Sample records for cell digestion shown

  1. Cell Matrix Remodeling Ability Shown by Image Spatial Correlation (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-Li; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico


    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is a critical step of many biological and pathological processes. However, most of the studies to date lack a quantitative method to measure ECM remodeling at a scale comparable to cell size. Here, we applied image spatial correlation to collagen second harmonic generation (SHG) images to quantitatively evaluate the degree of collagen remodeling by cells. We propose a simple statistical method based on spatial correlation functions to determine the size of high collagen density area around cells. We applied our method to measure collagen remodeling by two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7), which display different degrees of invasiveness, and a fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3). We found distinct collagen compaction levels of these three cell lines by applying the spatial correlation method, indicating different collagen remodeling ability. Furthermore, we quantitatively measured the effect of Latrunculin B and Marimastat on MDA-MB-231 cell line collagen remodeling ability and showed that significant collagen compaction level decreases with these treatments. PMID:23935614

  2. Cancer stem cells of the digestive system. (United States)

    Colvin, Hugh S; Nishida, Naohiro; Koseki, Jun; Konno, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koichi; Tsunekuni, Kenta; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi


    Stem cells of the digestive system are ideal in many ways for research, given they are abundant, highly proliferative and have a uniform structural arrangement. This in turn has enormously aided the research of cancer stem cells of the digestive system, which is now shaping our understanding of cancer stem cells. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding of cancer stem cells of the digestive system have been summarized, including aspects such as their identification, origin, cell-cycle dormancy, relationship with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular metabolism and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Newly acquired knowledge concerning cancer stem cells have led to the development of novel cancer therapeutics with provisional yet encouraging results. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:


    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

  4. Incorporation of radioactive sulfate (Na235SO4) by mouse adrenal medullary cells as shown by radioautography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munhoz, C.O.G.; Merzel, J.


    Preliminary radioautographic results, observed in the adreno-medullary cells of mice injected with radiosulfate, suggested that the cells might synthetize sulfur-containing compounds. Only further studies could make-clear if sulfate groups are linked to carbohydrate molecules and/or chromaffin granules [pt

  5. Digestive Diseases (United States)

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  6. [Clinical trials with stem cells in digestive diseases and future perspectives]. (United States)

    Kim, Tae Il


    Many techniques for isolation, expansion and handling of stem cells are being developed rapidly, and preclinical evidence has shown the possibility to use this technology for refractory diseases in the near future. Among refractory digestive diseases, Crohn's disease and liver cirrhosis may be two main diseases where stem cell therapy can be applied for anti-inflammation and regeneration of tissue. Currently, with respect to these two diseases, clinical trials using hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow or adipose tissue have shown some evidence of clinical benefits to immune modulation, suppression of inflammation and regeneration of functional cells. However, for the development of practical stem cell therapy, we need more data on underlying mechanisms, effective subpopulation of stem cells and its sources, and effective parameters for monitoring and estimation. With technical advances, the research on embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells will also contribute to the new therapeutic strategies for digestive regenerative medicine. In the future, a variety of stem cell therapies may be therapeutic options for refractory digestive diseases, but many technical challenges remain to be solved. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2011;58:139-143).

  7. [Preclinical experience in stem cell therapy for digestive tract diseases]. (United States)

    Jeon, Myung Shin; Hong, Soon Sun


    Adult stem cells are multipotent and self-renewing cells that contain several functions; i) migration and homing potential: stem cells can migrate to injured and inflamed tissues. ii) differentiation potential: stem cells which migrated to injured tissues can be differentiated into multiple cell types for repairing and regenerating the tissues. iii) immunomodulatory properties: stem cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells can suppress immune system such as inflammation. All those characteristics might be useful for the treatment of the digestive tract diseases which are complex and encompass a broad spectrum of different pathogenesis. Preclinical stem cell therapy showed some promising results, especially in liver failure, pancreatitis, sepsis, and inflammatory bowel disease. If we can understand more about the mechanism of stem cell action, stem cell therapy can become a promising alternative treatment for refractory digestive disease in the near future. In this review, we summarized current preclinical experiences in diseases of the digestive tract using stem cells. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2011;58:133-138).

  8. Changes in inositol phosphates in wild carrot cells upon initiation of cell wall digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F.


    Previous studies have shown that inositol trisphosphate (IP 3 ) stimulated 45 Ca +2 efflux from fusogenic carrot protoplasts and it was suggested that IP 3 may serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca +2 in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not inositol phosphate metabolism changes in response to external stimuli, the cells were labeled with myo-[2- 3 H] inositol for 18 h and exposed to cell wall digestion enzymes, Driselase. The inositol phosphates were extracted with ice cold 10% TCA and separated by anion exchange chromatography. The radioactivity of the fraction that contained IP 3 increased 2-3.8 fold and that which contained inositol bisphosphate increased 1.9-2.6 fold within 1.5 min of exposure to Driselase. After 6 min, the radioactivity of both fractions increased 6-7.7 fold and an increase in inositol monophosphate was observed. These data indicate that inositol phosphate metabolism is stimulated by Driselase and suggest polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis occurs upon initiation of cell wall digestion

  9. Intactness of cell wall structure controls the in vitro digestion of starch in legumes. (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Bhattarai, Rewati R; Gorham, John; Gidley, Michael J


    Increasing the level of starch that is not digested by the end of the small intestine and therefore enters the colon ('resistant starch') is a major opportunity for improving the nutritional profile of foods. One mechanism that has been shown to be successful is entrapment of starch within an intact plant tissue structure. However, the level of tissue intactness required for resistance to amylase digestion has not been defined. In this study, intact cells were isolated from a range of legumes after thermal treatment at 60 °C (starch not gelatinised) or 95 °C (starch gelatinised) followed by hydrolysis using pancreatic alpha amylase. It was found that intact cells, isolated at either temperature, were impervious to amylase. However, application of mechanical force damaged the cell wall and made starch accessible to digestive enzymes. This shows that the access of enzymes to the entrapped swollen starch is the rate limiting step controlling hydrolysis of starch in cooked legumes. The results suggest that a single cell wall could be sufficient to provide an effective delivery of starch to the large intestine with consequent nutritional benefits, provided that mechanical damage during digestion is avoided.

  10. Digestive cell turnover in digestive gland epithelium of slugs experimentally exposed to a mixture of cadmium and kerosene. (United States)

    Zaldibar, B; Cancio, I; Soto, M; Marigómez, I


    Slugs, Arion ater (L), have been proposed as sentinel organisms to assess soil health. In slugs under the influence of pollutants, digestive cell loss and the concomitant increase of excretory cells of the digestive gland have been described. The aim of the present work was to determine up to what extent digestive cell loss affects biomarkers and whether the affectation is reversible after exposure to a mixture of metal and organic pollutants. Slugs were dosed with a mixture of cadmium and kerosene in the food for 27 days. Apart from chemical analyses, the volume density of black silver deposits (Vv(BSD)) after autometallography, and acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity were used as biomarkers of exposure to metals and organic compounds, respectively. As effect biomarkers, changes in the volume density of the cell types that constitute the digestive gland epithelium were calculated. Proliferating cells were identified by means of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry. Results revealed that the mixture of pollutants provoked an increase in Vv(BSD) and AOX activity and a decrease in the number of digestive cells. These changes had no effect in the digestive gland accumulation capacity or in the effect and exposure biomarkers employed. BrdU-labelling showed that exposure to pollutants provoked an enhanced digestive cell proliferation.

  11. Prior lactose glycation of caseinate via the Maillard reaction affects in vitro activities of the pepsin-trypsin digest toward intestinal epithelial cells. (United States)

    Wang, X P; Zhao, X H


    The well-known Maillard reaction in milk occurs between lactose and milk proteins during thermal treatment, and its effects on milk nutrition and safety have been well studied. A lactose-glycated caseinate was prepared via this reaction and digested using 2 digestive proteases, pepsin and trypsin. The glycated caseinate digest was assessed for its in vitro activities on rat intestinal epithelial cells in terms of growth proliferation, anti-apoptotic effect, and differentiation induction using caseinate digest as reference, to verify potential effects of the Maillard reaction on these activities of caseinate digest to the cells. Two digests had proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects, and reached the highest effects at 0.02 g/L of digest concentration with treatment time of 24 h. In comparison with caseinate digest, glycated caseinate digest always showed weaker proliferative (5.3-14.2%) and anti-apoptotic (5.9-39.0%) effects, and was more toxic to the cells at 0.5 g/L of digest concentration with treatment time of 48 h. However, glycated caseinate digest at 2 incubation times of 4 to 7 d showed differentiation induction higher than caseinate digest, as it could confer the cells with increased activities in lactase (16.3-26.6%), sucrase (22.4-31.2%), and alkaline phosphatase (17.4-24.8%). Transmission electron microscopy observation results also confirmed higher differentiation induction of glycated caseinate digest. Amino acid loss and lactose glycation partially contributed to these decreased and enhanced activities of glycated caseinate digest, respectively. The Maillard reaction of caseinate and lactose is thus shown in this study to have effects on the activities of caseinate digest to intestinal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of scanning electron microscopy to monitor nanofibre/cell interaction in digestive epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millaku, Agron, E-mail: [Limnos-Company for Applied Ecology Ltd, Podlimbarskega 31, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drobne, Damjana [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence, Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (Nanocentre), Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Torkar, Matjaz [Institute of Metals and Technology IMT, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Condensed Matter Physics Department, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Novak, Sara [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Remškar, Maja [Jožef Stefan Institute, Condensed Matter Physics Department, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pipan-Tkalec, Živa [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy is particularly well suited to the observation of nanofibre/cell interaction in the endothelial cells lining the hepatopancreas. (a) Tungsten oxide nanofibres, (b) test organism Porcellio scaber and schematic appearance of digestive tubes, (c) digestive tube (hepatopancreas) prepared for SEM investigation, (d) digestive gland cells (C) with nanofibres (NF) embedded in the cell membrane and (e) nanofibres inserted deeply in the cells and damaged nanofibres due to peristalsis. -- Highlights: • Tungsten oxide nanofibres react physically with digestive gland epithelial cells in Porcellio scaber. • Physical peristaltic forces of lead to insertion of nanofibres into the cells. • No toxic responses as measured by conventional toxicity biomarkers were detected. • Physical interactions were observed in a majority of the investigated animals. -- Abstract: We provide data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on the interaction of ingested tungsten nanofibers with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes of a test organism Porcellio scaber. Conventional toxicity endpoints including feeding behaviour, weight loss and mortality were also measured in each investigated animal. No toxicity was detected in any of exposed animals after 14 days of feeding on tungsten nanofiber dosed food, but when nanofibers enter the digestive system they can react with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes, becoming physically inserted into the cells. In this way, nanofibers can injure the epithelial cells of digestive gland tubes when they are ingested with food. Our SEM data suggest that peristaltic forces may have an important role, not predicted by in vitro experiments, in the interactions of nanomaterials with digestive intestinal cells.

  13. Use of scanning electron microscopy to monitor nanofibre/cell interaction in digestive epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millaku, Agron; Drobne, Damjana; Torkar, Matjaz; Novak, Sara; Remškar, Maja; Pipan-Tkalec, Živa


    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy is particularly well suited to the observation of nanofibre/cell interaction in the endothelial cells lining the hepatopancreas. (a) Tungsten oxide nanofibres, (b) test organism Porcellio scaber and schematic appearance of digestive tubes, (c) digestive tube (hepatopancreas) prepared for SEM investigation, (d) digestive gland cells (C) with nanofibres (NF) embedded in the cell membrane and (e) nanofibres inserted deeply in the cells and damaged nanofibres due to peristalsis. -- Highlights: • Tungsten oxide nanofibres react physically with digestive gland epithelial cells in Porcellio scaber. • Physical peristaltic forces of lead to insertion of nanofibres into the cells. • No toxic responses as measured by conventional toxicity biomarkers were detected. • Physical interactions were observed in a majority of the investigated animals. -- Abstract: We provide data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on the interaction of ingested tungsten nanofibers with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes of a test organism Porcellio scaber. Conventional toxicity endpoints including feeding behaviour, weight loss and mortality were also measured in each investigated animal. No toxicity was detected in any of exposed animals after 14 days of feeding on tungsten nanofiber dosed food, but when nanofibers enter the digestive system they can react with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes, becoming physically inserted into the cells. In this way, nanofibers can injure the epithelial cells of digestive gland tubes when they are ingested with food. Our SEM data suggest that peristaltic forces may have an important role, not predicted by in vitro experiments, in the interactions of nanomaterials with digestive intestinal cells

  14. First European fuel cell installation with anaerobic digester gas in a molten carbonate fuel cell (United States)

    Krumbeck, M.; Klinge, T.; Döding, B.

    The City of Ahlen in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany and RWE Fuel Cells GmbH, Essen, cooperate in order to install a molten carbonate fuel cell in the municipal sewage works of Ahlen in May/June 2005. The MCFC unit, a so-called HotModule made by MTU CFC Solutions, Ottobrunn operates on anaerobic digester gas and provides power and heat for the sewage works. This is the first project of its kind in Europe. This article outlines the experiences of RWE Fuel Cells with planning, installation and operation of MCFC systems and is focussing on the use of digester gas. The engineering and installation phase is described regarding to the special features of digester gas, for example variation in gas composition and impurities as well as different flow rates. The results of the first months of operation are interpreted and influences to the performance of the fuel cell on digester gas composition are compared. One focus of the recent RWE Fuel Cells projects is the use of MCFC systems using different biofuels. With the results from planning, installation and operation of the MCFC in Ahlen a system design for the application of different fuels can be validated and tested.

  15. Organic acid bioavailability from banana and sweet potato using an in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cell model. (United States)

    Sabboh-Jourdan, Houda; Valla, Fanny; Epriliati, Indah; Gidley, Michael J


    Organic acids from plant food have been shown to play an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases (osteoporosis, obesity), inherent to western diets, but little is known about their bioavailability in the small intestine, information that needs to be determined in order to quantify likely effects on human health. An in vitro model of human digestion was carried out, comprising simulated oral, gastric and pancreatic digestion followed by an in vitro model of small intestine absorption using Caco-2 cell monolayers. As models for fruits and vegetables, freeze-dried or raw samples of banana and sweet potato were used. Organic acids have been found to be slowly released from the food matrix during simulated digestion of both banana and sweet potato, either raw or after freeze-drying. In the Caco-2 cell assay, malic and oxalic acids were absorbed more than citric acid. Oxalic and citric acids, but not malic acid, were transported across the cell monolayer. The release and uptake of major organic acids from model fruits and vegetables using established in vitro simulation processes was not quantitative and varied with acid type. Partial uptake is consistent with a dual nutritional role for organic acids as alkalinising agents (fraction which is taken up) and as modulators of large intestinal function (fraction which is not taken up in the small intestine). Studies of in vivo digestive release and uptake are needed in order to identify the contribution of organic acids to the nutritional value of fruits and vegetables.

  16. Caco-2 Cell Conditions Enabling Studies of Drug Absorption from Digestible Lipid-Based Formulations. (United States)

    Keemink, Janneke; Bergström, Christel A S


    To identify conditions allowing the use of cell-based models for studies of drug absorption during in vitro lipolysis of lipid-based formulations (LBFs). Caco-2 was selected as the cell-based model system. Monolayer integrity was evaluated by measuring mannitol permeability after incubating Caco-2 cells in the presence of components available during lipolysis. Pure excipients and formulations representing the lipid formulation classification system (LFCS) were evaluated before and after digestion. Porcine mucin was evaluated for its capacity to protect the cell monolayer. Most undigested formulations were compatible with the cells (II-LC, IIIB-LC, and IV) although some needed mucin to protect against damaging effects (II-MC, IIIB-MC, I-LC, and IIIA-LC). The pancreatic extract commonly used in digestion studies was incompatible with the cells but the Caco-2 monolayers could withstand immobilized recombinant lipase. Upon digestion, long chain formulations caused more damage to Caco-2 cells than their undigested counterparts whereas medium chain formulations showed better tolerability after digestion. Most LBFs and components thereof (undigested and digested) are compatible with Caco-2 cells. Pancreatic enzyme is not tolerated by the cells but immobilized lipase can be used in combination with the cell monolayer. Mucin is beneficial for critical formulations and digestion products.

  17. Iron uptake by Caco-2 cells following in vitro digestion: effects of heat treatments of pork meat and pH of the digests. (United States)

    Sørensen, Anne D; Bukhave, Klaus


    The present in vitro studies report on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells from pepsin and pepsin+pancreatin-digested pork meat proteins at pH values between 4.6 and 7 mimicking conditions in the duodenum and the proximal jejunum, respectively. Heat treatment of the pork meat resulted in increased iron uptake from pepsin-digested samples to Caco-2 cells at pH 4.6. The major enhancing effects on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells were observed after pepsin digestion in the pH range 4.6-6.0, whereas the pepsin+pancreatin-digested samples resulted in negligible iron uptake in Caco-2 cells at pH 7. Thus, the results emphasize the importance of separating pepsin-digested and pepsin+pancreatin-digested proteins during in vitro studies on iron availability. Furthermore, the present results showed the pH dependency of iron uptake anticipated. The enhancing effect of ascorbic acid was verified by increased iron uptake from pepsin-digested pork meat samples at pH 4.6, while no effect of ascorbic acid was observed at pH 7 in pepsin+pancreatin-digested samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Lignin depletion enhances the digestibility of cellulose in cultured xylem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine I Lacayo

    Full Text Available Plant lignocellulose constitutes an abundant and sustainable source of polysaccharides that can be converted into biofuels. However, the enzymatic digestion of native plant cell walls is inefficient, presenting a considerable barrier to cost-effective biofuel production. In addition to the insolubility of cellulose and hemicellulose, the tight association of lignin with these polysaccharides intensifies the problem of cell wall recalcitrance. To determine the extent to which lignin influences the enzymatic digestion of cellulose, specifically in secondary walls that contain the majority of cellulose and lignin in plants, we used a model system consisting of cultured xylem cells from Zinniaelegans. Rather than using purified cell wall substrates or plant tissue, we have applied this system to study cell wall degradation because it predominantly consists of homogeneous populations of single cells exhibiting large deposits of lignocellulose. We depleted lignin in these cells by treating with an oxidative chemical or by inhibiting lignin biosynthesis, and then examined the resulting cellulose digestibility and accessibility using a fluorescent cellulose-binding probe. Following cellulase digestion, we measured a significant decrease in relative cellulose content in lignin-depleted cells, whereas cells with intact lignin remained essentially unaltered. We also observed a significant increase in probe binding after lignin depletion, indicating that decreased lignin levels improve cellulose accessibility. These results indicate that lignin depletion considerably enhances the digestibility of cellulose in the cell wall by increasing the susceptibility of cellulose to enzymatic attack. Although other wall components are likely to contribute, our quantitative study exploits cultured Zinnia xylem cells to demonstrate the dominant influence of lignin on the enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This system is simple enough for quantitative image analysis

  19. Plant cells which aid in pollen digestion within a beetle's gut. (United States)

    Rickson, Fred R; Cresti, M; Beach, James H


    The peach palm, Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., in Costa Rica, possesses unusual trichomes on the inflorescence epidermal surface. Certain cells of the trichome possess a thick, highly lignified cell wall and are consumed by the beetle Cyclocephala amazona L. before it ingests pollen from the same inflorescence. Chemical analyses show the trichome to possess no nutritive value. The thick-walled trichome cells pass intact through the beetle's digestive system, while ingested pollen is crushed. We suggest that the specialized plant cells function as gastroliths in the beetle's digestive tract.

  20. Effects of ACTH on RNA synthesis and migration in the adrenal cortex cells of the young rat, as shown by radioautography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, M.C.; Vitor, A.B.; Magalhaes, M.M.


    The effect of ACTH on the RNA synthesis in adrenal zona fasciculata cells of the young rat were studied by light and electron microscope radioautography. Two units of ACTH were administered sc to animals and immediately followed by an iv injection of [ 3 ]uridine. ACTH-injected and control rats, which received the isotope alone, were sacrificed at various time intervals. Labelling over extranucleolar areas was higher in the ACTH-treated animals at 20 min, then becoming lower than in the controls at 60 min and 24 h. Nucleolar radioactivity, however, was consistently decreased by ACTH at all experimental times. Apart from these changes in the rate of synthesis, the over-all curves of labelling were similar to those in the control animals with a striking peak at 1 h. The short-term increase in extranucleolar RNA synthesis observed after ACTH injection was considered to be consistent with the hypothesis that an enhanced extranucleolar synthesis of mRNA takes place early in stimulated animals and is associated with the synthesis of steroidogenic proteins. On the other hand, the relatively decreased uridine uptake of the label by the nucleolus in ACTH-treated animals, suggests an inhibition of nucleolar transcription with diminished pre-rRNA formation in treated animals. (author)

  1. Effects of ACTH on RNA synthesis and migration in the adrenal cortex cells of the young rat, as shown by radioautography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, M.C.; Vitor, A.B.; Magalhaes, M.M.


    The effect of ACTH on the RNA synthesis in adrenal zona fasciculata cells of the young rat were studied by light and electron microscope radioautography. Two units of ACTH were administered sc to animals and immediately followed by an iv injection of (/sup 3/)uridine. ACTH-injected and control rats, which received the isotope alone, were sacrificed at various time intervals. Labelling over extranucleolar areas was higher in the ACTH-treated animals at 20 min, then becoming lower than in the controls at 60 min and 24 h. Nucleolar radioactivity, however, was consistently decreased by ACTH at all experimental times. Apart from these changes in the rate of synthesis, the over-all curves of labelling were similar to those in the control animals with a striking peak at 1 h. The short-term increase in extranucleolar RNA synthesis observed after ACTH injection was considered to be consistent with the hypothesis that an enhanced extranucleolar synthesis of mRNA takes place early in stimulated animals and is associated with the synthesis of steroidogenic proteins. On the other hand, the relatively decreased uridine uptake of the label by the nucleolus in ACTH-treated animals, suggests an inhibition of nucleolar transcription with diminished pre-rRNA formation in treated animals.

  2. In vitro digestion and lactase treatment influence uptake of quercetin and quercetin glucoside by the Caco-2 cell monolayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Dan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are widely consumed flavonoids found in many fruits and vegetables. These compounds have a wide range of potential health benefits, and understanding the bioavailability of flavonoids from foods is becoming increasingly important. Methods This study combined an in vitro digestion, a lactase treatment and the Caco-2 cell model to examine quercetin and quercetin glucoside uptake from shallot and apple homogenates. Results The in vitro digestion alone significantly decreased quercetin aglycone recovery from the shallot digestate (p p > 0.05. Digestion increased the Caco-2 cell uptake of shallot quercetin-4'-glucoside by 2-fold when compared to the non-digested shallot. Despite the loss of quercetin from the digested shallot, the bioavailability of quercetin aglycone to the Caco-2 cells was the same in both the digested and non-digested shallot. Treatment with lactase increased quercetin recovery from the shallot digestate nearly 10-fold and decreased quercetin-4'-glucoside recovery by more than 100-fold (p p Conclusions The increase in quercetin uptake following treatment with lactase suggests that dietary supplementation with lactase may increase quercetin bioavailability in lactose intolerant humans. Combining the digestion, the lactase treatment and the Caco-2 cell culture model may provide a reliable in vitro model for examining flavonoid glucoside bioavailability from foods.

  3. Digestive Stability and Transport of Norbixin, a 24-Carbon Carotenoid, across Monolayers of Caco-2 Cells (United States)

    Polar-Cabrera, Karina; Huo, Tianyao; Schwartz, Steven J.; Failla, Mark L.


    Annatto is a natural pigment widely used in the food industry to add yellow to red colors to dairy and cereal products. Here, the in vitro bioaccessibility and potential bioavailability of norbixin, the abundant 24-carbon carotenoid in annatto, were investigated. Norbixin added to milk was highly stable during simulated digestion, and bile salts enhanced partitioning of this carotenoid in the aqueous fraction during the small intestinal phase of digestion. Apical uptake of norbixin by Caco-2 cells was proportional to the concentration in apical medium, but cellular content increased only slightly after 60 min. Transport of norbixin to the basolateral compartment was maximum at 120 min. Both all-trans and cis isomers of norbixin were present in cells and basolateral medium. The results suggest that ingested norbixin is stable during gastric and small intestinal phases of digestion and that both cis and all-trans isomers are bioavailable. PMID:20408560


    The conceptual design of a fuel cell (FC) system for operation on anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is described and its economic and environmental feasibility is projected. ADG is produced at water treatment plants during the process of treating sewage anaerobically to reduce solids....

  5. How does plant cell wall nanoscale architecture correlate with enzymatic digestibility? (United States)

    Ding, Shi-You; Liu, Yu-San; Zeng, Yining; Himmel, Michael E; Baker, John O; Bayer, Edward A


    Greater understanding of the mechanisms contributing to chemical and enzymatic solubilization of plant cell walls is critical for enabling cost-effective industrial conversion of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. Here, we report the use of correlative imaging in real time to assess the impact of pretreatment, as well as the resulting nanometer-scale changes in cell wall structure, upon subsequent digestion by two commercially relevant cellulase systems. We demonstrate that the small, noncomplexed fungal cellulases deconstruct cell walls using mechanisms that differ considerably from those of the larger, multienzyme complexes (cellulosomes). Furthermore, high-resolution measurement of the microfibrillar architecture of cell walls suggests that digestion is primarily facilitated by enabling enzyme access to the hydrophobic cellulose face. The data support the conclusion that ideal pretreatments should maximize lignin removal and minimize polysaccharide modification, thereby retaining the essentially native microfibrillar structure.

  6. Evaluation on direct interspecies electron transfer in anaerobic sludge digestion of microbial electrolysis cell. (United States)

    Zhao, Zisheng; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin


    Increase of methanogenesis in methane-producing microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) is frequently believed as a result of cathodic reduction of CO2. Recent studies indicated that this electromethanogenesis only accounted for a little part of methane production during anaerobic sludge digestion. Instead, direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) possibly plays an important role in methane production. In this study, anaerobic digestion of sludge were investigated in a single-chamber MEC reactor, a carbon-felt supplemented reactor and a common anaerobic reactor to evaluate the effects of DIET on the sludge digestion. The results showed that adding carbon felt into the reactor increased 12.9% of methane production and 17.2% of sludge reduction. Imposing a voltage on the carbon felt further improved the digestion. Current calculation showed that the cathodic reduction only contributed to 27.5% of increased methane production. Microbial analysis indicated that DIET played an important role in the anaerobic sludge digestion in the MEC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancing the Energy Efficiency of Wastewater Treatment Plants through Co-digestion and Fuel Cell Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gandiglio


    Full Text Available The present work provides an overview of technological measures to increase the self-sufficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, in particular for the largely diffused activated sludge-based WWTP. The operation of WWTPs entails a huge amount of electricity. Thermal energy is also required for pre-heating the sludge and sometimes exsiccation of the digested sludge. On the other hand, the entering organic matter contained in the wastewater is a source of energy. Organic matter is recovered as sludge, which is digested in large stirred tanks (anaerobic digester to produce biogas. The onsite availability of biogas represents a great opportunity to cover a significant share of WWTP electricity and thermal demands. Especially, biogas can be efficiently converted into electrical energy (and heat via high temperature fuel cell generators. The final part of this work will report a case study based on the use of sewage biogas into a solid oxide fuel cell. However, the efficient biogas conversion in combined heat and power (CHP devices is not sufficient. Self-sufficiency requires a combination of efficient biogas conversion, the maximization the yield of biogas from the organic substrate, and the minimization of the thermal duty connected to the preheating of the sludge feeding the anaerobic digester (generally achieved with pre-thickeners. Finally, the co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW into digesters treating sludge from WWTPs represent an additional opportunity for increasing the biogas production of existing WWTPs, thus helping the transition toward self-sufficient plants.

  8. Production of chitooligosaccharides from Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL2710 cells by chitosanase digestion. (United States)

    Mahata, Maria; Shinya, Shoko; Masaki, Eiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Brzezinski, Ryszard; Mazumder, Tapan K; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Narihiro, Kazue; Fukamizo, Tamo


    The intact cells of Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL2710, whose cell walls are abundant source of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucosamine (GlcN), were digested with three chitinolytic enzymes, a GH-46 chitosanase from Streptomyces sp. N174 (CsnN174), a chitinase from Pyrococcus furiosus, and a chitinase from Trichoderma viride, respectively. Solubilization of the intact cells by CsnN174 was found to be the most efficient from solid state CP/MAS (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Chitosanase products from Rhizopus cells were purified by cation exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-25 and gel-filtration on Cellulofine Gcl-25m. NMR and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses of the purified products revealed that GlcN-GlcNAc, (GlcN)2-GlcNAc, and (GlcN)2 were produced by the enzymatic digestion of the intact cells. The chitosanase digestion of Rhizopus cells was found to be an excellent system for the conversion of fungal biomass without any environmental impact. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dendritic cell subsets digested: RNA sensing makes the difference!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschow, S.I.; Figdor, C.G.


    In this issue of Immunity, Luber et al. (2010) report a comprehensive quantitative proteome of in vivo mouse spleen dendritic cell (DC) subsets: a data set of encyclopedic value already revealing that DC subsets exploit different RNA sensors for virus recognition.

  10. Calcium bioaccessibility and uptake by human intestinal like cells following in vitro digestion of casein phosphopeptide-calcium aggregates. (United States)

    Perego, Silvia; Del Favero, Elena; De Luca, Paola; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Fiorilli, Amelia; Cantu', Laura; Ferraretto, Anita


    Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), derived by casein proteolysis, can bind calcium ions and keep them in solution. In vitro studies have demonstrated CPP-induced cell calcium uptake, depending on the formation of (CPP + calcium) complexes and on the degree of differentiation of the intestinal cells. With the present study, we address the persistence of the complexes and of the CPP-induced calcium uptake in intestinal like cells after the digestion process, thus examining their eligibility to serve as nutraceuticals. A calcium-preloaded CPP preparation of commercial origin (Ca-CPPs) was subjected to in vitro digestion. The evolution of the supramolecular structure of the Ca-CPP complexes was studied using laser-light and X-ray scattering. The bioactivity of the pre- and post-digestion Ca-CPPs was determined in differentiated Caco2 and HT-29 cells by video imaging experiments using Fura-2. We found that Ca-CPP aggregates keep a complex supramolecular organization upon digestion, despite getting smaller in size and increasing internal calcium dispersion. Concomitantly and most interestingly, digested Ca-CPPs clearly enhance the uptake of calcium ions, especially in Caco2 cells. In contrast, digestion depletes the ability of post-loaded decalcified-CPPs (Ca-dekCPPs), with a weaker internal structure, to induce calcium uptake. The enhanced bioactivity reached upon digestion strongly suggests a recognized role of Ca-CPPs, in the form used here, as nutraceuticals.

  11. Development of Electroactive and Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox Biofilms from Digestate in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Gino Di Domenico


    Full Text Available Microbial Fuel cells (MFCs have been proposed for nutrient removal and energy recovery from different wastes. In this study the anaerobic digestate was used to feed H-type MFC reactors, one with a graphite anode preconditioned with Geobacter sulfurreducens and the other with an unconditioned graphite anode. The data demonstrate that the digestate acts as a carbon source, and even in the absence of anode preconditioning, electroactive bacteria colonise the anodic chamber, producing a maximum power density of 172.2 mW/m2. The carbon content was also reduced by up to 60%, while anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox bacteria, which were found in the anodic compartment of the reactors, contributed to nitrogen removal from the digestate. Overall, these results demonstrate that MFCs can be used to recover anammox bacteria from natural sources, and it may represent a promising bioremediation unit in anaerobic digestor plants for the simultaneous nitrogen removal and electricity generation using digestate as substrate.

  12. Composition and structure of tuber cell walls affect in vitro digestibility of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). (United States)

    Frost, Jovyn K T; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Brummell, David A; O'Donoghue, Erin M; Mishra, Suman; Gidley, Michael J; Monro, John A


    The digestibility of starchy foods, such as potatoes, can be characterized by the proportion of starch that is rapidly digestible by in vitro hydrolysis (rapidly digestible starch, RDS). This study evaluated the RDS content in a potato germplasm collection consisting of 98 genotypes and identified three advanced lines, Crop39, Crop71 and Crop85, where cooked potato RDS content was significantly lower than that of their respective isolated starches (P starch did not differ significantly from that of five control lines with higher RDS contents. Cell wall analyses revealed that, compared with other lines tested, Crop39, Crop71 and Crop85 had at least four times the amount of rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) galactan side-chains that were very firmly attached to the wall and requiring 4 M KOH for extraction. Pectin solubilization during cooking was also remarkably low (2-4%) in these three lines compared with other lines tested (7-19%). The findings suggest that possession of higher amounts of RG-I galactan that interact strongly with cellulose may provide a sturdier wall that better resists solubilization during cooking, and effectively impedes access of digestive enzymes for starch hydrolysis in an in vitro model.

  13. Managing acute complications of sickle cell disease in pediatric patients [digest]. (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sathyaseelan; Chao, Jennifer H; Chaudhari, Pradip


    Sickle cell disease is a chronic hematologic disease with a variety of acute, and often recurring, complications. Vaso-occlusive crisis, a unique but common presentation in sickle cell disease, can be challenging to manage. Acute chest syndrome is the leading cause of death in patients with sickle cell disease, occurring in more than half of patients who are hospitalized with a vaso-occlusive crisis. Uncommon diagnoses in children, such as stroke, priapism, and transient red cell aplasia, occur more frequently in patients with sickle cell disease and necessitate a degree of familiarity with the disease process and its management. Patients with sickle cell trait generally have a benign course, but are also subject to serious complications. This issue provides a current review of evidence-based management of the most common acute complications of sickle cell disease seen in pediatric patients in the emergency department. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  14. Nanomedicine strategies for sustained, controlled, and targeted treatment of cancer stem cells of the digestive system. (United States)

    Xie, Fang-Yuan; Xu, Wei-Heng; Yin, Chuan; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Zhong, Yan-Qiang; Gao, Jie


    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a small proportion of the cancer cells that have self-renewal capacity and tumor-initiating ability. They have been identified in a variety of tumors, including tumors of the digestive system. CSCs exhibit some unique characteristics, which are responsible for cancer metastasis and recurrence. Consequently, the development of effective therapeutic strategies against CSCs plays a key role in increasing the efficacy of cancer therapy. Several potential approaches to target CSCs of the digestive system have been explored, including targeting CSC surface markers and signaling pathways, inducing the differentiation of CSCs, altering the tumor microenvironment or niche, and inhibiting ATP-driven efflux transporters. However, conventional therapies may not successfully eradicate CSCs owing to various problems, including poor solubility, stability, rapid clearance, poor cellular uptake, and unacceptable cytotoxicity. Nanomedicine strategies, which include drug, gene, targeted, and combinational delivery, could solve these problems and significantly improve the therapeutic index. This review briefly summarizes the ongoing development of strategies and nanomedicine-based therapies against CSCs of the digestive system.

  15. Peculiarities of digestion in senescence. (United States)

    Dietze, F; Schulz, H J


    It is established, that involutional changes of digestive tract limits digestion in old patients. In the age digestive capacities mostly are sufficient, but there is a great tendency to maldigestion. The decrease of functional capacity doesn't show the clinical features of a manifest digestive insufficiency in old healthy probands. But it was shown that the digestive efficiency is exhausted by hyper-alimentation more quickly in elderly. The pancreas of elderly is able to digest small meals taken frequently.

  16. Impact of food components during in vitro digestion of silver nanoparticles on cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in intestinal cells. (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Dajana; Ebmeyer, Johanna; Knappe, Patrick; Juling, Sabine; Böhmert, Linda; Selve, Sören; Niemann, Birgit; Braeuning, Albert; Thünemann, Andreas F; Lampen, Alfonso


    Because of the rising application of nanoparticles in food and food-related products, we investigated the influence of the digestion process on the toxicity and cellular uptake of silver nanoparticles for intestinal cells. The main food components--carbohydrates, proteins and fatty acids--were implemented in an in vitro digestion process to simulate realistic conditions. Digested and undigested silver nanoparticle suspensions were used for uptake studies in the well-established Caco-2 model. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to estimate particle core size, size distribution and stability in cell culture medium. Particles proved to be stable and showed radii from 3.6 to 16.0 nm. Undigested particles and particles digested in the presence of food components were comparably taken up by Caco-2 cells, whereas the uptake of particles digested without food components was decreased by 60%. Overall, these findings suggest that in vivo ingested poly (acrylic acid)-coated silver nanoparticles may reach the intestine in a nanoscaled form even if enclosed in a food matrix. While appropriate for studies on the uptake into intestinal cells, the Caco-2 model might be less suited for translocation studies. Moreover, we show that nanoparticle digestion protocols lacking food components may lead to misinterpretation of uptake studies and inconclusive results.

  17. Microbial communities change in an anaerobic digestion after application of microbial electrolysis cells. (United States)

    Lee, Beom; Park, Jun-Gyu; Shin, Won-Beom; Tian, Dong-Jie; Jun, Hang-Bae


    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are being studied to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digesters and biogas production. In the present study, we investigated the effects of electrochemical reactions in AD-MEC (anaerobic digester combined with MECs) on changes in the microbial communities of bulk sludge through 454-pyrosequencing analysis, as well as the effect of these changes on anaerobic digestion. Methanobacterium beijingense and Methanobacterium petrolearium were the dominant archaeal species in AD, while Methanosarcina thermophila and Methanobacterium formicicum were dominant in AD-MEC at steady-state. There were no substantial differences in dominant bacterial species. Clostridia class was more abundant than Bacteroidia class in both reactors. Compared to AD, AD-MEC showed a 40% increase in overall bacterial population, increasing the removal of organic matters and the conversion of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Thus, the MEC reaction more effectively converts organic matters to VFAs and activates microbial communities favorable for methane production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Neuroendocrine tumors of digestive system: morphologic spectrum and cell proliferation (Ki67 index)]. (United States)

    Delektorskaia, V V; Kushliskiĭ, N E


    This review deals with the analysis of up-to-date concepts ofdiferent types of human neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive system. It summarizes the information on the specifics of recent histological classifications and criteria of morphological diagnosis accounting histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical parameters. Current issues of the nomenclature as well as various systems of grading and staging are discussed. In the light of these criteria the results of the own research clinical value of the determination of cell proliferation in primary and metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms on the basis of evaluation of the Ki67 antigen expression are also presented.

  19. Counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion by recovery using submersible microbial desalination cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini


    Ammonia inhibition is one of the most frequent and serious problems in biogas plants. In this study, a novel hybrid system consisting of a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed for counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic...... digestion (AD) with simultaneous in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. The SMDC was powered by acetate in a buffer solution, while synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater was used as the feeding of the CSTR. Under continuous operation, ammonia recovery rate of 86 g-N/m2 /day and current density...

  20. Horning cell self-digestion: Autophagy wins the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yuan Ke


    Full Text Available Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process by which eukaryotic cells eliminate intracellular components via the lysosomal degradation process. This cell self-digestion process was first discovered and morphologically characterized in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The genetic screen studies in baker's yeast in the 1990s further identified the essential genes functioning in the autophagic process. In the past two decades, the detailed molecular process involved in the completion of autophagy was delineated. Additionally, autophagy has been implied to function in many aspects of biological processes, including maintenance of organelle integrity, protein quality control, regulation of the stress response, and immunity. In addition to maintain cell homeostasis, autophagy has recently been shown to be modulated and to participate in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as pathogen infections, neurodegenerative diseases, and tumor development. Overall, the breakthrough in autophagy research relies on the discovery of autophagy-related genes (ATGs using a genetic screening approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was established by Yoshinori Ohsumi. This year the Nobel Committee has awarded Yoshinori Ohsumi the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his remarkable contribution to autophagy research.

  1. Digestion of isolated legume cells in a stomach-duodenum model: three mechanisms limit starch and protein hydrolysis. (United States)

    Bhattarai, Rewati R; Dhital, Sushil; Wu, Peng; Chen, Xiao Dong; Gidley, Michael J


    Retention of intact plant cells to the end of the small intestine leads to transport of entrapped macronutrients such as starch and protein for colonic microbial fermentation, and is a promising mechanism to increase the content of resistant starch in diets. However, the effect of gastro-intestinal bio-mechanical processing on the intactness of plant cells and the subsequent resistance to enzymatic digestion of intracellular starch and protein are not well understood. In this study, intact cells isolated from legume cotyledons are digested in a laboratory model which mimics the mechanical and biochemical conditions of the rat stomach and duodenum. The resulting digesta are characterised in terms of cell (wall) integrity as well as intracellular starch and protein hydrolysis. The cells remained essentially intact in the model with negligible (ca. 2-3%) starch or protein digestion; however when the cells were mechanically broken and digested in the model, the hydrolysis was increased to 45-50% suggesting that intact cellular structures could survive the mixing regimes in the model stomach and duodenum sufficiently to prevent digestive enzyme access. Apart from intact cell walls providing effective barrier properties, they also limit digestibility by restricting starch gelatinisation during cooking, and significant non-specific binding of α-amylase is observed to both intact and broken cell wall components, providing a third mechanism hindering starch hydrolysis. The study suggests that the preservation of intactness of plant cells, such as from legumes, could be a viable approach to achieve the targeted delivery of resistant starch to the colon.

  2. Effect of lignin linkages with other plant cell wall components on in vitro and in vivo neutral detergent fiber digestibility and rate of digestion of grass forages. (United States)

    Raffrenato, E; Fievisohn, R; Cotanch, K W; Grant, R J; Chase, L E; Van Amburgh, M E


    The objective of this study was to correlate in vitro and in vivo neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD) with the chemical composition of forages and specific chemical linkages, primarily ester- and ether-linked para-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic acids (FA) in forages fed to dairy cattle. The content of acid detergent lignin (ADL) and its relationship with NDF does not fully explain the observed variability in NDFD. The ferulic and p-coumaric acid linkages between ADL and cell wall polysaccharides, rather than the amount of ADL, might be a better predictor of NDFD. Twenty-three forages, including conventional and brown midrib corn silages and grasses at various stages of maturity were incubated in vitro for measurement of 24-h and 96-h NDFD. Undigested and digested residues were analyzed for NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF), ADL, and Klason lignin (KL); ester- and ether-linked pCA and FA were determined in these fractions. To determine whether in vitro observations of ester- and ether-linked pCA and FA and digestibility were similar to in vivo observations, 3 corn silages selected for digestibility were fed to 6 ruminally fistulated cows for 3 wk in 3 iso-NDF diets. Intact samples and NDF and ADF residues of diet, rumen, and feces were analyzed for ester- and ether-linked pCA and FA. From the in vitro study, the phenolic acid content (total pCA and FA) was highest for corn silages, and overall the content of ester- and ether-linked pCA and FA in both NDF and ADF residues were correlated with NDF digestibility parameters, reflecting the competitive effect of these linkages on digestibility. Also, Klason lignin and ADL were negatively correlated with ether-linked ferulic acid on an NDF basis. Overall, esterified FA and esterified pCA were negatively correlated with all of the measured fiber fractions on both a dry matter and an NDF basis. The lignin content of the plant residues and chemical linkages explained most of the variation in both rate and extent of

  3. Mesenchymal-­epithelial interactions during digestive tract development and epithelial stem cell regeneration (United States)

    Le Guen, Ludovic; Marchal, Stéphane; Faure, Sandrine; De Santa Barbara, Pascal


    The gastrointestinal tract develops from a simple and uniform tube into a complex organ with specific differentiation patterns along the anterior-posterior and dorso-ventral axes of asymmetry. It is derived from all three germ layers and their cross-talk is important for the regulated development of fetal and adult gastrointestinal structures and organs. Signals from the adjacent mesoderm are essential for the morphogenesis of the overlying epithelium. These mesenchymal-epithelial interactions govern the development and regionalization of the different gastrointestinal epithelia and involve most of the key morphogens and signaling pathways, such as the Hedgehog, BMPs, Notch, WNT, HOX, SOX and FOXF cascades. Moreover, the mechanisms underlying mesenchyme differentiation into smooth muscle cells influence the regionalization of the gastrointestinal epithelium through interactions with the enteric nervous system. In the neonatal and adult gastrointestinal tract, mesenchymal–epithelial interactions are essential for the maintenance of the epithelial regionalization and digestive epithelial homeostasis. Disruption of these interactions is also associated with bowel dysfunction potentially leading to epithelial tumor development. In this review, we will discuss various aspects of the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions observed during digestive epithelium development and differentiation and also during epithelial stem cell regeneration. PMID:26126787

  4. Identification of New Anti-inflammatory Peptides from Zein Hydrolysate after Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion and Transport in Caco-2 Cells. (United States)

    Liang, Qiufang; Chalamaiah, Meram; Ren, Xiaofeng; Ma, Haile; Wu, Jianping


    Chronic inflammation is an underlying contributor to various chronic diseases. The objectives of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of zein hydrolysate after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and Caco-2 cell absorption and to identify novel anti-inflammatory peptides after transport across Caco-2 cells. Three zein hydrolysates were prepared and further digested using gastrointestinal proteases; their transports were studied in Caco-2 cells. Anti-inflammatory activity was studied in endothelial EA.hy926 cells. Three zein hydrolysates and their digests significantly decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced pro-inflammatory vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by 37.3-66.0%. Eleven novel peptides with 5-9 amino acid residues were sequenced; three peptides showed strong anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the VCAM-1 by 54-38.9% and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by 36.5-28.6% at 0.2 mM. A new approach to identify novel anti-inflammatory peptides that could survive gastrointestinal digestion and absorption was developed.

  5. Coupling of anaerobic digester and microbial fuel cell for COD removal and ammonia recovery. (United States)

    Kim, Taeyoung; An, Junyeong; Jang, Jae Kyung; Chang, In Seop


    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were investigated for use in removing total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and residual COD from effluent digested in an anaerobic digester (AD) fed with actual swine wastewater for 32 days in batch mode. Cumulative COD removal in the AD was as high as 59,647±2096 mg/L (80.5% removed), whereas TAN removal in the AD was negligible at 296±116 mg-N/L (5.8% removed), causing a decrease in the COD/TAN ratio from 14.5 to 3.0. In a subsequent MFC system, 77.5% of TAN was removed at 36 days, leading to an increase in COD/TAN ratio from 4.6 to 8.1. As a result, the COD in the anode was further reduced from 19,319±417 mg/L to 7519±554 mg/L (61.1% removed). From these results, removing the TAN in MFCs was found to increase the COD/TAN ratio, with the COD being further degraded. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Capillary zone electrophoresis-multiple reaction monitoring from 100 pg of RAW 264.7 cell lysate digest. (United States)

    Sun, Liangliang; Li, Yihan; Champion, Matthew M; Zhu, Guijie; Wojcik, Roza; Dovichi, Norman J


    Capillary zone electrophoresis-multiple/single reaction monitoring (CZE-MRM/SRM), which employed an electrokinetically driven sheath-flow electrospray interface, was used for the rapid and highly sensitive detection of protein analytes in complex tryptic digests. MRM channels were developed against a commercial exponential mixture of bovine proteins. Five proteins spanning four orders of magnitude concentration range were confidently detected from only 2.5 ng of the digest mixture; the mass detection limits (S/N = 3) of two detected proteins, alpha-casein and glutamate dehydrogenase were about 600 zmol and 30 amol, respectively. This technique was then applied to a RAW 264.7 cell lysate digest. Three proteins were confidently and reproducibly detected from 100 pg of this digest. The sample amount corresponds to the approximate protein content from a single cell, which suggests that CZE-MRM may be a useful analytical tool in chemical cytometry. In addition to providing highly sensitive detection of proteins in complex mixtures, this system is highly rapid; migration time of the protein digests was less than 10 min.

  7. Polymorphisms in O-methyltransferase genes are associated with stover cell wall digestibility in European maize (Zea mays L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, Everton A; Zein, Imad; Chen, Yongsheng


    Background OMT (O-methyltransferase) genes are involved in lignin biosynthesis, which relates to stover cell wall digestibility. Reduced lignin content is an important determinant of both forage quality and ethanol conversion efficiency of maize stover. Results Variation in genomic sequences coding...


    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...


    The paper summarizes the results of a 2-year field test to assess the performance of a specially modified commercial phosphoric acid 200 kW fuel cell power plant to recover energy from anaerobic digester gas (ADG) which has been cleansed of contaminants (sulfur and halide compoun...

  10. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana). (United States)

    Jones, A Maxwell P; Chattopadhyay, Abhishek; Shukla, Mukund; Zoń, Jerzy; Saxena, Praveen K


    Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L.) was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 μM), an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27) in controls to 65.3% (±4.60). Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 μM AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59) by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived electrofusion and viable heterokaryons were produced. Together

  11. Extractability and digestibility of plant cell wall polysaccharides during hydrothermal and enzymatic degradation of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads A.T.; Ahl, Louise I.; Pedersen, Henriette L.


    , regardless their extractability in water or only alkali. Based on the results, AX and MLG appear to be loosely bound in the cell wall matrix while the other polysaccharides are bound more tightly and shielded from enzymatic attack by AX and MLG until pretreatment. The gradual solubilisation and digestion...... to about 20, but mostly around 3-8, and notably more acetylated in stems. Arabinoxylan (AX) and mixed-linkage glucan (MLG) became water-extractable while xylan, xyloglucan (XG), mannan and glucan remained only alkali-extractable. All polysaccharides became partly digestible after pretreatment however...

  12. Impact of hydrothermal pre-treatment to chemical composition, enzymatic digestibility and spatial distribution of cell wall polymers. (United States)

    Holopainen-Mantila, Ulla; Marjamaa, Kaisa; Merali, Zara; Käsper, Andres; de Bot, Peter; Jääskeläinen, Anna-Stiina; Waldron, Keith; Kruus, Kristiina; Tamminen, Tarja


    The effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on chemical composition, microscopic structure and enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw was studied. Wheat straw was pretreated with increasing severity to obtain series of samples with altered chemistry and structure. The hydrothermal pretreatment caused solubilisation of arabinoxylan and phenolic acids and their dimers in a temperature dependent manner with minor effects on the cellulose and Klason lignin content. In the cell wall level, the pretreatment intensified staining of cellulose and relocalised xylan in the cell walls. The distribution, properties and content of the cell wall phenolic compounds was altered as observed with phloroglucinol and autofluorescence imaging. In the enzymatic hydrolysis, the highest yields were obtained from the samples with a low xylan and diferulate content. On the cell wall structural level, the sample with the highest digestibility was observed to have intensified cellulose staining, possibly reflecting the increased accessibility of cellulose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed cathode microbial electrolysis cell. (United States)

    Cusick, Roland D; Ullery, Mark L; Dempsey, Brian A; Logan, Bruce E


    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used to simultaneously convert wastewater organics to hydrogen and precipitate struvite, but scale formation at the cathode surface can block catalytic active sites and limit extended operation. To promote bulk phase struvite precipitation and minimize cathode scaling, a two-chamber MEC was designed with a fluidized bed to produce suspended particles and inhibit scale formation on the cathode surface. MEC operation elevated the cathode pH to between 8.3 and 8.7 under continuous flow conditions. Soluble phosphorus removal using digester effluent ranged from 70 to 85% with current generation, compared to 10-20% for the control (open circuit conditions). At low current densities (≤2 mA/m(2)), scouring of the cathode by fluidized particles prevented scale accumulation over a period of 8 days. There was nearly identical removal of soluble phosphorus and magnesium from solution, and an equimolar composition in the collected solids, supporting phosphorus removal by struvite formation. At an applied voltage of 1.0 V, energy consumption from the power supply and pumping (0.2 Wh/L, 7.5 Wh/g-P) was significantly less than that needed by other struvite formation methods based on pH adjustment such as aeration and NaOH addition. In the anode chamber, current generation led to COD oxidation (1.1-2.1 g-COD/L-d) and ammonium removal (7-12 mM) from digestate amended with 1 g/L of sodium acetate. These results indicate that a fluidized bed cathode MEC is a promising method of sustainable electrochemical nutrient and energy recovery method for nutrient rich wastewaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed cathode microbial electrolysis cell

    KAUST Repository

    Cusick, Roland D.


