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Sample records for cell digestion shown

  1. Cell Matrix Remodeling Ability Shown by Image Spatial Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Li Chiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling is a critical step of many biological and pathological processes. However, most of the studies to date lack a quantitative method to measure ECM remodeling at a scale comparable to cell size. Here, we applied image spatial correlation to collagen second harmonic generation (SHG images to quantitatively evaluate the degree of collagen remodeling by cells. We propose a simple statistical method based on spatial correlation functions to determine the size of high collagen density area around cells. We applied our method to measure collagen remodeling by two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, which display different degrees of invasiveness, and a fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3. We found distinct collagen compaction levels of these three cell lines by applying the spatial correlation method, indicating different collagen remodeling ability. Furthermore, we quantitatively measured the effect of Latrunculin B and Marimastat on MDA-MB-231 cell line collagen remodeling ability and showed that significant collagen compaction level decreases with these treatments.

  2. DIGESTER GAS - FUEL CELL - PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure

    2002-03-01

    GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

  3. Absence of correlation between rates of cell wall turnover and autolysis shown by Bacillus subtilis mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Vitković, L; Cheung, H. Y.; Freese, E

    1984-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis mutants with reduced rates of cell wall autolysis reached a constant rate of wall turnover after a longer lag than the standard strain but eventually showed the same turnover rate. In reverse, a turnover-deficient mutant autolysed at a slightly higher rate than the standard strain. Consequently, there is no correlation between the rates of cell wall turnover and autolysis.

  4. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  5. TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

  6. Ultrasonic cell disruption of stabilised sludge with subsequent anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeche, T I; Schläfer, O; Bormann, H; Schröder, C; Sievers, M

    2002-05-01

    The world-wide increasing environmental awareness and its subsequent regulations have led to the application of improved technologies in wastewater purification plants. This has resulted in higher wastewater and sludge productions. Sludge is the by-product of such plants and it is not only rich in organic carbon and pathogens but also in heavy metals and other environmental pollutants. In Europe, agricultural application of dried sludge (bio-solids) is confronted with negative reactions from the citizens, governmental organisations, farmers and the food industry. Ultrasonic disruption of sludge is a popular mechanical disruption process in sludge treatment. During ultrasonic treatment, high frequency acoustic signals are used to initiate the cavitation process. The applied ultrasonic field leads to a breakdown of cohesive forces of the liquid molecules resulting in the generation of cavitation bubbles. A shock wave is released by the collapse of the cavitation bubbles and propagates in the surrounding medium forming jet streams that cause the disruption of cells in sludge. Disruption of sludge cells enables the release of light organic substances into the sludge water thereby exposing them for further anaerobic digestion. This paper presents results on the disruption of conventionally stabilised sludge through the application of the ultrasonic field. In order to reduce the specific energy input (i.e. ratio of the consumed energy during ultrasonic disruption to the input sludge mass) and improve biogas production, the total solids content of the stabilised sludge was increased before disruption. The anaerobic digestion of sludge samples was carried out in a set of specially constructed laboratory anaerobic digesters. Results showed that subsequent anaerobic digestion of the ultrasonically disrupted sludge could improve biogas production with reduced sludge quantity that is vital to the economic consideration of the wastewater treatment plants. This process

  7. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  8. Ultrastructure of the digestive cells in millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kszuk-Jendrysik, M.; Sosinka, A.; Rost-Roszkowska, M.M.; Vilímová, J.; Tajovský, Karel; Poprawa, I.; Hyra, M.; Sonakowska, L.; Kamińska, K.

    Olomouc : Institute of Soil Biology , BC ASCR, 2014. s. 45. ISBN 978-80-86525-28-0. [International Congress of Myriapodology /16./. 20.07.2014-25.07.2014, Olomouc] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : millipedes * digestive cells Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  9. Changes in inositol phosphates in wild carrot cells upon initiation of cell wall digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that inositol trisphosphate (IP3) stimulated 45Ca+2 efflux from fusogenic carrot protoplasts and it was suggested that IP3 may serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca+2 in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not inositol phosphate metabolism changes in response to external stimuli, the cells were labeled with myo-[2-3H] inositol for 18 h and exposed to cell wall digestion enzymes, Driselase. The inositol phosphates were extracted with ice cold 10% TCA and separated by anion exchange chromatography. The radioactivity of the fraction that contained IP3 increased 2-3.8 fold and that which contained inositol bisphosphate increased 1.9-2.6 fold within 1.5 min of exposure to Driselase. After 6 min, the radioactivity of both fractions increased 6-7.7 fold and an increase in inositol monophosphate was observed. These data indicate that inositol phosphate metabolism is stimulated by Driselase and suggest polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis occurs upon initiation of cell wall digestion

  10. Intactness of cell wall structure controls the in vitro digestion of starch in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Bhattarai, Rewati R; Gorham, John; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-03-16

    Increasing the level of starch that is not digested by the end of the small intestine and therefore enters the colon ('resistant starch') is a major opportunity for improving the nutritional profile of foods. One mechanism that has been shown to be successful is entrapment of starch within an intact plant tissue structure. However, the level of tissue intactness required for resistance to amylase digestion has not been defined. In this study, intact cells were isolated from a range of legumes after thermal treatment at 60 °C (starch not gelatinised) or 95 °C (starch gelatinised) followed by hydrolysis using pancreatic alpha amylase. It was found that intact cells, isolated at either temperature, were impervious to amylase. However, application of mechanical force damaged the cell wall and made starch accessible to digestive enzymes. This shows that the access of enzymes to the entrapped swollen starch is the rate limiting step controlling hydrolysis of starch in cooked legumes. The results suggest that a single cell wall could be sufficient to provide an effective delivery of starch to the large intestine with consequent nutritional benefits, provided that mechanical damage during digestion is avoided. PMID:26786854

  11. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Ohio Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  12. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Indiana Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  13. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States Shown as One-Mile Cells (Decadal Time Slices)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  14. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Kentucky Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  15. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Pennsylvania Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  16. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Illinois Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  17. Use of scanning electron microscopy to monitor nanofibre/cell interaction in digestive epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millaku, Agron; Drobne, Damjana; Torkar, Matjaz; Novak, Sara; Remškar, Maja; Pipan-Tkalec, Živa

    2013-09-15

    We provide data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on the interaction of ingested tungsten nanofibers with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes of a test organism Porcellio scaber. Conventional toxicity endpoints including feeding behaviour, weight loss and mortality were also measured in each investigated animal. No toxicity was detected in any of exposed animals after 14 days of feeding on tungsten nanofiber dosed food, but when nanofibers enter the digestive system they can react with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes, becoming physically inserted into the cells. In this way, nanofibers can injure the epithelial cells of digestive gland tubes when they are ingested with food. Our SEM data suggest that peristaltic forces may have an important role, not predicted by in vitro experiments, in the interactions of nanomaterials with digestive intestinal cells. PMID:23742956

  18. Use of scanning electron microscopy to monitor nanofibre/cell interaction in digestive epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millaku, Agron, E-mail: agron.mi@hotmail.com [Limnos-Company for Applied Ecology Ltd, Podlimbarskega 31, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drobne, Damjana [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence, Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (Nanocentre), Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Torkar, Matjaz [Institute of Metals and Technology IMT, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Condensed Matter Physics Department, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Novak, Sara [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Remškar, Maja [Jožef Stefan Institute, Condensed Matter Physics Department, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pipan-Tkalec, Živa [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy is particularly well suited to the observation of nanofibre/cell interaction in the endothelial cells lining the hepatopancreas. (a) Tungsten oxide nanofibres, (b) test organism Porcellio scaber and schematic appearance of digestive tubes, (c) digestive tube (hepatopancreas) prepared for SEM investigation, (d) digestive gland cells (C) with nanofibres (NF) embedded in the cell membrane and (e) nanofibres inserted deeply in the cells and damaged nanofibres due to peristalsis. -- Highlights: • Tungsten oxide nanofibres react physically with digestive gland epithelial cells in Porcellio scaber. • Physical peristaltic forces of lead to insertion of nanofibres into the cells. • No toxic responses as measured by conventional toxicity biomarkers were detected. • Physical interactions were observed in a majority of the investigated animals. -- Abstract: We provide data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on the interaction of ingested tungsten nanofibers with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes of a test organism Porcellio scaber. Conventional toxicity endpoints including feeding behaviour, weight loss and mortality were also measured in each investigated animal. No toxicity was detected in any of exposed animals after 14 days of feeding on tungsten nanofiber dosed food, but when nanofibers enter the digestive system they can react with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes, becoming physically inserted into the cells. In this way, nanofibers can injure the epithelial cells of digestive gland tubes when they are ingested with food. Our SEM data suggest that peristaltic forces may have an important role, not predicted by in vitro experiments, in the interactions of nanomaterials with digestive intestinal cells.

  19. Use of scanning electron microscopy to monitor nanofibre/cell interaction in digestive epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy is particularly well suited to the observation of nanofibre/cell interaction in the endothelial cells lining the hepatopancreas. (a) Tungsten oxide nanofibres, (b) test organism Porcellio scaber and schematic appearance of digestive tubes, (c) digestive tube (hepatopancreas) prepared for SEM investigation, (d) digestive gland cells (C) with nanofibres (NF) embedded in the cell membrane and (e) nanofibres inserted deeply in the cells and damaged nanofibres due to peristalsis. -- Highlights: • Tungsten oxide nanofibres react physically with digestive gland epithelial cells in Porcellio scaber. • Physical peristaltic forces of lead to insertion of nanofibres into the cells. • No toxic responses as measured by conventional toxicity biomarkers were detected. • Physical interactions were observed in a majority of the investigated animals. -- Abstract: We provide data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on the interaction of ingested tungsten nanofibers with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes of a test organism Porcellio scaber. Conventional toxicity endpoints including feeding behaviour, weight loss and mortality were also measured in each investigated animal. No toxicity was detected in any of exposed animals after 14 days of feeding on tungsten nanofiber dosed food, but when nanofibers enter the digestive system they can react with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes, becoming physically inserted into the cells. In this way, nanofibers can injure the epithelial cells of digestive gland tubes when they are ingested with food. Our SEM data suggest that peristaltic forces may have an important role, not predicted by in vitro experiments, in the interactions of nanomaterials with digestive intestinal cells

  20. Interstitial cells of Cajal in the human fetal small bowel as shown by c-kit immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Wester, T.; Eriksson, L; Olsson, Y; L. Olsen

    1999-01-01

    Background—Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) express the tyrosine kinase receptor c-kit, which is required for their development and spontaneous pacemaker activity in the bowel. From murine models it has been proposed that ICCs do not develop until after birth, but more recent findings indicate that c-kit is expressed early in the embryonic period. The temporal development of ICCs in the human gut remains unknown. 
Aim—To investigate ICCs in the human fetal small bowel u...

  1. Molecular Portrait of Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Shown by Integrative Meta-Analysis of Expression Profiles with Validations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaraj, Soundara Viveka; Shyamsundar, Vidyarani; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramani, Pratibha; Ganesan, Kumaresan; Muthuswami, Muthulakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Oral Tongue Squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), the most frequently affected oral cancer sub-site, is associated with a poor therapeutic outcome and survival despite aggressive multi- modality management. Till date, there are no established biomarkers to indicate prognosis and outcome in patients presenting with tongue cancer. There is an urgent need for reliable molecular prognostic factors to enable identification of patients with high risk of recurrence and treatment failure in OTSCC management. In the current study, we present the meta-analysis of OTSCC microarray based gene expression profiles, deriving a comprehensive molecular portrait of tongue cancer biology, showing the relevant genes and pathways which can be pursued further to derive novel, tailored therapeutics as well as for prognostication. We have studied 5 gene expression profiling data sets available on exclusively oral tongue subsite comprising of sample size; n = 190, consisting of 111 tumors and 79 normals. The meta- analysis results showed 2405 genes differentially regulated comparing OTSCC tumor and normal. The top up regulated genes were found to be involved in Extracellular matrix degradation (ECM) and Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathways. The top down regulated genes were found to be involved in detoxication pathways. We validated the results in clinical samples (n = 206), comprising of histologically normals (n = 10), prospective (n = 29) and retrospective (n = 167) OTSCC by evaluating MMP9 and E-cadherin gene expression by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Consistent with meta-analysis results, MMP9 mRNA expression was significantly up regulated in OTSCC primary tumors compared to normals. MMP9 protein over expression was found to be a significant predictor of poor prognosis, disease recurrence and poor Disease Free Survival (DFS) in OTSCC patients. Analysis by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard model showed patients with loss of E-cadherin expression in OTSCC

  2. Def Functions as a Cell Autonomous Factor in Organogenesis of Digestive Organs in Zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Tao; Hui Shi; Delai Huang; Jinrong Peng

    2013-01-01

    Digestive organs originate from the endoderm. Morphogenesis of the digestive system is precisely controlled by multiple factors that dictate the cell fate and behavior so that the specific digestive organs are timely formed in the right place and develop into right size and structure. We showed previously that digestive organ expansion factor (def) is a gene whose expression is enriched in the liver, pancreas and intestine. Loss-of-function of def in the def(hi429) mutant confers hypoplastic ...

  3. Def Functions as a Cell Autonomous Factor in Organogenesis of Digestive Organs in Zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Ting; Shi, Hui; Huang, Delai; Peng, Jinrong

    2013-01-01

    Digestive organs originate from the endoderm. Morphogenesis of the digestive system is precisely controlled by multiple factors that dictate the cell fate and behavior so that the specific digestive organs are timely formed in the right place and develop into right size and structure. We showed previously that digestive organ expansion factor (def) is a gene whose expression is enriched in the liver, pancreas and intestine. Loss-of-function of def in the defhi429 mutant confers hypoplastic di...

  4. Estimation of digestive stability and bioavailability of chlorophylls by an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo Guerrero, Lourdes; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz; Mínguez Mosquera, María Isabel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of food matrix both on the chlorophyll pigment transformations and on their micellarization as a measure of bioavailability, using an two-stage in vitro digestion model. We also validate the above mentioned bioavailability measurement by evaluating the absorption of the micellarized chlorophyll pigments by Caco-2 human intestinal cell cultures.

  5. Immunohistochemical localization of hepatopancreatic phospholipase A2 in Hexaplex Trunculus digestive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebai Tarek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian sPLA2-IB localization cell are well characterized. In contrast, much less is known about aquatic primitive ones. The aquatic world contains a wide variety of living species and, hence represents a great potential for discovering new lipolytic enzymes and the mode of digestion of lipid food. Results The marine snail digestive phospholipase A2 (mSDPLA2 has been previously purified from snail hepatopancreas. The specific polyclonal antibodies were prepared and used for immunohistochimical and immunofluorescence analysis in order to determine the cellular location of mSDPLA2. Our results showed essentially that mSDPLA2 was detected inside in specific vesicles tentatively named (mSDPLA2+ granules of the digestive cells. No immunolabelling was observed in secretory zymogene-like cells. This immunocytolocalization indicates that lipid digestion in the snail might occur in specific granules inside the digestive cells. Conclusion The cellular location of mSDPLA2 suggests that intracellular phospholipids digestion, like other food components digestion of snail diet, occurs in these digestive cells. The hepatopancreas of H. trunculus has been pointed out as the main region for digestion, absorption and storage of lipids.

  6. Complete disassociation of adult pancreas into viable single cells through cold trypsin-EDTA digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan LI; Shi-yun PENG; Zhen-wu ZHANG; Rui-cheng FENG; Lu LI; Jie LIANG; Sheng TAI

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro isolation and analysis of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells are necessary for understanding their properties and function; however,the preparation of high-quality single-cell suspensions from adult pancreas is prerequisite.In this study,we applied a cold trypsin-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) digestion method to disassociate adult mouse pancreata into single cells.The yield of single cells and the viability of the harvested cells were much higher than those obtained via the two commonly used warm digestion methods.Flow cytometric analysis showed that the ratio of ductal or BCRP1-positive cells in cell suspensions prepared through cold digestion was consistent with that found in vivo.Cell culture tests showed that pancreatic epithelial cells prepared by cold digestion maintained proliferative capacity comparable to those derived from warm collagenase digestion.These results indicate that cold trypsin-EDTA digestion can effectively disassociate an adult mouse pancreas into viable single cells with minimal cell loss,and can be used for the isolation and analysis of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells.

  7. Application of autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV vaccine in treatment of tumors of digestive traet

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Wei; Wang, Hui; Sun, Tie-Mie; Yao, Wen-Qing; Chen, Li-Li; Jin, Yu; Chun-ling LI; Meng, Fan-Juan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To treat patients with stage I-IV malignant tumors of digestive tract using autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV (Newcastle disease virus) vaccine, and observe the survival period and curative effect.

  8. Cell surface molecules and fibronectin-mediated cell adhesion: effect of proteolytic digestion of membrane proteins

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Proteases have been used as a tool to investigate the role of surface molecules in fibronectin-mediated cell adhesion. Proteolytic digestion of membrane-proteins by pronase (1 mg/ml for 20 min at 37 degrees C) completely inhibited adhesion of baby hamster kidney (BHK) fibroblasts on fibronectin-coated plastic dishes. Various degrees of inhibition were also obtained after treatment with proteinase K, chymotrypsin, papain, subtilopeptidase A, and thermolysin. Protein synthesis was required to r...

  9. Immunohistochemical localization of hepatopancreatic phospholipase A2 in Hexaplex Trunculus digestive cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rebai Tarek; Bezzine Sofiane; Misery Laurent; Karray Aida; Boulais Nicholas; Zarai Zied; Gargouri Youssef; Mejdoub Hafedh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mammalian sPLA2-IB localization cell are well characterized. In contrast, much less is known about aquatic primitive ones. The aquatic world contains a wide variety of living species and, hence represents a great potential for discovering new lipolytic enzymes and the mode of digestion of lipid food. Results The marine snail digestive phospholipase A2 (mSDPLA2) has been previously purified from snail hepatopancreas. The specific polyclonal antibodies were prepared and used...

  10. Rab27A Is Present in Mouse Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Is Required for Digestive Enzyme Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Hou

    Full Text Available The small G-protein Rab27A has been shown to regulate the intracellular trafficking of secretory granules in various cell types. However, the presence, subcellular localization and functional impact of Rab27A on digestive enzyme secretion by mouse pancreatic acinar cells are poorly understood. Ashen mice, which lack the expression of Rab27A due to a spontaneous mutation, were used to investigate the function of Rab27A in pancreatic acinar cells. Isolated pancreatic acini were prepared from wild-type or ashen mouse pancreas by collagenase digestion, and CCK- or carbachol-induced amylase secretion was measured. Secretion occurring through the major-regulated secretory pathway, which is characterized by zymogen granules secretion, was visualized by Dextran-Texas Red labeling of exocytotic granules. The minor-regulated secretory pathway, which operates through the endosomal/lysosomal pathway, was characterized by luminal cell surface labeling of lysosomal associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1. Compared to wild-type, expression of Rab27B was slightly increased in ashen mouse acini, while Rab3D and digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, chymotrypsin and elastase were not affected. Localization of Rab27B, Rab3D and amylase by immunofluorescence was similar in both wild-type and ashen acinar cells. The GTP-bound states of Rab27B and Rab3D in wild-type and ashen mouse acini also remained similar in amount. In contrast, acini from ashen mice showed decreased amylase release induced by CCK- or carbachol. Rab27A deficiency reduced the apical cell surface labeling of LAMP1, but did not affect that of Dextran-Texas Red incorporation into the fusion pockets at luminal surface. These results show that Rab27A is present in mouse pancreatic acinar cells and mainly regulates secretion through the minor-regulated pathway.

  11. Blastema cells derived from New Zealand white rabbit's pinna carry stemness properties as shown by differentiation into insulin producing, neural, and osteogenic lineages representing three embryonic germ layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeinasab, Morvarid; Matin, Maryam M; Rassouli, Fatemeh B; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2016-05-01

    Stem cells (SCs) are known as undifferentiated cells with self-renewal and differentiation capacities. Regeneration is a phenomenon that occurs in a limited number of animals after injury, during which blastema tissue is formed. It has been hypothesized that upon injury, the dedifferentiation of surrounding tissues leads into the appearance of cells with SC characteristics. In present study, stem-like cells (SLCs) were obtained from regenerating tissue of New Zealand white rabbit's pinna and their stemness properties were examined by their capacity to differentiate toward insulin producing cells (IPCs), as well as neural and osteogenic lineages. Differentiation was induced by culture of SLCs in defined medium, and cell fates were monitored by specific staining, RT-PCR and flow cytometry assays. Our results revealed that dithizone positive cells, which represent IPCs, and islet-like structures appeared 1 week after induction of SLCs, and this observation was confirmed by the elevated expression of Ins, Pax6 and Glut4 at mRNA level. Furthermore, SLCs were able to express neural markers as early as 1 week after retinoic acid treatment. Finally, SLCs were able to differentiate into osteogenic lineage, as confirmed by Alizarin Red S staining and RT-PCR studies. In conclusion, SLCs, which could successfully differentiate into cells derived from all three germ layers, can be considered as a valuable model to study developmental biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:25371011

  12. Expression of reductases in continuous mammal cell cultures and its significance for the activation of nitroaromatics shown for the example of 1.6 dinitropyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the first part of the work was to establish the metabolism of 1,3- and 1,6-DNP in intact cells. This gave rise to the following questions. What metabolites are formed in cell lines with different enzyme outfits? What influence does the induction of P450 have on the metabolism of the two nitroaromates? Does the metabolism found in the different test cell lines permit any conclusions as to the activating mechanism of 1,6- and 1,3-DNP. In the second part these test cell lines were studied with respect to the expression of the reductases that might be involved in the metabolism of aromates. The following questions were of focal interest: Are cytochrome reductase, DT diaphorase and xanthine-oxidase expressed in the cell lines? If so, to what extent? Can these enzymes be induced in the test cell lines? In the last part the enzymes that reduce 1,6-DNP to gene-toxic products were identified. This required clarifying the following: What role do the above-mentioned reductases play in the activation of 1,6-DNP in individual cell lines? Are there other enzymes responsible for the activation of 1,6-DNP? (MG)

  13. The digestive cells of the hepatopancreas in Aplysia depilans (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia): ultrastructural and cytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo-da-Cunha, A

    2000-02-01

    Digestive cells are the most abundant cell type in the digestive diverticula of Aplysia depilans. These are tall columnar or club shaped cells, covered with microvilli on their apical surface. A large number of endocytic vesicles containing electron-dense substances can be found in the apical zone, but the presence of many heterolysosomes of large diameter is the main feature of these cells. Glycogen particles and some lipid droplets were also observed. Peroxisomes with a circular or oval profile were common, but crystalline nucleoids were not detected in them, although a dense spot in the matrix was observed in a few cases. These organelles were strongly stained after cytochemical detection of catalase activity. The Golgi stacks are formed by 4 or 5 cisternae, with dilated zones containing electron dense material. Arylsulphatase activity was detected in the Golgi stacks and also in lysosomes. Cells almost entirely occupied by a very large vacuole containing a residual dense mass seem to be digestive cells in advanced stages of maturation. The observation of semithin and ultrathin sections indicates that these very large vacuoles are the result of a fusion among the smaller lysosomes. Some images suggest that the content of these large vacuoles is extruded into the lumen of the digestive diverticula. PMID:10798317

  14. Enhanced digestion of waste activated sludge using microbial electrolysis cells at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asztalos, Joseph R; Kim, Younggy

    2015-12-15

    This study examined the effects of the microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) reactions on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge from municipal wastewater treatment under ambient temperature conditions (22-23 °C). Two lab-scale digesters, a control anaerobic digester and an electrically-assisted digester (EAD - equipped with a MEC bioanode and cathode) were operated under three solids retention times (SRT = 7, 10 and 14 days) at 22.5 ± 0.5 °C. A numerical model was also built by including the MEC electrode reactions in Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1. In experiments, the EAD showed reduced concentration of acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid and iso-butyric acid. This improved performance of the EAD is thought to be achieved by direct oxidation of the short-chain fatty acids at the bioanode as well as indirect contribution of low acetic acid concentration to enhancing beta-oxidation. The VSS and COD removal was consistently higher in the EAD by 5-10% compared to the control digester for all SRT conditions at 22.5 ± 0.5 °C. When compared to mathematical model results, this additional COD removal in the EAD was equivalent to that which would be achieved with conventional digesters at mesophilic temperatures. The magnitude of electric current in the EAD was governed by the organic loading rate while conductivity and acetic acid concentration showed negligible effects on current generation. Very high methane content (∼95%) in the biogas from both the EAD and control digester implies that the waste activated sludge contained large amounts of lipids and other complex polymeric substances compared to primary sludge. PMID:26051356

  15. FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS: CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conceptual design of a fuel cell (FC) system for operation on anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is described and its economic and environmental feasibility is projected. ADG is produced at water treatment plants during the process of treating sewage anaerobically to reduce solids....

  16. Serine proteinase of Renibacterium salmoninarum digests a major autologous extracellular and cell-surface protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockey, D D; Turaga, P S; Wiens, G D; Cook, B A; Kaattari, S L

    1991-10-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is a pathogen of salmonid fish that produces large amounts of extracellular protein (ECP) during growth. A proteolytic activity present in ECP at elevated temperatures digested the majority of the proteins in ECP. This digestion was also associated with the loss of ECP immunosuppressive function. In vitro activity of the proteinase in ECP was temperature dependent: it was not detected in an 18-h digest at 4 and 17 degrees C but became readily apparent at 37 degrees C. Proteinase activity was detected at bacterial physiological temperatures (17 degrees C) in reactions incubated for several days. Under these conditions, digestion of partially purified p57, a major constituent of ECP and a major cell-surface protein, yielded a spectrum of breakdown products similar in molecular weight and antigenicity to those in ECP. This pattern of digestion suggests that most of the immunologically related constituents of ECP are p57 and its breakdown products. The proteolytic activity was sensitive to phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, methanol, and ethanol and to 10-min incubation at temperatures above 65 degrees C. Electrophoretic analysis of the proteinase on polyacrylamide gels containing proteinase substrates indicated the native form to be 100 kDa or greater. The enzyme was active against selected unrelated substrates only when coincubated with a denaturant (0.1% lauryl sulfate) and (or) a reducing agent (20 mM dithiothreitol). PMID:1777853

  17. Rapid digestion of shredded MSW by sequentially flooding and draining small landfill cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, William P; Xie, Sihuang; Patel, Miheka

    2016-09-01

    This paper compares the digestion of a packed bed of shredded municipal waste using a flood and drain regime against a control digestion of similarly prepared material using a trickle flow regime. All trials were performed on shallow (2m) beds of the sub-8cm fraction of shredded mixed MSW, encapsulated in a polyethylene bladder. The control cell (Cell 1) was loaded with 1974 tonnes shredded municipal waste and produced 76±9m(3) CH4dryt(-1) (45±2m(3) CH4 'as received't(-1)) over 200days in response to a daily recirculation of the leachate inventory which was maintained at 60m(3). The flood and drain operation was performed on two co-located cells (Cell 2 and Cell 3) that were loaded simultaneously with 1026 and 915 tonnes of the sub-8cm fraction of shredded mixed MSW, with a third empty cell used as a reservoir for 275m(3) of mature landfill leachate. Cell 2 was first digested in isolation by flooding and draining once per week to avoid excessive souring. Gas production from Cell 2 peaked and declined to a steady residual level in 150days. Cell 3 was flooded and drained for the first time 186days after the commencement of Cell 2, using the same inventory of leachate which was now exchanged between the cells, such that each cell was flooded and drained twice per week. Biogas production from Cell 3 commenced immediately with flooding, peaking and reducing to a residual level within 100days. The average CH4 yield from Cells 2 and 3 was 123±15m(3)dryt(-1) (92±2m(3) 'as received't(-1), equal to 95% of the long term (2month) BMP yield. PMID:26718389

  18. Characterization of Caco-2 and HT29-MTX co-cultures in an in vitro digestion/cell culture model used to predict iron bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co-cultures of two human cell lines, Caco-2 and HT29-MTX mucus producing cells, have been incorporated into an in vitro digestion/cell culture model used to predict iron bioavailability. A range of different foods were subjected to in vitro digestion and iron bioavailability from digests was assesse...

  19. The role of plant cell wall encapsulation and porosity in regulating lipolysis during the digestion of almond seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Myriam M L; Carrière, Frédéric; Mackie, Alan R; Gray, David A; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have provided evidence that the physical encapsulation of intracellular nutrients by cell walls of plant foods (i.e. dietary fibre) plays a predominant role in influencing macronutrient bioaccessibility (release) from plant foods during human digestion. One unexplored aspect of this is the extent to which digestive enzymes can pass through the cell-wall barrier and hydrolyse the intracellular lipid in almond seeds. The purpose of the present study was to assess the role played by cell walls in influencing the bioaccessibility and digestibility of almond lipid using a range of techniques. Digestibility experiments were performed on raw and roasted almond cells as well as isolated almond oil bodies using in vitro gastric and duodenal digestion models. Residual triacylglycerols and lipolysis products were extracted after 1 h of incubation and analysed by thin layer chromatography. The lipolysis kinetics of almond cells and oil bodies were also investigated using the pH-stat technique. Finally, the potential penetration of pancreatic lipase through the cell wall matrix was investigated using confocal microscopy. Differences in the rates and extent of lipolysis were clearly seen between almond cells and oil bodies, and these differences were observed regardless of the lipase(s) used. These results also showed that almond cell walls that are completely intact limit lipid digestibility, due to an encapsulation mechanism that hinders the diffusion of lipase into the intracellular environment and lipolysis products out of the cells. PMID:26503478

  20. Calcium bioaccessibility and uptake by human intestinal like cells following in vitro digestion of casein phosphopeptide-calcium aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Silvia; Del Favero, Elena; De Luca, Paola; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Fiorilli, Amelia; Cantu', Laura; Ferraretto, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), derived by casein proteolysis, can bind calcium ions and keep them in solution. In vitro studies have demonstrated CPP-induced cell calcium uptake, depending on the formation of (CPP + calcium) complexes and on the degree of differentiation of the intestinal cells. With the present study, we address the persistence of the complexes and of the CPP-induced calcium uptake in intestinal like cells after the digestion process, thus examining their eligibility to serve as nutraceuticals. A calcium-preloaded CPP preparation of commercial origin (Ca-CPPs) was subjected to in vitro digestion. The evolution of the supramolecular structure of the Ca-CPP complexes was studied using laser-light and X-ray scattering. The bioactivity of the pre- and post-digestion Ca-CPPs was determined in differentiated Caco2 and HT-29 cells by video imaging experiments using Fura-2. We found that Ca-CPP aggregates keep a complex supramolecular organization upon digestion, despite getting smaller in size and increasing internal calcium dispersion. Concomitantly and most interestingly, digested Ca-CPPs clearly enhance the uptake of calcium ions, especially in Caco2 cells. In contrast, digestion depletes the ability of post-loaded decalcified-CPPs (Ca-dekCPPs), with a weaker internal structure, to induce calcium uptake. The enhanced bioactivity reached upon digestion strongly suggests a recognized role of Ca-CPPs, in the form used here, as nutraceuticals. PMID:25927875

  1. Development of Electroactive and Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox Biofilms from Digestate in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Gino Di Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial Fuel cells (MFCs have been proposed for nutrient removal and energy recovery from different wastes. In this study the anaerobic digestate was used to feed H-type MFC reactors, one with a graphite anode preconditioned with Geobacter sulfurreducens and the other with an unconditioned graphite anode. The data demonstrate that the digestate acts as a carbon source, and even in the absence of anode preconditioning, electroactive bacteria colonise the anodic chamber, producing a maximum power density of 172.2 mW/m2. The carbon content was also reduced by up to 60%, while anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox bacteria, which were found in the anodic compartment of the reactors, contributed to nitrogen removal from the digestate. Overall, these results demonstrate that MFCs can be used to recover anammox bacteria from natural sources, and it may represent a promising bioremediation unit in anaerobic digestor plants for the simultaneous nitrogen removal and electricity generation using digestate as substrate.

  2. The role of protein synthesis and digestive enzymes in acinar cell injury

    OpenAIRE

    Logsdon, Craig D.; Ji, Baoan

    2013-01-01

    The exocrine pancreas is the organ with the highest level of protein synthesis in the adult—each day the pancreas produces litres of fluid filled with enzymes that are capable of breaking down nearly all organic substances. For optimal health, the pancreas must produce sufficient enzymes of the right character to match the dietary intake. Disruption of normal pancreatic function occurs primarily as a result of dysfunction of the acinar cells that produce these digestive enzymes, and can lead ...

  3. Evaluation by electron microscopy and anaerobic culture of types of rumen bacteria associated with digestion of forage cell walls.

    OpenAIRE

    Akin, D E

    1980-01-01

    Different morphological types of rumen bacteria which degraded cell walls of forage grasses with various in vitro digestibilities were evaluated with electron microscopy. The majority of these bacteria (i.e., about 70% or more) consisted of two distinct types: (i) encapsulated cocci and (ii) irregularly shaped bacteria, resembling major fiber digesters found in the rumen. Each type was capable of degrading structurally intact cell walls. Differences (P less than or equal to 0.02) in the perce...

  4. T cell immunity in the teleost digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafalla, Carolina; Leal, Esther; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Fischer, Uwe

    2016-11-01

    Fish (along with cyclostomes) constitute the most ancient animal group in which an acquired immune system is present. As in higher vertebrates, both B and T lymphocytes cooperate in implementing an adequate response. Although there is still a debate on whether fish possess a true gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), the presence of diffuse B and T lymphocytes throughout all mucosal surfaces has been demonstrated in a wide variety of fish species. The lack of antibodies against T lymphocyte markers has hampered the performance of functional assays in both systemic and mucosal compartments. However, most components associated with T lymphocyte function have been identified in fish through extensive genomic research, suggesting similar functionalities for fish and mammalian T lymphocytes. Thus, the aim of this review is to briefly summarize what is known in teleost concerning the characteristics and functionalities of the different T cell subsets, to then focus on what is known to date regarding their presence and role in the gastrointestinal tract, through either direct functional assays or indirectly by conclusions drawn from transcriptomic analysis. PMID:26905634

  5. Immunohistochemical localization of hepatopancreatic phospholipase in gastropods mollusc, Littorina littorea and Buccinum undatum digestive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarai Zied

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the digestive enzymes, phospholipase A2 (PLA2 hydrolyzes the essential dietary phospholipids in marine fish and shellfish. However, we know little about the organs that produce PLA2, and the ontogeny of the PLA2-cells. Accordingly, accurate localization of PLA2 in marine snails might afford a better understanding permitting the control of the quality and composition of diets and the mode of digestion of lipid food. Results We have previously producted an antiserum reacting specifically with mSDPLA2. It labeled zymogen granules of the hepatopancreatic acinar cells and the secretory materials of certain epithelial cells in the depths of epithelial crypts in the hepatopancreas of snail. To confirm this localization a laser capture microdissection was performed targeting stained cells of hepatopancreas tissue sections. A Western blot analysis revealed a strong signal at the expected size (30 kDa, probably corresponding to the PLA2. Conclusions The present results support the presence of two hepatopancreatic intracellular and extracellular PLA2 in the prosobranchs gastropods molluscs, Littorina littorea and Buccinum undatum and bring insights on their localizations.

  6. Exocytosis of macrophage lysosomes leads to digestion of apoptotic adipocytes and foam cell formation[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, Abigail S.; Barbosa-Lorenzi, Valéria C.; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Falcone, Domenick J.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Many types of apoptotic cells are phagocytosed and digested by macrophages. Adipocytes can be hundreds of times larger than macrophages, so they are too large to be digested by conventional phagocytic processes. The nature of the interaction between macrophages and apoptotic adipocytes has not been studied in detail. We describe a cellular process, termed exophagy, that is important for macrophage clearance of dead adipocytes and adipose tissue homeostasis. Using mouse models of obesity, human tissue, and a cell culture model, we show that macrophages form hydrolytic extracellular compartments at points of contact with dead adipocytes using local actin polymerization. These compartments are acidic and contain lysosomal enzymes delivered by exocytosis. Uptake and complete degradation of adipocyte fragments, which are released by extracellular hydrolysis, leads to macrophage foam cell formation. Exophagy-mediated foam cell formation is a highly efficient means by which macrophages internalize large amounts of lipid, which may ultimately overwhelm the metabolic capacity of the macrophage. This process provides a mechanism for degradation of objects, such as dead adipocytes, that are too large to be phagocytosed by macrophages. PMID:27044658

  7. Exocytosis of macrophage lysosomes leads to digestion of apoptotic adipocytes and foam cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, Abigail S; Barbosa-Lorenzi, Valéria C; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Falcone, Domenick J; Hudis, Clifford A; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2016-06-01

    Many types of apoptotic cells are phagocytosed and digested by macrophages. Adipocytes can be hundreds of times larger than macrophages, so they are too large to be digested by conventional phagocytic processes. The nature of the interaction between macrophages and apoptotic adipocytes has not been studied in detail. We describe a cellular process, termed exophagy, that is important for macrophage clearance of dead adipocytes and adipose tissue homeostasis. Using mouse models of obesity, human tissue, and a cell culture model, we show that macrophages form hydrolytic extracellular compartments at points of contact with dead adipocytes using local actin polymerization. These compartments are acidic and contain lysosomal enzymes delivered by exocytosis. Uptake and complete degradation of adipocyte fragments, which are released by extracellular hydrolysis, leads to macrophage foam cell formation. Exophagy-mediated foam cell formation is a highly efficient means by which macrophages internalize large amounts of lipid, which may ultimately overwhelm the metabolic capacity of the macrophage. This process provides a mechanism for degradation of objects, such as dead adipocytes, that are too large to be phagocytosed by macrophages. PMID:27044658

  8. Reversible alterations in epithelial cell turnover in digestive gland of winkles (Littorina littorea) exposed to cadmium and their implications for biomarker measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaldibar, B. [Cell Biology and Histology Laboratory, Zoology and Animal Cell Biology Department, School of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cancio, I. [Cell Biology and Histology Laboratory, Zoology and Animal Cell Biology Department, School of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Marigomez, I. [Cell Biology and Histology Laboratory, Zoology and Animal Cell Biology Department, School of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail: ionan.marigomez@ehu.es

    2007-02-28

    In marine molluscs, the epithelium of the digestive gland is composed of two cell types, namely, digestive and basophilic cells. Under normal physiological conditions digestive cells outnumber basophilic cells, but under different stress situations the composition of the epithelium changes, basophilic cells apparently replace digestive cell. Winkles, Littorina littorea, were exposed to 1.25 mg/l Cd for 20 days to provoke cell type replacement. Then, animals were depurated in clean seawater for 10 days to determine whether cell type replacement was reversible. Digestive glands were fixed in Carnoy and paraffin embedded for histological analysis. The volume densities of basophilic cells (Vv{sub BAS}) and digestive cells (Vv{sub DIG}) were calculated by stereology on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections. Vv{sub BAS} increased and Vv{sub DIG} decreased in Cd-exposed animals. After estimation of cell size and absolute cell numbers, these changes were attributed to digestive cell loss and concomitant basophilic cell hypertrophy but not to increased numbers of basophilic cells. Cell type composition and cell size almost fully returned to normal values after 10-day depuration. Accordingly, PCNA immunohistochemistry demonstrated that proliferating digestive cells were more abundant in winkles exposed to Cd and after 10-day depuration than in control specimens, suggesting that net digestive cell loss was accompanied by increased digestive cell proliferation. Thus, Cd-exposure seems to provoke an enhanced digestive cell turnover in order to cope with Cd detoxification. Intralysosomal accumulation of metals (autometallographied black silver deposits; BSD) was used as a biomarker of exposure to Cd and lysosomal structural changes as an effect biomarker to see whether cell type composition might have any effect on these endpoints. BSD formed around Cd ions, in digestive cell lysosomes of Cd-exposed winkles whereas basophilic cells appeared devoid of them. After depuration, BSD

  9. Counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion by recovery using submersible microbial desalination cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia inhibition is one of the most frequent and serious problems in biogas plants. In this study, a novel hybrid system consisting of a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed for counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic...... digestion (AD) with simultaneous in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. The SMDC was powered by acetate in a buffer solution, while synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater was used as the feeding of the CSTR. Under continuous operation, ammonia recovery rate of 86 g-N/m2 /day and current density...

  10. Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Digestive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Digestive System Print A A ... body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ...

  11. Polymorphisms in O-methyltransferase genes are associated with stover cell wall digestibility in European maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darnhofer Birte

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background OMT (O-methyltransferase genes are involved in lignin biosynthesis, which relates to stover cell wall digestibility. Reduced lignin content is an important determinant of both forage quality and ethanol conversion efficiency of maize stover. Results Variation in genomic sequences coding for COMT, CCoAOMT1, and CCoAOMT2 was analyzed in relation to stover cell wall digestibility for a panel of 40 European forage maize inbred lines, and re-analyzed for a panel of 34 lines from a published French study. Different methodologies for association analysis were performed and compared. Across association methodologies, a total number of 25, 12, 1, 6 COMT polymorphic sites were significantly associated with DNDF, OMD, NDF, and WSC, respectively. Association analysis for CCoAOMT1 and CCoAOMT2 identified substantially fewer polymorphic sites (3 and 2, respectively associated with the investigated traits. Our re-analysis on the 34 lines from a published French dataset identified 14 polymorphic sites significantly associated with cell wall digestibility, two of them were consistent with our study. Promising polymorphisms putatively causally associated with variability of cell wall digestibility were inferred from the total number of significantly associated SNPs/Indels. Conclusions Several polymorphic sites for three O-methyltransferase loci were associated with stover cell wall digestibility. All three tested genes seem to be involved in controlling DNDF, in particular COMT. Thus, considerable variation among Bm3 wildtype alleles can be exploited for improving cell-wall digestibility. Target sites for functional markers were identified enabling development of efficient marker-based selection strategies.

  12. Effect of alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment on cell wall composition and digestion kinetics of sugarcane residues and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjed, M; Jung, H G; Donker, J D

    1992-09-01

    Our objective was to characterize changes in cell wall composition and digestibility of sugarcane bagasse, pith from bagasse, and wheat straw after treatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP). The AHP treatment solution contained 1% H2O2 (wt/vol) maintained at pH 11.5 with NaOH. The H2O2 in solution amounted to 25% of the quantity of substrate treated. After treatment, residues were washed and dried. Detergent fiber composition, total fiber components (neutral sugars, uronic acids, Klason lignin, and noncore lignin phenolic acids), IVDMD, in vitro digestion kinetics of NDF, and monosaccharide digestibilities (24 and 120 h) were determined. Total fiber (TF) and NDF concentrations of all treatment residues were increased (P less than .05) over control substrates by AHP because of greater losses of cell solubles than of cell wall constituents. Hemicellulose:cellulose ratio in NDF of treatment residues was decreased (P less than .05) by AHP for all substrates, but the neutral sugar composition of TF did not agree with this preferential loss of hemicellulose components. Klason lignin, ADL, and esterified noncore lignin, especially ferulic acid, were reduced (P less than .05) by AHP, whereas etherified noncore lignin composition was unchanged. Treatment increased (P less than .05) IVDMD, extent of NDF digestion, and monosaccharide digestibilities of all crop residues. The rate of NDF digestion was increased (P less than .05) for the sugarcane residues but not for wheat straw. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide improved crop residue digestibility, probably as a result of the removal of core and noncore lignin fractions. PMID:1328129

  13. The fermented non-digestible fraction of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) triggers cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Bravo, R. K.; Guevara-González, R. G.; Ramos-Gómez, M.; B D Oomah; Wiersma, P.; Campos-Vega, R.; Loarca-Piña, G.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide with colorectal cancer (CRC) ranking as the third contributing to overall cancer mortality. Non-digestible compounds such as dietary fiber have been inversely associated with CRC in epidemiological in vivo and in vitro studies. In order to investigate the effect of fermentation products from a whole non-digestible fraction of common bean versus the short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) on colon cancer cells, we evaluated the human gut microbiota fermented...

  14. Lysosomal enlargement and lysosomal membrane destabilisation in mussel digestive cells measured by an integrative index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysosomal responses (enlargement and membrane destabilisation) in mussel digestive cells are well-known environmental stress biomarkers in pollution effects monitoring in marine ecosystems. Presently, in laboratory and field studies, both responses were measured separately (in terms of lysosomal volume density - Vv - and labilisation period -LP) and combined (lysosomal response index - LRI) in order to contribute to their understanding and to develop an index useful for decisions makers. LRI integrates Vv and LP, which are not necessarily dependent lysosomal responses. It is unbiased and more sensitive than Vv and LP alone and diminishes background due to confounding factors. LRI provides a simple numerical index (consensus reference = 0; critical threshold = 1) directly related to the pollution impact degree. Moreover, LRI can be represented in a way that allows the interpretation of lysosomal responses, which is useful for environmental scientists. - Lysosomal responses to pollutants measured by an integrative index.

  15. Application of autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV vaccine in treatment of tumors of digestive tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Liang; Hui Wang; Tie-Mie Sun; Wen-Qing Yao; Li-Li Chen; Yu Jin; Chun-Ling Li; Fan-Juan Meng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To treat patients with stage Ⅰ-Ⅳ malignant tumors of digestive tract using autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV (Newcastle disease virus) vaccine, and observe the survival period and curative effect.METHODS: 335 patients with malignant tumors of digestive tract were treated with autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV vaccine. The autologous tumor cell vaccine were assigned for long-term survival observation. While these failed to obtain the autologous tumor tissue were given with NDV vaccine for a short-term observation on curative effect.RESULTS: The colorectal cancer patients treated with autologous tumor cell vaccine were divided into two groups:the controlled group (subjected to resection alone) (n=257),the vaccine group (subjected to both resection and immunotherapy) (n=310). 25 patients treated with NDV immunotherapy were all at stage Ⅳ without having resection.In postoperation adjuvant therapy patients, the 5, 6 and 7-year survival rates were 66.51%, 60.52 %, 56.50 %respectively; whereas in patients with resection alone, only 45.57 %, 44.76 % and 43.42 % respectively. The average survival period was 5.13 years (resection alone group 4.15years), the median survival period was over 7 years (resection alone group 4.46 years). There were significant differences between the two groups. The patients treated with resection plus vaccine were measured delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions after vaccination, (indurative scope >5 mm).The magnitude of DTH was related to the prognosis. The 5-year survival rate was 80 % for those with indurations greater than 5 mm, compared with 30 % for those with indurations less than 5 mm. The 1-year survival rate was 96 % for 25patients treated with NDV immunotherapy. The total effective rate (CR+PR) was 24.00 % in NDV immunotherapy; complete remission (CR) in 1 case (4.00 %), partial remission (PR) in 5 cases (20.00 %), stabilizedin in 16 cases (64.00 %),progression (PD) in 1 case (4.00 %). After NDV vaccine

  16. Polymorphisms in O-methyltransferase genes are associated with stover cell wall digestibility in European maize (Zea mays L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, Everton A; Zein, Imad; Chen, Yongsheng;

    2010-01-01

    Background OMT (O-methyltransferase) genes are involved in lignin biosynthesis, which relates to stover cell wall digestibility. Reduced lignin content is an important determinant of both forage quality and ethanol conversion efficiency of maize stover. Results Variation in genomic sequences codi...

  17. Effect of protein corona magnetite nanoparticles derived from bread in vitro digestion on Caco-2 cells morphology and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Silvio, Desirè; Rigby, Neil; Bajka, Balazs; Mackie, Alan; Baldelli Bombelli, Francesca

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) in biological fluids immediately interact with proteins forming a biomolecular corona (PC) that imparts their biological identity. While several studies on the formation of the PC in human plasma have been reported, the PC of orally administrated NPs has been less investigated, mostly in the presence of a food matrix. In fact, food matrixes when digested are subject of several dynamic changes that will certainly affect the PC formed on the NPs. The lack of studies on this topic is clearly related to the difficulty in isolating representative PC NPs from such a complex environment. In this work magnetite NPs were added to in vitro simulated digestion simultaneously with bread and PC NPs were isolated after gastric and duodenal phases by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation (UC). The PC NPs were characterized in terms of size and protein composition. Translocation studies were then performed on Caco-2 monolayers in a serum free environment and cell morphology was characterized by confocal microscopy. PC NPs isolated from gastric and duodenal phases were different in size, surface charge and protein corona composition. NP cellular uptake was enhanced by the digestive PC inducing morphology changes in the cell monolayer. Overall, in this work we were able to isolate PC NPs from digested fluids in the presence of a food matrix and study their biological response on Caco-2 cells. PMID:26520468

  18. Optimal design and operation of a biogas fuelled MCFC (molten carbonate fuel cells) system integrated with an anaerobic digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a biogas fuelled hybrid system, obtained by integrating a molten carbonate fuel cell with a micro-turbine is considered. The size of the plant is selected on the basis of the maximum biogas production registered by monitoring the annual operation of an anaerobic digestion plant. The system produces electricity and supplies heat to the digester. Heat is necessary to keep correct operating temperature of the bacteria. A model of the system components is built and the plant optimization is performed. Design parameters are the fuel cell temperature, pressure ratio, inlet turbine temperature, reforming temperature, recirculation percentage, size of the two subsystems. Two competing objective functions are considered: the energy efficiency and the unit cost of electricity. The Pareto front shows that efficiencies close to 50% are obtained, with unit costs comparable with market prices of electricity. The off-design conditions caused by variations in biogas production and thermal request of the digester are also considered. Experimental data from the digester are used to investigate these variations. The optimal operation is selected depending on the daily heat request and biogas production. Possible economic and energy benefits that can be achieved by adding natural gas are also investigated. -- Highlights: ► Multi-objective design of a biogas fuelled MCFC hybrid system. ► Integration of the system with anaerobic digester. ► Experimental analysis of the digester operation. ► Analysis of the optimal system operation during a typical week. ► Evaluation of the effects produced with natural gas addition.

