Sample records for cell digestion shown


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure


    GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

  2. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...


    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

  4. The digestion of yeast cell wall polysaccharides in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaillard, B.D.E.; Weerden, van E.J.


    1. The digestibility of the cell wall polysaccharides of an alkane-grown yeast in different parts of the digestive tract of two veal calves fitted with re-entrant cannulas at the end of the ileum was studied by replacing part of the skim-milk powder of their ‘normal’, milk-substitute (all-milk-prote

  5. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Pennsylvania Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  6. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States Shown as One-Mile Cells (Decadal Time Slices) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  7. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Ohio Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  8. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Illinois Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  9. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Kentucky Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  10. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Indiana Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  11. Hypoxia Strongly Affects Mitochondrial Ribosomal Proteins and Translocases, as Shown by Quantitative Proteomics of HeLa Cells. (United States)

    Bousquet, Paula A; Sandvik, Joe Alexander; Arntzen, Magnus Ø; Jeppesen Edin, Nina F; Christoffersen, Stine; Krengel, Ute; Pettersen, Erik O; Thiede, Bernd


    Hypoxia is an important and common characteristic of many human tumors. It is a challenge clinically due to the correlation with poor prognosis and resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Understanding the biochemical response to hypoxia would facilitate the development of novel therapeutics for cancer treatment. Here, we investigate alterations in gene expression in response to hypoxia by quantitative proteome analysis using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with LCMS/MS. Human HeLa cells were kept either in a hypoxic environment or under normoxic conditions. 125 proteins were found to be regulated, with maximum alteration of 18-fold. In particular, three clusters of differentially regulated proteins were identified, showing significant upregulation of glycolysis and downregulation of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and translocases. This interaction is likely orchestrated by HIF-1. We also investigated the effect of hypoxia on the cell cycle, which shows accumulation in G1 and a prolonged S phase under these conditions. Implications. This work not only improves our understanding of the response to hypoxia, but also reveals proteins important for malignant progression, which may be targeted in future therapies.

  12. Intactness of cell wall structure controls the in vitro digestion of starch in legumes. (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Bhattarai, Rewati R; Gorham, John; Gidley, Michael J


    Increasing the level of starch that is not digested by the end of the small intestine and therefore enters the colon ('resistant starch') is a major opportunity for improving the nutritional profile of foods. One mechanism that has been shown to be successful is entrapment of starch within an intact plant tissue structure. However, the level of tissue intactness required for resistance to amylase digestion has not been defined. In this study, intact cells were isolated from a range of legumes after thermal treatment at 60 °C (starch not gelatinised) or 95 °C (starch gelatinised) followed by hydrolysis using pancreatic alpha amylase. It was found that intact cells, isolated at either temperature, were impervious to amylase. However, application of mechanical force damaged the cell wall and made starch accessible to digestive enzymes. This shows that the access of enzymes to the entrapped swollen starch is the rate limiting step controlling hydrolysis of starch in cooked legumes. The results suggest that a single cell wall could be sufficient to provide an effective delivery of starch to the large intestine with consequent nutritional benefits, provided that mechanical damage during digestion is avoided.

  13. Use of scanning electron microscopy to monitor nanofibre/cell interaction in digestive epithelial cells. (United States)

    Millaku, Agron; Drobne, Damjana; Torkar, Matjaz; Novak, Sara; Remškar, Maja; Pipan-Tkalec, Živa


    We provide data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on the interaction of ingested tungsten nanofibers with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes of a test organism Porcellio scaber. Conventional toxicity endpoints including feeding behaviour, weight loss and mortality were also measured in each investigated animal. No toxicity was detected in any of exposed animals after 14 days of feeding on tungsten nanofiber dosed food, but when nanofibers enter the digestive system they can react with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes, becoming physically inserted into the cells. In this way, nanofibers can injure the epithelial cells of digestive gland tubes when they are ingested with food. Our SEM data suggest that peristaltic forces may have an important role, not predicted by in vitro experiments, in the interactions of nanomaterials with digestive intestinal cells.