    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used to simultaneously convert wastewater organics to hydrogen and precipitate struvite, but scale formation at the cathode surface can block catalytic active sites and limit extended operation. To promote bulk phase struvite precipitation and minimize cathode scaling, a two-chamber MEC was designed with a fluidized bed to produce suspended particles and inhibit scale formation on the cathode surface. MEC operation elevated the cathode pH to between 8.3 and 8.7 under continuous flow conditions. Soluble phosphorus removal using digester effluent ranged from 70 to 85% with current generation, compared to 10-20% for the control (open circuit conditions). At low current densities (≤2mA/m2), scouring of the cathode by fluidized particles prevented scale accumulation over a period of 8 days. There was nearly identical removal of soluble phosphorus and magnesium from solution, and an equimolar composition in the collected solids, supporting phosphorus removal by struvite formation. At an applied voltage of 1.0V, energy consumption from the power supply and pumping (0.2Wh/L, 7.5Wh/g-P) was significantly less than that needed by other struvite formation methods based on pH adjustment such as aeration and NaOH addition. In the anode chamber, current generation led to COD oxidation (1.1-2.1g-COD/L-d) and ammonium removal (7-12mM) from digestate amended with 1g/L of sodium acetate. These results indicate that a fluidized bed cathode MEC is a promising method of sustainable electrochemical nutrient and energy recovery method for nutrient rich wastewaters. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Lower digestive hemorrhage study algorithm in elderly patients and red cells mark scintigraphy role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abella, O.; Almeida, C.A.; Fitzimons, C.; Rial, M.T.


    Aims: Show the utility of this technique in the detection of Lower Digestive Hemorrhage (LDH) in elderly patients and propose a study algorithm. Materials and Methods: We study 39 patients (20 women and 19 men), between 61 and 92 years (media 76,3 years), in the last three years, that we strongly presume they have a LDH. In all of them we lay aside the upper digestive hemorrhage with endoscopies. In all the cases we perform a video-colonoscopy after the scintigraphy adopting in every case if its necessary surgery, medication or expectant conduct. We use the modified red cells mark 'in vivo' method (mark efficiency of 82%). We obtain anterior images of the abdomen with a planar Gamma Camera. Sequential images of 1 minute duration in the first hour post-injection I.V. of 740 MBq of Tc99- pertechnetate -Stannous Chloride and hen static images with 400 K counts at 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes and one image at 24 hours were acquired, in two cases repeat the study. We don't do selective angiographies because we consider this a high risk and low cost / benefit study in elderly patients (high association with cardiopathy). Result: Patient with final diagnosis for VCC or Surgery: Angio dysplasia (38%), Diverticulosis (20%), Ischemic colitis (11%), Ulcerous colitis (8%) and Colon adenocarcinoma (2%). In some cases were two pathologies involved (13%). The scintigraphies were positive in 92% and negative in 8% of the cases. All the positives were in massive or recidivated bleeding and the negatives in intermittent low volume bleedings or patients with discreet melena or hidden blood in feces. The diagnostic efficiency of 92% was compare with non-invasive methods (video-colonoscopy 81% and selective angiography) and we comment the possible causes of false negatives. Conclusion: We propose a study algorithm for intermittent and low intensity LDH cases and another for higher magnitude LDH

  16. Digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of haploid and diploid males of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenner M. Fernandes


    Full Text Available In eusocial bees, workers and queens are diploid (2n, whereas males are haploid (n. However, in some species, including the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier, 1836, 2n males arise from fertilized eggs resulting from the crossing between a queen and her brother. In the present study, we provide a comparative analysis of the digestive and regenerative cells in n and 2n pupae and adult males of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. In n and 2n pupae and adult males, the number of regenerative cells/nest was similar. In n and 2n pupae, the mean number of digestive cells/midgut area was 2076 ± 0.60, whereas in adults it was 1234 ± 1.42 digestive cells/midgut area. The nuclear area of the digestive cells was also similar in both n and 2n adult males (~154 µm² and smaller in pupae (~91 µm²; this variation might be a result of DNA amplification in digestive cells during bee development. The results from our current study provide further understanding of the morphological and physiological aspects of the digestive tract of bees and show that the ploidy difference between n and 2n male stages does not affect the number of digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides.

  17. Characterization of Naegleria species by restriction endonuclease digestion of whole-cell DNA. (United States)

    De Jonckheere, J F


    Whole-cell DNA in Naegleria spp. and two related genera was examined by restriction endonuclease digestion and fractionation of the fragments by agarose gel electrophoresis. Visual inspection of ethidium bromide-stained gels shows differences in banding pattern between N. fowleri, N. lovaniensis, N. gruberi, N. jadini, N. australiensis, Didasculus thorntoni and Willaertia magna, and between the two subspecies of N. australiensis. Even between strains belonging to the same species differences could be observed. Significant differences were seen between strains of N. fowleri according to the continent of origin, and a hypothesis on the ancestry and the dispersal of N. fowleri was deduced from it. A N. fowleri strain isolated from one of the very few cured human infections showed the most distinct pattern within the species. The considerable variation detected with serological and biochemical techniques between strains of N. australiensis as well as between strains of N. gruberi, was confirmed in the analysis of their whole-cell DNA. With this technique the existence of N. jadini, D. thorntoni, W. magna and two Naegleria strains as separate systematic entities is substantiated.

  18. Electric energy production from food waste: Microbial fuel cells versus anaerobic digestion. (United States)

    Xin, Xiaodong; Ma, Yingqun; Liu, Yu


    A food waste resourceful process was developed by integrating the ultra-fast hydrolysis and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for energy and resource recovery. Food waste was first ultra-fast hydrolyzed by fungal mash rich in hydrolytic enzymes in-situ produced from food waste. After which, the separated solids were readily converted to biofertilizer, while the liquid was fed to MFCs for direct electricity generation with a conversion efficiency of 0.245 kWh/kg food waste. It was estimated that about 192.5 million kWh of electricity could be produced from the food waste annually generated in Singapore, together with 74,390 tonnes of dry biofertilizer. Compared to anaerobic digestion, the proposed approach was more environmentally friendly and economically viable in terms of both electricity conversion and process cost. It is expected that this study may lead to the paradigm shift in food waste management towards ultra-fast concurrent recovery of resource and electricity with zero-solid discharge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differentiation of Acanthamoeba strains from infected corneas and the environment by using restriction endonuclease digestion of whole-cell DNA. (United States)

    Kilvington, S; Beeching, J R; White, D G


    Restriction endonuclease digestion of Acanthamoeba whole-cell DNA was used to study the relationship between 33 morphologically identical strains from keratitis cases (30 strains), contact lens storage containers (2 strains), and soil (1 strain). Samples digested with BglII, EcoRI, or HindIII and separated by agarose gel electrophoresis contained detectable mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). By comparing RFLPs, the strains could be assigned to seven multiple-strain and three single-strain groups. The largest of these contained nine strains, eight of which were isolated in keratitis cases in various locations worldwide and may indicate a group particularly associated with keratitis. Restriction endonuclease analysis of whole-cell DNA is proposed as a valuable technique for detecting mitochondrial DNA RFLPs in the differentiation of morphologically identical Acanthamoeba strains and may therefore be useful in resolving the complex taxonomy of the genus, which has hitherto been founded on subjective morphological criteria. Images PMID:1672534

  20. In vitro digestion and lactase treatment influence uptake of quercetin and quercetin glucoside by the Caco-2 cell monolayer


    Boyer, Jeanelle; Brown, Dan; Liu, Rui Hai


    Abstract Background Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are widely consumed flavonoids found in many fruits and vegetables. These compounds have a wide range of potential health benefits, and understanding the bioavailability of flavonoids from foods is becoming increasingly important. Methods This study combined an in vitro digestion, a lactase treatment and the Caco-2 cell model to examine quercetin and quercetin glucoside uptake from shallot and apple homogenates. Results The in vitro diges...

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of dietary non-digestible oligosaccharides in T cell-mediated autoimmune arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogier, R.; Ederveen, T.; Hartog, A.; Walgreen, B.; Van Den Bersselaar, L.; Helsen, M.; Vos, P.; Garssen, J.; Willemsen, L.; Van Den Berg, W.; Koenders, M.; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, S.


    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates the relevance of intestinal microbiota in shaping the immune response and supports its contribution to the development of autoimmune diseases. Prebiotic non-digestible oligosaccharides are known to selectively support growth of commensal Bifidobacteria and

  2. In vitro and in vivo modeling of lipid bioaccessibility and digestion from almond muffins: The importance of the cell-wall barrier mechanism. (United States)

    Grassby, Terri; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Grundy, Myriam M-L; Edwards, Cathrina H; Bisignano, Carlo; Trombetta, Domenico; Smeriglio, Antonella; Chessa, Simona; Ray, Shuvra; Sanderson, Jeremy; Berry, Sarah E; Ellis, Peter R; Waldron, Keith W


    This study compares in vitro and in vivo models of lipid digestion from almond particles within a complex food matrix (muffins) investigating whether the cell-wall barrier regulates the bioaccessibility of nutrients within this matrix. Muffins containing small (AF) or large (AP) particles of almond were digested in triplicate using an in vitro dynamic gastric model (DGM, 1 h) followed by a static duodenal digestion (8 h). AF muffins had 97.1 ± 1.7% of their lipid digested, whereas AP muffins had 57.6 ± 1.1% digested. In vivo digestion of these muffins by an ileostomy volunteer (0-10 h) gave similar results with 96.5% and 56.5% lipid digested, respectively. The AF muffins produced a higher postprandial triacylglycerol iAUC response (by 61%) than the AP muffins. Microstructural analysis showed that some lipid remained encapsulated within the plant tissue throughout digestion. The cell-wall barrier mechanism is the main factor in regulating lipid bioaccessibility from almond particles.

  3. Digestive System (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Digestive System KidsHealth / For Parents / Digestive System What's in this ... the body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ...

  4. Cell wall composition and digestibility alterations in Brachypodium distachyon achieved through reduced expression of the UDP-arabinopyranose mutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Rancour


    Full Text Available Nucleotide-activated sugars are essential substrates for plant cell-wall carbohydrate-polymer biosynthesis. The most prevalent grass cell wall sugars are glucose (Glc, xylose (Xyl, and arabinose (Ara. These sugars are biosynthetically related via the UDP-sugar interconversion pathway. We sought to target and generate UDP-sugar interconversion pathway transgenic Brachypodium distachyon lines resulting in cell wall carbohydrate composition changes with improved digestibility and normal plant stature. Both RNAi-mediated gene-suppression and constitutive gene-expression approaches were performed. Cell walls from 336 T0 transgenic plants with normal appearance were screened for complete carbohydrate composition. RNAi mutants of BdRGP1, a UDP-arabinopyranose mutase, resulted in large alterations in cell wall carbohydrate composition with significant decreases in cell wall Ara content but with minimal change in plant stature. Five independent RNAi-RGP1 T1 plant lines were used for in-depth analysis of plant cell walls. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that gene expression levels for BdRGP1, BdRGP2 and BdRGP3 were reduced in RNAi-RGP1 plants to 15-20% of controls. Cell wall Ara content was reduced by 23-51% of control levels. No alterations in cell wall Xyl and Glc content were observed. Corresponding decreases in cell wall ferulic acid (FA and ferulic acid-dimers (FA-dimers were observed. Additionally, cell wall p-coumarates (pCA were decreased. We demonstrate the cell wall pCA decrease corresponds to Ara-coupled pCA. Xylanase-mediated digestibility of RNAi-RGP1 Brachypodium cell walls resulted in a near two-fold increase of released total carbohydrate. However, cellulolytic hydrolysis of cell wall material was inhibited in leaves of RNAi-RGP1 mutants. Our results indicate that targeted manipulation of UDP-sugar biosynthesis can result in biomass with substantially altered compositions and highlights the complex effect cell wall composition has on

  5. Removal of volatile fatty acids and ammonia recovery from unstable anaerobic digesters with a microbial electrolysis cell. (United States)

    Cerrillo, Míriam; Viñas, Marc; Bonmatí, August


    Continuous assays with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) fed with digested pig slurry were performed to evaluate its stability and robustness to malfunction periods of an anaerobic digestion (AD) reactor and its feasibility as a strategy to recover ammonia. When performing punctual pulses of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the anode compartment of the MEC, simulating a malfunction of the AD process, an increase in the current density was produced (up to 14 times, reaching values of 3500mAm(-2)) as a result of the added chemical oxygen demand (COD), especially when acetate was used. Furthermore, ammonium diffusion from the anode to the cathode compartment was enhanced and the removal efficiency achieved up to 60% during daily basis VFA pulses. An AD-MEC combined system has proven to be a robust and stable configuration to obtain a high quality effluent, with a lower organic and ammonium content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In Vitro Evidence for Immune-Modulatory Properties of Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides: Direct Effect on Human Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lehmann

    Full Text Available Infant formulas containing non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO similar to the composition in breast milk or a combination of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and NDO have been shown to harbor preventive effects towards immune-regulatory disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune-modulatory potential of non-digestible short chain galacto- and long chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS mimicking the natural distribution of oligosaccharides in human breast milk in presence or absence of certain LAB strains in human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDC. Immature human MoDC prepared from peripheral blood of healthy non-atopic volunteers were screened in vitro after stimulation with specific scGOS/lcFOS in presence or absence of LAB. IL-10 and IL-12p70 release was analyzed after 24 hours in cell-free supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. A luminex-based assay was conducted to assess further cytokine and chemokine release by MoDC. To investigate the resulting T cell response, stimulated MoDC were co-incubated with naïve T cells in allogeneic stimulation assays and intracellular Foxp3 expression, as well as immune-suppressive capacity was determined. Oligosaccharides did not induce relevant amounts of IL-12p70 production, but did promote IL-10 release by MoDC. Furthermore, scGOS/lcFOS mixtures exerted a significant enhancing effect on LAB induced IL-10 secretion by MoDC while no increase in IL-12p70 production was observed. Blocking toll like receptor (TLR4 abrogated the increase in IL-10 in both the direct stimulation and the LAB stimulation of MoDC, suggesting that scGOS/lcFOS act via TLR4. Finally, scGOS/lcFOS-treated MoDC were shown to upregulate the number of functional suppressive Foxp3 positive T cells following allogeneic stimulation. Our results indicate anti-inflammatory and direct, microbiota independent, immune-modulatory properties of scGOS/lcFOS mixtures on human MoDC suggesting a possible

  7. Inactivation of selected bacterial pathogens in dairy cattle manure by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (balloon type digester). (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael


    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%-99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Differentiation of Progenitor Stem Cells Obtained After Mechanical Digestion of Human Dental Pulp. (United States)

    Monti, Manuela; Graziano, Antonio; Rizzo, Silvana; Perotti, Cesare; Del Fante, Claudia; d'Aquino, Riccardo; Redi, Carlo Alberto; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ruggero


    Human population is facing a revolutionary change in the demographic structure with an increasing number of elderly people requiring an unmet need to ensure a smooth aging process and dental care is certainly an important aspect that has to be considered. To date, dentistry has been conservative and the need of transferring the scientific models of regenerative dentistry into clinical practice is becoming a necessity. The aim of this study was to characterize the differentiation commitment (in vitro) and the clinical grafting ability (in vivo) of a population of progenitor stem cells obtained after mechanical digestion of dental pulp with an innovative system recently developed. This approach was successfully used in previous studies to obtain a clinical-grade ready to use dental pulp fragments that could be grafted in autologous tissues to obtain bone. We are thus showing that micro grafts resulting from mechanical digestion contain stem cells with a mesenchymal phenotype, able to differentiate toward different cell types and to generate new bone in patients. We are providing data for the establishment of standardized and routinely oral surgery approaches, having outlined the cellular properties of human stem cells obtained from the dental pulp. This method can represent a valid tool for both regenerative medicine and tissue engineering purposes not only applicable to the cranio-maxillofacial region but, likely, to different bone pathologies for a fastening and healing recovering of patients. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 548-555, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Identification of candidate genes associated with cell wall digestibility and eQTL (expression quantitative trait loci analysis in a Flint × Flint maize recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel Gerhard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-wall digestibility is the major target for improving the feeding value of forage maize. An understanding of the molecular basis for cell-wall digestibility is crucial towards breeding of highly digestible maize. Results 865 candidate ESTs for cell-wall digestibility were selected according to the analysis of expression profiles in 1 three sets of brown-midrib isogenic lines in the genetic background of inbreds 1332 (1332 and 1332 bm3, 5361 (5361 and 5361 bm3, and F2 (F2, F2 bm1, F2 bm2, and F2 bm3, 2 the contrasting extreme lines of FD (Flint × Dent, AS08 × AS 06, DD1 (Dent × Dent, AS11 × AS09, and DD2 (Dent × Dent, AS29 × AS30 mapping populations, and 3 two contrasting isogenic inbreds, AS20 and AS21. Out of those, 439 ESTs were assembled on our "Forage Quality Array", a small microarray specific for cell wall digestibility related experiments. Transcript profiles of 40 lines of a Flint × Flint population were monitored using the Forage Quality Array, which were contrasting for cell wall digestibility. Using t-tests (p Conclusion 102 candidate genes for cell-wall digestibility were validated by genetical genomics approach. Although the cDNA array highlights gene types (the tested gene and any close family members, trans-acting factors or metabolic bottlenecks seem to play the major role in controlling heritable variation of gene expression related to cell-wall digestibility, since no in silico mapped ESTs were in the same location as their own eQTL. Transcriptional variation was generally found to be oligogenic rather than monogenic inherited due to only 26% ESTs detected a single eQTL in the present study. One eQTL hotspot was co-localized with cell wall digestibility related QTL cluster on bins 3.05, implying that in this case the gene(s underlying QTL and eQTL are identical. As the field of genetical genomics develops, it is expected to significantly improve our knowledge about complex traits, such as cell

  10. Regeneration of the digestive system in the crinoid Himerometra robustipinna occurs by transdifferentiation of neurosecretory-like cells. (United States)

    Kalacheva, Nadezhda V; Eliseikina, Marina G; Frolova, Lidia T; Dolmatov, Igor Yu


    The structure and regeneration of the digestive system in the crinoid Himerometra robustipinna (Carpenter, 1881) were studied. The gut comprises a spiral tube forming radial lateral processes, which gives it a five-lobed shape. The digestive tube consists of three segments: esophagus, intestine, and rectum. The epithelia of these segments have different cell compositions. Regeneration of the gut after autotomy of the visceral mass progresses very rapidly. Within 6 h after autotomy, an aggregation consisting of amoebocytes, coelomic epithelial cells and juxtaligamental cells (neurosecretory neurons) forms on the inner surface of the skeletal calyx. At 12 h post-autotomy, transdifferentiation of the juxtaligamental cells starts. At 24 h post-autotomy these cells undergo a mesenchymal-epithelial-like transition, resulting in the formation of the luminal epithelium of the gut. Specialization of the intestinal epithelial cells begins on day 2 post-autotomy. At this stage animals acquire the mouth and anal opening. On day 4 post-autotomy the height of both the enterocytes and the visceral mass gradually increases. Proliferation does not play any noticeable role in gut regeneration. The immersion of animals in a 10-7 M solution of colchicine neither stopped formation of the lost structures nor caused accumulation of mitoses in tissues. Weakly EdU-labeled nuclei were observed in the gut only on day 2 post-autotomy and were not detected at later regeneration stages. Single mitotically dividing cells were recorded during the same period. It is concluded that juxtaligamental cells play a major role in gut regeneration in H. robustipinna. The main mechanisms of morphogenesis are cell migration and transdifferentiation.

  11. Regeneration of the digestive system in the crinoid Himerometra robustipinna occurs by transdifferentiation of neurosecretory-like cells (United States)

    Kalacheva, Nadezhda V.; Eliseikina, Marina G.; Frolova, Lidia T.


    The structure and regeneration of the digestive system in the crinoid Himerometra robustipinna (Carpenter, 1881) were studied. The gut comprises a spiral tube forming radial lateral processes, which gives it a five-lobed shape. The digestive tube consists of three segments: esophagus, intestine, and rectum. The epithelia of these segments have different cell compositions. Regeneration of the gut after autotomy of the visceral mass progresses very rapidly. Within 6 h after autotomy, an aggregation consisting of amoebocytes, coelomic epithelial cells and juxtaligamental cells (neurosecretory neurons) forms on the inner surface of the skeletal calyx. At 12 h post-autotomy, transdifferentiation of the juxtaligamental cells starts. At 24 h post-autotomy these cells undergo a mesenchymal-epithelial-like transition, resulting in the formation of the luminal epithelium of the gut. Specialization of the intestinal epithelial cells begins on day 2 post-autotomy. At this stage animals acquire the mouth and anal opening. On day 4 post-autotomy the height of both the enterocytes and the visceral mass gradually increases. Proliferation does not play any noticeable role in gut regeneration. The immersion of animals in a 10−7 M solution of colchicine neither stopped formation of the lost structures nor caused accumulation of mitoses in tissues. Weakly EdU-labeled nuclei were observed in the gut only on day 2 post-autotomy and were not detected at later regeneration stages. Single mitotically dividing cells were recorded during the same period. It is concluded that juxtaligamental cells play a major role in gut regeneration in H. robustipinna. The main mechanisms of morphogenesis are cell migration and transdifferentiation. PMID:28753616

  12. Kinetic study of anaerobic digestion of fruit-processing wastewater in immobilized-cell bioreactors. (United States)

    Borja, R; Banks, C J


    The kinetics of the anaerobic digestion of a fruit-processing wastewater [chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 5.1 g/l] were investigated. Laboratory experiments were carried out in bioreactors containing supports of different chemical composition and features, namely bentonite and zeolite (aluminum silicates), sepiolite and saponite (magnesium silicates) and polyurethane foam, to which the microorganisms responsible for the process adhered. The influence of the support medium on the kinetics was compared with a control digester with suspended biomass. Assuming the overall anaerobic digestion process conforms to first-order kinetics, the specific rate constant, K0, was determined for each of the experimental reactors. The average values obtained were: 0.080 h-1 (bentonite); 0.103 h-1 (zeolite); 0.180 h-1 (sepiolite); 0.198 h-1 (saponite); 0.131 h-1 (polyurethane); and 0.037 h-1 (control). The results indicate that the support used to immobilize the micro-organisms had a marked influence on the digestion process; the results were significant at the 95% confidence level. Methanogenic activity increased linearly with COD, with the saponite and sepiolite supports showing the highest values. The yield coefficient of methane was 270 ml of methane (under standard temperature and pressure conditions)/g of COD. The average elimination of COD was 89.5%.

  13. Enhancing the Energy Efficiency of Wastewater Treatment Plants through Co-digestion and Fuel Cell Systems


    Marta Gandiglio; Andrea Lanzini; Alicia Soto; Pierluigi Leone; Massimo Santarelli; Massimo Santarelli; Massimo Santarelli


    The present work provides an overview of technological measures to increase the self-sufficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), in particular for the largely diffused activated sludge-based WWTP. The operation of WWTPs entails a huge amount of electricity. Thermal energy is also required for pre-heating the sludge and sometimes exsiccation of the digested sludge. On the other hand, the entering organic matter contained in the wastewater is a source of energy. Organic matter is recove...

  14. Evaluation of metallothionein formation as a proxy for zinc absorption in an in vitro digestion/caco-2 cell culture model (United States)

    Caco-2 cell metallothionein (MT) formation was studied to determine if MT could be used as a proxy for zinc (Zn) absorption in a cell culture model. MT intracellular concentration was determined by using a cadmium/hemoglobin affinity assay. Cellular Zn uptake was determined in acid digests (5% HNO3)...

  15. The impact of in vitro digestion on bioaccessibility of polyphenols from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their influence on iron absorption by human intestinal cells. (United States)

    Miranda, Lisa; Deußer, Hannah; Evers, Danièle


    The composition of potatoes as determined by chemical extraction has been described extensively. It is thus quite well known that, among other compounds, potato is rich in polyphenols, vitamins and in some minerals. This paper underlines the important role of simulated gastro-intestinal in vitro digestion in the bioaccessibility of polyphenols (chlorogenic acid and derivatives, and rutin) from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their impact on iron uptake. Concentrations of polyphenols in the flesh of two potato cultivars (Nicola, white potato, and Vitelotte, purple potato) and sweet potato were measured by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography after boiling and after in vitro digestion. Chemical extraction underestimates polyphenol amounts that can be released during digestion and that are actually bioaccessible. Iron uptake, as evaluated by a ferritin assay, by intestinal human cells was decreased after incubation with the intestinal phase of in vitro digestion, presumably due to the presence of polyphenols.

  16. Digestion of polysaccharides, protein and lipids by adult cockerels fed on diets containing a pectic cell-wall material from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) cotyledon. (United States)

    Carré, B; Leclercq, B


    1. The cell-wall material of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) cotyledon is characterized by low contents of cellulose (47 g/kg) and lignin (17 g/kg) and a high content of pectic substances (710 g/kg). The digestion of lupin cell-wall material by adult cockerels was estimated using gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of alditol acetates derived from polysaccharide sugars. The analyses were performed in the destarched water-insoluble fractions of feed and excreta. Digestibility measurements were carried out using a 3 d balance period including a 2 d feeding period and a 24 h final starvation period. 2. In the first experiment, six animals were given a diet containing 510 g white lupin cotyledon flour/kg which was the only source of protein and cell walls in the diet. The apparent digestibility of cell-wall components was near zero. 3. In the second experiment, three diets were prepared by diluting a fibre-free basal diet (diet A) by a semi-purified cell-wall preparation introduced at two different levels: 100 g/kg (diet B) and 200 g/kg (diet C). The semi-purified cell walls were prepared from the white lupin cotyledon flour used in the first experiment. The true digestibilities of polysaccharides measured in birds given diets B and C were near zero. It is suggested that the measurement of the neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) content according to Van Soest & Wine (1967) is not a suitable procedure for estimating the undigestible fibre content in poultry nutrition as the cell-wall pectic substances are not included in the NDF measurement. 4. Addition of the semi-purified cell-wall preparation (Expt 2) resulted in a slight decrease in the apparent protein digestibility. This decrease might be explained by the addition of undigestible cell-wall protein. 5. Addition of the semi-purified cell-wall preparation (Expt 2) had no effect on the apparent lipid digestibility. 6. The metabolizable energy values of the basal diet fraction of diets B and C were calculated assuming that

  17. Expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase in suspension cultures of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) decreases cell wall feruloylation and increases rates of cell wall digestion. (United States)

    Morris, Phillip; Dalton, Sue; Langdon, Tim; Hauck, Barbara; de Buanafina, Marcia M O


    In the cell walls of grasses ferulic acid is esterified to arabinosyl residues in arabinoxylans that can then undergo oxidative coupling reactions to form ferulate dehydrodimers, trimers and oligomers which function to cross-link cell-wall polysaccharides, limiting cell wall degradability. Fungal ferulic acid esterase can release both esterified monomeric and dimeric ferulic acids from these cell wall arabinoxylans making the cell wall more susceptible to further enzymatic attack and increasing cell wall degradability. Non-embryogenic cell suspension cultures of Festuca arundinacea expressing a Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase ( faeA ) targeted to either the apoplast, or endoplasmic reticulum under the control of a constitutive actin promoter, or to the vacuole under the control of a soybean heat shock promoter, were established and FAE activity determined in the cells and medium during a growth cycle. Analysis of the ester-linked ferulates of the cell walls showed that all three transformed cell lines had both reduced ferulate levels and increased levels of xylanase mediated release of wall phenolics on autodigestion as well as increased rates of cell wall digestion in a simulated rumen environment, when compared to control non-transformed cells.

  18. Effects of Marine Oils, Digested with Human Fluids, on Cellular Viability and Stress Protein Expression in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells. (United States)

    Tullberg, Cecilia; Vegarud, Gerd; Undeland, Ingrid; Scheers, Nathalie


    In vitro digestion of marine oils has been reported to promote lipid oxidation, including the formation of reactive aldehydes (e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE)). We aimed to investigate if human in vitro digestion of supplemental levels of oils from algae, cod liver, and krill, in addition to pure MDA and HHE, affect intestinal Caco-2 cell survival and oxidative stress. Cell viability was not significantly affected by the digests of marine oils or by pure MDA and HHE (0-90 μM). Cellular levels of HSP-70, a chaperone involved in the prevention of stress-induced protein unfolding was significantly decreased (14%, 28%, and 14% of control for algae, cod and krill oil, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). The oxidoreductase thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) involved in reducing oxidative stress was also lower after incubation with the digested oils (26%, 53%, and 22% of control for algae, cod, and krill oil, respectively; p ≤ 0.001). The aldehydes MDA and HHE did not affect HSP-70 or Trx-1 at low levels (8.3 and 1.4 μM, respectively), whilst a mixture of MDA and HHE lowered Trx-1 at high levels (45 μM), indicating less exposure to oxidative stress. We conclude that human digests of the investigated marine oils and their content of MDA and HHE did not cause a stress response in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

  19. Effects of Marine Oils, Digested with Human Fluids, on Cellular Viability and Stress Protein Expression in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Tullberg


    Full Text Available In vitro digestion of marine oils has been reported to promote lipid oxidation, including the formation of reactive aldehydes (e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE. We aimed to investigate if human in vitro digestion of supplemental levels of oils from algae, cod liver, and krill, in addition to pure MDA and HHE, affect intestinal Caco-2 cell survival and oxidative stress. Cell viability was not significantly affected by the digests of marine oils or by pure MDA and HHE (0–90 μM. Cellular levels of HSP-70, a chaperone involved in the prevention of stress-induced protein unfolding was significantly decreased (14%, 28%, and 14% of control for algae, cod and krill oil, respectively; p ≤ 0.05. The oxidoreductase thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1 involved in reducing oxidative stress was also lower after incubation with the digested oils (26%, 53%, and 22% of control for algae, cod, and krill oil, respectively; p ≤ 0.001. The aldehydes MDA and HHE did not affect HSP-70 or Trx-1 at low levels (8.3 and 1.4 μM, respectively, whilst a mixture of MDA and HHE lowered Trx-1 at high levels (45 μM, indicating less exposure to oxidative stress. We conclude that human digests of the investigated marine oils and their content of MDA and HHE did not cause a stress response in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

  20. Wild Raspberry Subjected to Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion Improves the Protective Capacity against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Oxidative Damage in Caco-2 Cells. (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Lingxia; Li, Ya; Zheng, Xiaodong


    Ethyl carbamate (EC), a probable human carcinogen, occurs widely in many fermented foods. Previous studies indicated that EC-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Wild raspberries are rich in polyphenolic compounds, which possess potent antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of wild raspberry extracts produced before (RE) and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (RD) on EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells. Our primary data showed that ethyl carbamate could result in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Caco-2 cells and raspberry extract after digestion (RD) may be more effective than that before digestion (RE) in attenuating toxicity caused by ethyl carbamate. Further investigation by fluorescence microscope revealed that RD may significantly ameliorate EC-induced oxidative damage by scavenging the overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), maintaining mitochondrial function and preventing glutathione (GSH) depletion. In addition, HPLC-ESI-MS results showed that the contents of identified polyphenolic compounds (esculin, kaempferol O-hexoside, and pelargonidin O-hexoside) were remarkably increased after digestion, which might be related to the better protective effect of RD. Overall, our results demonstrated that raspberry extract undergoing simulated gastrointestinal digestion may improve the protective effect against EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells.

  1. Digested disorder


    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N


    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is overwhelming. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a ?Digested Disorder? project and represent a series of reader?s digest type articles objectively representing the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be ded...

  2. Digested disorder


    Reddy, Krishna D; DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N


    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins grows fast. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a ?Digested Disorder? project and represent a new issue of reader?s digest of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrin...

  3. The effect of plant sterol-enriched turkey meat on cholesterol bio-accessibility during in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake. (United States)

    Grasso, S; Harrison, S M; Monahan, F J; Brayden, D; Brunton, N P


    This study evaluated the effect of a plant sterol-enriched turkey product on cholesterol bio-accessibility during in vitro digestion and cholesterol uptake by Caco-2 monolayers. Turkey products, one plant sterol-enriched (PS) and one plant sterol-free (C), were produced in an industrial pilot plant. Before simulated digestion, matrices were spiked with cholesterol (1:5 weight ratio of cholesterol to plant sterol). Plant sterols were included at a concentration equivalent to the minimum daily intake recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for cholesterol lowering. After simulated digestion, the percentage of cholesterol micellarization and uptake by Caco-2 cells in the presence of PS meat were measured. Compared to C meat, PS meat significantly inhibited cholesterol micellarization on average by 24% and Caco-2 cell accumulation by 10%. This study suggests that plant sterols in meat can reduce cholesterol uptake by intestinal epithelia and it encourages efforts to make new PS-based functional foods.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dehury


    Full Text Available The histomorphology of enteroendocrine cells were studied in different segments of gastrointestinal tract of six adult buffalo. Depending upon the histomorphological study, the enteroendocrine cells were divided into 7 different types viz. oval cell (type I, pyriform cell (type II, spherical or rounded cell (type III, elongated cell (type IV, pyramidal cell (typeV, spindle cell (type VI and large oblong cell (type VII. Further the granulation pattern of the cell types were noted as basal granulation, dense granulation, peripheral granulation and diffuse granulation.The endocrine cells revealed differential staining character with each of the stain (Masson-Haemperl argentaffin reaction, Grimelius silver technique, Ferric ferricyanide reduction reaction, Lead haematoxylin employed in the present study depending upon their physiological status.

  5. Bioelectrochemical enhancement of methane production from highly concentrated food waste in a combined anaerobic digester and microbial electrolysis cell. (United States)

    Park, Jungyu; Lee, Beom; Tian, Donjie; Jun, Hangbae


    A microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is a promising technology for enhancing biogas production from an anaerobic digestion (AD) reactor. In this study, the effects of the MEC on the rate of methane production from food waste were examined by comparing an AD reactor with an AD reactor combined with a MEC (AD+MEC). The use of the MEC accelerated methane production and stabilization via rapid organic oxidation and rapid methanogenesis. Over the total experimental period, the methane production rate and stabilization time of the AD+MEC reactor were approximately 1.7 and 4.0 times faster than those of the AD reactor. Interestingly however, at the final steady state, the methane yields of both the reactors were similar to the theoretical maximum methane yield. Based on these results, the MEC did not increase the methane yield over the theoretical value, but accelerated methane production and stabilization by bioelectrochemical reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Technical assessment of fuel cell operation on anaerobic digester gas at the Yonkers, NY, wastewater treatment plant. (United States)

    Spiegel, R J; Preston, J L


    This paper summarizes the results of a 2-year field test to assess the performance of a specially modified commercial phosphoric acid 200-kW fuel cell power plant to recover energy from anaerobic digester gas (ADG) which has been cleansed of contaminants (sulfur and halide compounds) using a patented gas pretreatment unit (GPU). Specific project goals include characterization of the fuel cell power plant emissions and verification of the GPU performance for removing sulfur contaminants. To remove halide contaminants from the ADG, a halide guard, consisting of a vessel with a metal oxide supported on alumina, was incorporated into the fuel cell reactant supply. This first-of-a-kind demonstration was conducted at the Yonkers, NY, wastewater treatment plant, a sewage processing facility owned and operated by Westchester County. Results have demonstrated that the ADG fuel cell power plant can produce electrical output levels close to full power (200 kW) with negligible air emissions of CO, NO(x), and SO(2). The GPU removed virtually 100% of H(2)S and 88% of organic sulfur, bringing the overall sulfur removal efficiency of the GPU to over 99%. The halide guard removed up to 96% of the halides exiting the GPU.

  7. Comparison of LTQ-Orbitrap Velos and Q-Exactive for proteomic analysis of 1-1000 ng RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests (United States)

    Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie


    Rational There is interest in extending bottom-up proteomics to the smallest possible sample size. We investigated the performance of two modern instruments for the analysis of samples ranging from 1 ng to 1 µg of RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests. Methods A UPLC system coupled with either an LTQ-Orbitrap Velos or a Q-Exactive mass spectrometers was used for peptide separation and identification. Results For 1–1,000 ng RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests, the Q-Exactive generated 10–83% more protein groups and 11–109% more peptides than the LTQ-Orbitrap Velos (higher-energy collisional dissociation, HCD) with MASCOT database searching, due to faster scan rate and higher resolution. In addition, HCD and collision induced dissociation (CID) modes of the LTQ-Orbitrap Velos were compared. HCD produced higher peptide and protein group IDs than CID for 1–1,000 ng RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests with MASCOT database searching. Database searching results from SEQUEST and MASCOT were also compared and comparable protein group IDs were obtained from the two search engines. Conclusions These results indicated that Q-Exactive outperformed LTQ-Orbitrap Velos for shotgun proteomics analysis of 1 to 1,000 ng RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests in terms of obtained peptide and protein group IDs. PMID:23239329

  8. Upregulation of oxidative stress markers in human microvascular endothelial cells by complexes of serum albumin and digestion products of glycated casein. (United States)

    Deo, Permal; Glenn, Josephine V; Powell, Lesley A; Stitt, Alan W; Ames, Jennifer M


    The extent of absorption of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is not fully known. The possible physiological impact of these absorbed components on inflammatory processes has been studied little and was the aim of this investigation. Aqueous solutions of bovine casein and glucose were heated at 95 degrees C for 5 h to give AGE-casein (AGE-Cas). Simulated stomach and small intestine digestion of AGE-Cas and dialysis (molecular mass cutoff of membrane = 1 kDa) resulted in a low molecular mass (LMM) fraction of digestion products, which was used to prepare bovine serum albumin (BSA)-LMM-AGE-Cas complexes. Stimulation of human microvascular endothelial cells with BSA-LMM-AGE-Cas complexes significantly increased mRNA expression of the receptor of AGE (RAGE), galectin-3 (AGE-R3), tumor necrosis factor alpha, and a marker of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK-1), as well as p65NF-kappaB activation. Cells treated with LMM digestion products of AGE-Cas significantly increased AGE-R3 mRNA expression. Intracellular reactive oxygen species production increased significantly in cells challenged with BSA-LMM-AGE-Cas and LMM-AGE-Cas. In conclusion, in an in vitro cell system, digested dietary AGEs complexed with serum albumin play a role in the regulation of RAGE and downstream inflammatory pathways. AGE-R3 may protect against these effects.

  9. Can Villin be Used to Identify Malignant and Undifferentiated Normal Digestive Epithelial Cells? (United States)

    Robine, S.; Huet, C.; Moll, R.; Sahuquillo-Merino, C.; Coudrier, E.; Zweibaum, A.; Louvard, D.


    We have investigated the presence of villin (a Ca2+-regulated actin binding protein) in various tissues (normal or malignant) and in established cell lines by using sensitive immunochemical techniques on cell extracts and immunofluorescence analysis on frozen sections. Our results show that villin is a marker that can be used to distinguish normal differentiated epithelial cells from the simple epithelia lining the gastrointestinal tract and renal tubules. Villin is found in the absorptive cells of the small and large intestines, in the duct cells of pancreas and biliary system, and in the cells of kidney proximal tubules. Furthermore, undifferentiated normal and tumoral cells of intestinal origin in vivo and in cell culture express villin. Therefore, expression of villin is seen in cells that do not necessarily display the morphological features characteristic of their terminally differentiated state, such as the microvilli-lined brush border. We suggest the possible clinical implications of using villin as a marker in the diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinomas.

  10. Digestive stability, micellarization, and uptake by Caco-2 human intestinal cell of chlorophyll derivatives from different preparations of pea (Pisum sativum L.). (United States)

    Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz; Mínguez-Mosquera, M Isabel


    The digestive stability, efficiency of micellarization, and cellular accumulation of the chlorophyll pigments of different preparations of pea were investigated, using an in vitro digestion procedure coupled with human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Fresh pea (FP), cooked fresh pea (CFP), frozen pea (FZP), cooked frozen pea (CFZP), and canned pea (CP) were subjected to simulated digestion. Although after digestion the pigment profile was modified for all samples, except CP, allomerization reactions and greater destruction of chlorophylls were observed in only FP, which should be due to enzymes in FP that were denaturalized in the rest of the test foods. A pigment extract of CFZP was also subjected to in vitro digestion, showing a positive effect of the food matrix on the pigment digestive stability. The transfer of the chlorophyll pigments from the digesta to the micellar fraction was significantly more efficient in CFZP (57%, p 0.05) different between CFP, FZP, and CP (28-35%), and lowest in FP (20%). Pheophorbide a stood out as the most-micellarized chlorophyll derivative in all of the samples, reaching levels of up to 98%. Incubation of Caco-2 cells with micellar fractions at the same concentration prepared from each test food showed that pigment absorption was considerably lower ( p < 0.006) in cells incubated with FP, whereas there were no differences among the rest of the preparations. Therefore, factors associated with the food matrix could inhibit or mediate the chlorophyll pigment absorption. These results demonstrated that the industrial preservation processes of peafreezing and canningas well as the cooking have a positive effect on the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the chlorophyll pigments with respect to the FP sample, emphasizing CFZP with greater bioaccesibilty degree.

  11. Can villin be used to identify malignant and undifferentiated normal digestive epithelial cells?


    Robine, S; Huet, C; Moll, R; Sahuquillo-Merino, C; Coudrier, E; Zweibaum, A; Louvard, D


    We have investigated the presence of villin (a Ca2+-regulated actin binding protein) in various tissues (normal or malignant) and in established cell lines by using sensitive immunochemical techniques on cell extracts and immunofluorescence analysis on frozen sections. Our results show that villin is a marker that can be used to distinguish normal differentiated epithelial cells from the simple epithelia lining the gastrointestinal tract and renal tubules. Villin is found in the absorptive ce...

  12. Digestive Diseases (United States)

    ... Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence) Gas Lactose Intolerance Diarrhea Diverticulosis & Diverticulitis Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) More Digestive Disease ... Polyps Constipation Crohn's Disease Cyclic Vomiting ... and Diverticulitis Dumping Syndrome Foodborne Illnesses Gallstones Gas ...

  13. Digested disorder (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N


    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is overwhelming. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a series of reader’s digest type articles objectively representing the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the period of April, May, and June of 2013. The papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28516028

  14. Digested disorder (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna D; DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N


    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins grows fast. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a new issue of reader’s digest of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the third quarter of 2013; i.e., during the period of June, July, and September of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28232877

  15. Forage digestibility: the intersection of cell wall lignification and plant tissue anatomy (United States)

    Cellulose and the other polysaccharides present in forage cell walls can be completely degraded by the rumen microflora but only when these polysaccharides have been isolated from the wall and all matrix structures eliminated. Understanding how cell wall component interactions limit microbial degrad...

  16. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Improving cell wall digestion and animal performance with fibrolytic enzymes. (United States)

    Adesogan, A T; Ma, Z X; Romero, J J; Arriola, K G


    This paper aimed to summarize published responses to treatment of cattle diets with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE), to discuss reasons for variable EFE efficacy in animal trials, to recommend strategies for improving enzyme testing and EFE efficacy in ruminant diets, and to identify proteomic differences between effective and ineffective EFE. A meta-analysis of 20 dairy cow studies with 30 experiments revealed that only a few increased lactational performance and the response was inconsistent. This variability is attributable to several enzyme, feed, animal, and management factors that were discussed in this paper. The variability reflects our limited understanding of the synergistic and sequential interactions between exogenous glycosyl hydrolases, autochthonous ruminal microbes, and endogenous fibrolytic enzymes that are necessary to optimize ruminal fiber digestion. An added complication is that many of the standard methods of assaying EFE activities may over- or underestimate their potential effects because they are based on pure substrate saccharification and do not simulate ruminal conditions. Our recent evaluation of 18 commercial EFE showed that 78 and 83% of them exhibited optimal endoglucanase and xylanase activities, respectively, at 50 °C, and 77 and 61% had optimal activities at pH 4 to 5, respectively, indicating that most would likely act suboptimally in the rumen. Of the many fibrolytic activities that act synergistically to degrade forage fiber, the few usually assayed, typically endoglucanase and xylanase, cannot hydrolyze the recalcitrant phenolic acid-lignin linkages that are the main constraints to ruminal fiber degradation. These factors highlight the futility of random addition of EFE to diets. This paper discusses reasons for the variable animal responses to dietary addition of fibrolytic enzymes, advances explanations for the inconsistency, suggests a strategy to improve enzyme efficacy in ruminant diets, and describes differences

  17. Effect of maize starch concentration in the diet on starch and cell wall digestion in the dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.; Hindle, V.A.; Klop, A.; Cone, J.W.


    An in vivo experiment was performed to determine the effect of level of maize starch in the diet on digestion and site of digestion of organic matter, starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In a repeated change-over design experiment, three cows fitted with a rumen cannula and T-piece cannulae in

  18. Endo-glucanase digestion of oat β-Glucan enhances Dectin-1 activation in human dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahasrabudhe, N.M.; Tian, Lingmin; Berg, van den Marco; Bruggeman, Geert; Bruininx, Erik; Schols, H.A.; Faas, M.M.; Vos, de Paul


    Oat β-Glucans were studied for their immunological impact before and after enzymatic digestion in order to enhance the efficacy of oat β-Glucans for application in functional foods. Oat β-Glucan is reported to have minimal impact compared to its fungal counterpart in vitro. Digestion with

  19. Chemopreventive effects of in vitro digested and fermented bread in human colon cells. (United States)

    Schlörmann, Wiebke; Hiller, Beate; Jahns, Franziska; Zöger, Romy; Hennemeier, Isabell; Wilhelm, Anne; Lindhauer, Meinolf G; Glei, Michael


    Bread as a staple food product represents an important source for dietary fibre consumption. Effects of wheat bread, wholemeal wheat bread and wholemeal rye bread on mechanisms which could have impact on chemoprevention were analysed in colon cells after in vitro fermentation. Effects of fermented bread samples on gene expression, glutathione S-transferase activity and glutathione content, differentiation, growth and apoptosis were investigated using the human colon adenoma cell line LT97. Additionally, apoptosis was studied in normal and tumour colon tissue by determination of caspase activities. The expression of 76 genes (biotransformation, differentiation, apoptosis) was significantly upregulated (1.5-fold) in LT97 cells. The fermented bread samples were able to significantly increase glutathione S-transferase activity (1.8-fold) and glutathione content (1.4-fold) of the cells. Alkaline phosphatase activity as a marker of differentiation was also significantly enhanced (1.7-fold). The fermented bread samples significantly inhibited LT97 cell growth and increased the level of apoptotic cells (1.8-fold). Only marginal effects on apoptosis in tumour compared to normal tissue were observed. This is the first study which presents chemopreventive effects of different breads after in vitro fermentation. In spite of differences in composition, the results were comparable between the bread types. Nevertheless, they indicate a potential involvement of this staple food product regarding the prevention of colon cancer.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.


    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated....... In the system, the threshold methanogenic biomass concentration existed because of inhibition by high VFA concentration. High methanogenic biomass concentration is required for efficient anaerobic digestion of MSW in order to avoid possible inhibition due to high VFA build-up. Thus, CSTR configuration might...... have unstable dynamics at high organic loading as shown in earlier experiments carried out by Stroot et al. (2001). A gradual increase of organic loading during the start up of a completely mixed digester causing an accumulation of methanogenic biomass is a solution to prevent a probable digester...

  1. Splicing-dependent expression of microRNAs of mirtron origin in human digestive and excretory system cancer cells. (United States)

    Butkytė, Stasė; Čiupas, Laurynas; Jakubauskienė, Eglė; Vilys, Laurynas; Mocevicius, Paulius; Kanopka, Arvydas; Vilkaitis, Giedrius


    An abundant class of intronic microRNAs (miRNAs) undergoes atypical Drosha-independent biogenesis in which the spliceosome governs the excision of hairpin miRNA precursors, called mirtrons. Although nearly 500 splicing-dependent miRNA candidates have been recently predicted via bioinformatic analysis of human RNA-Seq datasets, only a few of them have been experimentally validated. The detailed mechanism of miRNA processing by the splicing machinery and the roles of mirtronic miRNAs in cancer are yet to be uncovered. We experimentally examined whether biogenesis of certain miRNAs is under a splicing control by analyzing their expression levels in response to alterations in the 5'- and 3'-splice sites of a series of intron-containing minigenes carrying appropriate miRNAs. The expression levels of the miRNAs processed from mirtrons were determined by quantitative real-time PCR in five digestive tract (pancreas PANC-1, SU.86.86, T3M4, stomach KATOIII, colon HCT116) and two excretory system (kidney CaKi-1, 786-O) carcinoma cell lines as well as in pancreatic, stomach, and colorectal tumors. Transiently expressed SRSF1 and SRSF2 splicing factors were quantified by western blotting in the nuclear fractions of HCT116 cells. We found that biogenesis of the human hsa-miR-1227-3p, hsa-miR-1229-3p, and hsa-miR-1236-3p is splicing-dependent; therefore, these miRNAs can be assigned to the class of miRNAs processed by a non-canonical mirtron pathway. The expression analysis revealed a differential regulation of human mirtronic miRNAs in various cancer cell lines and tumors. In particular, hsa-miR-1229-3p is selectively upregulated in the pancreatic and stomach cancer cell lines derived from metastatic sites. Compared with the healthy controls, the expression of hsa-miR-1226-3p was significantly higher in stomach tumors but extensively downregulated in colorectal tumors. Furthermore, we provided evidence that overexpression of SRSF1 or SRSF2 can upregulate the processing of

  2. Aquaporins in Digestive System. (United States)

    Zhu, Shuai; Ran, Jianhua; Yang, Baoxue; Mei, Zhechuan


    In this chapter, we mainly discuss the expression and function of aquaporins (AQPs ) expressed in digestive system . AQPs in gastrointestinal tract include four members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP4, AQP5 and AQP8, and a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP3. In the digestive glands, especially the liver, we discuss three members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP5 and AQP8, a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP9. AQP3 is involved in the diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease; AQP5 is relevant to gastric carcinoma cell proliferation and migration; AQP9 plays considerable role in glycerol metabolism , urea transport and hepatocellular carcinoma. Further investigation is necessary for specific locations and functions of AQPs in digestive system.

  3. Ultrasensitive Proteome Profiling for 100 Living Cells by Direct Cell Injection, Online Digestion and Nano-LC-MS/MS Analysis. (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Yan, Guoquan; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin


    Single-cell proteome analysis has always been an exciting goal because it provides crucial information about cellular heterogeneity and dynamic change. Here we presented an integrated proteome analysis device (iPAD) for 100 living cells (iPAD-100) that might be suitable for single-cell analysis. Once cells were cultured, the iPAD-100 could be applied to inject 100 living cells, to transform the living cells into peptides, and to produce protein identification results with total automation. Due to the major obstacle for detection limit of mass spectrometry, we applied the iPAD-100 to analyze the proteome of 100 cells. In total, 813 proteins were identified in a DLD-cell proteome by three duplicate runs. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that proteins from different cellular compartments were well-represented, including membrane proteins. The iPAD-100 greatly simplified the sampling process, reduced sample loss, and prevented contamination. As a result, proteins whose copy numbers were lower than 1000 were identified from 100-cell samples with the iPAD-100, showing that a detection limit of 200 zmol was achieved. With increased sensitivity of mass spectrometry, the iPAD-100 may be able to reveal bountiful proteome information from a single cell in the near future.