  19. Lower digestive hemorrhage study algorithm in elderly patients and red cells mark scintigraphy role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: Show the utility of this technique in the detection of Lower Digestive Hemorrhage (LDH) in elderly patients and propose a study algorithm. Materials and Methods: We study 39 patients (20 women and 19 men), between 61 and 92 years (media 76,3 years), in the last three years, that we strongly presume they have a LDH. In all of them we lay aside the upper digestive hemorrhage with endoscopies. In all the cases we perform a video-colonoscopy after the scintigraphy adopting in every case if its necessary surgery, medication or expectant conduct. We use the modified red cells mark 'in vivo' method (mark efficiency of 82%). We obtain anterior images of the abdomen with a planar Gamma Camera. Sequential images of 1 minute duration in the first hour post-injection I.V. of 740 MBq of Tc99- pertechnetate -Stannous Chloride and hen static images with 400 K counts at 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes and one image at 24 hours were acquired, in two cases repeat the study. We don't do selective angiographies because we consider this a high risk and low cost / benefit study in elderly patients (high association with cardiopathy). Result: Patient with final diagnosis for VCC or Surgery: Angio dysplasia (38%), Diverticulosis (20%), Ischemic colitis (11%), Ulcerous colitis (8%) and Colon adenocarcinoma (2%). In some cases were two pathologies involved (13%). The scintigraphies were positive in 92% and negative in 8% of the cases. All the positives were in massive or recidivated bleeding and the negatives in intermittent low volume bleedings or patients with discreet melena or hidden blood in feces. The diagnostic efficiency of 92% was compare with non-invasive methods (video-colonoscopy 81% and selective angiography) and we comment the possible causes of false negatives. Conclusion: We propose a study algorithm for intermittent and low intensity LDH cases and another for higher magnitude LDH

  20. Electrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed cathode microbial electrolysis cell

    KAUST Repository

    Cusick, Roland D.

    2014-05-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used to simultaneously convert wastewater organics to hydrogen and precipitate struvite, but scale formation at the cathode surface can block catalytic active sites and limit extended operation. To promote bulk phase struvite precipitation and minimize cathode scaling, a two-chamber MEC was designed with a fluidized bed to produce suspended particles and inhibit scale formation on the cathode surface. MEC operation elevated the cathode pH to between 8.3 and 8.7 under continuous flow conditions. Soluble phosphorus removal using digester effluent ranged from 70 to 85% with current generation, compared to 10-20% for the control (open circuit conditions). At low current densities (≤2mA/m2), scouring of the cathode by fluidized particles prevented scale accumulation over a period of 8 days. There was nearly identical removal of soluble phosphorus and magnesium from solution, and an equimolar composition in the collected solids, supporting phosphorus removal by struvite formation. At an applied voltage of 1.0V, energy consumption from the power supply and pumping (0.2Wh/L, 7.5Wh/g-P) was significantly less than that needed by other struvite formation methods based on pH adjustment such as aeration and NaOH addition. In the anode chamber, current generation led to COD oxidation (1.1-2.1g-COD/L-d) and ammonium removal (7-12mM) from digestate amended with 1g/L of sodium acetate. These results indicate that a fluidized bed cathode MEC is a promising method of sustainable electrochemical nutrient and energy recovery method for nutrient rich wastewaters. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Epithelial cell renewal in the digestive gland and stomach of mussels, season, age and tidal regime related variations

    OpenAIRE

    Zaldibar, B.; Cancio, I.; Marigómez, I.

    2008-01-01

    The natural variability in cell proliferation activity in the epithelium of the digestive gland and stomach was investigated in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk), of different age and tidal level at different seasons. After treating mussels with the thymidine analogue bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for 6 hours, BrdU immunohistochemistry was performed every 2 hours for the next 36. The relative proportion of BrdU positive cells was quantified as BrdU labelling (‰). ...

  2. Cathepsin B Activity Initiates Apoptosis via Digestive Protease Activation in Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Experimental Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendler, Matthias; Maertin, Sandrina; John, Daniel; Persike, Maria; Weiss, F Ulrich; Krüger, Burkhard; Wartmann, Thomas; Wagh, Preshit; Halangk, Walter; Schaschke, Norbert; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatitis is associated with premature activation of digestive proteases in the pancreas. The lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin B (CTSB) is a known activator of trypsinogen, and its deletion reduces disease severity in experimental pancreatitis. Here we studied the activation mechanism and subcellular compartment in which CTSB regulates protease activation and cellular injury. Cholecystokinin (CCK) increased the activity of CTSB, cathepsin L, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and caspase 3 in vivo and in vitro and induced redistribution of CTSB to a secretory vesicle-enriched fraction. Neither CTSB protein nor activity redistributed to the cytosol, where the CTSB inhibitors cystatin-B/C were abundantly present. Deletion of CTSB reduced and deletion of cathepsin L increased intracellular trypsin activation. CTSB deletion also abolished CCK-induced caspase 3 activation, apoptosis-inducing factor, as well as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein degradation, but these depended on trypsinogen activation via CTSB. Raising the vesicular pH, but not trypsin inhibition, reduced CTSB activity. Trypsin inhibition did not affect apoptosis in hepatocytes. Deletion of CTSB affected apoptotic but not necrotic acinar cell death. In summary, CTSB in pancreatitis undergoes activation in a secretory, vesicular, and acidic compartment where it activates trypsinogen. Its deletion or inhibition regulates acinar cell apoptosis but not necrosis in two models of pancreatitis. Caspase 3-mediated apoptosis depends on intravesicular trypsinogen activation induced by CTSB, not CTSB activity directly, and this mechanism is pancreas-specific. PMID:27226576

  3. Digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of haploid and diploid males of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenner M. Fernandes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In eusocial bees, workers and queens are diploid (2n, whereas males are haploid (n. However, in some species, including the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier, 1836, 2n males arise from fertilized eggs resulting from the crossing between a queen and her brother. In the present study, we provide a comparative analysis of the digestive and regenerative cells in n and 2n pupae and adult males of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. In n and 2n pupae and adult males, the number of regenerative cells/nest was similar. In n and 2n pupae, the mean number of digestive cells/midgut area was 2076 ± 0.60, whereas in adults it was 1234 ± 1.42 digestive cells/midgut area. The nuclear area of the digestive cells was also similar in both n and 2n adult males (~154 µm² and smaller in pupae (~91 µm²; this variation might be a result of DNA amplification in digestive cells during bee development. The results from our current study provide further understanding of the morphological and physiological aspects of the digestive tract of bees and show that the ploidy difference between n and 2n male stages does not affect the number of digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides.

  4. Effects of depression on parameters of cell-mediated immunity in patients with digestive tract cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Jun Nan; Yong-Chang Wei; Fu-Ling Zhou; Chun-Li Li; Chen-Guang Sui; Ling-Yun Hui; Cheng-Ge Gao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of depression on parameters of cell-mediated immunity in patients with cancers of the digestive tract.METHODS: One hundred and eight adult patients of both sexes with cancers of the digestive tract admitted between March 2001 and February 2002 in the Department of Medical Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University were randomly enrolled in the study. The Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS), Zung self-rating anxiety scale(SAS), numeric rating scale (NRS) and social support rating scale (SSRS) were employed to evaluate the degree of depression and their contributing factors. In terms of their SDS index scores, the patients were categorized into depression group (SDS≥50) and non-depression group(SDS<50). Immunological parameters such as T-lymphocyte subsets and natural killer (NK) cell activities in peripheral blood were determined and compared between the two groups of patients.RESULTS: The SDS index was from 33.8 to 66.2 in the 108 cases, 50% of these patients had a SDS index more than 50. Similarly, the SAS index of all the patients ranged from 35.0 to 62.0 and 46.3% of the cases had a SAS index above 50. Cubic curve estimation showed that the depression was positively correlated with anxiety and negatively with social support. Furthermore, the depression correlated with the tumor type, which manifested in a descending order as stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, intestine, esophagus,duodenum and rectum, according to their correlativity. Step-wise regression analysis suggested that hyposexuality,dispidtment, agitation, palpitation, low CD56 and anxiety were the significant factors contributing to depression. More severe anxiety (49.7±7.5 vs 45.3±6.9, P<0.05), pain (6.5±2.8 vs4.6±3.2, P<0.05), poor social support (6.8±2.0 vs 7.6±2.1,P<0.05), as well as decline of lymphocyte count (0.33±0.09vs0.39±0.87, P<0.05) and CD56 (0.26±0.11 vs0.29±0.11,P<0.05) were noted in the depression group compared

  5. Gastric digestion of pea ferritin and modulation of its iron bioavailability by ascorbic and phytic acids in caco-2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satyanarayana Bejjani; Raghu Pullakhandam; Ravinder Punjal; K Madhavan Nair

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To understand the digestive stability and mechanism of release and intestinal uptake of pea ferritin iron in caco-2 cell line model.METHODS: Pea seed ferritin was purified using salt fractionation followed by gel filtration chromatography.The bioavailability of ferritin iron was assessed using coupled in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model in the presence or absence of ascorbic acid and phytic acid.Caco-2 cell ferritin formation was used as a surrogate marker of iron uptake. Structural changes of pea ferritin under simulated gastric pH were characterized using electrophoresis, gel filtration and circular dichroism spectroscopy.RESULTS: The caco-2 cell ferritin formation was significantly increased (P < 0.001) with FeSO4 (19.3±9.8 ng/mg protein) and pea ferritin (13.9 ± 6.19 ng/mg protein) compared to the blank digest (3.7 ± 1.8 ng/mg protein). Ascorbic acid enhanced while phytic acid decreased the pea ferritin iron bioavailability. However,either in the presence or absence of ascorbic acid, the ferritin content of caco-2 cells was significantly less with pea ferritin than with FeSO4. At gastric pH, no band corresponding to ferritin was observed in the presence of pepsin either on native PAGE or SDS-PAGE. Gel filtration chromatography and circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a pH dependent loss of quaternary and secondary structure.CONCLUSION: Under gastric conditions, the iron core of pea ferritin is released into the digestive medium due to acid induced structural alterations and dissociation of protein. The released iron interacts with dietary factors leading to modulation of pea ferritin iron bioavailability,resembling the typical characteristics of non-heme iron.

  6. Immunomodulatory effects of dietary non-digestible oligosaccharides in T cell-mediated autoimmune arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogier, R.; Ederveen, T.; Hartog, A.; Walgreen, B.; Van Den Bersselaar, L.; Helsen, M.; Vos, P.; Garssen, J.; Willemsen, L.; Van Den Berg, W.; Koenders, M.; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates the relevance of intestinal microbiota in shaping the immune response and supports its contribution to the development of autoimmune diseases. Prebiotic non-digestible oligosaccharides are known to selectively support growth of commensal Bifidobacteria and

  7. Gastrointestinal digested Sambucus nigra L. fruit extract protects in vitro cultured human colon cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnik, Anna; Olkowicz, Mariola; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Rychlik, Joanna; Dembczyński, Radosław; Myszka, Kamila; Juzwa, Wojciech; Białas, Wojciech; Moyer, Mary Pat

    2016-04-15

    Elderberry (EDB) Sambucus nigra L. is one of the oldest medicinal plants which is useful for therapeutic and nutritional purposes due to a large amount of biologically active constituents, including compounds with a high antioxidant capacity. The present study focused on the antioxidant potential of the colon-available EDB fruit extract, derived from the artificial gastrointestinal tract, with regard to human colonic mucosa cells cultured in vitro. Despite the significant loss of EDB bioactive compounds due to the digestion process, the colon-digested extract was able to reduce the excessive intracellular ROS production (22%) and oxidative DNA damage (46%) in the colon cells at a dose of 1 mg of freeze-dried EDB powder/ml. Moreover, the colon-digested EDB extract inhibited oxidant-induced mutagenicity (26%) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA102 strain, as determined by the Ames test. In conclusion, the current in vitro study confirmed that the fruits of S. nigra are capable of protecting colonic cells against the detrimental effects of oxidative stress. PMID:26616999

  8. Cajal间质细胞与消化系统疾病%The relationship between interstitial cell of Cajal and digestive system disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵畅

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of the interstitial cell of Cajal in 1983,there have been continuous studies on its physiological function and the pacing mechanism,where the relationship between the variation of ICC and the emergence of disease have drawn most attention.Recent studies from the clinical experiment and animal test have shown that digestive system diseases are closely reated to the decline in the number of ICC and the damage of network.Therefore,they have provided theoretical foundation for the cause and treatment of digestive diseases.This paper dedicates to the pathological variation of the ICC in digestive diseases as well as their relationship.%自1893年Cajal间质细胞(ICC)被发现以来,关于其生理功能和起搏机制的研究持续至今,ICC的变化与疾病发生机制的关系也随之成为研究的焦点.近年来的临床实验与动物模型研究表明,ICC的数量减少和网络结构的破坏与消化系统疾病的发生相关,为消化系统疾病病因的研究和疾病的治疗方案提供了理论基础.本文将探究ICC在消化系统疾病中的病理变化及其与疾病的关系.

  9. Enzyme-digested Fucoidan Extracts Derived from Seaweed Mozuku of Cladosiphon novae-caledoniaekylin Inhibit Invasion and Angiogenesis of Tumor Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Jun; Li, Yuping; Teruya, Kiichiro; Katakura, Yoshinori; Ichikawa, Akira; Eto, Hiroshi; Hosoi, Mutsutaka; Hosoi, Masako; Nishimoto, Shinji; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2005-01-01

    Fucoidan is a uniquely-structured sulfated polysaccharide found in the cell walls of several types of brown seaweed that has recently, especially as enzyme-digested fucoidan extract, attracted a lot attention due to its anti-tumor potential. In this study, we evaluated the effects of enzyme-digested fucoidan extracts prepared from seaweed Mozuku of Cladosiphon novae-caledoniae kylin on in vitro invasion and angiogenesis abilities of human tumor cells. First, we evaluated the effect of the fuc...

  10. In Vitro Evidence for Immune-Modulatory Properties of Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides: Direct Effect on Human Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lehmann

    Full Text Available Infant formulas containing non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO similar to the composition in breast milk or a combination of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and NDO have been shown to harbor preventive effects towards immune-regulatory disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune-modulatory potential of non-digestible short chain galacto- and long chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS mimicking the natural distribution of oligosaccharides in human breast milk in presence or absence of certain LAB strains in human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDC. Immature human MoDC prepared from peripheral blood of healthy non-atopic volunteers were screened in vitro after stimulation with specific scGOS/lcFOS in presence or absence of LAB. IL-10 and IL-12p70 release was analyzed after 24 hours in cell-free supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. A luminex-based assay was conducted to assess further cytokine and chemokine release by MoDC. To investigate the resulting T cell response, stimulated MoDC were co-incubated with naïve T cells in allogeneic stimulation assays and intracellular Foxp3 expression, as well as immune-suppressive capacity was determined. Oligosaccharides did not induce relevant amounts of IL-12p70 production, but did promote IL-10 release by MoDC. Furthermore, scGOS/lcFOS mixtures exerted a significant enhancing effect on LAB induced IL-10 secretion by MoDC while no increase in IL-12p70 production was observed. Blocking toll like receptor (TLR4 abrogated the increase in IL-10 in both the direct stimulation and the LAB stimulation of MoDC, suggesting that scGOS/lcFOS act via TLR4. Finally, scGOS/lcFOS-treated MoDC were shown to upregulate the number of functional suppressive Foxp3 positive T cells following allogeneic stimulation. Our results indicate anti-inflammatory and direct, microbiota independent, immune-modulatory properties of scGOS/lcFOS mixtures on human MoDC suggesting a possible

  11. The comparison of the digestive epithelia in centipedes and millipedes: the cell death

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rost-Roszkowska, M.M.; Kszuk-Jendrysik, M.; Sosinka, A.; Chajec, Ł.; Kamińska, K.; Sonakowska, L.; Włodarczyk, A.; Poprawa, I.; Vilímová, J.; Tajovský, Karel

    České Budějovice : Institute of Soil Biology , BC CAS, 2015. s. 40. ISBN ISBN 978-80-86525-29-7. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /13./. 13.04.2015-15.04.2015, České Budějovice] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : digestive epithelia * centipedes * millipedes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  12. The impact of in vitro digestion on bioaccessibility of polyphenols from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their influence on iron absorption by human intestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Lisa; Deußer, Hannah; Evers, Danièle

    2013-11-01

    The composition of potatoes as determined by chemical extraction has been described extensively. It is thus quite well known that, among other compounds, potato is rich in polyphenols, vitamins and in some minerals. This paper underlines the important role of simulated gastro-intestinal in vitro digestion in the bioaccessibility of polyphenols (chlorogenic acid and derivatives, and rutin) from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their impact on iron uptake. Concentrations of polyphenols in the flesh of two potato cultivars (Nicola, white potato, and Vitelotte, purple potato) and sweet potato were measured by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography after boiling and after in vitro digestion. Chemical extraction underestimates polyphenol amounts that can be released during digestion and that are actually bioaccessible. Iron uptake, as evaluated by a ferritin assay, by intestinal human cells was decreased after incubation with the intestinal phase of in vitro digestion, presumably due to the presence of polyphenols. PMID:24056541

  13. Cell death and renewal during prey capture and digestion in the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma hypogea (Porifera: Poecilosclerida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinand-Mari, Camille; Vacelet, Jean; Nickel, Michael; Wörheide, Gert; Mangeat, Paul; Baghdiguian, Stephen

    2012-11-15

    The sponge Asbestopluma hypogea is unusual among sponges due to its peculiar carnivorous feeding habit. During various stages of its nutrition cycle, the sponge is subjected to spectacular morphological modifications. Starved animals are characterized by many elongated filaments, which are crucial for the capture of prey. After capture, and during the digestion process, these filaments actively regress before being regenerated during a subsequent period of starvation. Here, we demonstrate that these morphological events rely on a highly dynamic cellular turnover, implying a coordinated sequence of programmed cell death (apoptosis and autophagy), cell proliferation and cell migration. A candidate niche for cell renewal by stem cell proliferation and differentiation was identified at the base of the sponge peduncle, characterized by higher levels of BrdU/EdU incorporation. Therefore, BrdU/EdU-positive cells of the peduncle base are candidate motile cells responsible for the regeneration of the prey-capturing main sponge body, i.e. the dynamic filaments. Altogether, our results demonstrate that dynamics of cell renewal in sponge appear to be regulated by cellular mechanisms as multiple and complex as those already identified in bilaterian metazoans. PMID:22899530

  14. Pepsin digestibility of proteins in sorghum and other major cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Mertz, Edwin T.; Hassen, Mohamed M.; Cairns-Whittern, Carleen; Kirleis, Allen W.; Tu, Lichuan; John D. Axtell

    1984-01-01

    We have shown previously that sorghum is highly digestible in the rat. However, other workers have shown that sorghum is much less digestible than wheat, maize, and rice in young children. Because the rat does not show these digestibility differences, we developed an empirical pepsin digestion method, first reported in 1981, which simulates the digestion values found in children. In this report the method has been improved and used to analyze wheat, maize, rice, millet, and sorghum and certai...

  15. IRON BIOAVAILABILITY FROM COMMON RAISIN-CONTAINING FOODS ASSESSED WITH AN IN VITRO DIGESTION/CACO-2 CELL CULTURE MODEL: EFFECTS OF RAISINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of raisins on iron bioavailability from wheat bran cereal, bread, rice pudding, and granola bars were studied. Iron bioavailability was assessed with an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model. Raisins reduced iron bioavailability from all foods, except granola bars. Raisins also...

  16. Effects of Ascorbic Acid, Phytic Acid and Tannic Acid on Iron Bioavailability from Reconstituted Ferritin Measured by an In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of ascorbic acid, phytate and tannic acid on Fe bioavailability from Fe supplied as ferritin was compared to FeSO4 using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Horse spleen ferritin (HSF) was chemically reconstituted into a plant-type ferritin (P-HSF). In the presence of ascorbic acid...

  17. Chapter 11. Digestive tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploration of the digestive tube by radioactive tracers relates mainly to the functional study of certain digestion or absorption troubles. The tracer absorbed by the digestibe system was followed by counting of the stools, successive measurements of the plasma radioactivity, measurements of urinary elimination or uptake on a storage organ such as the liver in the case of vitamin B12, measurement of whole-body radioactivity for vitamin B12 and iron. The different isotopic techniques used to study intestinal absorption of lipids, proteins and aminoacids, vitamin B 12 and iron were described and their contribution to the detection of exudative enteropathies and digestive haemorrhage was shown. It was pointed out that the stomach is one of the organs most accessible to standard exploration techniques. The role of sup(99m)Tc in both the morphological exploration of stomach and the study of gastric secretion, of 51Cr and 129Cs in the study of gastric evacuation were demonstrated

  18. Extractability and digestibility of plant cell wall polysaccharides during hydrothermal and enzymatic degradation of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads A.T.; Ahl, Louise I.; Pedersen, Henriette L.;

    2014-01-01

    Fuels and chemicals derived through biochemical conversion of agricultural by-products such as wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an area currently under intense research. In this study, separate leaves and stems were hydrothermally pretreated and enzymatically hydrolysed and analysed chemical...... solubilisation and digestion of the polysaccharides during pretreatment and hydrolysis correlate well with previous models of the polysaccharides' structural organisation in the cell wall. © 2014 Elsevier B.V....... and by comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP). This way, the effects of each degradation step to the intermolecular organisation of specific polysaccharides in the cell walls were elucidated. After pretreatment, the degree of polymerisation (DP) of released xylo-oligosaccharides in both...... pretreatment however, regardless their extractability in water or only alkali. Based on the results, AX and MLG appear to be loosely bound in the cell wall matrix while the other polysaccharides are bound more tightly and shielded from enzymatic attack by AX and MLG until pretreatment. The gradual...

  19. Characterization of cultured epithelial cells using a novel technique not requiring enzymatic digestion for subculturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peramo, Antonio; Feinberg, Stephen E; Marcelo, Cynthia L

    2013-09-01

    Our laboratory had developed a methodology to expand epithelial cells in culture by growing keratinocyte monolayers, under large volumes of medium that produces large numbers of keratinocytes that leave the monolayer and move into suspension. The cells have been defined as epithelial Pop Up Keratinocytes or ePUKs cells and appear to be highly suitable for clinical applications. In this publication we extend the characterization of the cells with a detailed analysis of the capabilities of the monolayer of a single culture flask to produce, over time, ePUK cells. The cells were characterized using standard epithelial markers for proliferation and differentiation. Analysis of morphology of the monolayer formed and total number of cells produced is presented for a variety of human epithelial cell strains. These keratinocytes provide an additional controlled human cell system for investigation of the mechanisms regulating epithelia cell growth and differentiation and since they are produced in large numbers, they are highly suitable for use in epithelial cell banking. PMID:23149549

  20. Digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintiscanning of salivary glands with (sup 99m)Tc is commented. The uses of triolein - and oleic acid labelled with 131I, 125I or 82Br are discussed in the study of fat absorption, as well as 14C and 191Y. The use of 57Co as a radiotracer in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 is analysed. Orientation is given about 51Cr - albumin clearance in the study of plasmatic protein loss by digestive tract. The radiotracers 131I, 125I and 51Cr are pointed out in the investigation of immunoglobulins. Consideration is given to the quantification of digestive bleedings by the use of 51Cr

  1. Effect of maize starch concentration in the diet on starch and cell wall digestion in the dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.; Hindle, V.A.; Klop, A.; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed to determine the effect of level of maize starch in the diet on digestion and site of digestion of organic matter, starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In a repeated change-over design experiment, three cows fitted with a rumen cannula and T-piece cannulae in

  2. The role of innate immunity cells in coeliac disease: response of PBMC to gliadin digest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tučková, Ludmila; Jelínková, Lenka; Cinová, Jana; Zídek, Zdeněk; Tlaskalová, Helena

    Praha, 2003, s. 52. [Annual Meeting of Espghan /36./. Praha (CZ), 04.06.2003-07.06.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : innate * immunity * cell Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  3. Your Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Your Digestive System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Digestive System Print A ... flush we were talking about! Dig That Digestive System You can help your digestive system by drinking ...

  4. Dissociated neurons and glial cells derived from rat inferior colliculi after digestion with papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Odett; Aliuos, Pooyan; Wissel, Kirsten; Lenarz, Thomas; Werner, Darja; Reuter, Günter; Kral, Andrej; Warnecke, Athanasia

    2013-01-01

    The formation of gliosis around implant electrodes for deep brain stimulation impairs electrode-tissue interaction. Unspecific growth of glial tissue around the electrodes can be hindered by altering physicochemical material properties. However, in vitro screening of neural tissue-material interaction requires an adequate cell culture system. No adequate model for cells dissociated from the inferior colliculus (IC) has been described and was thus the aim of this study. Therefore, IC were isolated from neonatal rats (P3_5) and a dissociated cell culture was established. In screening experiments using four dissociation methods (Neural Tissue Dissociation Kit [NTDK] T, NTDK P; NTDK PN, and a validated protocol for the dissociation of spiral ganglion neurons [SGN]), the optimal media, and seeding densities were identified. Thereafter, a dissociation protocol containing only the proteolytic enzymes of interest (trypsin or papain) was tested. For analysis, cells were fixed and immunolabeled using glial- and neuron-specific antibodies. Adhesion and survival of dissociated neurons and glial cells isolated from the IC were demonstrated in all experimental settings. Hence, preservation of type-specific cytoarchitecture with sufficient neuronal networks only occurred in cultures dissociated with NTDK P, NTDK PN, and fresh prepared papain solution. However, cultures obtained after dissociation with papain, seeded at a density of 2×10(4) cells/well and cultivated with Neuro Medium for 6 days reliably revealed the highest neuronal yield with excellent cytoarchitecture of neurons and glial cells. The herein described dissociated culture can be utilized as in vitro model to screen interactions between cells of the IC and surface modifications of the electrode. PMID:24349001

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® in colon carcinoma cells. The effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Peso-Echarri, Patricia; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Canali, Raffaella; Virgili, Fabio

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® (0.5 g/L) on a colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2). The total phenolic concentration (TPC), antioxidant activity and inhibition cell growth were studied in fresh and digested pineapple juice and red fruits juice (both enriched with pine bark extract and not). After in vitro digestion the level of detectable phenolic compounds (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) was higher in both pineapple and red fruits juices enriched with Pycnogenol® than in non-enriched commercial juices (155.6 mg/100 mL vs 94.6 mg/100 mL and 478.5 mg/100 mL vs 406.9 mg/100 mL, respectively). Increased antioxidant activity (measured by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) methods) was observed in digested enriched juices with respect to the same samples before digestion. Pycnogenol® enrichment led to a high antiproliferative effect between 24 and 72 h of incubation with undigested pineapple juice compared with the non-enriched juice. It can be concluded that enrichment of fruit juices with Pycnogenol® provides a source of phenolic compounds with high stability to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions; however, the antioxidant properties of fruit juices were affected to a different extent. PMID:21887808

  6. Effect of supplmentation with digestive biomass cells on feed efficiency, blood parameters and reproductive performance in Egyptian growing buffalo heifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The digestive biomass cells called lactosac, composed mainly of Saccharomyces cervesiae, was added to the ration of buffaloes on the base of 10 g promoter defined as Treated Rations (TR). The present study aims to assess whether this effect is applicable under the Egyptian circumstances with the Egyptian buffalo heifers or not. Three groups of animals (4 animals /group) were compared. The first was given the TR 3 days per week (TI), the second was given the TR 3 days per 2 weeks (T2) and the third was left untreated as a control group (C). Monthly body weights, starting from 6 months age to sexual maturity, were recorded. Blood samples were collected weekly for blood parameters determination to detect puberty. Both the cost of feed per each Kg gained and the price: cost ratio per each Kg gained were used as economic indicators. Results proved higher (P<0.05) average daily gain and better feed efficiency with T1 than T2 or C. Consequently, results of the present investigation generally indicated that values of both serum total protein and globulin were significantly (P<0.05) increased in treatment 1 and treatment 2 and that of albumin was increased significantly (P<0.05) only in treatment 1 in comparison with C. However, concerning serum creatinine, present results showed insignificant higher value in T 1 than that of T 2 than that of C

  7. Effect of the co-occurring olive oil and thyme extracts on the phenolic bioaccessibility and bioavailability assessed by in vitro digestion and cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubió, Laura; Macià, Alba; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat; Blay, M Teresa; Ardévol, Anna; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2014-04-15

    Olive oils flavoured with edible herbs have grown in popularity because of their added value and potential health benefits. However, the combined presence of different phytochemicals from olive oil and herbs requires study of their possible interactions during intestinal transport and metabolism. The aim of this study was firstly to evaluate the effect on bioaccessibility of the co-occurring bioactive compounds from olive oil and thyme through an in vitro digestion model of three extracts: olive extract (OE), thyme extract (TE) and a combination of both (OTE). The bioaccessible fractions were exposed to Caco-2 and HepG-2 cell models, as well as to a co-culture of both of these. Results indicated that the bioaccessibility of hydroxytyrosol was enhanced when OTE was digested. After Caco-2 cells exposure, no significant differences were observed in hydroxytyrosol transport, whereas the main flavonoids from thyme seemed to undergo an enhanced basolateral permeation when both phenolic sources where exposed. PMID:24295707

  8. Study of combined heat, hydrogen and power system based on a molten carbonate fuel cell fed by biogas produced by anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Treated biogas can be used to generate CHHP using a Molten carbonate fuel cell. • Anaerobic digestion system will be able to supply fuel for the DFC1500™ unit. • Use locally available feedstock to production electric power, hydrogen and heat. • Application energy end-uses on the university. • CHHP system will reduce energy consumption, fossil fuel usage, and GHG emissions. - Abstract: To address the problem of fossil fuel usage and high greenhouse gas emissions at the Missouri University of Science and Technology campus, using of alternative fuels and renewable energy sources can lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Biogas, produced by anaerobic digestion of wastewater, organic waste, agricultural waste, industrial waste, and animal by-products is a potential source of renewable energy. In this work, we have discussed the design of CHHP system for the campus using local resources. An energy flow and resource availability study is performed to identify the type and source of feedstock required to continuously run the fuel cell system at peak capacity. Following the resource assessment study, the team selects FuelCell Energy DFC1500TM unit as a MCFC. The CHHP system provides electricity to power the university campus, thermal energy for heating the anaerobic digester, and hydrogen for transportation, back-up power and other needs. In conclusion, the CHHP system will be able to reduce fossil fuel usage, and greenhouse gas emissions at the university campus

  9. Effect of in vitro digested cod liver oil of different quality on oxidative, proteomic and inflammatory responses in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Karin; Istenič, Katja; Wulff, Tune;

    2015-01-01

    oil with 22–53 µmol L−1 malondialdehyde and 0.26–3.7 µmol L−1 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal increased intracellular oxidation and cell energy metabolic activity compared to a digested blank in yeast cells and the influence of digests on mitochondrial protein expression was more pronounced for oxidised cod liver...... expression. The ratio of secreted cytokines, IL-12p40/IL-10, suggested a pro-inflammatory effect of the digested oils in relation to the blank (1.47–1.67 vs. 1.07). CONCLUSION: Gastro-intestinal digestion of cod liver oil increases the amount of oxidation products and resulting digests affect oxidation in...... oil than fresh cod liver oil. The four differentially expressed and identified proteins were related to energy metabolism and oxidative stress response. Maturation of dendritic cells was affected in the presence of digested fresh cod liver oil compared to the digested blank, measured as lower CD86...

  10. Analysis of digester design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-01-29

    Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such as shredding, degritting, and chemical pretreatment, and post-digestion processes, such as dewatering and gas purification. The biomass sources considered include feedlot manure, rice straw, and bagasse. The results of the analysis indicate that the most economical (on a unit gas cost basis) digester design concept is the plug flow reactor. This conclusion results from this system providing a high gas production rate combined with a low capital hole-in-the-ground digester design concept. The costs determined in this analysis do not include any credits or penalties for feedstock or by-products, but present the costs only for conversion of biomass to methane. The batch land-fill type digester design was shown to have a unit gas cost comparable to that for a conventional stirred tank digester, with the potential of reducing the cost if a land-fill site were available for a lower cost per unit volume. The use of chemical pretreatment resulted in a higher unit gas cost, primarily due to the cost of pretreatment chemical. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the use of chemical pretreatment could improve the economics provided a process could be developed which utilized either less pretreatment chemical or a less costly chemical. The use of other process options resulted in higher unit gas costs. These options should only be used when necessary for proper process performance, or to result in production of a valuable by-product.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis KLDS 2.0603, a probiotic strain with digestive tract resistance and adhesion to the intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dequan; Sun, Yu; Huo, Gui-Cheng; Yang, Limei; Liu, Fei; Li, Aili; Meng, Xiang-Chen

    2016-02-20

    Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis KLDS 2.0603 (abbreviated as KLDS 2.0603) is a probiotic strain isolated from the feces of an adult human. Previous studies showed that KLDS 2.0603 has a high resistance to simulated digestive tract conditions and a high ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). These two characteristics are essential requirements for the selection of probiotic bacteria. To explore the stress resistance mechanism to the digestive tract environment and the adhesive proteins of this strain, in this paper, we reported the complete genome sequence of KLDS 2.0603, which contains 19,469bp and encodes 1614 coding sequences(CDSs), 15 rRNA genes, 52 tRNA genes with 1678 open reading frames. PMID:26795356

  12. Cytochemical investigation of the digestive gland of two strombidae species (Strombus gigas and Strombus pugilis) in relation to the nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volland, Jean-Marie; Gros, Olivier

    2012-10-01

    Strombus gigas and Strombus pugilis are threatened species and aquaculture represents a good alternative solution to the fishing. In this study, we highlighted the intracellular digestion process in the digestive gland of two Strombidae species, S. gigas and Strombuspugilis, by the cytochemical characterization of two lysosomal enzymes: acid phosphatase and arylsulfatase. In order to check the efficiency of artificial food digestion, we conducted the characterization on freshly collected, starved and artificially fed individuals of S. pugilis. TEM observations of digestive gland sections from freshly collected individuals of both species revealed the presence of acid phosphatase and arylsulfatase activity mostly located in the apical third of digestive cells. Both enzymes were also detected in artificially fed individuals. In response to the starvation, acid phosphatase is not produced anymore by digestive cells, while arylsulfatase is still present. To our knowledge, this is the first cytochemical validation of intracellular digestion of artificial food in Strombidae. This study highlights the intracellular digestion of artificial food developed for Strombidae aquaculture. Moreover, we have shown that the lysosomal activity could be used as a feed index. PMID:22628255

  13. Assessing the bioavailability of polyphenols and antioxidant properties of extra virgin argan oil by simulated digestion and Caco-2 cell assays. Comparative study with extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiquer, Isabel; Rueda, Ascensión; Olalla, Manuel; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Argan oil is becoming increasingly popular in the edible-oil market as a luxury food with healthy properties. This paper analyzes (i) the bioavailability of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of extra virgin argan oil (EVA) by the combination of in vitro digestion and absorption across Caco-2 cells and (ii) the protective role of the oil bioaccessible fraction (BF) against induced oxidative stress. Results were compared with those obtained with extra virgin olive oil (EVO). Higher values of polyphenols and antioxidant activity were observed in the BF obtained after the in vitro digestion of oils compared with the initial chemical extracts; the increase was higher for EVA but absolute BF values were lower than EVO. Bioaccessible polyphenols from EVA were absorbed by Caco-2 cells in higher proportions than from EVO, and minor differences were observed for antioxidant activity. Preincubation of cell cultures with BF from both oils significantly protected against oxidation, limiting cell damage and reducing reactive oxygen species generation. PMID:26041223

  14. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Bornhorst, GM; Gouseti, O; Wickham, MSJ; Bakalis, S.

    2016-01-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to ...

  15. Nutrient and cell wall fraction digestibility of growing WAD ewe fed Mexican sunflower leaf meal (MSLM based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ekeocha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available After a previous 84-d performance phase on growing WAD ewe, Studies was conducted using sixteen West African dwarf (WAD ewe-lambs weighing between 17.50 and 17.88kg on a basal diet of Panicum maximum were allotted into 4 treatment groups A, B, C and D of 4 replicates each. The MSL replaced Wheat bran (WB gravimetrically at 0, 15, 30 and 45%. Treatment A served as control. The experiment lasted for one week. Digestibility was determined using a 6-d total fecal collection. Ewes were given ad libitum access to feed and water. Parameters measured were voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI, which comprised concentrate dry matter intake (CDMI and grass dry matter intake (GDMI, Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, Organic matter (OM and Energy . Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA .The VDMI (g/d varied from 392.30 - 695.00, CDMI (g/d varied from 181.80 - 536.80 and GDMI (g/d varied from 130.65 - 215.95 for ewe-lambs. Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of NDF, ADF, ADL, organic matter (OM and Energy were similar. Approximately 75.5 ±1.1% of the VDMI came from the supplement. Diets containing 15% MSLM was superior to others for CDMI (181.80 – 536.80 g/day, CP intake (17.72 – 32.40 g/day/kgW0.75, Digestible DMI (49.45 - 80.68 g/day/kgW0.75 and Digestible CPI (13.68 - 27.16 g/day/kgW0.75 while GDMI (130.65 – 215.95 g/day for diets containing 30% and 45% MSLM were significant (p Inclusion of up to 45% Mexican Sunflower Leaf in the diets of growing ewe to replace Wheat bran was adequate.

  16. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. PMID:26799793

  17. Bioefficacy of tea catechins encapsulated in casein micelles tested on a normal mouse cell line (4D/WT) and its cancerous counterpart (D/v-src) before and after in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haratifar, Sanaz; Meckling, Kelly A; Corredig, Milena

    2014-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that tea catechins form complexes with milk proteins, especially caseins. Much less work has been conducted to understand the metabolic conversions of tea-milk complexes during gastro-duodenal digestion. The objective of this study was to determine the significance of this association on the digestibility of the milk proteins and on the bioaccessibility of the tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). An in vitro digestion model mimicking the gastric and duodenal phases of the human gastrointestinal tract was employed to follow the fate of the milk proteins during digestion and determine the bioefficacy of EGCG isolated or encapsulated with the caseins. The samples, before and after digestion, were tested using two parallel colonic epithelial cell lines, a normal line (4D/WT) and its cancerous transformed counterpart (D/v-src). EGCG caused a decrease in proliferation of cancer cells, while in normal cells, neither isolated nor encapsulated EGCG affected cell proliferation, at concentrations casein micelles are an appropriate delivery system for polyphenols. PMID:24686838

  18. Historical Analysis of Portuguese Primary School Textbooks (1920-2005) on the Topic of Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Graca S.; Silva, Rui; Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that Portuguese primary school pupils and teachers have three main difficulties in the representation of the digestion process: the sequence of the digestive tract, blood absorption, and the relationship of the digestive function with other human functions. In this study we analysed the topic of digestion in 63…

  19. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid with...... very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9.......6 addresses the mass balances and environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion....

  20. 极北鲵与东北小鲵消化道嗜银细胞的比较%Comparison of Argyrophil Cells in Digestive Tract of Salamandrella keyserlingiiand Hynobius leechii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春宇; 曹雷; 李淑兰; 赵文阁

    2011-01-01

    应用Grimelius法对极北鲵(Salamandrella keyserlingii)、东北小鲵(Hynobius leechii)两种动物消化道嗜银细胞的分布密度及形态进行了比较研究.结果显示:嗜银细胞在两种动物消化道各部分均有分布,但分布密度高峰不同:极北鲵消化道嗜银细胞在直肠部分布密度最高,胃体处最低;而东北小鲵在胃幽门部分布密度最高,在食管处最低.其形态和分布位置相似,嗜银细胞形态有圆形、椭圆形、锥体形和梭形等,分布于腺泡上皮细胞之间、上皮细胞之间和上皮细胞基部,也有少量位于固有膜内.嗜银细胞分布型的形成与动物的食性、生活环境以及消化道各部位生理功能有关.%Using the silver niterate method of grimelius to study the distributed density and morphology of argyrophil cells in the digestive tract of Salamandrella keyserlingii and Hynobius leechhii. The results shows : The argyrophil cells could be found throughout the digestive tract of two kinds animals, but the highest density appears differently in digestive tracts of two animals: the distributed density of argyrophil cells in digestive tract of Salamandrella keyserlingii is the highest in rectum and the lowest in stomach ,but the distributed density of argyrophil cells in digestive tract of Hynobius leechii is the highest in pylorica and the lowest in oesophagus. The shapes of argyrophil cells about Salamandrella keyserlingii and Hynobius leechii are similar and the same situation to the distribution: The shape of argyrophil cells is round, ellipse, tapering, shuttle and so on. The argyrophil cells distribute between glandular epithelial cells, between epithelial cells and at the basal region of epithelial cells, but a few in the lamina propria. The origin of distributive mode of argyrophil cells in the digestive tract of Salamandrella keyserlingii and Hynobius Leechii is related to feeding habit, living environment and physiological function in different

  1. Enhanced methane production in an anaerobic digestion and microbial electrolysis cell coupled system with co-cultivation of Geobacter and Methanosarcina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qi; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Guoqiang; Bo, Tao; Yang, Yanfei; Tao, Yong; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping; Yan, Zhiying

    2016-04-01

    The anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) coupled system has been proved to be a promising process for biomethane production. In this paper, it was found that by co-cultivating Geobacter with Methanosarcina in an AD-MEC coupled system, methane yield was further increased by 24.1%, achieving to 360.2mL/g-COD, which was comparable to the theoretical methane yield of an anaerobic digester. With the presence of Geobacter, the maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate (216.8mg COD/(L·hr)) and current density (304.3A/m(3)) were both increased by 1.3 and 1.8 fold compared to the previous study without Geobacter, resulting in overall energy efficiency reaching up to 74.6%. Community analysis demonstrated that Geobacter and Methanosarcina could coexist together in the biofilm, and the electrochemical activities of both were confirmed by cyclic voltammetry. Our study observed that the carbon dioxide content in total gas generated from the AD reactor with Geobacter was only half of that generated from the same reactor without Geobacter, suggesting that Methanosarcina may obtain the electron transferred from Geobacter for the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. Taken together, Geobacter not only can improve the performance of the MEC system, but also can enhance methane production. PMID:27090713

  2. Orientation of planes shown up by ionic attack (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain recent experiments have shown that ions of low energy (3 to 15 kV), as different in nature as oxygen and argon, produced a selective attack on metallic surfaces and thus revealed certain planes of the crystal lattice of the sample bombarded. The aim of this work is to study the orientation of these planes as a function of the direction of the ions. (authors)

  3. The preferred substrates for transglutaminase 2 in a complex wheat gluten digest are Peptide fragments harboring celiac disease T-cell epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Dørum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a T-cell mediated chronic inflammatory disorder of the gut that is induced by dietary exposure to gluten proteins. CD4+ T cells of the intestinal lesion recognize gluten peptides in the context of HLA-DQ2.5 or HLA-DQ8 and the gluten derived peptides become better T-cell antigens after deamidation catalyzed by the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2. In this study we aimed to identify the preferred peptide substrates of TG2 in a heterogeneous proteolytic digest of whole wheat gluten. METHODS: A method was established to enrich for preferred TG2 substrates in a complex gluten peptide mixture by tagging with 5-biotinamido-pentylamine. Tagged peptides were isolated and then identified by nano-liquid chromatography online-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, database searching and final manual data validation. RESULTS: We identified 31 different peptides as preferred substrates of TG2. Strikingly, the majority of these peptides were harboring known gluten T-cell epitopes. Five TG2 peptide substrates that were predicted to bind to HLA-DQ2.5 did not contain previously characterized sequences of T-cell epitopes. Two of these peptides elicited T-cell responses when tested for recognition by intestinal T-cell lines of celiac disease patients, and thus they contain novel candidate T-cell epitopes. We also found that the intact 9mer core sequences of the respective epitopes were not present in all peptide substrates. Interestingly, those epitopes that were represented by intact forms were frequently recognized by T cells in celiac disease patients, whereas those that were present in truncated versions were infrequently recognized. CONCLUSION: TG2 as well as gastrointestinal proteolysis play important roles in the selection of gluten T-cell epitopes in celiac disease.

  4. DIGESTIVE TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    8.1 Stomach2003432 Experimental study on mitotic catastrophe induced by pcDNA3-survivin-mutant in gastric cancer cell lines.SUN Jing(孙璟), et al.Dept Gerontol, Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Dig 2003;23(8):487-490.

  5. Digestibility of sorghum proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Axtell, J D; Kirleis, A. W.; Hassen, M M; D'Croz Mason, N; Mertz, E T; Munck, L.

    1981-01-01

    Published information indicates that rice, maize, and wheat proteins are much more digestible in children than sorghum proteins are (66-81% compared with 46%). However, this digestibility difference cannot be demonstrated with the weanling rat, which gave digestibility values of 80% for cooked and 85% for uncooked sorghum gruels. Therefore, a search was made for a laboratory system sensitive to the digestibility differences between sorghum and other cereals. We found that porcine pepsin in vi...

  6. Influence of Feeding Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Yeast Cell Wall on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Feedlot Cattle during Periods of Elevated Ambient Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Chavira, J.; Arzola, C.; González-Vizcarra, V.; Manríquez-Núñez, O. M.; Montaño-Gómez, M. F.; Navarrete-Reyes, J. D.; Raymundo, C.; Zinn, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    In experiment 1, eighty crossbred steers (239±15 kg) were used in a 229-d experiment to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (EHY) cell wall in diets on growth performance feedlot cattle during periods of elevated ambient temperature. Treatments consisted of steam-flaked corn-based diets supplemented to provide 0, 1, 2, or 3 g EHY/hd/d. There were no effects on growth performance during the initial 139-d period. However, from d 139 to harvest, when 24-h temperature humidity index averaged 80, EHY increased dry matter intake (DMI) (linear effect, p0.10) on carcass characteristics. In experiment 2, four Holstein steers (292±5 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin Square design experiment to evaluate treatments effects on characteristics of ruminal and total tract digestion in steers. There were no treatment effects (p>0.10) on ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acid, molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, or estimated methane production. Supplemental EHY decreased ruminal molar proportion of acetate (p = 0.08), increased molar proportion of propionate (p = 0.09), and decreased acetate:propionate molar ratio (p = 0.07) and estimated ruminal methane production (p = 0.09). It is concluded that supplemental EHY may enhance DMI and ADG of feedlot steers during periods of high ambient temperature. Supplemental EHY may also enhance ruminal fiber digestion and decrease ruminal acetate:propionate molar ratios in feedlot steers fed steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets. PMID:26194225

  7. Cell wall composition and digestibility alterations in Brachypodium distachyon achieved through reduced expression of the UDP-arabinopyranose mutase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucleotide-activated sugars are essential substrates for plant cell wall carbohydrate-polymer biosynthetic glycosyltransferase enzymes. The most prevalent sugars in grass cell walls include glucose (Glc), xylose (Xyl), and arabinose (Ara). These sugars are biosynthetically related via the uridine di...

