic activity and dense packing of the material.

  10. Comparison of dye solar cell counter electrodes based on different carbon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitola, Kerttu, E-mail: kerttu.aitola@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Halme, Janne [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Halonen, Niina [Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Kaskela, Antti; Toivola, Minna; Nasibulin, Albert G. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Kordas, Krisztian; Toth, Geza [Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Kauppinen, Esko I. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); VTT Biotechnology, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Lund, Peter D. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-09-01

    Three characteristically different carbon nanomaterials were compared and analyzed as platinum-free counter electrodes for dye solar cells: 1) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) random network films on glass, 2) aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) forest films on Inconel steel and quartz, and 3) pressed carbon nanoparticle composite films on indium tin oxide-polyethylene terephtalate plastic. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electron microscopy were discussed in terms of the catalytic activity, conductivity, thickness, transparency and flexibility of the electrode films. The SWCNT films showed reasonable catalytic performance at similar series resistance compared to platinized fluorine doped tin oxide-coated glass. The MWCNTs had similar catalytic activity, but the electrochemical performance of the films was limited by their high porosity. Carbon nanoparticle films had the lowest charge transfer resistance resulting from a combination of high catalytic activity and dense packing of the material.

  11. Obtainment of TiO2 powders solar cells photo electrodes dye sensitized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbeck, Guilherme; Folgueras, Marilena V.; Chinelatto, Adilson L.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide in its polymorphic anatase phase, presents interesting properties for solar cells photo electrodes dye sensitized such as the forbidden energy band, high refractive index and high constant dielectric. In this study, powders of nanometric titanium dioxide were produced with predominantly the anatase phase and high surface area. We used the sol-gel method, and titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor, which was hydrolyzed in nitric acid solution. The obtained powder was heated to 450 ° C, varying the time for each lot (0, 20 or 120 minutes). The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and surface area analysis. For all lots nanosized crystallites predominated. It was observed that in the batch with 120min heating an increase rutile content. The TiO 2 with 20min heating showed high surface area, greater than that of TiO 2 as taken reference

  12. Graphene-based large area dye-sensitized solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaluci, Simone; Gemmi, Mauro; Pellegrini, Vittorio; di Carlo, Aldo; Bonaccorso, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate spray coating of graphene ink as a viable method for large-area fabrication of graphene-based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) modules. A graphene-based ink produced by liquid phase exfoliation of graphite is spray coated onto a transparent conductive oxide substrate to realize a large area (>90 cm2) semi-transparent (transmittance 44%) counter-electrode (CE) replacing platinum, the standard CE material. The graphene-based CE is successfully integrated in a large-area (43.2 cm2 active area) DSSC module achieving a power conversion efficiency of 3.5%. The approach demonstrated here paves the way to all-printed, flexible, and transparent graphene-based large-area and cost-effective photovoltaic devices on arbitrary substrates.

  13. Graphene-based large area dye-sensitized solar cell modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaluci, Simone; Gemmi, Mauro; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bonaccorso, Francesco

    2016-03-07

    We demonstrate spray coating of graphene ink as a viable method for large-area fabrication of graphene-based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) modules. A graphene-based ink produced by liquid phase exfoliation of graphite is spray coated onto a transparent conductive oxide substrate to realize a large area (>90 cm(2)) semi-transparent (transmittance 44%) counter-electrode (CE) replacing platinum, the standard CE material. The graphene-based CE is successfully integrated in a large-area (43.2 cm(2) active area) DSSC module achieving a power conversion efficiency of 3.5%. The approach demonstrated here paves the way to all-printed, flexible, and transparent graphene-based large-area and cost-effective photovoltaic devices on arbitrary substrates.

  14. Vanadium oxide (VO) based low cost counter electrode in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, P.; Pandian, Muthu Senthil; Ramasamy, P., E-mail: ramasamyp@ssn.edu.in [SSN Research Centre, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam-603 110, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India)

    2015-06-24

    Vanadium oxide nanostars were synthesized by chemical method. The prepared Vanadium oxide nanostars are introduced into dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) as counter electrode (CE) catalyst to replace the expensive platinum (Pt). The products were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method. The photovoltaic performance of the VO as counter electrode based DSSC was evaluated under simulated standard global AM 1.5G sunlight (100 mW/cm{sup 2}). The solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency (η) of the DSSC was found to be 0.38%.This work expands the Counter electrode catalyst, which can help to reduce the cost of DSSC and thereby encourage their fundamental research and commercial application.