  4. Overcoming organic and nitrogen overload in thermophilic anaerobic digestion of pig slurry by coupling a microbial electrolysis cell. (United States)

    Cerrillo, Míriam; Viñas, Marc; Bonmatí, August


    The combination of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) coupled to an ammonia stripping unit as a post-treatment was assessed both in series operation, to improve the quality of the effluent, and in loop configuration recirculating the effluent, to increase the AD robustness. The MEC allowed maintaining the chemical oxygen demand removal of the whole system of 46±5% despite the AD destabilization after doubling the organic and nitrogen loads, while recovering 40±3% of ammonia. The AD-MEC system, in loop configuration, helped to recover the AD (55% increase in methane productivity) and attained a more stable and robust operation. The microbial population assessment revealed an enhancement of AD methanogenic archaea numbers and a shift in eubacterial population. The AD-MEC combined system is a promising strategy for stabilizing AD against organic and nitrogen overloads, while improving the quality of the effluent and recovering nutrients for their reutilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Barodon, an Anionic Alkali Mineral Complex, on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, Innate Immunity, Goblet Cell and Digestibility in Olive Flounder (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hoon Shin


    Full Text Available A 15-wk feeding trial was conducted to examine the supplemental effects of Barodon on growth performance, gastrointestinal histology, feed digestibility and innate immunity in olive founder. A basal commercial diet was used as a control and two other diets were prepared by spraying 0.1% or 0.2% of Barodon. Triplicate groups of fish (BW, 145 g were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily. At the end of the feeding trial, fish growth performance was not significantly affected by dietary treatments; however, feed utilization was significantly improved (linear and quadratic, p<0.05 by Barodon supplementation. Significantly higher (p<0.05 survival rates were obtained in fish fed Barodon containing diets. Hepatosomatic index increased significantly in Barodon treated groups. Also, the use of Barodon resulted in significant increase (linear and quadratic, p<0.05 of intestine length and number of goblet cells. Significantly higher (Quadratic, p<0.05 apparent digestibility coefficient of DM was obtained by supplementation of Barodon. Lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities increased quadratically and linearly, respectively, in Barodon treated fish. Also, significantly higher (linear and quadratic, p<0.05 superoxide dismutase activity was found in Barodon fed fish. The findings in this study show that inclusion of Barodon in diets for olive flounder improves feed utilization and digestibility, and positively affects digestive tract histology and innate immunity.

  6. Digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da


    Scintiscanning of salivary glands with (sup 99m)Tc is commented. The uses of triolein - and oleic acid labelled with 131 I, 125 I or 82 Br are discussed in the study of fat absorption, as well as 14 C and 191 Y. The use of 57 Co as a radiotracer in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B 12 is analysed. Orientation is given about 51 Cr - albumin clearance in the study of plasmatic protein loss by digestive tract. The radiotracers 131 I, 125 I and 51 Cr are pointed out in the investigation of immunoglobulins. Consideration is given to the quantification of digestive bleedings by the use of 51 Cr [pt

  7. Role of NKT cells in the digestive system. I. Invariant NKT cells and liver diseases: is there strength in numbers? (United States)

    Ajuebor, Maureen N


    Information regarding the functional role of the innate immune T cell, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, in the pathophysiology of liver diseases continues to emerge. Results from animal studies suggest that iNKT cells can have divergent roles by specifically promoting the development of proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses in liver diseases. In this themes article, I discuss the critical evidence from animal models that demonstrate a vital role for iNKT cells in the pathophysiology of liver diseases with emphasis on viral, autoimmune, and toxin-induced liver diseases. Furthermore, I discuss the controversial issues (including iNKT cell apoptosis) that typify some of these studies. Finally, I highlight areas that require additional investigation.

  8. Harvest impacts on alfalfa stem neutral detergent fiber concentration and digestibility and cell wall concentration and composition (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stem fiber concentration and digestibility, lignin, and polysaccharide composition impact energy availability for livestock and biofuel conversion efficiency and are affected by maturity stage and environmental influences. We evaluated stem neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ...

  9. Persistence and potential Viable but Non-culturable state of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates from agricultural biogas plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Maynaud


    Full Text Available Despite the development of on-farm anaerobic digestion as a process for making profitable use of animal by-products, factors leading to the inactivation of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates remain poorly described. Here, a microcosm approach was used to evaluate the persistence of three pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica Derby, Campylobacter coli and Listeria monocytogenes in digestates from farms, stored for later land spreading. Nine samples, including raw digestates, liquid fractions of digestate and composted digestates, were inoculated with each pathogen and maintained for 40 days at 24°C. Concentrations of pathogens were monitored using culture and qPCR methods. The persistence of L. monocytogenes, detected up to 20 days after inoculation, was higher than that of Salmonella Derby, detected for 7-20 days, and of C. coli (not detected after 7 days. In some digestates, the concentration of the pathogens by qPCR assay was several orders of magnitude higher than the concentration of culturable cells, suggesting a potential loss of culturability and induction of Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC state. The potential VBNC state which was generally not observed in the same digestate for the three pathogens, occurred more frequently for C. coli and L. monocytogenes than for Salmonella Derby. Composting a digestate reduced the persistence of seeded L. monocytogenes but promoted the maintenance of Salmonella Derby. The effect of NH4+/NH3 on the culturability of C. coli and Salmonella Derby was also shown.The loss of culturability may be the underlying mechanism for the regrowth of pathogens. We have also demonstrated the importance of using molecular tools to monitor pathogens in environmental samples since culture methods may underestimate cell concentration. Our results underline the importance of considering VBNC cells when evaluating the sanitary effect of an anaerobic digestion process and the persistence of pathogens during

  10. Analysis of digester design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wilson, E. H.


    Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such as shredding, degritting, and chemical pretreatment, and post-digestion processes, such as dewatering and gas purification. The biomass sources considered include feedlot manure, rice straw, and bagasse. The results of the analysis indicate that the most economical (on a unit gas cost basis) digester design concept is the plug flow reactor. This conclusion results from this system providing a high gas production rate combined with a low capital hole-in-the-ground digester design concept. The costs determined in this analysis do not include any credits or penalties for feedstock or by-products, but present the costs only for conversion of biomass to methane. The batch land-fill type digester design was shown to have a unit gas cost comparable to that for a conventional stirred tank digester, with the potential of reducing the cost if a land-fill site were available for a lower cost per unit volume. The use of chemical pretreatment resulted in a higher unit gas cost, primarily due to the cost of pretreatment chemical. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the use of chemical pretreatment could improve the economics provided a process could be developed which utilized either less pretreatment chemical or a less costly chemical. The use of other process options resulted in higher unit gas costs. These options should only be used when necessary for proper process performance, or to result in production of a valuable by-product.

  11. Modulation of genes related to the recruitment of immune cells in the digestive tract of trout experimentally infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) or orally vaccinated. (United States)

    Ballesteros, Natalia A; Rodríguez Saint-Jean, Sylvia; Pérez-Prieto, Sara I; Aquilino, Carolina; Tafalla, Carolina


    There are still many details of how intestinal immunity is regulated that remain unsolved in teleost. Although leukocytes are present all along the digestive tract, most immunological studies have focused on the posterior segments and the importance of each gut segment in terms of immunity has barely been addressed. In the current work, we have studied the regulation of several immune genes along five segments of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) digestive tract, comparing the effects observed in response to an infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) infection to those elicited by oral vaccination with a plasmid coding for viral VP2. We have focused on the regulation of several mucosal chemokines, chemokine receptors, the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Furthermore, the recruitment of IgM(+) cells and CD3(+) cells was evaluated along the different segments in response to IPNV by immunohistochemical techniques. Our results provide evidences that there is a differential regulation of these immune genes in response to both stimuli along the gut segments. Along with this chemokine and chemokine receptor induction, IPNV provoked a mobilization of IgM(+) and IgT(+) cells to the foregut and pyloric caeca region, and CD3(+) cells to the pyloric caeca and midgut/hindgut regions. Our results will contribute to a better understanding of how mucosal immunity is orchestrated in the different gut segments of teleost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of maize starch concentration in the diet on starch and cell wall digestion in the dairy cow. (United States)

    van Vuuren, A M; Hindle, V A; Klop, A; Cone, J W


    An in vivo experiment was performed to determine the effect of level of maize starch in the diet on digestion and site of digestion of organic matter, starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In a repeated change-over design experiment, three cows fitted with a rumen cannula and T-piece cannulae in duodenum and ileum received a low-starch (12% of ration dry matter) and a high-starch (33% of ration dry matter) diet. Starch level was increased by exchanging dried sugar beet pulp by ground maize. After a 2-week adaptation period, feed intake, rumen fermentation parameters (in vivo and in situ), intestinal flows, faecal excretion of organic matter, starch and NDF were estimated. When the high-starch diet was fed, dry matter intake was higher (19.0 kg/day vs. 17.8 kg/day), and total tract digestibility of organic matter, starch and NDF was lower when the low-starch diet was fed. Maize starch concentration had no significant effect on rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentration nor on the site of digestion of organic matter and starch and rate of passage of ytterbium-labelled forage. On the high-starch diet, an extra 1.3 kg of maize starch was supplied at the duodenum in relation to the low-starch diet, but only an extra 0.3 kg of starch was digested in the small intestine. Digestion of NDF was only apparent in the rumen and was lower on the high-starch diet than on the low-starch diet, mainly attributed to the reduction in sugar beet pulp in the high-starch diet. It was concluded that without the correction for the reduction in NDF digestion in the rumen, the extra supply of glucogenic (glucose and propionic acid) and ketogenic nutrients (acetic and butyric acid) by supplemented starch will be overestimated. The mechanisms responsible for these effects need to be addressed in feed evaluation.

  13. Homogenization, lyophilization or acid-extraction of meat products improves iron uptake from cereal-meat product combinations in an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. (United States)

    Pachón, Helena; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Glahn, Raymond P


    The effect of processing (homogenization, lyophilization, acid-extraction) meat products on iron uptake from meat combined with uncooked iron-fortified cereal was evaluated using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Beef was cooked, blended to create smaller meat particles, and combined with electrolytic iron-fortified infant rice cereal. Chicken liver was cooked and blended, lyophilized, or acid-extracted, and combined with FeSO4-fortified wheat flour. In the beef-cereal combination, Caco-2 cell iron uptake, assessed by measuring the ferritin formed by cells, was greater when the beef was blended for the greatest amount of time (360 s) compared with 30 s (P meat products on iron absorption in iron-fortified cereals.

  14. Brown Tumor Shown Flare Phenomenon On Bone Scan After Parathyroidectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang Ho; Park, Seol Hoon; Baek, So Ra; Chae, Sun Young; Koh, Jung Min; Kim, Jae Seung; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Ryu, Jin Sook [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Brown tumor is the benign bone lesion consists of woven bone and fibrous tissue without matrix, which develop due to chronic excessive osteoclastic activity such as hyperparathyroidism. Usually they appear with normal uptake or occasionally focally increased uptake on bone scan. We present a case with brown tumor shown more increased uptake and more number of lesions on bone scan after parathyroidectomy, and lesser increased uptake on serial bone scans without any other treatment through several months. This finding is thought to be similar to 'flare phenomenon' which is occasionally seen after treatment of metastatic bone lesions of malignant cancer, and may represent curative process of brown tumor with rapid normal bone formation.

  15. Factors Affecting the Bioaccessibility and Intestinal Transport of Difenoconazole, Hexaconazole, and Spirodiclofen in Human Caco-2 Cells Following in Vitro Digestion. (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Xiao, Jin-Jing; Feng, Rong-Peng; Liu, Yu-Ying; Liao, Min; Wu, Xiang-Wei; Hua, Ri-Mao; Cao, Hai-Qun


    This study examined how gastrointestinal conditions affect pesticide bioaccessibility and intestinal transepithelial transport of pesticides (difenoconazole, hexaconazole, and spirodiclofen) in humans. We used an in vitro model combining human gastric and intestinal digestion, followed with Caco-2 cell model for human intestinal absorption. Bioaccessibility of three tested pesticides ranged from 25.2 to 76.3% and 10.6 to 79.63% in the gastric and intestinal phases, respectively. A marked trend similar to the normal distribution was observed between bioaccessibility and pH, with highest values observed at pH 2.12 in gastric juice. No significant differences were observed with increasing digestion time; however, a significant negative correlation was observed with the solid-liquid (S/L) ratio, following a logarithmic equation. R 2 ranged from 0.9198 to 0.9848 and 0.9526 to 0.9951 in the simulated gastric and intestinal juices, respectively, suggesting that the S/L ratio is also a major factor affecting bioaccessibility. Moreover, significant dose- and time-response effects were subsequently observed for intestinal membrane permeability of difenoconazole, but not for hexaconazole or spirodiclofen. This is the first study to demonstrate the uptake of pesticides by human intestinal cells, aiding quantification of the likely effects on human health and highlighting the importance of considering bioaccessibility in studies of dietary exposure to pesticide residues.

  16. Lack of release of bound anthocyanins and phenolic acids from carrot plant cell walls and model composites during simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion. (United States)

    Padayachee, Anneline; Netzel, Gabriele; Netzel, Michael; Day, Li; Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Gidley, Michael J


    Separately, polyphenols and plant cell walls (PCW) are important contributors to the health benefits associated with fruits and vegetables. However, interactions with PCW which occur either during food preparation or mastication may affect bioaccessibility and hence bioavailability of polyphenols. Binding interactions between anthocyanins, phenolic acids (PAs) and PCW components, were evaluated using both a bacterial cellulose-pectin model system and a black carrot puree system. The majority of available polyphenols bound to PCW material with 60-70% of available anthocyanins and PAs respectively binding to black carrot puree PCW matter. Once bound, release of polyphenols using acidified methanol is low with only ∼20% of total anthocyanins to ∼30% of PAs being released. Less than 2% of bound polyphenol was released after in vitro gastric and small intestinal (S.I.) digestion for both the model system and the black carrot puree PCW matter. Confocal laser scanning microscopy shows localised binding of anthocyanins to PCW. Very similar patterns of binding for anthocyanins and PAs suggest that PAs form complexes with anthocyanins and polysaccharides. Time dependent changes in extractability with acidified methanol but not the total bound fraction suggests that initial non-specific deposition on cellulose surfaces is followed by rearrangement of the bound molecules. Minimal release of anthocyanins and PAs after simulated gastric and S.I. digestion indicates that polyphenols in fruits and vegetables which bind to the PCW will be transported to the colon where they would be expected to be released by the action of cell wall degrading bacteria.

  17. Effect of the co-occurring olive oil and thyme extracts on the phenolic bioaccessibility and bioavailability assessed by in vitro digestion and cell models. (United States)

    Rubió, Laura; Macià, Alba; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat; Blay, M Teresa; Ardévol, Anna; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José


    Olive oils flavoured with edible herbs have grown in popularity because of their added value and potential health benefits. However, the combined presence of different phytochemicals from olive oil and herbs requires study of their possible interactions during intestinal transport and metabolism. The aim of this study was firstly to evaluate the effect on bioaccessibility of the co-occurring bioactive compounds from olive oil and thyme through an in vitro digestion model of three extracts: olive extract (OE), thyme extract (TE) and a combination of both (OTE). The bioaccessible fractions were exposed to Caco-2 and HepG-2 cell models, as well as to a co-culture of both of these. Results indicated that the bioaccessibility of hydroxytyrosol was enhanced when OTE was digested. After Caco-2 cells exposure, no significant differences were observed in hydroxytyrosol transport, whereas the main flavonoids from thyme seemed to undergo an enhanced basolateral permeation when both phenolic sources where exposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contribution of midgut bacteria to blood digestion and egg production in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) (L.) (United States)


    Background The insect gut harbors a variety of microorganisms that probably exceed the number of cells in insects themselves. These microorganisms can live and multiply in the insect, contributing to digestion, nutrition, and development of their host. Recent studies have shown that midgut bacteria appear to strengthen the mosquito's immune system and indirectly enhance protection from invading pathogens. Nevertheless, the physiological significance of these bacteria for mosquitoes has not been established to date. In this study, oral administration of antibiotics was employed in order to examine the contribution of gut bacteria to blood digestion and fecundity in Aedes aegypti. Results The antibiotics carbenicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, gentamycin and kanamycin, were individually offered to female mosquitoes. Treatment of female mosquitoes with antibiotics affected the lysis of red blood cells (RBCs), retarded the digestion of blood proteins and reduced egg production. In addition, antibiotics did not affect the survival of mosquitoes. Mosquito fertility was restored in the second gonotrophic cycle after suspension of the antibiotic treatment, showing that the negative effects of antibiotics in blood digestion and egg production in the first gonotrophic cycle were reversible. Conclusions The reduction of bacteria affected RBC lysis, subsequently retarded protein digestion, deprived mosquito from essential nutrients and, finally, oocyte maturation was affected, resulting in the production of fewer viable eggs. These results indicate that Ae. aegypti and its midgut bacteria work in synergism to digest a blood meal. Our findings open new possibilities to investigate Ae. aegypti-associated bacteria as targets for mosquito control strategies. PMID:21672186

  19. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion. (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim


    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. The Preferred Substrates for Transglutaminase 2 in a Complex Wheat Gluten Digest Are Peptide Fragments Harboring Celiac Disease T-Cell Epitopes (United States)

    Dørum, Siri; Arntzen, Magnus Ø.; Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Holm, Anders; Koehler, Christian J.; Thiede, Bernd; Sollid, Ludvig M.; Fleckenstein, Burkhard


    Background Celiac disease is a T-cell mediated chronic inflammatory disorder of the gut that is induced by dietary exposure to gluten proteins. CD4+ T cells of the intestinal lesion recognize gluten peptides in the context of HLA-DQ2.5 or HLA-DQ8 and the gluten derived peptides become better T-cell antigens after deamidation catalyzed by the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2). In this study we aimed to identify the preferred peptide substrates of TG2 in a heterogeneous proteolytic digest of whole wheat gluten. Methods A method was established to enrich for preferred TG2 substrates in a complex gluten peptide mixture by tagging with 5-biotinamido-pentylamine. Tagged peptides were isolated and then identified by nano-liquid chromatography online-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, database searching and final manual data validation. Results We identified 31 different peptides as preferred substrates of TG2. Strikingly, the majority of these peptides were harboring known gluten T-cell epitopes. Five TG2 peptide substrates that were predicted to bind to HLA-DQ2.5 did not contain previously characterized sequences of T-cell epitopes. Two of these peptides elicited T-cell responses when tested for recognition by intestinal T-cell lines of celiac disease patients, and thus they contain novel candidate T-cell epitopes. We also found that the intact 9mer core sequences of the respective epitopes were not present in all peptide substrates. Interestingly, those epitopes that were represented by intact forms were frequently recognized by T cells in celiac disease patients, whereas those that were present in truncated versions were infrequently recognized. Conclusion TG2 as well as gastrointestinal proteolysis play important roles in the selection of gluten T-cell epitopes in celiac disease. PMID:21124911

  1. Quantification of egg ovalbumin hydrolysate-derived anti-hypertensive peptides in an in vitro model combining luminal digestion with intestinal Caco-2 cell transport. (United States)

    Grootaert, Charlotte; Jacobs, Griet; Matthijs, Bea; Pitart, Judit; Baggerman, Geert; Possemiers, Sam; Van der Saag, Hans; Smagghe, Guy; Van Camp, John; Voorspoels, Stefan


    Food-derived peptides can impact blood pressure through several mechanisms. However, their fate in the gastro-intestinal tract and bioavailability are difficult to assess because of their fast degradation and challenging analysis in physiologically relevant matrices. The aim of this study was to construct an in vitro bioavailability methodology in which luminal digestion is combined with Caco-2 cell transport. Egg ovalbumin hydrolysate, both in pure form and mixed with a food matrix, was used as a test case. Results indicate that a food matrix protected bioactive peptides from luminal digestion, especially in small intestine. Moreover, the Caco-2 absorption peak was extended over a longer time period (>60min) compared to the pure peptide solutions (~15min) which in total resulted in a 3-12 times higher absorption of the bioactive sequences after 60min compared to fasted conditions. These results suggest further investigation is warranted towards peptide-based functional foods with improved gastro-intestinal stability and longer-term release in the blood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of a yogurt matrix and cell microencapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri in three in vitro gastric digestion procedures. (United States)

    Champagne, C P; Raymond, Y; Guertin, N; Martoni, C J; Jones, M L; Mainville, I; Arcand, Y


    The goal of this study was to assess the interaction between microencapsulation and a yogurt food matrix on the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 in four different in vitro systems that simulate a gastric environment. The four systems were: United States Pharmacopeia (USP) solutions, a static two-step (STS) procedure which included simulated food ingredients, a constantly dynamic digestion procedure (IViDiS), as well a multi-step dynamic digestion scheme (S'IViDiS). The pH profiles of the various procedures varied between systems with acidity levels being: USP > STS > IViDiS = S'IVIDiS. Addition of a food matrix increased the pH in all systems except for the USP methodology. Microencapsulation in alginate-based gels was effective in protecting the cells in model solutions when no food ingredients were present. The stability of the probiotic culture in the in vitro gastric environments was enhanced when (1) yoghurt or simulated food ingredient were present in the medium in sufficient quantity, (2) pH was higher. The procedure-comparison data of this study will be helpful in interpreting the literature with respect to viable counts of probiotics obtained from different static or dynamic in vitro gastric systems.

  3. Chicken thigh, chicken liver, and iron-fortified wheat flour increase iron uptake in an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. (United States)

    Pachón, Helena; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Glahn, Raymond P


    The objective of this study was to test meat and fortified-food combinations to identify those that optimize iron uptake in an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model, a proxy for iron bioavailability. Four experiments tested combinations of meats such as chicken (blood, spleen, liver, thigh), beef (cube steak), and fish (whole-fish meal) with iron-fortified foods (rice cereal, maize-soy flour, wheat flour). Chicken liver, thigh, spleen, blood, or fish meal increased the Caco-2 cell iron uptake from these combined with rice cereal (Pflour (Pfortified foods to these meats did not increase the Caco-2 cell iron uptake (P >or= .05). Adding either meat to the 3 fortified foods increased the Caco-2 cell iron uptake of the fortified foods (Pflour were selected for an infant porridge because the combinations with the highest Caco-2 cell iron uptake were chicken thigh + wheat flour, chicken liver + wheat flour, and chicken liver + maize-soy flour, and wheat flour was the least expensive fortified food sold in the target population. Per unit of iron, the chicken thigh + wheat flour and chicken liver + wheat flour combinations resulted in the highest bioavailable iron. In the proportion of 3:1 fortified food:meat examined, meat increases the bioavailability of iron-fortified foods, but iron-fortified foods do not enhance total iron bioavailability when added to meat.

  4. [Repair effect of BMSCs on digestive tract injury]. (United States)

    Jia, Guiqing; Zhang, Mingming; Wu, Xiaoting


    To investigate the effect of BMSCs on the repair of digestive tract injury and its mechanisms. Recent literature on the effect of BMSCs on the repair of digestive tract injury was reviewed. BMSCs had the potency of self-replication, proliferation and multipotential differentiation, which played an important role in the repair of digestive tract injury. The probable mechanisms included: BMSCs' ability of migrating to the injured tissue and inhibiting the host immune response; BMSCs' dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; BMSCs' direct differentiation into the epithelial cells or the stem cells of digestive tract; BMSCs' fusion with the stem cells or the mature epithelial cells of digestive tract; BMSCs' participation in the reconstruction of injured microenvironment. BMSCs participates in the repair of digestive tract injury and has a bright future in the treatment of digestive system disease.

  5. The Antiproliferative Effect of Chakasaponins I and II, Floratheasaponin A, and Epigallocatechin 3-O-Gallate Isolated from Camellia sinensis on Human Digestive Tract Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niichiro Kitagawa


    Full Text Available Acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely chakasaponins I (1 and II (2, floratheasaponin A (3, and their analogs, together with catechins—including (–-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (4, flavonoids, and caffeine—have been isolated as characteristic functional constituents from the extracts of “tea flower”, the flower buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae, which have common components with that of the leaf part. These isolates exhibited antiproliferative activities against human digestive tract carcinoma HSC-2, HSC-4, MKN-45, and Caco-2 cells. The antiproliferative activities of the saponins (1–3, IC50 = 4.4–14.1, 6.2–18.2, 4.5–17.3, and 19.3–40.6 µM, respectively were more potent than those of catechins, flavonoids, and caffeine. To characterize the mechanisms of action of principal saponin constituents 1–3, a flow cytometric analysis using annexin-V/7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD double staining in HSC-2 cells was performed. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner. DNA fragmentation and caspase-3/7 activation were also detected after 48 h. These results suggested that antiproliferative activities of 1–3 induce apoptotic cell death via activation of caspase-3/7.

  6. Comparison of the LTQ-Orbitrap Velos and the Q-Exactive for proteomic analysis of 1-1000 ng RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests. (United States)

    Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Dovichi, Norman J


    There is interest in extending bottom-up proteomics to the smallest possible sample size. We investigated the performance of two modern mass spectrometers for the analysis of samples ranging from 1 ng to 1 µg of RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system coupled with either an LTQ-Orbitrap Velos or a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer was used for peptide separation and identification. For 1-1000 ng RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests, the Q-Exactive generated 10-83% more protein groups and 11-109% more peptides than the LTQ-Orbitrap Velos (higher-energy collisional dissociation, HCD) with MASCOT database searching, due to its faster scan rate and higher resolution. In addition, HCD and collision-induced dissociation (CID) modes of the LTQ-Orbitrap Velos were compared. HCD produced higher peptide and protein group IDs than CID for 1-1000 ng RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests with MASCOT database searching. Database searching results from SEQUEST and MASCOT were also compared and comparable protein group IDs were obtained from the two search engines. The Q-Exactive outperformed the LTQ-Orbitrap Velos for shotgun proteomics analysis of 1 to 1000 ng RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests in terms of obtained peptide and protein group IDs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.


    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9.......6 addresses the mass balances and environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion....

  8. Biscuits with No Added Sugar Containing Stevia, Coffee Fibre and Fructooligosaccharides Modifies α-Glucosidase Activity and the Release of GLP-1 from HuTu-80 Cells and Serotonin from Caco-2 Cells after In Vitro Digestion (United States)

    Martinez-Saez, Nuria; Hochkogler, Christina Maria; Somoza, Veronika; del Castillo, Maria Dolores


    This study assessed the in vitro effects of the bioaccessible food components released during the simulated human digestion of a coffee fibre-containing biscuit (CFB) on α-glucosidase activity, antioxidant capacity and satiety hormones. Digest of CFB presented a significantly (p < 0.05) lower amount of sugar (68.6 mg/g) and a higher antioxidant capacity (15.1 mg chlorogenic acid eq./g) than that of a sucrose-containing biscuit (SCB). The CFB significantly reduced (p < 0.05) α-glucosidase activity (IC50 = 3.3 mg/mL) compared to the SCB (IC50 = 6.2 mg/mL). Serotonin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release by differentiated Caco-2 and HuTu-80 cells, respectively, was stimulated by the CFB (355% at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL and 278% at a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL) to the same order of magnitude as those of the SCB. To summarize, the CFB was demonstrated to reduce monosaccharide bioaccessibility, to inhibit a diabetes-related digestive enzyme, and to improve the release of satiety hormones. PMID:28677657

  9. Biscuits with No Added Sugar Containing Stevia, Coffee Fibre and Fructooligosaccharides Modifies α-Glucosidase Activity and the Release of GLP-1 from HuTu-80 Cells and Serotonin from Caco-2 Cells after In Vitro Digestion. (United States)

    Martinez-Saez, Nuria; Hochkogler, Christina Maria; Somoza, Veronika; Del Castillo, Maria Dolores


    This study assessed the in vitro effects of the bioaccessible food components released during the simulated human digestion of a coffee fibre-containing biscuit (CFB) on α-glucosidase activity, antioxidant capacity and satiety hormones. Digest of CFB presented a significantly ( p < 0.05) lower amount of sugar (68.6 mg/g) and a higher antioxidant capacity (15.1 mg chlorogenic acid eq./g) than that of a sucrose-containing biscuit (SCB). The CFB significantly reduced ( p < 0.05) α-glucosidase activity (IC50 = 3.3 mg/mL) compared to the SCB (IC50 = 6.2 mg/mL). Serotonin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release by differentiated Caco-2 and HuTu-80 cells, respectively, was stimulated by the CFB (355% at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL and 278% at a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL) to the same order of magnitude as those of the SCB. To summarize, the CFB was demonstrated to reduce monosaccharide bioaccessibility, to inhibit a diabetes-related digestive enzyme, and to improve the release of satiety hormones.

  10. Digestive system complications among hospitalized children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digestive system complications among hospitalized children with sickle cell anaemia in Enugu, Nigeria. Christopher B Eke, Bartholomew F Chukwu, Benedict O Edelu, Osita U Ezenwosu, Anthony N Ikefuna, Ifeoma J Emosi ...

  11. Functional Utrastructure of Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae) Digestive Hairs (United States)

    Płachno, Bartosz Jan; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Świątek, Piotr


    Background and Aims Digestive structures of carnivorous plants produce external digestive enzymes, and play the main role in absorption. In Lentibulariaceae, the ultrastructure of digestive hairs has been examined in some detail in Pinguicula and Utricularia, but the sessile digestive hairs of Genlisea have received very little attention so far. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by expanding their morphological, anatomical and histochemical characterization. Methods Several imaging techniques were used, including light, confocal and electron microscopy, to reveal the structure and function of the secretory hairs of Genlisea traps. This report demonstrates the application of cryo-SEM for fast imaging of whole, physically fixed plant secretory structures. Key Results and Conclusion The concentration of digestive hairs along vascular bundles in subgenus Genlisea is a primitive feature, indicating its basal position within the genus. Digestive hairs of Genlisea consist of three compartments with different ultrastructure and function. In subgenus Tayloria the terminal hair cells are transfer cells, but not in species of subgenus Genlisea. A digestive pool of viscous fluid occurs in Genlisea traps. In spite of their similar architecture, the digestive-absorptive hairs of Lentibulariaceae feature differences in morphology and ultrastructure. PMID:17550910

  12. Immunomodulatory activity of enzymatically synthesized glycogen and its digested metabolite in a co-culture system consisting of differentiated Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages. (United States)

    Yasuda, Michiko; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Kakutani, Ryo; Takata, Hiroki; Ashida, Hitoshi


    Previously, we developed enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) from starch, and showed its immunomodulatory and dietary fiber-like activities. In this study, we investigated the metabolism of ESG and its immunomodulatory activity using differentiated Caco-2 cells as a model of the intestinal barrier. In a co-culture system consisting of differentiated Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages, mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and BAFF cytokines was up-regulated in Caco-2 cells and IL-8 production in basolateral medium was induced after 24 h apical treatment with 5 mg ml(-1) of ESG. The mRNA level of iNOS was also up-regulated in RAW264.7 macrophages. After characterization of the binding of anti-glycogen monoclonal antibodies (IV58B6 and ESG1A9) to ESG and its digested metabolite resistant glycogen (RG), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system was developed to quantify ESG and RG. Using this system, we investigated the metabolism of ESG in differentiated Caco-2 cells. When ESG (7000 kDa, 5 mg ml(-1)) was added to the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers, ESG disappeared and RG (about 3000 kDa, 3.5 mg ml(-1)) appeared in the apical solution during a 24 h incubation. Neither ESG nor RG was detected in the basolateral solution. In addition, both ESG and RG were bound to TLR2 in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, we suggest that ESG is metabolized to a RG-like structure in the intestine, and this metabolite activates the immune system via stimulation of the intestinal epithelium, although neither ESG nor its metabolite could permeate the intestinal cells under our experimental conditions. These results provide evidence for the beneficial function of ESG as a food ingredient.

  13. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database (United States)

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  14. Anti-allergic effects of a nonameric peptide isolated from the intestine gastrointestinal digests of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in activated HMC-1 human mast cells. (United States)

    Ko, Seok-Chun; Lee, Dae-Sung; Park, Won Sun; Yoo, Jong Su; Yim, Mi-Jin; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Lee, Chang-Min; Oh, Junghwan; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan


    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the intestine gastrointestinal (GI) digests of abalone [Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai)] modulate inflammatory responses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. The GI digests of the abalone intestines were fractionated into fractions I (>10 kDa), II (5-10 kDa) and Ⅲ (<5 kDa). Of the abalone intestine GI digests (AIGIDs), fraction Ⅲ inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice. Subsequently, a bioactive peptide [abalone intestine GI digest peptide (AIGIDP)] isolated from fraction Ⅲ was determined to be 1175.2 Da, and the amino acid sequence was found to be PFNQGTFAS. We noted that the purified nonameric peptide (AIGIDP) attenuated the phorbol‑12‑myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-induced histamine release and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in human mast cells (HMC-1 cells). In addition, we also noted that AIGIDP inhibited the PMACI‑induced activation of nuclear factor‑κB (NF-κB) by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and that it suppressed the production of cytokines by decreasing the phosphorylation of JNK. The findings of our study indicate that AIGIDP exerts a modulatory, anti-allergic effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  15. The role of hypoxia-inducible factor-2 in digestive system cancers. (United States)

    Zhao, J; Du, F; Shen, G; Zheng, F; Xu, B


    Hypoxia is an all but ubiquitous phenomenon in cancers. Two known hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), HIF-1α and HIF-2α, primarily mediate the transcriptional response to hypoxia. Despite the high homology between HIF-1α and HIF-2α, emerging evidence suggests differences between both molecules in terms of transcriptional targets as well as impact on multiple physiological pathways and tumorigenesis. To date, much progress has been made toward understanding the roles of HIF-2α in digestive system cancers. Indeed, HIF-2α has been shown to regulate multiple aspects of digestive system cancers, including cell proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis, metabolism, metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. These findings make HIF-2α a critical regulator of this malignant phenotype. Here we summarize the function of HIF-2 during cancer development as well as its contribution to tumorigenesis in digestive system malignancies.

  16. Digestive System (For Teens) (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Digestive System KidsHealth / For Teens / Digestive System What's in this ... out of the body as feces. About the Digestive System Every morsel of food we eat has to ...

  17. Digestive Health Tips (United States)

    ... Home / Digestive Health Topic / Digestive Health Tips Digestive Health Tips Basics 10 Tips on Belching, Bloating, and Flatulence Belching is caused by swallowed air from: Eating or drinking too fast Poorly fitting dentures; not chewing food completely Carbonated beverages Chewing gum or sucking on ...

  18. Improved Efficacy of Oral Immunotherapy Using Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides in a Murine Cow’s Milk Allergy Model: A Potential Role for Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlotte M. Vonk


    Full Text Available BackgroundOral immunotherapy (OIT is a promising therapeutic approach to treat food allergic patients. However, there are some concerns regarding its safety and long-term efficacy. The use of non-digestible oligosaccharides might improve OIT efficacy since they are known to directly modulate intestinal epithelial and immune cells in addition to acting as prebiotics.AimTo investigate whether a diet supplemented with plant-derived fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS supports the efficacy of OIT in a murine cow’s milk allergy model and to elucidate the potential mechanisms involved.MethodsAfter oral sensitization to the cow’s milk protein whey, female C3H/HeOuJ mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with FOS (1% w/w and received OIT (10 mg whey 5 days a week for 3 weeks by gavage. Intradermal (i.d. and intragastric (i.g. challenges were performed to measure acute allergic symptoms and mast cell degranulation. Blood and organs were collected to measure antibody levels and T cell and dendritic cell populations. Spleen-derived T cell fractions (whole spleen- and CD25-depleted were transferred to naïve recipient mice to confirm the involvement of regulatory T cells (Tregs in allergy protection induced by OIT + FOS.ResultsOIT + FOS decreased acute allergic symptoms and mast cell degranulation upon challenge and prevented the challenge-induced increase in whey-specific IgE as observed in sensitized mice. Early induction of Tregs in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN of OIT + FOS mice coincided with reduced T cell responsiveness in splenocyte cultures. CD25 depletion in OIT + FOS-derived splenocyte suspensions prior to transfer abolished protection against signs of anaphylaxis in recipients. OIT + FOS increased serum galectin-9 levels. No differences in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA levels in the cecum were observed between the treatment groups. Concisely, FOS supplementation significantly improved OIT in the acute


    Under EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program, which provides objective and scientific third party analysis of new technology that can benefit the environment, a combined heat and power system based on the UTC Fuel Cell's PC25C Fuel Cell Power Plant was evaluated. The...

  20. Microbial stress mediated intercellular nanotubes in an anaerobic microbial consortium digesting cellulose


    John, Martina; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Zhou, Yan; Ng, Wun Jern


    The anaerobic digestion process is a multi - step reaction dependent on concerted activities such as exchange of metabolites among physiologically different microbial communities. This study investigated the impact of iron oxide nanoparticles on the anaerobic sludge microbiota. It was shown there were three distinct microbial phases following addition of the nanoparticles: microbial stress and cell death of approximately one log order of magnitude, followed by microbial rewiring, and recovery...

  1. Determination of chromium, iron and selenium in foodstuffs of animal origin by collision cell technology, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after closed vessel microwave digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufailly, Vincent; Noel, Laurent; Guerin, Thierry


    The determination of chromium ( 52 Cr), iron ( 56 Fe) and selenium ( 80 Se) isotopes in foodstuffs of animal origin has been performed by collision cell technology (CCT) mode using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detector after closed vessel microwave digestion. To significantly decrease the argon-based interferences at mass to charge ratios (m/z): 52 ( 40 Ar 12 C), 56 ( 40 Ar 16 O) and 80 ( 40 Ar 40 Ar), the gas-flow rates of a helium and hydrogen mixture used in the hexapole collision cell were optimised to 1.5 ml min -1 H 2 and 0.5 ml min -1 He and the quadrupole bias was adjusted daily between -2 and -15 mV. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.025, 0.086 and 0.041 mg kg -1 for Cr, Fe and Se, respectively, in 6% HNO 3 were estimated under optimized CCT conditions. These LOQ were improved by a factor of approximately 10 for each element compared to standard mode. Precision under repeatability, intermediate precision reproducibility and trueness have been tested on nine different certified reference materials in foodstuffs of animal origin and on an external proficiency testing scheme. The results obtained for chromium, iron and selenium were in all cases in good agreement with the certified values and trueness was improved, compared to those obtained in standard mode

  2. Membrane controlled anaerobic digestion (United States)

    Omstead, D. R.

    In response to general shortages of energy, examination of the anaerboic digestion process as a potential source of a combustible, methane-rich fuel has intensified in recent years. It has been suggested that orgaic intermediates (such as fatty acids), produced during digestion, might also be recovered for use as chemical feedstocks. This investigation has been concerned with combining ultrafiltration separation techniques with anaerobic digestion for the development of a process in which the total production of acetic acid (the most valuable intermediate in anaerobic digestion) and methane are optimized. Enrichment cultures, able to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source, were adapted from sewage digesting cultures using conventional techniques. An ultrafiltration system was constructed and coupled to an anaerobic digester culture vessel which contained the glucose enrichment. The membrane controlled anaerobic digester appears to show promise as a means of producing high rates of both methane gas and acetic acid.

  3. Soy milk digestion extract inhibits progression of prostate cancer cell growth via regulation of prostate cancer‑specific antigen and cell cycle-regulatory genes in human LNCaP cancer cells. (United States)

    Kang, Nam-Hee; Shin, Hee-Chang; Oh, Seunghyun; Lee, Kyun-Hee; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Choi, Kyung-Chul


    Soy milk, which is produced from whole soybeans, contains a variety of biologically active components. Isoflavones are a class of soy-derived phytoestrogens with beneficial effects, among which genistein (GEN) has been previously indicated to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. The present study evaluated the effects of soy milk digestion extract (SMD) on the progression of prostate cancer via the estrogen receptor (ER)β in human LNCaP prostate cancer cells. To evaluate the effects of SMD (daizein, 1.988 mg/100g, glycitein, 23.537 mg/100 g and GEN, 0.685 mg/100g) on cell proliferation, LNCaP cells were cultured in media containing vehicle (0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide), 17β‑estradiol (E2; 2.7x10‑7 mg/ml), GEN (2.7x10-2 mg/ml) of SMD (total aglycon concentration, 0.79 mg/ml), after which the cell viability was examined using an MTT assay. The cell viability was significantly elevated by E2 (by 45±0.18%), while it was markedly reduced by GEN (73.2±0.03%) or SMD (74.8±0.09%). Semi‑quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to assess the mRNA expression levels of target genes, including ERβ, prostate cancer‑specific antigen (PSA) and cell cycle regulators p21, Cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4. The expression of ERβ was almost completely diminished by E2, whereas it was significantly elevated by SMD. In addition, the expression levels of PSA were considerably reduced by SMD. The expression of p21 was significantly elevated by SMD, while it was markedly reduced by E2. Of note, the expression levels of Cyclin D1 and CDK4 were considerably elevated by E2, while being significantly reduced by GEN and SMD. All of these results indicated that SMD may inhibit the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells via regulating the expression of ERβ, PSA, p21, Cyclin D1 and CDK4 in an ER-dependent manner.

  4. Galectin-1 and galectin-3 in fetal development of bovine respiratory and digestive tracts. Comparison of cell type-specific expression profiles and subcellular localization. (United States)

    Kaltner, Herbert; Seyrek, Kamel; Heck, Andrea; Sinowatz, Fred; Gabius, Hans-Joachim


    Histochemical monitoring of developmental processes is presently centered on protein-protein interactions. However, oligosaccharides have the potential to store and transmit biological information. Carbohydrate chains of cellular glycoconjugates present determinants for binding of endogenous lectins. This interaction can be relevant for developmental processes. In fact, beta-galactosides and their derivatives serve as ligands for members of the lectin family of galectins. Since it is unclear to what extent functions of different galectins differ or overlap, hereby introducing redundancy into this system, monitoring of galectin presence during tissue maturation should include more than one type of galectin (galectin fingerprinting). Here, we focus on the two most frequently described ones, namely the homodimeric prototype galectin-1 and the chimera-type galectin-3, the latter one so far not characterized from bovine tissue. In the first step, we have detected its presence biochemically in addition to the abundant galectin-1 in bovine respiratory and digestive tracts during development. Evidently, diversification of the primitive foregut will not lead to an alteration of this property. Immunohistochemistry revealed clear differences in the galectins' localization profiles. Galectin-1 expression is strong in mesenchymal cells, especially smooth muscle cells, while epithelial lining harbors galectin-3. A gradual increase in staining intensity with development is especially observed in the case of galectin-3. Notably, this change is accompanied by a shift from primarily nuclear localization to the cytoplasm, an alteration not seen for galectin-1. However, nuclear presence of galectin-1 is encountered. Thus, the delineation of differences in expression of galectin-1 and -3 with respect to cell types and in the developmental course of subcellular localization argues in favor of mediation of nonoverlapping functions by these two homologous, endogenous lectins.

  5. Case of subacute cerebellar degeneration associated with pleocytosis and cerebellar swelling shown in computed tomography scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Hiide; Anezaki, Toshiharu; Takashima, Noriko; Inuzuka, Takashi; Miyatake, Tadashi


    A 44 year old woman was healthy until January 3, 1986, when she had headache. On January 9, she developed gait ataxia and dysarthria. Cerebellar ataxia worsened rapidly. Aftar a week she could not sit without support and her consciousness was disturbed. Corticosteroid was administrated and consciousness proved alert, but cerebellar ataxia and dysarthria remained unchanged. The patient was found carcinoma of the lung in August 1986. Characteristic features of clinical and laboratory findings of this patient are acute progression, cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis of 1,064/3 cells (860 mononuclear cell, 204 polymorphonuclear cell), and cerebellar swelling shown in computed tomography scanning. Though the mechanism of acute cerebellar degeneration is still uncertained, inflammatory process was supported to exist in cerebellum of this case.

  6. Nutrient and Total Polyphenol Contents of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables, and Estimation of Their Iron Bioaccessibility Using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model. (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Atuna, Richard Atinpoore; McBride, Richard; Carey, Edward Ewing; Christides, Tatiana


    Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs) are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweet potato cultivars, including three orange-fleshed types, with other commonly consumed DGLVs in Ghana: cocoyam, corchorus, baobab, kenaf and moringa, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Moringa had the highest numbers of iron absorption enhancers on an "as-would-be-eaten" basis, β-carotene (14169 μg/100 g; p 0.05) iron (averaging 4.18 mg/100 g) and β-carotene levels. The ascorbic acid concentration of 25.50 mg/100 g in the cooked baobab did not enhance the iron bioaccessibility. Baobab and the orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves contained the highest levels of total polyphenols (1646.75 and 506.95 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/100 g, respectively; p < 0.001). This suggests that iron bioaccessibility in greens cannot be inferred based on the mineral concentration. Based on the similarity of the iron bioaccessibility of the sweet potato leaves and cocoyam leaf (a widely-promoted "nutritious" DGLV in Ghana), the former greens have an added advantage of increasing the dietary intake of provitamin A.

  7. Using a tubular photosynthetic microbial fuel cell to treat anaerobically digested effluent from kitchen waste: Mechanisms of organics and ammonium removal. (United States)

    Pei, Haiyan; Yang, Zhigang; Nie, Changliang; Hou, Qingjie; Zhang, Lijie; Wang, Yuting; Zhang, Shasha


    Anaerobically digested effluent from kitchen waste (ADE-KW) was used herein as the substrate of a tubular photosynthetic microbial fuel cell (PMFC) for power production, and also, after being diluted, as a medium for cultivation of algae in the cathodic chamber. Adding 3 mg/L phosphorus to the catholyte could efficiently enhance the algal growth and the PMFC performance. About 0.94 g/L algal biomass and 0.57 kWh/m 3 -ADE-KW bioelectricity were obtained from the PMFC. Soluble microbial byproduct-like material and aromatic proteins were the dominant organics in the ADE-KW, which were readily degradable in the system. About 79% of the 1550 mg/L ammonium in the anolyte transferred to the catholyte through the cation exchange membrane. The ammonium was removed mainly as electron acceptors at the cathode after being oxidized by oxygen, whereas algal assimilation only account for about 14.6% of the overall nitrogen. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Implication of endothelial to mesenchymal cell transition in the development of healthy digestive tissue injury following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintet, Elodie


    Fibrosis is identified as a chronic side effect occurring after radiotherapy for pelvic tumors in 5 to 10 % of patients. This pathological healing process is characterized by an accumulation of extracellular matrix synthesized by mesenchymal cells. Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndoMT), is a processes during which endothelial cells express mesenchymal markers in response to stress. EndoMT is identified as a new source of mesenchymal cells taking part to fibrosis development in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases. Then, this study focused on the potential participation of EndoMT in radiation-induced intestinal fibrosis and tried to identify new therapeutics targets. Interestingly, our results showed for the first time EndoMT in rectal tissues from patients who developed radiation proctitis following radiotherapy. We used an in vivo approach to follow the mesenchymal cells having an endothelial origin in a mouse model expressing the GFP under the control of an endothelial promoter, Tie2 (Tie2-GFP). Thereby, our results confirmed the existence of radiation-induced EndoMT in our preclinical model of radiation proctitis. In vitro characterization showed that irradiation induced a modulation of the endothelial phenotype through a mesenchymal profile, a hallmark of EndoMT. This project also focused on a potential molecular actor, Hey2. In this context, we generated a transgenic mouse model in which Hey2 gene expression is repressed specifically in the endothelial compartment and observed a decrease in radiation-induced mucosal damages and EndoMT frequency. Consequently, inhibiting Hey2 expression could represent a new interesting therapeutic strategy. (author)

  9. Susceptibility of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) peel proteins to digestive enzymes (United States)

    Sweet potato proteins have been shown to possess antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vivo. The ability of a protein to exhibit systemic effects is somewhat unusual as proteins are typically susceptible to digestive enzymes. This study was undertaken to better understand how digestive enzymes ...

  10. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  11. Characteristics of dairy cows with a greater or lower risk of subacute ruminal acidosis: Volatile fatty acid absorption, rumen digestion, and expression of genes in rumen epithelial cells. (United States)

    Gao, X; Oba, M


    The objective of this study was to examine whether lactating dairy cows with a greater or lower risk of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) have differences in volatile fatty acid (VFA) absorption rate, expression of genes involved in VFA metabolism and intracellular pH regulation in rumen epithelial cells, and in situ carbohydrate digestibility in the rumen. We fed 14 ruminally cannulated mid-lactating dairy cows (119±47.2d in milk; body weight 640±47.9kg) a high-grain diet consisting of 30% forage ad libitum, with an 18-d diet adaptation and a 7-d sample and data collection period. Eight cows with the lowest acidosis index [area below pH 5.8 normalized for dry matter intake (DMI); 0.10±0.16 pH × min/kg of DMI] and 5 with the highest acidosis index (3.72±0.19 pH × min/kg of DMI) were classified as animals with lower risk (LS) and higher risk (HS) of SARA, respectively. Minimum (5.75 vs. 5.33) and mean rumen pH (6.33 vs. 5.98) were higher for LS than for HS cows. In addition, the duration and area of rumen pH below 5.8 was lower in LS cows (24.9 vs. 481min/d; 2.94 vs. 102 pH × min/d). Although DMI, milk yield, and milk component yields did not differ, milk fat concentration tended to be higher for LS cows than for HS cows (3.36 vs. 2.93%). However, we observed no difference in VFA absorption rate between LS and HS cows. In situ starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were not different between LS and HS cows, but the relative mRNA abundance of lanosterol synthase (LSS) was higher for LS cows than for HS cows. In addition, the mRNA abundance of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 (HMGCS1) tended to be higher for LS cows than for HS cows. These results suggested that VFA absorption rate might not explain the difference in rumen pH between LS and HS cows in the current study, even though expression of some genes related to VFA metabolism in rumen epithelium may be associated with variation in the risk of SARA among lactating cows. This variation in

  12. Role of NKT cells in the digestive system. IV. The role of canonical natural killer T cells in mucosal immunity and inflammation. (United States)

    Wingender, Gerhard; Kronenberg, Mitchell


    Lymphocytes that combine features of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells are named natural killer T (NKT) cells. The majority of NKT cells in mice bear highly conserved invariant Valpha chains, and to date two populations of such canonical NKT cells are known in mice: those that express Valpha14 and those that express Valpha7.2. Both populations are selected by nonpolymorphic major histocompatibility complex class I-like antigen-presenting molecules expressed by hematopoietic cells in the thymus: CD1d for Valpha14-expressing NKT cells and MR1 for those cells expressing Valpha7.2. The more intensely studied Valpha14 NKT cells have been implicated in diverse immune reactions, including immune regulation and inflammation in the intestine; the Valpha7.2 expressing cells are most frequently found in the lamina propria. In humans, populations of canonical NKT cells are found to be highly similar in terms of the expression of homologous, invariant T cell antigen-receptor alpha-chains, specificity, and function, although their frequency differs from those in the mouse. In this review, we will focus on the role of both of these canonical NKT cell populations in the mucosal tissues of the intestine.

  13. Determination of chromium, iron and selenium in foodstuffs of animal origin by collision cell technology, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after closed vessel microwave digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufailly, Vincent [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments - Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches sur la Qualite des Aliments et des procedees agroalimentaires - Unite des Contaminants Inorganiques et Mineraux de l' Environnement, 23, avenue du General de Gaulle, F-94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France); Noel, Laurent [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments - Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches sur la Qualite des Aliments et des procedees agroalimentaires - Unite des Contaminants Inorganiques et Mineraux de l' Environnement, 23, avenue du General de Gaulle, F-94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France); Guerin, Thierry [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments - Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches sur la Qualite des Aliments et des procedees agroalimentaires - Unite des Contaminants Inorganiques et Mineraux de l' Environnement, 23, avenue du General de Gaulle, F-94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France)]. E-mail:


    The determination of chromium ({sup 52}Cr), iron ({sup 56}Fe) and selenium ({sup 80}Se) isotopes in foodstuffs of animal origin has been performed by collision cell technology (CCT) mode using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detector after closed vessel microwave digestion. To significantly decrease the argon-based interferences at mass to charge ratios (m/z): 52 ({sup 40}Ar{sup 12}C), 56 ({sup 40}Ar{sup 16}O) and 80 ({sup 40}Ar{sup 40}Ar), the gas-flow rates of a helium and hydrogen mixture used in the hexapole collision cell were optimised to 1.5 ml min{sup -1} H{sub 2} and 0.5 ml min{sup -1} He and the quadrupole bias was adjusted daily between -2 and -15 mV. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.025, 0.086 and 0.041 mg kg{sup -1} for Cr, Fe and Se, respectively, in 6% HNO{sub 3} were estimated under optimized CCT conditions. These LOQ were improved by a factor of approximately 10 for each element compared to standard mode. Precision under repeatability, intermediate precision reproducibility and trueness have been tested on nine different certified reference materials in foodstuffs of animal origin and on an external proficiency testing scheme. The results obtained for chromium, iron and selenium were in all cases in good agreement with the certified values and trueness was improved, compared to those obtained in standard mode.