  8. Determination of chromium, iron and selenium in foodstuffs of animal origin by collision cell technology, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after closed vessel microwave digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of chromium (52Cr), iron (56Fe) and selenium (80Se) isotopes in foodstuffs of animal origin has been performed by collision cell technology (CCT) mode using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detector after closed vessel microwave digestion. To significantly decrease the argon-based interferences at mass to charge ratios (m/z): 52 (40Ar12C), 56 (40Ar16O) and 80 (40Ar40Ar), the gas-flow rates of a helium and hydrogen mixture used in the hexapole collision cell were optimised to 1.5 ml min-1 H2 and 0.5 ml min-1 He and the quadrupole bias was adjusted daily between -2 and -15 mV. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.025, 0.086 and 0.041 mg kg-1 for Cr, Fe and Se, respectively, in 6% HNO3 were estimated under optimized CCT conditions. These LOQ were improved by a factor of approximately 10 for each element compared to standard mode. Precision under repeatability, intermediate precision reproducibility and trueness have been tested on nine different certified reference materials in foodstuffs of animal origin and on an external proficiency testing scheme. The results obtained for chromium, iron and selenium were in all cases in good agreement with the certified values and trueness was improved, compared to those obtained in standard mode

  9. Evaluation of the matrix effect of thermophilic anaerobic digestion on inactivation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus using real-time PCR and viral cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tiejun; Bowlby, Evelyn; Tong, Yupin; Wu, John T Y; Wong, Lester; Tower, Robert J; Pang, Xiaoli; Li, Xiaomei

    2012-04-01

    The matrix effect of the thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD) process on inactivation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) was evaluated. Viral cell culture and real-time PCR were used for assessing removal of the viral infectivity and degradation of viral DNA, respectively. Results showed that the TAD-derived matrix alone can inactivate the virus and destroy the nucleic acid helix core of ILTV in a time-and- dose-dependent manner. No cytopathogenic effect (CPE) was observed in the cells exposed to ILTV pre-treated with TAD matrix for 1.5h in experiment 1 and for 16h in experiment 2. There was a significant statistical difference between TAD matrix treated and non-treated cultures (p<0.001, Chi-test). Amplifiable ILT viral DNA was reduced 2.27 log by 1.5h-treatment and was not present by 16h-treatment with TAD matrix, indicating complete viral DNA fragmentation. The TAD process is an environmentally friendly way for disposing of poultry biowaste and carcasses. PMID:22349192

  10. The Digestive Tract of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Bassler, Bl; Lichten, M; Schupbach, G.; Lemaitre, Bruno; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The digestive tract plays a central role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Far from being a passive tube, it provides the first line of defense against pathogens and maintains energy homeostasis by exchanging neuronal and endocrine signals with other organs. Historically neglected, the gut of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has recently come to the forefront of Drosophila research. Areas as diverse as stem cell biology, neurobiology, metabolism, and immunity are benefitting ...

  11. Digestive Diseases Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Image Library Digestive Disease, Nutrition, and Weight-control Materials Healthy eating, physical activity, and weight control materials available from NIDDK's Weight-control Information Network(WIN) ...

  12. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  13. In vitro and in vivo studies with [18F]fluorocholine on digestive tumoral cell lines and in an animal model of metastasized endocrine tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate (a) in vitro the relationship between [18F]fluorocholine ([18F]FCH) uptake and cell growth in endocrine cell lines and (b) in vivo the uptake of [18F]FCH by tumoral sites in an animal model of metastasized endocrine tumor. Methods: In vitro studies were conducted on three endocrine and two nonendocrine digestive tumoral cell lines. The proliferative ratio was estimated using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The uptake of [18F]FCH and that of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) were measured before and after cytotoxic therapy. [18F]FCH biodistribution was studied in nude mice and in an endocrine xenografted mice model. Results: The [18F]FCH uptake in tumoral cell lines was related to their proliferative capacities as measured by the MTT assay in basal conditions. After cytotoxic therapy, the IC50 values calculated with the [18F]FCH incorporation test were very close to those determined with the MTT assay. Biodistribution studies showed that [18F]FCH was predominantly concentrated in the liver and kidney of nude mice. In the STC-1 xenografted animal model, the uptake of [18F]FCH in the primary tumor was only 1.1%. On autoradiography and micro-positron emission tomography, there was no uptake of [18F]FCH in liver metastases but there was a significant uptake of [18F]FDG. Conclusions: In vitro studies suggested that the incorporation of [18F]FCH in endocrine tumor cell lines was related to their growth capacities; however, in vivo studies conducted in an endocrine xenografted animal model showed an uptake of [18F]FCH in hepatic metastases lower than that in normal liver cells. An influence of the microenvironment or a competition phenomenon for [18F]FCH uptake between normal liver and endocrine tumor cells cannot be excluded

  14. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Smoking and the Digestive System Page Content On this page: What is the ... by cigarette smoking. 2 What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of the ...

  15. Perspectives for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments...

  16. Characterization of sulfide-oxidizing microbial mats developed inside a full-scale anaerobic digester employing biological desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Li, Yu-You; Kubota, Kengo; Harada, Hideki; Maeda, Takeki; Yu, Han-Qing

    2012-01-01

    The microbial mats responsible for biological desulfurization from biogas in a full-scale anaerobic digester were characterized in terms of their structure, as well as their chemical and microbial properties. Filament-shaped elemental sulfur 100-500 μm in length was shown to cover the mats, which cover the entire headspace of the digester. This is the first report on filamentous sulfur production in a non-marine environment. The results of the analysis of the mats suggest that the key players in the sulfide oxidation and sulfur production in the bio-desulfurization in the headspace of the digester were likely to be two sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) species related to Halothiobacillus neapolitanus and Sulfurimonas denitrificans, and that the microbial community, cell density, activity for sulfide oxidation varied according to the environmental conditions at the various locations of the mats. Since the water and nutrients necessary for the SOB were provided by the digested sludge droplets deposited on the mats, and our results show that a higher rate of sulfide oxidation occurred with more frequent digested sludge deposition, the habitat of the SOB needs to be made in the lower part of the headspace near the liquid level of the digested sludge to maintain optimal conditions. PMID:21735263

  17. In vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model to estimate cadmium and lead bioaccessibility/bioavailability in two vegetables: the influence of cooking and additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jin; Cui, Yanshan

    2013-09-01

    The estimation of heavy metal bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vegetables is helpful for human health risk assessment. Using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in raw/cooked pakchoi (Brassica rapa L., Chinensis Group) and Malabar spinach (Basella rubra L.) were studied. The effect of the addition of iron, calcium and acetic acid to the samples was also determined. The results indicated that Cd bioaccessibility was higher in the gastric phase and Pb bioaccessibility was higher in the small intestinal phase. Cadmium and Pb bioavailability were 11.2% and 9.4% in the raw vegetables, respectively, and found to be higher significantly than the cooked vegetables with 6.1% for Cd and 3.2% for Pb. The results showed that it will be overestimating the risk of Pb and Cd based on the data of raw vegetables ingestion. Using bioavailability values, average Cd and Pb daily intake by adult were 23% and 28% respectively, of the base bioaccessibility values. Our study will be better understanding the possible health risks of some vegetables base on the bioaccessibility or bioavailability. PMID:23791752

  18. Digestive system sheep that have suffered of thyroid radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic functional studies of digestive system of sheep relocated from 30 km-zone of ChNPP have been conducted. The sheep had symptoms of hypothyreosis as a result of radiation damages of thyroid. Certain data have shown a number of functional abnormalities in the digestive system (gastrointestinal tract) of sheep. The abnormalities have been demonstrated by the reductio in gastrointestinal hormone values both of local (gastrin) and total (thyroxine) action; disfunctions of hepatobiliary system as well as delay in evacuation of gastrointestinal tract, intensifying of cavitary digestion and weakening of membrane digestion. 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. Nanoparticle size and combined toxicity of TiO2 and DSLS (surfactant) contribute to lysosomal responses in digestive cells of mussels exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno-Romero, A; Oron, M; Cajaraville, M P; Soto, M; Marigómez, I

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to understand the bioaccumulation, cell and tissue distribution and biological effects of disodium laureth sulfosuccinate (DSLS)-stabilised TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed in vivo to 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Ti/L either as TiO2 NPs (60 and 180 nm) or bulk TiO2, as well as to DSLS alone. A significant Ti accumulation was observed in mussels exposed to TiO2 NPs, which were localised in endosomes, lysosomes and residual bodies of digestive cells, and in the lumen of digestive tubules, as demonstrated by ultrastructural observations and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. TiO2 NPs of 60 nm were internalised within digestive cell lysosomes to a higher extent than TiO2 NPs of 180 nm, as confirmed by the quantification of black silver deposits after autometallography. The latter were localised mainly forming large aggregates in the lumen of the gut. Consequently, lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) was significantly reduced upon exposure to both TiO2 NPs although more markedly after exposure to TiO2-60 NPs. Exposure to bulk TiO2 and to DSLS also affected the stability of the lysosomal membrane. Thus, effects on the lysosomal membrane depended on the nanoparticle size and on the combined biological effects of TiO2 and DSLS. PMID:27241615

  20. Degradation of blood in the human digestive tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørup, Steen; Johansen, Claus

    1986-02-01

    Samples of human faeces from patients suffering from intestinal bleeding have been studied by use of Mössbauer spectroscopy. It is shown that it is possible to follow the degradation of blood in the digestive tract.

  1. Problems Digesting Dairy Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mixes for cakes, cookies, pancakes, and biscuits instant potatoes, soups, and breakfast drinks lunch meats (other than Kosher) frozen dinners salad dressings margarines candies and other snacks Dietary supplements with lactase enzyme are available to help people digest foods that ...

  2. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  3. Digestion Fractional Crystallisation (DFC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilbeam, Llewellyn Howard; Nielsen, T.F.D.; Waight, Tod Earle

    2013-01-01

    several zoning types most of the olivine grains have similar margins. The olivine cores are considered to be xenocrysts in the kimberlite magma whereas the margins represent cognate olivine crystallized from the kimberlite melt itself. We evaluate models of olivine margin formation by fractional...... crystallization, fractional crystallization with simultaneous digestion of xenoliths, and diffusion. Only fractional crystallization coupled with digestion of xenocrysts (primarily orthopyroxene), with subsequent minor diffusion, can account for the observed compositional profiles in the olivine margins...

  4. Ineffective degradation of immunogenic gluten epitopes by currently available digestive enzyme supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Janssen

    Full Text Available Due to the high proline content of gluten molecules, gastrointestinal proteases are unable to fully degrade them leaving large proline-rich gluten fragments intact, including an immunogenic 33-mer from α-gliadin and a 26-mer from γ-gliadin. These latter peptides can trigger pro-inflammatory T cell responses resulting in tissue remodeling, malnutrition and a variety of other complications. A strict lifelong gluten-free diet is currently the only available treatment to cope with gluten intolerance. Post-proline cutting enzymes have been shown to effectively degrade the immunogenic gluten peptides and have been proposed as oral supplements. Several existing digestive enzyme supplements also claim to aid in gluten degradation. Here we investigate the effectiveness of such existing enzyme supplements in comparison with a well characterized post-proline cutting enzyme, Prolyl EndoPeptidase from Aspergillus niger (AN-PEP.Five commercially available digestive enzyme supplements along with purified digestive enzymes were subjected to 1 enzyme assays and 2 mass spectrometric identification. Gluten epitope degradation was monitored by 1 R5 ELISA, 2 mass spectrometric analysis of the degradation products and 3 T cell proliferation assays.The digestive enzyme supplements showed comparable proteolytic activities with near neutral pH optima and modest gluten detoxification properties as determined by ELISA. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of many different enzymes including amylases and a variety of different proteases with aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase activity. The enzyme supplements leave the nine immunogenic epitopes of the 26-mer and 33-mer gliadin fragments largely intact. In contrast, the pure enzyme AN-PEP effectively degraded all nine epitopes in the pH range of the stomach at much lower dose. T cell proliferation assays confirmed the mass spectrometric data.Currently available digestive enzyme supplements are ineffective in

  5. Microflora of hydrobionts digestive tract in Kaunas water storage reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiological and ichthiological investigations carried out in 1990 and 1992 showed the variability of bacterial cenoses in the digestive tract of hydrobionts before and after setting in motion Kruonis hydro pumped storage. The studies also showed that microorganisms of the digestive tract of the hydrobionts investigated were involved in the degradation of nutritional substrates and could serve as indicators of an anthropogenic effect. Before setting in motion the hydro pumped storage hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (HDB) were detected in the digestive tract of the freshwater shrimps, opossum shrimps, sticklebacks, zebra mussels and roaches. The greatest number of HDB was found in the digestive tract of the roach while in perches they were not detected. However after setting in motion the hydro pumped storage , high numbers of HDB were determined in the digestive tracts of all the hydrobionts investigated. It has been shown that the function of bacterial digestion is conditioned not only by the nutrition specificity of the macroorganism, but on its environment as well. With the aid of enzymes secreted by microorganisms organic compounds difficult to assimilate are transformed into valuable nutrients. Besides, the functional activity of microorganisms of the digestive tract of the hydrobionts indicate the intensity of the digestive process and physiological state of their organism. Therefore, when investigating fish stocks in hydrosystems one must evaluate inner resources of their organism, i.e. functional activities and the activity of digestive tract microorganisms, their quantitative and qualitative composition, relationship with the macroorganism, its growth rate and environment. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  6. Case of subacute cerebellar degeneration associated with pleocytosis and cerebellar swelling shown in computed tomography scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Hiide; Anezaki, Toshiharu; Takashima, Noriko; Inuzuka, Takashi; Miyatake, Tadashi

    1988-02-01

    A 44 year old woman was healthy until January 3, 1986, when she had headache. On January 9, she developed gait ataxia and dysarthria. Cerebellar ataxia worsened rapidly. Aftar a week she could not sit without support and her consciousness was disturbed. Corticosteroid was administrated and consciousness proved alert, but cerebellar ataxia and dysarthria remained unchanged. The patient was found carcinoma of the lung in August 1986. Characteristic features of clinical and laboratory findings of this patient are acute progression, cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis of 1,064/3 cells (860 mononuclear cell, 204 polymorphonuclear cell), and cerebellar swelling shown in computed tomography scanning. Though the mechanism of acute cerebellar degeneration is still uncertained, inflammatory process was supported to exist in cerebellum of this case.

  7. Process Study on Anaerobic Digestion of Parenchyma Cell from Nonwood Plant Fiber%厌氧消化处理非木材纤维纸浆中杂细胞工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华林; 周江敏; 漆玉邦

    2001-01-01

    对慈竹纸浆中杂细胞进行厌氧消化处理,结果表明,TS去除率达68.64%,原料产气率299.9mL/gTS,日均产气率4.998mL/(gTS*d),池容产气率0.3224m3/(m3*d),CH4含量64%。对发酵上清液进一步处理结果为:COD去除率53.69%,CH4含量67%,N、P去除微弱。在此基础上,进行了物料平衡和COD利用率计算。%A batch anaerobic digestion was used to treat Parenchyma Cell of bamboo. The result shows: TS removal rate reaches 68.64%, the gas production rate of raw material 299.9mL/gTS, the rate of gas production 0.3224m3/m3 slurry a day. After 60 days operation, the content of CH4 in the biogas is 64%. Effluent water from the improved UASB digester was digested in the multi-grade anaerobic digester. The results are: average COD removal rate reaches 53.69%, CH4 content of biogas 67%, the rate of N and P removal low. Materials balance and COD utilization ratio is calculated based on the experimental results.

  8. Involvement of Ghrelin-Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor System in Pathoclinical Profiles of Digestive System Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang WANG; Weigang WANG; Wencai QIU; Youben FAN; Jun ZHAO; Yu WANG; Qi ZHENG

    2007-01-01

    Ghrelin receptor has been shown to be expressed along the human gastrointestinal tract.Recent studies showed that ghrelin and a synthetic ghrelin receptor agonist improved weight gain and lean body mass retention in a rat model of cancer cachexia by acting on ghrelin receptor, that is, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). This study aims to explore the expression and the distribution of ghrelin receptor in human gastrointestinal tract cancers and to investigate the possible involvement of the ghrelin-GHS-R system in human digestive cancers. Surgical human digestive cancer specimens were obtained from various portions of the gastrointestinal tract from different patients. The expression of ghrelin receptor in these tissues was detected by tissue microarray technique. Our results showed that ghrelin receptor was expressed in cancers throughout the gastrointestinal tract, mainly in the cytoplasm of mucosal layer cells.Its expression level possibly correlated with organ type, histological grade, tumor-nodes-metastases stage,and nutrition status (weight loss) of the patients. For the first time, we identified the distribution of ghrelin receptor in digestive system cancers. Our results implied that the ghrelin-GHS-R system might be involved in the pathoclinical profiles of digestive cancers.

  9. Microanatomia e histologia do sistema digestivo de Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae): V. Glândula digestiva Microanatomy and histology of the digestive system of Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny, 1835) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae): V. Digestive gland

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet; José Willibaldo Thomé; Josef Hauser

    1993-01-01

    The digestive gland of Phyllocaulis soleiformis is a compound tubular gland. The secretory tubules are made up of two main cell types: the digestive cells and calcic cells. The digestive cells are the most numerous, usually columnar, and exhibit three different functional stages: absorptive, secretory and excretory. These cells contain two cytoplasmic granules types and, in the excretory stage, most of the cell is occupied by a large vacuole. The calcic cells occursingly or frequently in grou...

  10. Expression of S-adenosylmethionine Hydrolase in Tissues Synthesizing Secondary Cell Walls Alters Specific Methylated Cell Wall Fractions and Improves Biomass Digestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Zhao, Nanxia; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; Lao, Jeemeng; Wang, George; Yogiswara, Sasha; Lee, Taek Soon; Singh, Seema; Mortimer, Jenny C.; Keasling, Jay D.; Simmons, Blake A.; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Plant biomass is a large source of fermentable sugars for the synthesis of bioproducts using engineered microbes. These sugars are stored as cell wall polymers, mainly cellulose and hemicellulose, and are embedded with lignin, which makes their enzymatic hydrolysis challenging. One of the strategies to reduce cell wall recalcitrance is the modification of lignin content and composition. Lignin is a phenolic polymer of methylated aromatic alcohols and its synthesis in tissues developing secondary cell walls is a significant sink for the consumption of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). In this study, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis stems that targeted expression of AdoMet hydrolase (AdoMetase, E.C. 3.3.1.2) in secondary cell wall synthesizing tissues reduces the AdoMet pool and impacts lignin content and composition. In particular, both NMR analysis and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry of lignin in engineered biomass showed relative enrichment of non-methylated p-hydroxycinnamyl (H) units and a reduction of dimethylated syringyl (S) units. This indicates a lower degree of methylation compared to that in wild-type lignin. Quantification of cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamates revealed a reduction of ferulate in AdoMetase transgenic lines. Biomass from transgenic lines, in contrast to that in control plants, exhibits an enrichment of glucose content and a reduction in the degree of hemicellulose glucuronoxylan methylation. We also show that these modifications resulted in a reduction of cell wall recalcitrance, because sugar yield generated by enzymatic biomass saccharification was greater than that of wild-type plants. Considering that transgenic plants show no important diminution of biomass yields, and that heterologous expression of AdoMetase protein can be spatiotemporally optimized, this novel approach provides a valuable option for the improvement of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock. PMID:27486577

  11. Expression of S-adenosylmethionine Hydrolase in Tissues Synthesizing Secondary Cell Walls Alters Specific Methylated Cell Wall Fractions and Improves Biomass Digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Zhao, Nanxia; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Baidoo, Edward E K; Lao, Jeemeng; Wang, George; Yogiswara, Sasha; Lee, Taek Soon; Singh, Seema; Mortimer, Jenny C; Keasling, Jay D; Simmons, Blake A; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Plant biomass is a large source of fermentable sugars for the synthesis of bioproducts using engineered microbes. These sugars are stored as cell wall polymers, mainly cellulose and hemicellulose, and are embedded with lignin, which makes their enzymatic hydrolysis challenging. One of the strategies to reduce cell wall recalcitrance is the modification of lignin content and composition. Lignin is a phenolic polymer of methylated aromatic alcohols and its synthesis in tissues developing secondary cell walls is a significant sink for the consumption of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). In this study, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis stems that targeted expression of AdoMet hydrolase (AdoMetase, E.C. 3.3.1.2) in secondary cell wall synthesizing tissues reduces the AdoMet pool and impacts lignin content and composition. In particular, both NMR analysis and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry of lignin in engineered biomass showed relative enrichment of non-methylated p-hydroxycinnamyl (H) units and a reduction of dimethylated syringyl (S) units. This indicates a lower degree of methylation compared to that in wild-type lignin. Quantification of cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamates revealed a reduction of ferulate in AdoMetase transgenic lines. Biomass from transgenic lines, in contrast to that in control plants, exhibits an enrichment of glucose content and a reduction in the degree of hemicellulose glucuronoxylan methylation. We also show that these modifications resulted in a reduction of cell wall recalcitrance, because sugar yield generated by enzymatic biomass saccharification was greater than that of wild-type plants. Considering that transgenic plants show no important diminution of biomass yields, and that heterologous expression of AdoMetase protein can be spatiotemporally optimized, this novel approach provides a valuable option for the improvement of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock. PMID:27486577

  12. Anaerobic digestion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.

    2002-01-01

    Centralized biogas plants (CBP) in Denmark codigest mainly manure, together with other organic waste such as industrial organic waste, source sorted household waste and sewage sludge. Today 22 large scale CBP's are in operation in Denmark and in 2001 they treated approx. 1.2 mio tonnes of manure ...... comprises about 80% of this potential. Special emphasis has been paid to establish good sanitation and pathogen reduction of the digested material, to avoid risk of spreading pathogens when applying the digested manure as fertilizer to agricultural soils....

  13. A Comparative Study of In-Gel Digestions Using Microwave and Pressure-Accelerated Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Rudy; Tran, Diana; Ching, Bonnie; Phinney, Brett S.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most popular methods to prepare tryptic peptides for bottom-up proteomic analysis is in-gel digestion. To date, there have been few studies comparing various digestion methods. In this study, we compare the efficiency of several popular in-gel digestion methods, along with new technologies that may improve digestion efficiency, using a human epidermoid carcinoma cell lysate protein standard. The efficiency of each protocol was based on the average number of proteins identified and ...

  14. Effects of Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM) on Cytokine Production in Cultures of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Increased Suppression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Levels After In Vitro Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Kathleen F.; Ruff, Kevin J.; Jensen, Gitte S.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays an important role in inflammatory processes. This study examined the effects of natural eggshell membrane (NEM®) (ESM Technologies, LLC, Carthage, MO, USA) on interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and TNF-α cytokine production by 4-day peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures exposed to serial dilutions of either an aqueous extract of natural eggshell membrane (NEM-AQ) or NEM subjected to in vitro digestion (NEM-IVD). The e...

  15. Changes in cell-type composition in digestive gland of slugs and its influence in biomarkers following transplantation between a relatively unpolluted and a chronically metal-polluted site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in cell-type composition (CCTC) is a general phenomenon that takes place in the digestive gland epithelium of stressed molluscs. The aim of the present work was to determine whether CCTC is a reversible process in the digestive gland of sentinel slugs chronically exposed to metal pollution and how CCTC affects metal accumulation parameters and different cell and tissue biomarkers of exposure and effect. Slugs (Arion ater) from an abandoned zinc mine were transferred to a relatively unpolluted site and the other way around for 3, 10 and 28 d. The volume density of black silver deposits (VvBSD) after autometallography, and metallothionein (MT) levels were used as biomarkers of exposure to metals and CCTC and lysosomal responses were selected as effect biomarkers. Results indicated that slugs were sensitive to recent metal pollution; however, slugs chronically exposed to metals presented some characteristic features and were less responsive to pollution cessation without signs of CCTC reversal. - Cell and tissue-level biomarkers in slugs after recent and chronic metal pollution

  16. Presence of sorbin in human digestive tract and endocrine digestive tumours

    OpenAIRE

    El Fadil-Nicol, F A.; Berger, F.; Descroix-Vagne, M; Pansu, D

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Sorbin, a 153 amino acid peptide isolated from porcine intestine, was localised by immunohistochemistry in endocrine cells of the intestinal mucosa and pancreas and in the enteric nervous system in the pig.
AIMS—To identify sorbin cells in normal human digestive tissues and to explore the expression of sorbin in 37 digestive endocrine tumours: 14 intestinal carcinoid tumours and 23 endocrine pancreatic tumours including six insulinomas.
METHODS—Two polyclonal antibodies against the...

  17. Interracial Digest, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Interracial Books for Children, Inc., New York, NY.

    This is a digest of articles which originally appeared in the bulletin, "Interracial Books for Children." Its purpose is to evaluate trade and textbooks with special concern for racist and sexist content and to suggest alternative materials for home and classroom. Included are the following articles: Doctor Dolittle--The Great White Father,…

  18. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  19. Electronic Networking. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Susan

    This digest discusses several aspects of electronic networking, including network functions, implementation, and applications in education. Electronic networking is defined as including the four basic services of electronic mail (E-mail), electronic "bulletin boards," teleconferencing, and online databases, and an overview of these four functions…

  20. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  1. MEMBRANOUS INTESTINAL DIGESTION CHARACTERISTICS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PANCREATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.А. Stгокоva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of enzymes activity of membranous intestinal digestion has been carried out. The condition of ultrastructure of mucous membrane of a small bowel in patients with chronic pancreatitis taking into account duration of disease is presented. It is shown, that signs of lesion of a small bowel in case of chronic pancreatitis are caused by disturbances in the first stage of membranous intestinal digestion, observed at early stages of disease and begin to progress with the disease duration.

  2. Physiology of digestion and the molecular characterization of the major digestive enzymes from Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Fábio K; Pimentel, André C; Dias, Alcides B; Cardoso, Christiane; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Ferreira, Clélia; Terra, Walter R

    2014-11-01

    Cockroaches are among the first insects to appear in the fossil record. This work is part of ongoing research on insects at critical points in the evolutionary tree to disclose evolutionary trends in the digestive characteristics of insects. A transcriptome (454 Roche platform) of the midgut of Periplanetaamericana was searched for sequences of digestive enzymes. The selected sequences were manually curated. The complete or nearly complete sequences showing all characteristic motifs and highly expressed (reads counting) had their predicted sequences checked by cloning and Sanger sequencing. There are two chitinases (lacking mucin and chitin-binding domains), one amylase, two α- and three β-glucosidases, one β-galactosidase, two aminopeptidases (none of the N-group), one chymotrypsin, 5 trypsins, and none β-glucanase. Electrophoretic and enzymological data agreed with transcriptome data in showing that there is a single β-galactosidase, two α-glucosidases, one preferring as substrate maltase and the other aryl α-glucoside, and two β-glucosidases. Chromatographic and enzymological data identified 4 trypsins, one chymotrypsin (also found in the transcriptome), and one non-identified proteinase. The major digestive trypsin is identifiable to a major P. americana allergen (Per a 10). The lack of β-glucanase expression in midguts was confirmed, thus lending support to claims that those enzymes are salivary. A salivary amylase was molecularly cloned and shown to be different from the one from the midgut. Enzyme distribution showed that most digestion occurs under the action of salivary and midgut enzymes in the foregut and anterior midgut, except the posterior terminal digestion of proteins. A counter-flux of fluid may be functional in the midgut of the cockroach to explain the low excretory rate of digestive enzymes. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical localization data showed that amylase and trypsin are released by both merocrine and apocrine secretion

  3. Anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    Farm digesters can operate satisfactorily and have a useful role on the farm. Gas production from the farm digester treating animal slurries could be boosted by adding silage liquid, old potatoes, waste cabbages and other crop wastes to the slurry, although the energy economics of maceration have not been calculated. Pollution control and types of digester are discussed. Uses of digested slurry other than for fertilizers are being tested - as protein supplement to farm animal feeds, silage making, hydroponics, fish farming and growing of worms on algae. Overall, digestion could be a contributor to power requirements especially in countries with high all year round crop production.

  4. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occurred in the Danish full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically formatted in the main biogas reactor or in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam....... Moreover, foaming presents adverse environmental impacts owing to the overflowing of the pre-storage or digester tanks. So far, there has never been thoroughly investigation of foaming problem in manure-based digester, which is the main anaerobic digestion applied in Denmark. The purpose of the present...... study was to identify potential causes of foaming in manure based digesters. Moreover, it was also an aim to investigate possible solutions to counteract foam formation with the use of antifoam agents. Thus, the impact of organic loading rate and content of feeding substrate on anaerobic digestion...

  5. [Digestive endometriosis. Current concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligaris, P; Ducassou, M J; Masselot, R; Maurin, B; Cardon, J M; Bricot, R

    1982-12-01

    Endometriosis involving the digestive tract accounts for 1% of all cases of the disease. There is a marked predominance in the recto-sigmoid and terminal ileal loops. Symptomatology is dominated by disturbances in intestinal transit, sub-occlusion or acute obstruction, pain worsening at the time of menstruation and by a haemorrhagic rectal discharge again accompanying menstruation. Apart from classical aetiopathogenic theories such as grafting onto the digestive tract by tubal, lymph vessel or venous propagation, it would appear that prostaglandins and in particular a change in the (formula; see text) ratio may play a large role. Operative resection of localised stenosis combined with oophorectomy, if the latter is possible in view of the patient's age, or prolonged medical treatment with progestational agents or even better Danazol results in cure and avoids recurrences. PMID:6891703

  6. Infant digestion physiology and the relevance of in vitro biochemical models to test infant formula lipid digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poquet, Laure; Wooster, Tim J

    2016-08-01

    Lipids play an important role in the diet of preterm and term infants providing a key energy source and essential lipid components for development. While a lot is known about adult lipid digestion, our understanding of infant digestion physiology is still incomplete, the greatest gap being on the biochemistry of the small intestine, particularly the activity and relative importance of the various lipases active in the intestine. The literature has been reviewed to identify the characteristics of lipid digestion of preterm and term infants, but also to better understand the physiology of the infant gastrointestinal tract compared to adults that impacts the absorption of lipids. The main differences are a higher gastric pH, submicellar bile salt concentration, a far more important role of gastric lipases as well as differences at the level of the intestinal barrier. Importantly, the consequences of improper in vitro replication of gastric digestions conditions (pH and lipase specificity) are demonstrated using examples from the most recent of studies. It is true that some animal models could be adapted to study infant lipid digestion physiology, however the ethical relevance of such models is questionable, hence the development of accurate in vitro models is a must. In vitro models that combine up to date knowledge of digestion biochemistry with intestinal cells in culture are the best choice to replicate digestion and absorption in infant population, this would allow the adaptation of infant formula for a better digestion and absorption of dietary lipids by preterm and term infants. PMID:27279140

  7. Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

  8. High Hydrostatic Pressure Pretreatment of Whey Protein Isolates Improves Their Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle M. Iskandar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Whey proteins have well-established antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. High hydrostatic pressure processing of whey protein isolates increases their in vitro digestibility resulting in enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study compared the effects of different digestion protocols on the digestibility of pressurized (pWPI and native (nWPI whey protein isolates and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the hydrolysates. The pepsin-pancreatin digestion protocol was modified to better simulate human digestion by adjusting temperature and pH conditions, incubation times, enzymes utilized, enzyme-to-substrate ratio and ultrafiltration membrane molecular weight cut-off. pWPI showed a significantly greater proteolysis rate and rate of peptide appearance regardless of digestion protocol. Both digestion methods generated a greater relative abundance of eluting peptides and the appearance of new peptide peaks in association with pWPI digestion in comparison to nWPI hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of pWPI from both digestion conditions showed enhanced ferric-reducing antioxidant power relative to nWPI hydrolysates. Likewise, pWPI hydrolysates from both digestion protocols showed similar enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in a respiratory epithelial cell line as compared to nWPI hydrolysates. These findings indicate that regardless of considerable variations of in vitro digestion protocols, pressurization of WPI leads to more efficient digestion that improves its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  9. Regions of the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... below to branch into a specific topic. Alimentary Tract of the Digestive System Mouth Pharynx & ... Department of Health & Human Services | National Institutes of Health | National Cancer Institute | ...

  10. Digestive Diseases A-Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lactose Intolerance Diarrhea Diverticulosis & Diverticulitis Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) More Digestive Disease Topics Children and Teens Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & ...

  11. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG...... one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  12. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  13. Reflection on Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Couch, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This smaller version of Reflection on Digestion, stemming from the nine metre edition, this version too, is awkward. In the same concertina form, a third the length of its sister, its eighteen pages hold a miniaturised text. The language is only legible with the aid of a magnifying glass, and even then the script is hard to read, hovering between word and image, content and form. The original scribed text stems from a body of knowledge encountered whilst on a post-graduate course in educa...

  14. Perfil químico da parede celular e suas implicações na digestibilidade de Brachiaria brizantha e Brachiaria humidicola Chemical profile of cell wall and its implications on Brachiaria brizantha and Brachiaria humidicola digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio José F. Alves de Brito

    2003-12-01

    brizantha and Brachiaria humidicola fractions were determined after 70 days of growth. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replications for each specie. According to the position, the harvested plants were subdivided into top, median and bottom fractions for leaves and median and basal fractions for stems. The concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP, lignin, p_coumaric acid, ferulic acid, neutral sugars (glucose, xylose and arabinose and in situ digestibility with 48-hour rumen digestion were determined. The several fractions of species studied showed different chemical composition, whose effects were observed in digestibility. B. brizantha recorded greater NDF concentration in stems and CP in leaves. This resulted in higher digestibility coefficients compared to B. humidicola. The digestibility differences between stem and leaves and in older fractions may be related to the type of lignin condensation present in tissues. The evidences found in p_coumaric and ferulic acid rates and concentrations suggest this association. The fenolic acid concentration was better related to dry matter digestibility, whereas lignin with NDF digestibility. This analysis may constitute an important tool to evaluate lignin condensation in cell wall of different forages. The neutral sugars showed no definite deposition pattern in a varied of tissues. Arabinose was the only sugar associated to dry matter digestibility and fenolic acid concentration.

  15. Digestive enzymes in digestive tract of spirostreptid and spirobolid millipedes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šustr, Vladimír; Semanová, Stanislava

    Olomouc : Institute of Soil Biology , BC ASCR, 2014. s. 89. ISBN 978-80-86525-28-0. [International Congress of Myriapodology /16./. 20.07.2014-25.07.2014, Olomouc] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : digestive enzymes * digestive tract * spirostreptid millipedes * spirobolid millipedes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  16. The effect of calcium salts, ascorbic acid and peptic pH on calcium, zinc and iron bioavailabilities from fortified human milk using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Paz; Wallingford, John Charles; Miller, Dennis Dean; Glahn, Raymond Philip

    2005-05-01

    The calcium, zinc, and iron bioavailabilities of human milk with commercial and noncommercial human milk fortifiers (HMFs) were evaluated under a variety of conditions: peptic digestion at pH 2 and pH 4, supplementation of ascorbic acid, and addition of three calcium salts. The noncommercial HMFs consisted of casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), alpha-lactalbumin, colostrum, and hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate (WPC). They were mixed with human milk (HM) and calcium, zinc, and iron were added. Ascorbic acid (AA) was added in certain studies. The commercial HMFs were Nestlé FM-85, Similac HMF (SHMF), and Enfamil HMF (EHMF). All HMFs were compared to S-26/SMA HMF. Results showed that the peptic pH (2 vs. 4) had no effect on mineral bioavailability. Addition of different calcium salts had no effect on calcium cell uptake and cell ferritin levels (an indicator of iron uptake), however, the addition of calcium glycerophosphate/gluconate increased zinc uptake by Caco-2 cells. Addition of AA significantly increased ferritin levels, with no effect on calcium or zinc uptake. Among the commercial HMFs, FM-85 was significantly lower in zinc uptake than S-26/SMA, and HM+EHMF was significantly higher than HM+S-26/SMA. Cell ferritin levels were significantly higher for HM+S-26/SMA than for all other commercial fortifiers. None of the commercial HMFs were different from HM+S-26/SMA in calcium uptake. PMID:16028632

  17. Structure and Function of the Digestive System of Solen Grandis Dunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Xiuzhen; ZHAN Wenbin; REN Sulian

    2003-01-01

    Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing.Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

  18. Children and Grief. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy

    Noting that the death of a loved one brings grief to children as well as adults, this Digest draws on research to examine how children respond to death and the role of parents and teachers in helping children cope with loss. The Digest delineates children's "tasks" during mourning that are essential to their adjustment to loss, such as accepting…

  19. Bile acid nuclear receptor FXR and digestive system diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Ding

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids (BAs are not only digestive surfactants but also important cell signaling molecules, which stimulate several signaling pathways to regulate some important biological processes. The bile-acid-activated nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR, plays a pivotal role in regulating bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis as well as in regulating the inflammatory responses, barrier function and prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. As expected, FXR is involved in the pathophysiology of a wide range of diseases of gastrointestinal tract, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the roles of FXR in physiology of the digestive system and the related diseases. Better understanding of the roles of FXR in digestive system will accelerate the development of FXR ligands/modulators for the treatment of digestive system diseases.

  20. Arsenic volatilization in model anaerobic biogas digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Arsenic is volatilized form all model anaerobic digesters, including the non-treated ones. • Volatile As species can be identified and quantified in all digesters. • Non-arsenic treated digesters volatilization rates are higher than Roxarsone treated ones. - Abstract: Arsenic is a class 1 non-threshold carcinogen which is highly ubiquitous. Arsenic undergoes many different transformations (biotic or abiotic) between and within environmental compartments, leading to a number of different chemical species possessing different properties and toxicities. One specific transformation is As biotic volatilization which is coupled with As biomethylation and has been scarcely studied due to inherent sampling issues. Arsenic methylation/volatilization is also linked with methanogenesis and occurs in anaerobic environments. In China, rice straw and animal manure are very often used to produce biogas and both can contain high amounts of As, especially if the rice is grown in areas with heavy mining or smelting industries and if Roxarsone is fed to the animals. Roxarsone is an As-containing drug which is widely used in China to control coccidian intestinal parasites, to improve feed efficiency and to promote rapid growth. Previous work has shown that this compound degrades to inorganic As under anaerobic conditions. In this study the focus is on biotic transformations of As in small microcosms designed as biogas digester models (BDMs) using recently validated As traps, thus, enabling direct quantification and identification of volatile As species. It is shown that although there was a loss of soluble As in the BDMs, their conditions favored biomethylation. All reactors produced volatile As, especially the monomethylarsonic acid spiked ones with 413 ± 148 ng As (mean ± SD, n = 3) which suggest that the first methylation step, from inorganic As, is a limiting factor. The most abundant species was trimethylarsine, but the toxic arsine was present in the

  1. Use of selective digestive tract decontamination in European intensive cares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis Miranda, D; Citerio, G; Perner, A; Dimopoulos, G; Torres, A; Hoes, A; Beale, R; De Smet, A M; Kesecioglu, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that the use of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) reduces mortality. However, fear for increasing multi drug resistance might prevent wide acceptance. A survey was performed among the units registered in the European Registry for Intensive Care...

  2. The effect of algae species on the bioelectricity and biodiesel generation through open-air cathode microbial fuel cell with kitchen waste anaerobically digested effluent as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingjie; Nie, Changliang; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Jiang, Liqun; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-10-01

    Five strains algae (Golenkinia sp. SDEC-16, Chlorella vulgaris, Selenastrum capricornutum, Scenedesmus SDEC-8 and Scenedesmus SDEC-13) were screened as an effective way to promote recover electricity from MFC for kitchen waste anaerobically digested effluent (KWADE) treatment. The highest OCV, power density, biomass concentration and total lipid content were obtained with Golenkinia sp. SDEC-16 as the co-inoculum, which were 170mV, 6255mWm(-3), 325mgL(-1) and 38%, respectively. Characteristics of the organics in KWADE were analyzed, and the result showed that the hydrophilic and acidic fractions were more readily degraded, compared to the neutral fractions during the operation. Maximum COD and TN removal efficiency were 43.59% and 37.39% when inoculated with Golenkinia sp. SDEC-16, which were roughly 3.22 and 3.04 times higher than that of S. capricornutum. This study demonstrated that Golenkinia sp. SDEC-16 was a promising species for bioelectricity generation, lipid production and KWADE treatment. PMID:27441827

  3. Cadmium detoxification processes in the digestive gland of cephalopods in relation to accumulated cadmium concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, Paco; Cosson, Richard; Gallien, Isabelle; Caurant, Florence; Miramand, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    International audience The high concentrations of cadmium recorded in the digestive gland of cephalopods from various temperate and subpolar waters suggest that these molluscs have developed efficient cadmium detoxification mechanisms. The subcellular distribution of cadmium in the digestive gland cells was investigated in seven cephalopod species from the Bay of Biscay (France) and the Faroe Islands. In most species, cadmium was mainly found in the cytosolic fraction of the digestive glan...

  4. Carbohydrate digestion in ticks and a digestive α-L-fucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreti, R; Perrella, N N; Lopes, A R

    2013-10-01

    Digestive carbohydrases are present in many species of hematophagous Arthropoda, including ticks. In this work, Amblyomma cajennense (Ixodidae) midgut digestive carbohydrases were tracked with different substrates, resulting in the identification of a chitinase and an N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and the first description of a digestive α-L-fucosidase in ticks. α-L-fucosidases are involved in various physiological processes, and digestive α-L-fucosidases have been shown to be present in other types of organisms. Amblyomma cajennense α-L-fucosidase activity was isolated using acidic and salting-out precipitations and chromatographic steps in hydrophobic and cation-exchange columns. The specificity of the isolated activity as an α-L-fucosidase was confirmed by the hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl α-L-fucopyranoside and the natural substrate fucoidan and the inhibition by fucose and deoxyfuconojirimycin. The isolated activity of α-L-fucosidase forms oligomers with molecular mass of 140 kDa or 150 kDa as determined by gel filtration and non-reducing SDS-PAGE, respectively. This particular fucosidase has an optimum pH of 5.3, is stable even at high temperatures (stable for at least 2h at 50 °C), has a Km of 45 μM to the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl α-L-fucopyranoside and IC 50% of 327 μM to fucose and 42 pM to deoxyfuconojirimycin. The presence of digestive fucosidases in hematophagous Arthropoda may be related to defence mechanisms against host-parasite interactions. PMID:23994295

  5. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  6. Establishment & characterization of lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with multiple primary neoplasms in the upper aero-digestive tract & healthy individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Tabish; Kotnis, Ashwin; Sarin, Rajiv; Mulherkar, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: A major drawback for genetic studies as well as long-term genotype-phenotype correlation studies in cancer is lack of representative human cell lines providing a continuous source of basic biomolecules and a system to carry out various experimental investigations. This can be overcome to some extent by establishing lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) by infecting peripheral blood lymphocytes with Epstein Barr virus (EBV) which is known to immortalize human resting B cell...

  7. Effect of simulated gastro-duodenal digestion on the allergenic reactivity of beta-lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossios Apostolos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow's milk (CM allergy affects about 2% of infants. The allergenicity of dietary proteins, including those from CM, has been related to their digestibility although the generality of the link and its causality remains to be demonstrated. In this study we use an in vitro digestion system, to investigate the digestibility of β-lactoglobulin (blg during gastrointestinal transit and to assess the impact of this process on blg allergenic reactivity in CM allergic children. Methods Blg digesta were prepared using an in vitro digestion protocol simulating either gastric digestion alone or followed by duodenal digestion with or without phosphatidylcholine (PC. Biochemical analysis of blg digesta was performed by SDS-PAGE and their concentration was measured by a sandwich ELISA. Assessment of their allergenic reactivity was done in vitro by EAST inhibition, specific basophil activation (basotest and lymphocyte proliferation (PCNA-flow cytometry assays using sera and cells from patients allergic to blg and in vivo by skin prick testing (SPT of these patients. Results Blg was only broken down to smaller peptides after gastro-duodenal digestion although a sizeable amount of intact protein still remained. Digestion did not modify the IgE binding capacity of blg except for gastro-duodenal digestion performed in the absence of PC. These results are consistent with the quantity of intact blg remaining in the digesta. Overall both gastric and gastroduodenal digestion enhanced activation of sensitized basophils and proliferation of sensitized lymphocytes by blg. However, there was a tendency towards reduction in mean diameter of SPT following digestion, the PC alone during phase 1 digestion causing a significant increase in mean diameter. Conclusions Digestion did not reduce the allergenic reactivity of blg to a clinically insignificant extent, PC inhibiting digestion and thereby protecting blg allergenic reactivity. SPT reactivity was

  8. Dietary peptides from the non-digestible fraction of Phaseolus vulgaris L. decrease angiotensin II-dependent proliferation in HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells through the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vital, Diego A; Liang, Katie; González de Mejía, Elvira; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2016-05-18

    This study aimed to determine the ability of peptides present in the non-digestible fraction (NDF) of common beans to decrease angiotensin II (AngII) through the blockade of RAS and its effect on the proliferation of HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells. Pure synthesized peptides GLTSK and GEGSGA and the peptide fractions (PF) of cultivars Azufrado Higuera and Bayo Madero were used. The cells were pretreated with pure peptides, PF or AGT at their IC50 or IC25 values, in comparison with the simultaneous treatment of peptides and AGT. For western blot and microscopy analysis, 100 μM and 0.5 mg mL(-1) were used for pure peptides and PF treatments, respectively. According to the ELISA tests, GLTSK and GEGSGA decreased (p < 0.05) the conversion rate of AGT to angiotensin I (AngI) by 38 and 28%, respectively. All the peptides tested reduced (p < 0.05) the conversion rate of AngI to AngII from 38 to 50%. When the cells were pretreated with both pure peptides and PF before exposure to AGT, the effectiveness inhibiting cell proliferation was higher than the simultaneous treatment suggesting their preventive effects. GLTSK and GEGSGA interacted with the catalytic site of renin, the angiotensin-I converting enzyme, and the AngII receptor, mainly through hydrogen bonds, polar, hydrophobic and cation-π interactions according to molecular docking. Through confocal microscopy, it was determined that GLTSK and GEGSGA caused the decrease (p < 0.05) of AngII-dependent STAT3 nuclear activation in HCT116 cells by 66 and 23%, respectively. The results suggest that peptides present in the common bean NDF could potentially ameliorate the effects of RAS overexpression in colorectal cancer. PMID:27156533

  9. Chromatin influence on the function and formation of the nuclear envelope shown by laser-induced psoralen photoreaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potorous tridactylis (PTK2) cells growing in culture were treated with psoralen derivatives and dividing cells were located by phase-contrast microscopy. Psoralens, light-sensitive DNA-photoadducting drugs, were reacted with mitotic chromosomes through exposure to 365-nm light from an argon laser micro-beam system. It was shown that following mitosis and photoreaction, cells without nuclear envelopes were produced when psoralen-treated cells received 60 light pulses over their entire chromosome complement. These 'non-nuclear membrane' cells were found to incorporate [3H]uridine, and to a lesser extent, [3H]thymidine by autoradiography. Reduction of the light exposure by half (30 near-u.v. pulses) over the entire chromosome complement in the presence of psoralen also produced non-nuclear-membrane cells as seen by light microscopy. Further examination of these cells (30 light pulses) by single-cell electron microscopy revealed that unlike the high light exposure (60 near-u.v. pulses), the low light dosage resulted in cells with membrane patches associated with their chromatin. Since neither actinomycin D nor cycloheximide impeded nuclear envelope reformation, the psoralen-DNA reaction is concluded to produce non-nuclear membrane by a mechanism other than transcription or translation inhibition. The association of Golgi with areas of nuclear membrane patches gives indirect evidence of a possible Golgi contribution to the reformation of the nuclear envelope after mitosis. It is concluded that DNA plays a role in envelope reformation. (author)

  10. Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Velsen, van, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes and lake sediments. Microbial formation of methane also plays a role in the ruminant digestion.In digestion units, the external conditions acting upon the process can be regulated to speed it up as c...

  11. [Functional and motor digestive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2013-10-01

    This article discusses the most interesting studies on functional and motility gastrointestinal disorders presented in Digestive Diseases Week (DDW) in 2013. New data were reported on the clinical importance of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and on how they can produce numerous disturbances such as inflammatory bowel disease. These disturbances are associated with somatic functional disease and particularly with fatigue. In addition, new data have emerged on the physiopathology of these disorders, with some studies reporting that environmental factors and events in early infancy can favor their development. Data were also presented on how bile acids can increase susceptibility to diarrhea in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and on how the type of food intake can favor the development of symptoms. More data are available on the presence of underlying celiac disease in patients with IBS, which should prompt us to investigate this disease in our patients. Likewise, indiscriminate application of a gluten-free diet in patients with IBS has been shown not to produce a clear improvement. Regarding the physiopathology of functional dyspepsia (FD), results have been presented on how psychological factors can modify gastric accommodation and how this is in turn related to visceral hypersensitivity and gastric emptying. Regarding therapy, mirtazapine can improve symptoms and lead to weight gain in patients with severe FD and substantial weight loss. Results were presented on new drugs for IBS such as ibodutant and on old drugs with new applications such as mesalazine and ebastine. The antinociceptive effect of linaclotide is now better understood and a meta-analysis has shown its effectiveness in IBS with constipation as the main symptom. In patients with constipation, pelvic floor dysynergy can be diagnosed by a simple clinical interview and rectal touch. More data are available on the efficacy of prucalopride (which has been shown to accelerate

  12. Investigation of Digestive Tract of Sphex flavipennis Fabrius, 1793 (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae): Morphology and Ultrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Filiz; Suicmez, Menderes

    2011-01-01

     In this study, the ultrastructure and histology of digestive tract of Sphex flavipennis was examined by light and electron microscopy. The digestive tract divided into foregut, midgut and hindgut. There are longitudinal and circular muscle in the haemocoel side and a cuticle in the luminal side of epithelium. The epithelium made of three kinds of cells; endocrine cells, regenerative cells and enterocytes. The cytoplasm of endocrine cells filled with secretory granules and lacked infoldi...