  14. Use of scanning electron microscopy to monitor nanofibre/cell interaction in digestive epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millaku, Agron, E-mail: [Limnos-Company for Applied Ecology Ltd, Podlimbarskega 31, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drobne, Damjana [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence, Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (Nanocentre), Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Torkar, Matjaz [Institute of Metals and Technology IMT, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Condensed Matter Physics Department, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Novak, Sara [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Remškar, Maja [Jožef Stefan Institute, Condensed Matter Physics Department, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pipan-Tkalec, Živa [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy is particularly well suited to the observation of nanofibre/cell interaction in the endothelial cells lining the hepatopancreas. (a) Tungsten oxide nanofibres, (b) test organism Porcellio scaber and schematic appearance of digestive tubes, (c) digestive tube (hepatopancreas) prepared for SEM investigation, (d) digestive gland cells (C) with nanofibres (NF) embedded in the cell membrane and (e) nanofibres inserted deeply in the cells and damaged nanofibres due to peristalsis. -- Highlights: • Tungsten oxide nanofibres react physically with digestive gland epithelial cells in Porcellio scaber. • Physical peristaltic forces of lead to insertion of nanofibres into the cells. • No toxic responses as measured by conventional toxicity biomarkers were detected. • Physical interactions were observed in a majority of the investigated animals. -- Abstract: We provide data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on the interaction of ingested tungsten nanofibers with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes of a test organism Porcellio scaber. Conventional toxicity endpoints including feeding behaviour, weight loss and mortality were also measured in each investigated animal. No toxicity was detected in any of exposed animals after 14 days of feeding on tungsten nanofiber dosed food, but when nanofibers enter the digestive system they can react with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes, becoming physically inserted into the cells. In this way, nanofibers can injure the epithelial cells of digestive gland tubes when they are ingested with food. Our SEM data suggest that peristaltic forces may have an important role, not predicted by in vitro experiments, in the interactions of nanomaterials with digestive intestinal cells.

  15. Monocyte derived dendritic cells generated by IFN-α acquire mature dendritic and natural killer cell properties as shown by gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czibere Akos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cell (DC vaccines can induce antitumor immune responses in patients with malignant diseases, while the most suitable DC culture conditions have not been established yet. In this study we compared monocyte derived human DC from conventional cultures containing GM-CSF and IL-4/TNF-α (IL-4/TNF-DC with DC generated by the novel protocol using GM-CSF and IFN-α (IFN-DC. Methods To characterise the molecular differences of both DC preparations, gene expression profiling was performed using Affymetrix microarrays. The data were conformed on a protein level by immunophenotyping, and functional tests for T cell stimulation, migration and cytolytic activity were performed. Results Both methods resulted in CD11c+ CD86+ HLA-DR+ cells with a typical DC morphology that could efficiently stimulate T cells. But gene expression profiling revealed two distinct DC populations. Whereas IL-4/TNF-DC showed a higher expression of genes envolved in phagocytosis IFN-DC had higher RNA levels for markers of DC maturity and migration to the lymph nodes like DCLAMP, CCR7 and CD49d. This different orientation of both DC populations was confined by a 2.3 fold greater migration in transwell experiments (p = 0.01. Most interestingly, IFN-DC also showed higher RNA levels for markers of NK cells such as TRAIL, granzymes, KLRs and other NK cell receptors. On a protein level, intracytoplasmatic TRAIL and granzyme B were observed in 90% of IFN-DC. This translated into a cytolytic activity against K562 cells with a median specific lysis of 26% at high effector cell numbers as determined by propidium iodide uptake, whereas IL-4/TNF-DC did not induce any tumor cell lysis (p = 0.006. Thus, IFN-DC combined characteristics of mature DC and natural killer cells. Conclusion Our results suggest that IFN-DC not only stimulate adaptive but also mediate innate antitumor immune responses. Therefore, IFN-DC should be evaluated in clinical vaccination trials. In

  16. Monocyte derived dendritic cells generated by IFN-α acquire mature dendritic and natural killer cell properties as shown by gene expression analysis