  14. Bioavailability of iron in geophagic earths and clay minerals, and their effect on dietary iron absorption using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. (United States)

    Seim, Gretchen L; Ahn, Cedric I; Bodis, Mary S; Luwedde, Flavia; Miller, Dennis D; Hillier, Stephen; Tako, Elad; Glahn, Raymond P; Young, Sera L


    Geophagy, the deliberate consumption of earth, is strongly associated with iron (Fe) deficiency. It has been proposed that geophagy may be practiced as a means to improve Fe status by increasing Fe intakes and, conversely, that geophagy may cause Fe deficiency by inhibiting Fe absorption. We tested these hypotheses by measuring Fe concentration and relative bioavailable Fe content of 12 samples of geophagic earth and 4 samples of pure clay minerals. Further, we assessed the impact of these samples on the bioavailability of Fe from an Fe-rich test meal (cooked white beans, WB). Fe concentrations were measured with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Fe bioavailability was determined using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model in which ferritin formation was used as an index of Fe bioavailability. Geophagic earth and clay mineral samples were evaluated with this model, both alone and in combination with WB (1 : 16 ratio, sample : WB). Median Fe concentration of the geophagic earth was 3485 (IQR 2462, 14 ,571) μg g⁻¹ and mean Fe concentration in the clay minerals was 2791 (±1782) μg g⁻¹. All specimens had Fe concentrations significantly higher (p ≤ 0.005) than the Fe concentration of WB (77 μg g⁻¹). Ferritin formation (i.e. Fe uptake) in cells exposed to geophagic earths and clay minerals was significantly lower than in cells exposed to WB (p ≤ 0.05) and Fe uptake responses of 11 of the 16 samples were not significantly different from the blank, indicating no bioavailable Fe. When samples were combined with WB, 5 of 16 had mean ferritin levels that were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05, one tail) than the WB alone, indicating that the samples inhibited Fe uptake from the WB. None of the ferritin responses of cells exposed to both WB and earth/clay were significantly higher than WB alone. Thus, although geophagic earths and mineral clays are high in total Fe, very little of this Fe is bioavailable. Further, some

  15. Lysosomal responses to different gold forms (nanoparticles, aqueous, bulk) in mussel digestive cells: a trade-off between the toxicity of the capping agent and form, size and exposure concentration. (United States)

    Jimeno-Romero, A; Izagirre, U; Gilliland, D; Warley, A; Cajaraville, M P; Marigómez, I; Soto, M


    Gold nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used in technological materials and consumer products and may have toxicological characteristics distinct from bulk and aqueous gold. The aim of this work was to understand the effects of Au NPs especially, how the form, the size and the coating influence bioaccumulation/biodistribution and toxicity of NPs in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed for 3 d to concentrations of Au (0.75, 75 and 750 μg Au/l) supplied as Au-Cit NPs (5 and 40 nm; Au5-Cit and Au40-Cit), bulk and aqueous Au (HAu(III)Cl 4 ), and to the capping agent (Na-citrate) in doses used in the formulation of NPs (0.005, 0.5, 5 mg/l). Citrate-stabilised NPs formed stable suspensions of aggregates in seawater (SW) available for mussels. Au accumulation in soft tissues was similar in Au40-Cit and aqueous Au exposed mussels, lower in Au5-Cit and negligible after bulk exposure. Au NPs were identified (X-ray microanalysis) in different compartments of the endolysosomal system in digestive cells, and small size NPs (5 nm) were more accumulated than 40 nm NPs, aqueous and bulk. The degree of lysosomal membrane destabilisation was related with intralysosomal metal accumulation and depended on the form, NP size (Au5-Cit > Au40-Cit > aqueous > bulk) and concentration. Citrate alone provoked extreme reduction in lysosomal membrane stability. Toxicopathic alterations were recorded in digestive gland cells (vacuolisation, swollen RER, connective tissue disruption and cell death) especially in mussels exposed to 40 nm NPs. Deleterious effects resulted from digestive tract obliteration (agglomerates) and digestion malfunction. The toxic effect of Au-Cit NPs was influenced both by NP size, capping agent composition and the dose of capping agent carried by NPs, which was size dependent.

  16. Digestibility of the same

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    energy feeding system which was introduced in the Nether- lands and other European countries in 1978, derives the. ME-contents of feed from digestibility data obtained using sheep (Van Es, Vermorel and Bickel, 1978). On the other hand, in the USA, data on digestibility or metab- olizability of feeds from sheep trials are ...

  17. Degradation of blood in the human digestive tract (United States)

    Mørup, Steen; Johansen, Claus


    Samples of human faeces from patients suffering from intestinal bleeding have been studied by use of Mössbauer spectroscopy. It is shown that it is possible to follow the degradation of blood in the digestive tract.

  18. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms]. (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie


    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  19. Nutrient and Total Polyphenol Contents of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables, and Estimation of Their Iron Bioaccessibility Using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kweku Amagloh


    Full Text Available Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweet potato cultivars, including three orange-fleshed types, with other commonly consumed DGLVs in Ghana: cocoyam, corchorus, baobab, kenaf and moringa, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Moringa had the highest numbers of iron absorption enhancers on an “as-would-be-eaten” basis, β-carotene (14169 μg/100 g; p < 0.05 and ascorbic acid (46.30 mg/100 g; p < 0.001, and the best iron bioaccessibility (10.28 ng ferritin/mg protein. Baobab and an orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves had a lower iron bioaccessibility (6.51 and 6.76 ng ferritin/mg protein, respectively compared with that of moringa, although these three greens contained similar (p > 0.05 iron (averaging 4.18 mg/100 g and β-carotene levels. The ascorbic acid concentration of 25.50 mg/100 g in the cooked baobab did not enhance the iron bioaccessibility. Baobab and the orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves contained the highest levels of total polyphenols (1646.75 and 506.95 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/100 g, respectively; p < 0.001. This suggests that iron bioaccessibility in greens cannot be inferred based on the mineral concentration. Based on the similarity of the iron bioaccessibility of the sweet potato leaves and cocoyam leaf (a widely-promoted “nutritious” DGLV in Ghana, the former greens have an added advantage of increasing the dietary intake of provitamin A.

  20. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, blood profile, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions in growing pigs. (United States)

    Li, Jian; Kim, In H


    A total of 105 growing pigs (24.91 ± 1.06 kg) were used in a 6-week trial to investigate the effects of including Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract (SPE) in the diet on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions. Pigs were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments (seven pens/treatment, five pigs/pen) according to initial body weight and sex (two gilts and three barrows). Treatments consisted of a corn soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.05 or 0.10% SPE. There was a significant linear improvement (P  0.05) affected by SPE supplementation in the diets. In conclusion, results indicate that dietary SPE supplementation can improve growth performance, digestibility and fecal microbiota, and decrease fecal gas emissions in growing pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Methane from Syngas by Anaerobic Digestion


    Shah, Sanjay; Bergland, Wenche Hennie; Bakke, Rune


    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a prominent green technology used for methane production from organic waste. Previous studies have shown that the amount of CH4 produced during anaerobic digestion can be increased by adding inorganic electron donors such as H2 and CO, both which can be produced as syngas from wood. Syngas inflow is implemented in the ADM1 model and simulations are carried out with different syngas additions to a well-documented case of wastewater treatment plant sludge AD. Three d...

  2. Ineffective Degradation of Immunogenic Gluten Epitopes by Currently Available Digestive Enzyme Supplements (United States)

    Janssen, George; Christis, Chantal; Kooy-Winkelaar, Yvonne; Edens, Luppo; Smith, Drew


    Background Due to the high proline content of gluten molecules, gastrointestinal proteases are unable to fully degrade them leaving large proline-rich gluten fragments intact, including an immunogenic 33-mer from α-gliadin and a 26-mer from γ-gliadin. These latter peptides can trigger pro-inflammatory T cell responses resulting in tissue remodeling, malnutrition and a variety of other complications. A strict lifelong gluten-free diet is currently the only available treatment to cope with gluten intolerance. Post-proline cutting enzymes have been shown to effectively degrade the immunogenic gluten peptides and have been proposed as oral supplements. Several existing digestive enzyme supplements also claim to aid in gluten degradation. Here we investigate the effectiveness of such existing enzyme supplements in comparison with a well characterized post-proline cutting enzyme, Prolyl EndoPeptidase from Aspergillus niger (AN-PEP). Methods Five commercially available digestive enzyme supplements along with purified digestive enzymes were subjected to 1) enzyme assays and 2) mass spectrometric identification. Gluten epitope degradation was monitored by 1) R5 ELISA, 2) mass spectrometric analysis of the degradation products and 3) T cell proliferation assays. Findings The digestive enzyme supplements showed comparable proteolytic activities with near neutral pH optima and modest gluten detoxification properties as determined by ELISA. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of many different enzymes including amylases and a variety of different proteases with aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase activity. The enzyme supplements leave the nine immunogenic epitopes of the 26-mer and 33-mer gliadin fragments largely intact. In contrast, the pure enzyme AN-PEP effectively degraded all nine epitopes in the pH range of the stomach at much lower dose. T cell proliferation assays confirmed the mass spectrometric data. Conclusion Currently available digestive enzyme

  3. Your Digestive System (For Kids) (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Digestive System KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Digestive System What's in ... the flush we were talking about! Dig That Digestive System You can help your digestive system by drinking ...

  4. Expression of S-adenosylmethionine Hydrolase in Tissues Synthesizing Secondary Cell Walls Alters Specific Methylated Cell Wall Fractions and Improves Biomass Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymerick Eudes


    Full Text Available Plant biomass is a large source of fermentable sugars for the synthesis of bioproducts using engineered microbes. These sugars are stored as cell wall polymers, mainly cellulose and hemicellulose, and are embedded with lignin, which makes their enzymatic hydrolysis challenging. One of the strategies to reduce cell wall recalcitrance is the modification of lignin content and composition. Lignin is a phenolic polymer of methylated aromatic alcohols and its synthesis in tissues developing secondary cell walls is a significant sink for the consumption of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet. In this study, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis stems that targeted expression of S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (AdoMetase, E.C. in secondary cell-wall synthesizing tissues reduces the AdoMet pool and impacts lignin content and composition. In particular, both NMR analysis and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry of lignin in engineered biomass showed relative enrichment of non-methylated p-hydroxycinnamyl (H units and a reduction of dimethylated syringyl (S units. This indicates a lower degree of methylation compared to that in wild-type lignin. Quantification of cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamates revealed a reduction of ferulate in AdoMetase transgenic lines. Biomass from transgenic lines, in contrast to that in control plants, exhibits an enrichment of glucose content and a reduction in the degree of hemicellulose glucuronoxylan methylation. We also show that these modifications resulted in a reduction of cell wall recalcitrance, because sugar yield generated by enzymatic biomass saccharification was greater than that of wild type plants. Considering that transgenic plants show no important diminution of biomass yields, and that heterologous expression of AdoMetase protein can be spatiotemporally optimized, this novel approach provides a valuable option for the improvement of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock.

  5. A fuzzy logic approach to control anaerobic digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domnanovich, A.M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Pfeiffer, B.; Karlovits, M.; Zani, L.; Braun, R.; Holubar, P.


    One of the goals of the EU-Project AMONCO (Advanced Prediction, Monitoring and Controlling of Anaerobic Digestion Process Behaviour towards Biogas Usage in Fuel Cells) is to create a control tool for the anaerobic digestion process, which predicts the volumetric organic loading rate (Bv) for the

  6. Digestion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Useni , Alain

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) on the ruminal disappearance of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), crude protein (CP) and on the microbial ... 65% of the fibrous plant cell walls are efficiently digested in the total digestive tract of ruminants (Van. Soest ...

  7. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  8. Steam Digest 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Steam Digest 2002 is a collection of articles published in the last year on steam system efficiency. DOE directly or indirectly facilitated the publication of the articles through it's BestPractices Steam effort. Steam Digest 2002 provides a variety of operational, design, marketing, and program and program assessment observations. Plant managers, engineers, and other plant operations personnel can refer to the information to improve industrial steam system management, efficiency, and performance.

  9. Digester Design Using CFD (United States)

    Woloshyn, Jennifer; Oshinowo, Lanre; Rosten, John

    In the Bayer process, dissolution of gibbsite and kaolinite occur in the digester train. Understanding the hydrodynamics of the digester is key to improving the extent of dissolution, and thus the extraction of alumina and re-precipitation of silica. Deviation from ideal plug flow results in a miscalculation of the slurry retention time. The outcome may be a loss of undigested alumina to the red mud with a consequent reduction in extraction efficiency.

  10. MALDI-TOF MS and CE-LIF Fingerprinting of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharide Digests as a Screening Tool for Arabidopsis Cell Wall Mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westphal, Y.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Gruppen, H.


    Cell wall materials derived from leaves and hypocotyls of Arabidopsis mutant and wild type plants have been incubated with a mixture of pure and well-defined pectinases, hemicellulases, and cellulases. The resulting oligosaccharides have been subjected to MALDI-TOF MS and CE-LIF analysis. MALDI-TOF

  11. Pressurized wet digestion in open vessels (T11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettisch, P.; Maichin, P.; Zischka, M.; Knapp, G.


    Full text: Pressurized wet digestion in closed vessels, microwave assisted or with conventional conductive heating, is the most important sample preparation technique for digestion or leaching procedures in element analysis. In comparison to open vessel digestion closed vessel digestion methods have many advantages, but there is one disadvantage - complex and expensive vessel designs. A new technique - pressurized wet digestion in open vessels - combine the advantages of closed vessel sample digestion with the application of simple and cheap open vessels made of quartz or PFA. The vessels are placed in a high pressure Asher HPA, which is adapted with a Teflon liner and filled partly with water. The analytical results with 30 ml quartz vessels, 22 ml PFA vessels and 1.5 ml PIA auto sampler cups will be shown. In principle every dimensions of vessels can be used. The vessels are loaded with sample material (max. 1.5 g with quartz vessels, max. 0.5 g with PFA vessels and 50 mg with auto sampler cups) and digestion reagent. Afterwards the vessels are simply covered with PTFE stoppers and not sealed. The vessels are transferred into a special adapted HPA and digested at temperatures up to 270 o C. The digestion time is 90 min. and cooling down to room temperature 30 min. The analytical results of CRM's are within the certified values and no cross contamination and losses of volatile elements could be observed. (author)

  12. Microflora of hydrobionts digestive tract in Kaunas water storage reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyvokiene, J.; Mickiene, L.; Mileriene, E.


    Microbiological and ichthiological investigations carried out in 1990 and 1992 showed the variability of bacterial cenoses in the digestive tract of hydrobionts before and after setting in motion Kruonis hydro pumped storage. The studies also showed that microorganisms of the digestive tract of the hydrobionts investigated were involved in the degradation of nutritional substrates and could serve as indicators of an anthropogenic effect. Before setting in motion the hydro pumped storage hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (HDB) were detected in the digestive tract of the freshwater shrimps, opossum shrimps, sticklebacks, zebra mussels and roaches. The greatest number of HDB was found in the digestive tract of the roach while in perches they were not detected. However after setting in motion the hydro pumped storage , high numbers of HDB were determined in the digestive tracts of all the hydrobionts investigated. It has been shown that the function of bacterial digestion is conditioned not only by the nutrition specificity of the macroorganism, but on its environment as well. With the aid of enzymes secreted by microorganisms organic compounds difficult to assimilate are transformed into valuable nutrients. Besides, the functional activity of microorganisms of the digestive tract of the hydrobionts indicate the intensity of the digestive process and physiological state of their organism. Therefore, when investigating fish stocks in hydrosystems one must evaluate inner resources of their organism, i.e. functional activities and the activity of digestive tract microorganisms, their quantitative and qualitative composition, relationship with the macroorganism, its growth rate and environment. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  13. Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance. (United States)

    Savaiano, Dennis A


    Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose because the bacteria inherent in yogurt assist with its digestion. The bacterial lactase survives the acidic conditions of the stomach, apparently being physically protected within the bacterial cells and facilitated by the buffering capacity of yogurt. The increasing pH as the yogurt enters the small intestine and a slower gastrointestinal transit time allow the bacterial lactase to be active, digesting lactose from yogurt sufficiently to prevent symptoms in lactose-intolerant people. There is little difference in the lactase capability of different commercial yogurts, because they apparently contain Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in sufficient quantities (10(8) bacteria/mL). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to require cell membrane disruption to physically release the lactase. Compared with unflavored yogurts, flavored yogurts appear to exhibit somewhat reduced lactase activity but are still well tolerated.

  14. Waste volume reduction by acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Divine, J.R.


    Acid digestion is a process being developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington, to reduce the volume of alpha-contaminated combustible waste by converting it into a non-combustible residue. Typical waste materials such as polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene, paper and other cellulosic materials, ion exchange resin, all types of rubber, etc., are digested in hot (230 0 C--270 0 C) concentrated sulfuric acid containing nitric acid oxidant to form inert residues generally having less than four percent of their original volume and less than twenty-five percent of their original mass. The process is currently being tested using non-radioactive waste in an Acid Digestion Test Unit (ADTU) with all glass equipment. Engineering tests to date have shown acid digestion to be a potentially attractive method for treating combustible waste materials. Based on results of the engineering tests, an acid digestion pilot unit capable of treating radioactive wastes is being designed and constructed. Design capacity of the pilot unit for radioactive waste will be 100 kg of waste per day. (U.S.)

  15. Gastrointestinal physiology and digestive disorders in sleep. (United States)

    Kanaly, Travis; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Vaughn, Bradley V


    The dynamic interplay of the digestive system and sleep is an excellent example of brain-body interaction. New advances in measuring techniques provide an opportunity to evaluate physiology that is dependent upon the sleep/wake state or circadian rhythm and potentially differentiate between normal and pathological conditions. Sleep-related changes in gastrointestinal physiology create vulnerabilities to digestive issues such as reflux, whereas disorders such as duodenal ulcers raise the importance of circadian variations in digestive system function. Advances in the area of normal sleep physiology have furthered our understanding of the underlying cause of irritable bowel syndrome, and the mechanisms by which sleep disruption may aggravate inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, important early work has shown that the treatment of digestive disorders such as reflux can improve sleep quality just as the improvement in sleep may aid in the treatment of digestive disorders. For the clinician, these forward steps in our knowledge mark the start of an era in which understanding the effects of the sleep/wake state and circadian rhythms on gastrointestinal physiology promise to yield novel diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

  16. Changes in cell-type composition in digestive gland of slugs and its influence in biomarkers following transplantation between a relatively unpolluted and a chronically metal-polluted site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaldibar, B.; Cancio, I.; Soto, M.; Marigomez, I.


    Changes in cell-type composition (CCTC) is a general phenomenon that takes place in the digestive gland epithelium of stressed molluscs. The aim of the present work was to determine whether CCTC is a reversible process in the digestive gland of sentinel slugs chronically exposed to metal pollution and how CCTC affects metal accumulation parameters and different cell and tissue biomarkers of exposure and effect. Slugs (Arion ater) from an abandoned zinc mine were transferred to a relatively unpolluted site and the other way around for 3, 10 and 28 d. The volume density of black silver deposits (Vv BSD ) after autometallography, and metallothionein (MT) levels were used as biomarkers of exposure to metals and CCTC and lysosomal responses were selected as effect biomarkers. Results indicated that slugs were sensitive to recent metal pollution; however, slugs chronically exposed to metals presented some characteristic features and were less responsive to pollution cessation without signs of CCTC reversal. - Cell and tissue-level biomarkers in slugs after recent and chronic metal pollution

  17. The digestive system of the stony coral Stylophora pistillata. (United States)

    Raz-Bahat, M; Douek, J; Moiseeva, E; Peters, E C; Rinkevich, B


    Because hermatypic species use symbiotic algal photosynthesis, most of the literature in this field focuses on this autotrophic mode and very little research has studied the morphology of the coral's digestive system or the digestion process of particulate food. Using histology and histochemestry, our research reveals that Stylophora pistillata's digestive system is concentrated at the corals' peristome, actinopharynx and mesenterial filaments (MF). We used in-situ hybridization (ISH) of the RNA transcript of the gene that codes for the S. pistillata digestive enzyme, chymotrypsinogen, to shed light on the functionality of the digestive system. Both the histochemistry and the ISH pointed to the MF being specialized digestive organs, equipped with large numbers of acidophilic and basophilic granular gland cells, as well as acidophilic non-granular gland cells, some of which produce chymotrypsinogen. We identified two types of MF: short, trilobed MF and unilobed, long and convoluted MF. Each S. pistillata polyp harbors two long convoluted MF and 10 short MF. While the short MF have neither secreting nor stinging cells, each of the convoluted MF display gradual cytological changes along their longitudinal axis, alternating between stinging and secreting cells and three distinctive types of secretory cells. These observations indicate the important digestive role of the long convoluted MF. They also indicate the existence of novel feeding compartments in the gastric cavity of the polyp, primarily in the nutritionally active peristome, in the actinopharynx and in three regions of the MF that differ from each other in their cellular components, general morphology and chymotrypsinogen excretion.

  18. Microbial stress mediated intercellular nanotubes in an anaerobic microbial consortium digesting cellulose. (United States)

    John, Martina; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Zhou, Yan; Ng, Wun Jern


    The anaerobic digestion process is a multi - step reaction dependent on concerted activities such as exchange of metabolites among physiologically different microbial communities. This study investigated the impact of iron oxide nanoparticles on the anaerobic sludge microbiota. It was shown there were three distinct microbial phases following addition of the nanoparticles: microbial stress and cell death of approximately one log order of magnitude, followed by microbial rewiring, and recovery. Furthermore, it was noted that cellular stress led to the establishment of intercellular nanotubes within the microbial biomass. Intercellular nanotube - mediated communication among genetically engineered microorganisms and ad hoc assembled co - cultures have been previously reported. This study presents evidence of intercellular nanotube formation within an environmental sample - i.e., anaerobic sludge microbiota subjected to stress. Our observations suggested a mode of microbial communication in the anaerobic digestion process not previously explored and which may have implications on bioreactor design and microbial functions.

  19. Electrochemical monitoring of ammonia during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    Ammonia is known as key inhibitor to methanogens in anaerobic digestion (AD) process. It’s of importance to develop efficient tool for ammonia monitoring. In this study, an electrolysis cell (EC) coupled with a complete nitrification reactor was developed as sensor for real time and online......-rich digesters. It was observed that the initial transient currents (0 min) were linearly corresponding to the ammonia levels (from 0 to 95.75 mg/L NH4+-N, R2 = 0.9673). Finally, this new sensor was tested with real AD effluent and the results showed no significant difference with that measured by conventional...

  20. Betaine improved restriction digestion. (United States)

    Sugimoto, Keiki; Makihara, Tohru; Saito, Aya; Ohishi, Nobuya; Nagase, Takahide; Takai, Daiya


    Here we report that supplementation of a common compound betaine (1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethylmethanaminium inner salt) enhances restriction digestion of DNA molecules being resistant to digestion despite the existence of recognition sites. A previous study reported total isostabilization of DNA was achieved in the presence of 5.2M of betaine, however, we have observed the enhancement of restriction kinetics at 0.3M of betaine, therefore, it likely provided some catalytic proficiency to restriction enzymes rather than the induction of DNA conformational changes. Betaine also enhances catalytic efficiency of PCR, and our result of restriction digestion, taken together, suggests potential application of betaine in other enzymatic reactions in an aqueous solution.

  1. Anaerobic digestion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.


    Centralized biogas plants (CBP) in Denmark codigest mainly manure, together with other organic waste such as industrial organic waste, source sorted household waste and sewage sludge. Today 22 large scale CBP's are in operation in Denmark and in 2001 they treated approx. 1.2 mio tonnes of manure ...... comprises about 80% of this potential. Special emphasis has been paid to establish good sanitation and pathogen reduction of the digested material, to avoid risk of spreading pathogens when applying the digested manure as fertilizer to agricultural soils....

  2. Effects of Aging on the Digestive System (United States)

    ... Content Medical News Effects of Aging on the Digestive System By Atenodoro R. Ruiz, Jr., MD, Consultant, Section ... Digestive System (See also Overview of the Digestive System .) Because the digestive system has a lot of reserve built into ...

  3. Steam Digest: Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  4. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  5. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    digestibility, or the contribution of endogenous protein to the indigestible feed .... endogenous protein fractions. Alternatively, Stern & Satter (1984) suggested a method whereby the increased protein outflow to the small intestine, resulting from the incremental addition of ..... definition of the various protein fractions. Finally ...

  6. Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch


    The Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest presents the many facets of riparian research at the station. Included are articles about protecting the riparian habitat, the social and economic values of riparian environments, watershed restoration, remote sensing tools, and getting kids interested in the science.

  7. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)


    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  8. Problems of the Digestive System (United States)

    ... ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ120 WOMEN’S HEALTH Problems of the Digestive System • What are some common digestive problems? • What is ... of hormones during pregnancy can slow down the digestive system. How can constipation be treated? If constipation continues, ...

  9. Antioxidant capacity of broccoli sprouts subjected to gastrointestinal digestion. (United States)

    Rychlik, Joanna; Olejnik, Anna; Olkowicz, Mariola; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Juzwa, Wojciech; Myszka, Kamila; Dembczyński, Radosław; Moyer, Mary Pat; Grajek, Włodzimierz


    Broccoli is a common vegetable recognized as a rich source of antioxidants. To date, research on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, predominantly conducted on extracts, has not considered the lesions of composition and this activity after gastrointestinal digestion. Here the stability of antioxidants during gastrointestinal digestion was evaluated in conjunction with the protective effects of broccoli sprouts (BS) against oxidative stress in human colon cells. The obtained data suggest that, among the biocompounds identified in BS, glucosinolates were mainly degraded under gastrointestinal digestion, while phenolics, particularly hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, were the most resistant constituents. The antioxidant capacity of BS extract subjected to gastrointestinal digestion was similar to or higher than that determined for non-digested BS. Gastrointestinal digested BS extract exhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inhibitory capacity in NCM460 human colon cells, with 1 mg mL(-1) showing an ROS clearance of 76.59%. A 57.33% reduction in oxidative DNA damage in NCM460 cells due to treatment with digested BS extract was observed. The results lend support to the possible application of BS as a rich source of antioxidants to improve the defensive system against oxidative stress in the human colon mucosa. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Methods of ammonia removal in anaerobic digestion: a review. (United States)

    Krakat, Niclas; Demirel, Burak; Anjum, Reshma; Dietz, Donna


    The anaerobic digestion of substrates with high ammonia content has always been a bottleneck in the methanisation process of biomasses. Since microbial communities in anaerobic digesters are sensitive to free ammonia at certain conditions, the digestion of nitrogen-rich substrates such as livestock wastes may result in inhibition/toxicity eventually leading to process failures, unless appropriate engineering precautions are taken. There are many different options reported in literature to remove ammonia from anaerobic digesters to achieve a safe and stable process so that along with high methane yields, a good quality of effluents can also be obtained. Conventional techniques to remove ammonia include physical/chemical methods, immobilization and adaptation of microorganisms, while novel methods include ultrasonication, microwave, hollow fiber membranes and microbial fuel cell applications. This paper discusses conventional and novel methods of ammonia removal from anaerobic digesters using nitrogen-rich substrates, with particular focus on recent literature available about this topic.

  11. Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program. (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

  12. Chromatin influence on the function and formation of the nuclear envelope shown by laser-induced psoralen photoreaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.P.; Berns, M.W.


    Potorous tridactylis (PTK 2 ) cells growing in culture were treated with psoralen derivatives and dividing cells were located by phase-contrast microscopy. Psoralens, light-sensitive DNA-photoadducting drugs, were reacted with mitotic chromosomes through exposure to 365-nm light from an argon laser micro-beam system. It was shown that following mitosis and photoreaction, cells without nuclear envelopes were produced when psoralen-treated cells received 60 light pulses over their entire chromosome complement. These 'non-nuclear membrane' cells were found to incorporate [ 3 H]uridine, and to a lesser extent, [ 3 H]thymidine by autoradiography. Reduction of the light exposure by half (30 near-u.v. pulses) over the entire chromosome complement in the presence of psoralen also produced non-nuclear-membrane cells as seen by light microscopy. Further examination of these cells (30 light pulses) by single-cell electron microscopy revealed that unlike the high light exposure (60 near-u.v. pulses), the low light dosage resulted in cells with membrane patches associated with their chromatin. Since neither actinomycin D nor cycloheximide impeded nuclear envelope reformation, the psoralen-DNA reaction is concluded to produce non-nuclear membrane by a mechanism other than transcription or translation inhibition. The association of Golgi with areas of nuclear membrane patches gives indirect evidence of a possible Golgi contribution to the reformation of the nuclear envelope after mitosis. It is concluded that DNA plays a role in envelope reformation. (author)

  13. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini


    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occurred in the Danish full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically formatted in the main biogas reactor or in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam....... Moreover, foaming presents adverse environmental impacts owing to the overflowing of the pre-storage or digester tanks. So far, there has never been thoroughly investigation of foaming problem in manure-based digester, which is the main anaerobic digestion applied in Denmark. The purpose of the present...... study was to identify potential causes of foaming in manure based digesters. Moreover, it was also an aim to investigate possible solutions to counteract foam formation with the use of antifoam agents. Thus, the impact of organic loading rate and content of feeding substrate on anaerobic digestion...

  14. Ultrastructure of the digestive tract in Acarus siro (Acari: Acaridida)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šobotník, Jan; Alberti, G.; Weyda, František; Hubert, J.


    Roč. 269, č. 1 (2008), s. 54-71 ISSN 0362-2525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : peritrophic membrane * spherite cells * digestive cells * regenerative cells * postcolonic diverticula Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.702, year: 2008

  15. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes


    Ganidi, Nafsika


    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  16. Power plant instrumentation and control. Innovations shown at the Interkama '99 trade fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullemeyer, M.; Fritz, P.


    At the Interkama '99 trade fair, innovative software and hardware solutions for the power industry 'from power plant to the plug' were shown. The report mentions the companies and explains their new developments and systems. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Perfil químico da parede celular e suas implicações na digestibilidade de Brachiaria brizantha e Brachiaria humidicola Chemical profile of cell wall and its implications on Brachiaria brizantha and Brachiaria humidicola digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio José F. Alves de Brito


    brizantha and Brachiaria humidicola fractions were determined after 70 days of growth. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replications for each specie. According to the position, the harvested plants were subdivided into top, median and bottom fractions for leaves and median and basal fractions for stems. The concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP, lignin, p_coumaric acid, ferulic acid, neutral sugars (glucose, xylose and arabinose and in situ digestibility with 48-hour rumen digestion were determined. The several fractions of species studied showed different chemical composition, whose effects were observed in digestibility. B. brizantha recorded greater NDF concentration in stems and CP in leaves. This resulted in higher digestibility coefficients compared to B. humidicola. The digestibility differences between stem and leaves and in older fractions may be related to the type of lignin condensation present in tissues. The evidences found in p_coumaric and ferulic acid rates and concentrations suggest this association. The fenolic acid concentration was better related to dry matter digestibility, whereas lignin with NDF digestibility. This analysis may constitute an important tool to evaluate lignin condensation in cell wall of different forages. The neutral sugars showed no definite deposition pattern in a varied of tissues. Arabinose was the only sugar associated to dry matter digestibility and fenolic acid concentration.

  18. Carnivorous plants: trapping, digesting and absorbing all in one. (United States)

    Brownlee, Colin


    The Venus flytrap digests and absorbs its prey, but how does it coordinate digestion and absorption to maximise the efficiency of this highly evolved mechanism? A new study that combines direct recordings from cells within the trap along with molecular characterization of nutrient transport reveals a complex and coordinated suite of mechanisms that underlie this elegant process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. COMPARATIVE GUT PHYSIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Comparative physiology of digestion. (United States)

    Furness, J B; Cottrell, J J; Bravo, D M


    The digestive systems of all species have been shaped by environmental pressures over long evolutionary time spans. Nevertheless, all digestive systems must achieve the same end points, the ingestion of biological material and its conversion to molecules that serve as energy substrates and structural components of tissues. A range of strategies to extract nutrients, including for animals reliant primarily on foregut fermentation, hindgut fermentation, and enzymatic degradation, have evolved. Moreover, animals have adapted to different foodstuffs as herbivores (including frugivores, folivores, granivores, etc.), carnivores, and omnivores. We present evidence that humans have diverged from other omnivores because of the long history of consumption of cooked or otherwise prepared food. We consider them to be cucinivores. We present examples to illustrate that the range of foodstuffs that can be efficiently assimilated by each group or species is limited and is different from that of other groups or species. Differences are reflected in alimentary tract morphology. The digestive systems of each group and of species within the groups are adaptable, with constraints determined by individual digestive physiology. Although overall digestive strategies and systems differ, the building blocks for digestion are remarkably similar. All vertebrates have muscular tubular tracts lined with a single layer of epithelial cells for most of the length, use closely related digestive enzymes and transporters, and control the digestive process through similar hormones and similarly organized nerve pathways. Extrapolations among species that are widely separated in their digestive physiologies are possible when the basis for extrapolation is carefully considered. Divergence is greatest at organ or organismal levels, and similarities are greatest at the cell and molecular level.

  20. Evidence for validity of ileal digestibility coefficients in monogastrics. (United States)

    Columbus, Daniel; de Lange, Cornelis F M


    Measures of amino acid (AA) digestibility are used widely to estimate bioavailability of AA in feed and food ingredients for monogastric animals. In principle, the digestibility assay is simpler than in vivo assessments of AA bioavailability and allows for simultaneous estimation of the bioavailability of all AA in an experimental diet. It is generally assumed that absorption of intact AA in the hindgut of monogastrics is minimal, even though colonocytes do contain AA transporters and have been shown to absorb AA. This assumption is supported by the observation that infusion of AA into the hindgut does not improve nitrogen balance in monogastrics. In addition, growth performance of monogastrics is more highly correlated with ileal than faecal AA digestibility. Therefore, ileal digestibility coefficients provide better estimates of AA bioavailability than faecal digestibility coefficients. Measures of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA are confounded with endogenous gut AA losses (EAAL). The curvilinear increase in AID of AA with increasing dietary AA level has been attributed to the relatively large contribution of EAAL to total ileal AA flows at low dietary AA levels. Subtracting basal EAAL from total ileal AA flows yields standardized ileal digestibility (SID) coefficients that appear to be more additive than AID coefficients in mixtures of feed ingredients. An implicit assumption when using SID AA coefficients in diet formulation is that the post-absorptive utilization of AA is not influenced by the dietary protein source. This assumption appears inappropriate when using feed or food ingredients that have been over-heated, induce large amounts of EAAL, or contain substantial amounts of fermentable fibre. Improved understanding of processes that contribute to the discrepancy between bioavailability and ileal digestibility will allow a more effective use of AA digestibility coefficients in diet formulation.

  1. Structure and function of the digestive system of solen grandis dunker (United States)

    Xiuzhen, Sheng; Wenbin, Zhan; Sulian, Ren


    Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing. Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

  2. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)


    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  3. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in... connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under consideration, all available service department films and...

  4. What Are We Drinking? Beverages Shown in Adolescents' Favorite Television Shows. (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Larson, Nicole I; Gollust, Sarah E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne


    Media use has been shown to contribute to poor dietary intake; however, little attention has been paid to programming content. The portrayal of health behaviors in television (TV) programming contributes to social norms among viewers, which have been shown to influence adolescent behavior. This study reports on a content analysis of beverages shown in a sample of TV shows popular with a large, diverse group of adolescents, with attention to the types of beverages and differences across shows and characters. Favorite TV shows were assessed in an in-school survey in 2010. Three episodes of each of the top 25 shows were analyzed, using a detailed coding instrument. Beverage incidents (ie, beverage shown or described) were recorded. Beverage types included milk, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), diet beverages, juice, water, alcoholic drinks, and coffee. Characters were coded with regard to gender, age group, race, and weight status. Shows were rated for a youth, general, or adult audience. χ 2 tests were used to compare the prevalence of each type of beverage across show ratings (youth, general, adult), and to compare characteristics of those involved in each type of beverage incident. Beverage incidents were common (mean=7.4 incidents/episode, range=0 to 25). Alcohol was the most commonly shown (38.8%); milk (5.8%) and juice (5.8%) were least common; 11.0% of incidents included SSBs. Significant differences in all types of beverage were found across characters' age groups. Almost half of young adults' (49.2%) or adults' (42.0%) beverage incidents included alcohol. Beverages are often portrayed on TV shows viewed by adolescents, and common beverages (alcohol, SSBs) may have adverse consequences for health. The portrayal of these beverages likely contributes to social norms regarding their desirability; nutrition and health professionals should talk with youth about TV portrayals to prevent the adoption of unhealthy beverage behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Academy of

  5. Digestibility of nutrients and aspects of the digestive physiology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greater cane rat, Thryonomys swinderianus, utilizes high fibrous plant material and is an important meat source in West Africa. An insight in its digestive physiology will enhance our understanding of its feeding habits. Digestibility coefficients of the food were determined during two seasons before the animals were ...

  6. Adult education as information and help in forming opinions shown from the example of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, W.; Markus, B.; Dietrich, T.; Schmitt Glaeser, W.


    The lectures printed here, partly in revised form, were given at a University meeting for teachers in adult education on July 9th and 10th 1976 in Bayreuth, with the main theme of 'Adult education as information and help in forming opinions shown from the subject of nuclear power'. It should be shown by examples related to this problem, which urgently requires more objectivity, and which will be freed of emotional opinions with extraordinary difficulty, how complex such objects can be and how many different aspects have to be taken into account. The grouping of scientific referees, a teacher, a nuclear physicist, a radiation biologist and a lawyer, makes the plurality of the aspects quite clear. Themes: 1) The contribution of adult education to de-idealogising the population, 2) The scientific and technical basis of generation and use of nuclear power, 3)Radiation stresses of living organismus, particularly human being. 4) Smug authorities, protesting citizens, overload judges. (GL) [de

  7. Carcinoids tumors of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, S.M.R. de; Prais, M.; Matushita, J.P.K.; Matushita, J.S.


    Eighteen cases of carcinoid tumors in the digestive tract have been analyzed. They have been selected at Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, taking into account patients, age and sex, lesions' location and size, clinical manifestations, presence of metastases as well as a classical carcinoid syndrome establisment. Carcinoid tumors come from the digestive tract 'argenta fim'' cells, the ones which produce endocrines. Such endocrines are responsible for a great number of clinical manifestations. The classical syndrome is directly related to the presence of hepatic metastases. The authors propose to correlate what has been found with descriptions in medical literature emphasizing the radiographic aspects which have been observed. A frequent ''apendicular'' location and the difficulty of giving a precise diagnosis before surgery is also emphasized. (author) [pt

  8. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion. (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-Ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-He; Yang, Hai-Ying; Chen, Li-Shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties.

  9. Legal drug content in music video programs shown on Australian television on saturday mornings. (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca; Croager, Emma; Pratt, Iain S; Khoo, Natalie


    To examine the extent to which legal drug references (alcohol and tobacco) are present in the music video clips shown on two music video programs broadcast in Australia on Saturday mornings. Further, to examine the music genres in which the references appeared and the dominant messages associated with the references. Music video clips shown on the music video programs 'Rage' (ABC TV) and [V] 'Music Video Chart' (Channel [V]) were viewed over 8 weeks from August 2011 to October 2011 and the number of clips containing verbal and/or visual drug references in each program was counted. The songs were classified by genre and the dominant messages associated with drug references were also classified and analysed. A considerable proportion of music videos (approximately one-third) contained drug references. Alcohol featured in 95% of the music videos that contained drug references. References to alcohol generally associated it with fun and humour, and alcohol and tobacco were both overwhelmingly presented in contexts that encouraged, rather than discouraged, their use. In Australia, Saturday morning is generally considered a children's television viewing timeslot, and several broadcaster Codes of Practice dictate that programs shown on Saturday mornings must be appropriate for viewing by audiences of all ages. Despite this, our findings show that music video programs aired on Saturday mornings contain a considerable level of drug-related content.

  10. Children and Grief. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy

    Noting that the death of a loved one brings grief to children as well as adults, this Digest draws on research to examine how children respond to death and the role of parents and teachers in helping children cope with loss. The Digest delineates children's "tasks" during mourning that are essential to their adjustment to loss, such as…

  11. Use of selective digestive tract decontamination in European intensive cares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis Miranda, D; Citerio, G; Perner, A


    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that the use of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) reduces mortality. However, fear for increasing multi drug resistance might prevent wide acceptance. A survey was performed among the units registered in the European Registry for Intensive Care...

  12. Integration of metabolism and digestion in the hyrax | Fairall | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic adaptations and digestive ability were integrated to explain the ecological efficiency of the hyrax (Procavia capensis). Metabolic rate was shown to decrease linearly with a drop in ambient temperature, but at a lower rate than an animal of equivalent size, the guinea-pig (Cavia porcel/us). This is achieved by ...

  13. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.


    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand

  14. The cotyledon cell wall of the common bean (phaseolus vulgaris) resists digestion in the upper intestine and thus may limit iron bioavailability (United States)

    Strategies that enhance the Fe bioavailability from the bean are of keen interest to nutritionists, bean breeders and growers. In beans, the cotyledon contains 75-80% of the total seed Fe, most of which appears to be located within the cotyledon cell. The cotyledon cell wall is known to be resistan...

  15. Virotherapy of digestive tumors with rodent parvovirus: overview and perspectives. (United States)

    Akladios, Cherif; Aprahamian, Marc


    Toolan's H-1 parvovirus (H-1PV) exerts a cytotoxic/oncolytic effect, predominantly mediated by its non-structural protein (NS1). This rat parvovirus is harmless, unlike other parvoviruses, and its antitumor potential may be useful to clinicians as its oncolytic action appears to be true in numerous non-digestive and digestive cancers. After a brief review of parvovirus genus and biology, we summarize the proposed mechanisms to explain the cytotoxicity of H-1PV to tumors which results in dysregulation of cell transcription, cell-cycle arrest, termination of cell replication, activation of cellular stress response and induction of cell death. Viral oncolysis induces a strong tumor-specific immune response leading to the recognition and elimination of minimal residual disease. As the action of H-1PV is not limited to the digestive tract, we initially analyse studies performed in non-digestive cancers such as glioma (as the virus is able to cross the blood brain barrier), and then focused more particularly on the results in digestive cancers. Based on the results of studies showing little H-1PV toxicity to living bodies, we advocate for the use of the parvovirus in cancers such as melanoma, glioma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in addition to conventional chemotherapy.

  16. Effects of realimentation after nutrient restriction during mid- to late gestation on pancreatic digestive enzymes, serum insulin and glucose levels, and insulin-containing cell cluster morphology. (United States)

    Keomanivong, F E; Camacho, L E; Lemley, C O; Kuemper, E A; Yunusova, R D; Borowicz, P P; Kirsch, J D; Vonnahme, K A; Caton, J S; Swanson, K C


    This study examined effects of stage of gestation and nutrient restriction with subsequent realimentation on maternal and foetal bovine pancreatic function. Dietary treatments were assigned on day 30 of pregnancy and included: control (CON; 100% requirements; n = 18) and restricted (R; 60% requirements; n = 30). On day 85, cows were slaughtered (CON, n = 6; R, n = 6), remained on control (CC; n = 12) and restricted (RR; n = 12), or realimented to control (RC; n = 11). On day 140, cows were slaughtered (CC, n = 6; RR, n = 6; RC, n = 5), remained on control (CCC, n = 6; RCC, n = 5) or realimented to control (RRC, n = 6). On day 254, the remaining cows were slaughtered and serum samples were collected from the maternal jugular vein and umbilical cord to determine insulin and glucose concentrations. Pancreases from cows and foetuses were removed, weighed, and subsampled for enzyme and histological analysis. As gestation progressed, maternal pancreatic α-amylase activity decreased and serum insulin concentrations increased (p ≤ 0.03). Foetal pancreatic trypsin activity increased (p enzymes are influenced by nutrient restriction and there is a potential for programming of increased foetal digestive enzyme production resulting from previous maternal nutrient restriction. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Checking the numbers for the labyrinths shown in the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossairt, J.D.


    Reviewed are the designs for access labyrinths presently shown in the Conceptual Design Report to see if they are reasonable for radiation protection purposes. This matter was previously studied two years ago in a Fermilab TM (Co85a). The methods used are based upon scaling the results of calculations done by Gollon and Awschalom. Confidence in the results has been fortified by a successful experimental test. The Conceptual Design Report shows two types of access labyrinths which are significantly different. The first type is that at a Sector Service Area, while the second is that provided for personnel entry to the Interaction Regions

  18. Physiological influence of silica on germinating pollen as shown by Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Joester, Maike; Seifert, Stephan; Emmerling, Franziska; Kneipp, Janina


    The process of silicification in plants and the biochemical effects of silica in plant tissues are largely unknown. To study the molecular changes occurring in growing cells that are exposed to higher than normal concentration of silicic acid, Raman spectra of germinating pollen grains of three species (Pinus nigra, Picea omorika, and Camellia japonica) were analyzed in a multivariate classification approach that takes into account the variation of biochemical composition due to species, plant tissue structure, and germination condition. The results of principal component analyses of the Raman spectra indicate differences in the utilization of stored lipids, a changed mobilization of storage carbohydrates in the pollen grain bodies, and altered composition and/or structure of cellulose of the developing pollen tube cell walls. These biochemical changes vary in the different species. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. [Functional and motor digestive disorders]. (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín


    This article discusses the most interesting studies on functional and motility gastrointestinal disorders presented in Digestive Diseases Week (DDW) in 2013. New data were reported on the clinical importance of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and on how they can produce numerous disturbances such as inflammatory bowel disease. These disturbances are associated with somatic functional disease and particularly with fatigue. In addition, new data have emerged on the physiopathology of these disorders, with some studies reporting that environmental factors and events in early infancy can favor their development. Data were also presented on how bile acids can increase susceptibility to diarrhea in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and on how the type of food intake can favor the development of symptoms. More data are available on the presence of underlying celiac disease in patients with IBS, which should prompt us to investigate this disease in our patients. Likewise, indiscriminate application of a gluten-free diet in patients with IBS has been shown not to produce a clear improvement. Regarding the physiopathology of functional dyspepsia (FD), results have been presented on how psychological factors can modify gastric accommodation and how this is in turn related to visceral hypersensitivity and gastric emptying. Regarding therapy, mirtazapine can improve symptoms and lead to weight gain in patients with severe FD and substantial weight loss. Results were presented on new drugs for IBS such as ibodutant and on old drugs with new applications such as mesalazine and ebastine. The antinociceptive effect of linaclotide is now better understood and a meta-analysis has shown its effectiveness in IBS with constipation as the main symptom. In patients with constipation, pelvic floor dysynergy can be diagnosed by a simple clinical interview and rectal touch. More data are available on the efficacy of prucalopride (which has been shown to accelerate

  20. [The problem of autolytic digestion at amniotropic and lactotropic feeding]. (United States)

    Korot'ko, G F


    The review presented the results of the author, his co-workers and investigators of other laboratories about types of feeding (histotropic, hemotropic, amniotropic, lactotropic, definitive) and digestion (autolytic, native) of a fetus and an infant. The study was based on analysis of enzymes that provided hydrolysis of amniotic fluid and breast milk. The data about probable technology of abovementioned types of digestion in earlier stages of individual human advance and opportunity of hydrolase recretor origin in amniotic fluid and breast milk are shown.

  1. Acid digestion of organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.


    To overcome the high temperatures involved in straight incineration of organic waste and the difficulty of extracting actinides from the ash various research establishments throughout the world, including Winfrith and Harwell in the UK, have carried out studies on an alternative chemical combustion method known as acid digestion. The basis of the technique is to digest the waste in concentrated sulphuric acid containing a few percent of nitric acid at a temperature of about 250 0 C. Acid digestion residues consist mainly of non-refractory inorganic sulphates and oxides from which any actinide materials can easily be extracted. (author)

  2. Flow pattern visualization in a mimic anaerobic digester using CFD. (United States)

    Vesvikar, Mehul S; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna


    Three-dimensional steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed in mimic anaerobic digesters to visualize their flow pattern and obtain hydrodynamic parameters. The mixing in the digester was provided by sparging gas at three different flow rates. The gas phase was simulated with air and the liquid phase with water. The CFD results were first evaluated using experimental data obtained by computer automated radioactive particle tracking (CARPT). The simulation results in terms of overall flow pattern, location of circulation cells and stagnant regions, trends of liquid velocity profiles, and volume of dead zones agree reasonably well with the experimental data. CFD simulations were also performed on different digester configurations. The effects of changing draft tube size, clearance, and shape of the tank bottoms were calculated to evaluate the effect of digester design on its flow pattern. Changing the draft tube clearance and height had no influence on the flow pattern or dead regions volume. However, increasing the draft tube diameter or incorporating a conical bottom design helped in reducing the volume of the dead zones as compared to a flat-bottom digester. The simulations showed that the gas flow rate sparged by a single point (0.5 cm diameter) sparger does not have an appreciable effect on the flow pattern of the digesters at the range of gas flow rates used.

  3. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod. (United States)

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Juliano, Maria A; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R


    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability), zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG) are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also detected. Evolutionarily

  4. Transforming anaerobic digestion with the Model T of digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.F.; Ciotola, R.; Castano, J.; Eger, C.; Schlea, D. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Ecological Engineering Program


    Most livestock farmers in the United States do not take advantage of anaerobic digester technology because of the high cost and large scale. These limitations therefore reduce the production of renewable energy from farmlands. In order to expand anaerobic digestion methods and improve environmental quality, affordable and smaller-scale digesters should be developed to enable most livestock farmers to convert manure to methane. Doing so would improve their economic efficiency and environmental sustainability. This paper provided an analogy to the development of the Model T to better explain the need and potential for this technology. A modified fixed-dome digester was installed on the Ohio State University dairy in Columbus, Ohio. The digester was unheated, buried, had a volume of 1 m{sup 3} and received diluted dairy manure as feedstock. Biogas was produced at digester temperatures as low 10 degrees C during colder ambient temperatures. Water quality also improved. Results from the first year of operation will be analyzed to improve performance and enable future development of this technology.

  5. Seed coat removal improves Fe bioavailability in cooked lentils: studies using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model (United States)

    This study examined the range of Fe concentration and relative Fe bioavailability of 24 varieties of cooked lentils, as well as the impact of seed coat removal on lentil Fe nutritional quality. Relative Fe bioavailability was assessed by the in vitro/Caco-2 cell culture method. While Fe concentrat...