  13. Transforming anaerobic digestion with the Model T of digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.F.; Ciotola, R.; Castano, J.; Eger, C.; Schlea, D. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Ecological Engineering Program

    2010-07-01

    Most livestock farmers in the United States do not take advantage of anaerobic digester technology because of the high cost and large scale. These limitations therefore reduce the production of renewable energy from farmlands. In order to expand anaerobic digestion methods and improve environmental quality, affordable and smaller-scale digesters should be developed to enable most livestock farmers to convert manure to methane. Doing so would improve their economic efficiency and environmental sustainability. This paper provided an analogy to the development of the Model T to better explain the need and potential for this technology. A modified fixed-dome digester was installed on the Ohio State University dairy in Columbus, Ohio. The digester was unheated, buried, had a volume of 1 m{sup 3} and received diluted dairy manure as feedstock. Biogas was produced at digester temperatures as low 10 degrees C during colder ambient temperatures. Water quality also improved. Results from the first year of operation will be analyzed to improve performance and enable future development of this technology.

  14. Moving toward a more physiological model: application of mucin to refine the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the intestine, the epithelial cells are covered with a mucin layer produced by goblet cells. This mucin layer provides many important functions and can influence the uptake of iron. The objective of this study was to determine if a combination of commercially available mucin and an 8 um micropor...

  15. Micronutrient Sprinkles Add More Bioavailable Iron to some Kenyan Complementary Foods: Studies Using an In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron deficiency anemia is arguably the most important public health problem in developing countries. Home-fortification of complementary foods using micronutrient Sprinkles has been shown to reduce iron deficiency anemia in many resource poor settings. In this study, the benefit of using the micronu...

  16. Sarcocystis neurona infection in gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mice: comparative infectivity of sporocysts in two strains of KO mice, effect of trypsin digestion on merozoite viability, and infectivity of bradyzoites to KO mice and cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Sundar, N; Kwok, O C H; Saville, W J A

    2013-09-01

    The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is the primary cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM). EPM or EPM-like illness has been reported in horses, sea otters, and several other mammals. The gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mouse is often used as a model to study biology and discovery of new therapies against S. neurona because it is difficult to induce clinical EPM in other hosts, including horses. In the present study, infectivity of three life cycle stages (merozoites, bradyzoites, sporozoites) to KO mice and cell culture was studied. Two strains of KO mice (C57-black, and BALB/c-derived, referred here as black or white) were inoculated orally graded doses of S. neurona sporocysts; 12 sporocysts were infective to both strains of mice and all infected mice died or became ill within 70 days post-inoculation. Although there was no difference in infectivity of sporocysts to the two strains of KO mice, the disease was more severe in black mice. S. neurona bradyzoites were not infectious to KO mice and cell culture. S. neurona merozoites survived 120 min incubation in 0.25% trypsin, indicating that trypsin digestion can be used to recover S. neurona from tissues of acutely infected animals. PMID:23375195

  17. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  18. Personal Relationships and Digestive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Product Probiotics and Traveller's Diarrhea Relaxation to Treat Digestive Disorders Medications SAFER Medicine Managing Medications Avoiding Drug Adverse Effects Medications that can Affect Colonic Function Gut Microbiota Tips & Daily Living Personal Relationships Holiday Tips Exercise & ...

  19. Astronaut Virgil Grissom shown through window of open hatch on Gemini craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom, the command pilot of the Gemini-Titan 3 three orbit mission, is shown through the window of the open hatch on Gemini spacecraft in the white room on the mornining of the launch.

  20. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide

  1. Large endolymphatic sac. A congenital deformity of the inner ear shown by magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Phelps, P D; Mahoney, C. F. O.; Luxon, L M

    1997-01-01

    Fluctuant and progressive hearing impairment in a patient with a wide vestibular aqueduct has been called the 'large vestibular aqueduct syndrome'. Recently reports of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies describe enlargement of the endolymphatic sac and duct in patients shown to have large vestibular aqueducts by computed tomography (CT). A patient with progressive deafness was shown to have borderline or slightly enlarged vestibular aqueducts by re-formatted sagittal CT. However, MRI in...

  2. Mesophylic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure.

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeman, G

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERALIn this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).For this purpose were researched:1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestion process for energy production on dairy farms.2. Digestion of manure at lower temperatures.The goal of the first mentioned research was optimization of anaerobic digestion of cow manure in a mesophilic CSTR-system...

  3. 76 FR 67749 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Program Nos. 93.847, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Research; 93.848, Digestive Diseases and... Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; PAR11-107 Ancillary Studies to the NIDDK Intestinal Stem Cell... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and...

  4. Narrow Band Imaging and High Definition Television in the endoscopic evaluation of upper aero-digestive tract cancer

    OpenAIRE

    C. Piazza; Cocco, D; DEL BON, F.; Mangili, S; Nicolai, P; PERETTI, G.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Narrow band imaging and high definition television are recent innovations in upper aero-digestive tract endoscopy. Aim of this prospective, non-randomized, unblinded study was to establish the diagnostic advantage of these procedures in the evaluation of squamous cell cancer arising from various upper aero-digestive tract sites. Between April 2007 and January 2010, 444 patients affected by upper aero-digestive tract squamous cell cancer, or previously treated for it, were evaluated by...

  5. Initial interaction of herpes simplex virus with cells is binding to heparan sulfate.

    OpenAIRE

    WuDunn, D; Spear, P G

    1989-01-01

    We have shown that cell surface heparan sulfate serves as the initial receptor for both serotypes of herpes simplex virus (HSV). We found that virions could bind to heparin, a related glycosaminoglycan, and that heparin blocked virus adsorption. Agents known to bind to cell surface heparan sulfate blocked viral adsorption and infection. Enzymatic digestion of cell surface heparan sulfate but not of dermatan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate concomitantly reduced the binding of virus to the cells...

  6. A case of subacute cerebellar degeneration associated with pleocytosis and cerebellar swelling shown in computed tomography scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 44 year old woman was healthy until January 3, 1986, when she had headache. On January 9, she developed gait ataxia and dysarthria. Cerebellar ataxia worsened rapidly. Aftar a week she could not sit without support and her consciousness was disturbed. Corticosteroid was administrated and consciousness proved alert, but cerebellar ataxia and dysarthria remained unchanged. The patient was found carcinoma of the lung in August 1986. Characteristic features of clinical and laboratory findings of this patient are acute progression, cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis of 1,064/3 cells (860 mononuclear cell, 204 polymorphonuclear cell), and cerebellar swelling shown in computed tomography scanning. Though the mechanism of acute cerebellar degeneration is still uncertained, inflammatory process was supported to exist in cerebellum of this case. (author)

  7. Seed coat removal improves Fe bioavailability in cooked lentils: studies using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the range of Fe concentration and relative Fe bioavailability of 24 varieties of cooked lentils, as well as the impact of seed coat removal on lentil Fe nutritional quality. Relative Fe bioavailability was assessed by the in vitro/Caco-2 cell culture method. While Fe concentrat...

  8. A potential role for regulatory T-cells in the amelioration of DSS induced colitis by dietary non-digestible polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartog, Anita; Belle, Fabiën N; Bastiaans, Jacqueline; de Graaff, Priscilla; Garssen, Johan; Harthoorn, Lucien F; Vos, Arjan P

    2015-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are chronic relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The interaction between a disturbed microbial composition, the intestinal mucosal barrier and the mucosal immune system plays an important role in IBD and its chronicity. It has been indicated that due to the altered microbial composition the balance between T regulatory cells (Treg) and T helper cells (Th) 17 is disturbed, leading to an inflammatory state. The present study shows that oral intake of a specific multi fibre mix (MF), designed to match the fibre content of a healthy diet, counteracts IBD-like intestinal inflammation and weight loss in dextran sodium sulphate treated mice. This reduction in inflammation might be brought about, at least in part, by the MF-induced decrease in inflammatory cytokines, increase in IL-10 and the relative increase in Treg cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Moreover, the Treg percentage in the MLN correlates with the percentage of tolerogenic lamina propria derived CD103+RALDH+dendritic cells in the MLN, suggesting that these play a role in the observed effects. In children with CD exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a widely used safe and effective therapy. Optimizing enteral nutritional concepts with the tested fibre mix, know to modulate the gut microbiota composition, SCFA production and inflammatory status (as indicated by the present study) could possibly further improve efficacy in inducing remission. PMID:25498760

  9. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  10. INVOLVEMENT OF MICRORNAS IN EMBRYONIC GENOME ACTIVATION AS SHOWN BY DICER EXPRESSION IN RAINBOW TROUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most maternal transcripts including many housekeeping genes are degraded at or around embryonic genome activation as evidenced by our initial studies. This degradation appears to be global but highly regulated. MicroRNAs are naturally occurring small (19-24bp) RNAs that are shown to be involved in m...

  11. Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Adele; Lee, Kathleen

    2011-08-19

    To be successful takes creativity, flexibility, self-control, and discipline. Central to all those are executive functions, including mentally playing with ideas, giving a considered rather than an impulsive response, and staying focused. Diverse activities have been shown to improve children's executive functions: computerized training, noncomputerized games, aerobics, martial arts, yoga, mindfulness, and school curricula. All successful programs involve repeated practice and progressively increase the challenge to executive functions. Children with worse executive functions benefit most from these activities; thus, early executive-function training may avert widening achievement gaps later. To improve executive functions, focusing narrowly on them may not be as effective as also addressing emotional and social development (as do curricula that improve executive functions) and physical development (shown by positive effects of aerobics, martial arts, and yoga). PMID:21852486

  12. Adult education as information and help in forming opinions shown from the example of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lectures printed here, partly in revised form, were given at a University meeting for teachers in adult education on July 9th and 10th 1976 in Bayreuth, with the main theme of 'Adult education as information and help in forming opinions shown from the subject of nuclear power'. It should be shown by examples related to this problem, which urgently requires more objectivity, and which will be freed of emotional opinions with extraordinary difficulty, how complex such objects can be and how many different aspects have to be taken into account. The grouping of scientific referees, a teacher, a nuclear physicist, a radiation biologist and a lawyer, makes the plurality of the aspects quite clear. Themes: 1) The contribution of adult education to de-idealogising the population, 2) The scientific and technical basis of generation and use of nuclear power, 3)Radiation stresses of living organismus, particularly human being. 4) Smug authorities, protesting citizens, overload judges. (GL)

  13. Microbial electrochemical monitoring of volatile fatty acids during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Jin, Xiangdan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing environmental concerns of using fossil fuels and decreasing in their reserves, the promotion of renewable energy technologies is crucial. Anaerobic digestion (AD), a well-developed technology converting organic waste into biogas, is gaining increased attention in recent years...... desalination cell, MDC) was built to realize the on-line measuring the concentration of volatile fatty acid (VFA). The correlation between current densities of the biosensor and VFA concentrations was firstly evaluated with synthetic digestate. Two linear relationships were observed between current densities...

  14. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.;

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated...... improve the continuous flow reactor performance at the relatively low influent methanogenic biomass concentration. In the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) there are two steady states with and without methane production at slightly different values of initial methanogenic biomass concentration....... In the system, the threshold methanogenic biomass concentration existed because of inhibition by high VFA concentration. High methanogenic biomass concentration is required for efficient anaerobic digestion of MSW in order to avoid possible inhibition due to high VFA build-up. Thus, CSTR configuration might...

  15. Interventions shown to Aid Executive Function Development in Children 4–12 Years Old *

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Adele; Lee, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    To be successful takes creativity, flexibility, self-control, and discipline. Central to all those are ‘executive functions,’ including mentally playing with ideas, giving a considered rather than an impulsive response, and staying focused. Diverse activities have been shown to improve children’s executive functions – computerized training, non-computerized games, aerobics, martial arts, yoga, mindfulness, and school curricula. Central to all these is repeated practice and constantly challeng...

  16. Comparison of the Effects of Thermal Pretreatment, Steam Explosion and Ultrasonic Disintegration on Digestibility of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Dallos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy demand of the corn-based bioethanol production could be reduced using the agricultural byproducts as bioenergy feedstock for biogas digesters. The release of lignocellulosic material and therefore the acceleration of degradation processes can be achieved using thermal and mechanical pretreatments, which assist to hydrolyze the cell walls and speed the solubilization of biopolymers in biogas feedstock. This study is focused on liquid hot water, steam explosion and ultrasonic pretreatments of corn stover. The scientific contribution of this paper is a comprehensive comparison of the performance of the pretreatments by fast analytical, biochemical, anaerobic digestibility and biomethane potential tests, extended by energy consumptions and energy balance calculations.The effectiveness of pretreatments was evaluated by means of soluble chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand and by the biogas and methane productivities. The results have shown that the thermal pretreatment, steam explosion and ultrasonic irradiation of biogas feedstock disintegrated the lignocellulosic structure, increased and accelerated the methane production and increased the cumulative biogas and methane productivity of corn stover in reference to the control during mesophilic anaerobic digestion.The energy balance demonstrated that there is an economical basis of the application of the liquid hot-compressed water pretreatments in a biogas plant. However, the steam explosion and ultrasonication are energetically not profitable for corn stover pretreatment.

  17. Influence of Feeding Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Yeast Cell Wall on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Feedlot Cattle during Periods of Elevated Ambient Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas-Chavira, J.; Arzola, C.; González-Vizcarra, V.; Manríquez-Núñez, O. M.; Montaño-Gómez, M. F.; Navarrete-Reyes, J. D.; Raymundo, C.; Zinn, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    In experiment 1, eighty crossbred steers (239±15 kg) were used in a 229-d experiment to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (EHY) cell wall in diets on growth performance feedlot cattle during periods of elevated ambient temperature. Treatments consisted of steam-flaked corn-based diets supplemented to provide 0, 1, 2, or 3 g EHY/hd/d. There were no effects on growth performance during the initial 139-d period. However, from d 139 to harvest, when 24-h ...

  18. Digestible lysine requirements of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEP Bernal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern broilers have been submitted to continuous genetic improvement, and therefore, their nutritional requirements must be constantly updated to ensure their performance. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate different digestible lysine levels for starter (1021 days and grower (22-35 days phases. The experiments were carried out with male and female Cobb 500 broilers, distributed according to a randomized block experimental design in a 5x2 factorial arrangement (5 increasing digestible lysine levels x 2 sexes, totaling 10 treatments, with 8 replicates of 22 and 20 birds during the starter and grower phase, respectively. Digestible lysine levels of 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24, and 1.30 were used in the starter diets (10-21 days and 0.9, 0.98, 1.04, 1.10, and 1.16% in the grower diets (22-35 days. Based on the statistical analyses of the evaluated performance parameters, digestible lysine requirements for maximum performance were determined as 1.22% for males and 1.24% for females in the starter phase, and 1.16% for both sexes in the grower phase. Carcass and performance results indicate that digestible lysine requirements vary with sex and evaluated production parameter. Considering the most relevant broiler production parameters, in 22- to 35-d-old males, digestible lysine requirement for breast meat yield (1.16% was higher than those for feed conversion ratio (1.07% and weight gain (1.05%.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of catering wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Climenhaga, Martha Anne

    2008-01-01

    This research addresses gaps in current knowledge regarding process issues associated with long term semi-continuous digestion of food waste as a sole substrate, and the role of trace elements and biomass retention in digestion of food wastes. Source segregated food wastes were collected from a university catering facility and found, in characterisation studies, to have a total solids (TS) content of 28.1±0.25 %, a volatile solids (VS) content of 95.5±0.06% of TS and a chemica...

  20. First identification of resident and circulating fibrocytes in Dupuytren's disease shown to be inhibited by serum amyloid P and Xiapex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Syed Amir; Hayton, Michael John; Watson, James Stewart; Szczypa, Piotr; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2014-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a common progressive fibroproliferative disorder causing permanent digital contracture. Proliferative myofibroblasts are thought to be the cells responsible for DD initiation and recurrence, although their source remains unknown. DD tissue has also been shown to harbor mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells. Fibrocytes are circulating cells that show characteristics of fibroblasts and they express surface markers for both hematopoietic and mesenchymal stromal cells. Fibrocytes differentiate from peripheral CD14+ mononuclear cells, which can be inhibited by serum amyloid P (SAP). In this study we have demonstrated the presence of fibrocytes in DD blood and tissue, moreover we have evaluated the effects of SAP and Xiapex (Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum) on fibrocytes derived from DD. H&E staining showed typical Spindle shaped morphology of fibrocytes. FACS analysis based on a unique combination of 3 markers, revealed the increased presence of fibrocytes in blood and tissue of DD patients. Additionally, immunohistology of DD nodule and cord tissue showed the presence of collagen 1+/CD34+ cells. No difference in plasma SAP levels was observed between DD and control. Higher concentrations of SAP significantly inhibited fibrocytes differentiated from DD derived monocytes compared to control. DD fascia derived fibrocytes showed resistance to growth inhibition by SAP, particularly nodule derived fibrocytes showed robust growth even at higher SAP concentrations compared to control. DD derived fibrocytes were positive for typical fibrocyte dual markers, i.e. Collagen 1/LSP-1 and collagen 1/CD34. Xiapex was more effective in inhibiting the growth of nodule derived cells compared to commercially available collagenase A. Our results show for the first time the increased presence of fibrocytes in DD patient's blood and disease tissue compared to control tissue. Additionally, we evaluate the response of these fibrocytes to SAP and Xiapex

  1. Slow rhythmic ventricular oscillations and parenchymal density variations shown by sequential CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhythmic brain movements have been revealed by sets of sequential computerised tomography scans of human brains (seen retrospectively to be normal). These scans have shown that both (unenhanced) brain parenchymal density and the shapes of the elements of the supratentorial ventricular/cisternal system are subject to wave motions having similar periods-ranging from 26 s through 56 s, 77-96 s, 109 s, and 224 s to 224 x 2 s (or even longer), with good correlation between peak values. These motions, as well as phase variations between the waves suggest a peristaltic movement of CSF through the ventricular/cisternal system with progressive axial damping

  2. Diagnosing & Treating Digestive Tract Disorders Endoscopically

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... duct, and this is how bile or digestive juices get from the liver down into the small ... Medical Center and our own group, the Digestive Health Center, and section in gastroenterology, we had specifically ...

  3. Decreased tryptophan and increased kynurenine levels in mastocytosis associated with digestive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgin-Lavialle, S; Launay, J-M; Côté, F; Soucié, E; Soria, A; Damaj, G; Moura, D S; Canioni, D; Hanssens, K; Chandesris, M-O; Barète, S; Dubreuil, P; Lortholary, O; Hermine, O; Sokol, H

    2016-03-01

    The main metabolism pathway of tryptophan is protein formation, but it can also be metabolized into serotonin and kynurenine. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of tryptophan into kynurenine. Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous disease characterized by mast cell accumulation in various tissues with 57% of patients having gastrointestinal involvement. We studied tryptophan metabolism in mastocytosis patients displaying or not gastrointestinal features and healthy subjects (n = 26 in each group). Mastocytosis patients with digestive symptoms displayed significantly increased kynurenine level and IDO activity as compared to healthy controls and mastocytosis patients without digestive symptoms. This could be linked to mast cell-mediated digestive inflammation among patients with mastocytosis. This work is the first focusing on kynurenine pathway in a mast cell disease and could help to understand the pathogenesis of digestive features in mastocytosis as well as in other mast cell-mediated diseases. PMID:26841279

  4. 新生犊牛皱胃平滑肌细胞的原代培养——组织块培养法和胶原酶消化法的比较研究%Primary culture of abomasum smooth muscle cells in newborn calf Comparison research on methods of tissue culture and collagenase digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许远靖; 谢光洪; 刘芳宁; 贾艳; 田武林; 李彬; 魏腾; 张乃生; 靳朝; 刘国文

    2012-01-01

    Abomasum smooth muscle cells of newborn calf were isolated and cultured with tissue culture and collagenase digestion,and were indentified through immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence technique, and then the results and the cell growth curves were compared. The cell growth curves based on the two ways were almost the same;the cell purity was more than 95 % through tissue culture,and 90 % through the collagenase digestion with the immunocytochemistry identification, which is almost the same to immunofluorescence results: 96% through tissue culture and 89 % through collagenase digestion respectively. Tissue culture method is easy to operate and economical,but takes a long time;collagenase digestion method is rapid, easy to obtain more cells, but very expensive, so we would like to use the tissue culture-in combination with collagenase digestion in practice.%通过组织块培养法和胶原酶消化法分离培养犊奶牛皱胃平滑肌细胞,采用免疫细胞化学方法和免疫荧光化学方法对其进行鉴定,并将鉴定结果、细胞生长曲线进行比较。结果,两种方法培养出的细胞生长曲线基本相同,细胞纯度免疫细胞化学鉴定结果为:组织块培养法为95%以上,胶原酶消化法为90%;免疫荧光鉴定结果为:组织块培养法为96%,酶消化法为89%。组织块培养法操作简单、经济,但耗时较长;胶原酶消化法快速、获得细胞较多,但价格昂贵,故在实际操作中可将两种方法联合应用。

  5. Expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in rodent digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka; Oomura

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To observe the regional distributions and morphological features of nesfatin-1/nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the rodent digestive system. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections of seven organs (pancreas, stomach, duodenum, esophagus, liver, small intestine and colon) dissected from sprague-dawley (SD) rats and institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were prepared. The regional distributions of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 IR cells were observed by immunohistochemical staining. The morphological ...

  6. Comparative Studies of Alternative Anaerobic Digestion Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Inman, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Washington D.C. Water and Sewage Authority is planning to construct a new anaerobic digestion facility at its Blue Plains WWTP by 2008. The research conducted in this study is to aid the designers of this facility by evaluating alternative digestion technologies. Alternative anaerobic digestion technologies include thermophilic, acid/gas phased, and temperature phased digestion. In order to evaluate the relative merits of each, a year long study evaluated the performance of bench scale dig...

  7. Eukyaryota in human digestive tract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valtrová, T.; Mrázek, Jakub; Fliegerová, Kateřina

    Smolenice: IAP, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, 2011. s. 80-80. ISBN 978-80-968618-6-6. [7th International Symposium on Anaerobic Microbiology. 15.6.2011-18.6.2011, Smolenice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : eukaryota * human digestive tract Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  8. Obesity and Your Digestive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obesity. BMI ___________ Waist Circumference ___________ Portion Control Understanding a normal portion size can help control excess caloric intake. 1/2 ... obesity Great tools including a food tracker, portion size information, tips on ... Digestive and Kidney Diseases http://win.niddk.nih.gov/index.htm ...

  9. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  10. Tropical Rainforest Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillero, Peter

    This digest provides four guideposts for tropical rainforest education: (1) structure; (2) location and climate; (3) importance; and (4) conservation of resources. Research is cited and background information provided about the layers of life and the adaptations of life within the tropical rain forest. Aspects of life within and near rain forests…

  11. FEU Technology Digest No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This digest contains four articles about technology and education in Britain. "The Development of an 'Additional Skills' Training Programme" (Peter Riley) details the organization and progress of a collaborative effort between Blackpool Processing Company and Flyde College's Additional Skills training program, a solution to achieving the flexible…

  12. Gas in the Digestive Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a diary of your diet and gas symptoms. ​​​​ ​Treatment for Gas in the Digestive Tract To reduce or prevent gas and gas symptoms, your doctor may suggest that you reduce swallowed air, quit smoking, make changes to your diet, or take medicines. ...

  13. Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes an

  14. Single Sex Education. WEEA Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Diane S.

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in educational institutions that receive federal financial assistance. This digest focuses on the theme of single-sex education. Articles featured in this issue include: (1) "Single-Sex Education" (Diane S. Pollard); (2) "A Legal Framework for Single-Sex…

  15. Communication Strategies for Employment Interviews. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Intended to help prepare individuals for job seeking, this digest suggests some resources to consult to help improve basic communication skills needed for the interview process. The digest reviews research on teaching interview skills in the classroom, discussing role playing, videotapes, and techniques workshops. The digest also lists practical…

  16. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  17. Susceptibility of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) peel proteins to digestive enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Maloney, Katherine P; Truong, Van-Den; Allen, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Sweet potato proteins have been shown to possess antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vivo. The ability of a protein to exhibit systemic effects is somewhat unusual as proteins are typically susceptible to digestive enzymes. This study was undertaken to better understand how digestive enzymes affect sweet potato proteins. Two fractions of industrially processed sweet potato peel, containing 6.8% and 8.5% protein and 80.5% and 83.3% carbohydrate, were used as a source of protein. Sweet p...

  18. Digestive Ripening, Nanophase Segregation and Superlattice Formation in Gold Nanocrystal Colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel digestive ripening process is shown to narrow the particle size distribution from a highly polydisperse dodecanethiol ligated gold colloid. Unlike the Ostwald ripening process, the digestion occurs through transferring materials from large particles to small particles. Temperature-induced size segregation can further select the particle sizes. By using these two methods, highly ordered superlattices using nanocrystals as building blocks can be synthesized directly from a polydisperse colloid

  19. Improving the in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum with reducing agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hamaker, B. R.; Kirleis, A. W.; Butler, L G; Axtell, J. D.; Mertz, E T

    1987-01-01

    We have shown in previous reports that cooked sorghum protein is less digestible than other cooked cereal proteins. The pepsin-indigestible proteins in sorghum were found to be mainly prolamin proteins. Cooking sorghum in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol increased protein digestibility (in vitro with pepsin or trypsin/chymotrypsin) to a level comparable with other cereals. At a concentration of 100 mM, other reducing agents (dithiothreitol, sodium bisulfite, and L-cysteine) were equally effe...

  20. Widely-used virus assay shown unreliable when compared to other methods

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2009-01-01

    In the course of doing research on the mosquito-borne pathogens chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and o' nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), Virginia Tech researchers have discovered an inconvenient truth about an assay, strand-specific quantitative real-time PCR (ssqPCR), increasingly being used to detect and measure replicating viral RNA in infected cells and tissues. The method most labs are using for ssqPCR is unreliable.

  1. The influence on perceptions of truthfulness of the emotional expressions shown when talking about failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Shlomo; Hareli, Shlomo; Hess, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to assess whether showing emotion in an organizational inquiry into failure affects perceptions of truthfulness as a function of the match between the explanation of what caused the failure and the emotion expressed. Two web-based studies were conducted. Participants with work experience saw videos of an inquiry and rated the protagonist’s truthfulness. In both studies protagonists who expressed an emotion (anger or shame) were rated as less truthful than protagonists who expressed no emotion, regardless of what the failure was attributed to. In order to not confound effects of emotions with occupational stereotype effects only male protagonists were shown. Showing emotions when questioned is normal. Managers have to be aware of a tendency to count this against the employee. This is the only research focusing on the effects of showing emotions on perceptions of truthfulness in an organizational context.

  2. The influence on perceptions of truthfulness of the emotional expressions shown when talking about failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo David

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess whether showing emotion in an organizational inquiry into failure affects perceptions of truthfulness as a function of the match between the explanation of what caused the failure and the emotion expressed. Two web-based studies were conducted. Participants with work experience saw videos of an inquiry and rated the protagonist’s truthfulness. In both studies protagonists who expressed an emotion (anger or shame were rated as less truthful than protagonists who expressed no emotion, regardless of what the failure was attributed to. In order to not confound effects of emotions with occupational stereotype effects only male protagonists were shown. Showing emotions when questioned is normal. Managers have to be aware of a tendency to count this against the employee. This is the only research focusing on the effects of showing emotions on perceptions of truthfulness in an organizational context.

  3. Motivacion y estudiantes de secundaria (Motivation and Middle School Students). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Lynley Hicks; Midgley, Carol

    Research has shown a decline in motivation and performance for many children as they move from elementary school into middle school; however, research has also shown that the nature of motivational change on entry to middle school depends on characteristics of the learning environment in which students find themselves. This Digest outlines some…

  4. Characterization of Solid Digestates: Part 1, Review of Existing Indicators to Assess Solid Digestates Agricultural Use

    OpenAIRE

    Téglia, C.; Trémier, A.; Martel, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic wastes is clearly encouraged by current regulations in Europe. In complement to the energy supply it represents, this biological treatment process also allows the recycling of organic matter and nutrients contained in biodegradable wastes. Indeed the digestion residue can be further promoted as soil improver or fertilizer. The sustainability of anaerobic digestion plants partly depends on the management of these digestion residues. Digestates present particular ...

  5. Digestion Pattern of Antihypertensive Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a Successive Simulated Gastricintestinal Bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Jeong-Hoon; Jeong, Seung-Chan; Lee, Jung-Kee; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2011-01-01

    A cell-free extract of Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide was treated in a successive simulated gastric-intestinal bioreactor (step 1: amylase digestion, step 2: gastric fluid digestion, step 3: intestinal fluid digestion) to illustrate the absorption pattern of antihypertensive ACE inhibitory peptide, and the ACE inhibitory activities of each step were determined. Total ACE inhibitory activities of step 1, step 2, and step 3 were ...

  6. Uncovering immobilized trypsin digestion features from large-scale proteome data generated by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Yan, Xiaojing; Mou, Si; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2014-01-01

    Immobilized trypsin produces very fast protein digestion, which is attractive for application to high throughput bottom-up proteomics. While there is a rich literature on the preparation of immobilized trypsin, there are very few studies that investigate its application to complex proteomic samples. In this work, we compared solution-phase trypsin with trypsin immobilized on magnetic microspheres for digestion of two complex proteomes, E. coli and the MCF7 cell line. The digests were separate...

  7. Biogas recovery in anaerobic digestion plants for pig wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with a monitoring of thee anaerobic digestion plants in mesophilic conditions treating pig wastewater with the aim to study the treatment efficiency and energetic aspects. A good waste stabilization is reached in all plants, as shown by the high removal efficiency of total and volatile solids and COD, mainly due to the digestion process. On the contrary, Kjeldahl nitrogen and ammonia (low) removal takes place mainly in the final storage tank, thanks to ammonia stripping. The digestion process not only produces a well stabilized wastewater, that can be more surely reused for agricultural spreading, but it offers also an important energy recovery from the biogas combustion, whose specific production varies from 0,78 to 0,99 Nm3 t-1 (live weight) d-1. It is used in cogeneration plants for the combined production of thermal energy (that is reused for waste heating in the digestion tank at mesophilic conditions and for other internal utilizations) and electric energy (that is used for internal requirements while the surplus is sent into the public grid)

  8. Importance of UVA photoprotection as shown by genotoxic related endpoints: DNA damage and p53 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to demonstrate the importance of photoprotection in the UVA range (320-400 nm), an in vitro approach where sun formulations are spread on a quartz slide, and placed over human keratinocytes in culture is proposed as a convenient test for photoprotection assessment at the DNA level. Using the comet assay, DNA strand breaks, oxidative DNA damage or drug-induced DNA breaks were assessed. Accumulation of p53 protein was also studied as a marker for UV-induced genotoxic stress. Such a method was used to compare two formulations with different photostability. Spectroradiometry showed that a photounstable formulation lost its effectiveness in UVA screening when pre-irradiated by simulated sunlight (UVB + UVA). As a consequence, it was also shown that this formulation was not as protective as the photostable one at the genomic level. These data demonstrate that the loss of absorbing efficiency within UVA wavelengths due to photounstability may have detrimental consequences leading to impairments implicated in genotoxic events

  9. [The features of adults' coronary artery anomalies shown by 64-multi-detector rows CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhentuan; Yu, Jianqun; Zhang, Youyi; Yuan, Hongmei

    2009-06-01

    To analyze the adults' coronary artery anomalies revealed by 64-MDCT, we retrospectively analyzed 34 cases of coronary artery anomalies (26 males and 8 females, averagely aged 53. 4 years with a range from 30 to 72 years). Multi-plannar reconstruction (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), surface shadow display (SSD) and volume rendering (VR) were used to demonstrate the anomalous coronary artery. We found 4 cases of RCA from the left coronary sinus, 8 cases with secondary RCA, 1 case with high locations of left main (LM) segments from left sinus of valves, 1 case with LAD originated from main pulmonary artery, 3 cases with separate origin of LAD and LCX. Ten cases with myocardial bridge were shown (9 cases in LAD, 1 case in LCX); coronary fistula was seen in 2 cases (one was RCA-RA fistula, another was LAD-RV fistula), coronary aneurysm was found in 2 cases. Three cases in RCA were short and small. In conclusion, 64-MDCT is a good choice for diagnosing the anomalous coronary artery. PMID:19634659

  10. Gray matter involvement in patients with multiple sclerosis as shown by magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reshiana Rumzan; CHEN Xuan; LI Yong-mei

    2012-01-01

    Objective To summarize the main findings seen on conventional and advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)used to assess gray matter (GM) involvement in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).Data sources The data used in this review were obtained mainly from studies reported in the PubMed database using the terms of multiple sclerosis,gray matter,magnetic resonance imaging.Study selection Relevant literatures on studies of GM involvement in MS patients were identified,retrieved and reviewed.Results MS is the most common chronic,disabling central nervous system disease in young adults.Although traditional thinking has considered MS to be a chronic inflammatory demyelinating condition affecting solely the white matter (WM) of the central nervous system,over the last few years it has been shown that GM pathology is also common and extensive.GM demyelinating lesions can not only be found in the cerebral cortex but also in the deep gray nuclei.Apart from focal demyelinatad lesions,diffuse neuronal loss and atrophy is also present in the GM of MS patients.Conclusions The widespread use of conventional and quantitative MRI based techniques in MS has led to an improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying the inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes of the disease.However,more researches are needed to unravel GM pathology in MS patients,which at present remains enigmatic.

  11. Importance of UVA photoprotection as shown by genotoxic related endpoints: DNA damage and p53 status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrot, Laurent [L' Oreal Research, Life Sciences Research, Phototoxicology Unit, Genotoxicity Group 1, av. E. Schueller, 93600 Aulnay-Sous-Bois (France)]. E-mail: lmarrot@rd.loreal.com; Belaidi, Jean-Philippe [L' Oreal Research, Life Sciences Research, Phototoxicology Unit, Genotoxicity Group 1, av. E. Schueller, 93600 Aulnay-Sous-Bois (France); Meunier, Jean-Roch [L' Oreal Research, Life Sciences Research, Phototoxicology Unit, Genotoxicity Group 1, av. E. Schueller, 93600 Aulnay-Sous-Bois (France)

    2005-04-01

    In order to demonstrate the importance of photoprotection in the UVA range (320-400 nm), an in vitro approach where sun formulations are spread on a quartz slide, and placed over human keratinocytes in culture is proposed as a convenient test for photoprotection assessment at the DNA level. Using the comet assay, DNA strand breaks, oxidative DNA damage or drug-induced DNA breaks were assessed. Accumulation of p53 protein was also studied as a marker for UV-induced genotoxic stress. Such a method was used to compare two formulations with different photostability. Spectroradiometry showed that a photounstable formulation lost its effectiveness in UVA screening when pre-irradiated by simulated sunlight (UVB + UVA). As a consequence, it was also shown that this formulation was not as protective as the photostable one at the genomic level. These data demonstrate that the loss of absorbing efficiency within UVA wavelengths due to photounstability may have detrimental consequences leading to impairments implicated in genotoxic events.

  12. A novel phytoremediation technology shown to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons from soils in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.D.; Yu, X.M.; Gerhardt, K.; Glick, B.; Greenberg, B [Waterloo Environmental Biotechnology Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2009-04-01

    This article described a newly developed, advanced microbe-enhanced phytoremediation system that can be used to remediate lands polluted by hydrocarbons, salts and metals. The technology uses 3 complementary processes to achieve effective remediation of strongly bound persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil. The remediation process involves physical soil treatment, photochemical photooxidation, microbial remediation and growth of plants treated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPR-enhanced phytoremediation system (PEPS) alleviates plant stress and increases biodegradation activities, thereby accelerating plant growth in the presence of POPs or poor soils. The PEPS has been used successfully to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from impacted soils in situ at several sites across Canada. Studies have shown that the PHCs are degraded in the rhizosphere. This article also presented a summary of the work conducted at 3 sites in Alberta. It took only 2 years to remediate the 3 sites to levels required for site closure under Alberta Tier 1 guidelines. It was concluded that PEPS is equally effective for total PHC and Fraction 3 CCME hydrocarbons. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  13. G-lignin and hemicellulosic monosaccharides distinctively affect biomass digestibility in rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yanjie; Li, Yuyang; Zhang, Youbing; Yu, Changbing; Fu, Tingdong; Zou, Jun; Tu, Yuanyuan; Peng, Liangcai; Chen, Peng

    2016-03-01

    In this study, total 19 straw samples from four Brassica species were determined with a diverse cell wall composition and varied biomass enzymatic digestibility under sulfuric acid or lime pretreatment. Correlation analysis was then performed to detect effects of cell wall compositions and wall polymer features (cellulose crystallinity, hemicellulosic monosaccharides and lignin monomers) on rapeseeds biomass digestibility. As a result, coniferyl alcohol (G-lignin) showed a strongly negative effect on biomass saccharification, whereas hemicellulosic monosaccharides (fucose, galactose, arabinose and rhamnose) were positive factors on lignocellulose digestions. Notably, chemical analyses of four typical pairs of samples indicated that hemicellulosic monosaccharides and G-lignin may coordinately influence biomass digestibility in rapeseeds. In addition, Brassica napus with lower lignin content exhibited more efficiency on both biomass enzymatic saccharification and ethanol production, compared with Brassica junjea. Hence, this study has at first time provided a genetic strategy on cell wall modification towards bioenergy rapeseed breeding. PMID:26748046

  14. 胰酶限时消化在嗅鞘细胞培养中的运用%Application of pancreatic enzyme with limited digestion time for olfactory ensheathing cell culturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐朝伟; 李佳; 付裕; 周瑞瑞; 张旭

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索出一套高效、实用的大鼠嗅球嗅鞘细胞(OECs)的培养和纯化方案.方法 分离SD大鼠嗅球的外两层组织,剪切消化成细胞悬液进行接种.采用3种方法进行OECs的培养和纯化:(1)A组分别经6h、24 h两次差速贴壁去除杂质细胞,培养至12d左右消化重悬细胞进行爬片分析.(2)B组分别经6h、24 h两次差速贴壁去除杂质细胞,培养至12d左右经胰酶限时消化,留成纤维细胞于瓶壁,重悬的细胞进行爬片分析.(3)C组采用经典的Nash法(分别经18 h、36 h两次差速贴壁去除杂质细胞),培养至11d左右消化重悬细胞进行爬片分析.采用NGFRP75与碘化丙啶(PI)双染的方法进行OECs的鉴定和纯度分析.结果 在共聚焦显微镜下呈双染阳性的细胞为OECs,OECs多数突起细长,呈双极或三极,少量呈单极或多极.A、B、C组所纯化的OECs纯度分别为(67.3±6.2)%、(83.7±7.7)%和(74.6士9.5)%,3组间比较有统计学差异(F=13.633,P<0.01),B组所得OECs纯度均较另两组高(P<0.05).结论 经6h、24 h两次差速贴壁十胰酶限时消化可以获得较高纯度的OECs,能够满足动物实验的需要.%Objective To explore an efficient and practical method in culturing and purifing procedures of rat olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs). Methods The outer two layers of SD rat olfactory bulb were peel off, cut and digested into monoplast suspension for seeding. Three kinds of purification methods were taken for comparison: (1) In group A, the monoplast suspension was incubated twice for 6 h + 24 h subsequently according to different adherence, the purified OECs were cultured for about 12 days and then were analyzed on coverslip. (2) In group B, the monoplast suspension was incubated as group A and then pancreatic enzyme with limited digestion time was adopted to remain fibroblasts on the sidewall, the suspension was drawn off for analysis as group A. (3) In group C, the monoplast suspension was incubated by

  15. The digestibility of waste activated sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Abu-Orf, Mohammad M; Novak, John T

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory digestion studies using waste activated sludges (WAS) were conducted to compare the digestion performance between anaerobic and aerobic processes. Nine samples of WAS from seven wastewater treatment plants were collected and batch-digested under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions for 30 days at 25 degrees C. The cation content of wastewater (both floc and solution phases) and solution biopolymer (protein and polysaccharide) was measured before and after digestion and compared with volatile solids destruction data. The study revealed that each digestion process was associated with a distinct biopolymer fraction, which accounted for differences in volatile solids reduction under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The anaerobic digestion data showed strong correlations between soluble protein generation, ammonium production, percent volatile solids reduction, and floc iron (Fe). These data suggest that the amount of volatile solids destroyed by anaerobic digestion depends on the Fe content of floc. In aerobic digestion, polysaccharide accumulated in solution along with calcium and magnesium. For aerobic digestion, correlations between divalent cation release and the production of inorganic nitrogen were found. This implies that divalent cation-bound biopolymer, thought to be lectin-like protein, was the primary organic fraction degraded under aerobic conditions. The results of the study show that the cation content in wastewater is an important indicator of the material that will digest under anaerobic or aerobic conditions and that some of the volatile solids will digest only under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions. PMID:16553167

  16. Gliadin fragments and a specific gliadin 33-mer peptide close KATP channels and induce insulin secretion in INS-1E cells and rat islets of langerhans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Dall

    Full Text Available In non-obese diabetic (NOD mice, diabetes incidence is reduced by a gluten-free diet. Gluten peptides, such as the compound gliadin, can cross the intestinal barrier and may directly affect pancreatic beta cells. We investigated the effects of enzymatically-digested gliadin in NOD mice, INS-1E cells and rat islets. Six injections of gliadin digest in 6-week-old NOD mice did not affect diabetes development, but increased weight gain (20% increase by day 100. In INS-1E cells, incubation with gliadin digest induced a dose-dependent increase in insulin secretion, up to 2.5-fold after 24 hours. A similar effect was observed in isolated rat islets (1.6-fold increase. In INS-1E cells, diazoxide reduced the stimulatory effect of gliadin digest. Additionally, gliadin digest was shown to decrease current through KATP-channels. A specific gliadin 33-mer had a similar effect, both on current and insulin secretion. Finally, INS-1E incubation with gliadin digest potentiated palmitate-induced insulin secretion by 13% compared to controls. Our data suggest that gliadin fragments may contribute to the beta-cell hyperactivity observed prior to the development of type 1 diabetes.

  17. Frogs as integrative models for understanding digestive organ development and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Mandy; Pickett, Melissa; Nascone-Yoder, Nanette

    2016-03-01

    The digestive system comprises numerous cells, tissues and organs that are essential for the proper assimilation of nutrients and energy. Many aspects of digestive organ function are highly conserved among vertebrates, yet the final anatomical configuration of the gut varies widely between species, especially those with different diets. Improved understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events that orchestrate digestive organ development is pertinent to many areas of biology and medicine, including the regeneration or replacement of diseased organs, the etiology of digestive organ birth defects, and the evolution of specialized features of digestive anatomy. In this review, we highlight specific examples of how investigations using Xenopus laevis frog embryos have revealed insight into the molecular and cellular dynamics of digestive organ patterning and morphogenesis that would have been difficult to obtain in other animal models. Additionally, we discuss recent studies of gut development in non-model frog species with unique feeding strategies, such as Lepidobatrachus laevis and Eleutherodactylous coqui, which are beginning to provide glimpses of the evolutionary mechanisms that may generate morphological variation in the digestive tract. The unparalleled experimental versatility of frog embryos make them excellent, integrative models for studying digestive organ development across multiple disciplines. PMID:26851628

  18. Gill bacteria enable a novel digestive strategy in a wood-feeding mollusk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Roberta M; Fung, Jennifer M; Sharp, Koty H; Benner, Jack S; McClung, Colleen; Cushing, Shelley; Lamkin, Elizabeth R; Fomenkov, Alexey I; Henrissat, Bernard; Londer, Yuri Y; Scholz, Matthew B; Posfai, Janos; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tringe, Susannah G; Woyke, Tanja; Malmstrom, Rex R; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Altamia, Marvin A; Dedrick, Sandra; Kaluziak, Stefan T; Haygood, Margo G; Distel, Daniel L

    2014-11-25

    Bacteria play many important roles in animal digestive systems, including the provision of enzymes critical to digestion. Typically, complex communities of bacteria reside in the gut lumen in direct contact with the ingested materials they help to digest. Here, we demonstrate a previously undescribed digestive strategy in the wood-eating marine bivalve Bankia setacea, wherein digestive bacteria are housed in a location remote from the gut. These bivalves, commonly known as shipworms, lack a resident microbiota in the gut compartment where wood is digested but harbor endosymbiotic bacteria within specialized cells in their gills. We show that this comparatively simple bacterial community produces wood-degrading enzymes that are selectively translocated from gill to gut. These enzymes, which include just a small subset of the predicted wood-degrading enzymes encoded in the endosymbiont genomes, accumulate in the gut to the near exclusion of other endosymbiont-made proteins. This strategy of remote enzyme production provides the shipworm with a mechanism to capture liberated sugars from wood without competition from an endogenous gut microbiota. Because only those proteins required for wood digestion are translocated to the gut, this newly described system reveals which of many possible enzymes and enzyme combinations are minimally required for wood degradation. Thus, although it has historically had negative impacts on human welfare, the shipworm digestive process now has the potential to have a positive impact on industries that convert wood and other plant biomass to renewable fuels, fine chemicals, food, feeds, textiles, and paper products. PMID:25385629

  19. Digestive manifestations of parathyroid disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bassam Abboud; Ronald Daher; Joe Boujaoude

    2011-01-01

    The parathyroid glands are the main regulator of plasma calcium and have a direct influence on the digestive tract. Parathyroid disturbances often result in unknown long-standing symptoms. The main manifestation of hypoparathyroidism is steatorrhea due to a deficit in exocrine pancreas secretion. The association with celiac sprue may contribute to malabsorption. Hyperparathyroidism causes smooth-muscle atony, with upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, heartburn and constipation. Hyperparathyroidism and peptic ulcer were strongly linked before the advent of proton pump inhibitors. Nowadays, this association remains likely only in the particular context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1/Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. In contrast to chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis due to primary hyperparathyroidism is one of the most studied topics. The causative effect of high calcium level is confirmed and the distinction from secondary hyperparathyroidism is mandatory. The digestive manifestations of parathyroid malfunction are often overlooked and serum calcium level must be included in the routine workup for abdominal symptoms.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated...... improve the continuous flow reactor performance at the relatively low influent methanogenic biomass concentration. In the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) there are two steady states with and without methane production at slightly different values of initial methanogenic biomass concentration. In...... failure. According to the distributed models a plug-flow reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions where methanogenic and hydrolytic microorganisms are separated has significant methane production and solids removal at the relatively low influent methanogenic biomass concentration...