  15. Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Graphene/ZnO Nanoparticles Bilayer Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs with graphene/ZnO nanoparticle bilayer structure. The enhancement of the performance of DSSCs achieved using graphene/ZnO nanoparticle films is attributable to the introduction of an electron-extraction layer and absorption of light in the visible range and especially in the range 300–420 nm. DSSC that was fabricated with graphene/ZnO nanoparticle film composite photoanodes exhibited a Voc of 0.5 V, a Jsc of 17.5 mA/cm2, an FF of 0.456, and a calculated η of 3.98%.

  16. Electrochemical reaction rates in a dye sentisised solar cell - the iodide/tri-iodide redox system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Winter-Jensen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction rate of the redox couple iodide / tri-iodide in acetonitrile is characterised by impedance spectroscopy. Different electrode materials relevant for the function of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) are investigated. Preferably, the reaction with the iodide / tri......-iodide couple should be fast at the counter electrode, i.e. this electrode must have a high catalytic activity towards the redox couple, and the same reaction must be slow on the photo electrode. The catalytic activity is investigated for platinum, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy......), and polyaniline (PANI) - all deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. Both Pt and PEDOT are found to have sufficiently high catalytic activities for practical use as counter electrode in DSSC. The reaction resistance on FTO and anatase confirmed the beneficial effect of a compact anatase layer on top...

  17. Material Selection for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Using Multiple Attribute Decision Making Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Baghel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs provide a potential alternative to conventional p-n junction photovoltaic devices. The semiconductor thin film plays a crucial role in the working of DSC. This paper aims at formulating a process for the selection of optimum semiconductor material for nanostructured thin film using multiple attribute decision making (MADM approach. Various possible available semiconducting materials and their properties like band gap, cost, mobility, rate of electron injection, and static dielectric constant are considered and MADM technique is applied to select the best suited material. It was found that, out of all possible candidates, titanium dioxide (TiO2 is the best semiconductor material for application in DSC. It was observed that the proposed results are in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  18. Improved Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Diethyldithiocarbamate-Modified Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. B. P. Ariyasinghe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface modification of a TiO2 electrode with diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was studied. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS indicate that over half of the sulfur atoms become positively charged after the DEDTC treatment of the TiO2 surface. DSSCs were fabricated with TiO2 electrodes modified by adsorbing DEDTC using a simple dip-coating process. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs has been optimized to 6.6% through the enhancement of the short-circuit current density ( mA/cm2. This is substantially higher compared to the efficiency of 5.9% ( mA/cm2 for the DSSCs made with untreated TiO2 electrodes.

  19. Study on Carbon Nano composite Counter electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, H.; Lin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nano composite electrodes were prepared by adding carbon nano tubes (CNTs) into carbon black as counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The morphology and structure of carbon nano composite electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of CNTs on the electrochemical performance of carbon nano composite electrodes is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Carbon nano composite electrodes with CNTs exhibit a highly interconnected network structure with high electrical conductivity and good catalytic activity. The influence of different CNTs content in carbon nano composite electrodes on the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and filling factor of DSSCs is also investigated. DSSCs with 10% CNTs content exhibit the best photovoltaic performance in our experiments.

  20. Characterization of Nephelium Lappaceum Peel Extract as a Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Poernomo, Joko; Hidayati Mukaromah, Ana; Widiyandari, Hendri; Marwoto, Putut

    2016-08-01

    The world now is searching for a new renewable alternative energy. Nephelium lappaceum is a popular fruit in Indonesia that contains anthocyanin. Anthocyanin can absorb light on the range of visible light due to its conjugated double bonds. This finding makes Nephelium lappaceum as a potential Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). The Nephelium lappaceum extract can be taken through extraction technique, called maserasi. The process of developing DSSC material was initiated by preparing TiO2 photoanode using a conventional sintering procedure. It was, then, followed by doping TiO2 on the Fluoride doped tin oxcide (FTO) with resistance value of 10-20 ohm/q. Finally, the electrode counter made of platinum paste was developed by implementing conventional sintering procedure. All of the above process were then continued by the DSSC assembly. In this process, the TiO2 photoanode which has passed the absorption process for 24 hours, was doped on the counter electrode. After doping, the process was stopped by doing electrolyte solution filling into prepared electrode counter holes. In order to characterize the DSSC, a solar simulator connected to a computer was employed. Based on this characterization process, it was found that the maximum value of Voc was 0.29 V, the maximum value of current density was 0.56 mA / cm2, the maximum power was 0.062 mW / cm2 and efficiency of 0.063. Characteristics of Nephelium lappaceum peel extract is one of the DSSC cells using TiO2 as a semiconductor material as a dye sensitizer that can convert light energy into electrical energy.