  6. A novel phytoremediation technology shown to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons from soils in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.D.; Yu, X.M.; Gerhardt, K.; Glick, B.; Greenberg, B [Waterloo Environmental Biotechnology Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology


    This article described a newly developed, advanced microbe-enhanced phytoremediation system that can be used to remediate lands polluted by hydrocarbons, salts and metals. The technology uses 3 complementary processes to achieve effective remediation of strongly bound persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil. The remediation process involves physical soil treatment, photochemical photooxidation, microbial remediation and growth of plants treated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPR-enhanced phytoremediation system (PEPS) alleviates plant stress and increases biodegradation activities, thereby accelerating plant growth in the presence of POPs or poor soils. The PEPS has been used successfully to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from impacted soils in situ at several sites across Canada. Studies have shown that the PHCs are degraded in the rhizosphere. This article also presented a summary of the work conducted at 3 sites in Alberta. It took only 2 years to remediate the 3 sites to levels required for site closure under Alberta Tier 1 guidelines. It was concluded that PEPS is equally effective for total PHC and Fraction 3 CCME hydrocarbons. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. Three-stage enzymatic digestive system for a gut-on-a-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Pim; Ianovska, Margaryta A.; Mathwig, Klaus; Bouwmeester, Hans; Verpoorte, Elisabeth


    In this work, we present the development of a three-stage microfluidic system as a cell-free model for digestion in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Larger-scale digestion models are currently being used for pharmacological, toxicological and nutritional studies to determine the possible

  8. 77 FR 40368 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting (United States)


    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Ancillary Studies to the Intestinal Stem Cells Consortium. Date: July 30, 2012. Time: 12 p.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant... Assistance Program Nos. 93.847, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Research; 93.848, Digestive Diseases...

  9. Valorisation of Phosphorus Extracted from Dairy Cattle Slurry and Municipal Solid Wastes Digestates as a Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, V.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Labrincha, J.


    Phosphorus is a vital cell component and an essential and irreplaceable element. Yet at the current rate of exploitation, the phosphate’s reserves will be fast depleted. Dairy cattle slurry and digestates from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes (MSW) are organic wastes containing phosp...

  10. The effect of anaerobic digestion on the survival of salmonella and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The decline in viable number of salmonella and coliform bacteria was investigated in laboratory based anaerobic and aerobic digesters using cow dung. The results indicated that unheated anaerobic digestion had greater reduction in the viable number of salmonella and coliform bacteria 1.05x104 and 1.26 x 104 cells/ml ...

  11. The effect of anaerobic digestion on the survival of Salmonella and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The decline in viable number of Salmonella spp and coliform bacteria was investigated in laboratory based anaerobic and aerobic digestion of cow dung. The results indicated that the unheated anaerobic digestion had a greater reduction in the viable number of Salmonella spp and coliform bacteria 1.05 x 104 cells/ml and ...

  12. A Critical Evaluation of In Vitro Hesperidin 2S Bioavailability in a Model Combining Luminal (Microbial) Digestion and Caco-2 Cell Absorption in Comparison to a Randomized Controlled Human Trial. (United States)

    Van Rymenant, Evelien; Salden, Bouke; Voorspoels, Stefan; Jacobs, Griet; Noten, Bart; Pitart, Judit; Possemiers, Sam; Smagghe, Guy; Grootaert, Charlotte; Van Camp, John


    Bioavailability strongly determines polyphenol bioactivity, and is strongly influenced by food matrix, enzymatic and microbial degradation, and gastrointestinal absorption. To avoid human trials for pre-screening of polyphenol bioavailability, studies have focused on in vitro model development. Nevertheless, their predictive value for bioavailability can be questioned. We used the orange flavonoid hesperidin 2S to validate a model combining digestion in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME) and Caco-2 cell transport, with a human intervention study. In vitro, hesperidin was resistant to degradation in the stomach and small intestine, but was rapidly deconjugated on reaching the proximal colon. Extensive and colon-region-specific degradation to smaller phenolics was observed. Hydrocaffeic and dihydroisoferulic acid accumulated in proximal, and hydroferulic acid in distal colon. Caco-2 transport was the highest for dihydroisoferulic acid. In humans, plasma and urine hesperetin-glucuronide levels increased significantly, whereas the impact on small phenolics was limited. In the combined in vitro model, smaller phenolics strongly accumulated, whereas in humans, hesperetin conjugates were the main bioavailable compounds. Future in vitro model development should focus on simulating faster polyphenol absorption and elimination of smaller phenolics to improve their predictive value of in vivo polyphenol bioavailability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik


    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG......, or one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  14. Implementing Livestock Anaerobic Digestion Projects (United States)

    Page provides information to help make an informed decision about installing an anaerobic digester. Is it a good match for a farm’s organic waste, project financing, development guidelines and permit requirements?

  15. Infant digestion physiology and the relevance of in vitro biochemical models to test infant formula lipid digestion. (United States)

    Poquet, Laure; Wooster, Tim J


    Lipids play an important role in the diet of preterm and term infants providing a key energy source and essential lipid components for development. While a lot is known about adult lipid digestion, our understanding of infant digestion physiology is still incomplete, the greatest gap being on the biochemistry of the small intestine, particularly the activity and relative importance of the various lipases active in the intestine. The literature has been reviewed to identify the characteristics of lipid digestion of preterm and term infants, but also to better understand the physiology of the infant gastrointestinal tract compared to adults that impacts the absorption of lipids. The main differences are a higher gastric pH, submicellar bile salt concentration, a far more important role of gastric lipases as well as differences at the level of the intestinal barrier. Importantly, the consequences of improper in vitro replication of gastric digestions conditions (pH and lipase specificity) are demonstrated using examples from the most recent of studies. It is true that some animal models could be adapted to study infant lipid digestion physiology, however the ethical relevance of such models is questionable, hence the development of accurate in vitro models is a must. In vitro models that combine up to date knowledge of digestion biochemistry with intestinal cells in culture are the best choice to replicate digestion and absorption in infant population, this would allow the adaptation of infant formula for a better digestion and absorption of dietary lipids by preterm and term infants. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Complicated feature of atmospheric aerosols shown in the yellow sand events in Japan (United States)

    Mukai, Sonoyo; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Makiko

    It is well known that aerosol has a significant potential to the earth's climate. The aerosol distributions in Asia are very complex due to the increasing emissions of small anthropogenic particles associated with economic growth and large dust particles called yellow sands transported on the westerly wind from the continental desert areas. In this study, aerosol properties in the yellow sand events are focused and analyzed from comprehensive aspects. Yellow sand events have often happened in spring. Therefore they have been called 'spring haze' involving an expectation of coming spring to Japan. However the recent yellow sand events are too heavy and too severe to call 'spring haze' due to the increasing of desert areas and contamination with the anthropogenic emissions. The sun/sky photometry has been undertaken at NASA/AERONET stations in Osaka, Shirahama and Noto in Japan. Suspended particulate matter (PM) and OBC (Optical Black Carbon) have been simultaneously measured there. The simultaneous monitoring of aerosols and PM provides such a relation between them as there is a linear correlation between PM concentrations and AOT, which indicates that AOT can be estimated from PM data, and vice versa. It is found that the value of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) during aerosol event is more than double its usual value, and fine anthropogenic particles dominate even during dust events in Japan. It is of interest to mention that yellow sand events in Japan seem to be caused by a mixture of non-absorbing coarse dust and other small haze particles, especially shown in the event in May 2007. A new instrument of NIES/LIDAR network to be set at AERONET/Osaka station in March 2008 is expected to provide us with the vertical distribution of yellow sand particles. Furthermore the model simulations with SPRINTARS/AGCM/CCSR/NIES/FRCGC and satellite data will be available for our better understanding of the beyond pollution of the atmosphere.

  17. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  18. Characterisation of community structure of bacteria in parallel mesophilic and thermophilic pilot scale anaerobe sludge digesters. (United States)

    Tauber, T; Berta, Brigitta; Székely, Anna J; Gyarmati, I; Kékesi, Katalin; Márialigeti, K; Tóth, Erika M


    The aim of the present work was to compare the microbial communities of a mesophilic and a thermophilic pilot scale anaerobe sludge digester. For studying the communities cultivation independent chemotaxonomical methods (RQ and PLFA analyses) and T-RFLP were applied. Microbial communities of the mesophilic and thermophilic pilot digesters showed considerable differences, both concerning the species present, and their abundance. A Methanosarcina sp. dominated the thermophilic, while a Methanosaeta sp. the mesophilic digester among Archaea. Species diversity of Bacteria was reduced in the thermophilic digester. Based on the quinone patterns in both digesters the dominance of sulphate reducing respiratory bacteria could be detected. The PLFA profiles of the digester communities were similar though in minor components characteristic differences were shown. Level of branched chain fatty acids is slightly lower in the thermophilic digester that reports less Gram positive bacteria. The relative ratio of fatty acids characteristic to Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidetes and Clostridia shows differences between the two digesters: their importance generally decreased under thermophilic conditions. The sulphate reducer marker (15:1 and 17:1) fatty acids are present in low quantity in both digesters.

  19. Covering Materials for Anaerobic Digesters Producing Biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itodo, I. N.; Philips, T. K.


    The suitability of foam, concrete and clay soil as covering material on anaerobic digesters producing biogas was investigated using four batch-type digesters of 20 litres volume. The methane yield from the digesters was of the order: foam >control> concrete > clay soil. The digester covered with foam had the highest methane yield, best temperature control and most favourable pH conditions. It is most suitable as cover material on anaerobic digesters

  20. Reduced visual surround suppression in schizophrenia shown by measuring contrast detection thresholds (United States)

    Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Romero-Ferreiro, Verónica; Read, Jenny C. A.; Diéguez-Risco, Teresa; Bagney, Alexandra; Caballero-González, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Torresano, Javier; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto


    Visual perception in schizophrenia is attracting a broad interest given the deep knowledge that we have about the visual system in healthy populations. One example is the class of effects known collectively as visual surround suppression. For example, the visibility of a grating located in the visual periphery is impaired by the presence of a surrounding grating of the same spatial frequency and orientation. Previous studies have suggested abnormal visual surround suppression in patients with schizophrenia. Given that schizophrenia patients have cortical alterations including hypofunction of NMDA receptors and reduced concentration of GABA neurotransmitter, which affect lateral inhibitory connections, then they should be relatively better than controls at detecting visual stimuli that are usually suppressed. We tested this hypothesis by measuring contrast detection thresholds using a new stimulus configuration. We tested two groups: 21 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy subjects. Thresholds were obtained using Bayesian staircases in a four-alternative forced-choice detection task where the target was a grating within a 3∘ Butterworth window that appeared in one of four possible positions at 5∘ eccentricity. We compared three conditions, (a) target with no-surround, (b) target embedded within a surrounding grating of 20∘ diameter and 25% contrast with same spatial frequency and orthogonal orientation, and (c) target embedded within a surrounding grating with parallel (same) orientation. Previous results with healthy populations have shown that contrast thresholds are lower for orthogonal and no-surround (NS) conditions than for parallel surround (PS). The log-ratios between parallel and NS thresholds are used as an index quantifying visual surround suppression. Patients performed poorly compared to controls in the NS and orthogonal-surround conditions. However, they performed as well as controls when the surround was parallel, resulting in significantly

  1. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Torres, M.; Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.


    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH) 2 ), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH) 2 /L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m 3 CH 4 /kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the ability of pigs to digest protein increases with age. However, it has been shown that small pigs excreted more endogenous nitrogen (N than large pigs. Consequently, the apparent amino acids (AA digestibility may be lower in young pigs while true digestibility, which is corrected for endogenous losses, may be comparable with that found in older pigs. To test this hypothesis, six cannulated piglets (mean body weight 20.6 kg fitted with a simple T-cannula at terminal ileum were used to estimate apparent and true digestibilities of AA and of total N in a rye-based diet (96 % rye. The digestibility study was repeated on the same pigs fed the same diet when they reached mean body weight 61.7 kg. The apparent ileal digestibilities of total AA and total N were significantly higher in heavier pigs than in piglets. Except for methionine and phenylalanine, the apparent digestibilities of individual AA showed a similar pattern. In contrast, there was no significant difference between piglets and heavier pigs for the true ileal digestibility of total N. True digestibility of most AA was lower in heavier pigs than in piglets, the differences for total and some individual AA being significant. The present results suggest that the higher apparent digestibility values found in heavier pigs as compared to piglets are due to the confounding effect of endogenous N losses rather than the better ability of older pigs to digest protein.

  3. Basement membrane heterogeneity during chick development as shown by tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin binding. (United States)

    Ojeda, J L; Icardo, J M


    Basement membranes (BMs) constitute a distinct compartment of the extracellular matrix (ECM). All BMs show a similar structural appearance but differ in molecular composition. These variations have critical functional implications. The aim of this study is to establish the pattern of the tomato lectin (Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin--LEA) binding sites in the BMs of the developing chick embryo (stages 4-21, Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951) in order to achieve a better understanding of the molecular heterogeneity of BMs. The study was performed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) histochemistry, and confocal laser microscopy. TEM showed that LEA bound to the lamina densa and to the lamina fibroreticularis of the BMs. Through the period studied, most of the LEA binding appeared in the ectodermal BM and its derivatives. In the limb bud, LEA binding to the ectoderm BM was more intense in the ventral half than in the dorsal half. Furthermore, LEA allowed the early (HH16) detection of the transverse fibrillar tracts. In the lens and in the inner ear primordium, the BMs were LEA positive through the placode and cup stages. The binding was progressively reduced through the vesicle stage. The BMs of the olfactory primordium, and of the Rathke's pouch were positive. In contrast, the BMs of the developing central nervous system were negative. The BMs of both the paraxial and the lateral plates of the mesoderm were negative, whereas the notochord and the BM of the Wolffian duct were positive. The endodermal BM and its derivatives were negative. The ECM located between the fusing endocardial tubes, and the BM of the fusion zone of the paired aortae, were positive. This suggested an active role of the LEA-positive glycoproteins in the fusion of endothelia. Our results show the heterogeneity of the chick embryo BMs during development. In addition, LEA constitutes an excellent marker for the primordial germ cells.

  4. Crisis of Japanese vascular flora shown by quantifying extinction risks for 1618 taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Kadoya

    Full Text Available Although many people have expressed alarm that we are witnessing a mass extinction, few projections have been quantified, owing to limited availability of time-series data on threatened organisms, especially plants. To quantify the risk of extinction, we need to monitor changes in population size over time for as many species as possible. Here, we present the world's first quantitative projection of plant species loss at a national level, with stochastic simulations based on the results of population censuses of 1618 threatened plant taxa in 3574 map cells of ca. 100 km2. More than 500 lay botanists helped monitor those taxa in 1994-1995 and in 2003-2004. We projected that between 370 and 561 vascular plant taxa will go extinct in Japan during the next century if past trends of population decline continue. This extinction rate is approximately two to three times the global rate. Using time-series data, we show that existing national protected areas (PAs covering ca. 7% of Japan will not adequately prevent population declines: even core PAs can protect at best <60% of local populations from decline. Thus, the Aichi Biodiversity Target to expand PAs to 17% of land (and inland water areas, as committed to by many national governments, is not enough: only 29.2% of currently threatened species will become non-threatened under the assumption that probability of protection success by PAs is 0.5, which our assessment shows is realistic. In countries where volunteers can be organized to monitor threatened taxa, censuses using our method should be able to quantify how fast we are losing species and to assess how effective current conservation measures such as PAs are in preventing species extinction.

  5. Disaster Impacts on Human Capital Accumulation Shown in the Typhoon Haiyan Case (United States)

    Özceylan Aubrecht, Dilek; Aubrecht, Christoph


    School children and their school environment are increasingly exposed to all kinds of hazards. Many disaster events have shown the extent of disaster impacts on the education sector which this study also highlights in the Typhoon Haiyan Case. Disasters do not only cause loss of lives or damage to educational facilities, they also entail significant economic and social consequences on human capital development in the short and long-run. While the trend of short term disaster impact can easily be analyzed in rapid post disaster assessments taking destroyed assets as proxy, usually analyses of medium and long-term effects of disasters include large inherent uncertainties and are of less tangible nature, require more time and complex methods and can often not give comprehensive results. The consequences of disasters especially in developing countries are therefore to a certain extent often left unknown. Generally, economic and social effects of disasters on human capital seem to be ambiguous and to some degree these effects are related to economic, social and institutional well-being. Thus, clear understanding is crucial to interpret its complex effects on human capital accumulation. This essential nature of medium and long-term effects has not been reflected in many analyses. Focus has mostly been given on the extent of physical damage, displacements, lives and assets lost instead of targeting resilience of social and economic characteristics of communities in terms of preventing human capital accumulation disruption. Main objective of this study is to provide a conceptual framework illustrating the impacts of disasters on schooling which might help in assessing such effects, as one of the fundamental components of human capital accumulation (Ozceylan Aubrecht, 2013). The dimensions of human capital building and its relationship to disasters under the light of past disaster events are discussed with a special focus on the recent Typhoon Haiyan that struck the

  6. Haematology and Nutrient Digestibility of Pigs at Three Weaning Ages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Eighteen piglets from three primiparous Large White gilts randomly assigned to three weaning ages were studied to determine the effects of different weaning age on the nutrient digestibility and hematology of growing pigs. Six piglets each were weaned at 4, 6 and 8 weeks of age. Packed cell volume (PCV) and ...

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Thermal Pretreatment, Steam Explosion and Ultrasonic Disintegration on Digestibility of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Dallos


    Full Text Available The energy demand of the corn-based bioethanol production could be reduced using the agricultural byproducts as bioenergy feedstock for biogas digesters. The release of lignocellulosic material and therefore the acceleration of degradation processes can be achieved using thermal and mechanical pretreatments, which assist to hydrolyze the cell walls and speed the solubilization of biopolymers in biogas feedstock. This study is focused on liquid hot water, steam explosion and ultrasonic pretreatments of corn stover. The scientific contribution of this paper is a comprehensive comparison of the performance of the pretreatments by fast analytical, biochemical, anaerobic digestibility and biomethane potential tests, extended by energy consumptions and energy balance calculations.The effectiveness of pretreatments was evaluated by means of soluble chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand and by the biogas and methane productivities. The results have shown that the thermal pretreatment, steam explosion and ultrasonic irradiation of biogas feedstock disintegrated the lignocellulosic structure, increased and accelerated the methane production and increased the cumulative biogas and methane productivity of corn stover in reference to the control during mesophilic anaerobic digestion.The energy balance demonstrated that there is an economical basis of the application of the liquid hot-compressed water pretreatments in a biogas plant. However, the steam explosion and ultrasonication are energetically not profitable for corn stover pretreatment.

  8. Analysis of the Anti-Cancer Effects of Cincau Extract (Premna oblongifolia Merr) and Other Types of Non-Digestible Fibre Using Faecal Fermentation Supernatants and Caco-2 Cells as a Model of the Human Colon (United States)

    Nurdin, Samsu U.; Le Leu, Richard K.; Young, Graeme P.; Stangoulis, James C. R.; Christophersen, Claus T.; Abbott, Catherine A.


    Green cincau (Premna oblongifolia Merr) is an Indonesian food plant with a high dietary fibre content. Research has shown that dietary fibre mixtures may be more beneficial for colorectal cancer prevention than a single dietary fibre type. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of green cincau extract on short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human faecal slurries and to compare these to results obtained using different dietary fibre types (pectin, inulin, and cellulose), singly and in combination. Furthermore, fermentation supernatants (FSs) were evaluated in Caco-2 cells for their effect on cell viability, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cincau increased total SCFA concentration by increasing acetate and propionate, but not butyrate concentration. FSs from all dietary fibre sources, including cincau, reduced Caco-2 cell viability. However, the effects of all FSs on cell viability, cell differentiation, and apoptosis were not simply explainable by their butyrate content. In conclusion, products of fermentation of cincau extracts induced cell death, but further work is required to understand the mechanism of action. This study demonstrates for the first time that this Indonesian traditional source of dietary fibre may be protective against colorectal cancer. PMID:28368356

  9. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in digestive diseases. (United States)

    Dulbecco, Pietro; Savarino, Vincenzo


    Curcumin is a low-molecular-weight hydrophobic polyphenol that is extracted from turmeric, which possesses a wide range of biological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative and anti-microbial activities. Despite its diverse targets and substantial safety, clinical applications of this molecule for digestive disorders have been largely limited to case series or small clinical trials. The poor bioavailability of curcumin is likely the major hurdle for its more widespread use in humans. However, complexation of curcumin into phytosomes has recently helped to bypass this problem, as it has been demonstrated that this new lecithin formulation enables increased absorption to a level 29-fold higher than that of traditional curcuminoid products. This allows us to achieve much greater tissue substance delivery using significantly lower doses of curcumin than have been used in past clinical studies. As curcumin has already been shown to provide good therapeutic results in some small studies of both inflammatory and neoplastic bowel disorders, it is reasonable to anticipate an even greater efficacy with the advent of this new technology, which remarkably improves its bioavailability. These features are very promising and may represent a novel and effective therapeutic approach to both functional and organic digestive diseases.

  10. Characterizing microbiota-independent effects of oligosaccharides on intestinal epithelial cells: insight into the role of structure and size : Structure-activity relationships of non-digestible oligosaccharides. (United States)

    Akbari, Peyman; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Willems, Rianne H A M; Difilippo, Elisabetta; Schols, Henk A; Schoterman, Margriet H C; Garssen, Johan; Braber, Saskia


    The direct effects of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), including Vivinal ® GOS syrup (VGOS) and purified Vivinal ® GOS (PGOS), on the epithelial integrity and corresponding interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) release were examined in a Caco-2 cell model for intestinal barrier dysfunction. To investigate structure-activity relationships, the effects of individual DP fractions of VGOS were evaluated. Moreover, the obtained results with GOS were compared with Caco-2 monolayers incubated with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Caco-2 monolayers were pretreated (24 h) with or without specific oligosaccharides or DP fractions of VGOS (DP2 to DP6) before being exposed for 12 or 24 h to the fungal toxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Transepithelial electrical resistance and lucifer yellow permeability were measured to investigate barrier integrity. A calcium switch assay was used to study the reassembly of tight junction proteins. Release of CXCL8, a typical marker for inflammation, was quantified by ELISA. In comparison with PGOS, FOS and inulin, VGOS showed the most pronounced protective effect on the DON-induced impairment of the monolayer integrity, acceleration of the tight junction reassembly and the subsequent CXCL8 release. DP2 and DP3 in concentrations occurring in VGOS prevented the DON-induced epithelial barrier disruption, which could be related to their high prevalence in VGOS. However, no effects of the separate DP GOS fractions were observed on CXCL8 release. This comparative study demonstrates the direct, microbiota-independent effects of oligosaccharides on the intestinal barrier function and shows the differences between individual galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides. This microbiota-independent effect of oligosaccharides depends on the oligosaccharide structure, DP length and concentration.

  11. Winery and distillery wastewater treatment by anaerobic digestion. (United States)

    Moletta, R


    Anaerobic digestion is widely used for wastewater treatment, especially in the food industries. Generally after the anaerobic treatment there is an aerobic post-treatment in order to return the treated water to nature. Several technologies are applied for winery wastewater treatment. They are using free cells or flocs (anaerobic contact digesters, anaerobic sequencing batch reactors and anaerobic lagoons), anaerobic granules (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket--UASB), or biofilms on fixed support (anaerobic filter) or on mobile support as with the fluidised bed. Some technologies include two strategies, e.g. a sludge bed with anaerobic filter as in the hybrid digester. With winery wastewaters (as for vinasses from distilleries) the removal yield for anaerobic digestion is very high, up to 90-95% COD removal. The organic loads are between 5 and 15 kgCOD/m3 of digester/day. The biogas production is between 400 and 600 L per kg COD removed with 60 to 70% methane content. For anaerobic and aerobic post-treatment of vinasses in the Cognac region, REVICO company has 99.7% COD removal and the cost is 0.52 Euro/m3 of vinasses.

  12. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern requireme......The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...

  13. Relationship between digestive enzymes and food habit of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae: Characterization of carbohydrases and digestion of microorganisms. (United States)

    Moraes, C S; Lucena, S A; Moreira, B H S; Brazil, R P; Gontijo, N F; Genta, F A


    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. In spite of its medical importance and several studies concerning adult digestive physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, very few studies have been carried out to elucidate the digestion in sandfly larvae. Even the breeding sites and food sources of these animals in the field are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe and characterize several carbohydrases from the gut of L. longipalpis larvae, and show that they are probably not acquired from food. The enzyme profile of this insect is consistent with the digestion of fungal and bacterial cells, which were proved to be ingested by larvae under laboratory conditions. In this respect, sandfly larvae might have a detritivore habit in nature, being able to exploit microorganisms usually encountered in the detritus as a food source. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) diet supplementation in rabbit nutrition on performance, digestibility, health and meat quality. (United States)

    Kovitvadhi, A; Gasco, L; Ferrocino, I; Rotolo, L; Dabbou, S; Malfatto, V; Gai, F; Peiretti, P G; Falzone, M; Vignolini, C; Cocolin, L; Zoccarato, I


    In this study, 160 Hycole weaned rabbits (35 days old) were randomly divided into four groups of 40. The rabbits were studied throughout a 54-day experimentation period in order to determine the impact of dietary supplementation from herbs composed of 0.2%, 0.4% dry ground Lythrum salicaria leaves (LS) and 0.3% Cunirel(®) (CR; a commercial herb mixture containing LS as the main ingredient) on performance, digestibility, health and meat quality. The basal diet was given to the control group. No significant differences were found in performance, 10 rabbits from each group were selected for evaluation regarding apparent digestibility. The rabbits fed the control diet and the diet with the low level of LS had a higher level of CP digestibility than did the animals that were supplemented with the high LS levels and CR (85.7% and 84.9% v. 84.0% and 84.0%, respectively; Phard faeces, collected at days 35, 42, 49, 56, 70 and 89, whereas the caecal contents were taken after slaughtering. The results demonstrated that between the treatment groups, the similarity of the microbial communities was higher as compared with the control group. Moreover, only age was shown to influence microbiota diversity. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that supplementation of LS in rabbit diets leads to an increase in the total white blood cells, total VFA and acetic acid concentration, and a decrease in the ammonia levels, as well as the digestibility when CR and high level of LS were supplemented, without causing any adverse effects on other parameters.

  15. Motivacion y estudiantes de secundaria (Motivation and Middle School Students). ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Anderman, Lynley Hicks; Midgley, Carol

    Research has shown a decline in motivation and performance for many children as they move from elementary school into middle school; however, research has also shown that the nature of motivational change on entry to middle school depends on characteristics of the learning environment in which students find themselves. This Digest outlines some…

  16. Your Digestive System and How It Works (United States)

    ... GI tract . How does my digestive system break food into small parts my body can use? As food moves ... large, become stool. What happens to the digested food? The small intestine absorbs most of the nutrients in your ...

  17. Effects of Aging on the Digestive System (United States)

    ... of Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Additional Content Medical News Effects of Aging on the Digestive System By Atenodoro ... and Biliary Tract Large Intestine Rectum and Anus Effects of Aging on the Digestive System (See also ...

  18. Lewy Body Digest eNewsletter (United States)

    ... resources Join the fight against LBD! Donate Lewy Digest Click here to subscribe today to receive regular ... research in Lewy body dementia. April 2018 Lewy Digest Month of Compassion Caregiver Spotlight Research Centers of ...

  19. Mesophilic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure


    Zeeman, G.



    In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).
    For this purpose were researched:
    1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestion process for energy production on dairy farms.
    2. Digestion of manure at lower temperatures.

    The goal of the first mentioned research w...

  20. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  1. Tropical Rainforest Education. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Rillero, Peter

    This digest provides four guideposts for tropical rainforest education: (1) structure; (2) location and climate; (3) importance; and (4) conservation of resources. Research is cited and background information provided about the layers of life and the adaptations of life within the tropical rain forest. Aspects of life within and near rain forests…

  2. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, B.K.; Macarie, H.; Moletta, R.; Dohanyos, M.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lens, P.N.L.; Verstraete, W.


    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern

  3. Anaerobic digestion of piggery waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.


    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes

  4. Digestion of corn and ammonia removal in a lab scale digester


    Bello, Ismoil


    This research was done as an internal project for developing in-house knowledge for PROCES-Groningen B.V. The project is related to bio-digestion and factors affecting the process. The bio-digestion process is taken into account which includes the digesting of corn and ammonia removal which occur after digestion. The aims of this research are to analyze parameters affecting bio-digestion and provide the framework for a construction of a better bio-digester. The digestion of corn analysis...

  5. The harmonized INFOGEST in vitro digestion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egger, Lotti; Ménard, Olivia; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Alvito, Paula; Assunção, Ricardo; Balance, Simon; Barberá, Reyes; Brodkorb, Andre; Cattenoz, Thomas; Clemente, Alfonso; Comi, Irene; Dupont, Didier; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Lagarda, María Jesús; Feunteun, Le Steven; Janssen Duijghuijsen, Lonneke; Karakaya, Sibel; Lesmes, Uri; Mackie, Alan R.; Martins, Carla; Meynier, Anne; Miralles, Beatriz; Murray, B.S.; Pihlanto, Anne; Picariello, Gianluca; Santos, C.N.; Simsek, Sebnem; Recio, Isidra; Rigby, Neil; Rioux, Laurie Eve; Stoffers, Helena; Tavares, Ana; Tavares, Lucelia; Turgeon, Sylvie; Ulleberg, E.K.; Vegarud, G.E.; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto


    Within the active field of in vitro digestion in food research, the COST Action INFOGEST aimed to harmonize in vitro protocols simulating human digestion on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. A harmonized static in vitro digestion (IVD) method was recently published as a primary

  6. Bioavailability of ginsenosides from white and red ginsengs in the simulated digestion model. (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ok; Cha, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Eun Ha; Kim, Sang Min; Choi, Sang Won; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Um, Byung-Hun


    This study aims to investigate the bioavailability of ginsenosides during simulated digestion of white (WG) and red (RG) ginseng powders. Stability, bioaccessibility, and permeability of ginsenosides present in WG and RG were studied in a Caco-2 cell culture model coupled with oral, gastric, and small intestinal simulated digestion. Most ginsenosides in WG and RG were stable (>90%) during the simulated digestion. Bioaccessibilities of total ginsenosides during in vitro digestion of WG and RG were similar at approximately 85%. However, the bioaccessibility of protopanaxatriol type ginsenosides in the early food phase was greater than that of the protopanaxadiol type. The less polar RG ginsenosides were released later following the jejunum phase. Ginsenosides had low permeability (digestion and that ginsenosides are poorly absorbed in humans.

  7. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the peptide characteristics of microwave- and ultrasound-assisted digestion in discovery and targeted proteomic analyses. (United States)

    Guo, Zhengguang; Cheng, Jie; Sun, Haidan; Sun, Wei


    Fast digestion methods can dramatically accelerate enzyme digestion and increase the throughput of proteomic analysis. However, the peptide characteristics of fast digestion methods and their performance in discovery and targeted proteomic analysis must be systematically evaluated. Three digestion methods, including overnight digestion, microwave-assisted protein enzymatic digestion (MAPED), and high-intensity focused ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic digestion (HIFUSAED), in trypsin or in trypsin/Lys-C were comprehensively compared in both discovery and targeted proteomics analysis using the HeLa cell proteome. In discovery proteomic analysis, the highest numbers of peptides and proteins were identified when the sample was digested via the MAPED method with trypsin/Lys-C. The fast digestion methods showed a higher mis-cleavage rate and a lower semi-tryptic rate than the overnight digestion method. In both label-free quantitative analysis and targeted proteomic analysis, both fully cleaved peptides (FCPs) and mis-cleaved peptides (MCPs) from the fast digestion methods and the overnight digestion method showed good reproducibility if they showed good abundance. When both the FCPs and MCPs were included in the analysis, the MAPED with trypsin/Lys-C method showed the best results for both discovery proteomic analysis and relative quantitative targeted proteomic analysis. These results will be beneficial for the application of fast digestion methods to proteomics. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Outlook of thermal sludge digestion/pretreatment??; Verkenning thermische slibontsluiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhof, D.C. [DHV, Amersfoort (Netherlands)


    This (mid-term) report sketches an image of thermal sludge digestion: the benefits are shown of this new technique as well as the critical factors for making the technique successful in the Netherlands. Moreover, research aspects for pilot research have been formulated that are part of the STOWA research on thermal sludge digestion. Thermal digestion aims to increase the dry mater degradation in the digestion of the biogas production. Next to an increase in the energy production from biogas, a decrease in the amount of sludge to be sold is realized [Dutch] In dit (tussen)rapport wordt een beeld geschetst van thermische slibontsluiting: onder meer de voordelen van deze nieuwe techniek en de kritische factoren om de techniek in Nederland succesvol te laten zijn. Er zijn tevens onderzoeksaspecten voor pilotonderzoeken geformuleerd die deel uitmaken van het STOWA-onderzoek naar thermische slibontsluiting. Met thermische ontsluiting wordt een verhoging van de drogestofafbraak in de gisting en van de biogasproductie beoogd. Naast een verhoging van de energieproductie uit biogas wordt een verlaging van de hoeveelheid af te zetten slib bereikt.

  9. Biomechanical aspects of the auto-digestion theory. (United States)

    Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W


    Increasing evidence suggests that most cardiovascular diseases, tumors and other ailments are associated with an inflammatory cascade. The inflammation is accompanied by activation of cells in the circulation and fundamental changes in the mechanics of the microcirculation, expression of pro-inflammatory genes and downregulation of anti-inflammatory genes, attachment of leukocytes to the endothelium, elevated permeability of the endothelium, and many other events. The evidence has opened great opportunities for medicine to develop new anti-inflammatory interventions. But it also raises a fundamental question: What is the origin of inflammation? I will discuss a basic series of studies that was designed to explore trigger mechanisms for inflammation in shock and multi-organ failure, an important clinical problem associated with high mortality. We traced the source of the inflammatory mediators to the powerful digestive enzymes in the intestine. Synthesized in the pancreas as part of normal digestion, they have the ability to degrade almost all biological tissues and molecules. In the lumen of the intestine, digestive enzymes are fully activated and self-digestion of the intestine is prevented by compartmentalization in the lumen of the intestine facilitated by the mucosal epithelial barrier. Under conditions of intestinal ischemia, however, the mucosal barrier becomes permeable to pancreatic enzymes allowing their entry into the wall of the intestine. The process leads to auto-digestion of the intestinal wall and production of inflammatory mediators. The hypothesis that multi-organ failure in shock may be due an auto-digestion process by pancreatic enzymes is ready to be tested in a variety of shock conditions.

  10. Digestibility of gluten proteins is reduced by baking and enhanced by starch digestion. (United States)

    Smith, Frances; Pan, Xiaoyan; Bellido, Vincent; Toole, Geraldine A; Gates, Fred K; Wickham, Martin S J; Shewry, Peter R; Bakalis, Serafim; Padfield, Philip; Mills, E N Clare


    Resistance of proteins to gastrointestinal digestion may play a role in determining immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods. However, digestion studies have largely been restricted to purified proteins and the impact of food processing and food matrices on protein digestibility is poorly understood. Digestibility of a total gliadin fraction (TGF), flour (cv Hereward), and bread was assessed using in vitro batch digestion with simulated oral, gastric, and duodenal phases. Protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific for celiac-toxic sequences (QQSF, QPFP) and starch digestion by measuring undigested starch. Whereas the TGF was rapidly digested during the gastric phase the gluten proteins in bread were virtually undigested and digested rapidly during the duodenal phase only if amylase was included. Duodenal starch digestion was also slower in the absence of duodenal proteases. The baking process reduces the digestibility of wheat gluten proteins, including those containing sequences active in celiac disease. Starch digestion affects the extent of protein digestion, probably because of gluten-starch complex formation during baking. Digestion studies using purified protein fractions alone are therefore not predictive of digestion in complex food matrices. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The Potential for Gut Organoid Derived Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Replacement Therapy


    Jerry Zhou; Michael D. O’Connor; Vincent Ho


    Effective digestion requires propagation of food along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. This process involves coordinated waves of peristalsis produced by enteric neural cell types, including different categories of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Impaired food transport along the gastrointestinal tract, either too fast or too slow, causes a range of gut motility disorders that affect millions of people worldwide. Notably, loss of ICC has been shown to affect gut motility. ...

  12. Antitumor Effects of Saffron-Derived Carotenoids in Prostate Cancer Cell Models


    Festuccia, Claudio; Mancini, Andrea; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Scarsella, Luca; Llorens, Silvia; Alonso, Gonzalo L.; Tatone, Carla; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Jannini, Emmanuele A.; Lenzi, Andrea; D'Alessandro, Anna M.; Carmona, Manuel


    Crocus sativus L. extracts (saffron) are rich in carotenoids. Preclinical studies have shown that dietary intake of carotenoids has antitumor effects suggesting their potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles. We have recently reported that saffron (SE) and crocin (CR) exhibit anticancer activity by promoting cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. It has also been demonstrated that crocetin esters are produced after SE gastrointestinal digestion by CR hydrolysis. The aim of the...

  13. Selection of microalgae suitable for culturing with digestate from methane fermentation. (United States)

    Khanh, N; Kitaya, Y; Xiao, L; Endo, R; Shibuya, T


    The effects ofdigestate on the growth rates of Euglena gracilis, Chlorella vulgaris, and Dunaliella tertiolecta were investigated to select suitable microalgae for culturing with digestate from methane fermentation. Microalgae were cultured in an aqueous solution containing digestate at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 13%, 20%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, and Cramer-Myers (CM) solution as a control, at photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFDs) of 75-150 micromol m(-2) s(-1) with continuous illumination at 30 degrees C. The number of cells was monitored daily, and specific growth rates (mu) were calculated as cellular multiplication rates. The maximum mu values of these species were greater in appropriate concentrations of digestate than in CM medium. The maximum mu values were 0.047 h(-1) in 10% digestate for E. gracilis, 0.065 h(-1) in 20% digestate for C. vulgaris, and 0.052 h(-1) in 50% digestate for D. tertiolecta at a PPFD of 150 micromol m(-2) s(-1). The mu of D. tertiolecta were 2.5 and 1.1 times higher than those of E. gracilis and C. vulgaris, respectively, in 50% digestate. These results demonstrated that these species could be cultured at high growth rates with diluted methane fermentation sludge and that, among these species, Dunaliella sp. was suitable for culturing at higher concentration of digestate under relatively low-level light conditions.

  14. Frogs as integrative models for understanding digestive organ development and evolution. (United States)

    Womble, Mandy; Pickett, Melissa; Nascone-Yoder, Nanette


    The digestive system comprises numerous cells, tissues and organs that are essential for the proper assimilation of nutrients and energy. Many aspects of digestive organ function are highly conserved among vertebrates, yet the final anatomical configuration of the gut varies widely between species, especially those with different diets. Improved understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events that orchestrate digestive organ development is pertinent to many areas of biology and medicine, including the regeneration or replacement of diseased organs, the etiology of digestive organ birth defects, and the evolution of specialized features of digestive anatomy. In this review, we highlight specific examples of how investigations using Xenopus laevis frog embryos have revealed insight into the molecular and cellular dynamics of digestive organ patterning and morphogenesis that would have been difficult to obtain in other animal models. Additionally, we discuss recent studies of gut development in non-model frog species with unique feeding strategies, such as Lepidobatrachus laevis and Eleutherodactylous coqui, which are beginning to provide glimpses of the evolutionary mechanisms that may generate morphological variation in the digestive tract. The unparalleled experimental versatility of frog embryos make them excellent, integrative models for studying digestive organ development across multiple disciplines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Moorella stamsii sp. nov., a new anaerobic thermophilic hydrogenogenic carboxydotroph isolated from digester sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves, J.I.; Gelder, van A.H.; Alves, M.M.; Sousa, D.Z.; Plugge, C.M.


    A novel anaerobic, thermophilic, carbon monoxide-utilizing bacterium, strain E3-O, was isolated from anaerobic sludge of a municipal solid waste digester. Cells were straight rods, 0.6 to 1µm in diameter and 2 to 3 µm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. Cells formed round terminal

  16. Immunohistochemical localization of translationally controlled tumor protein in the mouse digestive system. (United States)

    Sheverdin, Vadim; Jung, Jiwon; Lee, Kyunglim


    Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a housekeeping protein, highly conserved among various species. It plays a major role in cell differentiation, growth, proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Studies reported so far on TCTP expression in different digestive organs have not led to any understanding of the role of TCTP in digestion, so we localized TCTP in organs of the mouse digestive system employing immunohistochemical techniques. Translationally controlled tumor protein was found expressed in all organs studied: tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver and pancreas. The expression of TCTP was found to be predominant in epithelia and neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia; high in serous glands (parotid, submandibular, gastric, intestinal crypts, pancreatic acini) and in neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia, and moderate to low in epithelia. In epithelia, expression of TCTP varied depending on its type and location. In enteric neurons, TCTP was predominantly expressed in the processes. Translationally controlled tumor protein expression in the liver followed porto-central gradient with higher expression in pericentral hepatocytes. In the pancreas, TCTP was expressed in both acini and islet cells. Our finding of nearly universal localization and expression of TCTP in mouse digestive organs points to the hitherto unrecognized functional importance of TCTP in the digestive system and suggests the need for further studies of the possible role of TCTP in the proliferation, secretion, absorption and neural regulation of the digestive process and its importance in the physiology and pathology of digestive process. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  17. Acid digestion of organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.


    Laboratory studies on the destruction of liquid organic wastes by acid digestion are discussed. A variety of liquid waste types was tested, including those encountered in the nuclear industry as well as some organic liquids representative of non-nuclear industrial wastes. The liquids tested were vacuum pump oil, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), normal paraffin hydrocarbon solvent (NPH), a mixture of 30 vol% TBP in NPH, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), trichloroethane, toluene, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), a mixture of hexone and NPH, polychlorobiphenyl (PCB), isopropanol, normal-decane, and two waste organic solutions from Hanford radioactive waste tanks. The tests demonstrated that several types of organic liquids can be destroyed by the acid digestion process. 8 figures, 19 tables

  18. Anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill wastewater and sludge. (United States)

    Meyer, Torsten; Edwards, Elizabeth A


    Pulp and paper mills generate large amounts of waste organic matter that may be converted to renewable energy in form of methane. The anaerobic treatment of mill wastewater is widely accepted however, usually only applied to few selected streams. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates in full-scale reactors range between 30 and 90%, and methane yields are 0.30-0.40 m(3) kg(-1) COD removed. Highest COD removal rates are achieved with condensate streams from chemical pulping (75-90%) and paper mill effluents (60-80%). Numerous laboratory and pilot-scale studies have shown that, contrary to common perception, most other mill effluents are also to some extent anaerobically treatable. Even for difficult-to-digest streams such as bleaching effluents COD removal rates range between 15 and 90%, depending on the extent of dilution prior to anaerobic treatment, and the applied experimental setting. Co-digestion of different streams containing diverse substrate can level out and diminish toxicity, and may lead to a more robust microbial community. Furthermore, the microbial population has the ability to become acclimated and adapted to adverse conditions. Stress situations such as toxic shock loads or temporary organic overloading may be tolerated by an adapted community, whereas they could lead to process disturbance with an un-adapted community. Therefore, anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing elevated levels of inhibitors or toxicants should be initiated by an acclimation/adaptation period that can last between a few weeks and several months. In order to gain more insight into the underlying processes of microbial acclimation/adaptation and co-digestion, future research should focus on the relationship between wastewater composition, reactor operation and microbial community dynamics. The potential for engineering and managing the microbial resource is still largely untapped. Unlike in wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of mill biosludge (waste activated

  19. Evaluation of Kjeldahl digestion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Flowers, T.H.


    The evaluation of the Kjeldahl digestion method was investigated by comparing measured values of total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium using three salt and catalyst mixture in Standard Kjeldahl digestion method and Salicyclic acid Modification method with certified values of plant material as well as comparison was made for determination of total nitrogen from steam distillation method verses the Technicon Auto-analyzer, and phosphorus Ascorbic acid/Molybdate method verses Molybdate/ Metavanadate method on the Technicon Auto-Analyzer. The 1 g salt/catalyst mixture recovered less nitrogen than the 2.5 g in the standard Kjeldahl method due to the lower temperature and incomplete digestion in both plant and soil samples. The 2.5 g catalyst mixture partially recovered nitrate in the standard Kjeldahl method and the salicylic acid modification fail to recover all over nitrate in plant material. Use of 2.5 g salt catalyst mixture and selenium appears to promote nitrogen losses in salicylic acid modification method but not in the standard Kjeldahl method of digestion for soil samples. No interference of selenium or copper was observed in Nitrogen and Phosphorus on calorimetric determination. The standard Kjeldahl method with 2.5 g of salt/catalyst mixture of sodium sulphate copper sulphate (10:1) in 5 ml sulfuric acid were found suitable for determination of total Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The steam distillation and the Technicon Auto-Analyzer technique measure similar amounts of ammonium nitrogen. However, the Technicon Auto analyzer technique is easier, rapid, higher degree of reproducibility, precise, accurate, reliable and free from human error. The amount of phosphorus measured by the Ascorbic acid/Molybdate method was more accurate than by the Molybdate/Metavanadate method on Technicon Auto-Analyzer. (author)

  20. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders]. (United States)

    Cozon, G J N


    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Lee, D.D.


    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  2. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Donaldson, T.L.


    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester

  3. Anaerobic digestion apparatus and process. Procede et installation de digestion anaerobie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Baere, L.


    This invention concerns a process for the anaerobic digestion of apparently solid organic matter. The matter is mixed and kneaded with an inoculant to form an apparently solid mass having a water content which varies from around 55 wt % to around 75 wt %. This mass is then introduced into a digestor, where it is digested for a period of around less than 50 days. The biogas produced during the anaerobic digestion stage is recovered, said biogas being a byproduct of the digestion process. The digested mass is extracted, and at least a third, by weight, of that mass is recycled to act as the inoculant. The non-recycled digested mass is removed.

  4. Digestive system dysfunction in cystic fibrosis: challenges for nutrition therapy. (United States)

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn


    Cystic fibrosis can affect food digestion and nutrient absorption. The underlying mutation of the cystic fibrosis trans-membrane regulator gene depletes functional cystic fibrosis trans-membrane regulator on the surface of epithelial cells lining the digestive tract and associated organs, where Cl(-) secretion and subsequently secretion of water and other ions are impaired. This alters pH and dehydrates secretions that precipitate and obstruct the lumen, causing inflammation and the eventual degradation of the pancreas, liver, gallbladder and intestine. Associated conditions include exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, impaired bicarbonate and bile acid secretion and aberrant mucus formation, commonly leading to maldigestion and malabsorption, particularly of fat and fat-soluble vitamins. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is used to address this insufficiency. The susceptibility of pancreatic lipase to acidic and enzymatic inactivation and decreased bile availability often impedes its efficacy. Brush border digestive enzyme activity and intestinal uptake of certain disaccharides and amino acids await clarification. Other complications that may contribute to maldigestion/malabsorption include small intestine bacterial overgrowth, enteric circular muscle dysfunction, abnormal intestinal mucus, and intestinal inflammation. However, there is some evidence that gastric digestive enzymes, colonic microflora, correction of fatty acid abnormalities using dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and emerging intestinal biomarkers can complement nutrition management in cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of shear stress and impeller design on the production of biogas in anaerobic digesters. (United States)

    Lebranchu, Aline; Delaunay, Stéphane; Marchal, Philippe; Blanchard, Fabrice; Pacaud, Stéphane; Fick, Michel; Olmos, Eric


    Today, intensification of anaerobic digestion is still a scientific and technical challenge. The present study proposed combined experimental and computational fluid dynamics simulations to characterize the impact of shear stress and impeller design on the biogas production after sequential additions of substrate. Liquid phase (cattle manure digestate) rheological law was experimentally determined and input in numerical simulations. The results showed that the original use of a double helical ribbon in digester allowed a significantly faster dispersion of fresh substrate than the use of a classical Rushton turbine, leading to a 50% higher methane production rate. However, with both impellers, too high agitation rates entailed a clear slow-down of production rate and a decrease in CH 4 content. To avoid this loss of productivity, it was shown that the maximal value of shear stress, determined by numerical simulations, was a consistent parameter to set the upper agitation conditions in digesters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Treatment on Chemical Composition and Digestibility of Straw


    ARISOY, Münevver


    Digestibility in vivo, in vitro and, in situ and effect on the chemical composition of barley straw following pilot-scale treatment with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were investigated A range of laboratory measurements were also verified. Laboratory methods included three estimates of digestibility in vivo, in vitro and in situ. NaO treatment reduced the hemicellulose content and this resulted in an increased content of cellulose and lignin in the remaining cell wall. The mean increased in org...

  7. Implications from distinct sulfate-reducing bacteria populations between cattle manure and digestate in the elucidation of H2S production during anaerobic digestion of animal slurry. (United States)

    St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G


    Biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of animal slurry consists mainly of methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), but also includes other minor gases, such as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). Since it can act as a potent corrosive agent and presents a health hazard even at low concentrations, H 2 S is considered an undesirable by-product of anaerobic digestion. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) have been identified as the main biological source of H 2 S in a number of natural, biological, and human-made habitats, and thus represent likely candidate microorganisms responsible for the production of H 2 S in anaerobic manure digesters. Phylogenetically, SRBs form a divergent group of bacteria that share a common anaerobic respiration pathway that allows them to use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor. While the composition and activity of SRBs have been well documented in other environments, their metabolic potential remains largely uncharacterized and their populations poorly defined in anaerobic manure digesters. In this context, a combination of in vitro culture-based studies and DNA-based approaches, respectively, were used to gain further insight. Unexpectedly, only low to nondetectable levels of H 2 S were produced by digestate collected from a manure biogas plant documented to have persistently high concentrations of H 2 S in its biogas (2000-3000 ppm). In contrast, combining digestate with untreated manure (a substrate with comparatively lower sulfate and SRB cell densities than digestate) was found to produce elevated H 2 S levels in culture. While a 16S rRNA gene-based community composition approach did not reveal likely candidate SRBs in digestate or untreated manure, the use of the dsrAB gene as a phylogenetic marker provided more insight. In digestate, the predominant SRBs were found to be uncharacterized species likely belonging to the genus Desulfosporosinus (Peptococcaceae, Clostridiales, Firmicutes), while Desulfovibrio-related SRBs

  8. Anaerobic Digestion: Mass Balances and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jansen, Jes la Cour


    While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories....... Understanding these issues and being able to account for them is a prerequisite in digestion engineering and for establishing and running a successful anaerobic digestion facility. Of specific importance is the final use of the digestate. Use in agriculture as a fertilizer is described in Chapter 9.10 and use...... after composting of the digestate as a soil amendment product is analogous to issues presented in Chapter 9.9 for compost....

  9. Understanding and Predicting Foam in Anaerobic Digester


    I. R. Kanu; T. J. Aspray; A. J. Adeloye


    As a result of the ambiguity and complexity surrounding anaerobic digester foaming, efforts have been made by various researchers to understand the process of anaerobic digester foaming so as to proffer a solution that can be universally applied rather than site specific. All attempts ranging from experimental analysis to comparative review of other process has not fully explained the conditions and process of foaming in anaerobic digester. Studying the current available ...

  10. Apparent seed digestibility and germination of seeds after passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhite (United States)

    Limited information is available regarding the digestibility or germination of seed after the passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), especially of plants associated with the sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-mixed prairie community. Thus, our objectives...

  11. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control. (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  12. Automated saccharification assay for determination of digestibility in plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halpin Claire


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell wall resistance represents the main barrier for the production of second generation biofuels. The deconstruction of lignocellulose can provide sugars for the production of fuels or other industrial products through fermentation. Understanding the biochemical basis of the recalcitrance of cell walls to digestion will allow development of more effective and cost efficient ways to produce sugars from biomass. One approach is to identify plant genes that play a role in biomass recalcitrance, using association genetics. Such an approach requires a robust and reliable high throughput (HT assay for biomass digestibility, which can be used to screen the large numbers of samples involved in such studies. Results We developed a HT saccharification assay based on a robotic platform that can carry out in a 96-well plate format the enzymatic digestion and quantification of the released sugars. The handling of the biomass powder for weighing and formatting into 96 wells is performed by a robotic station, where the plant material is ground, delivered to the desired well in the plates and weighed with a precision of 0.1 mg. Once the plates are loaded, an automated liquid handling platform delivers an optional mild pretreatment ( Conclusions The automated assay systems are sensitive, robust and reliable. The system can reliably detect differences in the saccharification of plant tissues, and is able to process large number of samples with a minimum amount of human intervention. The automated system uncovered significant increases in the digestibility of certain lignin modified lines in a manner compatible with known effects of lignin modification on cell wall properties. We conclude that this automated assay platform is of sufficient sensitivity and reliability to undertake the screening of the large populations of plants necessary for mutant identification and genetic association studies.