  1. Evaluation of Kjeldahl digestion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the Kjeldahl digestion method was investigated by comparing measured values of total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium using three salt and catalyst mixture in Standard Kjeldahl digestion method and Salicyclic acid Modification method with certified values of plant material as well as comparison was made for determination of total nitrogen from steam distillation method verses the Technicon Auto-analyzer, and phosphorus Ascorbic acid/Molybdate method verses Molybdate/ Metavanadate method on the Technicon Auto-Analyzer. The 1 g salt/catalyst mixture recovered less nitrogen than the 2.5 g in the standard Kjeldahl method due to the lower temperature and incomplete digestion in both plant and soil samples. The 2.5 g catalyst mixture partially recovered nitrate in the standard Kjeldahl method and the salicylic acid modification fail to recover all over nitrate in plant material. Use of 2.5 g salt catalyst mixture and selenium appears to promote nitrogen losses in salicylic acid modification method but not in the standard Kjeldahl method of digestion for soil samples. No interference of selenium or copper was observed in Nitrogen and Phosphorus on calorimetric determination. The standard Kjeldahl method with 2.5 g of salt/catalyst mixture of sodium sulphate copper sulphate (10:1) in 5 ml sulfuric acid were found suitable for determination of total Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The steam distillation and the Technicon Auto-Analyzer technique measure similar amounts of ammonium nitrogen. However, the Technicon Auto analyzer technique is easier, rapid, higher degree of reproducibility, precise, accurate, reliable and free from human error. The amount of phosphorus measured by the Ascorbic acid/Molybdate method was more accurate than by the Molybdate/Metavanadate method on Technicon Auto-Analyzer. (author)

  2. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester

  3. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  4. Disaster Impacts on Human Capital Accumulation Shown in the Typhoon Haiyan Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özceylan Aubrecht, Dilek; Aubrecht, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    School children and their school environment are increasingly exposed to all kinds of hazards. Many disaster events have shown the extent of disaster impacts on the education sector which this study also highlights in the Typhoon Haiyan Case. Disasters do not only cause loss of lives or damage to educational facilities, they also entail significant economic and social consequences on human capital development in the short and long-run. While the trend of short term disaster impact can easily be analyzed in rapid post disaster assessments taking destroyed assets as proxy, usually analyses of medium and long-term effects of disasters include large inherent uncertainties and are of less tangible nature, require more time and complex methods and can often not give comprehensive results. The consequences of disasters especially in developing countries are therefore to a certain extent often left unknown. Generally, economic and social effects of disasters on human capital seem to be ambiguous and to some degree these effects are related to economic, social and institutional well-being. Thus, clear understanding is crucial to interpret its complex effects on human capital accumulation. This essential nature of medium and long-term effects has not been reflected in many analyses. Focus has mostly been given on the extent of physical damage, displacements, lives and assets lost instead of targeting resilience of social and economic characteristics of communities in terms of preventing human capital accumulation disruption. Main objective of this study is to provide a conceptual framework illustrating the impacts of disasters on schooling which might help in assessing such effects, as one of the fundamental components of human capital accumulation (Ozceylan Aubrecht, 2013). The dimensions of human capital building and its relationship to disasters under the light of past disaster events are discussed with a special focus on the recent Typhoon Haiyan that struck the

  5. Biomedical Science, Unit II: Nutrition in Health and Medicine. Digestion of Foods; Organic Chemistry of Nutrients; Energy and Cell Respiration; The Optimal Diet; Foodborne Diseases; Food Technology; Dental Science and Nutrition. Instructor's Manual. Revised Version. 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This collection of lessons deals with nutrition in health and medicine and specifically the digestive system and its functions. The primary objective of this collection of lessons is to provide information on what constitutes good nutrition. Among the problems treated in these lessons are heart disease, peptic ulcer, hepatitis, vitamin deficiency…

  6. Effects of inhomogeneity on triglyceride digestion of emulsions using an in vitro digestion model (Tiny TIM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveld, Alexander; Minekus, Mans; Bomhof, Esther; Zoet, Franklin D; van Aken, George A

    2016-07-13

    The colloidal behaviour and extent of lipolysis of various emulsions stabilized by whey protein and Tween were studied using the TNO Intestinal Model (TIM) extended with a purposely designed gastric compartment. The in vitro results suggest that creaming of a fatty layer in the gastric region causes a delay in fat entering the small intestinal region, delays and reduces the free fatty acid content in the small intestinal lumen and delays fat absorption. It was shown that controlling the pH with pig gastric juice instead of simulated gastric juice delayed creaming of the emulsions significantly, which resulted in faster gastric lipolysis. However, because the digestive conditions are not adjusted by physiological regulation mechanisms such as the regulation of gastric emptying by the detection of nutrients in the small intestine, care must be taken to translate these results to the in vivo reality. It is expected that the differences between the systems will be tempered by the physiological feedback regulation mechanisms of digestion. PMID:27264678

  7. [Ingestion and digestion of seven species of microalgae by larvae of Strombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño Súarez, V; Aldana Aranda, D

    2000-12-01

    The potential nutritional value of seven microalgal diets as measured by their ingestibility and digestibility to queen conch Strombus gigas larvae was tested with 30 day old larvae reared at 28 degrees C and fed at 1000 cells x ml(-1). The algae were Tetraselmis suecica, Tetraselmis chuii Isochrysis aff. galbana, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Chlamydomonas coccoides, Chaetoceros sp. and Thalassiosira fluviatilis. Ingestion and digestion were measured by the four nutritional stages studied with epifluorescence microscopy with live larvae. Temporal and absolute indices showed that larvae fed Chaetoceros sp. and T. fluviatilis had lower ingestion and digestion levels. The other algae are recommend to feed S. gigas larvae. PMID:15266796

  8. Assessment of hydrogen metabolism in commercial anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Tobias; Theiss, Juliane; Röske, Kerstin; Rother, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Degradation of biomass in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors via anaerobic digestion involves a syntrophic association of a plethora of anaerobic microorganisms. The commercial application of this process is the large-scale production of biogas from renewable feedstock as an alternative to fossil fuels. After hydrolysis of polymers, monomers are fermented to short-chain fatty acids and alcohols, which are further oxidized to acetate. Carbon dioxide, molecular hydrogen (H2), and acetate generated during the process are converted to methane by methanogenic archaea. Since many of the metabolic pathways as well as the syntrophic interactions and dependencies during anaerobic digestion involve formation, utilization, or transfer of H2, its metabolism and the methanogenic population were assessed in various samples from three commercial biogas plants. Addition of H2 significantly increased the rate of methane formation, which suggested that hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is not a rate-limiting step during biogas formation. Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina appeared to numerically dominate the archaeal population of the three digesters, but their proportion and the Bacteria-to-Archaea ratio did not correlate with the methane productivity. Instead, hydrogenase activity in cell-free extracts from digester sludge correlated with methane productivity in a positive fashion. Since most microorganisms involved in biogas formation contain this activity, it approximates the overall anaerobic metabolic activity and may, thus, be suitable for monitoring biogas reactor performance. PMID:26995607

  9. Role of sphingolipids in digestive system 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kurek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Present in the digestive system, sphingolipids are responsible for multiple important physiological and pathological processes. On the membrane of intestinal epithelial cells sphingolipids contribute to structural integrity, regulate absorption of nutrients and may act as receptors for some microorganisms and their toxins. Moreover, bioactive lipid messengers such as ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate influence cellular growth, differentiation and programmed cell death, apoptosis. Further studies are needed to fully explore the clinical implications of sphingolipids in neoplastic and inflammatory diseases in the gastrointestinal tract. Pharmacological compounds which regulate metabolism of sphingolipids can be potentially useful in treatment of colon cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this work is to present a critical review of the physiological and pathological role of sphingolipids in the digestive system.

  10. Rising the exploitation of substrates by thermal digestate processing; Steigerung der Substratausnutzung durch thermische Gaerrestbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seick, Ingolf; Gebhardt, Sebastian [Hochschule Magdeburg-Stendal (Germany). Fachbereich Wasser- und Kreislaufwirtschaft

    2013-10-01

    The paper introduces a new process for biogas plants to increase the utilization of substrate and to reduce the required feeding. By a thermal treatment of a partial flow of the digestate the gas yield is increased considerably, whereupon a recirculation is carried out into the fermentation process. The digestate taken from the secondary fermenter is separated to a liquid and a solid phase. The solid phase is treated thermally and led back into the main fermenter discontinuously. The discharge of a subset of the untreated digestate shall avoid accumulation of inert fractions. Batch fermentation tests with separated digestate of a typical biogas plant have shown an increase of the VS-specific gas and methane yields, e.g. of approx. 90% after a 10-minute treatment in a lab-scale high pressure autoclave at 170 C and 8 bar. Simulations point out that a long-term use of the process in biogas plants can be possible effectively. (orig.)

  11. Imaging vertebrate digestive function and lipid metabolism in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Otis, Jessica P.; Farber, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Challenges in imaging lipid-processing events in live, intact vertebrate models have historically led to reliance on cultured cell studies, thus hampering our understanding of lipid metabolism and gastrointestinal physiology. Fluorescently-labeled molecules, such as BODIPY-labeled lipids, can reveal lipid-processing events in live zebrafish (Danio rerio) and has expanded our understanding of digestive physiology. This review will cover recent advances from the past two to three years in the u...

  12. Proteophosphoglycan confers resistance of Leishmania major to midgut digestive enzymes induced by blood feeding in vector sand flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secundino, Nagila; Kimblin, Nicola; Peters, Nathan C; Lawyer, Phillip; Capul, Althea A; Beverley, Stephen M; Turco, Salvatore J; Sacks, David

    2010-07-01

    Leishmania synthesize abundant phosphoglycan-containing molecules made up of [Gal-Man-PO(4)] repeating units, including the surface lipophosphoglycan (LPG), and the surface and secreted proteophosphoglycan (PPG). The vector competence of Phlebotomus duboscqi and Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies was tested using L. major knockout mutants deficient in either total phosphoglycans (lpg2(-) or lpg5A(-)/5B(-)) or LPG alone (lpg1(-)) along with their respective gene add-back controls. Our results confirm that LPG, the major cell surface molecule of Leishmania promastigotes known to mediate attachment to the vector midgut, is necessary to prevent the loss of infection during excretion of the blood meal remnants from a natural vector, P. duboscqi, but not an unnatural vector, L. longipalpis. Midgut digestive enzymes induced by blood feeding pose another potential barrier to parasite survival. Our results show that 36-72 h after the infective feed, all parasites developed well except the lpg2(-) and lpg5A(-)/5B(-) mutants, which showed significantly reduced survival and growth. Protease inhibitors promoted the early survival and growth of lpg2(-) in the blood meal. PPG was shown to be the key molecule conferring resistance to midgut digestive enzymes, as it prevented killing of lpg2(-) promastigotes exposed to midgut lysates prepared from blood-fed flies. The protection was not associated with inhibition of enzyme activities, but with cell surface acquisition of the PPG, which appears to function similar to mammalian mucins to protect the surface of developing promastigotes against proteolytic damage. PMID:20088949

  13. High performance flow digestion systems (T5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Many different designs of flow digestion systems have been published, but very few meet the prerequisites for high performance sample decomposition. In principle there is the same situation as with sample digestion in open and closed vessels. For powerful sample digestion nitric acid and high temperatures are the goal. In this context only two flow digestion techniques fulfill this postulate. One is the high temperature / high pressure flow digestion system in Pt-capillaries with conductive heating from H. Berndt. Temperatures up to 360 oC are possible. The other technique has been developed in our institute. Applying a novel pressure equilibration system the digestion temperature in a Teflon tube can be risen up to 250 oC with a pressure of 40 bar. Results of off- and online analysis of different organic materials show the capability of this new instrumentation (auto flow). Refs. 3 (author)

  14. Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mandu; Gao, Bin; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Ding, Wenchuan; Zimmerman, Andrew R

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600 degrees C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar was produced from the digested residue (18% by weight) and the raw bagasse (23%) at a similar rate, there were many physiochemical differences between them. Compared to BC, DBC had higher pH, surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), anion exchange capacity (AEC), hydrophobicity and more negative surface charge, all properties that are generally desirable for soil amelioration, contaminant remediation or wastewater treatment. Thus, these results suggest that the pyrolysis of anaerobic digestion residues to produce biochar may be an economically and environmentally beneficial use of agricultural wastes. PMID:20634061

  15. Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome†

    OpenAIRE

    Estes, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    “Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome” is a hands-on activity designed to demonstrate the dynamics of microbiome ecology using dried pasta and beans to model disturbance events in the human digestive system microbiome. This exercise demonstrates how microbiome diversity is influenced by: 1) niche availability and habitat space and 2) a major disturbance event, such as antibiotic use. Students use a pictorial key to examine prepared models of digestive system microbiomes to determi...

  16. Using of digestate of agricultural biogas stations

    OpenAIRE

    VERNER, Dušan

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with problems of agricultural biogas stations with the focus on using of final product of anaerobic fermentation, digestate, on agricultural soil. It evaluates its fertilizing effect in comparison to industrial fertilizers. The results showed that the fertilizing effect can improve economy of growing plants, however it depends on quality of digestate, constitution of base input material and technology of processing. It is not possible to use digestate anytime, it depends on gr...

  17. WASH is required for lysosomal recycling and efficient autophagic and phagocytic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    King, Jason S.; Gueho, Aurélie; Hagedorn, Monica; Gopaldass, Navin Andréw; Leuba, Florence; Soldati, Thierry; Insall, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) is an important regulator of vesicle trafficking. By generating actin on the surface of intracellular vesicles, WASH is able to directly regulate endosomal sorting and maturation. We report that, in Dictyostelium, WASH is also required for the lysosomal digestion of both phagocytic and autophagic cargo. Consequently, Dictyostelium cells lacking WASH are unable to grow on many bacteria or to digest their own cytoplasm to survive starva...

  18. Extraction, Enrichment, Solubilization, and Digestion Techniques for Membrane Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephanie M; Hess, Stephanie M; Jorgenson, James W

    2016-04-01

    The importance of membrane proteins in biological systems is indisputable; however, their amphipathic nature makes them difficult to analyze. In this study, the most popular techniques for extraction, enrichment, solubilization, and digestion are compared, resulting in an overall improved workflow for the insoluble portion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell lysate. Yeast cells were successfully lysed using a French press pressure cell at 20 000 psi, and resulting proteins were fractionated prior to digestion to reduce sample complexity. The proteins were best solubilized with the addition of ionic detergent sodium deoxycholate (1%) and through the application of high-frequency sonication prior to a tryptic digestion at 37 °C. Overall, the improved membrane proteomic workflow resulted in a 26% increase in membrane protein identifications for baker's yeast. In addition, more membrane protein identifications were unique to the improved protocol. When comparing membrane proteins that were identified in the improved protocol and the standard operating procedure (176 proteins), 93% of these proteins were present in greater abundance (higher intensity) when using the improved method. PMID:26979493

  19. Trona and sodium bicarbonate in beef cattle diets: effects on site and extent of digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, B J; Byers, F M; Schelling, G T; Coppock, C E; Greene, L W

    1987-07-01

    Six yearling Hereford X Angus steers (avg 272 kg), each with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were used in a 6 X 6 Latin-square metabolism trial to evaluate the impact of NaHCO3 and trona (a ground, nonrefined ore with chemical composition NaHCO3-Na2CO3-2H2O) on site and extent of digestion of nutrients in the digestive tract. The diets were 50:50 or 90:10 (cracked corn-based concentrate:cottonseed hulls) with no buffer, 1% NaHCO3, or 1% trona. Intake, across all treatments, averaged 2.4% of body weight. Dry matter (DM) and starch digestibility (via indigestible acid detergent fiber) before the duodenum was decreased (P less than .10) with trona in the 50:50 diet. Digestibility of DM, crude protein and starch before the ileum were greater (P less than .05) in the 90:10 diet vs 50:50 diet. Total tract digestibility was similar across buffer treatments in the 90:10 diet. Addition of NaHCO3 increased (P less than .05) digestibility of dry matter and cell solubles in the 50:50 diet. Organic matter and crude protein digestibility were also increased (P less than .10) with NaHCO3. Apparent crude protein and cell solubles digestibility were greater (P less than .10) with trona than NaHCO3 in the 50:50 diet. This trial indicates that buffers provide overall enhancement of diet digestibility in mixed grain/roughage diets. PMID:3038822

  20. Digestive oncologist in the gastroenterology training curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris Jacob Johan Mulder; Marc Peeters; Annemieke Cats; Anna Dahele; Jochim Terhaar sive Droste

    2011-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, gastroenterology (GE) was consid-ered a subspecialty of Internal Medicine. Today, GE also incorporates Hepatology. However, Digestive Oncology training is poorly defined in the Hepatogastroenterology (HGE)-curriculum. Therefore, a Digestive Oncology cur-riculum should be developed and this document might be a starting point for such a curriculum. HGE-specialists are increasingly resisting the paradigm in which they play only a diagnostic and technical role in the manage-ment of digestive tumors. We suggest minimum end-points in the standard HGE-curriculum for oncology, and recommend a focus year in the Netherlands for Diges-tive Oncology in the HGE-curriculum. To produce well-trained digestive oncologists, an advanced Digestive Oncology training program with specific qualifications in Digestive Oncology (2 years) has been developed. The schedule in Belgium includes a period of at least 6 mo to be spent in a medical oncology department. The goal of these programs remains the production of well-trained digestive oncologists. HGE specialists are part of the multidisciplinary oncological teams, and some have been administering chemotherapy in their countries for years. In this article, we provide a road map for the organiza-tion of a proper training in Digestive Oncology. We hope that the World Gastroenterology Organisation and other (inter)national societies will support the necessary certi-fications for this specific training in the HGE-curriculum.

  1. High rate manure supernatant digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Bergland, Wenche Hennie; Dinamarca, Carlos; Toradzadegan, Mehrdad; Nordgård, Anne Synnøve Røstad; Bakke, Ingrid; Bakke, Rune

    2015-01-01

    The study shows that high rate anaerobic digestion may be an efficient way to obtain sustainable energy recovery from slurries such as pig manure. High process capacity and robustness to 5% daily load increases are observed in the 370mL sludge bed AD reactors investigated. The supernatant from partly settled, stored pig manure was fed at rates giving hydraulic retention times, HRT, gradually decreased from 42 to 1.7h imposing a maximum organic load of 400g COD L-1 reactor d-1. The reactors re...

  2. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2001-01-01

    requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader......The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...

  3. Anaerobic digestion of coffee waste

    OpenAIRE

    L. Neves; Ribeiro, R.; Oliveira, Rosário; Alves, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    The anaerobic co-digestion of five different by-products from instant coffee substitutes production was studied in mesophilic conditions. The co-substrate was the excess of sewage sludge from the wastewater treatment plant located in the same coffee factory. Four of the tested wastes produced methane in the range of 0.24-0.28 m³CH4(STP)/kgVSinitial . Reduction of 50-73% in total solids and 75-80% in volatile solids were obtained and the hydrolysis rate constants were in the ran...

  4. Consumo voluntário e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, energia e parede celular das silagens de quatro genótipos de girassol (Helianthus annus Voluntary intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, energy and cell wall components of silages of four sunflower (Helianthus annus genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J.F. Ko

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O valor nutricional de silagens de quatro genótipos de girassol (Rumbosol 91, M734, C11 e S430 foi avaliado a partir do consumo voluntário e da digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da matéria orgânica, da energia e dos componentes da parede celular. Vinte carneiros adultos foram alojados em gaiolas metabólicas, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças para consumo de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, energia digestível e metabolizável e dos componentes fibrosos entre os genótipos de girassol. A digestibilidade aparente da matéria orgânica foi superior para os genótipos R91, M734 e S430, no entanto não influenciou o consumo de matéria orgânica digestível. As silagens de girassol foram classificadas como alimento volumoso de boa qualidade, uma vez que o consumo de matéria seca foi acima dos requisitos recomendados para mantença animal, 63,6; 69,6; 50,2 e 74,5g MS/kg0,75/dia para R91, M734, C11 e S430, respectivamente. O baixo coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente médio da FDN (32,3% e da FDA (28,7% foi conseqüência da baixa qualidade dos constituintes da parede celular das silagens de girassol utilizadas.Voluntary intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, energy and cell wall components in silages of four sunflower genotypes (Rumbosol 91, M734, C11 and S430 were evaluated using 20 lambs in metabolic cages. A completely randomized design was used with four treatments and five replicates. No differences were observed among genotypes for dry matter, organic matter, digestible or metabolizable energy, neutral detergent fiber or acid detergent fiber intakes. Apparent digestibility of organic matter was higher for R91, M734 and S430 than for C11 genotypes, but not enough to influence digestible organic matter intake. All of the sunflower silages were classified as suitable roughages, because dry matter intake of each silage

  5. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  6. In vitro starch digestion correlates well with rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, R.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, van der P.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in vit

  7. Digestive Gland from Aplysia depilans Gmelin: Leads for Inflammation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia P. Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of marine organisms for human nutritional and pharmaceutical purposes has revealed important chemical prototypes for the discovery of new drugs, stimulating compounds isolation and syntheses of new related compounds with biomedical application. Nowadays, it is well known that inflammatory processes are involved in many diseases and the interest in the search for marine natural products with anti-inflammatory potential has been increasing. The genus Aplysia belongs to the class Gastropoda, having a wide geographical distribution and including several species, commonly known as sea hares. Aplysia depilans Gmelin is usually found in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Atlantic Ocean, from West Africa to the French coast. In these marine organisms, most of the digestion and nutrient absorption occurs in the digestive gland. This work aimed to explore the chemical composition and bioactivity of the methanol extract from A. depilans digestive gland. Therefore, fatty acids and carotenoids were determined by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD, respectively. Twenty-two fatty acids and eight carotenoids were identified for the first time in this species. The A. depilans digestive gland revealed to be essentially composed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and xanthophylls. Regarding the anti-inflammatory potential in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, it was observed that this matrix has capacity to reduce nitric oxide (NO and L-citrulline levels, which suggests that its compounds may act by interference with inducible nitric oxide synthase. Taking into account the results obtained, A. depilans digestive gland may be a good source of nutraceuticals, due to their richness in health beneficial nutrients, such as carotenoids and long-chain PUFA.

  8. Automated saccharification assay for determination of digestibility in plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halpin Claire

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell wall resistance represents the main barrier for the production of second generation biofuels. The deconstruction of lignocellulose can provide sugars for the production of fuels or other industrial products through fermentation. Understanding the biochemical basis of the recalcitrance of cell walls to digestion will allow development of more effective and cost efficient ways to produce sugars from biomass. One approach is to identify plant genes that play a role in biomass recalcitrance, using association genetics. Such an approach requires a robust and reliable high throughput (HT assay for biomass digestibility, which can be used to screen the large numbers of samples involved in such studies. Results We developed a HT saccharification assay based on a robotic platform that can carry out in a 96-well plate format the enzymatic digestion and quantification of the released sugars. The handling of the biomass powder for weighing and formatting into 96 wells is performed by a robotic station, where the plant material is ground, delivered to the desired well in the plates and weighed with a precision of 0.1 mg. Once the plates are loaded, an automated liquid handling platform delivers an optional mild pretreatment ( Conclusions The automated assay systems are sensitive, robust and reliable. The system can reliably detect differences in the saccharification of plant tissues, and is able to process large number of samples with a minimum amount of human intervention. The automated system uncovered significant increases in the digestibility of certain lignin modified lines in a manner compatible with known effects of lignin modification on cell wall properties. We conclude that this automated assay platform is of sufficient sensitivity and reliability to undertake the screening of the large populations of plants necessary for mutant identification and genetic association studies.

  9. Digestive utilization of ozone-exposed forage by rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixture of common Southern Piedmont (USA) grassland species (Lolium arundinacea, Paspalum dilatatum, Cynodon dactylon and Trifolium repens) was exposed to O3 [ambient (non-filtered; NF) and twice-ambient (2X) concentrations] and fed to individually caged New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in a digestibility experiment. Forages and feed refusals were analyzed for concentrations of total cell wall constituents, lignin, crude protein, and soluble and hydrolyzable phenolic fractions. Neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility by rabbits were significantly lower for 2X than NF forage. Decreased digestibility could not be attributed to lignin concentrations, but was associated with increased concentrations of acid-hydrolyzable and saponifiable phenolics. Exposure of forage to elevated O3 resulted in decreased digestible dry matter intake by rabbits. Elevated O3 concentrations could be expected to have a negative impact on forage quality, resulting in decreased nutrient utilization by mammalian herbivores in Southern Piedmont grasslands under projected future climate scenarios. - Highlights: ► Exposure of forage to elevated O3 resulted in decreased digestibility by rabbits. ► Elevated O3 could be expected to have negative impacts on forage quality. ► This study is believed to be the first of its kind. ► A mechanism of action of decreased intake/digestion in animal herbivores is proposed. - O3 affects forage digestibility in a model non-ruminant mammalian herbivore (rabbit).

  10. Stochastic homeostasis in human airway epithelium is achieved by neutral competition of basal cell progenitors

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Vitor H.; Nadarajan, Parthiban; Graham, Trevor A; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P; Brown, James M; Falzon, Mary; Nye, Emma; Poulsom, Richard; Lawrence, David; Wright, Nicholas A.; McDonald, Stuart; Giangreco, Adam; Simons, Benjamin D; Janes, Sam M.

    2013-01-01

    eLife digest As air flows into our lungs, the lining of the nasal cavity, the throat and the rest of the respiratory tract prevents microbes, bacteria, dust and other small particles from entering the lungs. The lining of these airways is made up of many different types of cells, which must be continuously replaced as they become damaged. Experiments in mice have shown that cells called basal cells act as progenitor cells to keep the lining supplied with new cells. Progenitor cells are simila...

  11. Anaerobic digestion of aliphatic polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmejkalová, Pavla; Kužníková, Veronika; Merna, Jan; Hermanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic processes for the treatment of plastic materials waste represent versatile and effective approach in environmental protection and solid waste management. In this work, anaerobic biodegradability of model aliphatic polyesters, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), in the form of powder and melt-pressed films with varying molar mass, was studied. Biogas production was explored in batch laboratory trials at 55 ± 1°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The inoculum used was thermophilic digested sludge (total solids concentration of 2.9%) from operating digesters at the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Prague, Czech Republic. Methanogenic biodegradation of PCLs typically yielded from 54 to 60% of the theoretical biogas yield. The biodegradability of PLAs achieved from 56 to 84% of the theoretical value. High biogas yield (up to 677 mL/g TS) with high methane content (more than 60%), comparable with conventionally processed materials, confirmed the potential of polyester samples for anaerobic treatment in the case of their exploitation in agriculture or as a packaging material in the food industry. PMID:27191559

  12. A Feedback Mechanism to Control Apoptosis Occurs in the Digestive Gland of the Oyster Crassostrea gigas Exposed to the Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Producer Alexandrium catenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Rolland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the effect of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs accumulation in the digestive gland of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, we experimentally exposed individual oysters for 48 h to a PSTs producer, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. In comparison to the effect of the non-toxic Alexandrium tamarense, on the eight apoptotic related genes tested, Bax and BI.1 were significantly upregulated in oysters exposed 48 h to A. catenella. Among the five detoxification related genes tested, the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A was shown to be correlated with toxin concentration in the digestive gland of oysters exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate. Beside this, we observed a significant increase in ROS production, a decrease in caspase-3/7 activity and normal percentage of apoptotic cells in this tissue. Taken together, these results suggest a feedback mechanism, which may occur in the digestive gland where BI.1 could play a key role in preventing the induction of apoptosis by PSTs. Moreover, the expression of CYP1A, Bax and BI.1 were found to be significantly correlated to the occurrence of natural toxic events, suggesting that the expression of these genes together could be used as biomarker to assess the biological responses of oysters to stress caused by PSTs.

  13. Antitumor Effects of Saffron-Derived Carotenoids in Prostate Cancer Cell Models

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Crocus sativus L. extracts (saffron) are rich in carotenoids. Preclinical studies have shown that dietary intake of carotenoids has antitumor effects suggesting their potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles. We have recently reported that saffron (SE) and crocin (CR) exhibit anticancer activity by promoting cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. It has also been demonstrated that crocetin esters are produced after SE gastrointestinal digestion by CR hydrolysis. The aim of the...

  14. Immunohistochemical localisation of vitamin B12 R-binder in the human digestive tract.

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, H; Inada, M; Ohshio, G; Wakatsuki, Y; Ogawa, K; Hamashima, Y.; Miyake, T

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of vitamin B12 R-binder in the human digestive tract was studied using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Positive staining for R-binder was found in the mucous cells and ductal epithelial cells of the salivary glands and the oesophageal glands. In normal gastric mucosa, no positive staining for R-binder was found, but in the area with intestinal metaplasia, the columnar epithelial cells and goblet cells showed positive staining. Epithelial cells of the gallbladder, intr...

  15. Analysis of T-lymphocytes subgroups and NK cells in peripheral blood of patients with digesting systemic cancer%消化系统肿瘤患者外周血T淋巴细胞亚群及NK细胞分析与临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉; 吴丽娟; 胡宗海; 彭燕; 李继红; 栗群英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the alteration of peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subgroups and NK cells in patients with digestive systemic cancer,and identify the condition of body s immune function of patients with digestive systemic cancer and the clinical significance of this two flow cytometric items. Methods By a 3-color flow cytometry, peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subgroups and NK cells from 123 patients with digestive systemic cancer were detected. For compares, 35 healthy persons were detected as a control group. Results In patients with digestive systemic cancer, the percentages of total T-lymphocytes (CD3+),T4 cells (CD3 + CD4+) and NK cells (CD3- CD16 + CD56 + ) clearly decreased than that of the control group(P0. 05). Conclusion T-lymphocyte subgroups and NK cells have significant differences between the patients with digestive systemic cancer and healthy people,indicating that the cellular immune function of tumour patients is lower. It is very important to analyze the levels of peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subgroups and NK cells for evaluating patient s immune function,monitoring therapeutic effect and judging prognosis.%目的 通过观察外周血T淋巴细胞亚群及NK细胞活性在消化系统肿瘤患者中的表达,探讨消化系统肿瘤患者的细胞免疫功能状况及临床意义.方法 采用流式细胞分析法对123例消化系统肿瘤患者外周血T淋巴细胞亚群及NK细胞进行检测,并与35例健康对照组比较.结果 与健康对照组比较,消化系统各肿瘤组患者外周血总T细胞(CD3+)、T4细胞(CD3+CD4+)、NK细胞(CD3-CD16/56+ )百分率下降(P0.05).结论 消化系统肿瘤患者外周血T淋巴细胞亚群及NK细胞活性表达较健康对照组显著降低,表明消化系统肿瘤患者细胞免疫功能低下.检测消化系统肿瘤患者外周血T淋巴细胞亚群和NK细胞水平对评估患者的细胞免疫功能、监测抗瘤疗效和判断预后均具有一定的临床意义.

  16. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus...

  17. Small-scale household biogas digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Khanh Vu, Van Thi;

    2014-01-01

    -scale digesters and their biogas production, this corresponds to methane losses of 4.5 Tg yr -1 or about 1% of global emissions or 10% as much as emissions from rice production. Further poliferation of small-scale digesters could therefore contribute significantly to global emissions of methane. It is therefore...

  18. Simulating Dinosaur Digestion in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peczkis, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity for use with a chapter on dinosaurs, prehistoric life, or digestion in which children make simulated dinosaur stomachs to gain hands-on experience about the theory of gastroliths, or stomach stones. Presents teacher information about the digestive processes in birds and dinosaurs. Discusses materials needed, objectives,…

  19. Video Games: Research, Ratings, Recommendations. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This Digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The Digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders played at least one…

  20. Motivating Low Performing Adolescent Readers. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Norma Decker

    This Digest focuses on motivating the low performing adolescent in a remedial reading or subject area classroom--the idea is that students who are disengaged from their own learning processes are not likely to perform well in school. The Digest points out that such adolescents are often caught in a cycle of failure and that secondary teachers must…

  1. Anaerobic Digestion: Mass Balances and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories...

  2. Mesophylic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERALIn this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).For this purpose were researched:1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestio

  3. Surface characteristics of isopod digestive gland epithelium studied by SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millaku, Agron; Leser, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana; Godec, Matjaz; Torkar, Matjaz; Jenko, Monika; Milani, Marziale; Tatti, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The structure of the digestive gland epithelium of a terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber has been investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), and light microscopy in order to provide evidence on morphology of the gland epithelial surface in animals from a stock culture. We investigated the shape of cells, extrusion of lipid droplets, shape and distribution of microvilli, and the presence of bacteria on the cell surface. A total of 22 animals were investigated and we found some variability in the appearance of the gland epithelial surface. Seventeen of the animals had dome-shaped digestive gland "normal" epithelial cells, which were densely and homogeneously covered by microvilli and varying proportions of which extruded lipid droplets. On the surface of microvilli we routinely observed sparsely distributed bacteria of different shapes. Five of the 22 animals had "abnormal" epithelial cells with a significantly altered shape. In three of these animals, the cells were much smaller, partly or completely flat or sometimes pyramid-like. A thick layer of bacteria was detected on the microvillous border, and in places, the shape and size of microvilli were altered. In two animals, hypertrophic cells containing large vacuoles were observed indicating a characteristic intracellular infection. The potential of SEM in morphological investigations of epithelial surfaces is discussed. PMID:20155290

  4. Digestibility of chitin in cod, Gadus morhua, in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danulat, Eva

    1987-12-01

    Sixteen cod, Gadus morhua (L.), were individually fed a single ration of shrimps, Crangon allmanni. Four fish were killed and examined 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after the fish had been fed. Chitinase activities were measured in the extracts of stomach contents, stomach tissue, pyloric caecae, intestinal contents and intestinal tissue. The level of enzyme activity in different parts of the digestive tract was shown to be dependent on the phase of the digestive process. High concentrations of the chitin degradation product N-acetyl-D-glucosamine were determined in the stomach and in the intestinal contents. Based on the chitin concentration in the food organisms and the individual food uptake, the amount of chitin consumed by each fish could be calculated. Only up to 9% of the ingested chitin was recovered from the intestinal contents of the fish at any given time after feeding (6, 12, 24 and 48 h). In addition, only 2.4% of the chitin consumed with the food could be recovered in the collected faeces of the fish. The 4 cod killed 48 h after feeding had completely emptied their stomach. Chitin digestion in these fish was calculated to have been 90%.

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of forage radish and dairy manure in complete mix digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Ashley J; Lansing, Stephanie; Mulbry, Walter; Weil, Ray R

    2015-02-01

    Pilot-scale digesters (850 L) were used to quantify CH4 and H2S production when using forage radish cover crops as a co-digestion feedstock in dairy manure-based digesters. During two trials, triplicate mixed digesters were operated in batch mode with manure-only or radish+manure (27% and 13% radish by wet weight in Trial 1 and 2, respectively). Co-digestion increased CH4 production by 11% and 39% in Trial 1 and 2, respectively. As H2S production rapidly declined in the radish+manure digesters, CH4 production increased reaching high levels of CH4 (⩾67%) in the biogas. Over time, radish co-digestion lowered the H2S concentration in the biogas (0.20%) beyond that of manure-only digestion (0.34-0.40%), although cumulative H2S production in the radish+manure digesters was higher than manure-only. Extrapolated to a farm-scale (200 cows) continuous mixed digester, co-digesting with radish could generate 3150 m(3) CH4/month, providing a farmer additional revenue up to $3125/month in electricity sales. PMID:25278111

  6. Microbial electrochemical monitoring of volatile fatty acids during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration is known as an important indicator to control and optimize anaerobic digestion (AD) process. In this study, an innovative VFA biosensor was developed based on the principle of a microbial desalination cell. The correlation between current densities and VFA...... concentrations was firstly evaluated with synthetic digestate. Two linear relationships were observed between current densities and VFA levels from 1 to 30 mM (0.04 to 8.50 mA/m2, R2=0.97) and then from 30 to 200 mM (8.50 to 10.80 mA/m2, R2=0.95). The detection range was much broader than that of other existing...... and reliable measurement of VFA levels during AD and other anaerobic processes....

  7. Molecular physiology of vesicular glutamate transporters in the digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Li; Fayez K. Ghishan; Liqun Bai

    2005-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Packaging and storage of glutamate into glutamatergic neuronal vesicles require ATP-dependent vesicular glutamate uptake systems, which utilize the electrochemical proton gradient as a driving force. Three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) have been recently identified from neuronal tissue where they play a key role to maintain the vesicular glutamate level. Recently, it has been demonstrated that glutamate signaling is also functional in peripheral neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, and occurs in sites of pituitary, adrenal, pineal glands, bone, GI tract, pancreas,skin, and testis. The glutamate receptors and VGLUTs in digestivesystem have been found in both neuronal and endocrinal cells. The glutamate signaling in the digestive system may have significant relevance to diabetes and GI tract motility disorders. This review will focus on the most recent update of molecular physiology of digestive VGLUTs.

  8. Effect of digestion time on anaerobic digestion with high ammonia concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktavitri, Nur Indradewi; Purnobasuki, Hery; Kuncoro, Eko Prasetyo; Purnamasari, Indah; Semma Hadinnata, P.

    2016-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion was developed to treat high concentration organic compound efficiently in certain Digestion Time (DT). High ammonia concentration could influenced removal organic compound in digestion. This bench scale study investigated the effect of digestion time on anaerobic batch reactor with high ammonia concentration. Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) concentration was adjusted 4000 and 5000 mg/1, Digestion time was ranged from 0-26 d, operation temperature was ranged from 28-29°C, inoculum was collected from slaughter house sludge. The degradation of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) correlated with digestion time. The concentration of TAN from synthetic wastewater contain 5000 mg/1 of TAN more fluctuated than those use 4000 mg/1 of TAN. However, the biogas production from wastewater contained 4000 mg/1 of TAN gradually increased until 24 d of DT. The reactor contain 5000 mg/1 of TAN only growth until 12 d and steady state at over 12 d of digestion time.

  9. Prospects of Anaerobic Digestion Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China must face the problem of managing municipal solid waste, and the challenge of organic waste disposal is even more serious. Considering the characteristics of traditional waste disposal technologies and the subsequent secondary pollution, anaerobic digestion has various advantages such as reduction in the land needed for disposal and preservation of environmental quality. In light of the energy crisis, this paper focuses on the potential production of biogas from biowaste through anaerobic digestion processes, the problems incurred by the waste collection system, and the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Use of biogas in a combined heat and power cogeneration system is also discussed. Finally, the advantages of anaerobic digestion technology for the Chinese market are summarized. The anaerobic digestion is suggested to be a promising treating technology for the organic wastes in China.

  10. Analysis of methane emissions from digested sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, C; Fundneider, T; Cornel, P

    2016-01-01

    The energetic use of sewage sludge is an important step in the generation of electricity and heat within a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). For a holistic approach, methane emissions derived from anaerobic treatment have to be considered. Measurements show that methane dissolved in digested sludge can be analyzed via the vacuum salting out degassing method. At different WWTPs, dissolved methane was measured, showing a concentration range of approximately 7-37 mg CH4/L. The average concentration of dissolved methane in mesophilic digested sludge was approximately 29 mg CH4/L, which corresponds to an estimated yearly specific load of approximately 14-21 g CH4 per population equivalent. Comparisons between continuous and discontinuous digester feeding show that a temporary rise in the volume load causes increased concentrations of dissolved methane. Investigations using an industrial-scale digestion plant, consisting of three digestion tank operated in series, show comparable results. PMID:27054731

  11. Anaerobic digestion of vegetation water as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Ursinos, J.A.F.R.; Gamero, R.N.; Cabello, R.L.; Buendia, A.J.G.; de Jauregui, G.M.M.S.

    In this work, the possibility is shown of vegetation water depuration (wastewater from the olive oil obtaining process) by anaerobic digestion. The research was carried out in a 70 cu.m capacity ''contact method'' pilot plant; during which an average of 0.85 cu.m biogas/kg of BOD removed, was obtained; at the same time the efficiency in pollution power reduction was about 80 percent. In agreement with the energy balance the application of this purification process to the oil-mills overflow would permits its electrical and calorific independence. (Refs. 14).

  12. Histological Study on the Digestive System Development of Takifugu rubripes Larvae and Juvenile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The digestive tract of Takifugu rubripes during early life stages was studied with light microscopy. At the beginning of hatching, the digestive tract is represented by a simple and undifferentiated straight tube and does not communicate with the exterior, as the mouth and anus are not open yet. At 2 d after hatching, a constriction between intestine and rectum that will become the intestino-rectal valve is visible. During the endogenous feeding phase, the yolk sac is resorbed and the digestive tract becomes functional and differentiated. The liver and pancreas also become apparent at this time. At onset of exogenous feeding (3 d after hatching), yolk sac resesves are not completely depleted, suggesting a period of mixed nutrition. The digestive tract differentiates fully into buccopharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestine and rectum. At 9 d after hatching, the yolk sac reserves are completely depleted. The most noticeable events occurring from 5 to 17 d after hatching are the transformation of the epithelia type, the differentiation of the pneumatic sac, the epithelial cell, gut convolution, mucosal fold increase, and the growth of liver and pancreas. From 18 to 27 d after hatching, the numbers of intestine folds and mucus cells increase progressively. From then on, morphological changes of digestive features are almost completed. At 27 d after hatching, the morphology and function of digestive system are similar to that of the adult.

  13. Susceptibility of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) peel proteins to digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Katherine P; Truong, Van-Den; Allen, Jonathan C

    2014-07-01

    Sweet potato proteins have been shown to possess antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vivo. The ability of a protein to exhibit systemic effects is somewhat unusual as proteins are typically susceptible to digestive enzymes. This study was undertaken to better understand how digestive enzymes affect sweet potato proteins. Two fractions of industrially processed sweet potato peel, containing 6.8% and 8.5% protein and 80.5% and 83.3% carbohydrate, were used as a source of protein. Sweet potato proteins were incubated with pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin and protein breakdown was visualized with SDS-PAGE. After pepsin digestion, samples were assayed for amylase inhibitory activity. Sporamin, the major storage protein in sweet potatoes, which functions as a trypsin inhibitor as well, exhibited resistance to pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Sporamin from blanched peel of orange sweet potatoes was less resistant to pepsin digestion than sporamin from outer peel and from extract of the white-skinned Caiapo sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitory activity remained after simulated gastric digestion, with the Caiapo potato protein and peel samples exhibiting higher inhibitory activity compared to the blanched peel sample. Amylase and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was not present in any of the samples after digestion. PMID:25473492

  14. A Digest of Nonproliferation Literature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth A

    2006-04-01

    In preparation for the 2005 US/Russian Weapons Laboratories Directors Meeting, the six laboratories participating in the meeting endeavored to develop a strategy for nonproliferation technology research and development. A literature review was conducted to identify possible areas of technical collaboration and technology opportunities associated with improving nonproliferation associated with the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The issue of multinationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle was also researched. This digest is the compilation of one-page summaries used by management of the three US nuclear weapons laboratories in preparation for strategy development. Where possible, the Web site address of the complete paper is referenced.3 AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to thank Jessica Ruyle, Nancy Orlando-Gay, and Barbara Dry for their research assistance and contributions.4

  15. Estimating the digestibility of grazed herbage in the mature sheep using Christian lignin. Preliminary trials.

    OpenAIRE

    Thewis, André; Francois, Etienne; Rodriguez, Fernando; Bartiaux Thill, Nicole

    1986-01-01

    Excellent agreement was foud between digestibility coefficients of 3 forages determined in grazing sheep by independent methods : nitrogenaand lignin faecal indexes and by the lignin ratio technique (oesophageal fistulas). Lignin determined by Christian's method, was previously shown to be indigestible in most cases. Peer reviewed

  16. In vitro lipid digestion of chitin nanocrystal stabilized o/w emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzoumaki, M.V.; Moschakis, T.; Scholten, E.; Biliaderis, C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Chitin nanocrystals (ChN) have been shown to form stable Pickering emulsions. These oil-in-water emulsions were compared with conventional milk (whey protein isolate, WPI, and sodium caseinate, SCn) protein-stabilized emulsions in terms of their lipid digestion kinetics using an in vitro enzymatic p

  17. Probiotics versus antibiotic decontamination of the digestive tract: infection and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Oudhuis (Guy); D.C. Bergmans (Tom); T. Dormans (Tom); J-H. Zwaveling (Jan-Harm); A.G. Kessels (Alphons); M.H. Prins (Martin); E.E. Stobberingh (Ellen); A. Verbon (Annelies)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) has been shown to decrease the infection rate and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs); Lactobacillus plantarum 299/299v plus fibre (LAB) has been used for infection prevention and does not harbour the potential disadvan

  18. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2002-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process...

  19. Lytic process studies on anaerobic digestion of organic wastes. Etude des activites lytiques intervenant au cours de la digestion anaerobie des dechets organiques; Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durecu, S.; Thauront, J. (PEC Engineering, 95 - Cergy Pontoise (France). Service de Recherche et Developpement); Festino, C.; Aubart, C.; Reisinger, O. (Nancy-1 Univ., 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Lab. d' Ecologie Microbienne)

    1990-01-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion of pig manure, solubilization of the solid fraction was studied as the rate limiting step in the biomethanation process in an experimental completely mixed digester. The performance of conventional digesters should anaerobic microflora were inefficient in degrading complex biopolymers such as plant fibers. For pectin or cellulose, the use of digestible co-substrates accelerated methanation by increasing the yield of methane and a doubling of the apparent first order solubilization rate constant (Kp = 0.090/d). Lignin should methanation by decreasing methane yield and reducing the rate constant (Kp = 0.035/d). This inhibition was unrelated to volatile fatty acid accumulation. Nine strains of pectinolytic and/or cellulolytic bacteria were isolated. Chitin, a structural constituent of many final species, was effectively solubilized dining anaerobic digestion of pig manure. Seven strains of chitinolytic bacteria were isolated by high chitnese activity. The mycolytic power of fermenting manure processes acting through lytic microflora has been shown to be an effective antagonist of soil borne phytopathogenic fungi, as well as a fertilizer. In greenhouse trails, this compiled fraction demonstrated its ability to control flux unit. Keratin enhanced methane production, and increased H{sub 2}S nearly six-fold. Bacterial strains able to solubilize keratin were also used in autoclawed feather meal to extract the amino acids. (KJD)

  20. Radioisotopic methods - determination of action of toxic chemicals to food - digestion organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is known that poison chemicals used for agriculture enter in an organism of human and animal by various ways and affect key processes in cells and tissues. These processes are investigated insufficiently, nevertheless, investigating actions of chemicals on bodies and tissues it, is possible to define a degree of its toxicity. In the present work influence of defoliant drop and insecticide buldok on protein synthetic ability (PSA) of cells of digestive bodies (a liver, a stomach and duodenal gut) is investigated. Experiments carried out on white not purebred rats - males in weight 160-180 g, which entered drop in doze of 1/5 IC50 5350 mg/kg, buldok 1/5 IC50 400 mg/kg and 14C-glutamine acid with the general activity 1 mk Curie (2.2*106 imp/min) in one hour up to slaughter. A control animal in parallel entered a physiological solution. In animals hammered in one hour and investigated inclusion 14C- glutamine acids in structure of synthesized proteins of a liver, a stomach and duodenal gut. Action of preparations checked in 1, 24 and 72 hours after introduction. As have shown the received data drop suppresses PSA in cells of a liver on 14 % and 45 % in 24 and 72 hours accordingly; in a stomach - on 32 % and 34 %; in duodenal gut - on 39 % and 48 %. PSA it is more suppressed in a stomach. Further process is gradually restored in all bodies. Buldok in the same terms suppresses PSA in a liver on 4 % and 25 %; in a stomach of 4 % and 16 % and in duodenal gut on the contrary are raised with formation of protein on 27 %. The next day there is restoration PSA in all investigated bodies. From the received data it is visible, that defoliant drop as well as insecticide buldok influence on PSA cells, but action of drop is stronger, than buldok. It will be coordinated to earlier received data on change of morphological structures under influence of these pesticides. Though drop and buldok differ on dynamics of action on PSA digestive bodies, they are not strongly

  1. Digestion of Bangka monazite with sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology of Bangka monazite processing with alkaline method has been mastered by PPGN BATAN with the product in the form of RE (Rare Earth) which is contain U < 2 ppm and Th 12 - 16 ppm. Hence, as comparator, the research of Bangka monazite processing with acid method using sulfuric acid has been done. The aim of this research is to obtain the optimal condition of Bangka monazite's digestion using sulfuric acid so that all elements contained in the monazite that are U, Th, RE, PO4 dissolved as much as possible. The research parameter's arc monazite particle's size, sulfuric acid consumption (weight ratio of monazite ore : sulfuric acid), digestion temperature, digestion time and consumption of wash water. The results showed that the optimal conditions of digestion are 250+ 325 mesh of monazite particle's size, 1 : 2.5 of weight ratio of monazite ore: sulfuric acid, 190°C of digestion temperature, 3 hours of digestion time and 8 times of weight monazite's feed of wash water with the recovery of digested U = 99.90 %, Th = 99.44 %, RE = 98.64 % and PO4 = 99.88 %. (author)

  2. INCREASING ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PERFORMANCE OF WASTEWATER WITH CO-DIGESTION USING DECANTER CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaniya Kaosol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low biogas production in the frozen seafood wastewater anaerobic digestion is observed due to the low organic and Total Solids (TS contents in the wastewater. In this research the decanter cake will be used in the anaerobic co-digestion process to improve the biogas production rate. The effect of co-digestion and Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT will be investigated using the continuously stirred tank reactors under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production potential of different HRTs and that of wastewater digestion alone. The anaerobic co-digestion is operated in continuous with continuously stirred reactors at HRT of 10, 20 and 30 days. The mechanical stirring units of all reactors are operated automatically. The stirring action occurred continuously during the experiments. The anaerobic co-digestion results show that the anaerobic co-digestion provides higher biogas production rate and higher methane yield than that of the wastewater digestion alone. The optimum HRT of the anaerobic co-digestion is 20 days. This reactor produces 2.88 L day-1, with 64.5% of methane and the maximum methane production rate of 1.87 L day-1 and the methane yield of 0.321 l CH4/g CODremoved. The anaerobic co-digestion of wastewater with decanter cake provides the higher methane yield potential production than that provided by the wastewater digestion alone at the ambient temperature. The best HRT is 20 days for anaerobic co-digestion between the wastewater and decanter cake. The experimental results reveal that HRT and co-digestion are the parameters that can affect the biogas production and methane yield.