    Czibere Akos; Winter Meike; Diaz Blanco Elena; Papewalis Claudia; Schott Matthias; Maihöfer Dagmar; Kronenwett Ralf; Safaian Nancy; Korthals Mark; Haas Rainer; Kobbe Guido; Fenk Roland


    Abstract Background Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines can induce antitumor immune responses in patients with malignant diseases, while the most suitable DC culture conditions have not been established yet. In this study we compared monocyte derived human DC from conventional cultures containing GM-CSF and IL-4/TNF-α (IL-4/TNF-DC) with DC generated by the novel protocol using GM-CSF and IFN-α (IFN-DC). Methods To characterise the molecular differences of both DC preparations, gene expression profil...

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of hepatopancreatic phospholipase A2 in Hexaplex Trunculus digestive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebai Tarek


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian sPLA2-IB localization cell are well characterized. In contrast, much less is known about aquatic primitive ones. The aquatic world contains a wide variety of living species and, hence represents a great potential for discovering new lipolytic enzymes and the mode of digestion of lipid food. Results The marine snail digestive phospholipase A2 (mSDPLA2 has been previously purified from snail hepatopancreas. The specific polyclonal antibodies were prepared and used for immunohistochimical and immunofluorescence analysis in order to determine the cellular location of mSDPLA2. Our results showed essentially that mSDPLA2 was detected inside in specific vesicles tentatively named (mSDPLA2+ granules of the digestive cells. No immunolabelling was observed in secretory zymogene-like cells. This immunocytolocalization indicates that lipid digestion in the snail might occur in specific granules inside the digestive cells. Conclusion The cellular location of mSDPLA2 suggests that intracellular phospholipids digestion, like other food components digestion of snail diet, occurs in these digestive cells. The hepatopancreas of H. trunculus has been pointed out as the main region for digestion, absorption and storage of lipids.

  18. Complete disassociation of adult pancreas into viable single cells through cold trypsin-EDTA digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan LI; Shi-yun PENG; Zhen-wu ZHANG; Rui-cheng FENG; Lu LI; Jie LIANG; Sheng TAI


    The in vitro isolation and analysis of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells are necessary for understanding their properties and function; however,the preparation of high-quality single-cell suspensions from adult pancreas is prerequisite.In this study,we applied a cold trypsin-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) digestion method to disassociate adult mouse pancreata into single cells.The yield of single cells and the viability of the harvested cells were much higher than those obtained via the two commonly used warm digestion methods.Flow cytometric analysis showed that the ratio of ductal or BCRP1-positive cells in cell suspensions prepared through cold digestion was consistent with that found in vivo.Cell culture tests showed that pancreatic epithelial cells prepared by cold digestion maintained proliferative capacity comparable to those derived from warm collagenase digestion.These results indicate that cold trypsin-EDTA digestion can effectively disassociate an adult mouse pancreas into viable single cells with minimal cell loss,and can be used for the isolation and analysis of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells.

  19. Lack of organ specific commitment of vagal neural crest cell derivatives as shown by back-transplantation of GFP chicken tissues. (United States)

    Freem, Lucy J; Delalande, Jean Marie; Campbell, Alison M; Thapar, Nikhil; Burns, Alan J


    Neural crest cells (NCC) are multipotent progenitors that migrate extensively throughout the developing embryo and generate a diverse range of cell types. Vagal NCC migrate from the hindbrain into the foregut and from there along the gastrointestinal tract to form the enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the gut, and into the developing lung buds to form the intrinsic innervation of the lungs. The aim of this study was to determine the developmental potential of vagal NCC that had already colonised the gut or the lungs. We used transgenic chicken embryos that ubiquitously express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to permanently mark and fate-map vagal NCC using intraspecies grafting. This was combined with back-transplantation of gut and lung segments, containing GFP-positive NCC, into the vagal region of a second recipient embryo to determine, using immunohistochemical staining, whether gut or lung NCC are competent of re-colonising both these organs, or whether their fate is restricted. Chick(GFP)-chick intraspecies grafting efficiently labelled NCC within the gut and lung of chick embryos. When segments of embryonic day (E)5.5 pre-umbilical midgut containing GFP-positive NCC were back-transplanted into the vagal region of E1.5 host embryos, the GFP-positive NCC remigrated to colonise both the gut and lungs and differentiated into neurons in stereotypical locations. However, GFP-positive lung NCC did not remigrate when back-transplanted. Our studies suggest that gut NCC are not restricted to colonising only this organ, since upon back-transplantation GFP-positive gut NCC colonised both the gut and the lung.