  13. Inactivation of Clostridium difficile in sewage sludge by anaerobic thermophilic digestion. (United States)

    Xu, Changyun; Salsali, Hamidreza; Weese, Scott; Warriner, Keith


    There has been an increase in community-associated Clostridium difficile infections with biosolids derived from wastewater treatment being identified as one potential source. The current study evaluated the efficacy of thermophilic digestion in decreasing levels of C. difficile ribotype 078 associated with sewage sludge. Five isolates of C. difficile 078 were introduced (final density of 5 log CFU/g) into digested sludge and subjected to anaerobic digestion at mesophilic (36 or 42 °C) or thermophilic (55 °C) temperatures for up to 60 days. It was found that mesophilic digestion at 36 °C did not result in a significant reduction in C. difficile spore levels. In contrast, thermophilic sludge digestion reduced endospore levels at a rate of 0.19-2.68 log CFU/day, depending on the strain tested. The mechanism of lethality was indirect - by stimulating germination then inactivating the resultant vegetative cells. Acidification of sludge by adding acetic acid (6 g/L) inhibited the germination of spores regardless of the sludge digestion temperature. In conclusion, thermophilic digestion can be applied to reduce C. difficile in biosolids, thereby reducing the environmental burden of the enteric pathogen.

  14. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...... requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader...

  15. Soybean protein fraction digested with neutral protease preparation, "Peptidase R", produced by Rhizopus oryzae, stimulates innate cellular immune system in mouse. (United States)

    Egusa, Shintaro; Otani, Hajime


    A soybean protein fraction was prepared from defatted soybean seed flour and digested with 29 kinds of commercially available protease originating from preparations of animals, plants, and microorganisms. Some digests, in particular, Ro-digest prepared using a Rhizopus oryzae neutral protease preparation (Peptidase R), displayed strong mitogenic activity toward C3H/HeN mouse spleen cells. The number of spleen CD11b+, CD49b+, interleukin (IL)-12+CD11b+, and interferon (IFN)-gamma+CD49b+ cells significantly increased when cultured with Ro-digest. Similarly, the number of spleen IFN-gamma+CD4+ cells significantly increased in the presence of Ro-digest while that of spleen IL-4+CD4+ cells was largely unchanged. Additionally, 5-week-old male C3H/HeN mice were given diets consisting of ovalbumin (OVA) alone (control diet) or a mixture of OVA and Ro-digest (Ro-digest-added diet) as a protein source for 5 weeks, and the immune properties of the mice were investigated. The number of IL-12+CD11b+ cells was greater in spleens from mice given the Ro-digest-added diet than in those given the control diet. The cytotoxic activity of spleen cells toward the human erythroleukemia cell line, K562, was significantly higher in mice given the Ro-digest-added diet than in those given the control diet. Furthermore, in a microarray analysis of mRNAs extracted from mice Peyer's patch cells, gene expression related to innate immune responses was increased in mice given the Ro-digest-added diet. These results indicate that the Ro-digest might stimulate cellular immune systems, in particular, an innate immunity in mice.

  16. In vitro starch digestion correlates well with rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, R.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, van der P.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.


    Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in

  17. Study on the morphology, histology and enzymatic activity of the digestive tract of Gymnocypris eckloni Herzenstein. (United States)

    Yang, Lizhu; Fang, Jing; Peng, Xi; Cui, Hengmin; He, Min; Zuo, Zhicai; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Zhuangzhi


    The present research was conducted to study the morphology, histology and enzymatic activities of the digestive tract of Gymnocypris eckloni by light and transmission electron microscopes as well as by enzyme assays. The digestive tract of G. eckloni consisted of the oropharyngeal cavity, oesophagus and intestine. The wall of the digestive tract was composed of mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa but lacked muscularis mucosa and glands. The stratified epithelium of the oropharyngeal cavity and oesophagus contained numerous mucous cells. Taste buds were found in the epithelium of the oropharyngeal cavity. A large number of isolated longitudinal striated muscular bundles were present in the submucosa of the oesophagus. The mucosal epithelium of the intestine was composed of simple columnar cells containing absorptive, goblet and endocrine cells. Numerous mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum were observed in the absorptive cells, especially in the anterior intestine. From the anterior to the posterior intestine, the number and length of mucosal folds and microvilli decreased, but the number of goblet cells increased. The intestinal coefficient was 2.38. Maximum trypsin activity was measured in the anterior intestine, while the lowest lipase and amylase activities were tested in the middle and posterior intestines, respectively. The results provided experimental evidence for evaluating physiological condition of G. eckloni digestive tract, which will be useful for improving current rearing practices and diagnoses of digestive tract diseases.

  18. Effect of Digestion and Storage of Human Milk on Free Fatty Acid Concentration and Cytotoxicity (United States)

    Penn, Alexander H.; Altshuler, Angelina E.; Small, James W.; Taylor, Sharon F.; Dobkins, Karen R.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.


    Objectives Fat is digested in the intestine into free fatty acids (FFAs), which are detergents and therefore toxic to cells at micromolar concentration. The mucosal barrier protects cells in the adult intestine, but this barrier may not be fully developed in premature infants. Lipase-digested infant formula, but not fresh human milk, has elevated FFAs and is cytotoxic to intestinal cells, and therefore could contribute to intestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). But even infants exclusively fed breast milk may develop NEC. Our objective was to determine if stored milk and milk from donor milk banks (DM) could also become cytotoxic, especially after digestion. Methods We exposed cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells or human neutrophils to DM and milk collected fresh and stored at 4 or −20 °C for up to 12 weeks and then treated for 2 hours (37°C) with 0.1 or 1 mg/ml pancreatic lipase and/or trypsin and chymotrypsin. Results DM and milk stored 3 days (at 4 or −20 °C) and then digested were cytotoxic. Storage at −20 °C for 8 and 12 weeks resulted in an additional increase in cytotoxicity. Protease digestion decreased, but did not eliminate cell death. Conclusions Current storage practices may allow milk to become cytotoxic and contribute to intestinal damage in NEC. PMID:24840512

  19. Effect of Acylglycerol Composition and Fatty Acyl Chain Length on Lipid Digestion in pH-Stat Digestion Model and Simulated In Vitro Digestion Model. (United States)

    Qi, Jin F; Jia, Cai H; Shin, Jung A; Woo, Jeong M; Wang, Xiang Y; Park, Jong T; Hong, Soon T; Lee, K-T


    In this study, a pH-stat digestion model and a simulated in vitro digestion model were employed to evaluate the digestion degree of lipids depending on different acylglycerols and acyl chain length (that is, diacylglycerol [DAG] compared with soybean oil representing long-chain triacylglycerol compared with medium-chain triacylglycerol [MCT]). In the pH-stat digestion model, differences were observed among the digestion degrees of 3 oils using digestion rate (k), digestion half-time (t1/2 ), and digestion extent (Φmax). The results showed the digestion rate order was MCT > soybean oil > DAG. Accordingly, the order of digestion half-times was MCT digestion model, digestion rates (k') and digestion half-times (t'1/2 ) were also obtained and the results showed a digestion rate order of MCT (k' = 0.068 min(-1) ) > soybean oil (k' = 0.037 min(-1) ) > DAG (k' = 0.024 min(-1) ). Consequently, the order of digestion half-times was MCT (t'1/2 = 10.20 min) digested faster than soybean oil, and that soybean oil was digested faster than DAG. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Handling of digestate on farm level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodhe, Lena; Salomon, Eva; Edstroem, Mats


    The farmers are interested in the influence of the digestate properties on the farm economy, how to get a high utilisation of the plant nutrient contents of the digestate and the influence of spreading strategy e.g. application rate and time on the spreading economy. The value of the liquid and solid digestate was investigated by economical calculations in different scenarios. For calculating the profitability of handling liquid and solid digestate on farm level, an economical model was used. The model describes the handling system and the relationships between soil, crop, technology and the organization that influences the profitability of different systems for handling digestate on farms. The revenues are calculated as the sum of nutrients (N, P and K) available to plants. Costs are included for machinery (spreaders), labour and soil compaction. The fixed costs for the tractor for loading the solid digestate and for spreading liquid/solid digestate are considered as overheads. Storage cost was not included. Nor was the cost for the digestate included. The revenues reduced with the costs gives the net present value (Euro/t/yr). Including the fixed costs of tractors, costs of storage and possible charge for the digestate, means additional costs and thereby lower net present value For the set conditions, the liquid digestate (15,000 t/yr) were band spread with two tankers each 15 m{sup 3} in growing winter wheat (30 or 20 t/ha) and before sowing in the autumn (20 t/ha). The amount were either divided 2/3 in summer: 1/3 autumn or 1/3 summer:2/3 autumn. The concentrations of the liquid digestate (2.5 % dry matter content) were estimated to 4.8 kg total-N/t, 3.6 kg total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN)/t, 0.4 kg phosphorus (P)/t, and 4.2 kg potassium (K)/t. Calculations were also made with concentrations +25% and -25% of the estimated concentrations. The solid digestate (6 500 t/yr) were broadcast spread with two spreaders (12 m working width) before sowing in the autumn (30


    Gold, Phil; Freedman, Samuel O.


    A wide variety of human adult and fetal tissues were studied by immune-diffusion techniques in agar gel to determine whether they contained the tumor-specific antigen(s) previously found in coionic cancers. In the adult tissues it was demonstrated that identical antigens were present in all tested specimens of malignant tumors of the entodermally derived epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas, but were absent from all other tested adult tissues. The common antigenic constituents, therefore, represent system-specific cancer antigens of the human digestive system. System-specific cancer antigens have not previously been demonstrated in humans. Experiments with fetal tissues demonstrated that identical antigens were also present in fetal gut, liver, and pancreas between 2 and 6 months of gestation. These components were named "carcinoembryonic" antigens of the human digestive system. On the basis of the present findings and the recent work regarding control of the expression of genetic potentialities in various types of cells, it was concluded that the carcinoembryonic antigens represent cellular constituents which are repressed during the course of differentiation of the normal digestive system epithelium and reappear in the corresponding malignant cells by a process of derepressive-dedifferentiation. PMID:4953873

  2. Improvement of the digestibility of the proteins of the red alga Palmaria palmata by physical processes and fermentation. (United States)

    Marrion, Olivier; Schwertz, Annie; Fleurence, Joël; Guéant, Jean Louis; Villaume, Christian


    Palmaria palmata (dulse) is an edible red alga constituting a potential protein source in human diet. However, previous studies showed that the digestibility of dulse proteins is bad because of the cell-wall encapsulating cytoplasmic proteins and the presence of fibers. The water-soluble xylan, present in high proportions in dulse, could be involved to explain the weak digestibility of proteins. To limit the influence of fibers and to improve the nutritional quality of these proteins, we have treated dulse by physical processes or by fermentation by moulds. After a 30 min predigestion by pepsin followed by a 6 h digestion into a cell dialysis containing porcine pancreatin, the corrected in vitro digestibility of crude dulse was very low (about 1.5% after correction by digestibility blank). The in vitro protein digestibility was estimated to 58% of that of casein for dulse samples obtained after washing in demineralized water and grinding in liquid nitrogen. The in vitro protein digestibility of fermented samples was 45%-65% of that of casein. After physical treatment, the digestibility improvement was related to the elimination of soluble molecules such as xylan and mineral salts. The improvement observed after fermentations seemed due to the degradation of insoluble fibers.

  3. Digestibility of chitin in cod, Gadus morhua, in vivo (United States)

    Danulat, Eva


    Sixteen cod, Gadus morhua (L.), were individually fed a single ration of shrimps, Crangon allmanni. Four fish were killed and examined 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after the fish had been fed. Chitinase activities were measured in the extracts of stomach contents, stomach tissue, pyloric caecae, intestinal contents and intestinal tissue. The level of enzyme activity in different parts of the digestive tract was shown to be dependent on the phase of the digestive process. High concentrations of the chitin degradation product N-acetyl-D-glucosamine were determined in the stomach and in the intestinal contents. Based on the chitin concentration in the food organisms and the individual food uptake, the amount of chitin consumed by each fish could be calculated. Only up to 9% of the ingested chitin was recovered from the intestinal contents of the fish at any given time after feeding (6, 12, 24 and 48 h). In addition, only 2.4% of the chitin consumed with the food could be recovered in the collected faeces of the fish. The 4 cod killed 48 h after feeding had completely emptied their stomach. Chitin digestion in these fish was calculated to have been 90%.

  4. Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System (United States)

    Muller, Jennifer K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.


    The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Plant Lectins as Medical Tools against Digestive System Cancers. (United States)

    Estrada-Martínez, Laura Elena; Moreno-Celis, Ulisses; Cervantes-Jiménez, Ricardo; Ferriz-Martínez, Roberto Augusto; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; García-Gasca, Teresa


    Digestive system cancers-those of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon-rectum, liver, and pancreas-are highly related to genetics and lifestyle. Most are considered highly mortal due to the frequency of late diagnosis, usually in advanced stages, caused by the absence of symptoms or masked by other pathologies. Different tools are being investigated in the search of a more precise diagnosis and treatment. Plant lectins have been studied because of their ability to recognize and bind to carbohydrates, exerting a variety of biological activities on animal cells, including anticancer activities. The present report integrates existing information on the activity of plant lectins on various types of digestive system cancers, and surveys the current state of research into their properties for diagnosis and selective treatment.

  6. Microbial electrochemical monitoring of volatile fatty acids during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng


    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration is known as an important indicator to control and optimize anaerobic digestion (AD) process. In this study, an innovative VFA biosensor was developed based on the principle of a microbial desalination cell. The correlation between current densities and VFA...... concentrations was firstly evaluated with synthetic digestate. Two linear relationships were observed between current densities and VFA levels from 1 to 30 mM (0.04 to 8.50 mA/m2, R2=0.97) and then from 30 to 200 mM (8.50 to 10.80 mA/m2, R2=0.95). The detection range was much broader than that of other existing...... and reliable measurement of VFA levels during AD and other anaerobic processes....

  7. Chemically modified, immobilized trypsin reactor with improved digestion efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freije, J.R.; Mulder, P.P.; Werkman, W.; Rieux, L.; Niederlander, H.A G; Verpoorte, Sabeth; Bischoff, Rainer


    Tryptic digestion followed by identification using mass spectrometry is an important step in many proteomic studies. Here, we describe the preparation of immobilized, acetylated trypsin for enhanced digestion efficacy in integrated protein analysis platforms. Complete digestion of cytochrome c was


    Gazizova, G R; Zabotin, Ya I; Golubev, A I


    The paper presents data on the ultrastructure of parenchyma that is involved in the digestion in turbellaria Convoluta convoluta (n = 15). Unusual connections between the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane of parenchymal cells were found for the first time, which may indicate the origin of these cell structures. The double trophic role of zooxanthellae in the organism of Convoluta is described.

  9. Prediction of trace compounds in biogas from anaerobic digestion using the MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Domnanovich, A.M.; Zani, L.; Braun, R.; Holubar, P.


    The outlook to apply the highly energetic biogas from anaerobic digestion into fuel cells will result in a significantly higher electrical efficiency and can contribute to an increase of renewable energy production. The practical bottleneck is the fuel cell poisoning caused by several gaseous trace

  10. Important roles of P2Y receptors in the inflammation and cancer of digestive system. (United States)

    Wan, Han-Xing; Hu, Jian-Hong; Xie, Rei; Yang, Shi-Ming; Dong, Hui


    Purinergic signaling is important for many biological processes in humans. Purinoceptors P2Y are widely distributed in human digestive system and different subtypes of P2Y receptors mediate different physiological functions from metabolism, proliferation, differentiation to apoptosis etc. The P2Y receptors are essential in many gastrointestinal functions and also involve in the occurrence of some digestive diseases. Since different subtypes of P2Y receptors are present on the same cell of digestive organs, varying subtypes of P2Y receptors may have opposite or synergetic functions on the same cell. Recently, growing lines of evidence strongly suggest the involvement of P2Y receptors in the pathogenesis of several digestive diseases. In this review, we will focus on their important roles in the development of digestive inflammation and cancer. We anticipate that as the special subtypes of P2Y receptors are studied in depth, specific modulators for them will have good potentials to become promising new drugs to treat human digestive diseases in the near future.

  11. Closed vessels microwave digestion method for uranium analysis of soils using alpha-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salar Amoli, H.; Barker, J.; Flowers, A.


    This paper describes our development of an accurate determination of uranium by alpha spectrometry using various kinds of sample digestion methods. The sample preparation techniques employed an acid digestion with HNO 3 , and microwave oven digestion either by HNO 3 or by combination of HNO 3 and HF. The samples were obtained from surface and in depth(40 cm) soils from residential area. An extraction chromatography column has been used to separate the uranium from interference matrix and elements. Results show that the microwave method significantly speeds up the analysis time, reduces the volume of acids used and eliminates a large fraction of acid vapour emission. Compared with the uranium recoveries it was shown that microwave HNO 3 +HF achieved greater recovery (83%) than microwave HNO 3 (78%), while less obtained by HNO 3 digestion using hot plate (75%). Various kind of digestion methods have been applied (24 times) for two kind of soil sample . The reproducibility was acceptable and the average precision (coefficient of variation) was between 4 to 5. No significant differences between the precision of the methods have been observed. Acid volume required for the microwave procedures are a fraction of 5 times lower and the analysis time 6 times lower than traditional digestion by hot plate technique. (author)

  12. Susceptibility of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) peel proteins to digestive enzymes. (United States)

    Maloney, Katherine P; Truong, Van-Den; Allen, Jonathan C


    Sweet potato proteins have been shown to possess antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vivo. The ability of a protein to exhibit systemic effects is somewhat unusual as proteins are typically susceptible to digestive enzymes. This study was undertaken to better understand how digestive enzymes affect sweet potato proteins. Two fractions of industrially processed sweet potato peel, containing 6.8% and 8.5% protein and 80.5% and 83.3% carbohydrate, were used as a source of protein. Sweet potato proteins were incubated with pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin and protein breakdown was visualized with SDS-PAGE. After pepsin digestion, samples were assayed for amylase inhibitory activity. Sporamin, the major storage protein in sweet potatoes, which functions as a trypsin inhibitor as well, exhibited resistance to pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Sporamin from blanched peel of orange sweet potatoes was less resistant to pepsin digestion than sporamin from outer peel and from extract of the white-skinned Caiapo sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitory activity remained after simulated gastric digestion, with the Caiapo potato protein and peel samples exhibiting higher inhibitory activity compared to the blanched peel sample. Amylase and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was not present in any of the samples after digestion.

  13. La Disciplina Positiva (Positive Discipline). ERIC Digest. (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. The digest explains 12 methods of disciplining children that promote children's self-worth. These methods are: (1) showing children that the reasons for their actions are understood; (2) stating reasons; (3)…

  14. Simulating Dinosaur Digestion in the Classroom. (United States)

    Peczkis, Jan


    Describes an activity for use with a chapter on dinosaurs, prehistoric life, or digestion in which children make simulated dinosaur stomachs to gain hands-on experience about the theory of gastroliths, or stomach stones. Presents teacher information about the digestive processes in birds and dinosaurs. Discusses materials needed, objectives,…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Science

    rainfall and evaporation on dry matter digestibility (DMD) and voluntary feed intake (VFI) were evaluated for kikuyu pasture in the KZN Midlands where kikuyu forms a significant part of the dairy farm fodder-flow. .... tropical species, drought or slight moisture stress increased digestibility relative to well-watered forage.

  16. Anaerobic digestion submarine in Abbey farmyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    An anaerobic digestion system and fiber separation plant installed at Bethlehem Abbey (Northern Ireland) produces biogas for central heating and grain drying, and a compost which is bagged and sold. According to one report, it even keeps the monks warm at night. Designed by James Murcott of Farm Gas Ltd., the digester (shaped like a submarine) receives 10% solids slurry.

  17. Motivating Low Performing Adolescent Readers. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Collins, Norma Decker

    This Digest focuses on motivating the low performing adolescent in a remedial reading or subject area classroom--the idea is that students who are disengaged from their own learning processes are not likely to perform well in school. The Digest points out that such adolescents are often caught in a cycle of failure and that secondary teachers must…

  18. Pathology of digestive organs at adiposity (review)


    Meshcherjakov V.L.; Volkov S.V.; Kozlova I.V.; Anisimova E.V.


    The review is devoted demonstration of communication of adiposity with occurrence of diseases of digestive organs. The problem urgency is caused by steady increase in number of patients with adiposity, involving in pathological process of vitals. Clinical changes from digestive organs at patients with adiposity can be the diversified, presence « two-dimensional syndromes», caused multiorgans a pathology is characteristic

  19. Politically Correct on Campus. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    This digest reviews materials which discuss political correctness and its manifestations on college campuses. First presenting opposing definitions of the term (liberal and conservative), the digest then reports on the topic as seen in the research, and offers several suggestions about incorporating the conflicts themselves into the curriculum.…

  20. Video Games: Research, Ratings, Recommendations. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This Digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The Digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders played at least one…

  1. Mesophilic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.



    In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).
    For this purpose were researched:
    1. Anaerobic digestion

  2. Wheat starch digestion rate affects broiler performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.; Perez de Ayala, P.; Villamide, M.J.


    Two experiments were conducted to determine the differences in starch digestion rate (KDS) among wheats from different cultivars and origins and to verify if chickens would benefit from a certain digestion rate of starch. In the first experiment, 192 chickens (21 d) were assigned to 4 diets

  3. Digestive strategies in two sympatrically occurring lagomorphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, D.P.J.; Wieren, van S.E.; Bakker, J.P.


    Separation of low digestible fibres and fermentation of the digestible part of the food in the caecum is an adaptation of some small herbivores to cope with low-quality forage. The caecum content is later re-ingested as soft faeces so that the herbivore can benefit from this protein-rich material.

  4. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus...

  5. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.


    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process...

  6. Intestinal morphology, digestive organ size and digesta pH of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 30, 2015 ... digestion and absorption of nutrients required for the bird's maintenance and growth (Mateos et al., 2002;. Baurhoo et al. ... morphological and physiological changes of the GIT occurring only during the post-hatch period, including increases in .... ratio or feed : gain (FCR) at 35 d old are shown in Table 4.

  7. Probiotics versus antibiotic decontamination of the digestive tract: infection and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Oudhuis (Guy); D.C. Bergmans (Tom); T. Dormans (Tom); J-H. Zwaveling (Jan-Harm); A.G. Kessels (Alphons); M.H. Prins (Martin); E.E. Stobberingh (Ellen); A. Verbon (Annelies)


    textabstractPurpose: Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) has been shown to decrease the infection rate and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs); Lactobacillus plantarum 299/299v plus fibre (LAB) has been used for infection prevention and does not harbour the potential

  8. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.


    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS...... pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixtureof swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1...... (ADM1) was fitted to a manure-fed, CSTR-type digester and validated by simulating the performance of a second reactor digesting manure. It was shown that disintegration and hydrolysis of the solid matter of manure was such a slow process that the organic particulate matter did not significantly...

  9. Development of a preliminary database of digestate chemistry, heavy metal and pathogen content to assist in Alberta regulation compliance : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckford, R.; Gao, T.T.J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    An ongoing investigation is underway in Alberta to study the feasibility of designing biogas facilities that use various biowaste feedstocks or substrates. Digestate from biowaste substrates other than manure is currently designated as sewage sludge, thus presenting economical challenges to an emerging anaerobic digestion industry. Previous studies at the Alberta Research Council (ARC) have shown that elevated heavy metal content is found primarily in manure and slaughterhouse waste and not in general biowaste. The limited data from ARC does not give Alberta Environment enough information to set guidelines for handling the digestate generated from biogas plants using various biowastes. The first part of this document provided information on digestate chemistry. In order to set guidelines for the biogas industry, it discussed the levels of heavy metals, salts, as well as nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in feedstock biowastes used for anaerobic digestion and the post-digestion digestates, separated liquids and solids. It also discussed levels and destruction of pathogens in biowaste during anaerobic digestion. The second part of this document included an evaluation of pathogens in biowaste and digestate. A small-scale study was conducted on undigested biowaste and effluent after anaerobic digestion of biowaste using the USEPA microbiology testing methods for fecal coliform and Salmonella for biosolids. 22 refs., 95 tabs.

  10. Glucocorticoids and the cell surface of human glioma cells: relationship to cytostasis. (United States)

    Mackie, A E; Freshney, R I; Akturk, F; Hunt, G


    The glucocorticoid hormones methyl prednisolone and dexamethasone were shown to be cytostatic, but not cytotoxic, at high cell densities for early passage and continuous cell lines from human glioma at 0.25 microM and above, in the presence or absence of serum. In the absence of serum both steroids at 2.5 nM increased the saturation density close to the level reached in serum. Examination of the iodinated glycoproteins of the cell surface by gel electrophoresis did not reveal any consistent change. However, gel exclusion chromatography of protease digests of the cell surface and of material released into the medium showed an increase in incorporation of 3H-glucosamine in pronase digests after treatment with methyl prednisolone. Ion exchange chromatography showed that sulphated glycosaminoglycans, particularly heparan sulphate, increased and hyaluronic acid decreased in response to steroids, and there was increased retention of GAGs on the cell surface relative to the released fraction. It was concluded that glucocorticoid hormones modify the cell surface of human glioma cells and that this may contribute to enhanced cell intraction and lead to increased density limitation of cell proliferation.

  11. Neither retinal nor brain atrophy can be shown in patients with isolated unilateral optic neuritis at the time of presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, Klaus; Sander, Birgit; Tsakiri, Anna


    BACKGROUND: Acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) may be the earliest manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Atrophy has been shown to be a prominent feature of MS with great impact on disability. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate retinal and brain atrophy and possi......BACKGROUND: Acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) may be the earliest manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Atrophy has been shown to be a prominent feature of MS with great impact on disability. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate retinal and brain atrophy...... were calculated based on MRI. Additionally, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded. RESULTS: Neither OCT measurements nor brain volume measures revealed signs of localized or generalized atrophy in patients compared with healthy volunteers. Stratification of patients into high risk based...

  12. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini


    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 degrees C and for some experiments also at 37 degrees C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone...... hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion...... of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 degrees C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone....

  13. Lytic process studies on anaerobic digestion of organic wastes. Etude des activites lytiques intervenant au cours de la digestion anaerobie des dechets organiques; Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durecu, S.; Thauront, J. (PEC Engineering, 95 - Cergy Pontoise (France). Service de Recherche et Developpement); Festino, C.; Aubart, C.; Reisinger, O. (Nancy-1 Univ., 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Lab. d' Ecologie Microbienne)


    To improve anaerobic digestion of pig manure, solubilization of the solid fraction was studied as the rate limiting step in the biomethanation process in an experimental completely mixed digester. The performance of conventional digesters should anaerobic microflora were inefficient in degrading complex biopolymers such as plant fibers. For pectin or cellulose, the use of digestible co-substrates accelerated methanation by increasing the yield of methane and a doubling of the apparent first order solubilization rate constant (Kp = 0.090/d). Lignin should methanation by decreasing methane yield and reducing the rate constant (Kp = 0.035/d). This inhibition was unrelated to volatile fatty acid accumulation. Nine strains of pectinolytic and/or cellulolytic bacteria were isolated. Chitin, a structural constituent of many final species, was effectively solubilized dining anaerobic digestion of pig manure. Seven strains of chitinolytic bacteria were isolated by high chitnese activity. The mycolytic power of fermenting manure processes acting through lytic microflora has been shown to be an effective antagonist of soil borne phytopathogenic fungi, as well as a fertilizer. In greenhouse trails, this compiled fraction demonstrated its ability to control flux unit. Keratin enhanced methane production, and increased H{sub 2}S nearly six-fold. Bacterial strains able to solubilize keratin were also used in autoclawed feather meal to extract the amino acids. (KJD)

  14. Enzymatic digestion of partially and fully regenerated cellulose model films from trimethylsilyl cellulose. (United States)

    Mohan, Tamilselvan; Kargl, Rupert; Doliška, Aleš; Ehmann, Heike M A; Ribitsch, Volker; Stana-Kleinschek, Karin


    Partially and fully regenerated cellulose model films from trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC) were prepared by a time dependent regeneration approach. These thin films were characterized with contact angle measurements and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). In order to get further insights into the completeness of the regeneration we studied the interaction of cellulase enzymes from Trichoderma viride with the cellulose films using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). To support the results from the QCM-D experiments capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were applied. The changes in mass and energy dissipation due to the interaction of the enzymes with the substrates were correlated with the surface wettability and elemental composition of the regenerated films. The highest interaction activity between the films and the enzyme, as well as the highest cellulose degradation, was observed on fully regenerated cellulose films, but some degradation also occurred on pure TMSC films. The enzymatic degradation rate correlated well with the rate of regeneration. It was demonstrated that CZE can be used to support QCM-D data via the detection of enzyme hydrolysis products in the eluates of the QCM-D cells. Glucose release peaked at the same time as the maximum mass loss was detected via QCM-D. It was shown that a combination of QCM-D and CZE together with enzymatic digestion is a reliable method to determine the conversion rate of TMSC to cellulose. In addition QCM-D and AFM revealed that cellulase is irreversibly bound to hydrophobic TMSC surfaces, while pure cellulose is digested almost completely in the course of hydrolysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral Administration of Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing the Cellulase Gene Increases Digestibility of Fiber in Geese. (United States)

    Zhou, Haizhu; Gao, Yunhang; Gao, Guang; Lou, Yujie


    Enhancing cellulose digestibility in animals is important for improving the utilization of forage, which can decrease the amount of food used in animal production. The aim of the present study was to achieve recombinant expression of the cellulase gene in Lactococcus lactis and evaluate the effects of oral administration of the recombinant L. lactis on fiber digestibility in geese. Cellulase (Cell) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes were cloned into a L. lactis expression vector (pNZ8149) to construct the recombinant expression plasmid (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell). Then, the recombinant expression plasmid was transformed into L. lactis (NZ3900) competent cells by electroporation to obtain recombinant L. lactis (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900) in which protein expression was induced by Nisin. Expression of GFP and Cell by the recombinant L. lactis was confirmed using SDS-PAGE, fluorescence detection, and Congo red assays. A feeding experiment showed that oral administration of pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900 significantly increased the digestibility of dietary fiber in geese fed either a maize stalk diet or a rice chaff diet. Therefore, oral administration of recombinant L. lactis cells expressing the cellulase gene increases fiber digestibility in geese, offering a way to increase the utilization of dietary fiber in geese.

  16. A Digest of Nonproliferation Literature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth A


    In preparation for the 2005 US/Russian Weapons Laboratories Directors Meeting, the six laboratories participating in the meeting endeavored to develop a strategy for nonproliferation technology research and development. A literature review was conducted to identify possible areas of technical collaboration and technology opportunities associated with improving nonproliferation associated with the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The issue of multinationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle was also researched. This digest is the compilation of one-page summaries used by management of the three US nuclear weapons laboratories in preparation for strategy development. Where possible, the Web site address of the complete paper is referenced.3 AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to thank Jessica Ruyle, Nancy Orlando-Gay, and Barbara Dry for their research assistance and contributions.4

  17. Radiation therapy for digestive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Levy, E.; Thirion, P.; Martin, L.; Calitchi, E.; Otmezguine, Y.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.


    This brief review of radiation therapy of digestive tumors in 1994 seeks to provide practical answers to the most commonly asked questions: What is the place of radiation therapy versus chemotherapy for the treatment of these patients ? What are the approved indications of radiation therapy and which avenues of research are being explored ? Radiation therapy is used in over two-thirds of patients referred to an oncology department for a gastrointestinal tract tumor. The main indications are reviewed: cancer of the rectum and anal canal and, to a lesser extent, cancer of the esophagus and pancreas. The main focuses of current research include radiation therapy-chemotherapy combinations, intraoperative radiation therapy, and radiation therapy of hepatobiliary tumors. (authors). 23 refs., 1 fig

  18. Digestive enzyme ratios are good indicators of hatchling yolk reserve and digestive gland maturation in early life stages of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L.: application of these new tools in ecology and aquaculture. (United States)

    Safi, Georges; Martinez, A S; Le Pabic, C; Le Bihan, E; Robin, J P; Koueta, N


    In Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), the digestive gland matures during the first month post-hatching, while a shift from intracellular acid to extracellular alkaline digestion occurs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using enzymatic ratios for the description of digestive system maturation in early life stages of S. officinalis. Second, it is intended to apply these new tools as eco-physiological indicators for understanding the impact of cuttlefish eggs' life history from different spawning sites of the English Channel on digestive performance of juveniles. An experimental rearing was performed over 35 days after hatching (DAH) on juveniles from wild collected eggs in 2010 and 2011. Four digestive enzyme activities and their ratios [i.e., trypsin, cathepsin, acid (ACP), and alkaline (ALP) phosphatase, ALP/ACP, and trypsin/cathepsin] were studied along with histological features (e.g., internal yolk surface and digestive gland development). The two enzyme ratios were good indicators of digestive system maturation allowing the study of the digestive gland's development. They were highly correlated to juveniles' weight increase and histological features of the gland in early DAH. These ratios described more accurately the shift occurring between the intracellular acid and the extracellular alkaline modes of digestion in S. officinalis and were more specific than separated enzyme activities. Their application as eco-physiological tools revealed that enzyme ratios reflected yolk content and digestive gland development in new hatching juveniles. Finally, ALP/ACP ratio was shown to be a powerful tool to describe growth performance of S. officinalis which is useful for aquaculture optimization.

  19. PPARγ and Its Ligands: Potential Antitumor Agents in the Digestive System. (United States)

    Shu, Linjing; Huang, Renhuan; Wu, Songtao; Chen, Zhaozhao; Sun, Ke; Jiang, Yan; Cai, Xiaoxiao


    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a versatile member of the ligand-activated nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors, with expression in several different cell lines, especially in the digestive system. After being activated by its ligand, PPARγ can suppress the growth of oral, esophageal, gastric, colorectal, liver, biliary, and pancreatic tumor cells, suggesting that PPARγ ligand is a potential anticancer agent in PPARγ-expressing tumors. This review highlights key advances in understanding the effects of PPARγ ligands in the treatment of tumors in the digestive system.

  20. Pepsin-Digestibility of Contaminated Estuarine Sediments (United States)

    Turner, A.; Henon, D. N.; Dale, J. L. L.


    A standard method for the in vitro digestion of animal protein feeds (2% pepsin in 0·075 N HCl) has been applied to contaminated sediments in order to evaluate a ' bioavailable ' or ' gut-soluble ' fraction of carbon, nitrogen and mineral and trace metals. For most sediment samples, considerably more nitrogen was digested than carbon because of enzymatic digestion of proteinaceous material, and the sequence of metal ' gut-solubility ' was: Cu, Zn>Mn>Fe≫Al. The principal mechanism of metal release appears to be hydrochloric acid digestion of inorganic hydrogenous host phases (e.g. amorphous Fe and Mn oxides), although release of Cu via surface complexation with pepsin molecules may also be significant, and the amount of metal digested enzymatically is restricted to a small and unquantifiable fraction associated with proteinaceous material. Dilute HCl alone does not, however, afford a suitable surrogate for assessing a gut-soluble fraction of metal because enzymatic and acid digestions exhibit synergistic effects, including possible re-adsorption of pepsin-metal complexes under acidic conditions, and exposure and acid attack of otherwise inaccessible hydrogenous material following enzymatic digestion of organic matter.

  1. Digestion of Bangka monazite with sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesna Prassanti


    Technology of Bangka monazite processing with alkaline method has been mastered by PPGN BATAN with the product in the form of RE (Rare Earth) which is contain U < 2 ppm and Th 12 - 16 ppm. Hence, as comparator, the research of Bangka monazite processing with acid method using sulfuric acid has been done. The aim of this research is to obtain the optimal condition of Bangka monazite's digestion using sulfuric acid so that all elements contained in the monazite that are U, Th, RE, PO 4 dissolved as much as possible. The research parameter's arc monazite particle's size, sulfuric acid consumption (weight ratio of monazite ore : sulfuric acid), digestion temperature, digestion time and consumption of wash water. The results showed that the optimal conditions of digestion are 250+ 325 mesh of monazite particle's size, 1 : 2.5 of weight ratio of monazite ore: sulfuric acid, 190°C of digestion temperature, 3 hours of digestion time and 8 times of weight monazite's feed of wash water with the recovery of digested U = 99.90 %, Th = 99.44 %, RE = 98.64 % and PO 4 = 99.88 %. (author)

  2. Waste treatment and energy production from small-scale wastewater digesters. (United States)

    Lansing, Stephanie; Maile-Moskowitz, Ayella; Eaton, Alexander


    Three tubular anaerobic digestion (AD) systems were installed in Haiti to treat black water (toilet-based wastewater), including a three cell 36m 3 clinic digester (CD), a two cell 2m 3 hotel digester (HD), and a three-cell 3m 3 farm digester (FD) for worker use. During digestion, total coliforms were reduced by 99.1%, E. coli by 98.5%, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 93.6%. Nutrients in the effluent averaged 99.4mg/L NH 4 + and 10.6mg/L PO 4 2- , producing an effective organic fertilizer. Average biogas production in CD was 108L/d, with 65.4% CH 4 . Survey participants (n=573) were willing to pay $0.10-0.30 per use for sanitation facilities. Seventy-two percent of the rural population surveyed in Cange, Haiti lacked access to improved sanitation due to financial constraints. The economic analysis calculated an investment cost for a shared toilet AD systems of $16-$47 (USD) per person based on daily use at design capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Process performance and comparative metagenomic analysis during co-digestion of manure and lignocellulosic biomass for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapekos, P.; Kougias, P.G.; Treu, L.; Campanaro, S.; Angelidaki, I.


    Highlights: • Pig manure and ensiled meadow grass were examined in co-digestion process. • Mechanical pretreatment increased the methane yield by 6.4%. • Coprothermobacter proteolyticus was firmly bounded to the digested grass. • Clostridium thermocellum was enriched in the firmly attached grass samples. • The abundance of methanogens was higher in the liquid fraction of digestate. - Abstract: Mechanical pretreatment is considered to be a fast and easily applicable method to prepare the biomass for anaerobic digestion. In the present study, the effect of mechanical pretreatment on lignocellulosic silages biodegradability was elucidated in batch reactors. Moreover, co-digestion of the silages with pig manure in continuously fed biogas reactors was examined. Metagenomic analysis for determining the microbial communities in the pig manure digestion system was performed by analysing unassembled shotgun genomic sequences. A comparative analysis allowed to identify the microbial species firmly attached to the digested grass particles and to distinguish them from the planktonic microbes floating in the liquid medium. It was shown that the methane yield of ensiled grass was significantly increased by 12.3% due to mechanical pretreatment in batch experiments. Similarly, the increment of the methane yield in the co-digestion system reached 6.4%. Regarding the metagenomic study, species similar to Coprothermobacter proteolyticus and to Clostridium thermocellum, known for high proteolytic and cellulolytic activity respectively, were found firmly attached to the solid fraction of digested feedstock. Results from liquid samples revealed clear differences in microbial community composition, mainly dominated by Proteobacteria. The archaeal community was found in higher relative abundance in the liquid fraction of co-digestion experiment compared to the solid fraction. Finally, an unclassified Alkaliphilus sp. was found in high relative abundance in all samples.

  4. Endocrine tumor of the digestive tract - clinical case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szwedziak, K.; Olejniczak, W.; Brichkovkiy, V.


    Introduction: Endocrine tumors of the digestive tract (ETDT) are neoplasms which stem from the APUD (amine precursors uptake and decarboxylation) cells. There are neuroendocrine pancreatic and gastroenteral carcinoid tumors which stand for 2% of digestive tract tumors, 0,5% of all human malignant neoplasms. All of them have secretion granulations in the cytoplasm. That is why a number of immune histochemic techniques is used in search for biogenic amines and hormones such as gastrin, CCK, GIP, VIP, motilin, glucagon, GRP, PP, GHRH and the others. In the majority of cases neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum are described as dysfunctional, which means that specific clinical symptoms are not connected with their hormonal overproduction. Material and methods: We describe a case of fifty seven years old male patient admitted to the Department of General and Transplant Surgery for the diagnosis and treatment of the rectal tumor. Per rectum examination revealed hard tumor. The pathologic examination of the biopsy taken from the lesion and CT scanning confirmed the presence of endocrine tumor of the digestive tract. Results: Anterior resection of the rectum was performed, the postoperative course was uneventful. At present patient is subjected to complementary treatment with the use of somatostatin analogue of the prolonged action. Conclusion: The endocrine tumors of the rectum are extremely rare, they occur in this localization in 0,26-0,52 out of 100.000 all rectal tumors. Diagnosis is usually made upon the microscopic examination and the immune histochemic reactions. (author)

  5. Flow pattern visualization in a mimic anaerobic digester: experimental and computational studies. (United States)

    Vesvikar, M S; Varma, R; Karim, K; Al-Dahhan, M


    Advanced non-invasive experiments like computer automated radioactive particle tracking and computed tomography along with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed in mimic anaerobic digesters to visualize their flow pattern and obtain hydrodynamic parameters. The mixing in the digester was provided by sparging gas at three different flow rates. The simulation results in terms of overall flow pattern, location of circulation cells and stagnant regions, trends of liquid velocity profiles, and volume of dead zones agree reasonably well with the experimental data. CFD simulations were also performed on different digester configurations. The effects of changing draft tube size, clearance, and shape of the tank bottoms were calculated to evaluate the effect of digester design on its flow pattern. Changing the draft tube clearance and height had no influence on the flow pattern or dead regions volume. However increasing the draft tube diameter or incorporating a conical bottom design helped in reducing the volume of the dead zones as compared to a flat bottom digester. The simulations showed that the gas flow rate sparged by a single point (0.5 cm diameter) sparger does not have appreciable effect on the flow pattern of the digesters.

  6. Long non-coding RNA PVT1: Emerging biomarker in digestive system cancer. (United States)

    Zhou, Dan-Dan; Liu, Xiu-Fen; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Pant, Om Prakash; Liu, Xiao-Dong


    The digestive system cancers are leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and have high risks of morbidity and mortality. More and more long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been studied to be abnormally expressed in cancers and play a key role in the process of digestive system tumour progression. Plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) seems fairly novel. Since 1984, PVT1 was identified to be an activator of MYC in mice. Its role in human tumour initiation and progression has long been a subject of interest. The expression of PVT1 is elevated in digestive system cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. In this review, we illustrate the various functions of PVT1 during the different stages in the complex process of digestive system tumours (including oesophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic cancer). The growing evidence shows the involvement of PVT1 in both proliferation and differentiation process in addition to its involvement in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). These findings lead us to conclude that PVT1 promotes proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis and drug resistance in digestive system cancer cells. We will also discuss PVT1's potential in diagnosis and treatment target of digestive system cancer. There was a great probability PVT1 could be a novel biomarker in screening tumours, prognosis biomarkers and future targeted therapy to improve the survival rate in cancer patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Preston, Marnie; Gong, Xi; Su, Weiping; Matsumoto, Steven G.; Banine, Fatima; Winkler, Clayton; Foster, Scott; Xing, Rubing; Struve, Jaime; Dean, Justin; Baggenstoss, Bruce; Weigel, Paul H.; Montine, Thomas J.; Back, Stephen A.; Sherman, Larry S.


    OBJECTIVE Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) recruited to demyelinating lesions often fail to mature into oligodendrocytes (OLs) that remyelinate spared axons. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) accumulates in demyelinating lesions and has been implicated in the failure of OPC maturation and remyelination. We tested the hypothesis that OPCs in demyelinating lesions express a specific hyaluronidase, and that digestion products of this enzyme inhibit OPC maturation. METHODS Mouse OPCs grown in vitro were analyzed for hyaluronidase expression and activity. Gain of function studies were used to define the hyaluronidases that blocked OPC maturation. Mouse and human demyelinating lesions were assessed for hyaluronidase expression. Digestion products from different hyaluronidases and a hyaluronidase inhibitor were tested for their effects on OPC maturation and functional remyelination in vivo. RESULTS OPCs demonstrated hyaluronidase activity in vitro and expressed multiple hyaluronidases including HYAL1, HYAL2, and PH20. HA digestion by PH20 but not other hyaluronidases inhibited OPC maturation into OLs. In contrast, inhibiting HA synthesis did not influence OPC maturation. PH20 expression was elevated in OPCs and reactive astrocytes in both rodent and human demyelinating lesions. HA-digestion products generated by the PH20 hyaluronidase but not another hyaluronidase inhibited remyelination following lysolecithin-induced demyelination. Inhibition of hyaluronidase activity lead to increased OPC maturation and promoted increased conduction velocities through lesions. INTERPRETATION We determined that PH20 is elevated in demyelinating lesions and that increased PH20 expression is sufficient to inhibit OPC maturation and remyelination. Pharmacological inhibition of PH20 may therefore be an effective way to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis and related conditions. PMID:23463525

  8. Proteolytic Digestion and TiO2 Phosphopeptide Enrichment Microreactor for Fast MS Identification of Proteins (United States)

    Deng, Jingren; Lazar, Iulia M.


    The characterization of phosphorylation state(s) of a protein is best accomplished by using isolated or enriched phosphoprotein samples or their corresponding phosphopeptides. The process is typically time-consuming as, often, a combination of analytical approaches must be used. To facilitate throughput in the study of phosphoproteins, a microreactor that enables a novel strategy for performing fast proteolytic digestion and selective phosphopeptide enrichment was developed. The microreactor was fabricated using 100 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries packed with 1-2 mm beds of C18 and/or TiO2 particles. Proteolytic digestion-only, phosphopeptide enrichment-only, and sequential proteolytic digestion/phosphopeptide enrichment microreactors were developed and tested with standard protein mixtures. The protein samples were adsorbed on the C18 particles, quickly digested with a proteolytic enzyme infused over the adsorbed proteins, and further eluted onto the TiO2 microreactor for enrichment in phosphopeptides. A number of parameters were optimized to speed up the digestion and enrichments processes, including microreactor dimensions, sample concentrations, digestion time, flow rates, buffer compositions, and pH. The effective time for the steps of proteolytic digestion and enrichment was less than 5 min. For simple samples, such as standard protein mixtures, this approach provided equivalent or better results than conventional bench-top methods, in terms of both enzymatic digestion and selectivity. Analysis times and reagent costs were reduced ~10- to 15-fold. Preliminary analysis of cell extracts and recombinant proteins indicated the feasibility of integration of these microreactors in more advanced workflows amenable for handling real-world biological samples.

  9. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff Practice and Procedure Digest. Supplement 2 to Digest No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This is the second in a series of Supplements to the NRC Practice and Procedure Digest. This Supplement updates the Digest by including pertinent Commission, Appeal Board, and Licensing Board rulings for the period April 1, 1977 to September 30, 1977. The Supplement also adds a number of new topics. The Supplement is structured in the same manner as the Digest. For the convenience of users, the text of the Supplement is preceded by an index which lists the Digest topic headings which are supplemented. In using the main Digest, this index to Supplement 2 as well as the index to Supplement 1 should be consulted to assure that the Digest discussion has not been superseded or updated by information in the Supplements

  10. Morphophysiological study of digestive system litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832). (United States)

    de Sousa, Géssica; Dos Santos, Vânia Cristina; de Figueiredo Gontijo, Nelder; Constantino, Reginaldo; de Oliveira Paiva E Silva, Gabriela; Bahia, Ana Cristina; Gomes, Fabio Mendonça; de Alcantara Machado, Ednildo


    Termites are the major decomposers of lignocellulosic biomass on Earth and are commonly considered as biological reactor models for lignocellulose degradation. Despite their biotechnological potential, few studies have focused on the morphophysiological aspects of the termite digestive system. We therefore analyze the morphology, ultrastructure and gut luminal pH of the digestive system in workers of the litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Blattodea: Termitidae). Their digestive system is composed of salivary glands and an alimentary canal with a pH ranging from neutral to alkaline. The salivary glands have an acinar structure and present cells with secretory characteristics. The alimentary canal is differentiated into the foregut, midgut, mixed segment and hindgut, which comprises the ileum (p1), enteric valve (p2), paunch (p3), colon (p4) and rectum (p5) segments. The foregut has a well-developed chewing system. The midgut possesses a tubular peritrophic membrane and two cell types: digestive cells with secretory and absorptive features and several regenerative cells in mitosis, both cell types being organized into regenerative crypts. The mixed segment exhibits cells rich in glycogen granules. Hindgut p1, p4 and p5 segments have flattened cells with a few apical invaginations related to mitochondria and a thick cuticular lining. Conversely, the hindgut p3 segment contains large cuboid cells with extensive apical invaginations associated with numerous mitochondria. These new insights into the morphophysiology of the digestive system of C. cumulans reveal that it mobilizes lignocellulose components as a nutritional source by means of a highly compartmentalized organization with specialized segments and complex microenvironments.

  11. Health Effects of Alkaline Diet and Water, Reduction of Digestive-tract Bacterial Load, and Earthing. (United States)

    Mousa, Haider Abdul-Lateef


    In the article, the author discusses the issue of chronic, low-grade acidosis that is thought to be brought about primarily by 2 factors: (1) advancing age, with a consequent decline in renal function; and (2) diet. An acid-forming diet can induce low-grade metabolic acidosis, which causes very small decreases in blood pH and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3-) that remain within the range considered to be normal. However, if the duration of the acidosis is prolonged or chronically present, even a low degree of acidosis can become significant. This article reviews supporting evidence in the literature that has shown that consumption of abundant alkaline-forming foods can result in improvement in bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle mass, protection from chronic illnesses, reduced tumor-cell invasion and metastasis, and effective excretion of toxins from the body. In addition, a large number of studies showing the benefits of alkaline water (mineral water) have revealed that people consuming water with a high level of total dissolved solids (TDS) (ie, with a high mineral content) have shown a lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer and lower total mortality rates. Consumption of alkaline water also may prevent osteoporosis and protect pancreatic beta cells with its antioxidant effects. In addition, this article discusses the literature that shows that reducing digestive-tract bacterial load can play an important role in increasing blood alkalinity toward the normal upper limit. That change occurs through good oral hygiene, flossing of teeth, perfect chewing of food, and bowel evacuation as soon as possible. Finally, the author reviews the literature that shows that earthing (ie, the direct contact of the human body with the earth) can supply a current of plentiful electrons. Earthing has been shown to reduce acute and chronic inflammation, blood glucose in patients with diabetes, red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, and blood

  12. Dewaterability of sludge digested in extended aeration plants using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dewaterability of unconditioned sludge digested in full scale and lab scale experiments using either extended aeration (EA) or anaerobic digestion were compared on full and lab scale sand drying beds. Sludge digested in EA plants resulted in improvement in sludge dewaterability compared to sludge digested ...

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of cassava peels and manure: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment before use as a substrate, hence, a multi-stage and high rate digestion system might be adop-ted in efficient digestion of cassava peels. To optimize carbon-nitrogen ratio for efficient digestion, cassava sh-ould be co-digested with manure.