  3. Co-localization hypothesis: A mechanism for the intrapancreatic activation of digestive enzymes during the early phases of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gijs JD van Acker; George Perides; Michael L Steer

    2006-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is generally believed to be a disease in which the pancreas is injured by digestive enzymes that it normally produces. Most of the potentially harmful digestive enzymes produced by pancreatic acinar cells are synthesized and secreted as inactive zymogens which are normally activated only upon entry into the duodenum but, during the early stages of acute pancreatitis, those zymogens become prematurely activated within the pancreas and, presumably, that activation occurs within pancreatic acinar cells. The mechanisms responsible for intracellular activation of digestive enzyme zymogens have not been elucidated with certainty but, according to one widely recognized theory (the "co-localization hypothesis"), digestive enzyme zymogens are activated by lysosomal hydrolases when the two types of enzymes become co-localized within the same intracellular compartment. This review focuses on the evidence supporting the validity of the co-localization hypothesis as an explanation for digestive enzyme activation during the early stages of pancreatitis.The findings, summarized in this review, support the conclusion that co-localization of lysosomal hydrolases with digestive enzyme zymogens plays a critical role in permitting the intracellular activation of digestive enzymesthat leads to acinar cell injury and pancreatitis.

  4. Endocrine tumor of the digestive tract - clinical case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Endocrine tumors of the digestive tract (ETDT) are neoplasms which stem from the APUD (amine precursors uptake and decarboxylation) cells. There are neuroendocrine pancreatic and gastroenteral carcinoid tumors which stand for 2% of digestive tract tumors, 0,5% of all human malignant neoplasms. All of them have secretion granulations in the cytoplasm. That is why a number of immune histochemic techniques is used in search for biogenic amines and hormones such as gastrin, CCK, GIP, VIP, motilin, glucagon, GRP, PP, GHRH and the others. In the majority of cases neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum are described as dysfunctional, which means that specific clinical symptoms are not connected with their hormonal overproduction. Material and methods: We describe a case of fifty seven years old male patient admitted to the Department of General and Transplant Surgery for the diagnosis and treatment of the rectal tumor. Per rectum examination revealed hard tumor. The pathologic examination of the biopsy taken from the lesion and CT scanning confirmed the presence of endocrine tumor of the digestive tract. Results: Anterior resection of the rectum was performed, the postoperative course was uneventful. At present patient is subjected to complementary treatment with the use of somatostatin analogue of the prolonged action. Conclusion: The endocrine tumors of the rectum are extremely rare, they occur in this localization in 0,26-0,52 out of 100.000 all rectal tumors. Diagnosis is usually made upon the microscopic examination and the immune histochemic reactions. (author)

  5. Incorporated nematocysts in Aeolidiella stephanieae (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Aeolidoidea) mature by acidification shown by the pH sensitive fluorescing alkaloid Ageladine A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann, Dana; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Wägele, Heike

    2012-11-01

    The sequestration of nematocysts (a special group of cnidocysts) from cnidarian prey with subsequent use in defence is described for few metazoan phyla. Members of the taxon Aeolidoidea (Nudibranchia, Gastropoda) are well-known for this. Questions regarding the reasons some nematocysts do not discharge when the gastropod feeds and how these same nematocysts can be transported along the digestive tract into specialized morphological structures called cnidosacs, remain unanswered. Within the cnidosac, nematocysts are incorporated in cells and finally be used for defence against predators. The most plausible explanation for this phenomenon suggests there are immature and therefore non-functional nematocysts in the food. A recent study by Berking and Herrmann (2005) on cnidarians suggested that the nematocysts mature by acidification via proton transfer into the nematocyst capsule. According to this hypothesis only immature nematocysts are transported into the cnidosac where they are then made functional through an accumulation of protons. In this study we present a fluorescence staining method that tests the hypothesis by Berking and Herrmann (2005) and detects changes in the pH values of incorporated nematocysts, interpreted as changes in maturation stages. This marker, the fluorescent dye Ageladine A, stains nematocyst capsules according to their pH values. With Ageladine A we were able to show that kleptocnides indeed change their pH value after incorporation into the aeolidoidean cnidosac. PMID:22910369

  6. Morphological and histological changes in digestive tract development during starvation in the miiuy croaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiujuan; Quan, Hanfeng; Dou, Shuozeng

    2016-04-01

    A histological method was used to describe the ontogenetic development of the digestive tract of laboratory-reared miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) and to evaluate the effects of short-term food deprivation on the morphology and histology of the digestive tract. Larvae and juveniles were maintained at 24 °C in a thermostatically controlled system. Three starvation experiments were conducted during different developmental stages: 1-7 days after hatching (dah; prior to benthic swimming); 26-35 dah (during settling); and 42-53 dah (after benthic swimming). According to the structural changes in the ontogenetic development of the digestive tract, three stages were observed. The first stage was from hatching to 3 dah; the digestive tract was undifferentiated in newly hatched larvae and then showed remarkable morphological changes and differentiation. During this period, larvae depended on endogenous nutrition. The second stage (4-20 dah) was a critical period in which larvae transitioned from endogenous feeding to exogenous feeding and the digestive tract fully differentiated into the buccopharynx, oesophagus, stomach, anterior intestine and posterior intestine. Goblet cells and vacuoles appeared in the digestive tract, and pharyngeal teeth and taste buds developed. During the third stage (20-36 dah), the gastric glands developed and the stomach differentiated into the fundic, cardiac and pyloric regions. At 25 dah, pyloric caeca developed and mucosal folds and spiral valves were clearly distinguishable. After 30 dah, the digestive tract did not undergo any noticeable differentiation, indicating the complete development of the digestive system. The wet weight and SGR (specific growth rate) of miiuy croaker larvae and juveniles greatly decreased when they were deprived of food, and compensatory growth was observed in re-feeding juveniles. The livers of starved larvae and juveniles were atrophied and dark coloured, the intestines were transparent and thin, and the

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on ruminal protein degradation and intestinal digestibility of cottonseed meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dry matter of cottonseed meal (CSM) was determined by freeze-drying 1 g sample in duplicate. Based on this value, sufficient water was added to increase the moisture content of 2.5 kg of CSM to 250 g/kg. Gamma irradiation was carried out in a cobalt-60 irradiator at 20 deg. C. The dose rate determined by Fricke dosimetry was 0.37 Gy/s. Three polyethylene packages of samples were irradiated in a gamma cell for total doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy in the presence of air. Prior to sealing in plastic bags, samples were allowed to air equilibrate for 2 h, then refrigerated (4 deg. C). Duplicate nylon bags of untreated or irradiated CSM were suspended in the rumen of four non-lactating Holstein cows for up to 48 h, and in situ resulting data were fitted to non-linear degradation model to calculate degradation parameters of crude protein. Proteins of untreated and treated CSM bag residues were fractionated by gel electrophoresis. Intestinal digestibility of crude protein was measured using the mobile nylon bag technique. As shown, gamma irradiation of CSM resulted in decreasing of crude protein disappearance in the rumen. This is beneficial effect for high producing ruminants, which need high amount of escaped protein from rumen to intestine. Fitting disappearance data to non-linear degradation model showed that the wash out fraction and degradation rate of crude protein decreased linearly (P < 0.01), but the potentially degradable fraction increased quadratically (P < 0.01) with increases in irradiation doses. As a consequence, the effective degradability of crude protein decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as doses increased. Intestinal digestibility of ruminally undegraded crude protein increased linearly (P < 0.01) as irradiation doses increased. Three major protein components were observed: globulin 9S, globulin 5S and albumin 2S. Electrophoretic results indicated that globulin 9S in untreated cottonseed meal (whereas globulin 9S, globulin 5S and albumin 2S in gamma

  8. Stability and biological activity of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) polyphenols during simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Betanzo, J; Allen-Vercoe, E; McDonald, J; Schroeter, K; Corredig, M; Paliyath, G

    2014-12-15

    Wild blueberries are rich in polyphenols and have several potential health benefits. Understanding the factors that affect the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of polyphenols is important for evaluating their biological significance and efficacy as functional food ingredients. Since the bioavailability of polyphenols such as anthocyanins is generally low, it has been proposed that metabolites resulting during colonic fermentation may be the components that exert health benefits. In this study, an in vitro gastrointestinal model comprising sequential chemostat fermentation steps that simulate digestive conditions in the stomach, small intestine and colon was used to investigate the breakdown of blueberry polyphenols. The catabolic products were isolated and biological effects tested using a normal human colonic epithelial cell line (CRL 1790) and a human colorectal cancer cell line (HT 29). The results showed a high stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins during simulated gastric digestion step with approximately 93% and 99% of recovery, respectively. Intestinal digestion decreased polyphenol- and anthocyanin- contents by 49% and 15%, respectively, by comparison to the non-digested samples. During chemostat fermentation that simulates colonic digestion, the complex polyphenol mixture was degraded to a limited number of phenolic compounds such as syringic, cinnamic, caffeic, and protocatechuic acids. Only acetylated anthocyanins were detected in low amounts after chemostat fermentation. The catabolites showed lowered antioxidant activity and cell growth inhibition potential. Results suggest that colonic fermentation may alter the biological activity of blueberry polyphenols. PMID:25038707

  9. Biogas recovery from microwave heated sludge by anaerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Biogas generated from sewage sludge,livestock waste,and food waste by anaerobic digestion is a valuable renewable energy resource.However,conventional anaerobic digestion is not an efficient process.A long hydraulic retention time and low biogas recovery rate hinder the applications of those resources.An effective pretreatment method to destroy sludge microbial cells has been one of the major concerns regarding improvement of the biogas production.This article focuses on the effects of microwave heating on sludge anaerobic digestion.Volatile suspended solid(VSS) and chemical organic demand solubilization of heated sludge were investigated.Microwave heating was found to be a rapid and efficient process for releasing organic substrates from sludge.The increase of organic dissolution ratio was not obvious when holding time was over 5 min with microwave heating.The effect of the VSS solubilization was primarily dependent on heating temperature.The highest value of VSS dissolving ratio,36.4%,was obtained at 170°C for 30 min.The COD dissolving ratio was about 25% at 170°C.Total organic carbon of treated sludge liquor was 1.98 and 2.73 g/L at 150°C and 170°C for 5 min,respectively.A biochemical methane potential(BMP) test of excess sludge and a mixture of primary and excess sludge demonstrated an increase in biogas production.The total biogas from microwave treated mixture sludge increased by 12.9% to 20.2% over control after 30 days of digestion.Biogas production was 11.1% to 25.9% higher for excess sludge than for untreated sludge.The VS removal ratios of mixture sludge and excess sludge were 12% and 11% higher,respectively,compared to the untreated sludge.

  10. INCREASING ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PERFORMANCE OF WASTEWATER WITH CO-DIGESTION USING DECANTER CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Thaniya Kaosol; Narumol Sohgrathok

    2014-01-01

    Low biogas production in the frozen seafood wastewater anaerobic digestion is observed due to the low organic and Total Solids (TS) contents in the wastewater. In this research the decanter cake will be used in the anaerobic co-digestion process to improve the biogas production rate. The effect of co-digestion and Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) will be investigated using the continuously stirred tank reactors under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production pot...

  11. [Mechanisms of the Effects of Probiotics on Symbiotic Digestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usakova, N A; Nekrasov, R V; Pravdin, I V; Sverchkova, N V; Kolomiyets, E I; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    The published data and our own data on the mechanisms of the influence of microbial probiotics, prebiotics, and their combinations on the processes of symbiotic digestion have been considered and generalized. It is shown that the effects on an organism are associated with the enhanced metabolic activity of intestinal bacteria: stimulation of bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates and formation of short-chained fatty acids, an increase in the blotting capacity of the intestines due to elongation of villi and deepening of crypts, and a decrease in secretion of toxic proteolytic products (ammonia, phenols, thiols, indoles, etc.). It has been shown that a combination of probiotics and prebiotic enhances the biological efficiency of a complex preparation, which contributes to activation of carbohydrate, protein, and mineral metabolism. PMID:26638234

  12. Digestibility of total and phytate phosphorus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Skřivanová, V.; Dvořák, R.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 6 (2004), s. 191-196. ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : digestion * milk * starter concentrate Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.790, year: 2004

  13. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  14. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing......Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed to be a...... existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies...

  15. Learning Disabilities. ERIC Digest #407. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    This digest defines learning disabilities, cites their prevalence, describes typical characteristics of learning-disabled students, outlines educational implications of learning disabilities, and lists several printed and organizational resources for further information. (JDD)

  16. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  17. Non-Coop Station History Forms Digest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single 71-page document entitled 'Station history non-COOP Keying Rules & Forms Digest,' dated December 12, 2003. Contractors with NCDC Climate Database...

  18. Proteolytic Digestion and TiO2 Phosphopeptide Enrichment Microreactor for Fast MS Identification of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jingren; Lazar, Iulia M.

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of phosphorylation state(s) of a protein is best accomplished by using isolated or enriched phosphoprotein samples or their corresponding phosphopeptides. The process is typically time-consuming as, often, a combination of analytical approaches must be used. To facilitate throughput in the study of phosphoproteins, a microreactor that enables a novel strategy for performing fast proteolytic digestion and selective phosphopeptide enrichment was developed. The microreactor was fabricated using 100 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries packed with 1-2 mm beds of C18 and/or TiO2 particles. Proteolytic digestion-only, phosphopeptide enrichment-only, and sequential proteolytic digestion/phosphopeptide enrichment microreactors were developed and tested with standard protein mixtures. The protein samples were adsorbed on the C18 particles, quickly digested with a proteolytic enzyme infused over the adsorbed proteins, and further eluted onto the TiO2 microreactor for enrichment in phosphopeptides. A number of parameters were optimized to speed up the digestion and enrichments processes, including microreactor dimensions, sample concentrations, digestion time, flow rates, buffer compositions, and pH. The effective time for the steps of proteolytic digestion and enrichment was less than 5 min. For simple samples, such as standard protein mixtures, this approach provided equivalent or better results than conventional bench-top methods, in terms of both enzymatic digestion and selectivity. Analysis times and reagent costs were reduced ~10- to 15-fold. Preliminary analysis of cell extracts and recombinant proteins indicated the feasibility of integration of these microreactors in more advanced workflows amenable for handling real-world biological samples.

  19. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of free oxygen in bio-gasification is a sparsely studied area, apart from the common argument of oxygen being toxic and inhibitory for anaerobic micro-cultures. Some studies have, however, revealed increased solubilisation of organic matter in the presence of some free oxygen in anaerobic digestion. This article analyses these counterbalancing phenomena with a mathematical modelling approach using the widely accepted biochemical model ADM 1. Aerobic oxidation of soluble carbon and inhibition of obligatory anaerobic organisms are modelled using standard saturation type kinetics. Biomass dependent first order hydrolysis kinetics is used to relate the increased hydrolysis rate with oxygen induced increase in biomass growth. The amended model, ADM 1-Ox (oxygen, has 25 state variables and 22 biochemical processes, presented in matrix form. The computer aided simulation tool AQUASIM 2.1 is used to simulate the developed model. Simulation predictions are evaluated against experimental data obtained using a laboratory batch test array comprising miniature anaerobic bio-reactors of 100 ml total volume each, operated under different initial air headspaces giving rise to the different oxygen loading conditions. The reactors were initially fed with a glucose solution and incubated at 35 Celsius, for 563 hours. Under the oxygen load conditions of 22, 44 and 88 mg/L, the ADM1-Ox model simulations predicted the experimental methane potentials quite adequately. Both the experimental data and the simulations suggest a linear reduction of methane potential with respect to the increase in oxygen load within this range.

  20. Pressurized wet digestion in open vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maichin, B; Zischka, M; Knapp, G

    2003-07-01

    The High Pressure Asher (HPA-S) was adapted with a Teflon liner for pressurized wet digestion in open vessels. The autoclave was partly filled with water containing 5% (vol/vol) hydrogen peroxide. The digestion vessels dipped partly into the water or were arranged on top of the water by means of a special rack made of titanium or PTFE-coated stainless steel. The HPA-S was closed and pressurized with nitrogen up to 100 bars. The maximum digestion temperature was 250 degrees C for PFA vessels and 270 degrees C for quartz vessels. Digestion vessels made of quartz or PFA-Teflon with volumes between 1.5 mL (auto sampler cups) and 50 mL were tested. The maximum sample amount for quartz vessels was 0.5-1.5 g and for PFA vessels 0.2-0.5 g, depending on the material. Higher sample intake may lead to fast reactions with losses of digestion solution. The samples were digested with 5 mL HNO(3) or with 2 mL HNO(3)+6 mL H(2)O+2 mL H(2)O(2). The total digestion time was 90-120 min and 30 min for cooling down to room temperature. Auto sampler cups made of PFA were used as digestion vessels for GFAAS. Sample material (50 mg) was digested with 0.2 mL HNO(3)+0.5 mL H(2)O+0.2 mL H(2)O(2). The analytical data of nine certified reference materials are also within the confidential intervals for volatile elements like mercury, selenium and arsenic. No cross contamination between the digestion vessels could be observed. Due to the high gas pressure, the diffusion rate of volatile species is low and losses of elements by volatilisation could be observed only with diluted nitric acid and vessels with large cross section. In addition, cocoa, walnuts, nicotinic acid, pumpkin seeds, lubrication oil, straw, polyethylene and coal were digested and the TOC values measured. The residual carbon content came to 0.2-10% depending on the sample matrix and amount. PMID:12802569

  1. Anaerobic digestion of food and vegetable waste

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Food and vegetable wastes contribute a large percentage of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), and anaerobic digestion potentially offers an ideal method for their management. Their chemical composition can, however, lead to unstable operation and in extreme cases complete process failure has been reported with this type of substrate. Semi-continuous trials on vegetable waste were carried out in laboratory-scale digesters with daily feed additions at different organic loadi...

  2. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed to be a general characteristic is resistance to digestion. This is based on studies showing that allergenic dietary proteins in general were more resistant to digestion than dietary proteins with no proven al...

  3. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the Commission. This is the first of an annual publication for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. The Digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide

  4. Feeding and Digestion in Larval Decapod Crustaceans

    OpenAIRE

    KUMLU, Metin

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the latest findings in larval feeding and digestion of decapod crustacean larvae. The live feeds and manufactured feeds are discussed in relation with the digestive capability of various decapod crustacean larvae. Although some larvae such as penaeid shrimps are successfully cultured on artifical diets, most of lar-val decapod crustaceans are still heavily dependent on live organisms as food (i. e. micro-algae, Arte-mia). Studies with free-living nematodes as an altern...

  5. Digestive oncologist in the gastroenterology training curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, C J J; Peeters, M.; Cats, A; Dahele, A.V.M.; Terhaar Sive Droste, J S

    2011-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, gastroenterology (GE) was considered a subspecialty of Internal Medicine. Today, GE also incorporates Hepatology. However, Digestive Oncology training is poorly defined in the Hepatogastroenterology (HGE)-curriculum. Therefore, a Digestive Oncology curriculum should be developed and this document might be a starting point for such a curriculum. HGE-specialists are increasingly resisting the paradigm in which they play only a diagnostic and technical role in the managemen...

  6. Lambda Exonuclease Digestion of CGG Trinucleotide Repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, R. S.; Koretsky, A P; Moreland, J.

    2009-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome and other triplet repeat diseases are characterized by an elongation of a repeating DNA triplet. The ensemble-averaged lambda exonuclease digestion rate of different substrates, including one with an elongated FMR1 gene containing 120 CGG repeats, was measured using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Using magnetic tweezers sequence-dependent digestion rates and pausing was measured for individual lambda exonucleases. Within the triplet repeats a lower average and na...

  7. Effect of heat-moisture treatment on digestibility of different cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Suraji; Gunaratne, Anil; Ranaweera, K K D S; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2014-07-01

    Different heat-moisture levels were applied to native starches from different cultivars of sweet potatoes available in Sri Lanka (Wariyapola red, Wariyapola white, Pallepola variety, Malaysian variety and CARI 273) to study the digestibility level. Samples were treated with 20, 25, and 30% moisture at 85°C and 120°C for 6 h and in vitro starch digestibility was tested with porcine pancreatin enzyme. A range of 19.3-23.5% digestibility was shown by the native starches with no significant difference (P < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the digestibility level of the hydrothermally modified starches and the moisture content showed a positive impact on the digestibility. Heat-moisture treatment at 85°C brought an overall increase in digestibility and temperature beyond 85°C had a negative impact. No significant difference (P < 0.05) in the digestibility was observed with 20% and 25% moisture at 85°C and increased level were seen at 85°C and 30% moisture. PMID:25473497

  8. Use of gamma-irradiation pretreatment for enhancement of anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effects of y-irradiation pretreatment on anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge was investigated in this paper.Parameters like solid components,soluble components,and biogas production of anaerobic digestion experiment for sewage sludge were measured.The values of these parameters were compared before and after y-irradiation pretreatment.Total solid (TS),volatile solid (VS),suspended solid (SS),volatile suspended solid (VSS),and average floc size of samples decreased after γ-irradiation treatment.Besides,floc size distribution of sewage sludge shifted from 80-100 μm to 0-40 μm after y-irradiation treatment at the doses from 0 to 30 kGy,which indicated the disintegration of sewage sludge.Moreover,microbe cells of sewage sludge were ruptured by γ-irradiation treatment,which resulted in the release of cytoplasm and increase of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD).Both sludge disintegration and microbe cells rupture enhanced the subsequent anaerobic digestion process,which was demonstrated by the increase of accumulated biogas production.Compared with digesters fed with none irradiated sludge,the accumulated biogas production increased 44,98,and 178 mL for digesters fed sludge irradiated at 2.48,6.51,and 11.24 kGy,respectively.The results indicated that "/-irradiation pretreatment could effectively enhance anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge,and correspondingly,could accelerate hydrolysis process,shorten sludge retention time of sludge anaerobic digestion process.

  9. [Interrelation between the sexual and digestive systems of chaetognaths (Chaetognatha)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, V L

    1980-12-01

    Histological and histochemical investigations on structure of the reproductive and digestive systems have been performed in two cold-water (Sagitta elegans, Sagitta maxima) and in four tropical (Sagitta bipunctata), Flaccisagitta hexaptera, Sagitta pulchra, Ferosagitta ferox) species of Chaetognatha. There is no essential seasonal difference in structure of the intestinal epithelial cells. There is not any storage of nutritional substances. Chaetognatha seem to feed actively during their whole life cycle. Some features of alimentary oogenesis have been revealed, although, in the whole, their ova mature according to the solitary type. At initial stages of oogenesis the nuclear apparatus is inactivated (condensed chromosomes form a ball--caryosphere); cells of the micropilar apparatus perform the function of the nutritive cells. The remaining period of oogenesis (synthesis of protein and lipid yolk) is performed according to the solitary type (the nucleoplasm contains chromosomes of the "lamp brush" type). A possibility whether nutritive substances can diffuse from the digestive tract into the coelomic fluid and into the ovarian cavity towards the developing ova is discussed. PMID:7195701

  10. Partial stream digestion of residual municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baere, L

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual municipal solid waste (MSW) has become more important than the digestion of source separated biowaste. More than 52% of the capacity available in Europe was designed for digestion of residual municipal waste by the end of 2006, while this was only 13% in 1998. Partial digestion of residual waste organics, by which only a part of the organics is digested, has been implemented to reduce the need for dewatering and subsequent wastewater treatment. The digestate coming from part of the organics is immediately mixed with the non-digested organic fraction. This organic fraction is drier and still contains a lot of energy which can be used to dry the digestate during the aerobic composting of the mixture of digested and undigested organics. Such a MBT-plant has been operating for over a year whereby 2/3 of the organics (including sludge cake) are digested (25,000 t/year) and mixed after digestion with the remaining 1/3 of the organics. Biogas production averages 125.7 Nm2 per ton fed and contained 56.2% of methane. The mixture of digestate and non-digested organics is aerated in tunnels during 4 to 6 weeks. The stabilized end product is landfilled, meeting the stringent German standards for inert landfills. By using a dry fermentation able to produce a digestate at 35% solids, there is no need for dewatering the digestate so that no wastewater is produced. PMID:18441435

  11. Investigation of immune-modulatory properties of non-digestible oligosaccharides and lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This work characterizes immune-modulatory properties of non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) mimicking the natural distribution of NDO in human breast milk and different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) like Lactobacilli or Bifidobacteria in human immune cells. The obtained results indicate anti-inflammatory and direct, microbiota independent, immune-regulatory properties of NDO in dendritic cells and T cells, as well as specific immune-modulatory capacities of the tested LAB in an in vitro co-cul...

  12. Health Effects of Alkaline Diet and Water, Reduction of Digestive-tract Bacterial Load, and Earthing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Haider Abdul-Lateef

    2016-04-01

    In the article, the author discusses the issue of chronic, low-grade acidosis that is thought to be brought about primarily by 2 factors: (1) advancing age, with a consequent decline in renal function; and (2) diet. An acid-forming diet can induce low-grade metabolic acidosis, which causes very small decreases in blood pH and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3-) that remain within the range considered to be normal. However, if the duration of the acidosis is prolonged or chronically present, even a low degree of acidosis can become significant. This article reviews supporting evidence in the literature that has shown that consumption of abundant alkaline-forming foods can result in improvement in bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle mass, protection from chronic illnesses, reduced tumor-cell invasion and metastasis, and effective excretion of toxins from the body. In addition, a large number of studies showing the benefits of alkaline water (mineral water) have revealed that people consuming water with a high level of total dissolved solids (TDS) (ie, with a high mineral content) have shown a lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer and lower total mortality rates. Consumption of alkaline water also may prevent osteoporosis and protect pancreatic beta cells with its antioxidant effects. In addition, this article discusses the literature that shows that reducing digestive-tract bacterial load can play an important role in increasing blood alkalinity toward the normal upper limit. That change occurs through good oral hygiene, flossing of teeth, perfect chewing of food, and bowel evacuation as soon as possible. Finally, the author reviews the literature that shows that earthing (ie, the direct contact of the human body with the earth) can supply a current of plentiful electrons. Earthing has been shown to reduce acute and chronic inflammation, blood glucose in patients with diabetes, red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, and blood

  13. Effect of cross-linker glutaraldehyde on gastric digestion of emulsified albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo-Santaella, Teresa; Maldonado-Valderrama, Julia; Molina-Bolivar, Jose Antonio; Galisteo-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) has been shown to be an ideal protein for nanoparticle preparation. These are usually prepared by using cross linker agents such as glutaraldehyde (GAD). Liquid lipid nanocapsules (LLN) constitute a new generation of nanoparticles more biocompatible and versatile for oral delivery of lipophylic drugs. The first barrier that an orally administered formulation must cross is the gastrointestinal tract. Hence, it is crucial to address the impact of gastrointestinal digestion on these structures in order to achieve an optimal formulation. This study evaluates the effect of gastric digestion on HSA emulsions structured with GAD as a model substrate for the preparation of LLN. This is done by SDS-PAGE, emulsion microstructure, and interfacial tension techniques. Our results demonstrate that the cross- linking procedure with GAD strongly inhibits pepsin digestion by formation of inter- and/or intramolecular covalent bonds between substrate amino acids. Emulsification of HSA also protects from gastric digestion probably by the orientation of the HSA molecule, which exposes the majority of pepsin cleaving sites preferably to the hydrophobic part of the oil-water interface. In this emulsified HSA, cross-linking with GAD at the interface promotes structural modifications on the HSA interfacial layer, restricting the access of pepsin to cleavage sites. We identify interfacial aspects underlying enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein. Assuring that HSA-GAD structures resist passage through the gastric compartment is crucial is important towards the rational design of oral delivery systems and the first step to get the complete digestion profile. PMID:27341303

  14. Microwave-assisted digestion procedures for biological samples with diluted nitric acid: identification of reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mário H; Souza, Gilberto B; Oliveira, Regina V; Forato, Lucimara A; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Nogueira, Ana Rita A

    2009-07-15

    Microwave-assisted sample preparation using diluted nitric acid solutions is an alternative procedure for digesting organic samples. The efficiency of this procedure depends on the chemical properties of the samples and in this work it was evaluated by the determination of crude protein amount, fat and original carbon. Soybeans grains, bovine blood, bovine muscle and bovine viscera were digested in a cavity-microwave oven using oxidant mixtures in different acid concentrations. The digestion efficiency was evaluated based on the determination of residual carbon content and element recoveries using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). In order to determine the main residual organic compounds, the digests were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). Subsequently, studies concerning separation of nitrobenzoic acid isomers were performed by ion pair reversed phase liquid chromatography using a C18 stationary phase, water:acetonitrile:methanol (75:20:5, v/v/v)+0.05% (v/v) TFA as mobile phase and ultraviolet detection at 254 nm. Sample preparation based on diluted acids proved to be feasible and a recommendable alternative for organic sample digestion, reducing both the reagent volumes and the variability of the residues as a result of the process of decomposition. It was shown that biological matrices containing amino acids, proteins and lipids in their composition produced nitrobenzoic acid isomers and other organic compounds after cleavage of chemical bonds. PMID:19559896

  15. Partial digestion with restriction enzymes of ultraviolet-irradiated human genomic DNA: a method for identifying restriction site polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for partial digestion of total human DNA with restriction enzymes has been developed on the basis of a principle already utilized by P.A. Whittaker and E. Southern for the analysis of phage lambda recombinants. Total human DNA irradiated with uv light of 254 nm is partially digested by restriction enzymes that recognize sequences containing adjacent thymidines because of TT dimer formation. The products resulting from partial digestion of specific genomic regions are detected in Southern blots by genomic-unique DNA probes with high reproducibility. This procedure is rapid and simple to perform because the same conditions of uv irradiation are used for different enzymes and probes. It is shown that restriction site polymorphisms occurring in the genomic regions analyzed are recognized by the allelic partial digest patterns they determine

  16. Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) and use of the digestate is presented from a global warming (GW) point of view by providing ranges of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are useful for calculation of global warming factors (GWFs), i.e. the contribution to GW...

  17. Student Teachers' Ways of Thinking and Ways of Understanding Digestion and the Digestive System in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimer, Sabiha Odabasi; Ursavas, Nazihan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ways in which student teachers understand digestion and the digestive system and, subsequently, their ways of thinking, as reflected in their problem solving approaches and the justification schemes that they used to validate their claims. For this purpose, clinical interviews were conducted with 10…

  18. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. PMID:27396682

  19. Acid digestion of combustible radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following conclusions resulted from operation of Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) for processing transuranic waste: (1) the acid digestion process can be safely and efficiently operated for radioactive waste treatment.; (2) in transuranic waste treatment, there was no detectable radionuclide carryover into the exhaust off-gas. The plutonium decontamination factor (DF) between the digester and the second off-gas tower was >1.5 x 106 and the overall DF from the digester to the off-gas stack was >1 x 108; (3) plutonium can be easily leached from undried digestion residue with dilute nitric acid (>99% recovery). Leachability is significantly reduced if the residue is dried (>4500stack temp.) prior to leaching; (4) sulfuric acid recovery and recycle in the process is 100%; (5) nitric acid recovery is typically 35% to 40%. Losses are due to the formation of free nitrogen (N2) during digestion, reaction with chlorides in waste (NO2stack was > 1.5 x 106 andl), and other process losses; (6) noncombustible components comprised approximately 6% by volume of glovebox waste and contained 18% of the plutonium; (7) the acid digestion process can effectively handle a wide variety of waste forms. Some design changes are desirable in the head end to reduce manual labor, particularly if large quantities of specific waste forms will be processed; (8) with the exception of residue removal and drying equipment, all systems performed satisfactorily and only minor design and equipment changes would be recommended to improve performance; and(9) the RADTU program met all of its planned primary objectives and all but one of additional secondary objectives

  20. Composting as digestate post-treatment: composting behaviour and gaseous emissions of three types of digestate compared to non-digested waste

    OpenAIRE

    Trémier, A.; Buffet, J; Daumoin, M.; Corrand, V.

    2013-01-01

    International audience In the actual context of French regulation, anaerobic digestion products are still considered as waste and cannot be valorised as product unless being composted. Nevertheless digestates specificities concerning composting treatment have to be thoroughly studied. Thus the present work compared the composting behaviour of digestates with their non-digested waste. Three origins were considered: agricultural waste, source sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste ...

  1. The Effect of the Wings of Single Engine Airplanes on Propulsive Efficiency as Shown by Full Scale Wind Tunnel Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weick, Fred E; Wood, Donald H

    1929-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of the wings on propulsive efficiency. The wings are shown to cause a reduction of 1 percent to 3 percent in propulsive efficiency, which is about the same for monoplane as well as biplane wings.

  2. A study on the effect of levels of tannins on in vitro digestibility of different Sudanese varieties of sorghum grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was conducted to evaluate the tannin content and its effect on ruminant's digestibility in 26 Sudanese sorghum varieties. Samples were brought from Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani (ARC), hand cleaned and preserved in dark in plastic containers. Tannins content was measured by using vanillin-HCl method (Price et al, 1979) and in vitro digestibility was conducted to evaluate the dry meter digestibility and organic matter digestibility according to (Tilley and Terry, 1963). Results have shown that condensed tannins (vanillin-HCl) ranged between 0.39 g/kg and 23.08 g/kg, Tabat recorded the lowest value when Wad akar red recorded the highest value. An in vitro dry matter digestibility (INVDMD) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) trial were performed. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05) between organic matter and condensed tannins especially those contained high level of condensed tannins. The organic matter digestibility ranged between 680.11 g/kg in arfa gadamak commercial to 828.85 g/kg in dar baladi. The results have shown that the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to in vitro incubated samples increased the gas produced in wad akar red in 24 hours by 29% compared to the control sample without (PEG). Higher significant correlation (P<0.001) between the clorox bleaching test and condensed tannins (vanillin-HCl) in samples was found. It is concluded that condensed tannins in sorghum are beneficial to ruminant when they are introduced in complete diets to avoid the inhibitory effects of condensed tannins in sorghum. Adding (PEG) to the ruminant diets which contain high levels of condensed tannins improved digestibility subsequently animal performance.(Author)

  3. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 oC and for some experiments also at 37 oC. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm3 kg-1 respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm-3 and 7 g N dm-3 respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 oC, sterilization: 133 oC, and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 oC showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone.

  4. Comparative economic analysis: Anaerobic digester case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation

  5. Milk fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii induces apoptosis of HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Cousin, Fabien,; Jouan-Lanhouet, Sandrine; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Corcos, Laurent; Jan, Gwénaël

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The ‘‘economically developed countries’’ life style, including diet, constitutes a risk factor favoring this cancer. Diet modulation may lower digestive cancer incidence. Among promising food components, dairy propionibacteria were shown to trigger apoptosis of human colon cancer cells, via the release of short-chain fatty acids acetate and propionate. [br/] Methodology/Principal Findings: A fermented milk, exclusiv...

  6. 77 FR 40368 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Ancillary Studies to the Intestinal Stem Cells Consortium. Date... Program Nos. 93.847, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Research; 93.848, Digestive Diseases and Nutrition Research; 93.849, Kidney Diseases, Urology and Hematology Research, National Institutes of...

  7. Development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus argenteus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Eneida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish P. argenteus was analyzed histologically. On the 3rd day after hatching, the digestive system comprised oropharyngeal cavity, esophagus and simple undifferentiated tube. Since secreting cells, positive to Alcian Blue (AB, were found in the esophagus, digestive activity in the initial phase had occurred. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the esophagus was positive for AB and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS stain. The stomach was fully differentiated, with the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. Different regions of the epithelium were characterized by basic and acidic secreting cells (AB and PAS positive. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the intestine was long, coiled and divided into proximal, middle and distal segments with pyloric ceca. Secreting cells in different regions of the gut were either positive or negative for AB and PAS. Results showed that larvae of P. argenteus exhibited digestive activity on the third day after hatching, with fully differentiated stomach and intestines on the 18 and 28th days and their different regions featuring secreting cells.

  8. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to various microorganisms and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970, improved lactose digestion (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970, “intestinal flora/digestive health” (ID 4231, defence against vaginal pathogens (ID 2950, 2957, 2967 and increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells (ID 2960, 2962, 2971 (further assessment pursuant to Article 13(1 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to provide a scientific opinion on health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to various microorganisms and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion, “intestinal flora/digestive health”, defence against vaginal pathogens and increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells. The food constituents Lactobacillus crispatus BCCM/LMG P-17631, Lactobacillus gasseri BCCM/LMG P-17632, Lactobacillus gasseri BCCM/LMG P-18137, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1687, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1688, Lactobacillus plantarum BCCM/LMG P-17630, Lactobacillus salivarius CNCM I-1794 and a combination of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 and Lactobacillus johnsonii La-1 (ACD-1(CLbA22 are sufficiently characterised. The evidence provided did not establish that the proposed claimed effect, increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells, is a beneficial physiological effect. The claimed effect “intestinal flora/digestive health” is general and non-specific, and does not refer to any specific health claim as required by Regulation (EC No 1924/2006. The references provided in relation to the claims evaluated in this opinion included studies which assessed the effects of food constituents other than the food constituents which are the subject of the claims and/or investigated health outcomes unrelated to the claimed effects. No human studies which investigated the effects of the food constituents on appropriate measures of the claimed effects were provided. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel

  9. Malting process optimization for protein digestibility enhancement in finger millet grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Sara Najdi; Orsat, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a nutritious, gluten-free, and drought resistant cereal containing high amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and minerals. However, bio-availability of these nutrients is restricted due to the presence of an excessive level of anti-nutrient components, mainly phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate. It has been shown that a well-designed malting/germination process can significantly reduce these anti-nutrients and consequently enhance the nutrient availability. In the present study, the effects of two important germination factors, duration and temperature, on the enhancement of in-vitro protein digestibility of finger millet were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Based on a central composite design, the grains were germinated for 24, 36, and 48 h at 22, 26, and 30 °C. For all factor combinations, protein, peptide, phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate contents were evaluated and digestibility was assessed. It was shown that during the malting/germinating process, both temperature and duration factors significantly influenced the investigated quantities. Germination of finger millet for 48 h at 30 °C increased protein digestibility from 74 % (for native grain) up to 91 %. Besides, it notably decreased phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate contents by 45 %, 46 %, and 29 %, respectively. Linear correlations between protein digestibility and these anti-nutrients were observed. PMID:27413219

  10. Preliminary characterization of digestive enzymes in freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon J.; Cooper, Scott T.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers lack an effective chemical tool to control the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Zebra mussels clog water intakes for hydroelectric companies, harm unionid mussel species, and are believed to be a reservoir of avian botulism. Little is known about the digestive physiology of zebra mussels and unionid mussels. The enzymatic profile of the digestive glands of zebra mussels and native threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook mussels (Lampsilis cardium) are characterized using a commercial enzyme kit, api ZYM, and validated the kit with reagent-grade enzymes. A linear correlation was shown for only one of nineteen enzymes, tested between the api ZYM kit and a specific enzyme kit. Thus, the api ZYM kit should only be used to make general comparisons of enzyme presence and to observe trends in enzyme activities. Enzymatic trends were seen in the unionid mussel species, but not in zebra mussels sampled 32 days apart from the same location. Enzymatic classes, based on substrate, showed different trends, with proteolytic and phospholytic enzymes having the most change in relative enzyme activity.

  11. Instrumentation and Control in Anaerobic Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anaerobic digestion is a multistep process, and is most applied to solids destruction and wastewater treatment for energy production. Despite wide application, and long-term industrial proof of application, some industries are still reluctant to apply this technology. One of the classical reasons...... benchmark. There has therefore been, overall, a quantum advance in application and sophistication of instrumentation and control in anaerobic digestion, and it is an effective option for improved process loading rate and conversion efficiency....... are still a limitation, but this is being partly addressed by the increased complexity of digestion processes. Methods for control benchmarking have also been improved, as there is now an industry standard model (the IWA ADM1), and this is being applied in an improved whole wastewater treatment plant...

  12. CFD simulation of mixing in anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Mitsuharu; Goel, Rajeev; Komatsu, Kazuya; Yasui, Hidenari; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Li, Y Y; Noike, Tatsuya

    2009-04-01

    A three-dimensional CFD model incorporating the rheological properties of sludge was developed and applied to quantify mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester. The results of the model were found to be in good agreement with experimental tracer response curve. In order to predict the dynamics of mixing, a new parameter, UI (uniformity index) was defined. The visual patterns of tracer mixing in simulation were well reflected in the dynamic variation in the value of UI. The developed model and methods were applied to determine the required time for complete mixing in a full-scale digester at different solid concentrations. This information on mixing time is considered to be useful in optimizing the feeding cycles for better digester performance. PMID:19081247

  13. Mathematical tool to size rural digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentino Helenice de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digesters have been highlighted due to the current energy crisis and its consequent search for alternative energy sources, allied to the intense process of livestock farming and agriculture modernization, which besides demanding a lot of energy, produces a great amount of crop and animal residues, most of the times generating sanitary problems. The aim of this work is to provide a mathematical tool to establish parameters for projects of construction of rural digesters, considering the response to energy demand, the suitability of the dimensions of the systems, yield factors and the guarantee of functionality. Non-linear optimization models, of easy resolution, for the three main types of rural digesters were formulated in this way. With the resolution of these models one can determine the height and the diameter that lead to a minimum volume for each type, so reducing the necessary amount of masonry and, consequently, diminishing the cost.

  14. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest, 1991 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest provides a summary of information about the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRC's regulatory responsibilities, and the areas NRC licenses. This digest is a compilation of NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and the industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1990, with exceptions noted. For operating US commercial nuclear power reactors, information on generating capacity and average capacity factor is obtained from Monthly Operating Reports submitted to the NRC directly by the licensee. This information is reviewed for consistency only. No independent validation and/or verification is performed by the NRC. For detailed and complete information about tables and figures, refer to the source publications. This digest is published annually for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. 30 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Robust regulation of anaerobic digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailleret, L; Bernard, O; Steyer, J P

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling anaerobic digestion processes. A two-step (i.e. acidogenesis-methanization) mass balance model is considered for a 1 m3 fixed bed digester treating industrial wine distillery wastewater. The control law aims at regulating the organic pollution level while avoiding washout of biomass. To this end, a simple output feedback controller is considered which regulates a variable strongly related to the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Numerical simulations assuming noisy measurements first illustrate the robustness of this control procedure. Then, the regulating procedure is implemented on the considered anaerobic digestion process in order to validate and demonstrate its efficiency in real life experiments. PMID:14640204

  16. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian. PMID:24785191

  17. PERFORMANCE OF MAIN DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR AEROBIC DIGESTION OF ISFAHAN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER MIXED SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H MOVAHEDAN

    2000-06-01

    .36, 52.28, and 43.03 percent respectively of its primary value. Discussion. The results of this study were shown that mixed sludge from Isfahan South Wastewater Treatment Plant were stabilized effectively by aerobic digestion and during of these process significant decreases in any form solids and organic matters were occurred. Determining endpoints in digestion of sludge is carried out by determining the TVS reduction. A 40 percent TVS reduction (EPA's regulations was achieved with a minimum hydraulic detention time of 11 days at maximum TVS loading rate of 1.45KgTVsm-3d-1.

  18. Yeast Surface Display of Two Proteins Previously Shown to Be Protective Against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV in Shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorawit Ananphongmanee

    Full Text Available Cell surface display using the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris has been extensively developed for application in bioindustrial processes. Due to the rigid structure of their cell walls, a number of proteins have been successfully displayed on their cell surfaces. It was previously reported that the viral binding protein Rab7 from the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (PmRab7 and its binding partner envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV could independently protect shrimp against WSSV infection. Thus, we aimed to display these two proteins independently on the cell surfaces of 2 yeast clones with the ultimate goal of using a mixture of the two clones as an orally deliverable, antiviral agent to protect shrimp against WSSV infection. PmRab7 and VP28 were modified by N-terminal tagging to the C-terminal half of S. cerevisiae α-agglutinin. DNA fragments, harboring fused-gene expression cassettes under control of an alcohol oxidase I (AOX1 promoter were constructed and used to transform the yeast cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to both proteins demonstrated that mutated PmRab7 (mPmRab7 and partial VP28 (pVP28 were localized on the cell surfaces of the respective clones, and fluorescence intensity for each was significantly higher than that of control cells by flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA using cells displaying mPmRab7 or pVP28 revealed that the binding of specific antibodies for each was dose-dependent, and could be saturated. In addition, the binding of mPmRab7-expressing cells with free VP28, and vice versa was dose dependent. Binding between the two surface-expressed proteins was confirmed by an assay showing agglutination between cells expressing complementary mPmRab7 and pVP28. In summary, our genetically engineered P. pastoris can display biologically active mPmRab7 and pVP28 and is now ready for evaluation of efficacy in protecting shrimp against

  19. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 % and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipase-dependent pancreatic lipases and bile secretion. Gastric lipolysis leads to the hydrolysis of 10-30 % of ingested triglycerides, generating mainly diglycerides (DG and free fatty acids. This facilitates subsequent triglyceride hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase by allowing fat emulsification. Pancreatic lipase cleaves the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triglycerides and/or DG obtaining sn-2 monoglycerides. Different lipid metabolites are quickly absorbed along the epithelial cells of the small intestine, acting olive oil as a supplier of oleic-acid-rich hydrocarbon skeletons for cellular synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids. Absorption of mostly minor compounds of (extra virgin olive oil takes place in the small intestine, as native or derivatives. Compared to diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, olive oil suppresses gastric acid secretion and is a potent releasing factor of cholecystokinin peptide, which consistently indicate that the consumption of olive oil might be beneficial in digestive diseases.El aceite de oliva es una grasa monoinsaturada (rica en ácido oleico, compuesta por triglicéridos (>98% y componentes menores. En los procesos de digestión y absorción de los triglicéridos participan enzimas y se producen cambios fisicoquímicos. La lipasa gástrica es el componente mayoritario de la actividad lipolítica gástrica en humanos. La hidrólisis de los triglicéridos continúa en el duodeno, por la acción sinérgica de las lipasas g

  20. potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970), improved lactose digestion (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970), “intestinal flora/digestive health” (ID 4231), defence against vaginal pathogens (ID 2950, 2957, 2967) and increasing IL-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion, “intestinal flora/digestive health”, defence against vaginal pathogens and increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells...

  1. Influence of two plant extracts on broilers performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, F; Madrid, J; García, V; Orengo, J; Megías, M D

    2004-02-01

    A 42-d trial was conducted to study the influence of 2 plant extracts on performance, digestibility, and digestive organ weights in broilers. The feeding program consisted of a starter diet until 21 d and a finisher diet until 42 d. There were 4 treatment groups: control; 10 ppm avilamycin (AB); 200 ppm essential oil extract (EOE) from oregano, cinnamon, and pepper; and 5,000 ppm Labiatae extract (LE) from sage, thyme, and rosemary. No differences in feed intake or feed conversion were observed. From 14 to 21 d of age, broilers fed the LE diet grew faster than the broilers fed the control or EOE feeds (68.8 vs. 63.9 and 61.6 g/d, respectively). Antibiotic and plant extract supplementation improved apparent whole-tract and ileal digestibility of the nutrients. For starter feed, LE supplementation improved apparent fecal digestibility of DM (P 0.1). At the ileal level, the AB, EOE, and LE supplementation of the starter feed increased DM and starch (P 0.1). All additives improved apparent fecal digestibility of DM and CP of the finisher diet. No differences were observed for proventriculus, gizzard, liver, pancreas, or large or small intestine weight. In the present study, both plant extracts improved the digestibility of the feeds for broilers. The effect of different additives on digestibility improved the performance slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant. PMID:14979566

  2. Anaerobic digestion in mesophilic and room temperature conditions: Digestion performance and soil-borne pathogen survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Le; Jian, Shanshan; Bi, Jinhua; Li, Yunlong; Chang, Zhizhou; He, Jian; Ye, Xiaomei

    2016-05-01

    Tomato plant waste (TPW) was used as the feedstock of a batch anaerobic reactor to evaluate the effect of anaerobic digestion on Ralstonia solanacearum and Phytophthora capsici survival. Batch experiments were carried out for TS (total solid) concentrations of 2%, 4% and 6% respectively, at mesophilic (37±1°C) and room (20-25°C) temperatures. Results showed that higher digestion performance was achieved under mesophilic digestion temperature and lower TS concentration conditions. The biogas production ranged from 71 to 416L/kg VS (volatile solids). The inactivation of anaerobic digestion tended to increase as digestion performance improved. The maximum log copies reduction of R. solanacearum and P. capsici detected by quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) were 3.80 and 4.08 respectively in reactors with 4% TS concentration at mesophilic temperatures. However, both in mesophilic and room temperature conditions, the lowest reduction of R. solanacearum was found in the reactors with 6% TS concentration, which possessed the highest VFA (volatile fatty acid) concentration. These findings indicated that simple accumulation of VFAs failed to restrain R. solanacearum effectively, although the VFAs were considered poisonous. P. capsici was nearly completely dead under all conditions. Based on the digestion performance and the pathogen survival rate, a model was established to evaluate the digestate biosafety. PMID:27155428

  3. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  4. Multivariate monitoring of anaerobic co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    warming and environmental concerns. Anaerobic digestion applied in agriculture can simultaneously convert heterogeneous biomasses and wastes from the primary agricultural sector and from the bio processing industries, for instance food processing, pharma, and biofuel production, into valuable organic...... fertiliser and renewable energy. Meanwhile, in order for the biogas sector to become a significant player in the energy supply chain, the anaerobic digestion process has to be controlled to a greater extent than what is implemented as state-of-the-art today. Through application of the philosophy behind...