  20. Evaluation on direct interspecies electron transfer in anaerobic sludge digestion of microbial electrolysis cell. (United States)

    Zhao, Zisheng; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin


    Increase of methanogenesis in methane-producing microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) is frequently believed as a result of cathodic reduction of CO2. Recent studies indicated that this electromethanogenesis only accounted for a little part of methane production during anaerobic sludge digestion. Instead, direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) possibly plays an important role in methane production. In this study, anaerobic digestion of sludge were investigated in a single-chamber MEC reactor, a carbon-felt supplemented reactor and a common anaerobic reactor to evaluate the effects of DIET on the sludge digestion. The results showed that adding carbon felt into the reactor increased 12.9% of methane production and 17.2% of sludge reduction. Imposing a voltage on the carbon felt further improved the digestion. Current calculation showed that the cathodic reduction only contributed to 27.5% of increased methane production. Microbial analysis indicated that DIET played an important role in the anaerobic sludge digestion in the MEC.

  1. Effects of ACTH on RNA synthesis and migration in the adrenal cortex cells of the young rat, as shown by radioautography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, M.C.; Vitor, A.B.; Magalhaes, M.M.


    The effect of ACTH on the RNA synthesis in adrenal zona fasciculata cells of the young rat were studied by light and electron microscope radioautography. Two units of ACTH were administered sc to animals and immediately followed by an iv injection of (/sup 3/)uridine. ACTH-injected and control rats, which received the isotope alone, were sacrificed at various time intervals. Labelling over extranucleolar areas was higher in the ACTH-treated animals at 20 min, then becoming lower than in the controls at 60 min and 24 h. Nucleolar radioactivity, however, was consistently decreased by ACTH at all experimental times. Apart from these changes in the rate of synthesis, the over-all curves of labelling were similar to those in the control animals with a striking peak at 1 h. The short-term increase in extranucleolar RNA synthesis observed after ACTH injection was considered to be consistent with the hypothesis that an enhanced extranucleolar synthesis of mRNA takes place early in stimulated animals and is associated with the synthesis of steroidogenic proteins. On the other hand, the relatively decreased uridine uptake of the label by the nucleolus in ACTH-treated animals, suggests an inhibition of nucleolar transcription with diminished pre-rRNA formation in treated animals.

  2. Lignin depletion enhances the digestibility of cellulose in cultured xylem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine I Lacayo

    Full Text Available Plant lignocellulose constitutes an abundant and sustainable source of polysaccharides that can be converted into biofuels. However, the enzymatic digestion of native plant cell walls is inefficient, presenting a considerable barrier to cost-effective biofuel production. In addition to the insolubility of cellulose and hemicellulose, the tight association of lignin with these polysaccharides intensifies the problem of cell wall recalcitrance. To determine the extent to which lignin influences the enzymatic digestion of cellulose, specifically in secondary walls that contain the majority of cellulose and lignin in plants, we used a model system consisting of cultured xylem cells from Zinniaelegans. Rather than using purified cell wall substrates or plant tissue, we have applied this system to study cell wall degradation because it predominantly consists of homogeneous populations of single cells exhibiting large deposits of lignocellulose. We depleted lignin in these cells by treating with an oxidative chemical or by inhibiting lignin biosynthesis, and then examined the resulting cellulose digestibility and accessibility using a fluorescent cellulose-binding probe. Following cellulase digestion, we measured a significant decrease in relative cellulose content in lignin-depleted cells, whereas cells with intact lignin remained essentially unaltered. We also observed a significant increase in probe binding after lignin depletion, indicating that decreased lignin levels improve cellulose accessibility. These results indicate that lignin depletion considerably enhances the digestibility of cellulose in the cell wall by increasing the susceptibility of cellulose to enzymatic attack. Although other wall components are likely to contribute, our quantitative study exploits cultured Zinnia xylem cells to demonstrate the dominant influence of lignin on the enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This system is simple enough for quantitative image analysis