  14. Cheese matrix protects the immunomodulatory surface protein SlpB of Propionibacterium freudenreichii during in vitro digestion. (United States)

    Rabah, Houem; Ménard, Olivia; Gaucher, Floriane; do Carmo, Fillipe Luiz Rosa; Dupont, Didier; Jan, Gwénaël


    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a traditional Swiss-type cheeses starter and constitutes an emergent probiotic, exerting several beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory modulation of gut inflammation. This feature relies on several metabolites and on surface proteins, with a prominent role of the surface protein SlpB. In this study, we firstly investigated the relevance to avoid SlpB digestive proteolysis, by comparing the effect of i) P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 129, ii) its native Slps, or iii) peptides resulting from Slps digestive proteolysis, with respect to modulation of HT-29 cells response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. The anti-inflammatory effect exerted by P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 129 and by its native surface proteins (Slps) on HT-29 cells was abolished by digestive proteolysis. This result confirmed the importance to protect immunomodulatory surface proteins from digestive proteolysis in order to allow gut immune system modulation. Thus, we examined the effect of dairy matrices on P. freudenreichii viability and on SlpB integrity during digestion. In comparison with liquid matrices, the cheese matrix provided an enhanced tolerance towards digestive stresses and protection of SlpB towards proteolysis, during two in vitro digestion models: static and dynamic. Taken together, these results show that cheese is an adequate delivery vehicle for P. freudenreichii immunomodulatory proteins. This opens perspectives for the development of fermented dairy functional foods aimed at target populations at high risk for diet-related diseases with an inflammatory component. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cutaneous lesions as presentation form of mantle cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayra Merino de Paz


    Full Text Available Mantle cell lymphoma is a type of no-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects extranodal areas, especially, bone narrow, digestive tract and Waldeyer ring. Here we report a case of mantle cell lymphoma IV Ann Arbor stage with cutaneous lesions on nasal dorsum and gland as the first manifestations. Skin involvement is a very rare manifestation and less than 20 cases have been reported in the literature. The importance of stablishing multidisciplinary relationships for a global approach has been shown by this clinical case.

  16. Small-scale household biogas digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Khanh Vu, Van Thi


    There are a number of advantages to small-scale biogas production on farms, including savings on firewood or fossil fuels and reductions in odour and greenhouse gas emissions. For these reasons, governments and development aid agencies have supported the installation of biogas digesters. However......, biogas digesters are often poorly managed and there is a lack of proper distribution systems for biogas. This results in methane being released inadvertently through leaks in digesters and tubing, and intentionally when production exceeds demand. As methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater......% of the produced biogas is released, depending on the type of fuel that has been replaced. The limited information available as regards methane leaking from small-scale biogas digesters in developing countries indicates that emissions may be as high as 40%. With the best estimates of global numbers of small...

  17. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed...... potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing...... existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies...

  18. Lewy Body Digest eNewsletter (United States)

    ... latest developments in treatment and research in Lewy body dementia. February 2018 Lewy Digest Month of Courage ... 1 2 next › last » All Rights Reserved Lewy Body Dementia Association, Inc. 912 Killian Hill Road S.W., ...

  19. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starchphosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  20. Digestibility of total and phytate phosphorus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Skřivanová, V.; Dvořák, R.


    Roč. 49, č. 6 (2004), s. 191-196 ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : digestion * milk * starter concentrate Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.790, year: 2004

  1. Non-Coop Station History Forms Digest (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single 71-page document entitled 'Station history non-COOP Keying Rules & Forms Digest,' dated December 12, 2003. Contractors with NCDC Climate Database...

  2. Solar pond for heating anaerobic digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Kehui; Li Shensheng


    A theoretical analysis and numerical results calculated for solar pond heating anaerobic digesters in Beijing area in China are presented. The effect of temperature rise is evident and rather steady. 3 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starch phosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  4. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  5. Evaluating the stabilisation degree of digested sewage sludge: investigations at four municipal wastewater treatment plants. (United States)

    Parravicini, V; Smidt, E; Svardal, K; Kroiss, H


    Further reduction of volatile suspended solids (VSS) during a post-stabilisation step was applied to evaluate the stabilisation degree of digested sewage sludge. For this purpose digested sludge was collected at four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and further stabilised in lab-scale chemostat reactors either under anaerobic or aerobic conditions. Experimental results showed that even in adequately digested sludge a consistent amount of VSS was degraded during aerobic post-stabilisation. It seems that aerobic conditions play a significant role during degradation of residual VSS. Additionally, specific VSS production (gVSS/peCOD110.d) as well as specific oxygen uptake rate were shown to be suitable parameters to assess the degree of sludge stabilisation at WWTPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to reveal changes in the sludge composition. Spectra of treated and untreated sludge samples indicated that the major component of residual VSS in stabilised sludge for instance consisted of biomass, while cellulose was absent.

  6. New data on temperature optimum and temperature changes in energy crop digesters. (United States)

    Lindorfer, H; Waltenberger, R; Köllner, K; Braun, R; Kirchmayr, R


    As a result of self-heating in anaerobic digesters when using energy crops in the feedstock, the influence of temperature on the digestion process came back into focus. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of such temperature increases on process stability. Furthermore, different strategies for the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions and the resulting methane yields at different temperature levels were evaluated. Two main effects were identified with different bio-slurries from agricultural biogas plants: (1) a failure of methane production connected to changes in the microbial community; and (2), a slow but continuous accumulation of propionic acid, though without an immediate effect on methane production. All strategies for increasing the operating temperature showed negative effects on digester performance, some with serious economic consequences for the operator. It was shown that methane yields at different temperature levels in the mesophilic and sub-thermophilic ranges are similar.

  7. Integrated electrochemical-biological process as an alternative mean for ammonia monitoring during anaerobic digestion of organic wastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Li, Xiaohu; Jin, Xiangdan


    Ammonia monitoring is important to control anaerobic digestion (AD) process due to inhibition effect. Here, an electrolysis cell (EC) was integrated with a complete nitrification reactor as an alternative approach for online monitoring of ammonia during AD processes. The AD effluent was pumped...... = 0.9673). The linear relationship was always observed regardless of different wastewater pH and external voltage. Pre-removal of other electron acceptors from digestate at cathode could eliminate their disturbances to sensor performance. Finally, the accuracy of biosensor was verified with real digestate test...

  8. Chemical composition, protein quality, palatability, and digestibility of alternative protein sources for dogs. (United States)

    Dust, J M; Grieshop, C M; Parsons, C M; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Schasteen, C S; Quigley, J D; Merchen, N R; Fahey, G C


    The chemical composition and protein quality of 11 alternative protein sources (chicken products, blood products, enzyme-hydrolyzed fish protein concentrate, soybean meal, and spray-dried pork liver) were determined, and an experiment was conducted to determine palatability and digestibility of processed red blood cell-containing diets. Chicken protein sources differed in concentrations of CP, acid-hydrolyzed fat, and total AA (TAA) by 20, 31, and 24%, respectively, and GE by 1.7 kcal/g. Blood protein sources varied little in acid-hydrolyzed fat and GE concentrations, but concentrations of CP and TAA differed by 11 and 8%, respectively. Protein solubility of chicken and blood protein source categories averaged 57 and 69%, respectively. Protein solubility of enzyme-hydrolyzed fish protein concentrate, soybean meal, and spray-dried pork liver was 53, 67, and 26%, respectively. Based on calculations from immobilized digestive enzyme assay values, lysine digestibility averaged approximately 80.4 and 81.7% for blood and chicken protein sources, respectively. Lysine digestibility values for soybean meal and spray-dried pork liver were 89 and 77%, respectively. A chick protein efficiency ratio (PER) assay showed that chicken protein sources had high protein quality values, as the PER ranged from 2.7 to 5.3, whereas blood protein sources had poor protein quality (PER values less than 1.5). Enzyme-hydrolyzed fish protein concentrate, spray-dried pork liver, and soybean meal had high protein quality (PER values greater than 2.8). In the dog palatability and digestibility experiments, a corn and chicken-based diet supplemented with either 0 or 3% processed red blood cells was tested. The palatability test showed that dogs consumed more of the diet that contained 0% vs. 3% processed red blood cells. The intake ratio for the 3% processed red blood cells diet was 0.34. Nutrient digestibilities did not differ, except for CP, where the digestibility was greater (P = 0.01) for dogs

  9. A CDC45 Homolog in Arabidopsis Is Essential for Meiosis, as Shown by RNA Interference–Induced Gene Silencing (United States)

    Stevens, Rebecca; Grelon, Mathilde; Vezon, Daniel; Oh, Jaesung; Meyer, Peter; Perennes, Claudette; Domenichini, Severine; Bergounioux, Catherine


    CDC45 is required for the initiation of DNA replication in yeast and cell proliferation in mammals and functions as a DNA polymerase α loading factor in Xenopus. We have cloned a CDC45 homolog from Arabidopsis whose expression is upregulated at the G1/S transition and in young meiotic flower buds. One-third of Arabidopsis 35S:CDC45 T1 RNA interference lines are partially to completely sterile, and the proportion of sterile plants is increased by using a dmc1 promoter. T1 plants have decreased levels of the CDC45 transcript and contain 21- to 23-bp RNA fragments specific to the CDC45 gene. T2 transgenic lines, in which small RNA fragments are still present, were used to analyze S-phase entry by 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, which was not altered compared with that in the wild type. However, microarray data show that other cell cycle genes are upregulated or downregulated. T2 plants also have highly reduced fertility. The severity of the phenotype is correlated with the levels of the CDC45 transcript and small RNA fragments. Severe chromosome fragmentation arising during meiosis, which is not the result of a defect in the repair of SPO11-induced double strand breaks, leads to abnormal chromosome segregation and defective pollen and ovule development. PMID:14660803

  10. Gene expression and activity of digestive enzymes of Daphnia pulex in response to food quality differences. (United States)

    Schwarzenberger, Anke; Fink, Patrick


    Food quality is an important factor influencing organisms' well-being. In freshwater ecosystems, food quality has been studied extensively for the keystone herbivore genus Daphnia, as they form the critical trophic link between primary producers and higher order consumers such as fish. For Daphnia, the edible fraction of phytoplankton in lakes (consisting mostly of unicellular algae and cyanobacteria) is extraordinarily diverse. To be able to digest different food particles, Daphnia possess a set of digestive enzymes that metabolize carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Recent studies have found a connection between gene expression and activity of single digestive enzyme types of Daphnia, i.e. lipases and proteases, and transcriptome studies have shown that a variety of genes coding for gut enzymes are differentially expressed in response to different food algae. However, never before has a set of digestive enzymes been studied simultaneously both on the gene expression and the enzyme activity level in Daphnia. Here, we investigated several digestive enzymes of Daphnia pulex in a comparison between a high-quality (green algal) and a low-quality (cyanobacterial) diet. Diet significantly affected the expression of all investigated digestive enzyme genes and enzyme activity was altered between treatments. Furthermore, we found that gene expression and enzyme activity were significantly correlated in cellulase, triacylglycerol lipase and β-glucosidase when switched from high to low-quality food. We conclude that one of the factors causing the often observed low biomass and energy transfer efficiency from cyanobacteria to Daphnia is probably the switch to a cost-effective overall increase of gene expression and activity of digestive enzymes of this herbivore. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anaerobic digester bioaugmentation influences quasi steady state performance and microbial community. (United States)

    Venkiteshwaran, K; Milferstedt, K; Hamelin, J; Zitomer, D H


    Nine anaerobic digesters, each seeded with biomass from a different source, were operated identically and their quasi steady state function was compared. Subsequently, digesters were bioaugmented with a methanogenic culture previously shown to increase specific methanogenic activity. Before bioaugmentation, different seed biomass resulted in different quasi steady state function, with digesters clustering into three groups distinguished by methane (CH 4 ) production. Digesters with similar functional performance contained similar archaeal communities based on clustering of Illumina sequence data of the V4V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. High CH 4 production correlated with neutral pH and high Methanosarcina abundance, whereas low CH 4 production correlated to low pH as well as high Methanobacterium and DHVEG 6 family abundance. After bioaugmentation, CH 4 production from the high CH 4 producing digesters transiently increased by 11 ± 3% relative to non-bioaugmented controls (p digesters that all had pH higher than 6.7. The CH 4 production increase after bioaugmentation was correlated to increased relative abundance of Methanosaeta and Methaospirillum originating from the bioaugment culture. In conclusion, different anaerobic digester seed biomass can result in different quasi steady state CH 4 production, SCOD removal, pH and effluent VFA concentration in the timeframe studied. The bioaugmentation employed can result in a period of increased methane production. Future research should address extending the period of increased CH 4 production by employing pH and VFA control concomitant with bioaugmentation, developing improved bioaugments, or employing a membrane bioreactor to retain the bioaugment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relevant pH and lipase for in vitro models of gastric digestion. (United States)

    Sams, Laura; Paume, Julie; Giallo, Jacqueline; Carrière, Frédéric


    The development of in vitro digestion models relies on the availability of in vivo data such as digestive enzyme levels and pH values recorded in the course of meal digestion. The variations of these parameters along the GI tract are important for designing dynamic digestion models but also static models for which the choice of representative conditions of the gastric and intestinal conditions is critical. Simulating gastric digestion with a static model and a single set of parameters is particularly challenging because the variations in pH and enzyme concentration occurring in the stomach are much broader than those occurring in the small intestine. A review of the literature on this topic reveals that most models of gastric digestion use very low pH values that are not representative of the fed conditions. This is illustrated here by showing the variations in gastric pH as a function of meal gastric emptying instead of time. This representation highlights those pH values that are the most relevant for testing meal digestion in the stomach. Gastric lipolysis is still largely ignored or is performed with microbial lipases. In vivo data on gastric lipase and lipolysis have however been collected in humans and dogs during test meals. The biochemical characterization of gastric lipase has shown that this enzyme is rather unique among lipases: (i) stability and activity in the pH range 2 to 7 with an optimum at pH 4-5.4; (ii) high tensioactivity that allows resistance to bile salts and penetration into phospholipid layers covering TAG droplets; (iii) sn-3 stereospecificity for TAG hydrolysis; and (iv) resistance to pepsin. Most of these properties have been known for more than two decades and should provide a rational basis for the replacement of gastric lipase by other lipases when gastric lipase is not available.

  13. The second X-43A hypersonic research aircraft, shown here in its protective shipping jig, arrives at (United States)


    The second of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft, shown here in its protective shipping jig, arrived at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on January 31, 2001. The arrival of the second X-43A from its manufacturer, MicroCraft, Inc., of Tullahoma, Tenn., followed by only a few days the mating of the first X-43A and its specially-designed adapter to the first stage of a modified Pegasus booster rocket. The booster, built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va., will accelerate the 12-foot-long, unpiloted research aircraft to a predetermined altitude and speed after the X-43A/booster 'stack' is air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership. The X-43A will then separate from the rocket and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it impacts into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10 (seven and 10 times the speed of sound respectively) with the first tentatively scheduled for early summer, 2001. The X-43A is powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine, and will use the underbody of the aircraft to form critical elements of the engine. The forebody shape helps compress the intake airflow, while the aft section acts as a nozzle to direct thrust. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by an air-breathing scramjet engine.

  14. Neither retinal nor brain atrophy can be shown in patients with isolated unilateral optic neuritis at the time of presentation. (United States)

    Kallenbach, Klaus; Sander, Birgit; Tsakiri, Anna; Wanscher, Benedikte; Fuglø, Dan; Larsen, Michael; Larsson, Henrik; Frederiksen, Jette L


    Acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) may be the earliest manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Atrophy has been shown to be a prominent feature of MS with great impact on disability. The objectives of this study were to evaluate retinal and brain atrophy and possible associations at the earliest possible stages of MS. In a prospective observational cohort study we included 60 untreated patients with monosymptomatic ON and 19 healthy volunteers. Unaffected fellow eyes were examined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and normalized brain volumes were calculated based on MRI. Additionally, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded. Neither OCT measurements nor brain volume measures revealed signs of localized or generalized atrophy in patients compared with healthy volunteers. Stratification of patients into high risk based on the presence of white matter lesions did not reveal differences. The association between OCT measures and brain volumes previously found could not be confirmed at the time of the first clinical event. VEP latency was significantly prolonged in patients with white matter lesions compared to those without lesions. A trend towards a relationship between VEP amplitude of fellow eyes and brain volumes was noted. In this cohort we were not able to show atrophic features in the retina or the brain, and the association between structural measures of the retina and the brain as indicated in the later stages of MS could not be reproduced. These findings suggest that atrophy does require time to evolve and indicate the complexity of the relationship between local and general structural measures.

  15. Multi-decadal evolution characteristics of global surface temperature anomaly data shown by observation and CMIP5 models (United States)

    Zhu, X.


    Based on methods of statistical analysis, the time series of global surface air temperature(SAT) anomalies from 1860-2014 has been defined by three types of phase changes that occur through the division of temperature changes into different stages. The characteristics of the three types of phase changes simulated by CMIP5 models were evaluated. The conclusion is as follows: the SAT from 1860-2014 can be divided into six stages according to trend differences, and this subdivision is proved to be statistically significant. Based on trend analysis and the distribution of slopes between any two points (two points' slope) in every stage, the six stages can be summarized as three phase changes of warming, cooling, and hiatus. Between 1860 and 2014, the world experienced three heating phases (1860-1878, 1909-1942,1975-2004), one cooling phase (1878-1909), and two hiatus phases (1942-1975, 2004-2014).Using the definition method, whether the next year belongs to the previous phase can be estimated. Furthermore, the temperature in 2015 was used as an example to validate the feasibility of this method. The simulations of the heating period by CMIP5 models are well; however the characteristics shown by SAT during the cooling and hiatus period cannot be represented by CMIP5 models. As such, the projections of future heating phases using the CMIP5 models are credible, but for cooling and hiatus events they are unreliable.

  16. Dietary fiber and digestive health in children. (United States)

    Korczak, Renee; Kamil, Alison; Fleige, Lisa; Donovan, Sharon M; Slavin, Joanne L


    Digestive health is an expanding area in nutrition research due to the interest in how food components such as fiber affect gastrointestinal tolerance, stool form, defecation frequency, transit time, and gut microbial composition and metabolic activity. In children, however, digestive health studies that intervene with dietary fiber are limited due to legal and ethical concerns. To better understand if fiber improves digestive health in children, a literature review was conducted to answer the following research question: What are the effect(s) of fiber-containing foods and/or supplements on digestive health outcomes in children? A search of the PubMed database identified a total of 12 studies that fit the inclusion criteria established for this review. Most of the evidence in children shows beneficial effects of partially hydrolyzed guar gum, glucomannan, and bran on digestive health outcomes; however, the existing evidence is not conclusive. Furthermore, limited data exists on the effect of whole-grain sources of dietary fiber, such as oats. Additional well-designed intervention trials are needed to determine whether outcomes of digestive health such as stool form, gastrointestinal tolerance, and stool frequency are improved by increasing the fiber content of children's diets with whole-grain sources. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  17. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.


    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  18. Dietary acrylamide: What happens during digestion. (United States)

    Sansano, M; Heredia, A; Peinado, I; Andrés, A


    Acrylamide is a well-known potentially carcinogen compound formed during thermal processing as an intermediate of Maillard reactions. Three objectives were addressed: the impact of gastric digestion on acrylamide content of French Fries, chips, chicken nuggets, onions rings, breakfast cereals, biscuits, crackers, instant coffee and coffee substitute; the acrylamide content evolution during gastrointestinal digestion of French fries and chips; and the effectiveness of blanching and air-frying on acrylamide mitigation after gastrointestinal digestion. A significant increase (p-value digestion (maximum registered for sweet biscuits, from 30±8 to 150±48µg/kg). However, at the end of the intestinal stage, acrylamide values were statistically similar (p-value=0.132) for French fries and lower than the initial values (before digestion) in potato chips (p-value=0.027). Finally, the low acrylamide content found in blanched and air-fried samples, remained still lower than for deep fried samples even after gastrointestinal digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Open vessel microwave digestion of food matrices (T6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, L.; LeBlanc, G.


    Full text: Advancements in the field of open vessel microwave digestion continue to provide solutions for industries requiring acid digestion of large sample sizes. Those interesting in digesting food matrices are particularly interested in working with large amounts of sample and then diluting small final volumes. This paper will show the advantages of instantaneous regent addition and post-digestion evaporation when performing an open vessel digestion and evaporation methods for various food matrices will be presented along with analyte recovery data. (author)

  20. Microscopic anatomy of the digestive system in normal and regenerating specimens of the brittlestar Amphipholis kochii. (United States)

    Frolova, Lidia T; Dolmatov, Igor Yu


    The morphology and regeneration of the digestive system of the ophiuroid Amphipholis kochii were investigated. The epithelia of the esophagus and stomach of A. kochii were composed of typical enterocytes and mucous cells. The digestive epithelium of the stomach contained two types of granular secretory cells. After autotomy of the disk, the animals retained the esophagus and a small part of the stomach. The dedifferentiation of enterocytes and mucous cells began on the first day after autotomy. On day 3 the cells formed an anlage of stomach around the mouth opening. Later, the stomach anlage grew as a result of cell proliferation. The opening on the aboral side of the body was closed by day 7. By this time differentiating cells were already observed in the stomach lining. The stomach mesothelium was formed by peritoneocytes and myoepithelial cells, which migrated from other coelomic epithelia of the body. Our study showed that the formation of the digestive system in A. kochii during regeneration depended on cells from the esophagus and the stomach remnant. Both enterocytes and mucous cells were able to dedifferentiate, migrate, and proliferate to give rise to the luminal epithelium. The basic mechanism of stomach formation was epithelial morphogenesis.

  1. Partial digestion with restriction enzymes of ultraviolet-irradiated human genomic DNA: a method for identifying restriction site polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, C.; Romeo, G.


    A method for partial digestion of total human DNA with restriction enzymes has been developed on the basis of a principle already utilized by P.A. Whittaker and E. Southern for the analysis of phage lambda recombinants. Total human DNA irradiated with uv light of 254 nm is partially digested by restriction enzymes that recognize sequences containing adjacent thymidines because of TT dimer formation. The products resulting from partial digestion of specific genomic regions are detected in Southern blots by genomic-unique DNA probes with high reproducibility. This procedure is rapid and simple to perform because the same conditions of uv irradiation are used for different enzymes and probes. It is shown that restriction site polymorphisms occurring in the genomic regions analyzed are recognized by the allelic partial digest patterns they determine

  2. An enzymatic approach to cell wall structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    afsonderlik. Keywords: Ruminococcus a/bus, alfalfa cell walls, cellulose, hemicellulose, enzymic digestion. Introduction. The aim of the research is to provide more specific infor- mation on the chemical linkages in plant cell wall material. The procedure is (l) to determine which constituents of plant cell walls are digested by a ...

  3. Composting of sewage sludge with solid fraction of digested pulp from agricultural biogas plant (United States)

    Czekała, Wojciech; Dach, Jacek; Przybył, Jacek; Mazurwiekiwcz, Jakub; Janczak, Damian; Lewicki, Andrzej; Smurzyńska, Anna; Kozłowski, Kamil


    Sewage sludge management is an important element of environmental protection. Composting and anaerobic digestion are the biological conversion methods for sewage sludge management. Mass and volume reduction is a result of a properly composted process. Solid fraction of digested pulp can be use as co-substrate, because it is good structural material. The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of composting sewage sludge with a solid fraction of digestate. The compost mix consisted of 25 kilograms of sewage sludge and 20 kilograms solid fraction of digestate in fresh mass. The experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions. Bioreactors of 165 dm3 volume were used. The experiment included two stages. Stage I took place in bioreactors and lasted until the cooling phase of the compost was complete. Stage II included compost maturation for a period of eight months (to 287 day of composting). The reduction of mass obtained at the end of Stage I amounted 30.2%. At the end of Stage II, it was 86.7% relative to the initial weight of the compost. The maximum value of temperature was 75.1°C. Studies have shown that sludge with a solid fraction of digestate can be a suitable substrate for composting with sewage sludge.

  4. Composting of sewage sludge with solid fraction of digested pulp from agricultural biogas plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czekała Wojciech


    Full Text Available Sewage sludge management is an important element of environmental protection. Composting and anaerobic digestion are the biological conversion methods for sewage sludge management. Mass and volume reduction is a result of a properly composted process. Solid fraction of digested pulp can be use as co-substrate, because it is good structural material. The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of composting sewage sludge with a solid fraction of digestate. The compost mix consisted of 25 kilograms of sewage sludge and 20 kilograms solid fraction of digestate in fresh mass. The experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions. Bioreactors of 165 dm3 volume were used. The experiment included two stages. Stage I took place in bioreactors and lasted until the cooling phase of the compost was complete. Stage II included compost maturation for a period of eight months (to 287 day of composting. The reduction of mass obtained at the end of Stage I amounted 30.2%. At the end of Stage II, it was 86.7% relative to the initial weight of the compost. The maximum value of temperature was 75.1°C. Studies have shown that sludge with a solid fraction of digestate can be a suitable substrate for composting with sewage sludge.

  5. A study on the effect of levels of tannins on in vitro digestibility of different Sudanese varieties of sorghum grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M.A.


    This work was conducted to evaluate the tannin content and its effect on ruminant's digestibility in 26 Sudanese sorghum varieties. Samples were brought from Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani (ARC), hand cleaned and preserved in dark in plastic containers. Tannins content was measured by using vanillin-HCl method (Price et al, 1979) and in vitro digestibility was conducted to evaluate the dry meter digestibility and organic matter digestibility according to (Tilley and Terry, 1963). Results have shown that condensed tannins (vanillin-HCl) ranged between 0.39 g/kg and 23.08 g/kg, Tabat recorded the lowest value when Wad akar red recorded the highest value. An in vitro dry matter digestibility (INVDMD) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) trial were performed. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05) between organic matter and condensed tannins especially those contained high level of condensed tannins. The organic matter digestibility ranged between 680.11 g/kg in arfa gadamak commercial to 828.85 g/kg in dar baladi. The results have shown that the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to in vitro incubated samples increased the gas produced in wad akar red in 24 hours by 29% compared to the control sample without (PEG). Higher significant correlation (P<0.001) between the clorox bleaching test and condensed tannins (vanillin-HCl) in samples was found. It is concluded that condensed tannins in sorghum are beneficial to ruminant when they are introduced in complete diets to avoid the inhibitory effects of condensed tannins in sorghum. Adding (PEG) to the ruminant diets which contain high levels of condensed tannins improved digestibility subsequently animal performance.(Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Manea


    Full Text Available Research has established the most effective lactic acid bacteria used for fermentation of fruit and vegetables juices. The cultures were used for Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus and culture of micro flora obtained spontaneous shoots. Lactic fermented juice was obtained from cabbage, carrots and beetroot. Working in these variants were determined lactic fermentation parameters and some of the bioactive compounds from this process: pH, reducing sugars, viable cell counts. Determination of reducing sugars calculated as glucose was conducted using the 3.5 dinitrosalicilic acid method (DNS method, pH was determined with a pH meter electronics. Chemical parameters listed were determined every two hours during the first 24 hours, then 48 and 72 hours in thermostatic conditions at 37 degrees C and 7 days storage at refrigerator temperature. At the end of the lactic fermentation, the lowest pH 4.31, which also provide juice conservation was obtained using a pure culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Reducing sugar is metabolized significantly when the juice of beetroot, fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus culture, 75.19%. The results may be an argument for obtaining juice fermented lactic acid, which are popular functional foods, to obtain a chemical composition and sensory their optimum.

  7. Effects of digested onion extracts on intestinal gene expression: an interspecies comparison using different intestine models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, M.M.; Meulen, van der J.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Smits, M.A.


    Applicability of in vitro (human Caco-2 cells) and ex vivo intestine models (rat precision cut intestine slices and the pig in-situ small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) technique) to study the effect of food compounds. In vitro digested yellow (YOd) and white onion extracts (WOd) were used as

  8. [Immunoglobulin G4-associated diseases of the digestive system--new problem in gastroenterology]. (United States)

    Il'chenko, A A


    This review presents the latest information on new clinical and pathological syndrome in gastroenterology, forming the foundation of which is tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells. Considered clinical variants of IgG4-associated diseases of the digestive system: IgG4-associated cholecystitis, holangita and autoimmune pancreatitis.

  9. Development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus argenteus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Eneida Santos


    Full Text Available The development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish P. argenteus was analyzed histologically. On the 3rd day after hatching, the digestive system comprised oropharyngeal cavity, esophagus and simple undifferentiated tube. Since secreting cells, positive to Alcian Blue (AB, were found in the esophagus, digestive activity in the initial phase had occurred. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the esophagus was positive for AB and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS stain. The stomach was fully differentiated, with the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. Different regions of the epithelium were characterized by basic and acidic secreting cells (AB and PAS positive. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the intestine was long, coiled and divided into proximal, middle and distal segments with pyloric ceca. Secreting cells in different regions of the gut were either positive or negative for AB and PAS. Results showed that larvae of P. argenteus exhibited digestive activity on the third day after hatching, with fully differentiated stomach and intestines on the 18 and 28th days and their different regions featuring secreting cells.

  10. Macrophages treated with non-digestible polysaccharides reveal a transcriptionally unique phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Yongfu; Govers, Coen; Wichers, Harry J.; Mes, Jurriaan J.


    Dietary non-digestible polysaccharides (NDPs) might promote intestinal health via immuno-modulation. Immunomodulatory effects of NDP are most likely brought about by antigen processing cells such as macrophages that populate the intestine, although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. We

  11. 76 FR 20359 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings (United States)


    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; PA10-067: Stem Cells and Diabetic Skin... Major Ongoing Clinical Research Studies in CKD (R01). Date: May 17, 2011. Time: 2 p.m. to 3:30 p.m... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.847, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Research...

  12. Humoral regulation of heart rate during digestion in pythons (Python molurus and Python regius). (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Simonsen, Lasse Stærdal; Pedersen, Signe Vesterskov; Wang, Tobias; Skovgaard, Nini


    Pythons exhibit a doubling of heart rate when metabolism increases several times during digestion. Pythons, therefore, represent a promising model organism to study autonomic cardiovascular regulation during the postprandial state, and previous studies show that the postprandial tachycardia is governed by a release of vagal tone as well as a pronounced stimulation from nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) factors. Here we show that infusion of plasma from digesting donor pythons elicit a marked tachycardia in fasting snakes, demonstrating that the NANC factor resides in the blood. Injections of the gastrin and cholecystokinin receptor antagonist proglumide had no effect on double-blocked heart rate or blood pressure. Histamine has been recognized as a NANC factor in the early postprandial period in pythons, but the mechanism of its release has not been identified. Mast cells represent the largest repository of histamine in vertebrates, and it has been speculated that mast cells release histamine during digestion. Treatment with the mast cell stabilizer cromolyn significantly reduced postprandial heart rate in pythons compared with an untreated group but did not affect double-blocked heart rate. While this study indicates that histamine induces postprandial tachycardia in pythons, its release during digestion is not stimulated by gastrin or cholecystokinin nor is its release from mast cells a stimulant of postprandial tachycardia.

  13. Interaction between digestion conditions and sludge physical characteristics and behaviour for anaerobically digested primary sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.; Zeeman, G.; Gijzen, H.; Lettinga, G.


    The interaction between digestion conditions and the sludge physical characteristics and behaviour was investigated for anaerobically digested primary sludge in completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). The CSTRs were operated to maintain sludge retention times (SRTs) of 10, 15, 20 and 30 days and

  14. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff Practice and Procedure Digest. Supplement 3 to Digest No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This is the third of a series of Supplements to the NRC Practice and Procedure Digest. This Supplement updates the Digest by including pertinent Commission, Appeal Board, and Licensing Board rulings for the period October 1, 1977 to December 31, 1977. The Supplement also adds several new topics. The Supplement is structured in the same manner as the Digest. For the convenience of users, the text of the Supplement is preceded by an index which lists the Digest topic headings which are supplemented. In using the main Digest, this index to Supplement 3 as well as those to Supplements 1 and 2 should be consulted to assure that the Digest discussion has not been superseded or updated by information in the Supplements. Supplement 3 is intended for use as a ''pocket part''. It should be inserted after Supplements 1 and 2, following the main Digest. Notice is hereby given that all disclaimers with respect to content, accuracy and completeness of information, express or implied warranties, and use of or reliance upon information presented, set forth in regard to the Digest itself, are equally applicable to this Supplement

  15. Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) and use of the digestate is presented from a global warming (GW) point of view by providing ranges of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are useful for calculation of global warming factors (GWFs), i.e. the contribution to GW...

  16. Student Teachers' Ways of Thinking and Ways of Understanding Digestion and the Digestive System in Biology (United States)

    Çimer, Sabiha Odabasi; Ursavas, Nazihan


    The purpose of this study was to identify the ways in which student teachers understand digestion and the digestive system and, subsequently, their ways of thinking, as reflected in their problem solving approaches and the justification schemes that they used to validate their claims. For this purpose, clinical interviews were conducted with 10…

  17. The challenges of anaerobic digestion and the role of biochar in optimizing anaerobic digestion. (United States)

    Fagbohungbe, Michael O; Herbert, Ben M J; Hurst, Lois; Ibeto, Cynthia N; Li, Hong; Usmani, Shams Q; Semple, Kirk T


    Biochar, like most other adsorbents, is a carbonaceous material, which is formed from the combustion of plant materials, in low-zero oxygen conditions and results in a material, which has the capacity to sorb chemicals onto its surfaces. Currently, research is being carried out to investigate the relevance of biochar in improving the soil ecosystem, digestate quality and most recently the anaerobic digestion process. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic substrates provides both a sustainable source of energy and a digestate with the potential to enhance plant growth and soil health. In order to ensure that these benefits are realised, the anaerobic digestion system must be optimized for process stability and high nutrient retention capacity in the digestate produced. Substrate-induced inhibition is a major issue, which can disrupt the stable functioning of the AD system reducing microbial breakdown of the organic waste and formation of methane, which in turn reduces energy output. Likewise, the spreading of digestate on land can often result in nutrient loss, surface runoff and leaching. This review will examine substrate inhibition and their impact on anaerobic digestion, nutrient leaching and their environmental implications, the properties and functionality of biochar material in counteracting these challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Digestion proteomics: tracking lactoferrin truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion. (United States)

    Grosvenor, Anita J; Haigh, Brendan J; Dyer, Jolon M


    The extent to which nutritional and functional benefit is derived from proteins in food is related to its breakdown and digestion in the body after consumption. Further, detailed information about food protein truncation during digestion is critical to understanding and optimising the availability of bioactives, in controlling and limiting allergen release, and in minimising or monitoring the effects of processing and food preparation. However, tracking the complex array of products formed during the digestion of proteins is not easily accomplished using classical proteomics. We here present and develop a novel proteomic approach using isobaric labelling to mapping and tracking protein truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion, using bovine lactoferrin as a model food protein. The relative abundance of related peptides was tracked throughout a digestion time course, and the effect of pasteurisation on peptide release assessed. The new approach to food digestion proteomics developed here therefore appears to be highly suitable not only for tracking the truncation and relative abundance of released peptides during gastric digestion, but also for determining the effects of protein modification on digestibility and potential bioavailability.

  19. Acid digestion of combustible radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.; Crippen, M.D.; Cowan, R.G.


    The following conclusions resulted from operation of Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) for processing transuranic waste: (1) the acid digestion process can be safely and efficiently operated for radioactive waste treatment.; (2) in transuranic waste treatment, there was no detectable radionuclide carryover into the exhaust off-gas. The plutonium decontamination factor (DF) between the digester and the second off-gas tower was >1.5 x 10 6 and the overall DF from the digester to the off-gas stack was >1 x 10 8 ; (3) plutonium can be easily leached from undried digestion residue with dilute nitric acid (>99% recovery). Leachability is significantly reduced if the residue is dried (>450 0 stack temp.) prior to leaching; (4) sulfuric acid recovery and recycle in the process is 100%; (5) nitric acid recovery is typically 35% to 40%. Losses are due to the formation of free nitrogen (N 2 ) during digestion, reaction with chlorides in waste (NO 2 stack was > 1.5 x 10 6 andl), and other process losses; (6) noncombustible components comprised approximately 6% by volume of glovebox waste and contained 18% of the plutonium; (7) the acid digestion process can effectively handle a wide variety of waste forms. Some design changes are desirable in the head end to reduce manual labor, particularly if large quantities of specific waste forms will be processed; (8) with the exception of residue removal and drying equipment, all systems performed satisfactorily and only minor design and equipment changes would be recommended to improve performance; and(9) the RADTU program met all of its planned primary objectives and all but one of additional secondary objectives

  20. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion. (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola


    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX® as shown in a 90-day rodent feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Marone Palma


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to evaluate the safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®, a novel viscous dietary polysaccharide (fiber, when administered to Sprague Dawley® rats in the diet for 90 days. Methods Groups of ten male and ten female rats each consumed PGX mixed in the diet at levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0% for 90 days, then evaluated for toxicological effects on parameters that included neuromotor activity, body weight, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, hematology, and histopathology. Results Mean body weight, mean feed consumption and food efficiency in the treated groups were generally comparable to controls for both male and female rats. No changes were noted in neuromotor behavior, and histopathological analysis revealed no significant changes between treated and control animals. There were no differences in mean organ weight, organ-to-body weight or organ-to-brain weight values between controls and treated animals. Decreased red blood cell count occurred in the high dose males and increases in aspartate and alanine aminotransferase enzyme levels and triglycerides, while significant decreases in serum sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations were observed in the females fed 5.0% PGX. However, the decreased mineral concentrations may be the result of significantly increased urinary volume in both males and females at the high dose, with a concomitant decrease in urinary specific gravity (males and females and protein concentration (females. These results were within historical control values, did not correlate with any histopathological changes, and were not considered adverse. Conclusion The results indicate a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for PGX at 5.0% of the diet, corresponding to an average daily intake of 3219 and 3799 mg/kg bw/day in male and female rats, respectively.

  2. Engineering the rabbit digestive ecosystem to improve digestive health and efficacy. (United States)

    Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Cauquil, L; Gidenne, T


    In rabbits, the bacterial and archaeal community of caecal ecosystem is composed mostly of species not yet described and very specific to that species. In mammals, the digestive ecosystem plays important physiological roles: hydrolysis and fermentation of nutrients, immune system regulation, angiogenesis, gut development and acting as a barrier against pathogens. Understanding the functioning of the digestive ecosystem and how to control its functional and specific diversity is a priority, as this could provide new strategies to improve the resistance of the young rabbit to digestive disorders and improve feed efficiency. This review first recalls some facts about the specificity of rabbit digestive microbiota composition in the main fermentation compartment, and its variability with some new insights based on recent molecular approaches. The main functions of the digestive microbiota will then be explained. Finally, some possible ways to control rabbit caecal microbiota will be proposed and a suitable timing for action will be defined.

  3. Anaerobic co-digestion of perennials: Methane potential and digestate nitrogen fertilizer value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller-Stover, Dorette Sophie; Sun, Guotao; Kroff, Pablo


    . Considering the high dry matter and methane yield ha-1, the possibility to substitute mineral N fertilizer inputs by leguminous biological N2 fixation capacity, and the digestate fertilizer value, the integration of grass-legume mixtures or sole legumes into anaerobic digestion systems as co......Co-digestion of crop biomass improves the traditional manure-based biogas yield due to an increased content of easily degradable carbon compounds. In this study, the methane potential of three perennials (grass, legumes, and grass+legume) was determined using various amounts together with animal...... manure. The nitrogen (N) mineralization dynamics in soil and the N-fertilizer value of the derived digestates were subsequently tested in both a soil incubation study and a pot experiment with spring barley. Digestion of all tested perennials together with a manure-based inoculum increased the cumulative...

  4. potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970), improved lactose digestion (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970), “intestinal flora/digestive health” (ID 4231), defence against vaginal pathogens (ID 2950, 2957, 2967) and increasing IL-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion, “intestinal flora/digestive health”, defence against vaginal pathogens and increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells. The food...

  5. Modelling methane emission mitigation by anaerobic digestion: effect of storage conditions and co-digestion. (United States)

    Moset, Veronica; Wahid, R; Ward, A; Møller, H B


    In this work the methane conversion factor (MCF) of untreated and anaerobically digested cattle manure (CM) as a function of storage temperature, time and co-digestion was measured in an in vitro experiment and modelled based on IPCC (2006) methodology (Tier 2). For this, one sample of untreated CM, one sample of mono-digested CM and three samples of CM co-digested with grass were incubated at seven different temperatures (from 5°C to 50°C) over 346 days. The main results showed that ultimate methane yield (B 0 ) of CM is higher than the B 0 reported by the IPCC (2006). Two temperature ranges should be considered for MCF evolution, below 15°C very low MCF was measured in this work for untreated CM, mono and co-digested samples. At higher temperatures, MCF obtained in this work and that provided by the IPCC could be comparable depending on storage time. Anaerobic mono-digestion decreased MCF compared to untreated CM at all temperatures and times, except in the temperature range between 20°C and 25°C if storage time is low, due to a lag phase observed in CM. This lag phase would probably not happen in real storage conditions depending on the proportion of old manure remaining in the storage tank. Co-digestion with grass-decreased MCF compared to mono-digestion, but increased CH 4 production in terms of fresh matter due to the higher B 0 of the mixture. Storage time, temperature and co-digestion should be considered in the quantification of CH 4 emission from digested material.

  6. Influence of lipid extraction from different protein sources on in vitro digestibility


    Sant'Ana,Rita de Cássia Oliveira; Mendes,Fabrícia Queiroz; Pires,Christiano Vieira; Oliveira,Maria Goreti de Almeida


    Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in living cells and their primary role in the diet is to supply the body with essential amino acids in adequate quantities for the synthesis and maintenance of body tissues. The determination of protein digestibility of foods is an important factor to estimate their quality and the in vitro methodology is a fast and easy way to perform it. This study aimed to determine the influence of lipids on the in vitro digestibility of animal and vegetable p...

  7. Involvement of ER Stress in Dysmyelination of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease with PLP1 Missense Mutations Shown by iPSC-Derived Oligodendrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Numasawa-Kuroiwa


    Full Text Available Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD is a form of X-linked leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1 gene. Although PLP1 proteins with missense mutations have been shown to accumulate in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER in disease model animals and cell lines transfected with mutant PLP1 genes, the exact pathogenetic mechanism of PMD has not previously been clarified. In this study, we established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from two PMD patients carrying missense mutation and differentiated them into oligodendrocytes in vitro. In the PMD iPSC-derived oligodendrocytes, mislocalization of mutant PLP1 proteins to the ER and an association between increased susceptibility to ER stress and increased numbers of apoptotic oligodendrocytes were observed. Moreover, electron microscopic analysis demonstrated drastically reduced myelin formation accompanied by abnormal ER morphology. Thus, this study demonstrates the involvement of ER stress in pathogenic dysmyelination in the oligodendrocytes of PMD patients with the PLP1 missense mutation.

  8. Preliminary characterization of digestive enzymes in freshwater mussels (United States)

    Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon J.; Cooper, Scott T.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.


    Resource managers lack an effective chemical tool to control the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Zebra mussels clog water intakes for hydroelectric companies, harm unionid mussel species, and are believed to be a reservoir of avian botulism. Little is known about the digestive physiology of zebra mussels and unionid mussels. The enzymatic profile of the digestive glands of zebra mussels and native threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook mussels (Lampsilis cardium) are characterized using a commercial enzyme kit, api ZYM, and validated the kit with reagent-grade enzymes. A linear correlation was shown for only one of nineteen enzymes, tested between the api ZYM kit and a specific enzyme kit. Thus, the api ZYM kit should only be used to make general comparisons of enzyme presence and to observe trends in enzyme activities. Enzymatic trends were seen in the unionid mussel species, but not in zebra mussels sampled 32 days apart from the same location. Enzymatic classes, based on substrate, showed different trends, with proteolytic and phospholytic enzymes having the most change in relative enzyme activity.

  9. Design and Fabrication of an Anaerobic Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Abubakar


    Full Text Available Anaerobic digester is a physical structure that provides a conducive environment for the multiplication of micro-organisms that degrades organic matter to generate biogas energy. Energy is required in agriculture for crop production, processing and storage, poultry production and electricity for farmstead and farm settlements. It is energy that propels agricultural mechanization, which minimizes the use of human and animal muscles and its inherent drudgery in agriculture. The energy demand required to meet up with the agricultural growth in Nigeria is high and growing every year. In this study the design and fabrication of an anaerobic digester was reported which is an attempt to boost energy requirement for small and medium dryland farmers in Nigeria. The design of the digester includes the following concept; the basic principles of anaerobic digestion processes, socio-economic status of the dryland farmers, amount of biogas to be produced. Finally, the digester was fabricated using locally available raw materials within the dryland area of Nigeria. At the end, preliminary flammability test was conducted and the biogas produced was found to be flammable.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)


    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  11. Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU), 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.


    The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was constructed at the Hanford Site, Richland, WA to demonstrate application of the acid digestion process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. Using its original tray digester vessel, RADTU recently completed a six-month campaign of processing potentially contaminated non-glovebox wastes from a Hanford plutonium facility. During the campaign, 2100 kg of largely cellulosic wastes were processed at an average sustained processing rate of 3 kg/h (limited by the acid-waste contact and the water boiloff rate from the acid feeds). On-line operating efficiency was nearly 50%, averaged over 12 hours/day, for five days/week. After shutdown, a new annular high-rate digester was installed for testing that demonstrated a sustained capacity of 8 kg/h to 10 kg/h with greatly improved contact between the digestion acid and the waste. The new unit began processing low-level waste from Hanford's z-Plant during June 1980. Plutonium levels in the waste processed will be increased gradually as operating experience has been gained. Processing recoverable scrap is expected to begin in the last quarter of CY 1980

  12. Headway on co-digestion of wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhale, Yogeshwar


    Full text: Many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Australia produce biogas either directly from the wastewater or from anaerobic digestion of the primary and/or secondary sludge, which in turn is used to create energy. Some WWTPs produce electricity from the biogas to either support the treatment plant or to export the electricity to the grid or both. High-strength organic wastes such as fats, oil and grease, food waste, commercial (restaurant) waste and brewery waste are attractive biogas sources that can be realised through co-digestion with the sludge from wastewater treatment. Co-digestion of high-strength waste can be a tricky business due to the varying nature of the waste, special handling requirements, and potential digester process issues like foaming. However, experiences over the past decade have helped identify mitigation measures and advanced designs to reduce these risks. Several WWTPs in the US accept fats, oil and grease (FOG) as a feedstock for co-digestion, and CH2M Hill has been involved in various capacities on some of those projects. The Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Johnson County, Kansas, includes an environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of FOG wastes from local restaurants and industrial sources. FOG waste receipts are handled using a separate onsite liquid receiving facility, and the FOG tanks and pipes are heated to minimise clogging. Co-digestion of FOG enhanced the gas production to fuel a 2.1 megawatt biogas co-generation system. Other CH2M Hill FOG co-digestion projects are FOG addition to the incinerator at the Hampton Roads Sanitation District in Virginia; FOG co-digestion at the Pinellas County in Florida; and FOG co-digestion and co-generation at the Essex Junction in Vermont. This experience was recently expanded to the co-digestion of other high-strength organic waste for Yarra Valley Water (YVW) and City West Water (CWW) in Victoria. The potential high-strength waste

  13. Effect of Medium-chain Triglyceride (MCT on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics in Weanling Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Hong


    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty weanling pigs in experiment 1 (Exp. 1 (6.91±0.99 kg; 21 d of age and Exp. 2 (10.20±1.09 kg; 28 d of age were used in two 42-d and 35-d experiments to evaluate the effect of medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and blood profile. In both of Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were utilized as follows : i negative control (NC, ii positive control (PC, NC+antibiotics (40 mg/kg Tiamulin, 110 mg/kg Tylosin, and 10 mg/kg Enramycin, iii MCT3, NC+0.32% (phase 1, 2 and 3 MCT, and iv MCT5, NC+0.55% (phase 1, 0.32% (phase 2 and 3 MCT. In Exp. 1, the pigs fed MCT5 diets had higher (p<0.05 ADG compared to NC treatment during the first 2 wk. From d 15 to 28, the ATTD of energy was improved (p<0.05 by MCT3 compared to the PC treatment. No effect has been observed on the blood profiles [red blood cell (RBC, white blood cell (WBC, immunoglobulin-G (IgG, lymphocyte concentration] measured in this study. In Exp. 2, the ADG were increased (p<0.05 by the MCT5 treatment than the PC treatment from d 0 to 14. Pigs fed PC treatment diet had lower ADFI (p<0.05 and better FCR (p<0.05 than NC treatment, whereas no differences were shown between MCT treatments and NC or PC treatment from d 15 to 35 and overall phase. The ATTD of DM and nitrogen were improved (p<0.05 by the effect of MCT5 related to the NC and PC treatment at the end of 2nd and 5th wk. The pigs fed MCT3 had higher (p<0.05 energy digestibility than PC treatment. No effects were seen in the blood profiles we measured (WBC, RBC, lymphocyte and immunoglobulin-G. In conclusion, the addition of MCT in the weanling pigs diet can improve the ADG and digestibility during the earlier period (first 2 wks, but had little effect on the blood characteristics.

  14. Microbial release of ferulic and p-coumaric acids from forages and their digestibility in lactating cows fed total mixed rations with different forage combinations. (United States)

    Cao, Bin-Bin; Jin, Xin; Yang, Hong-Jian; Li, Sheng-Li; Jiang, Lin-Shu


    Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (PCA) are widely distributed in graminaceous plant cell walls. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of ester-linked FA (FAest) and PCA (PCAest) in lactating dairy cows. Regarding corn stover, ensiled corn stover, whole corn silage, Chinese wild ryegrass and alfalfa hay with different phenolic acid profiles, the in vitro rumen digestibility of forage FAest and PCAest was negatively correlated with the ether-linked FA content and original PCA/FA ratio in the forages. The concentration of both phenolic acids in culture fluids was low after a 72 h incubation, and the mixed rumen microorganisms metabolized nearly all phenolic acids released into the culture fluids. FAest digestibility in the whole digestive tract was negatively correlated with dietary PCA/FA ratio, but a converse result occurred with dietary PCAest digestibility. The digestibility in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract was greater for FAest than for PCAest. Forage PCAest in comparison with FAest is not easily digested in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract, and they were negatively affected by forage FAeth content and lignification extent indicated by the original dietary PCA/FA ratio. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.; Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V.


    Highlights: • Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) effect on methane yield: verification in continuously fed digesters. • AAS resulted in 98% increase of the methane yield of swine manure fibers in continuously fed digesters. • ADM1 was successfully adapted to simulating anaerobic digestion of swine manure. • Modification of hydrolysis kinetics was necessary for an adequate simulation of the digestion of AAS-treated fibers. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per 0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1) was fitted to a manure-fed, CSTR-type digester and validated by simulating the performance of a second reactor digesting manure. It was shown that disintegration and hydrolysis of the solid matter of manure was such a slow process that the organic particulate matter did not significantly contribute to the methane production. In the second place, ADM1 was used to describe biogas production from the codigestion of manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers. The model predictions regarding biogas production and methane content were in good agreement with the experimental data. It was shown that, AAS treatment significantly increased the disintegration and hydrolysis rate of the carbohydrate compounds of the fibers. The effect of the addition of AAS treated fibers on the kinetics of the conversion of other key compounds such as volatile fatty acids was negligible.

  16. Mutual regulation of Bcl-2 proteins independent of the BH3 domain as shown by the BH3-lacking protein Bcl-x(AK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Plötz

    Full Text Available The BH3 domain of Bcl-2 proteins was regarded as indispensable for apoptosis induction and for mutual regulation of family members. We recently described Bcl-x(AK, a proapoptotic splice product of the bcl-x gene, which lacks BH3 but encloses BH2, BH4 and a transmembrane domain. It remained however unclear, how Bcl-x(AK may trigger apoptosis.For efficient overexpression, Bcl-x(AK was subcloned in an adenoviral vector under Tet-OFF control. The construct resulted in significant apoptosis induction in melanoma and nonmelanoma cell lines with up to 50% apoptotic cells as well as decreased cell proliferation and survival. Disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release clearly indicated activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Both Bax and Bak were activated as shown by clustering and conformation analysis. Mitochondrial translocation of Bcl-x(AK appeared as an essential and initial step. Bcl-x(AK was critically dependent on either Bax or Bak, and apoptosis was abrogated in Bax/Bak double knockout conditions as well by overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-x(L. A direct interaction with Bcl-2, Bax, Bad, Noxa or Puma was however not seen by immunoprecipitation. Thus besides BH3-mediated interactions, there exists an additional way for mutual regulation of Bcl-2 proteins, which is independent of the BH3. This pathway appears to play a supplementary role also for other proapoptotic family members, and its unraveling may help to overcome therapy resistance in cancer.