  5. Detection of digestive hemorrhages with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A good treatment of low digestive hemorrhages must be based, fundamentally, on the detection of the bleeding site. As opposed to what occurs with high digestive hemorrhages, especially when it is acute and massive, since the colon cannot be cleaned adequately. Such difficulties also occur in barytic studies. This is why the institute for Surgical Enhancement and the Nuclear Medicine Centre of the 'Clinicas' Hospital in Buenos Aires have started prospective studies aimed at evaluating diagnostic methods involving the use of Tc99m sulfide and red corpuscles marked with Tc99m. (Author)

  6. Acid digestion studies at AEE Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid digestion is a chemical combustion process which could be applied to the treatment of low- and medium-level radioactive waste. The present paper describes experiments on the topic carried out at AEE Winfrith in the period 1979-1982. This work has included laboratory-scale studies of the basic chemistry of the process, the design and operation of a 5:1 scale rig and investigations into methods of residue treatment and acid recovery. A review of acid digestion work carried out at other locations throughout the world and a summary of the results of a design study carried out by external consultants are also presented. (author)

  7. Optimization of solid state anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW by digestate recirculation: A new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michele, Pognani, E-mail: michele.pognani@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Soil and Env. Lab, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Giuliana, D’Imporzano, E-mail: giuliana.dimporzano@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Soil and Env. Lab, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gruppo Ricicla - DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Biomass and Bioenergy Lab., Parco Tecnologico Padano, Via Einstein, Loc. C.na Codazza, 26900 Lodi (Italy); Carlo, Minetti, E-mail: carlo.minetti@a2a.eu [Ecodeco, a2a Group, Cascina Darsena 1, 27010 Giussago, Pavia (Italy); Sergio, Scotti, E-mail: sergio.scotti@a2a.eu [Ecodeco, a2a Group, Cascina Darsena 1, 27010 Giussago, Pavia (Italy); Fabrizio, Adani, E-mail: farbrizio.adani@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Soil and Env. Lab, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gruppo Ricicla - DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Biomass and Bioenergy Lab., Parco Tecnologico Padano, Via Einstein, Loc. C.na Codazza, 26900 Lodi (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD) of OFMSW can be optimized by irrigation with digestate. • Digestate spreading allows keeping optimal process parameters and high hydrolysis rate. • The 18.4% of CH{sub 4} was produced in the reactor, leaving the 49.7% in the percolate. • Successive CSTR feed with percolate shows a biogas enriched in methane (more than 80%). • The proposed process allow producing the 68% of OFMSW potential CH{sub 4}, getting high quality organic amendment. - Abstract: Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of OFMSW was optimized in order to produce biogas avoiding the use of solid inoculum. Doing so the dry AD was performed irrigating the solid waste with liquid digestate (flow rate of 1:1.18–1:0.9 w/w waste/digestate; 21 d of hydraulic retention time – HRT) in order to remove fermentation products inhibiting AD process. Results indicated that a high hydrolysis rate of organic matter (OM) and partial biogas production were obtained directly during the dry AD. Hydrolysate OM was removed from digester by the percolate flow and it was subsequently used to feed a liquid anaerobic digester. During dry AD a total loss of 36.9% of total solids was recorded. Methane balance indicated that 18.4% of potential methane can be produced during dry AD and 49.7% by the percolate. Nevertheless results obtained for liquid AD digestion indicated that only 20.4% and 25.7% of potential producible methane was generated by adopting 15 and 20 days of HRT, probably due to the AD inhibition due to high presence of toxic ammonia forms in the liquid medium.

  8. Coupling System for Food Wastes Anaerobic Digestion and Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production with Ralstonia eutropha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new technology was developed to couple the anaerobic digestion of food wastes with production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acids were produced during food wastes anaerobic digestion and their concentrations reached 5.5, 1.8, 27.4 and 32.7 g/L, respectively under appropriate digestion conditions. The fermentative acids were transferred through a dialysis membrane to an air-lift reactor for PHA synthesis by Ralstonia eutropha. Dry cell concentration and PHA content reached 22.7 g/L and 72.6%, respectively. The obtained PHA was a copolymer of (-hydroxybutyrate (HB) and (-hydroxyvalerate (HV) with 2.8% (mole ratio) of HV units in polymer.

  9. Valorisation of Phosphorus Extracted from Dairy Cattle Slurry and Municipal Solid Wastes Digestates as a Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, V.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Labrincha, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus is a vital cell component and an essential and irreplaceable element. Yet at the current rate of exploitation, the phosphate’s reserves will be fast depleted. Dairy cattle slurry and digestates from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes (MSW) are organic wastes containing...... that when using HNO3, 100 % of P content was extracted from dairy cattle slurry (2.0\\pH\\3.3) and 90 % from MSW digestates (1.2\\pH\\1.5). The maximum extraction was obtained after 2.5 h for dairy cattle slurry and 48 h for MSW digestates. The extraction efficiencies using NaOH were only 22 % for dairy cattle...... slurry (12.9\\pH\\13.4) and 9 % for MWS digestates (13.0\\pH\\13.4). Phosphorus precipitation from extracted solutions was carried out at a molar ratio of 1:1:1 for Mg:N:P and at pH around 8.0. Analysis of the harvested precipitates by XRD and SEM–EDS ruled out the formation of struvite, but validated...

  10. Improvement of the digestion of cattle slurry via the process of co-digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Cornell, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The use of maize (Zea mays) as a co-substrate with cattle slurry for the production of biogas was investigated in detail by running several long term digestion trials under different operational conditions in laboratory scale semi-continuous digesters. These conditions included varying the organic loading rate (OLR) from 2 to 6 g VS l-1 d-1, the proportion of cattle slurry from 25 to 100%, and the recirculating regime. Results indicated that the co-digestion of cattle slurry and maize was ...

  11. Neither retinal nor brain atrophy can be shown in patients with isolated unilateral optic neuritis at the time of presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, Klaus; Sander, Birgit; Tsakiri, Anna; Wanscher, Benedikte; Fuglø, Dan; Larsen, Michael; Larsson, Henrik; Frederiksen, Jette L

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) may be the earliest manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Atrophy has been shown to be a prominent feature of MS with great impact on disability. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate retinal and brain atrophy and...... were calculated based on MRI. Additionally, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded. RESULTS: Neither OCT measurements nor brain volume measures revealed signs of localized or generalized atrophy in patients compared with healthy volunteers. Stratification of patients into high risk based on the...

  12. Digestibility of the lichen Stereocaulon paschale in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endre Jacobsen

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available The digestibility of the lichen Stereocaulon paschale is studied in a digestibility trial with two reindeer calves. The lichen is collected near Kautokeino in Northern Norway. Chemical composition of the lichen is shown in Table 1. Compared with Cladonia-species the content of crude protein and ash is higher in Stereocanlon paschale The content of Ca, P and Mg in the two species is of the same magnitude, while the content of Na and CI is ten times higher in Cladonia alpestris. The estimated digestibility is shown in Table 2. The dry matter digestibility is calculated to 46, 4%, which is very low compared to Cladonia-species. The higher crude protein content in Stereocaulon paschale has resulted in a positive apparent digestibility of protein.Tinajåkålån (Stereocanlon paschale sulavuus porolla.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Tinajåkålån sulavuutta on tutkittu sulavuuskokeissa kahdella poronvasalla. Kokeessa kåytetty jåkålå on koottu låheltå Kautokemoa. Jåkålån kemiallinen koosturnus on esitetty taulukossa I. Tinajåkålån sisåltåmå raakaproteiini- ja tuhkapitoisuus on korkeampi kuin (Cladonia-lajeilla. Ca-, P- ja Mg-pitoisuudet ovat po. jåkålålajeilla samantasoiset, kun taas Cladonia alpestris sisaltåmåt Na- ja Cl-pitoisuudet ovat kymmenen kertaa korkeampia. Sulavuuslaskelmat esitetåån taulukossa 2. Kuiva-aineen sulavuus on 46,4% mikå on erittåin alhainen verrattuna Cladonia-lajien sulavuuteen. Tinajåkålån korkeampi proteiinisisålto on vaikuttanut myonteisesti valkuaisaineen sulavuuteen.Fordøyelighet av saltlav, (Stereocaulon paschale til reinAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Fordøyeligheten av saltlav (Stereocaulon paschale er undersøkt i fordøyelsesforsøk med 2 reinkalver. Lav til forsøket er sanket nær Kautokeino. Kjemisk sammensetning av lavet er vist i Tabell 1. Sammenlignet med Cladonia-arter er innholdet av råprotein og aske høyere i saltlavet. Innholdet av Ca. P og Mg er på samme nivå i disse

  13. Cancer screening via infrared spectral cytopathology (SCP): results for the upper respiratory and digestive tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Max; Miljković, Miloš; Bird, Benjamin; Mazur, Antonella I; Schubert, Jen M; Townsend, Douglas; Laver, Nora; Almond, Max; Old, Oliver

    2016-01-21

    Instrumental advances in infrared micro-spectroscopy have made possible the observation of individual human cells and even subcellular structures. The observed spectra represent a snapshot of the biochemical composition of a cell; this composition varies subtly but reproducibly with cellular effects such as progression through the cell cycle, cell maturation and differentiation, and disease. The aim of this summary is to provide a synopsis of the progress achieved in infrared spectral cytopathology (SCP) - the combination of infrared micro-spectroscopy and multivariate methods of analysis - for the detection of abnormalities in exfoliated human cells of the upper respiratory and digestive tract, namely the oral and nasopharyngeal cavities, and the esophagus. PMID:26421636

  14. Impact of structural characteristics on starch digestibility of cooked rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masatsugu; Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2016-01-15

    To examine the impact of structural characteristics of cooked rice grains on their starch digestibility, a simulated in vitro gastro-small intestinal digestion technique was applied to intact and homogenised cooked rice samples. The starch hydrolysis percentage increased during simulated small intestinal digestion, in which approximately 65% and 24% of the starch was hydrolysed within the first 5min, for homogenised and intact cooked rice, respectively. The kinetic constant of homogenised cooked rice, which was regarded as an estimated digestion rate, was ∼8 times higher than the intact cooked rice. The homogenised and intact samples were also examined for any microstructural changes occurring during the in vitro digestion process using fluorescent and scanning electron microscopy. In the intact samples, the aleurone layers of the endosperm remained as thin-film like layers during in vitro digestion and thus may be regarded as less digestible materials that influence cooked rice digestibility. PMID:26258706

  15. Occult foreign bodies in the aero digestive tracts in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Somnath; Mishra, Saibal; Chakraborty, D. D.; Sengupta, Subhabrata; Mondal, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Foreign body impaction in aero digestive tract in infancy is difficult to diagnose sometimes. In this review of five unusual cases of occult foreign body impaction in aero digestive tract has been presented and their management discussed

  16. Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

  17. New opportunities for agricultural digestate valorization: current situation and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Monlau, Florian; Sambusiti, Cécilia; Ficara, Elena; Aboulkas, A.; Barakat, Abdellatif; Carrère, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    In the agricultural sector of many European countries, biogas production through anaerobic digestion (AD) is becoming a very fast-growing market. Anaerobic digestion is a simple and robust process that biologically converts an organic matrix into biogas and digestate, the latter corresponding to the anaerobically non-degraded fraction. So far, digestate has been mostly used at farm-scales for improving soils or as fertilizer. However, its ever-increasing production induces problems related to...

  18. Biogas production with the use of mini digester

    OpenAIRE

    P. Vindis; B. Mursec; C. Rozman; M. Janzekovic; F. Cus

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to present the construction of a mini digester for biogas production from different energy plants and organic wastes. With the mini digester the amount of biogas production (methane) is observed.Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, the mini digester consisting of twelve units was built and secondly some measurements with energy plants were performed. The measurements were performed with mini digester according to DIN 38414 part 8. Four tests simultaneously with...

  19. Characterization of digestates: agronomic value and residual biodegradability

    OpenAIRE

    Trémier, A.; Buffet, J.; Berger, S.; Dabert, P.

    2013-01-01

    Management of digestates could be a key issue for the future development of the anaerobic digestion market. Actually, a clear definition of their status and quality is necessary to secure valorization opportunities for all of the treated organic matter. In this study, three digestion plants have been followed for one year. Raw, solid and liquid digestate were sampled and characterized five times along the year in order to state on their quality and to compare it to the existing standards for ...

  20. The effects of gastric digestion on codfish allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Untersmayr, Eva; Poulsen, Lars K.; Platzer, Michael H;

    2005-01-01

    In a recent murine study, we showed that impaired gastric digestion supports the induction of fish allergy by protecting the digestion-sensitive major allergen parvalbumin and thus enhancing its sensitizing properties.......In a recent murine study, we showed that impaired gastric digestion supports the induction of fish allergy by protecting the digestion-sensitive major allergen parvalbumin and thus enhancing its sensitizing properties....

  1. The Financial Feasibility of Anaerobic Digestion for Ontario's Livestock Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Weersink, Alfons; Mallon, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This report is an investigation of the financial feasibility of farm based anaerobic digestion investments under Ontario's Standard Offer Contract electricity prices. Using Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) Agricultural Anaerobic Digestion Calculation Spreadsheet (AADCS) anaerobic digestion inputs, outputs, cost and revenues were estimated and used to conduct a financial analysis on the feasibility of four sized farm base anaerobic digestion investments. The res...

  2. Issues in Media Ethics. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that over the past decade incidents have occurred and new technologies have appeared which together have raised questions about the ethical values of American journalists, this Digest seeks to identify some of those ethical issues and to point to the work of those who have studied these issues. It addresses issues of plagiarism and…

  3. Variable Digestion Strategies for Phosphoproteomics Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonczarowska-Jorge, Humberto; Dell'Aica, Margherita; Dickhut, Clarissa; Zahedi, René P

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics has propelled our knowledge about the regulation of cellular pathways. Nevertheless, typically applied bottom-up strategies have several limitations. Trypsin, the preferentially used proteolytic enzyme shows impaired cleavage efficiency in the vicinity of phosphorylation sites. Moreover, depending on the frequency and distribution of tryptic cleavage sites (Arg/Lys), generated peptides can be either too short or too long for confident identification using standard LC-MS approaches. To overcome these limitations, we introduce an alternative and simple approach based on the usage of the nonspecific serine protease subtilisin, which enables a fast and reproducible digestion and provides access to "hidden" areas of the proteome. Thus, in a single LC-MS experiment >1800 phosphopeptides were confidently identified and localized from 125 μg of HeLa digest, compared to >2100 sites after tryptic digestion. While the overlap was less than 20 %, subtilisin allowed the identification of many phosphorylation sites that are theoretically not accessible via tryptic digestion, thus considerably increasing the coverage of the phosphoproteome. PMID:26584929

  4. ACTFL Speaking Proficiency Guidelines. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    This digest focuses on the American Council on the Speaking of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Speaking Proficiency Guidelines. The history and development of the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines (originally, the ACTFL Provisional Proficiency Guidelines) are reviewed, the generic characteristics of each level of the speaking guidelines are presented in…

  5. Test Accommodations for LEP Students. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Charles; Rivera, Charlene

    This digest presents an overview of accommodations for students of limited English proficiency (LEP) and an overview of inclusion practices on statewide assessments, with emphasis on the accommodation known as linguistic simplification. The inclusion of LEP students in statewide testing programs over the last decade has been uneven. In the…

  6. Applications of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    and resource/energy recovery have been developed. Treatment of biowastes by anaerobic digestion processes is in many cases the optimal way to convert organic waste into useful products such as energy (in the form of biogas) and a fertilizer product. Other waste management options, such as land filling...

  7. Status of Dance in Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Lynnette Young

    This Digest introduces dance as an art form characterized by use of the human body as a vehicle of expression. Organized into three sections, the first examines the rationale for dance programs in education, presenting opportunities for development of critical thinking and analytical skills; cooperation and teamwork; self-expression and…

  8. Grade Inflation in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carol

    Grade inflation has commanded increasing attention in the academic world in recent years, with administrators, faculty, and academic analysts unable to agree on whether grade inflation actually exists or is a myth to be debunked. This Digest reviews research in support of and against the existence of grade inflation. A statistical analysis report…

  9. Advertising in the Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidman, Amy

    This digest reviews the recent history of advertising to children, spotlights controversial marketing efforts, and examines the nature of commercial messages directed toward children in public schools. Because of the increase in children's spending power in recent decades, advertisers have closely targeted children as consumers. Advertising…

  10. Student Dress Policies. ERIC Digest, Number 117.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Lynne

    Educators and the public are divided over the value of implementing school-uniform policies in the public schools. This digest examines arguments for and against school-uniform policies, identifies legal considerations, and offers guidelines for implementing policies on student dress. Most parents have responded favorably to uniform policies,…

  11. Liderazgo visionario (Visionary Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    "Vision" is one of the most frequently used buzzwords in the education literature of the 1990s. This digest in Spanish presents an overview of visionary leadership, which many education experts consider to be a make-or-break task for the school leader. It discusses various definitions of vision, the significance of vision for organizations, the…

  12. Liderazgo etico (Ethical Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest in Spanish outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethical dilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite sense…

  13. Political Communication via the Media. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…

  14. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the conversion of th

  15. Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Estes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available “Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome” is a hands-on activity designed to demonstrate the dynamics of microbiome ecology using dried pasta and beans to model disturbance events in the human digestive system microbiome. This exercise demonstrates how microbiome diversity is influenced by: 1 niche availability and habitat space and 2 a major disturbance event, such as antibiotic use. Students use a pictorial key to examine prepared models of digestive system microbiomes to determine what the person with the microbiome “ate.” Students then model the effect of taking antibiotics by removing certain “antibiotic sensitive” pasta. Finally, they add in “environmental microbes” or “native microbes” to recolonize the digestive system, determine how resilient their model microbome community is to disturbance, and discuss the implications. Throughout the exercise, students discuss differences in the habitat space available and microbiome community diversity. This exercise can be modified to discuss changes in the microbiome due to diet shifts and the emergence of antibiotic resistance in more depth.

  16. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some vitamins and salts to the liver. The lymphatic system, a network of vessels that carry white blood ... nerves help control the action of the digestive system: extrinsic and intrinsic ... organs to the brain and spinal cord. These nerves release chemicals that ...

  17. Anaerobic digestion in sustainable biomass chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the potential contribution of anaerobic digestion (AD) to the sustainability of biomass chains. Results provide insights in the technological potential to recover energy and valuable by-products from energy crops and residues, and evaluate biomass cascades involving AD technolo

  18. Bifidobacteria in the digestive tract of bumblebees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Kopečný, Jan; Mrázek, Jakub; Rada, V.; Dubá, S.; Marounek, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2010), s. 165-170. ISSN 1075-9964 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD525/08/H060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Bifidobacteria * Bumblebee * Digestive tract Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.448, year: 2010

  19. A Science Fair Companion. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Wendy Sherman

    This digest comments on various aspects of school science fairs. General expectations for science fair projects and participants are discussed, and tips for choosing a topic and completing a project are given. Organizational strategies for teachers charged with conducting science fairs are presented. Guidelines for parents in helping children with…

  20. Comparison of digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters as inocula for solid state anaerobic digestion of yard trimmings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuqing; Wang, Feng; Lin, Long; Li, Yebo

    2016-01-01

    To select a proper inoculum for the solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of yard trimmings, digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters were compared at substrate-to-inoculum (S/I) ratios from 0.2 to 2 (dry basis), and total solids (TS) contents from 20% to 35%. The highest methane yield of around 244L/kg VSfeed was obtained at an S/I ratio of 0.2 and TS content of 20% for both types of inoculum. The highest volumetric methane productivity was obtained with dewatered effluent at an S/I ratio of 0.6 and TS content of 24%. The two types of inoculum were found comparable regarding methane yields and volumetric methane productivities at each S/I ratio, while using dewatered effluent as inoculum reduced the startup time. An S/I ratio of 1 was determined to be a critical level and should be set as the upper limit for mesophilic SS-AD of yard trimmings. PMID:26575617

  1. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 degrees C and for some experiments also at 37 degrees C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone...

  2. DISACCHARIDE DIGESTION: CLINICAL AND MOLECULAR ASPECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugars normally are absorbed in the small intestine. When carbohydrates are malabsorbed, the osmotic load produced by the high amount of low molecular weight sugars and partially digested starches in the small intestine can cause symptoms of intestinal distention, rapid peristalsis, and diarrhea. Co...

  3. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis;

    2012-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus...

  4. The anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Azeem; Arshad, Muhammad; Anjum, Muzammil; Mahmood, Tariq; Dawson, Lorna

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of solid organic waste is thought to be reaching critical levels in almost all regions of the world. These organic wastes require to be managed in a sustainable way to avoid depletion of natural resources, minimize risk to human health, reduce environmental burdens and maintain an overall balance in the ecosystem. A number of methods are currently applied to the treatment and management of solid organic waste. This review focuses on the process of anaerobic digestion which is considered to be one of the most viable options for recycling the organic fraction of solid waste. This manuscript provides a broad overview of the digestibility and energy production (biogas) yield of a range of substrates and the digester configurations that achieve these yields. The involvement of a diverse array of microorganisms and effects of co-substrates and environmental factors on the efficiency of the process has been comprehensively addressed. The recent literature indicates that anaerobic digestion could be an appealing option for converting raw solid organic wastes into useful products such as biogas and other energy-rich compounds, which may play a critical role in meeting the world's ever-increasing energy requirements in the future. PMID:21530224

  5. Involving Migrant Families in Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Yolanda G.; Velazquez, Jose A.

    This digest describes parent involvement in their children's education from the perspective of migrant parents and educators and offers strategies to enhance the experience of schooling for migrant students and their families. Teachers often perceive parent involvement as preparing children for school, attending school events, and fulfilling…

  6. Mechanically processed corn silage digestibility and intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Franco da Silveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry matter content increase due to the extension of the harversted period beginning and the kind of hybrid used can affect the starch digestibility and voluntary intake of ruminants. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the best corn hybrid and processing type of silage corn, and evaluate the possible effects on starch digestibility and voluntary intake of lambs. It was used 24 Santa Inês lambs with average age of three months and average initial weight of 25.0 kg. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2 factorial design (dent and flint hybrids; crushed and not crushed. The processing of the dent hybrid resulted in less dry matter intake (0.583 kg/day associated to higher total digestibility of dry matter and starch, 68.21 and 95.33% respectively. Thus, the processing of corn plants used for silage should be performed on hybrids with the dent grain texture to provide the best digestibility of silage to lambs.

  7. Nutrient Digestion and Utilization in Farm Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; France, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present current research in modelling nutrient digestion and utilization in cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry and fish. The book is organised into six sections that cover a range of topics and modelling approaches; these are (i) absorption and passage; (ii) growth and devel

  8. Effective Teaching in Distance Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Dan

    Distance education is an alternative method for delivering academic course work to students unable to attend traditional campus-based classes. This Digest presents information on the many forms of distance education and keys to successful teaching with distance education. Distance education is a method of education in which the learner is…

  9. Helping the Underachiever in Reading. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatroche, Diana J.

    Noting that the development of effective intervention programs and instructional strategies for the struggling or underachieving reader continues to be a topic of concern, this Digest first reviews the current status of reading performance, based on the 1998 National Assessment of Educational Progress. It then reports on the importance of early…

  10. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, Issue 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Frey, Mary Ann (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Garshnek, Victoria (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This is the twenty-sixth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 35 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 8 Soviet books. In addition, the proceedings of an Intercosmos conference on space biology and medicine are summarized.

  11. Using Technology in Remedial Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keup, Jennifer Rinella

    This digest discusses two specific computer-aided instruction systems used in two-year colleges in the United States and Canada, and addresses critical points regarding system implementation in remedial education programs. As developed in the Nova Scotia Community College System in Canada, the INVEST computer system provides literacy-based…

  12. FOI Digest Index, 1970-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedom of Information Center, Columbia, MO.

    An index of the reports and articles appearing in the 1970-79 issues of the "Freedom of Information Digest," a bimonthly newsletter, presents the titles in more than 100 subject categories. The topics covered by the index include access laws, general/school censorship, access to records, employee records, executive privilege, financial disclosure,…

  13. Migrant Farmworkers and Their Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip

    This digest reviews the population characteristics of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their children. Since the 1960s, federal programs for migrant workers and their families have multiplied. However, these programs have differing definitions for "migrant and seasonal farmworker," and no current data system provides a reliable count or…

  14. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  15. Student Truancy. ERIC Digest, Number 125.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKalb, Jay

    This Digest examines some of the ways that truancy affects both individuals and society. It identifies factors that may place students at greater risk of becoming truant and lists some consequences of nonattendance, including delayed promotion and graduation, lowered self-esteem, and lessened employment potential. The causes of truancy vary among…

  16. Dilute Solution Viscometry Studies on a Therapeutic Mixture of Non-digestible Carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, Stephen E.; Almuntari, F.; Adams, G G; Morris, Gordon; Lawson, C; Gahler, R.; Wood, S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has shown the beneficial effects of a proprietary mixture of three non-digestible carbohydrates: konjac glucomannan, xanthan and alginate and these effects have been linked with a synergistic interaction observable with analytical ultracentrifugation, rheological and NMR measurements. These observations have been supported by fundamental dilute solution viscosity studies. Preparations of konjac glucomannan, xanthan and alginate have been checked with regards their mole...

  17. Probiotics versus antibiotic decontamination of the digestive tract: infection and mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Oudhuis, Guy; Bergmans, Tom; Dormans, Tom; Zwaveling, Jan-Harm; Kessels, Alphons; Prins, Martin; Stobberingh, Ellen; Verbon, Annelies

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) has been shown to decrease the infection rate and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs); Lactobacillus plantarum 299/299v plus fibre (LAB) has been used for infection prevention and does not harbour the potential disadvantages of antibiotics. The objective was to assess whether LAB is not inferior to SDD in infection prevention. Methods: Two hundred fifty-four consecutive ICU patients with expected mechanical venti...

  18. Comparative Studies of Food Habits and Digestive Tracts in Two Apodemus Species

    OpenAIRE

    SHIOYA, Katsunori; Mori, Takayuki; Shiraishi, Satoshi

    1994-01-01

    Feeding experiments using three pairs of food items, analysis of the scaling of digestive organs and microscopic observation were examined in two woodland rodent species, Apodemus argenteus and A. speciosus. Comparing the values of selective indices between acorns and three species of insects, it was shown that A. argenteus has more intensive preference to insects than does A. speciosus. Both the mean ratio of the caecum length to stomach and intestine length (CL/TL) and the ratio of caecum l...

  19. The IWA Anaerobic digestion model no 1. (ADM1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batstone, Damien J.; Keller, J.; Angelidaki, Irini;

    2002-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Modelling Task Group was established in 1997 at the 8th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (Sendai, Japan) with the goal of developing a generalised anaerobic digestion model. The structured model includes multiple steps describing biochemical as well...

  20. Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    In vitro digestibility of protein was measured with pepsin/pancreatin in 321 spring barley lines grown in the field. The variation in digestibility was far less than the variation in the protein content. A small environmental influence on the digestibility was found. Two entries had slightly...

  1. Digestibility of organic processed feed ingredients in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    van KRIMPEN, M.M.; van Diepen, J.T.M; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; Harn, J.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, digestibility and nutritive value for laying hens of organically-grown feed raw materials was assessed. Digestibility and metabolisable energy content of the products differed considerably compared to those listed in the CVB Feedstuff Table. Laying hens, organic feed raw materials, digestibility, nutritive value

  2. Nanostructured microfluidic digestion system for rapid high-performance proteolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Gong; Hao, Si-Jie; Yu, Xu; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2015-01-01

    A novel microfluidic protein digestion system with nanostructured and bioactive inner surface was constructed by an easy biomimetic self-assembly strategy for rapid and effective proteolysis in 2 minutes, which is faster than the conventional overnight digestion methods. It is expected that this work would contribute to rapid online digestion in future high-throughput proteomics.

  3. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DDSCOD), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (khyd), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate

  4. Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, Jacob; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) and use of the digestate is presented from a global warming (GW) point of view by providing ranges of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are useful for calculation of global warming factors (GWFs), i.e. the contribution to GW measured in CO2-equivalents per tonne of wet waste. The GHG accounting was done by distinguishing between direct contributions at the AD facility and indirect upstream or downstream contributions. ...

  5. Slowly digestible waxy maize starch prepared by octenyl succinic anhydride esterification and heat-moisture treatment: glycemic response and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinhua; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Genyi

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism and molecular structure of the slowly digestible waxy maize starch prepared by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) esterification and heat-moisture treatment were investigated. The in vitro Englyst test showed a proportion of 28.3% slowly digestible starch (SDS) when waxy maize starch was esterified with 3% OSA (starch weight based, and it is named OSA-starch), and a highest SDS content of 42.8% was obtained after OSA-starch (10% moisture) was further heated at 120 degrees C for 4 h (named HOSA-starch). The in vivo glycemic response of HOSA-starch, which showed a delayed appearance of blood glucose peak and a significant reduction (32.2%) of the peak glucose concentration, further confirmed its slow digestion property. Amylopectin debranching analysis revealed HOSA-starch had the highest resistance to debranching enzymes of isoamylase and pullulanase, and a simultaneous decrease of K m and V m (enzyme kinetics) was also shown when HOSA-starch was digested by either alpha-amylase or amyloglucosidase, indicating that the slow digestion of HOSA-starch resulted from an uncompetitive inhibition of enzyme activity during digestion. Size exclusion chromatography analysis of HOSA-starch showed fragmented amylopectin molecules with more nonreducing ends that are favorable for RS conversion to SDS by the action of amyloglucosidase in the Englyst test. Further solubility analysis indicates that the water-insolubility of HOSA-starch is caused by OSA-mediated cross-linking of amylopectin and the hydrophobic interaction between OSA-modified starch molecules. The water-insolubility of HOSA-starch would decrease its enzyme accessibility, and the digestion products with attached OSA molecules might also directly act as the uncompetitive inhibitor to reduce the enzyme activity leading to a slow digestion of HOSA-starch. PMID:18067261

  6. STUDY OF THE EFFECTS SHOWN BY THE ACTION OF VARIOUS MICROORGANISMS ON THE LACTIC FERMENTATION OF JUICES

    OpenAIRE

    Iuliana Manea; Lavinia Buruleanu

    2010-01-01

    Research has established the most effective lactic acid bacteria used for fermentation of fruit and vegetables juices. The cultures were used for Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus and culture of micro flora obtained spontaneous shoots. Lactic fermented juice was obtained from cabbage, carrots and beetroot. Working in these variants were determined lactic fermentation parameters and some of the bioactive compounds from this process: pH, reducing sugars, viable cell counts. Determinatio...

  7. Research concerning the feed digestibility and the digestive utilization coefficient in grass carp (Ctenopharingodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerica Gîlcă

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was organized to investigate the recovery of additional food (fodder andterrestrial vegetation given to fish, Ctenopharyngodon idella, in particular through the study of nutrientdigestibility. Studied forage digestibility was determined through laboratory experiments, conductedbetween June 20 to 30, 2009, using 10 individuals of the species Ctenopharygodon idella from fish farmMovileni, Iași. There were formed two experimental groups, each of five individuals per group,differentiation between the two groups was the type of feed used, respectively specific fodder and greenclover green mass harvested in bud’s phase. To determine organic matter digestibility from feed we usedthe direct method, which consists in weighing all feed ingested, scrap feed and faeces removed. For thispurpose in each aquarium was placed one fish, after which the tanks were covered with netting and setwith oxygenation of the water pump. Statistical analysis of the data obtained from the experiment showsthat the average values of the coefficients of digestibility of nutrients from fodder and green clover havebeen very significant differences. If we compare the mean values of digestibility coefficients of organicsubstances in the two types of forage (green clover and fodder we can say that the fodder is digestedand assimilated better than clover. Thus, in fodder at a protein content of 378.7 g / kg DM (dry matter,there was a digestibility coefficient of 92%, while at a lower protein content of 312.5 g / kg DM, in thecase of green clover, the digestibility coefficient was 69%.

  8. Comparative assessment of raw and digested pig slurry treatment in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, Míriam; Oliveras, Judit; Viñas, Marc; Bonmatí, August

    2016-08-01

    Both raw and anaerobically digested pig slurries were investigated in batch assays in two chambered bioelectrochemical systems (BES) run in Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) and Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) mode. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal, nitrogen recovery, cation transport and anode microbial population evolutions were assessed. The Anaerobic Digestion-MEC (AD-MEC) integrated system achieved the highest COD removal (60% in 48h); while the maximum NH4(+) removal efficiency (40%, with an ammonia flux of 8.86g N-NH4(+) d(-1)m(-2)) was achieved in MFC mode fed with digested pig slurry in 24h. On the other hand, the high pH (12.1) achieved in MEC mode (NaCl solution as catholyte), could favour ammonium recovery in a subsequent stripping and absorption process. Ammonia was the main cation involved in maintaining the electroneutrality between both compartments. Regarding microbial population, Desulfuromonadaceae, a known family of exoelectrogenic bacteria, was enriched under MEC mode, whereas hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogen phylotypes belonging to Thermoplasmatales were also favoured against acetotrophic Methanosaetaceae. From these results, the integration of anaerobic digestion in BES seems to be an interesting alternative for the treatment of complex substrates, since a polished effluent can be obtained and ammonium can be simultaneously recovered for further reuse as fertilizer. PMID:27093494

  9. Microbial distribution and abundance in the digestive system of five shipworm species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan A Betcher

    Full Text Available Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes of the gills (ctenidia. These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis. These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose.

  10. Microbial Distribution and Abundance in the Digestive System of Five Shipworm Species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betcher, Meghan A.; Fung, Jennifer M.; Han, Andrew W.; O’Connor, Roberta; Seronay, Romell; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Distel, Daniel L.; Haygood, Margo G.

    2012-01-01

    Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms) are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) of the gills (ctenidia). These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis). These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:23028923

  11. Enhancing excess sludge aerobic digestion with low intensity ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wen-chuan; LI Dong-xue; ZENG Xiao-lan; LONG Teng-rui

    2006-01-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of aerobic digestion, the excess sludge was irradiated by low intensity ultrasound at a frequency of 28 kHz and acoustic intensity of 0.53 W/cm2. The results show that the sludge stabilization without ultrasonic treatment can be achieved after 17 d of digestion, whereas the digestion time of ultrasonic groups can be cut by 3 - 7 d. During the same digestion elapsing, in ultrasonic groups the total volatile suspended solid removal rate is higher than that in the control group. The kinetics of aerobic digestion of excess sludge with ultrasound can also be described with first-order reaction.

  12. COMPARISON OF TWO CHEMICAL PRETREATMENTS OF RICE STRAW FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilin Song,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is considered the most abundant renewable resource that has the potential to contribute remarkably in the supply of biofuel. Previous studies have shown that chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion (AD can increase the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass and methane yield. In the present study, the effect of rice straw pretreatment using ammonium hydroxide (NH3•H2O and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the biogasification performance through AD was investigated. A self-designed, laboratory-scale, and continuous anaerobic biogas digester was used for the evaluation. Results showed that the contents of the rice straw, i.e. the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose were degraded significantly after the NH3•H2O and H2O2 treatments, and that biogas production from all pretreated rice straw increased. In addition, the optimal treatments for biogas production were the 4% and 3% H2O2 treatments (w/w, which yielded 327.5 and 319.7 mL/gVS, biogas, respectively, higher than the untreated sample. Biogas production from H2O2 pretreated rice straw was more favorable than rice straw pretreated with same concentration of ammonia, ranking in the order of 4% ≈ 3% > 2% > 1%. The optimal amount of H2O2 treatment for rice straw biogas digestion is 3% when economics and biogas yields are considered.

  13. MALDI-TOF MS to monitor the kinetics of phospholipase A2-digestion of oxidized phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Jenny; Süß, Rosmarie; Schiller, Jürgen

    2016-07-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) are released through phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which cleaves the fatty acyl residue at the sn-2 position of phospholipids (PL). During inflammatory diseases, reactive oxygen species (such as HOCl) lead to the formation of oxidatively modified PL (e.g., chlorohydrin generation). It is still widely unknown to which extent the oxidation of PL influences their digestibility by PLA2. Additionally, investigations on the impact of the position of the unsaturated fatty acyl residue (sn-1 versus sn-2 position) and modifications of the headgroup (for instance phosphatidylcholine (PC) versus phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)) are also lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study is the investigation of these aspects using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to elucidate the PL/lysophospholipid (LPL) ratios as measures of the PLA2 digestibility. We will show that oxidative modifications of PL by HOCl have a considerable impact on the PLA2 digestibility, i.e., oxidation of the unsaturated fatty acyl residues leads to a reduced digestibility of both PC and PE. Besides, it will be shown that MALDI MS is a convenient and reliable tool to investigate the related changes. PMID:26721598

  14. Chemical composition and starch digestibility in flours from Polish processed legume seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecyk, Małgorzata; Wołosiak, Rafał; Drużynska, Beata; Worobiej, Elwira

    2012-12-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of various treatments, i.e. cooking after soaking, freezing after cooking and storage at a low temperature (-18°C, 21days), and autoclaving, of Polish cultivars of bean, pea and lentil seeds on the chemical composition and starch digestibility of the resultant flours. The cooking of seeds caused a significant decrease in contents of ash (by 11-48%), polyphenols (by 10-70%) and protein (to 19%) in flours made of bean. In addition, analyses demonstrated significantly decreased contents of resistant starch, RS (by 61-71%) and slowly digestible starch, SDS (by 56-84%). Storage of frozen seeds resulted in insignificant changes in the chemical composition, and in increased contents of both RS and SDS. The flours produced upon the autoclaving process were characterized by similar changes in the contents of ash and protein as in cooked seeds, yet losses of polyphenols were lower and, simultaneously, contents of RS and SDS were higher. All the analyzed flours were shown to be characterized by a reduced content of amylose in starch, which might have affected its digestibility. This was indicated by a strict negative correlation reported between the value of the starch digestion index (SDRI) and amylose content of starch (r=0.84, p>0.05). PMID:22953824

  15. Effect of Calcium Ions on Dewaterability of Enzymatic-Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Yang, Qi; Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Ying; Pang, Ya; Li, Xue; Liao, Xing-Sheng

    2015-08-01

    Waste-activated sludge (WAS) solubilized remarkably after enzymatic-enhanced anaerobic digestion, but its dewaterability was deteriorated. In this study, a novel method was performed to improve the dewaterability of enzymatic-enhanced anaerobic digestion sludge by adding CaCl2 (0.01~1.00 g/g total sludge). The capillary suction time (CST), moisture content, and filtrate turbidity were employed to characterize the dewaterability of WAS, and the possible mechanisms involved were clarified. The results showed the dewaterability did not worsen when CaCl2 was added before sludge digestion, and the CST, moisture content, and filtrate turbidity were notably reduced with the increase of CaCl2 dosage. It also shown that calcium ions played an important role in the bioflocculation of digested sludge by neutralizing negative charges on the surface of sludge. In addition, soluble protein initially lowered a little and then observably improved with the addition of CaCl2, while soluble carbohydrate was reduced sharply first and then bounced back afterwards. The interactions between calcium ions and the biopolymer further enhanced the dewatering of sludge through bridging of colloidal particles together. PMID:26129703

  16. Conversion of sewage treatment plants on sludge digestion. Energetic and economic optimization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations within the framework of the state-commissioned project ''Re-evaluation of wastewater purification plants with anaerobic sludge treatment with due consideration to framework conditions in terms of the energy and the wastewater management situation in Rhineland-Palatinate'', abbreviated ''NAwaS'', have shown that due to the rise in energy prices and availability of innovative techniques and methods it can be economically efficient, from a plant capacity of 10,000 inhabitants upwards, to convert sewage treatment plants to sludge digestion. Findings from the NAwaS project show the state of Rhineland-Palatinate to have a large potential for the conversion of sewage treatment plants to sludge digestion. Depending on the rate of price increase as well as interest rates the use of digester gas could permit an increase in electricity output by up to 50% over today's levels. Moreover, converted plants would be able to almost completely cover their own heat demand and in addition permit energy savings totalling an expected 5 kWh/(inhabitant x a). If one incorporates the possibilities offered by the procurement of sludge or suitable co-substrates from outside sources, by retrofitting sewage plants with combined heat and power stations or micro gas turbines as well as by process optimisation in existing digestion plants, this gives a further significant increase in potential production capacity and hence economic efficiency. In some of the sewage plants the above measures for saving energy and boosting energy production will even lead to energy self-sufficiency.

  17. Heredity characteristics of schizophrenia shown by dynamic functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional MRI scans of unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jianpo; Shen, Hui; Zeng, Ling-Li; Qin, Jian; Liu, Zhening; Hu, Dewen

    2016-08-01

    Previous static resting-state functional connectivity (FC) MRI (rs-fcMRI) studies have suggested certain heredity characteristics of schizophrenia. Recently, dynamic rs-fcMRI analysis, which can better characterize the time-varying nature of intrinsic activity and connectivity and may therefore unveil the special connectivity patterns that are always lost in static FC analysis, has shown a potential neuroendophenotype of schizophrenia. In this study, we have extended previous static rs-fcMRI studies to a dynamic study by exploring whether healthy siblings share aberrant dynamic FC patterns with schizophrenic patients, which may imply a potential risk for siblings to develop schizophrenia. We utilized the dynamic rs-fcMRI method using a sliding window approach to evaluate FC discrepancies within transient states across schizophrenic patients, unaffected siblings, and matched healthy controls. Statistical analysis showed five trait-related connections that are related to cingulo-opercular, occipital, and default mode networks, reflecting the shared connectivity alterations between schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings. The findings suggested that schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings shared common transient functional disconnectivity, implying a potential risk for the healthy siblings of developing schizophrenia. PMID:27295028

  18. A Hybrid Mode Model of the Blazhko Effect, Shown to Accurately Fit Kepler Data for RR Lyr

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, Paul H

    2013-01-01

    A new hypothesis is presented for the Blazhko effect in RRab stars. A nonlinear model is developed for the first overtone mode, which, if excited to large amplitude, is found to drop strongly in frequency while becoming highly nonsinusoidal. Its frequency is shown to drop sufficiently to become equal that of the fundamental mode. It is proposed that this may lead to phase-locking between the fundamental and the overtone forming a hybrid mode at the fundamental frequency. The fundamental mode, excited less strongly than the overtone, remains nearly sinusoidal and constant in frequency. By varying the fundamental's peak amplitude and its phase relative to the overtone, the hybrid mode can produce a variety of forms that match those observed in various parts of the Blazhko cycle. The presence of the fundamental also serves to stabilize the period of the hybrid which is found in real Blazhko data to be extremely stable. It is proposed that the variations in amplitude and phase might result from a nonlinear intera...

  19. NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENT OF WHOLE YEAST, AUTOLYZED YEAST AND YEAST CELL WALL BY NILE TILAPIA COMPOSIÇÃO NUTRICIONAL E DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE DALEVEDURA ÍNTEGRA, DA LEVEDURA AUTOLISADA E DA PAREDE CELULAR PELA TILÁPIA-DO-NILO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional composition and apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, gross energy, essential amino acids and no essential amino acids of spray dried whole yeast, autolyzed yeast and yeast cell wall were evaluated to Nile tilapia. Eighty juveniles (83.0±8.5g were placed in eight 250L aquaria for feeding and four aquaria of the same volume for collecting faecal samples. Both sets were equipped with flow-trough recirculating system provided with mechanical and biological filter. The results were analyzed through comparative relative index and the 100% value corresponded to the whole yeast nutrients. It can be concluded that the whole yeast contains high protein level and good apparent digestibility to nutrients and amino acids; autolysis process improves the dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and the most of essential and no essential amino acids apparent digestibility. Moreover yeast cell wall must not be used as protein source but is suggested as functional foodstuff in Nile tilapia diets.KEY WORDS: Amino acids, Oreochromis niloticus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae A composição nutricional e os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente para matéria seca, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, energia bruta, aminoácidos essenciais e aminoácidos não essenciais da levedura de álcool íntegra, levedura autolisada e parede celular spray dried foram avaliados para tilápia-do-nilo. Utilizou-se um total de oitenta peixes (83,0±8,5g, alojados em oito aquários de 250 L para alimentação e quatro de mesmo volume para a coleta de fezes, todos eles dotados de sistema de recirculação contínua de água, com filtro físico-biológico e temperatura controlada. Procedeu-se à avaliação dos resultados por meio do índice relativo de compara

  20. High pressure processing of meat: effects on ultrastructure and protein digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Astruc, Thierry; Vénien, Annie; Loison, Olivier; Cui, Jian; Irastorza, Marion; Boland, Mike

    2016-05-18

    The effects of high pressure processing (HPP, at 175 and 600 MPa) on the ultrastructure and in vitro protein digestion of bovine longissimus dorsi muscle meat were studied. HPP caused a significant change in the visual appearance and texture of the meat subjected to HPP at 600 MPa so that it appeared similar to cooked meat, unlike the meat subjected to HPP at 175 MPa that showed no significant visible change in the colour and texture compared to the raw meat. The muscles were subjected to digestion under simulated gastric conditions for 1 h and then under simulated small-intestinal conditions for a further 2 h. The digests were analysed using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and ninhydrin assay for amino N. The effect of the acid conditions of the stomach alone was also investigated. Reduced SDS-PAGE results showed that pepsin-digested (60 min) HPP meats showed fewer proteins or peptides of high molecular weight than the pepsin-digested untreated meat, suggesting more breakdown of the parent proteins in HPP-treated meats. This effect was more pronounced in the muscles treated at 600 MPa. These results are in accordance with microscopy results, which showed greater changes in the myofibrillar structure after simulated gastric digestion of the sample processed at 600 MPa than at 175 MPa. Transmission electron microscopy also showed the presence of protein aggregates in the former sample, resulting probably from protein denaturation of sarcoplasmic proteins, in the subcellular space and between myofibrils; along with cell contraction (similar to that caused by heating) in the former. PMID:27143217

  1. Lymphoid Tissues in the Digestive Tract of Deshi Chicken (Gallus domesticus in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Rahman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The different parts of digestive system of one-day old, 30 days, 90 days and 180 days old deshi chickens were taken in fresh state and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of lymphocytes in the different histological layers of the digestive tract of deshi chicken at the different ages of postnatal growth and development. In the present study the Intraepithelial Lymphocytes (IELs were not abundant in the upper segments of the digestive tract (oesophagus, crop, proventriculus and gizzard, however these immunocompetent cells were abundantly found in the distal part of the digestive tract (duodenum, jejunum, Meckel`s diverticulum, ileum, caecum, cecal tonsil and colorectum. The population of IELs in the distal part of the tract were found higher from day 90 to day 180 of postnatal period of development, however in the jejunum, caecum and ceacal tosil the frequency were found abundant at day old ages only. The lamina propria of the different segments of digestive tract contain isolatory and diffuse lymphocytes. In addition to these isolatory lymphatic nodules and aggregated lymphatic nodules were present and there were higher in frequency at day 90 and at day 180 of postnatal ages. The lymphocytes were also distributed scatteredly in the submucosa and tunica muscularis in all the stages of development. These results suggest that the development of the population of lymphocytes in the postnatal period vary with the different segments of the digestive tract concerned and aging of chicken of Bangladesh.

  2. Enhanced biogas production from municipal WWTPs : Co-digestion of microalgae with sewage sludge and thermophilic secondary digestion of mesophilic digested sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Biogas is produced when organic material is broken down in oxygen-free (anaerobic) conditions. This process is called anaerobic digestion and is used in most large and medium-sized municipal wastewater treatment plants in Sweden. In the wastewater treatment sewage sludge is obtained, from the mecanical-, biological and chemical treatment step, which contains decomposable organic material. The sludge is pumped into a digester, which is an airtight container. In the digester raw biogas, consist...

  3. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B;

    2012-01-01

    In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour of...... the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly...... reduces the availability of liberated fatty acids to form mixed micelles and vesicles, thereby reducing drug solubilization. The use of high calcium concentrations does indeed force in vitro digestion of LCTs but may overestimate the extent of drug precipitation that occurs within the intestinal lumen....

  4. Evaluation of a dynamic in vitro model to simulate the porcine ileal digestion of diets differing in carbohydrate composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, J P; Manzanilla, E G; Anguita, M; Denis, S; Pérez, J F; Gasa, J; Cardot, J-M; Garcia, F; Moll, X; Alric, M

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the ability of a dynamic in vitro model to determine the digestibility of OM, CP, and starch compared with a validated, static, in vitro method and in vivo ileal digestibility obtained from growing pigs fitted with a T-cannula. Five experimental diets with different carbohydrate types and level were assessed: a standard corn-based diet (ST) or the same diet with coarse ground corn (CC), 8% sugar beet pulp (BP), 10% wheat bran (WB), or 8% sugar beet pulp and 10% wheat bran (HF). In the in vivo experiment, diets CC and HF reduced (P = 0.015) ileal digestibility of OM compared with the ST diet. The inclusion of sugar beet pulp reduced (P = 0.049) ileal CP digestibility of the BP diet. This reduction was not statistically significant when sugar beet pulp was combined with the wheat bran in the HF diet. No differences were shown for in vivo starch digestibility among diets. With the static in vitro method, the OM disappearance was greater than that observed in the in vivo experiment. In this static method, the BP and HF diets reduced (P = 0.004 and < 0.001, respectively) the disappearance of the OM compared with the ST diet. The coarse grinding of corn did not alter OM digestibility but decreased (P = 0.005) the starch digestibility. The R(2) between the in vivo results and the static in vitro methods for OM and starch digestibility was 0.99 when the CC diet was not considered. The dynamic in vitro model yielded OM and CP digestibility coefficients comparable with those obtained in vivo for the ST and CC diets. However, the values were considerably affected by the incorporation of the fibrous ingredients. Diets BP, WB, and HF had decreased (P = 0.009, 0.058, and 0.004, respectively) OM digestibility compared with the ST diet. Protein digestibility was also decreased (P < 0.001, P = 0.019, and P = 0.003, respectively) with the BP, WB, and HF diets compared with the ST diet. However, digestibility was decreased to a greater extent in the

  5. Digestive system of the sacoglossan Plakobranchus ocellatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia): light- and electron-microscopic observations with remarks on chloroplast retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Euichi

    2005-08-01

    The sacoglossan Plakobranchus ocellatus feeds by sucking the cytoplasmic contents from algae and retains intact algal chloroplasts within the cells of the digestive gland. Morphology of the entire digestive system of this species was firstly described by means of a combination of histology and electron microscopy (both SEM and TEM). The short alimentary canal is confined to the head, and the anus opens at the anterior right corner of the pericardial swelling, as is the case in many non-shelled sacoglossans. The alimentary canal of the specimens examined rarely contained ingesta, suggesting that the retained chloroplasts provide sufficient nourishment to the sacoglossan hosts and that sea slugs with empty stomachs survive well in the field. The digestive gland, with the retained chloroplasts, branches from the stomach and is sparsely distributed throughout the body, including the head region, but is aggregated mainly in the dorsal lamellae. Chloroplasts were occasionally found in the epithelial cells in the transitional region from the stomach wall to the digestive gland, which may be a site at which chloroplasts are incorporated into the animal cells by endocytosis. Numerous microvilli filling the lumen of the digestive gland suggest that molecules are actively transferred within the gland. The sea slug thus apparently provides a favorable environment to support the long-term retention and function of chloroplasts. PMID:16141704

  6. Structural and functional analysis of CR2/EBV receptor by means of monoclonal antibodies and limited tryptic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzer, A L; Schulz, T F; Stauder, R; Eigentler, A; Myones, B L; Dierich, M P

    1988-01-01

    The receptor for the C3d fragment of the third component of complement, CR2, has recently been shown also to act as the receptor for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and to be involved in the control of B-cell proliferation. In order to define functionally important domains on this molecule, we produced monoclonal antibodies to several distinct epitopes. CR2 was purified from a NP-40 lysate of human tonsils by a new method involving sequential chromatography on lentil lectin Sepharose 4B and DEAE-Sephadex and used to immunize mice. After fusion we obtained four stable hybridoma lines producing antibody to CR2. Specificity of these antibodies for CR2 was ascertained by immunofluorescence analysis on a panel of various cells known to possess CR2, by their reactivity in a recently described ELISA for C3 receptors, by Western blotting with purified CR2 and immunoprecipitation from 125I-labelled Raji cells. These four antibodies were found to recognize three distinct epitopes localized on the same fragments of 95,000, 72,000, 50,000, 32,000 and 28,000 MW obtained after mild tryptic digestion of CR2. The 72,000 MW fragment contains the binding site for C3d. Two monoclonal antibodies recognizing the same epitope did not inhibit the binding of C3d-coated sheep erythrocytes to Raji cells, whereas the other two antibodies against distinct epitopes did inhibit in the presence of a second antibody. All four monoclonal antibodies stimulated the proliferation of human peripheral blood B cells. PMID:2448232

  7. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This is the twenty-ninth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It is a double issue covering two issues of the Soviet Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine Journal. Issue 29 contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A review of a book on environmental hygiene and a list of papers presented at a Soviet conference on space biology and medicine are also included. The materials in this issue were identified as relevant to 28 areas of space biology and medicine. The areas are: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, digestive system, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, space biology and medicine, and the economics of space flight.

  8. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus, the...... first models were very simple and consisted of a limited number of equations. During the past thirty years much research has been conducted on the peculiarities of the process and on the factors that influence it on the one hand while an enormous progress took place in computer science on the other. The...... combination of both parameters resulted in the development of more and more concise and complex models. In this chapter the most important models found in the literature are described starting from the simplest and oldest to the more recent and complex ones....

  9. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest 1992 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest provides a summary of information about the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRC's regulatory responsibilities, the activities NRC licenses, and general information on domestic and worldwide nuclear energy. This digest is a compilation of nuclear- and NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1991, with exceptions noted. Information on generating capacity and average capacity factor for operating US commercial nuclear power reactors is obtained from monthly operating reports that are submitted directly to the NRC by the licensee. This information is reviewed by the NRC for consistency only and no independent validation and/or verification is performed

  10. Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Chiarioni; Olafur S Palsson; William E Whitehead

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves aRentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action.

  11. Cytometric analysis of retinopathies in retinal trypsin digests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanian, Zahra; Staniszewski, Kevin; Sorenson, Christine M.; Sheibani, Nader; Ranji, Mahsa

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this work was to design an automated image cytometry tool for determination of various retinal vascular parameters including extraction of features that are relevant to postnatal retinal vascular development, and the progression of diabetic retinopathy. To confirm the utility and accuracy of the software, retinal trypsin digest from TSP1-/- and diabetic Akita/+; TSP1-/- mice were analyzed. TSP1 is a critical inhibitor of development of retinopathies and lack of TSP1 exacerbates progression of early diabetic retinopathies. Loss of vascular cells of and gain more acellular capillaries as two major signs of diabetic retinopathies were used to classify a retina as normal or injured. This software allows quantification and high throughput assessment of retinopathy changes associated with diabetes.

  12. Monitoring of internal diseases dissemination (digestive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipova L.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important forms of digestive pathology have been analyzed in a large industrial center for 16 years. Development of fragment of the phase portraits in a multidimensional space on the planes of «time dependence of the parameter — rate of its change» allowed forming prognosis for further course of specific nosology form of gastrointestinal tract lesion and optimizing treatment tactics

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes

    OpenAIRE

    L. Neves

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica Anaerobic digestion is an already established process but the increasing need of bio‐waste recovery has determined the emergence of new substrates, revamping the research in this field. Contrary to some other European countries, in Portugal this technology is still scarcely in use. Nonetheless, the current legislation endorses this application as a waste management and as an energy recovery process. The rapid growth of the ...

  14. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez, Beatriz; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; López, Sergio; Abia, Rocío; Muriana, Francisco J. G.

    2004-01-01

    Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid)-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98%) and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and...

  15. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Muriana, Francisco J. G.; Abia, Rocío; López, Sergio; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; Bermúdez, Beatriz

    2004-01-01

    Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid)-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 %) and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipas...

  16. Anaerobic digestion in sustainable biomass chains

    OpenAIRE

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the potential contribution of anaerobic digestion (AD) to the sustainability of biomass chains. Results provide insights in the technological potential to recover energy and valuable by-products from energy crops and residues, and evaluate biomass cascades involving AD technology for their feasibility and desirability. Embedding AD in biomass chains addresses current constraints towards increased use of biomass for energy production considering land competition and envir...

  17. Biodeterioration of cementitious materials in biogas digester

    OpenAIRE

    Voegel, C.; Bertron, A.; Erable, B

    2015-01-01

    In biogas production plants, concrete structures suffer chemical and biological attacks during the anaerobic digestion process. The attack on concrete may be linked to the effects of (i) organic acids; (ii) ammonium and CO2 co-produced by the microorganisms’ metabolisms; and (iii) the bacteria’s ability to form biofilms on the concrete surface. In a context of biogas industry expansion, the mechanisms of concrete deterioration need to be better understood in order to propose innovative, effic...

  18. Video Games and Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This digest examines data on video game use by children, explains ratings of video game violence, and reviews research on the effects of video games on children and adolescents. A recent study of seventh and eighth graders found that 65% of males and 57% of females played 1 to 6 hours of video games at home per week, and 38% of males and 16% of…

  19. Biomethanization of sugar beet byproduct by semi-continuous single digestion and co-digestion with cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboudi, Kaoutar; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Romero-García, Luis Isidoro

    2016-01-01

    Dried pellet of exhausted sugar beet cossettes were digested alone and combined with cow manure as co-substrate in a mesophilic semi-continuous anaerobic system. In single digestion assay, the stable biogas production and stable reactor operation was observed at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20days (OLR: 3.26gVS/Lreactord) which was the minimum HRT tolerated by the system. However, co-digestion with cow manure allowed to decrease the HRT until 15days (OLR: 4.97gVS/Lreactord) with 32% higher biogas generation and efficient reactor operation. Propionic acid was the predominant VFA observed during single digestion assay failure, while acetic acid accumulation was observed in the co-digestion assay. In both single and co-digestion assays, the recovery of digesters was possible by ceasing the feeding and re-inoculation with a well-adapted inoculum. PMID:26512853

  20. STUDY OF THE EFFECTS SHOWN BY THE ACTION OF VARIOUS MICROORGANISMS ON THE LACTIC FERMENTATION OF JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Manea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has established the most effective lactic acid bacteria used for fermentation of fruit and vegetables juices. The cultures were used for Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus and culture of micro flora obtained spontaneous shoots. Lactic fermented juice was obtained from cabbage, carrots and beetroot. Working in these variants were determined lactic fermentation parameters and some of the bioactive compounds from this process: pH, reducing sugars, viable cell counts. Determination of reducing sugars calculated as glucose was conducted using the 3.5 dinitrosalicilic acid method (DNS method, pH was determined with a pH meter electronics. Chemical parameters listed were determined every two hours during the first 24 hours, then 48 and 72 hours in thermostatic conditions at 37 degrees C and 7 days storage at refrigerator temperature. At the end of the lactic fermentation, the lowest pH 4.31, which also provide juice conservation was obtained using a pure culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Reducing sugar is metabolized significantly when the juice of beetroot, fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus culture, 75.19%. The results may be an argument for obtaining juice fermented lactic acid, which are popular functional foods, to obtain a chemical composition and sensory their optimum.

  1. Fungal sterol C22-desaturase is not an antimycotic target as shown by selective inhibitors and testing on clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Binder, Ulrike; Maurer, Elisabeth; Grimm, Christian; Giera, Martin; Bracher, Franz

    2015-09-01

    Inhibition of concise enzymes in ergosterol biosynthesis is one of the most prominent strategies for antifungal chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the enzymes sterol C5-desaturase and sterol C22-desaturase, which introduce double bonds into the sterol core and side chain, have not been fully investigated yet for their potential as antifungal drug targets. Lathosterol side chain amides bearing N-alkyl groups of proper length are known as potent inhibitors of the enzymes sterol C5-desaturase and sterol Δ(24)-reductase in mammalian cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we present the results of our evaluation of these amides for their ability to inhibit enzymes in fungal ergosterol biosynthesis. In the presence of inhibitor(s) an accumulation of sterols lacking a double bond at C22/23 (mainly ergosta-5,7-dien-3β-ol) was observed in Candida glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Hence, the lathosterol side chain amides were identified as selective inhibitors of the fungal sterol C22-desaturase, which was discussed as a specific target for novel antifungals. One representative inhibitor, (3S,20S)-20-N-butylcarbamoylpregn-7-en-3β-ol was subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing on patient isolates according to modified EUCAST guidelines. But, the test organisms showed no significant reduction of cell growth and/or viability up to an inhibitor concentration of 100μg/mL. This leads to the conclusion that sterol C22-desaturase is not an attractive target for the development of antifungals. PMID:26022150

  2. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes: laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 10 references, 17 figures, 4 tables

  3. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest: 1993 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest (digest) provides a summary of information about the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRC's regulatory responsibilities, the activities NRC licenses, and general information on domestic and worldwide nuclear energy. The digest, published annually, is a compilation of nuclear- and NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and the industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1992, with exceptions noted. Information on generating capacity and average capacity factor for operating U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors is obtained from monthly operating reports that are submitted directly to the NRC by the licensee. This information is reviewed by the NRC for consistency only and no independent validation and/or verification is performed. Comments and/or suggestions on the data presented are welcomed and should be directed to Karen Olive, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of the Controller, Division of Budget and Analysis, Washington, D.C. 20555. For detailed and complete information about tables and figures, refer to the source publications

  4. Antioxidant properties of chemical extracts and bioaccessible fractions obtained from six Spanish monovarietal extra virgin olive oils: assays in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Thays H; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Seiquer, Isabel

    2015-07-01

    The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content (TPC) of six Spanish commercial monovarietal extra virgin olive oils (Arbequina, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca, Manzanilla, Picual and Picudo) were evaluated in chemical extracts and in bioaccessible fractions (BF) obtained after in vitro digestion. Moreover, the effects of the BF on cell viability and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated in Caco-2 cell cultures. The in vitro digestion process increased the TPC and antioxidant activity evaluated by different methods (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP) compared with chemical extracts. After digestion, the Picual variety showed better beneficial effects in preserving cell integrity than the other varieties studied. Significant reductions of ROS production were observed after incubation of Caco-2 cells with the BF of all the varieties and, moreover, a protective effect against the oxidative stress induced by t-BOOH was shown for Arbequina, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca, Manzanilla and Picual. These findings seem to be an additional reason supporting the health benefits of Spanish extra virgin olive oil varieties. Multivariate factor analysis and principal component analysis were applied to assess the contribution of antioxidant activity and TPC, before and after digestion, to the characterization of the different varieties. PMID:26087367

  5. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayr, S., E-mail: suvi.bayr@jyu.fi; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  6. The safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX® as shown in a 90-day rodent feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Marone Palma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to evaluate the safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®, a novel viscous dietary polysaccharide (fiber, when administered to Sprague Dawley® rats in the diet for 90 days. Methods Groups of ten male and ten female rats each consumed PGX mixed in the diet at levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0% for 90 days, then evaluated for toxicological effects on parameters that included neuromotor activity, body weight, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, hematology, and histopathology. Results Mean body weight, mean feed consumption and food efficiency in the treated groups were generally comparable to controls for both male and female rats. No changes were noted in neuromotor behavior, and histopathological analysis revealed no significant changes between treated and control animals. There were no differences in mean organ weight, organ-to-body weight or organ-to-brain weight values between controls and treated animals. Decreased red blood cell count occurred in the high dose males and increases in aspartate and alanine aminotransferase enzyme levels and triglycerides, while significant decreases in serum sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations were observed in the females fed 5.0% PGX. However, the decreased mineral concentrations may be the result of significantly increased urinary volume in both males and females at the high dose, with a concomitant decrease in urinary specific gravity (males and females and protein concentration (females. These results were within historical control values, did not correlate with any histopathological changes, and were not considered adverse. Conclusion The results indicate a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for PGX at 5.0% of the diet, corresponding to an average daily intake of 3219 and 3799 mg/kg bw/day in male and female rats, respectively.

  7. Fatores preditivos da transfusão de concentrado de hemácias em pacientes submetidos a cirurgias eletivas do aparelho digestivo: uma análise interinstitucional Predictive factors associated with packed red cell transfusions in patients submitted to elective surgery of the digestive tract: an inter-institutional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sergio Barcala Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi compreender os fatores determinantes da prática transfusional de concentrado de hemácias em cirurgias eletivas do aparelho digestivo em quatro unidades hospitalares em Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, analítico e retrospectivo através do levantamento de dados em prontuários clínicos de quatro unidades hospitalares de onde foram catalogados os dados de pacientes a partir de junho de 2007 a dezembro de 2008, referentes às cirurgias citadas. Os resultados evidenciaram 81 casos, sendo 42% do gênero feminino e 58% do masculino. A idade média foi de 55,5 anos (±19,11 anos. As enfermidades de base reportadas mais comuns foram os processos neoplásicos (42%. Desses 81 pacientes, 38 (47% foram hemotransfundidos no pré-operatório imediato, 28 (18% foram transfundidos no transcirúrgico e 37 (45,7% no pós-operatório imediato. Na análise univariada houve diferenças entre a prática transfusional pré-cirúrgica interinstitucional. Na fase cirúrgica houve relação entre a prática transfusional com a citação de motivos, fator RH (Rhesus, prática institucional e doença de base. Na fase pós-cirúrgica não foram demonstradas relações. Em todas as fases, não houve associação da prática transfusional com os tipos de procedimentos cirúrgicos, com o índice ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology e valores de hemoglobina e hematócrito. Concluindo, esse estudo revelou que a prática transfusional foi heterogênea entre instituições hospitalares, careceu de valores laboratoriais específicos, relacionou-se com a patologia de base mas não com o tipo de procedimento cirúrgico e foi norteada pelo critério de escolha do profissional.The objective of this study was to understand the determinative factors for packed red cell transfusions in elective digestive tract surgeries in four hospital units in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Retrospective analyses were

  8. Processing biogas plant digestates into value-added products - BIOVIRTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paavola, T. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)), e-mail: teija.paavola@mtt.fi; Torniainen, M. (Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: merja.torniainen@evira.fi; Kaparaju, P. (Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)), e-mail: prasad.kaparaju@jyu.fi (and others)

    2011-11-15

    The objective of BIOVIRTA project is to develop technologies and practices with which digestates, originating from anaerobic digestion of different organic wastes and by-products can be refined to value-added and safe products for various end-uses. It is expected that the operational preconditions for biogas plants will be significantly enhanced when the end-products are proven safe and applicable. Selection of the raw materials for anaerobic co-digestion is the main operational strategy that could influence the nutrient content in the digestate. This has been clearly established in the laboratory and full-scale studies with various digestates originating from different raw materials. The nutrient content in the digestate also affects the opportunities to produce refined digestate products. In this project, the possibilities for several processing technologies, e.g. mechanical separation, stripping, and struvite production have been intensively evaluated for the production of different digestate products. Their mass balances have also been estimated. The feasibility for the use of the digestate products has been assessed based on their chemical and hygienic quality and for various end-uses, including as organic fertiliser and/or soil improver in crop production. The results of these field-experiments showed that the yield of barley fertilised with digestate products was comparable to inorganic fertilisers. (orig.)

  9. Fate of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance during Digestion and Composting: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Caitlin P; Mitchell, Shannon M; Cogger, Craig G

    2016-03-01

    Antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) enter the environment through municipal and agricultural waste streams and pose a potential risk to human and livestock health through either direct exposure to antibiotic-resistant pathogens or selective pressure on the soil microbial community. This review summarizes current literature on the fate of antibiotics, ARB, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during anaerobic digestion and composting of manure and wastewater residuals. Studies have shown that removal of antibiotics varies widely during mesophilic anaerobic digestion, even within the same class of antibiotics. Research on ARB shows a wide range of removal under mesophilic conditions, with nearly complete removal under thermophilic conditions. Research on 16 antibiotics in 11 different studies using both bench-scale and farm-scale composting systems demonstrates that composting significantly reduces levels of extractable antibiotics in livestock manure in nearly all cases. Calculated half-lives ranged from 0.9 to 16 d for most antibiotics. There is more limited evidence that levels of ARB are also reduced by composting. Studies of the fate of ARGs show mixed evidence for removal during both mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion and during thermophilic composting. Antibiotic resistance genes are DNA structures, so they may persist until the DNA structure is degraded, yet the bacterium may have been rendered nonviable long before the DNA is completely degraded. Additional research would be of value to determine optimum anaerobic digestion and composting conditions for removal of ARB and to increase understanding of the fate of ARGs during anaerobic digestion and composting. PMID:27065401

  10. Digestible tryptophan:lysine ratio for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Ramalho de Lima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the requirement of digestible tryptophan for white laying hens in the production stage fed diets of different digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine ratios, as well as animal performance and histological alterations in their reproductive and digestive systems. A total of 280 white laying hens at 29 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and seven replications with eight birds in each. The treatments consisted of a base feed, formulated with corn, soybean meal and corn gluten meal, and supplemented with the synthetic amino acids L-lysine, DL-methionine, L-threonine, L-isoleucine, L-arginine, and L-valine, so as to meet the nutritional requirements for laying hens, except for digestible tryptophan. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.00; 0.017; 0.035; 0.052; and 0.069 g/kg of L-tryptophan in substitution for corn starch with the objective of reaching the levels of 0.151; 0.167; 0.183; 0.199; and 0.215 g/kg of digestible tryptophan in the feed. For the ratio between digestible amino acids and lysine, the recommendation of Brazilian Tables for Poultry and Swine was followed, except for the digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine ratios, which were 19, 21, 23, 25 and 27 for each treatment. The variation in the digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine ratio promoted changes in performance and in the histological characteristics, improving the results. The digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine ratio of 24.5% in the feed of white laying hens in production stage promotes better animal performance and histological results.

  11. Re-evaluation of the mechanisms of dietary fibre and implications for macronutrient bioaccessibility, digestion and postprandial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Myriam M-L; Edwards, Cathrina H; Mackie, Alan R; Gidley, Michael J; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R

    2016-09-01

    The positive effects of dietary fibre on health are now widely recognised; however, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in producing such benefits remains unclear. There are even uncertainties about how dietary fibre in plant foods should be defined and analysed. This review attempts to clarify the confusion regarding the mechanisms of action of dietary fibre and deals with current knowledge on the wide variety of dietary fibre materials, comprising mainly of NSP that are not digested by enzymes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These non-digestible materials range from intact cell walls of plant tissues to individual polysaccharide solutions often used in mechanistic studies. We discuss how the structure and properties of fibre are affected during food processing and how this can impact on nutrient digestibility. Dietary fibre can have multiple effects on GI function, including GI transit time and increased digesta viscosity, thereby affecting flow and mixing behaviour. Moreover, cell wall encapsulation influences macronutrient digestibility through limited access to digestive enzymes and/or substrate and product release. Moreover, encapsulation of starch can limit the extent of gelatinisation during hydrothermal processing of plant foods. Emphasis is placed on the effects of diverse forms of fibre on rates and extents of starch and lipid digestion, and how it is important that a better understanding of such interactions with respect to the physiology and biochemistry of digestion is needed. In conclusion, we point to areas of further investigation that are expected to contribute to realisation of the full potential of dietary fibre on health and well-being of humans. PMID:27385119

  12. Involvement of ER Stress in Dysmyelination of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease with PLP1 Missense Mutations Shown by iPSC-Derived Oligodendrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Numasawa-Kuroiwa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD is a form of X-linked leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1 gene. Although PLP1 proteins with missense mutations have been shown to accumulate in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER in disease model animals and cell lines transfected with mutant PLP1 genes, the exact pathogenetic mechanism of PMD has not previously been clarified. In this study, we established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from two PMD patients carrying missense mutation and differentiated them into oligodendrocytes in vitro. In the PMD iPSC-derived oligodendrocytes, mislocalization of mutant PLP1 proteins to the ER and an association between increased susceptibility to ER stress and increased numbers of apoptotic oligodendrocytes were observed. Moreover, electron microscopic analysis demonstrated drastically reduced myelin formation accompanied by abnormal ER morphology. Thus, this study demonstrates the involvement of ER stress in pathogenic dysmyelination in the oligodendrocytes of PMD patients with the PLP1 missense mutation.

  13. Chronic exposure to triclosan sustains microbial community shifts and alters antibiotic resistance gene levels in anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Zitomer, Daniel H; Kappell, Anthony D; Choi, Melinda J; Hristova, Krassimira R; McNamara, Patrick J

    2016-08-10

    Triclosan, an antimicrobial chemical found in consumer personal care products, has been shown to stimulate antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. Although many studies focus on antibiotic resistance pertinent to medical scenarios, resistance developed in natural and engineered environments is less studied and has become an emerging concern for human health. In this study, the impacts of chronic triclosan (TCS) exposure on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and microbial community structure were assessed in lab-scale anaerobic digesters. TCS concentrations from below detection to 2500 mg kg(-1) dry solids were amended into anaerobic digesters over 110 days and acclimated for >3 solid retention time values. Four steady state TCS concentrations were chosen (30-2500 mg kg(-1)). Relative abundance of mexB, a gene coding for a component of a multidrug efflux pump, was significantly higher in all TCS-amended digesters (30 mg kg(-1) or higher) relative to the control. TCS selected for bacteria carrying tet(L) and against those carrying erm(F) at concentrations which inhibited digester function; the pH decrease associated with digester failure was suspected to cause this selection. Little to no impact of TCS was observed on intI1 relative abundance. Microbial communities were also surveyed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Compared to the control digesters, significant shifts in community structure towards clades containing commensal and pathogenic bacteria were observed in digesters containing TCS. Based on these results, TCS should be included in studies and risk assessments that attempt to elucidate relationships between chemical stressors (e.g. antibiotics), antibiotic resistance genes, and public health. PMID:27291499

  14. Digesters and demographics: identifying support for anaerobic digesters on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D J; Roberts, M C; Ernst, S C; Thraen, C S

    2010-11-01

    The dairy industry in the United States is amidst a long-running trend toward fewer, larger dairy farms. This development has created a backlash in some communities over concerns such as odor, waste management, and environmental degradation. Separately, anaerobic digestion has advanced as a waste management technology that potentially offers solutions to some of these issues, providing odor control and a combustible biogas among other things. These digesters require significant capital investments. Voluntary consumer premiums for the renewable energy produced have been used in some instances as a means to move adoption of such systems toward financial feasibility. This project employed a survey to measure Ohio consumers' willingness to pay a premium for renewable energy produced by anaerobic digesters on dairy farms. Cluster analysis was used to segment consumers by willingness to pay, age, education, income, self-identified political inclination, and a composite variable that served as a proxy for respondents' environmental stewardship. Four distinctive groups emerged from the data. Older, less educated respondents were found to have the least amount of support for digesters on dairy farms, whereas politically liberal, environmentally proactive respondents demonstrated the strongest support. Well-educated, affluent respondents and young respondents fell between these 2 groups. Most large dairy farms are generally met with fairly negative responses from their local communities; in contrast, this research finds some popular support for anaerobic digestion technology. Going forward, establishing a positive link between support for anaerobic digesters and for their use on large dairies could open up a new route for less-contested large dairy farm developments. Evaluation of community demographics could become an important part of finding an optimal location for a large dairy farm. PMID:20965366

  15. Insight of EDX analysis and EFTEM: are spherocrystals located in Strombidae digestive gland implied in detoxification of trace metals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volland, Jean-Marie; Lechaire, Jean-Pierre; Frebourg, Ghislaine; Aranda, Dalila Aldana; Ramdine, Gaëlle; Gros, Olivier

    2012-04-01

    Digestive tubules of Strombidae are composed by three cell types: digestive cells, vacuolated cells, and crypt cells. The last one is characterized by the presence of intracellular granules identified as spherocrystals. Such structures are known to occur in basophilic cells of gastropod digestive gland, where they are supposed to be involved in the regulation of some minerals and in detoxification. In this study, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) were used to determine the elemental content of spherocrystals in two Strombidae, Strombus gigas and Strombus pugilis. In freshly collected individuals of both species, the following elements were detected: Ca, Fe, Mg, P, and Zn. Aluminum and Mn were also detected in S. gigas. Their presence in spherocrystals indicates that, in Strombidae, spherocrystals are involved in the regulation of minerals and essential trace metals. In order to answer the question "are spherocrystals involved in nonessential trace metals scavenging?," artificial cadmium and lead exposure by both waterborne and dietary pathways was applied to S. pugilis. No evidence of cadmium (Cd(NO(3))(2)) or lead (Pb(NO(3))(2)) provided by food was found in spherocrystals. Cadmium provided in water (Cd(NO(3))(2) and CdCl(2)) causes structural modifications of the digestive gland; however, this element was not trapped in spherocrystals. These results suggest that spherocrystals are not involved in detoxification of such nonessential trace metals. PMID:21919125

  16. From the anther to the proctodeum: Pear (Pyrus communis) pollen digestion in Osmia cornuta larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepi, Massimo; Cresti, Laura; Maccagnani, Bettina; Ladurner, Edith; Pacini, Ettore

    2005-07-01

    Modifications of the pollen grains of Pyrus communis Linneaus that occur during the digestion by Osmia cornuta (Latreille) larvae were studied histochemically. We compared the features of the pollen grains found in the anthers, in the larval cell provisions and in the alimentary canal of the 5th instar larvae. Modifications were already evident in the provisions and consisted of protoplast protrusions through the apertures and a decrease in the number of starch-containing pollen grains. After pollen grains were ingested by the larvae, the protoplast appeared retracted from the pollen wall. Pollen digestion began in the anterior part of the midgut, where we observed: (1) disorganised intine at the apertures; (2) disappearance of DAPI staining of nuclear pollen DNA; (3) fewer pollen grains containing starch than in the anthers; (4) some empty pollen grains. Pollen grains in the proctodeum appeared extremely compressed and crushed. Some grains appeared to be unaffected by the digestive process. We hypothesise that the protrusion of the intine and of the protoplast from the apertures in bee provisions could be considered a kind of pre-treatment necessary to initiate the digestion process in the larval alimentary canal. PMID:16105552

  17. Ileal, colonic and total tract nutrient digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris) compared with total tract digestibility in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, Maria Therese; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Mink (Neovison vison) was studied as a model for the determination of ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent colonic digestibility (ACD) in dogs and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs and...... found between methods for digestibility of CP and most AA (p < 0.01) and for AA ranking with respect to digestibility level (p < 0.001). In dogs, ether extract digestibility was approximately 96% at all sites, while DM, starch and total carbohydrate digestibility increased from ileal to faecal level (p...

  18. Anaerobic digestion of macroalgae: methane potentials, pre-treatment, inhibition and co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    for Chaetomorpha linum and 340 ml g VS1 for Saccharina latissima following 34 days of incubation. With an organic content of 21.1% (1.5–2.8 times higher than the other algae) S. latissima seems very suitable for anaerobic digestion. However, the methane yields of U. lactuca, G. vermiculophylla and C. linum could...... be increased with 68%, 11% and 17%, respectively, by pretreatment with maceration. U. lactuca is often observed during ‘green tides’ in Europe and has a high cultivation potential at Nordic conditions. Therefore, U. lactuca was selected for further investigation and co-digested with cattle manure in a lab...

  19. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff Practice and Procedure Digest. Digest No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This second edition of the NRC Staff Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period from July 1, 1972 to March 31, 1978 interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2. This second edition replaces the first edition and its supplements and includes appropriate changes reflecting the recent amendments to the Rules of Practice which became effective on May 26, 1978

  20. Aspartic protease nepenthesin-1 as a tool for digestion in hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadek, Alan; Mrazek, Hynek; Halada, Petr; Rey, Martial; Schriemer, David C; Man, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HXMS) utilizes enzymatic digestion of proteins to localize the information about altered exchange patterns in protein structure. The ability of the protease to produce small peptides and overlapping fragments and provide sufficient coverage of the protein sequence is essential for localizing regions of interest. Recently, it was shown that there is an interesting group of proteolytic enzymes from carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes. In this report, we describe successful immobilization and the use of one of these enzymes, nepenthesin-1, in HXMS workflow. In contrast to pepsin, it has different cleavage specificities, and despite its high inherent susceptibility to reducing and denaturing agents, it is very stable upon immobilization and withstands even high concentration of guanidine hydrochloride and reducing agents. We show that denaturing agents can alter digestion by reducing protease activity and/or substrate solubility, and additionally, they influence the trapping of proteolytic peptides onto the reversed phase resin. PMID:24661217

  1. Improving methane production from digested manure biofibers by mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Frison, A; Raga, R; Angelidaki, I

    2016-09-01

    Animal manure digestion is associated with limited methane production, due to the high content in fibers, which are hardly degradable lignocellulosic compounds. In this study, different mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment methods were applied to partially degradable fibers, separated from the effluent stream of biogas reactors. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of these pretreatments. In batch experiments, the mechanical pretreatment improved the degradability up to 45%. Even higher efficiency was shown by applying thermal alkaline pretreatments, enhancing fibers degradability by more than 4-fold. In continuous experiments, the thermal alkaline pretreatment, using 6% NaOH at 55°C was proven to be the most efficient pretreatment method as the methane production was increased by 26%. The findings demonstrated that the methane production of the biogas plants can be increased by further exploiting the fraction of the digested manure fibers which are discarded in the post-storage tank. PMID:27268439

  2. Anaerobic co-digestion of by-products from sugar production with cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    determined by batch assays was found to be 490, 500 and 240 mL-CH4/gVS-added respectively. Three reactor experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of co-digestion of SBP, DM and manure at different ratios, on biogas process efficiency and stability. The results showed that DM was potentially...... inhibiting the biogas process and the co-digestion of SBP and DM was only successful at high dilution with manure or water. In contrast, SBP was shown to be a good substrate for biogas production and the methane yield of 280 mL-CH4/gVS-added was obtained in a thermophilic continuously operated reactor, co...

  3. Mutual regulation of Bcl-2 proteins independent of the BH3 domain as shown by the BH3-lacking protein Bcl-x(AK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Plötz

    Full Text Available The BH3 domain of Bcl-2 proteins was regarded as indispensable for apoptosis induction and for mutual regulation of family members. We recently described Bcl-x(AK, a proapoptotic splice product of the bcl-x gene, which lacks BH3 but encloses BH2, BH4 and a transmembrane domain. It remained however unclear, how Bcl-x(AK may trigger apoptosis.For efficient overexpression, Bcl-x(AK was subcloned in an adenoviral vector under Tet-OFF control. The construct resulted in significant apoptosis induction in melanoma and nonmelanoma cell lines with up to 50% apoptotic cells as well as decreased cell proliferation and survival. Disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release clearly indicated activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Both Bax and Bak were activated as shown by clustering and conformation analysis. Mitochondrial translocation of Bcl-x(AK appeared as an essential and initial step. Bcl-x(AK was critically dependent on either Bax or Bak, and apoptosis was abrogated in Bax/Bak double knockout conditions as well by overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-x(L. A direct interaction with Bcl-2, Bax, Bad, Noxa or Puma was however not seen by immunoprecipitation. Thus besides BH3-mediated interactions, there exists an additional way for mutual regulation of Bcl-2 proteins, which is independent of the BH3. This pathway appears to play a supplementary role also for other proapoptotic family members, and its unraveling may help to overcome therapy resistance in cancer.

  4. Predicting the apparent viscosity and yield stress of mixtures of primary, secondary and anaerobically digested sewage sludge: Simulating anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markis, Flora; Baudez, Jean-Christophe; Parthasarathy, Rajarathinam; Slatter, Paul; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2016-09-01

    Predicting the flow behaviour, most notably, the apparent viscosity and yield stress of sludge mixtures inside the anaerobic digester is essential because it helps optimize the mixing system in digesters. This paper investigates the rheology of sludge mixtures as a function of digested sludge volume fraction. Sludge mixtures exhibited non-Newtonian, shear thinning, yield stress behaviour. The apparent viscosity and yield stress of sludge mixtures prepared at the same total solids concentration was influenced by the interactions within the digested sludge and increased with the volume fraction of digested sludge - highlighted using shear compliance and shear modulus of sludge mixtures. However, when a thickened primary - secondary sludge mixture was mixed with dilute digested sludge, the apparent viscosity and yield stress decreased with increasing the volume fraction of digested sludge. This was caused by the dilution effect leading to a reduction in the hydrodynamic and non-hydrodynamic interactions when dilute digested sludge was added. Correlations were developed to predict the apparent viscosity and yield stress of the mixtures as a function of the digested sludge volume fraction and total solids concentration of the mixtures. The parameters of correlations can be estimated using pH of sludge. The shear and complex modulus were also modelled and they followed an exponential relationship with increasing digested sludge volume fraction. PMID:27243386

  5. Impact of different ratios of feedstock to liquid anaerobic digestion effluent on the performance and microbiome of solid-state anaerobic digesters digesting corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Shi, Jian; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Li, Yebo; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand how the non-microbial factors of L-AD effluent affected the microbiome composition and successions in the SS-AD digesters using both Illumina sequencing and qPCR quantification of major genera of methanogens. The SS-AD digesters started with a feedstock/total effluent (F/Et) ratio 2.2 (half of the effluent was autoclaved) performed stably, while the SS-AD digesters started with a 4.4 F/Et ratio (no autoclaved effluent) suffered from digester acidification, accumulation of volatile fatty acids, and ceased biogas production two weeks after startup. Some bacteria and methanogens were affected by non-microbial factors of the L-AD fluent. Alkalinity, the main difference between the two F/Et ratios, may be the crucial factor when SS-AD digesters were started using L-AD effluent. PMID:26575616

  6. Real-time monitoring of peptic and tryptic digestions of bovine {beta}-casein using quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenerbein, Andreas [Institute of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)]. E-mail: andreas.huenerbein@pharmazie.uni-halle.de; Schmelzer, Christian E.H. [Institute of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Neubert, Reinhard H.H. [Institute of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2007-02-12

    In this study peptic and tryptic digestions of bovine {beta}-casein were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). {beta}-Casein, which was used as a model protein, was immobilized on the surface of the QCM sensor where its degradation caused shifts in the resonant frequency. Atomic force microscopy was applied for the characterization of the protein layer. Different pH-values for peptic or tryptic digestions were chosen to visualize their effect on enzyme activity. Lower frequency shifts were observed at pH-values deviating from those at the maximum enzyme activity. In the case of the peptic digestion the frequency shift at pH 4 was more than 10 times smaller than those at pH 2. The frequency shifts for tryptic digestions at pH 5.4 and pH 6.4 were about two thirds compared to that obtained for the digestion at pH 7.4. The identification of peptides using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry was used for verification of the proteolyses of the immobilized protein. Furthermore, it was shown that the QCM technique allows close observation of the effect of different pH-values on the immobilized casein layer. All in all, QCM facilitates the monitoring of the progress of enzymatic reactions in real-time.

  7. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.;

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS...... pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixtureof swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1...... contribute to the methane production. In the second place, ADM1 was used to describe biogas production from the codigestion of manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers. The model predictions regarding biogas production and methane content were in good agreement with the experimental data. It was shown that...

  8. The Role of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in the Prevention of Digestive System Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Simmen, Rosalia C. M.; Brown, Adam R.; Simmen, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play a critical role in the growth and development of the alimentary tract in vertebrates. Their effects are mediated by nuclear receptors as well as the cell surface receptor integrin αVβ3. Systemic thyroid hormone levels are controlled via activation and deactivation by iodothyronine deiodinases in the liver and other tissues. Given that thyroid hormone signaling has been characterized as a major effector of digestive system growth and homeostasis, numerous investigations h...

  9. Modulation of Network Activity in Dissociated Hippocampal Cultures by Enzymatic Digestion of Extracellular Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhina I.V.; Vedunova М.V.; Sakharnova Т.А.; Dityatev А.E.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of extracellular matrix in spontaneous neuronal network activity, we used microelectrode array technology and enzymatic treatment of hippocampal culture with hyaluronidase, which digests the major component of extracellular matrix, hyaluronic acid. Studies were performed using hippocampal cells that were dissociated from embryonic С57ВL6 mice (E18) and plated on microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Our findings revealed that hyaluronidase promoted seizure-like activity during...

  10. Intrinsic Immunomodulatory Effects of Low-Digestible Carbohydrates Selectively Extend Their Anti-Inflammatory Prebiotic Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Breton; Coline Plé; Laetitia Guerin-Deremaux; Bruno Pot; Catherine Lefranc-Millot; Daniel Wils; Benoit Foligné

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effects of carbohydrate-derived fibers are mainly attributed to modulation of the microbiota, increased colonic fermentation, and the production of short-chain fatty acids. We studied the direct immune responses to alimentary fibers in in vitro and in vivo models. Firstly, we evaluated the immunomodulation induced by nine different types of low-digestible fibers on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. None of the fibers tested induced cytokine production in baseline condit...

  11. Investigation of anaerobic digestion in a two-stage bioprocess producing hydrogen and methane

    OpenAIRE

    Hiligsmann, Serge; Hamilton, Christopher; Beckers, Laurent; Masset, Julien; Thonart, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen has received wide attention in the last decades as a clean energy vector. The major advantage of energy generation from hydrogen is the near-zero carbon emissions, since the utilization of hydrogen, either via combustion or via fuel cells, results in pure water. Recently, there has been increasing interest on the biological production of hydrogen gas from renewable biomass such as carbohydrates from agriculture or agro-food industries. This specific anaerobic digestion...

  12. Acid digestion of combustible wastes: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory on development of the acid digestion process for treating combustible wastes is discussed. Materials such as paper, rubber, and plastics are readily decomposed into a low volume, noncombustible residue. Engineering results using the Acid Digestion Test Unit are discussed. Tests to date generally duplicated earlier laboratory results with respect to waste processing rates, volume reduction, off-gas generation rates and volumes, acid consumption, and completeness of reaction. Demonstrated processing rates were as high as 5 kg/hr for short duration run periods. The tests indicated engineering feasibility of the acid digestion process and showed acid digestion to be a potentially attractive method for treating combustible nuclear wastes. Other areas discussed in the report are behavior of plutonium and americium during acid digestion, behavior of various construction materials, and safety. An integrated flowsheet for operation of an acid digestion unit is also presented. (U.S.)

  13. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate. PMID:26776247

  14. COMPARED PERFORMANCES OF THE EXPERIMENTAL DIGESTERS OF THE ANIMAL BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to look further into experimentally of the effect of the variation of certain physicochemical parameters of anaerobic digestion on the quantitative gas productivity of four digesters of treating bovine dejections. Moreover, four digesters supplied with the avicolous droppings, in different concentrations of Dry Matter (DM, were followed. The assessments of depollution (Suspended Matter and Biological Demand for Oxygen together with qualitative energy (gas composition and calorific value were also appreciated. We can release particularly that: the quantity of bovine biogas produced is variable according to the parameters of digestion. It is maximum in the presence of high temperature and under mechanical agitation of the substrate introduced; the quantitative productivity is more interesting in the case of the digesters avicolous. It is more important with the increase of the concentration of solids; the digester with 8% DM presents attractive valuations of depollution and energy efficiency.

  15. Effect of Gastrointestinal Protease Digestion on Bioactivity of Marine Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Ossum, Carlo Gunnar; Jakobsen, Greta; De Gobba, Christian; Farvin, Sabeena; Johansson, Inez; Hoffmann, Else; Oddny Elvevoll, Edel; Jessen, Flemming; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2014-01-01

    executed without concerning subsequent digestion after intake and the aim of this work was hence to investigate how the in vitro antioxidative, antihypertensive and caspase activating activities of peptides are affected by digestion with gastrointestinal (GI) proteases. Five different fish protein...... hydrolysates were chosen to study the effect of in vitro digestion on bioactivity. The protein concentration decreased in all samples during digestion and the molecular weight distribution of the peptides shifted towards lower values. Thus, in vitro digestion with GI proteases resulted in a further degradation...... of the peptides obtained by hydrolysis. The antihypertensive effect increased in all samples after digestion with GI proteases whereas the antioxidative capacity decreased. The effect on the caspase activity depended on the proteases used in the preparation of hydrolysates. In conclusion, the caspase...

  16. Effect of oral immunization with inactivated avian influenza virus and adjuvant on the antibody secreting cells in duck digestive tract%禽流感灭活抗原与佐剂配合饮水免疫对鸭消化道抗体分泌细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红丽; 康海泓; 杨倩

    2012-01-01

    为探讨鸭源禽流感灭活抗原与佐剂配合饮水免疫雏鸭的效果,应用鸭源禽流感灭活抗原与复合黏膜免疫佐剂( CpG和/或葡萄糖)饮水免疫雏鸭,检测消化道(主要是咽和小肠)抗体分泌细胞的变化.首先分别从鸭的胆汁和血清中粗提免疫球蛋白A(IgA)和IgG,经纯化后制备了兔抗鸭IgA和IgG,然后应用免疫组化技术显示鸭消化道IgA和IgG分泌细胞.试验结果表明:用禽流感灭活抗原配合CpG和/或葡萄糖饮水免疫后3、5和7周,消化道黏膜局部IgA分泌细胞面积均显著或极显著增加(P<0.05或P<0.01),IgG分泌细胞(除首免后第3和7周小肠外)极显著升高(P<0.01).而单独用禽流感灭活抗原和用葡萄糖配合禽流感灭活抗原饮水免疫对消化道局部免疫水平影响不大.结论:鸭源禽流感灭活抗原配合免疫佐剂饮水免疫能够提高雏鸭消化道局部免疫水平.%In order to evaluate the effects of oral immunization with the inactivated avian influenza virus (iAIV) vaccine with adjuvant on ducklings. The area of IgA and IgG secreting cells in the digestive tract (mainly pharynx and small intestine) were detected after oral immunization with iAIV and adjuvant CpG with or without glucose. First, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG was isolated from duck bile and serum respectively, and rabbit antiserum was isolated from inoculated rabbits by purified IgA and IgG. The antibody secreting cells were showed by SPA-HRP immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that the area of IgA and IgG secreting cells( except for the 3rd and 7th week in small intestine) increased significantly (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01)at the weeks 3rd,5th and 7th after oral immunization with iAIV and adjuvant CpG with/without glucose. No significant changes were found in the ducks immunized with iAIV only or iAIV and glucose. Conclusion;the oral immunization with iAIV together with adjuvants could elict local immune re sponse in the digestive tract

  17. Kinetics of starch digestion and performance of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Weurding, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapiocaStarch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy source in broiler feeds. The properties of starch from different origin vary condiderably and these properties determine its resistance to enzymatic digestion. The objective of the research project described in this thesis was to study starch digestion behaviour ...

  18. Design considerations and operational performance of Anaerobic Digester: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffar Ahmad Mir; Athar Hussain; Chanchal Verma

    2016-01-01

    Due to the decline in fossil fuel reservoirs, the researchers emphasized more on the production of biogas from organic waste. Producing the renewable energy from biodegradable waste helps to overcome the energy crisis and solid waste management, done by anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion is controlled breakdown of organic matter into methane gas (60%), carbon dioxide (40%), trace components along with digested used as soil conditioner. However there is vast dearth of literature regardin...

  19. Management of digestive lesions associated to congenital epidermolysis bullosa

    OpenAIRE

    Jamila Chahed; Mongi Mekki; Amine Ksia; Nehla Kechiche; Saida Hidouri; Trimech Monia Youssef; Lassaad Sahnoun; Imed Krichene; Mohsen Belghith; Abdellatif Nouri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital epidermolysis bullosa (CEB) is a rare genodermatosis. The digestive system is very frequently associated with skin manifestations. Pyloric atresia (PA) and oesophageal stenosis (OS) are considered the most serious digestive lesions to occur.The aim of this work is to study the management and the outcome of digestive lesions associated to CEB in four children and to compare our results to the literature. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of four observations: T...

  20. Digestion modelling in the small intestine: impact of dietary fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Taghipoor, Masoomeh; Barles, Guy; Georgelin, Christine; Licois, J.R.; Lescoat, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    International audience In this work, we continue the modelling of the digestion in the small intestine, started in a previous article, by investigating the effects of dietary fibre. We recall that this model aims at taking into account the three main phenomena of the digestion, namely the transit of the bolus, the degradation of feedstuffs and the absorption through the intestinal wall. In order to study the role of dietary fibre on digestion, we model their two principal physiochemical ch...