  17. Phenolics from Whole Grain Oat Products as Modifiers of Starch Digestion and Intestinal Glucose Transport. (United States)

    Li, Min; Koecher, Katie; Hansen, Laura; Ferruzzi, Mario G


    Four oat varieties and three product forms (porridge, cereal, and snack bar) were assessed to determine the impact of oat phenolics on starch digestibility and intestinal glucose transport. α-Amylase activity was enhanced by 20 GAE μM (gallic acid equivalent) of phenolics extracted from oat (96.7-118%, p transport of d-glucose-1,2,3,4,5,6,6-d 7 by Caco-2 monolayers over 60 min. Oat foods were then subjected to a coupled in vitro digestion/Caco-2 intestinal cell model to determine relevance to whole food systems. Digestive release of glucose was similar among products; however, glucose transport was significantly reduced from digesta of GMI 423 porridge and puffed cereal by 34% ± 12% and 20% ± 10% (p < 0.05) at 60 min. Results suggest phenolics might be a factor modulating glycemic response of oat products.

  18. Distant homology between yeast photoreactivating gene fragment and human genomic digests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meechan, P.J.; Milam, K.M.; Cleaver, J.E.


    Hybridization of DNA coding for the yeast DNA photolyase to human genomic DNA appears to allow one to determine whether a conserved enzyme is coded for in human cells. Under stringent conditions (68 0 C), hybridization is not found between the cloned yeast fragment (YEp13-phr1) and human or chick genomic digests. At less stringent conditions (60 0 C), hybridization is observed with chick digests, indicating evolutionary divergence even among organisms capable of photo-reactivation. At 50 0 C, weak hybridization with human digests was observed, indicating further divergence from the cloned gene. Data concerning the precise extent of homology and methods to clone the chick gene for use as another probe are discussed

  19. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains inoculated in cheese matrix during simulated human digestion. (United States)

    Pitino, Iole; Randazzo, Cinzia L; Cross, Kathryn L; Parker, Mary L; Bisignano, Carlo; Wickham, Martin S J; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Caggia, Cinzia


    Survival of probiotic bacteria during transit through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is influenced by a number of environmental variables including stomach acidity, bile salts, digestive enzymes and food matrix. This study assessed survival of seven selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains delivered within a model cheese system to the human upper GI tract using a dynamic gastric model (DGM). Good survival rates for all tested strains were recorded during both simulated gastric and duodenal digestion. Strains H12, H25 and N24 demonstrated higher survival capacities during gastric digestion than L. rhamnosus GG strain used as control, with H12 and N24 continuing to grow during duodenal digestion. Strains L. rhamnosus F17, N24 and R61 showed adhesion properties to both HT-29 and Caco-2 cells. The ability to attach to the cheese matrix during digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, also indicating production of extracellular polysaccharides as a response to acid stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of the potential bioavailability of plant microRNAs using a simulated human digestion process. (United States)

    Philip, Anna; Ferro, Valerie A; Tate, Rothwelle J


    The "dietary xenomiR hypothesis" proposes that microRNAs (miRNAs) in foodstuffs survive transit through the mammalian gastrointestinal tract and pass into cells intact to affect gene regulation. However, debate continues as to whether dietary intake poses a feasible route for such exogenous gene regulators. Understanding on miRNA levels during pretreatments of human diet is essential to test their bioavailability during digestion. This study makes the novel first use of an in vitro method to eliminate the inherent complexities and variability of in vivo approaches used to test this hypothesis. Plant miRNA levels in soybean and rice were measured during storage, processing, cooking, and early digestion using real-time PCR. We have demonstrated for the first time that storage, processing, and cooking does not abolish the plant miRNAs present in the foodstuffs. In addition, utilizing a simulated human digestion system revealed significant plant miRNA bioavailability after early stage digestion for 75 min. Attenuation of plant messenger RNA and synthetic miRNA was observed under these conditions. Even after an extensive pretreatment, plant-derived miRNA, delivered by typical dietary ingestion, has a robustness that could make them bioavailable for uptake during early digestion. The potential benefit of these regulatory molecules in pharma nutrition could be explored further. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.


    Full Text Available Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 % and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipase-dependent pancreatic lipases and bile secretion. Gastric lipolysis leads to the hydrolysis of 10-30 % of ingested triglycerides, generating mainly diglycerides (DG and free fatty acids. This facilitates subsequent triglyceride hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase by allowing fat emulsification. Pancreatic lipase cleaves the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triglycerides and/or DG obtaining sn-2 monoglycerides. Different lipid metabolites are quickly absorbed along the epithelial cells of the small intestine, acting olive oil as a supplier of oleic-acid-rich hydrocarbon skeletons for cellular synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids. Absorption of mostly minor compounds of (extra virgin olive oil takes place in the small intestine, as native or derivatives. Compared to diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, olive oil suppresses gastric acid secretion and is a potent releasing factor of cholecystokinin peptide, which consistently indicate that the consumption of olive oil might be beneficial in digestive diseases.El aceite de oliva es una grasa monoinsaturada (rica en ácido oleico, compuesta por triglicéridos (>98% y componentes menores. En los procesos de digestión y absorción de los triglicéridos participan enzimas y se producen cambios fisicoquímicos. La lipasa gástrica es el componente mayoritario de la actividad lipolítica gástrica en humanos. La hidrólisis de los triglicéridos continúa en el duodeno, por la acción sinérgica de las lipasas g

  2. Mathematical tool to size rural digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentino Helenice de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Anaerobic digesters have been highlighted due to the current energy crisis and its consequent search for alternative energy sources, allied to the intense process of livestock farming and agriculture modernization, which besides demanding a lot of energy, produces a great amount of crop and animal residues, most of the times generating sanitary problems. The aim of this work is to provide a mathematical tool to establish parameters for projects of construction of rural digesters, considering the response to energy demand, the suitability of the dimensions of the systems, yield factors and the guarantee of functionality. Non-linear optimization models, of easy resolution, for the three main types of rural digesters were formulated in this way. With the resolution of these models one can determine the height and the diameter that lead to a minimum volume for each type, so reducing the necessary amount of masonry and, consequently, diminishing the cost.

  3. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest, 1991 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.L.


    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest provides a summary of information about the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRC's regulatory responsibilities, and the areas NRC licenses. This digest is a compilation of NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and the industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1990, with exceptions noted. For operating US commercial nuclear power reactors, information on generating capacity and average capacity factor is obtained from Monthly Operating Reports submitted to the NRC directly by the licensee. This information is reviewed for consistency only. No independent validation and/or verification is performed by the NRC. For detailed and complete information about tables and figures, refer to the source publications. This digest is published annually for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. 30 figs., 12 tabs

  4. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis


    , their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. In the present study, Aqueous Ammonia Soaking was successfully applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full......-scale anaerobic digester to enhance their methane productivity. Soaking in six different reagent concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 32%) was applied for 3 days at 22°C. An overall methane yield increase from 85% to 110% was achieved compared to controls (digested manure fibers where AAS...... was not applied). The difference in reagent concentration at the range of 5-25% w/w in ammonia did not affect that much the overall methane yield resulting to an increase of 104-110% compared to the non AAS-treated fibers. Thus, an ammonia concentration as low as 5% is adequate for achieving the same increase...

  5. CFD simulation of mixing in anaerobic digesters. (United States)

    Terashima, Mitsuharu; Goel, Rajeev; Komatsu, Kazuya; Yasui, Hidenari; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Li, Y Y; Noike, Tatsuya


    A three-dimensional CFD model incorporating the rheological properties of sludge was developed and applied to quantify mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester. The results of the model were found to be in good agreement with experimental tracer response curve. In order to predict the dynamics of mixing, a new parameter, UI (uniformity index) was defined. The visual patterns of tracer mixing in simulation were well reflected in the dynamic variation in the value of UI. The developed model and methods were applied to determine the required time for complete mixing in a full-scale digester at different solid concentrations. This information on mixing time is considered to be useful in optimizing the feeding cycles for better digester performance.

  6. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods. (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C


    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian.

  7. Multivariate monitoring of anaerobic co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    Anaerobic digestion processes for production of renewable energy in the form of biogas, and in the future hydrogen, are becoming increasingly important worldwide. Sustainable solutions for renewable energy production systems are given high political priority, amongst other things due to global...... warming and environmental concerns. Anaerobic digestion applied in agriculture can simultaneously convert heterogeneous biomasses and wastes from the primary agricultural sector and from the bio processing industries, for instance food processing, pharma, and biofuel production, into valuable organic...... fertiliser and renewable energy. Meanwhile, in order for the biogas sector to become a significant player in the energy supply chain, the anaerobic digestion process has to be controlled to a greater extent than what is implemented as state-of-the-art today. Through application of the philosophy behind...

  8. Instrumentation and Control in Anaerobic Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anaerobic digestion is a multistep process, and is most applied to solids destruction and wastewater treatment for energy production. Despite wide application, and long-term industrial proof of application, some industries are still reluctant to apply this technology. One of the classical reasons...... benchmark. There has therefore been, overall, a quantum advance in application and sophistication of instrumentation and control in anaerobic digestion, and it is an effective option for improved process loading rate and conversion efficiency....... are still a limitation, but this is being partly addressed by the increased complexity of digestion processes. Methods for control benchmarking have also been improved, as there is now an industry standard model (the IWA ADM1), and this is being applied in an improved whole wastewater treatment plant...

  9. [Sarcoidosis in children with digestive manifestations]. (United States)

    Parlier, G; Josset, P; Charritat, J L; Tounian, P; Girardet, J P; Boccon-Gibod, L; Fontaine, J L


    Gastric involvement is the least rare among digestive localizations of sarcoidosis, as well in adults as in children. When it is to be seen at the beginning of the disease, it may cause difficulties in the diagnostic, especially with Crohn's disease. Gastric ulcers were detected in a 12 year-old girl, of African origin, who complained about epigastric pain. Eighteen months later, diarrhea, poor growing, uveitis and inflammatory biological signs led to a probable diagnostic of Crohn's disease. Endoscopy seemed to confirm this diagnostic with granulomatous lesions on gastric biopsies. The absence of radiological anomalies of the digestive tract and the poor efficiency of the medical treatment led to question this diagnosis and to assert that of sarcoidosis. This case allows to emphasize the rare involvement of the digestive tract in sarcoidosis and the aspects common both to Crohn's disease and sarcoidosis.

  10. SP and KLF Transcription Factors in Digestive Physiology and Diseases. (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Kyung; He, Ping; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B; Yang, Vincent W


    Specificity proteins (SPs) and Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) belong to the family of transcription factors that contain conserved zinc finger domains involved in binding to target DNA sequences. Many of these proteins are expressed in different tissues and have distinct tissue-specific activities and functions. Studies have shown that SPs and KLFs regulate not only physiological processes such as growth, development, differentiation, proliferation, and embryogenesis, but pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer and inflammatory disorders. Consistently, these proteins have been shown to regulate normal functions and pathobiology in the digestive system. We review recent findings on the tissue- and organ-specific functions of SPs and KLFs in the digestive system including the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, pancreas, and liver. We provide a list of agents under development to target these proteins. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thromboembolism prevention in surgery of digestive cancer. (United States)

    Malafaia, Osvaldo; Montagnini, Andre Luís; Luchese, Angélica; Accetta, Antonio Carlos; Zilberstein, Bruno; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto; Jacob, Carlos Eduardo; Quireze-Junior, Claudemiro; Bresciani, Cláudio José Caldas; Kruel, Cleber Dario Pinto; Cecconello, Ivan; Sad, Eduardo Fonseca; Ohana, Jorge Alberto Langbeck; Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo de; Manso, José Eduardo Ferreira; Ribas-Filho, Jurandir Marcondes; Santo, Marco Aurélio; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Torres, Orlando Jorge Martins; Herman, Paulo; Cuenca, Ronaldo Mafia; Sallum, Rubens Antônio Aissar; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques


    The venous thromboembolism is a common complication after surgical treatment in general and, in particular, on the therapeutic management on cancer. Surgery of the digestive tract has been reported to induce this complication. Patients with digestive cancer have substantial increased risk of initial or recurrent thromboembolism. To provide to surgeons working in digestive surgery and general surgery guidance on how to make safe thromboprophylaxis for patients requiring operations in the treatment of their gastrointestinal malignancies. The guideline was based on 15 relevant clinical issues and related to the risk factors, treatment and prognosis of the patient undergoing surgical treatment of cancer on digestive tract. They focused thromboembolic events associated with operations and thromboprophylaxis. The questions were structured using the PICO (Patient, Intervention or Indicator, Comparison and Outcome), allowing strategies to generate evidence on the main primary bases of scientific information (Medline / Pubmed, Embase, Lilacs / Scielo, Cochrane Library, PreMedline via OVID). Evidence manual search was also conducted (BDTD and IBICT). The evidence was recovered from the selected critical evaluation using discriminatory instruments (scores) according to the category of the question: risk, prognosis and therapy (JADAD Randomized Clinical Trials and New Castle Ottawa Scale for studies not randomized). After defining potential studies to support the recommendations, they were selected by the strength of evidence and grade of recommendation according to the classification of Oxford, including the available evidence of greater strength. A total of 53,555 papers by title and / or abstract related to issue were found. Of this total were selected (1st selection) 478 studies that were evaluated as full-text. From them to support the recommendations were included in the consensus 132 papers. The 15 questions could be answered with evidence grade of articles with 31 A

  12. Enhancing post aerobic digestion of full-scale anaerobically digested sludge using free nitrous acid pretreatment. (United States)

    Wang, Qilin; Zhou, Xu; Peng, Lai; Wang, Dongbo; Xie, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Zhiguo


    Post aerobic digestion of anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) has been extensively applied to the wastewater treatment plants to enhance sludge reduction. However, the degradation of ADS in the post aerobic digester itself is still limited. In this work, an innovative free nitrous acid (HNO2 or FNA)-based pretreatment approach is proposed to improve full-scale ADS degradation in post aerobic digester. The post aerobic digestion was conducted by using an activated sludge to aerobically digest ADS for 4 days. Degradations of the FNA-treated (treated at 1.0 and 2.0 mg N/L for 24 h) and untreated ADSs were then determined and compared. The ADS was degraded by 26% and 32%, respectively, in the 4-day post aerobic digestion period while being pretreated at 1.0 and 2.0 mg HNO2-N/L. In comparison, only 20% of the untreated ADS was degraded. Economic analysis demonstrated that the implementation of FNA pretreatment can be economically favourable or not depending on the sludge transport and disposal cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anaerobic digestion in mesophilic and room temperature conditions: Digestion performance and soil-borne pathogen survival. (United States)

    Chen, Le; Jian, Shanshan; Bi, Jinhua; Li, Yunlong; Chang, Zhizhou; He, Jian; Ye, Xiaomei


    Tomato plant waste (TPW) was used as the feedstock of a batch anaerobic reactor to evaluate the effect of anaerobic digestion on Ralstonia solanacearum and Phytophthora capsici survival. Batch experiments were carried out for TS (total solid) concentrations of 2%, 4% and 6% respectively, at mesophilic (37±1°C) and room (20-25°C) temperatures. Results showed that higher digestion performance was achieved under mesophilic digestion temperature and lower TS concentration conditions. The biogas production ranged from 71 to 416L/kg VS (volatile solids). The inactivation of anaerobic digestion tended to increase as digestion performance improved. The maximum log copies reduction of R. solanacearum and P. capsici detected by quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) were 3.80 and 4.08 respectively in reactors with 4% TS concentration at mesophilic temperatures. However, both in mesophilic and room temperature conditions, the lowest reduction of R. solanacearum was found in the reactors with 6% TS concentration, which possessed the highest VFA (volatile fatty acid) concentration. These findings indicated that simple accumulation of VFAs failed to restrain R. solanacearum effectively, although the VFAs were considered poisonous. P. capsici was nearly completely dead under all conditions. Based on the digestion performance and the pathogen survival rate, a model was established to evaluate the digestate biosafety. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion increases the translocation of polystyrene nanoparticles in an in vitro intestinal co-culture model. (United States)

    Walczak, Agata P; Kramer, Evelien; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Helsdingen, Richard; van der Zande, Meike; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Bouwmeester, Hans


    The conditions of the gastrointestinal tract may change the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) and therewith the bioavailability of orally taken NPs. Therefore, we assessed the impact of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the protein corona of polystyrene NPs (PS-NPs) and their subsequent translocation across an in vitro intestinal barrier. A co-culture of intestinal Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cells was exposed to 50 nm PS-NPs of different charges (positive and negative) in two forms: pristine and digested in an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. In vitro digestion significantly increased the translocation of all, except the "neutral", PS-NPs. Upon in vitro digestion, translocation was 4-fold higher for positively charged NPs and 80- and 1.7-fold higher for two types of negatively charged NPs. Digestion significantly reduced the amount of protein in the corona of three out of four types of NPs. This reduction of proteins was 4.8-fold for "neutral", 3.5-fold for positively charged and 1.8-fold for one type of negatively charged PS-NPs. In vitro digestion also affected the composition of the protein corona of PS-NPs by decreasing the presence of higher molecular weight proteins and shifting the protein content of the corona to low molecular weight proteins. These findings are the first to report that in vitro gastrointestinal digestion significantly affects the protein corona and significantly increases the in vitro translocation of differently charged PS-NPs. These findings stress the importance of including the in vitro digestion in future in vitro intestinal translocation screening studies for risk assessment of orally taken NPs.

  15. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel


    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  16. Adenylyl cyclases in the digestive system. (United States)

    Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia; Gorelick, Fred; Glaser, Shannon


    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of widely distributed enzymes whose functions are very diverse. There are nine known transmembrane AC isoforms activated by Gαs. Each has its own pattern of expression in the digestive system and differential regulation of function by Ca(2+) and other intracellular signals. In addition to the transmembrane isoforms, one AC is soluble and exhibits distinct regulation. In this review, the basic structure, regulation and physiological roles of ACs in the digestive system are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acid digestion studies at AEE Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.; Nichols, A.L.; Snelling, K.W.; Stride, R.


    Acid digestion is a chemical combustion process which could be applied to the treatment of low- and medium-level radioactive waste. The present paper describes experiments on the topic carried out at AEE Winfrith in the period 1979-1982. This work has included laboratory-scale studies of the basic chemistry of the process, the design and operation of a 5:1 scale rig and investigations into methods of residue treatment and acid recovery. A review of acid digestion work carried out at other locations throughout the world and a summary of the results of a design study carried out by external consultants are also presented. (author)

  18. Renewable methane from anaerobic digestion of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Owens, J.M.


    Production of methane via anaerobic digestion of energy crops and organic wastes would benefit society by providing a clean fuel from renewable feedstocks. This would replace fossil fuel-derived energy and reduce environmental impacts including global warming and acid rain. Although biomass energy is more costly than fossil fuel-derived energy, trends to limit carbon dioxide and other emissions through emission regulations, carbon taxes, and subsidies of biomass energy would make it cost competitive. Methane derived from anaerobic digestion is competitive in efficiencies and costs to other biomass energy forms including heat, synthesis gases, and ethanol. (author)

  19. Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.


    The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge

  20. Low temperature vapor phase digestion of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Robert A.


    A method for digestion and gasification of graphite for removal from an underlying surface is described. The method can be utilized to remove graphite remnants of a formation process from the formed metal piece in a cleaning process. The method can be particularly beneficial in cleaning castings formed with graphite molding materials. The method can utilize vaporous nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) or vaporous HNO.sub.3 with air/oxygen to digest the graphite at conditions that can avoid damage to the underlying surface.

  1. Optimization of solid state anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW by digestate recirculation: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michele, Pognani; Giuliana, D’Imporzano; Carlo, Minetti; Sergio, Scotti; Fabrizio, Adani


    Highlights: • Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD) of OFMSW can be optimized by irrigation with digestate. • Digestate spreading allows keeping optimal process parameters and high hydrolysis rate. • The 18.4% of CH 4 was produced in the reactor, leaving the 49.7% in the percolate. • Successive CSTR feed with percolate shows a biogas enriched in methane (more than 80%). • The proposed process allow producing the 68% of OFMSW potential CH 4 , getting high quality organic amendment. - Abstract: Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of OFMSW was optimized in order to produce biogas avoiding the use of solid inoculum. Doing so the dry AD was performed irrigating the solid waste with liquid digestate (flow rate of 1:1.18–1:0.9 w/w waste/digestate; 21 d of hydraulic retention time – HRT) in order to remove fermentation products inhibiting AD process. Results indicated that a high hydrolysis rate of organic matter (OM) and partial biogas production were obtained directly during the dry AD. Hydrolysate OM was removed from digester by the percolate flow and it was subsequently used to feed a liquid anaerobic digester. During dry AD a total loss of 36.9% of total solids was recorded. Methane balance indicated that 18.4% of potential methane can be produced during dry AD and 49.7% by the percolate. Nevertheless results obtained for liquid AD digestion indicated that only 20.4% and 25.7% of potential producible methane was generated by adopting 15 and 20 days of HRT, probably due to the AD inhibition due to high presence of toxic ammonia forms in the liquid medium

  2. Muscle composition slightly affects in vitro digestion of aged and cooked meat: identification of associated proteomic markers. (United States)

    Bax, M-L; Sayd, T; Aubry, L; Ferreira, C; Viala, D; Chambon, C; Rémond, D; Santé-Lhoutellier, V


    Meat is an appropriate source of proteins and minerals for human nutrition. Technological treatments modify the physical-chemical properties of proteins, making them liable to decrease the nutritional potential of meat. To counteract this damage, antioxidants and chaperone proteins in muscle cells can prevent oxidation, restore the function of denatured proteins, and thus prevent aggregation. This study aimed to explore the impact of indoor vs outdoor-reared meat protein composition on digestion and to associate protein markers to in vitro digestion parameters. Indoor-reared meat tended to show less oxidation and denaturation than outdoor-reared meat and was characterised by an overexpression of contractile and chaperone proteins. Outdoor-reared meat showed amplification of antioxidant and detoxification metabolism defending against oxidised compounds. Impacts on digestion remained minor. Several protein markers of in vitro digestion parameters were found for aged and cooked meat, linked to the detoxification process and to muscle contraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlations between bacterial populations and process parameters in four full-scale anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge. (United States)

    Shin, Seung Gu; Koo, Taewoan; Lee, Joonyeob; Han, Gyuseong; Cho, Kyungjin; Kim, Woong; Hwang, Seokhwan


    Process parameters and bacterial populations were investigated in four full-scale anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge. Although the four digesters were operated under similar conditions, digesters A and B had higher pH (7.2-7.4) and lipid removal efficiencies (>50%) than C and D (pH 6.1-6.4; average lipid removal acid or protein/amino acid-utilizers. In contrast, fifteen others (group II) were less abundant in A and/or B and included potentially dormant/dead cells originated from activated sludge. Despite the overall richness trend, the presence of the 25 genera in groups I/II was greater in digesters A and B (24) than in C and D (17); this observation suggests that group I bacteria might be essential in AD of sewage sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro chemopreventive properties of peptides released from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) protein under simulated gastrointestinal digestion. (United States)

    Vilcacundo, Rubén; Miralles, Beatriz; Carrillo, Wilman; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca


    Because of the continuous and direct interaction between the digestive tract and foods, dietary compounds represent an interesting source of chemopreventive agents for gastrointestinal health. In this study, the influence of a standardized static in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model on the release of peptides with chemopreventive potential from quinoa protein was investigated. Gastroduodenal digests and fractions collected by ultrafiltration were evaluated for their in plate oxygen radical absorbance capacity and in vitro colon cancer cell viability inhibitory activity. Highest effects were observed in the digests obtained during the intestinal phase, with fraction containing peptides 5kDa showing the greatest anti-cancer effects. Seventeen potential bioactive peptides derived from quinoa proteins have been identified. These proteins might be utilized as new ingredients in the development of functional foods or nutraceuticals with the aim of reducing oxidative stress-associated diseases, including cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Removal of excess nutrients by Australian zeolite during anaerobic digestion of swine manure. (United States)

    Wijesinghe, D Thushari N; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B; Scales, Peter; Sommer, Sven G; Chen, Deli


    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using natural and NaCl-treated Australian zeolites to simultaneously remove excess nutrients from anaerobically digested swine manure. Ion adsorption and desorption properties of Australian zeolite during the anaerobic digestion of swine manure were investigated. Two experiments were conducted: the first was an adsorption experiment with multi-component solutions that corresponded with the ionic composition of swine manure digestates. The second experiment determined the effects of zeolite dose rates during anaerobic digestion of swine manure on the removal of N, P and K from solution. Adsorption isotherms confirmed selectivity for K + over NH 4 + by Australian natural and sodium zeolites. Therefore, NH 4 + removal was considerably reduced when there was simultaneous K + uptake. Natural zeolite desorbed more Ca 2+ during K + and NH 4 + adsorption than sodium zeolite. The ion exchange reaction was independent of the presence of P. P removal was very dependent on the pH of the medium. Natural Australian zeolite was shown to be a potential sorbent for the removal of NH 4 + , K + and P during the anaerobic digestion of swine manure. However, the application of high concentrations of zeolite at higher pH values (> 7.5) might not be appropriate for anaerobic digestion, because zeolite desorbed more Ca 2+ ions into the solution at the higher doses of zeolite and then availability of P for microbial growth might be reduced as a result of PO 4 3- precipitation with Ca 2+ at the higher pH.

  6. Antioxidant properties of chemical extracts and bioaccessible fractions obtained from six Spanish monovarietal extra virgin olive oils: assays in Caco-2 cells. (United States)

    Borges, Thays H; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Seiquer, Isabel


    The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content (TPC) of six Spanish commercial monovarietal extra virgin olive oils (Arbequina, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca, Manzanilla, Picual and Picudo) were evaluated in chemical extracts and in bioaccessible fractions (BF) obtained after in vitro digestion. Moreover, the effects of the BF on cell viability and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated in Caco-2 cell cultures. The in vitro digestion process increased the TPC and antioxidant activity evaluated by different methods (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP) compared with chemical extracts. After digestion, the Picual variety showed better beneficial effects in preserving cell integrity than the other varieties studied. Significant reductions of ROS production were observed after incubation of Caco-2 cells with the BF of all the varieties and, moreover, a protective effect against the oxidative stress induced by t-BOOH was shown for Arbequina, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca, Manzanilla and Picual. These findings seem to be an additional reason supporting the health benefits of Spanish extra virgin olive oil varieties. Multivariate factor analysis and principal component analysis were applied to assess the contribution of antioxidant activity and TPC, before and after digestion, to the characterization of the different varieties.

  7. Building Halos by Digesting Satellites (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    We think galactic halos are built through the addition of material from the smaller subhalos of satellites digested by their hosts. Though most of the stars in Milky-Way-mass halos were probably formed in situ, many were instead accumulated over time, as orbiting dwarf galaxies were torn apart and their stars flung throughout the host galaxy. A recent set of simulations has examined this brutal formation process.In the authors simulations, a subhalo first falls into the host halo. At this point, it can either survive to present day as a satellite galaxy, or it can be destroyed, its stars scattering throughout the host halo. [Deason et al. 2016]Subhalo FateThere are many open questions about the growth of Milky-Way-mass halos from the accretion of subhalos. Which subhalos are torn apart and accreted, and which ones survive intact? Are more small or large subhalos accreted? Does subhalo accretion affect the host galaxys metallicity? And what can we learn from all of this about the Milky Ways formation history?In a recently published study, a team of scientists from Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory set out to answer these questions using a suite of 45 zoom-in simulations of Milky-Way-mass halos. Led by Alis Deason, the team tracked the accretion history of these 45 test galaxies to determine how their halos were built.Piecing Together HistoryDeason and collaborators reach several new and interesting conclusions based on the outcomes of their simulations.Average accreted stellar mass from destroyed dwarfs for each host halo, as a function of the time of the last major accretion event. More stellar mass is accreted in more recent accretion events. [Deason et al. 2016]Most of the stellar mass accreted by the Milky-Way-mass halos typically comes from only one or two destroyed dwarfs. The accreted dwarfs are usually low-mass if they were accreted early on in the simulation (i.e., in the early universe), and high-mass if they were accreted

  8. Requirement for digestible calcium by eleven- to twenty-five-kilogram pigs as determined by growth performance, bone ash concentration, calcium and phosphorus balances, and expression of genes involved in transport of calcium in intestinal and kidney cells. (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Liu, Y; McCann, J C; Walk, C L; Loor, J J; Stein, H H


    Two experiments were conducted to determine the requirement for standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca by 11- to 25-kg pigs based on growth performance, bone ash, or Ca and P retention and to determine the effect of dietary Ca on expression of genes related to Ca transport in the jejunum and kidneys. Six diets were formulated to contain 0.36% STTD P and 0.32, 0.40, 0.48, 0.56, 0.64, or 0.72% STTD Ca by including increasing quantities of calcium carbonate in the diets at the expense of cornstarch. Two additional diets contained 0.72% STTD Ca and 0.33% or 0.40% STTD P to determine if 0.36% STTD P had negative effects on the Ca requirement. The same batch of all diets was used in both experiments. In Exp. 1, 256 pigs (11.39 ± 1.21 kg initial BW) were randomly allotted to the 8 diets with 4 pigs per pen and 8 replicate pens per diet in a randomized complete block design. On the last day of the experiment, 1 pig from each pen was euthanized and the right femur and intestine and kidney samples were collected. Results indicated that ADG and G:F started to decline (linear and quadratic, urine samples were collected using the marker-to-marker approach. Results indicated that the requirement for STTD Ca to maximize Ca and P retention (g/d) was 0.60 and 0.49%, respectively. In conclusion, the STTD Ca requirement by 11- to 25-kg pigs to maximize bone ash was 0.48%; however, ADG and G:F declined if more than 0.54 or 0.50% STTD Ca, respectively, was fed, and the minimum concentration of Ca needed to maximize ADG and G:F could not be determined under the conditions of this experiment. Increasing dietary Ca decreased the mRNA expression of several genes related to transcellular Ca transport in the jejunum and the kidneys.

  9. Dynamics of Ultrastructural Characters of Drosophyllum lusitanicum Link (Droseraceae Digestive Glands During Maturation and After Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey E. Vassilyev


    Full Text Available A quantitative investigation was conducted on the endomembrane system of the secretory cells of Drosophyllum lusitanicum Link digestive glands exporting acid hydrolases. The surface density of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER membranes as well as the number of Golgi stacks, clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs and their smooth derivatives increased progressively with the gland maturation. On average secretory cells of the fully mature unstimulated gland, each contained RER with a surface area of 17500 µm2 and 16000 small vesicles (including CCVs of 81 nm average diameter and smooth vesicles as the derivatives of CCVs which average 46 nm. One hour after stimulation imitating prey capture, the surface density of RER, the number of Golgi stacks and 'protein' vesicles all increased greatly. The data obtained indicate that smooth vesicular derivatives of CCVs are involved in the secretion of digestive enzymes. Hydrolase secretion started in the immature glands and continued in the mature stage irrespective of whether or not an insect was actually captured. Stimulation resulting in the release of digestive fluid on the surface of the leaf by the digestive glands appeared to be accompanied by a significant increase in the rate of hydrolase synthesis and secretion. In addition to protein vesicles, two other types of larger secretory Golgi vesicles were produced: granular-fibrillar ones (~ 105 nm in diameter that were confined to cells at the meristem stage, and loosely-fibrillar vesicles (~ 250 nm in diameter that occurred only at the stage of wall ingrowth deposition. Models are proposed that depict digestive gland cell functioning both before and after stimulation.

  10. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B


    In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour...... of the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly water......-soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces...

  11. Power of Your Pancreas: Keep Your Digestive Juices Flowing (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe February 2017 Print this issue The Power of Your Pancreas Keep Your Digestive Juices Flowing ... your entire digestive system working properly. Related Stories Power to the Pelvis Battling a Bulging Hernia Keeping ...

  12. Social position of adolescents with chronic digestive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calsbeek, H; Rijken, M; Bekkers, MJTM; Kerssens, JJ; Dekker, J; Henegouwen, GPV

    Objective To investigate the consequences of having a chronic digestive disorder on the social position of adolescents. Methods Five diagnostic groups, including inflammatory bowel disease (I BID), chronic liver diseases, congenital digestive disorders, coeliac disease and food allergy (total n =

  13. Social position of adolescents with chronic digestive disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calsbeek, H.; Rijken, M.; Bekkers, M.J.T.M.; Kerssens, J.J.; Dekker, J.; Berge Henegouwen, G.P. van


    OBJECTIVE : To investigate the consequences of having a chronic digestive disorder on the social position of adolescents. METHODS : Five diagnostic groups, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic liver diseases, congenital digestive disorders, coeliac disease and food allergy (total n =

  14. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Li, Yu-You; Zhao, Youcai


    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DD SCOD ), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (k hyd ), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate

  15. In vitro digestibility of specific dsRNA by enzymes of digestive tract of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R Álvarez-Sánchez


    Full Text Available Objective. The digestibility of specific dsRNA by action of the enzymes of digestive tract of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was determined in vitro. Materials and methods. Digestive enzyme activity (amylase, lipase, protease, DNase and RNase was measured in the stomach, digestive gland, and anterior, middle, and posterior intestine of juvenile shrimp, and the digestibility of DNA, RNA and the dsRNA-ORF89, specific to WSSV, was determined by in vitro assays, as well as electrophoretic and densitometric analyses. Results. The highest enzymatic activity was found in the digestive gland: amylase (81.41%, lipase (92.60%, protease (78.20%, DNase (90.85%, and RNase (93.14%. The highest digestive capacity against DNA, RNA, and dsRNA was found in the digestive gland (5.11 ng of DNA per minute, 8.55 ng of RNA per minute, and 1.48 ng dsRNA per minute. Conclusions. The highest digestibility of dsRNA-ORF89, specific to WSSV, was found in the digestive gland, whereas the lowest digestibility was observed in the posterior intestine. This is the first report regarding the digestibility of dsRNA-ORF89 by whiteleg shrimp digestive tract enzymes, with potential therapeutic importance in shrimp culture to prevent WSSV disease through balanced feed.

  16. Feasibility and interest of the anammox process as treatment alternative for anaerobic digester supernatants in manure processing--an overview. (United States)

    Magrí, Albert; Béline, Fabrice; Dabert, Patrick


    Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal (ANR) is based on the combination of partial nitritation (PN) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). It is a promising alternative for the subsequent treatment of biogas digester supernatants in livestock manure processing and nitrogen surplus scenarios. However, as no full-scale experiences in the treatment of manure digestates by ANR have been published to date, future field studies addressing treatment of this kind of effluent would be of great interest. Some topics to be considered in these studies would be coupling anaerobic digestion and ANR, analysis of the factors that affect the process, comparing reactor configurations, microbial ecology, gas emissions, and achieving robust performance. This paper provides an overview of published studies on ANR. Specific issues related to the applicability of the process for treating manure digestates are discussed. The energy requirements of ANR are compared with those of other technological alternatives aimed at recovering nitrogen from digester supernatants. The results of the assessment were shown to depend on the composition of the supernatant. In this regard, the PN-anammox process was shown to be more competitive than other alternatives particularly at concentrations of up to 2 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato


    Full Text Available Nutritional composition and apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, gross energy, essential amino acids and no essential amino acids of spray dried whole yeast, autolyzed yeast and yeast cell wall were evaluated to Nile tilapia. Eighty juveniles (83.0±8.5g were placed in eight 250L aquaria for feeding and four aquaria of the same volume for collecting faecal samples. Both sets were equipped with flow-trough recirculating system provided with mechanical and biological filter. The results were analyzed through comparative relative index and the 100% value corresponded to the whole yeast nutrients. It can be concluded that the whole yeast contains high protein level and good apparent digestibility to nutrients and amino acids; autolysis process improves the dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and the most of essential and no essential amino acids apparent digestibility. Moreover yeast cell wall must not be used as protein source but is suggested as functional foodstuff in Nile tilapia diets.KEY WORDS: Amino acids, Oreochromis niloticus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae A composição nutricional e os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente para matéria seca, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, energia bruta, aminoácidos essenciais e aminoácidos não essenciais da levedura de álcool íntegra, levedura autolisada e parede celular spray dried foram avaliados para tilápia-do-nilo. Utilizou-se um total de oitenta peixes (83,0±8,5g, alojados em oito aquários de 250 L para alimentação e quatro de mesmo volume para a coleta de fezes, todos eles dotados de sistema de recirculação contínua de água, com filtro físico-biológico e temperatura controlada. Procedeu-se à avaliação dos resultados por meio do índice relativo de compara

  18. Biogas production with the use of mini digester


    P. Vindis; B. Mursec; C. Rozman; M. Janzekovic; F. Cus


    Purpose: of this paper is to present the construction of a mini digester for biogas production from different energy plants and organic wastes. With the mini digester the amount of biogas production (methane) is observed.Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, the mini digester consisting of twelve units was built and secondly some measurements with energy plants were performed. The measurements were performed with mini digester according to DIN 38414 part 8. Four tests simultaneously with...

  19. [Types of digestion in breast feeding: returning to the problem]. (United States)

    Korot'ko, G F


    During the breast feeding the hydrolysis of breast milk nutrients in natural conditions provides by milk enzymes, digestive gland secrets and intestinal epitheliocyte as autolytic induced digestion with following including and development of auto-digestion in hydrolysis of milk lipids and proteins. Milk lactose is hydrolyzed as a type of auto-intestinal digestion. Breast glands release enzymes according to a year lactation dynamics. The mechanism of hydrolase recreation from the mother's blood takes part in milk hudrolase origin.

  20. The effects of gastric digestion on codfish allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Untersmayr, Eva; Poulsen, Lars K.; Platzer, Michael H


    In a recent murine study, we showed that impaired gastric digestion supports the induction of fish allergy by protecting the digestion-sensitive major allergen parvalbumin and thus enhancing its sensitizing properties.......In a recent murine study, we showed that impaired gastric digestion supports the induction of fish allergy by protecting the digestion-sensitive major allergen parvalbumin and thus enhancing its sensitizing properties....

  1. digestibility of soybean flour, poultry meat me

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Data in parenthesis represents digestibility coefficients of leaf meal. Uneaten food was siphoned out at I :OOHr and faecal collection made at I 0:00 hr before next feeding. Fishes were stocked at 10 per 50L tank in a recirculatory system with water flow rate of 0.5L per minute with recirculation effective from the top. Water.

  2. Growth responses, excreta quality, nutrient digestibility, bone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two AP diets contained fish meal and soybean (SBF) and fish meal with canola (CMF); while the two VP diets contained predominantly soybean (SBM) or canola (CAN) meals. All diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous, and were pelleted, but amino acid levels were formulated on a total and not digestible basis.

  3. Digestate and Fugate - Fertilizers with Ecotoxicological Risks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jančula, Daniel; Zezulka, Štěpán; Došek, M.; Beklová, M.; Havelková, B.; Maršálek, Blahoslav


    Roč. 65, č. 4 (2017), s. 1183-1188 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1320234 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : digestate * fugate * ecotoxicity Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  4. Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Estes


    Full Text Available “Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome” is a hands-on activity designed to demonstrate the dynamics of microbiome ecology using dried pasta and beans to model disturbance events in the human digestive system microbiome. This exercise demonstrates how microbiome diversity is influenced by: 1 niche availability and habitat space and 2 a major disturbance event, such as antibiotic use. Students use a pictorial key to examine prepared models of digestive system microbiomes to determine what the person with the microbiome “ate.” Students then model the effect of taking antibiotics by removing certain “antibiotic sensitive” pasta. Finally, they add in “environmental microbes” or “native microbes” to recolonize the digestive system, determine how resilient their model microbome community is to disturbance, and discuss the implications. Throughout the exercise, students discuss differences in the habitat space available and microbiome community diversity. This exercise can be modified to discuss changes in the microbiome due to diet shifts and the emergence of antibiotic resistance in more depth.

  5. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  6. Estimation of organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of stems and seeds of the Juncus acutus plant in ruminant nutrition. ... of Juncus acutus. Stem and seed samples were collected from Hamsiloz Bay in Sinop, Turkey, and the proximate analysis was carried on them.

  7. Visual Impairments. ERIC Digest #E511. (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA.

    This digest provides basic information and resources on visual impairments. Legal and educational definitions are given for "legally blind,""partially sighted,""visually handicapped,""blind," and "low vision". Typical characteristics of individuals with visual impairments in the areas of cognitive…

  8. Digestive Endoscopy in Morocco: What Future Perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor Adil Ibrahimi


    Full Text Available Interventional endoscopy has evolved in parallel with diagnostic endoscopy and throughout the years, the performance of interventional endoscopy has proved to be efficient in improving morbidity and mortality in many diseases: biliopancreatic catheterism, dilatations of most stenosis in different parts of the digestive tube, haemostatic treatment, prosthetic fitting and installation, as well as benign and malignant tumors removal (polypectomy, mucosectomy....

  9. Multiple Intelligences: Gardner's Theory. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Brualdi, Amy C.

    This digest discusses the origins of Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences, his definition of intelligence, the incorporation of the theory into the classroom, and its role in alternative assessment practices. Gardner defines intelligence as the "capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more…

  10. Liderazgo visionario (Visionary Leadership). ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    "Vision" is one of the most frequently used buzzwords in the education literature of the 1990s. This digest in Spanish presents an overview of visionary leadership, which many education experts consider to be a make-or-break task for the school leader. It discusses various definitions of vision, the significance of vision for…

  11. Liderazgo etico (Ethical Leadership). ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest in Spanish outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethical dilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite sense…

  12. Advertising in the Schools. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Aidman, Amy

    This digest reviews the recent history of advertising to children, spotlights controversial marketing efforts, and examines the nature of commercial messages directed toward children in public schools. Because of the increase in children's spending power in recent decades, advertisers have closely targeted children as consumers. Advertising…

  13. Apparent nutrient digestibility and performance of Heterobranchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients is a useful tool for fish diet formulation, which gives the right estimation of growth, thereby reducing waste products. The ADCs of crude protein, energy and dry matter of processed earthworm, Libyodrilus violaceus meal by Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings ...

  14. Emerging Challenges for Community Colleges. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Schuetz, Pam

    This digest is drawn from the spring 2002 issue of New Directions for Community Colleges, titled "Next Steps for the Community College." It summarizes three overlapping challenges facing colleges in the coming decade: educating a more diverse student body, assessing student outcomes, and maintaining the educated workforce needed to meet…

  15. Available versus digestible dietary amino acids. (United States)

    Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J


    Available amino acids are those absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in a form suitable for body protein synthesis. True ileal digestible amino acids are determined based on the difference between dietary amino acid intake and unabsorbed dietary amino acids at the terminal ileum. The accuracy of ileal digestible amino acid estimates for predicting available amino acid content depends on several factors, including the accuracy of the amino acid analysis procedure. In heat processed foods, lysine can react with compounds to form nutritionally unavailable derivatives that are unstable during the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis step of amino acid analysis and can revert back to lysine causing an overestimate of available lysine. Recently, the true ileal digestible reactive (available) lysine assay based on guanidination has provided a means of accurately determining available lysine in processed foods. Methionine can be oxidised during processing to form methionine sulphoxide and methionine sulphone and cysteine oxidised to cysteic acid. Methionine sulphoxide, but not methionine sulphone or cysteic acid, is partially nutritionally available in some species of animal. Currently, methionine and cysteine are determined as methionine sulphone and cysteic acid respectively after quantitative oxidation prior to acid hydrolysis. Consequently, methionine and cysteine are overestimated if methionine sulphone or cysteic acid are present in the original material. Overall, given the problems associated with the analysis of some amino acids in processed foodstuffs, the available amino acid content may not always be accurately predicted by true ileal amino acid digestibility estimates. For such amino acids specific analytical strategies may be required.

  16. Nutrient composition and in vitro digestibility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 15, 2015 ... composition and in vitro digestibility of new triticale cultivars produced by UNE's crop breeding group. ... (Megazyme International, Ireland), using the enzyme procedure developed by McCleary et al. ..... analysis, but there appeared to be little difference between the cultivars in starch granular structure. The.

  17. Issues in Media Ethics. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that over the past decade incidents have occurred and new technologies have appeared which together have raised questions about the ethical values of American journalists, this Digest seeks to identify some of those ethical issues and to point to the work of those who have studied these issues. It addresses issues of plagiarism and…

  18. Fibre digestion in the hyra;r

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dried samples by calorimeter combustion. The fibre con- tent was determined by the method of Van Soest (1964) us- ing a Fibretec 1020 hot extraction apparatus. Two-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between the two most important fibre digesting gut regions, the sac- culation and caeca. Results.

  19. Teaching about Democratic Constitutionalism. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Patrick, John J.

    There are more than 100 democracies in the world today. All but three of them--Great Britain, Israel, and New Zealand --have written constitutions. This digest examines the importance of constitutions and constitutionalism and the teaching of these concepts through the use of comparisons. The primary objectives of civic education for democratic…

  20. Comparative effects of undigested and anaerobically digested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the effects of undigested and anaerobically digested poultry manure and conventional inorganic fertilizer on the growth characteristics and yield of maize was investigated at Ibadan, Nigeria. The pot experiment consisted of sixty (60) nursery bags, set out in the greenhouse. The treatments, thoroughly ...

  1. Archaeal community of cattle digestive system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němcová, Anna; Elhottová, Dana; Gattinger, A.


    Roč. 48, - (2007), s. 233 ISSN 0009-0646. [Kongres Československé společnosti mikrobiologické /24./. 02.10.2007-05.10.2007, Liberec] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : archaeal community * cattle digestive system Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Anaerobic digestion in sustainable biomass chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.


    This thesis evaluates the potential contribution of anaerobic digestion (AD) to the sustainability of biomass chains. Results provide insights in the technological potential to recover energy and valuable by-products from energy crops and residues, and evaluate biomass cascades involving AD

  3. Fibre digestion in the hyra;r

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feeders consuming unpalatable and even poisonous plants. No detailed ... Prior to sacrificing the animals, each group was starved for 24 h before being fed ... Table 1b Ingesta movement in the digestive tracts of. 0. 5 pc. 10 hyrax (hours). Time between. Furthest gut part feeding and containing plastic. Diet. Animal No. killing.

  4. Involving Migrant Families in Education. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Martinez, Yolanda G.; Velazquez, Jose A.

    This digest describes parent involvement in their children's education from the perspective of migrant parents and educators and offers strategies to enhance the experience of schooling for migrant students and their families. Teachers often perceive parent involvement as preparing children for school, attending school events, and fulfilling…

  5. Biotechnology Education and the Internet. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Lee, Thomas

    The world of modern biotechnology is based on recent developments in molecular biology, especially those in genetic engineering. Since this is a relatively new and rapidly advancing field of study, there are few traditional sources of information and activities. This digest highlights biotechnology resources including those that can be found on…

  6. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed (United States)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.


    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  7. Applications of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    and resource/energy recovery have been developed. Treatment of biowastes by anaerobic digestion processes is in many cases the optimal way to convert organic waste into useful products such as energy (in the form of biogas) and a fertilizer product. Other waste management options, such as land filling...

  8. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.


    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the

  9. Manejo de riesgo (Risk Management). ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Gaustad, Joan

    The ordinary conduct of school business is accompanied today by risks that were rare or unknown a few decades ago. This ERIC Digest in Spanish discusses how risk management, a concept long used by corporate decision makers, can help school boards and administrators conserve their districts' assets. Risk management is a coordinated effort to…

  10. Political Communication via the Media. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…

  11. Performance characteristics and nutrient digestibility of Finisher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance characteristics, nutrient digestibility and blood chemistry of Finishing (84-112d) turkeys fed diets containing 100 g/kg MSP supplemented with varying combinations of enzyme and yeast. A total of 100 day-old, British United Turkeys (BUT) turkeys were reared for ...

  12. Mechanically processed corn silage digestibility and intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Franco da Silveira


    Full Text Available The dry matter content increase due to the extension of the harversted period beginning and the kind of hybrid used can affect the starch digestibility and voluntary intake of ruminants. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the best corn hybrid and processing type of silage corn, and evaluate the possible effects on starch digestibility and voluntary intake of lambs. It was used 24 Santa Inês lambs with average age of three months and average initial weight of 25.0 kg. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2 factorial design (dent and flint hybrids; crushed and not crushed. The processing of the dent hybrid resulted in less dry matter intake (0.583 kg/day associated to higher total digestibility of dry matter and starch, 68.21 and 95.33% respectively. Thus, the processing of corn plants used for silage should be performed on hybrids with the dent grain texture to provide the best digestibility of silage to lambs.

  13. Bifidobacteria in the digestive tract of bumblebees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Kopečný, Jan; Mrázek, Jakub; Rada, V.; Dubá, S.; Marounek, Milan


    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2010), s. 165-170 ISSN 1075-9964 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD525/08/H060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Bifidobacteria * Bumblebee * Digestive tract Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.448, year: 2010

  14. Digested disorder: Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (April-May-June, 2013). (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N


    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is overwhelming. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a "Digested Disorder" project and represent a series of reader's digest type articles objectively representing the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the period of April, May, and June of 2013. The papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings.

  15. Digested disorder: Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (January/February/March, 2013). (United States)

    Uversky, Vladimir N


    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is blooming. A simple PubMed search for "intrinsically disordered protein OR natively unfolded protein" returns about 1,800 hits (as of June 17, 2013), with many papers published quite recently. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we are starting a "Digested Disorder" project, which will encompass a series of reader's digest type of publications aiming at the objective representation of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only two criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest covers papers published during the period of January, February and March of 2013. The papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings.

  16. Digested disorder: Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (July-August-September, 2013). (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna D; DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N


    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins grows fast. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a "Digested Disorder" project and represent a new issue of reader's digest of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the third quarter of 2013; i.e., during the period of June, July, and September of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings.

  17. Digested disorder, Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (October-November-December, 2013). (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N


    This is the 4th issue of the Digested Disorder series that represents reader's digest of the scientific literature on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the fourth quarter of 2013; i.e. during the period of October, November, and December of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings.

  18. Archaea: Essential inhabitants of the human digestive microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Demonfort Nkamga


    Full Text Available Prokaryotes forming the domain of Archaea, named after their first discovery in extreme environments, are acknowledged but still neglected members of the human digestive tract microbiota. In this microbiota, cultured archaea comprise anaerobic methanogens: Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Methanobrevibacter massiliense, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus, Methanobrevibacter millerae and Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis; along with the non-methanogen halophilic Archaea Halopherax massiliense. Metagenomic analyses detected DNA sequences indicative of the presence of additional methanogenic and non-methanogenic halophilic Archaea in the human intestinal tract and oral cavity. Methanogens specifically metabolize hydrogen produced by anaerobic fermentation of carbohydrates into methane; further transforming heavy metals and metalloids into methylated derivatives, such as trimethylbismuth which is toxic for both human and bacterial cells. However, the role of Archaea as pathogens remains to be established. Future researches will aim to increase the repertoire of the human digestive tract Archaea and to understand their possible association with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections and diseases including weight regulation abnormalities. Keywords: Human-associated Archaea, Methanogens, Halophiles, Oral cavity, Intestinal tract

  19. Digestibility of organic processed feed ingredients in laying hens


    van Krimpen, M.M.; van Diepen, J.T.M; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; van Harn, J.


    In two experiments, digestibility and nutritive value for laying hens of organically-grown feed raw materials was assessed. Digestibility and metabolisable energy content of the products differed considerably compared to those listed in the CVB Feedstuff Table. Laying hens, organic feed raw materials, digestibility, nutritive value

  20. La fibroscopie digestive haute chez le sujet noir africain age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    endoscopie digestive haute et relever les particularités. Patients et méthodes : Etude rétrospective, descriptive sur des résultats de compte-rendu d'endoscopie digestive haute menée en unité d'endoscopie digestive du service ...