  3. Application of modified enzyme digestion method in rapid primary culture of human glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei XIANG


    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the applied value of modified enzyme digestion method in primary culture of human glioma cells. Methods  A traditional enzyme digestion method was modified based on literatures and our work experience. The glioma cells from 32 glioma patients with different grades were primarily cultured by the modified enzyme digestion method. The morphological features of these cells were observed under an inverted phase contrast microscope. The primary cells were purified by differential adhesion during passage. The primary cells were identified by immunofluorescence technique, and the growth curves were drawn by cell proliferation assays (CCK-8 method for investigating the proliferation of the cells cultured in vitro. Results  The primary human glioma cells were successfully cultured and transferred by the new method, with a success rate of 87.5%. The cells cultured successfully in vitro showed good adherent growth, stable morphologies, thus can be passaged. Fluoroimmunoassay showed positive expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, which confirms the cultured cells were glioma cells. Cell proliferation assays revealed active cell proliferation in vitro, the higher the tumor grade, the higher the proliferative capacity. Conclusion  The modified enzyme digestion method is simpler and more efficient for primary culture of human glioma cells, and the success rate is also higher, thus being able to provide a good guarantee for fundamental research of glioma. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.06.06

  4. Rab27A Is Present in Mouse Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Is Required for Digestive Enzyme Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Hou

    Full Text Available The small G-protein Rab27A has been shown to regulate the intracellular trafficking of secretory granules in various cell types. However, the presence, subcellular localization and functional impact of Rab27A on digestive enzyme secretion by mouse pancreatic acinar cells are poorly understood. Ashen mice, which lack the expression of Rab27A due to a spontaneous mutation, were used to investigate the function of Rab27A in pancreatic acinar cells. Isolated pancreatic acini were prepared from wild-type or ashen mouse pancreas by collagenase digestion, and CCK- or carbachol-induced amylase secretion was measured. Secretion occurring through the major-regulated secretory pathway, which is characterized by zymogen granules secretion, was visualized by Dextran-Texas Red labeling of exocytotic granules. The minor-regulated secretory pathway, which operates through the endosomal/lysosomal pathway, was characterized by luminal cell surface labeling of lysosomal associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1. Compared to wild-type, expression of Rab27B was slightly increased in ashen mouse acini, while Rab3D and digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, chymotrypsin and elastase were not affected. Localization of Rab27B, Rab3D and amylase by immunofluorescence was similar in both wild-type and ashen acinar cells. The GTP-bound states of Rab27B and Rab3D in wild-type and ashen mouse acini also remained similar in amount. In contrast, acini from ashen mice showed decreased amylase release induced by CCK- or carbachol. Rab27A deficiency reduced the apical cell surface labeling of LAMP1, but did not affect that of Dextran-Texas Red incorporation into the fusion pockets at luminal surface. These results show that Rab27A is present in mouse pancreatic acinar cells and mainly regulates secretion through the minor-regulated pathway.

  5. Apoptotic effects of cooked and in vitro digested soy on human prostate cancer cells. (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Xu, Wenqing; Sikes, Robert A; Wu, Changqing


    Previous laboratory and animal studies reported that soy isoflavones were major bioactive compounds in soy to exert chemoprotection of prostate cancer. However, these studies cannot reflect the realistic effects that soy may induce through diets, and little is known about the bioavailability of isoflavones from whole soy food and their bioactivities after cooking and digestion. In this study, cooking and in vitro digestion were used to prepare soy extracts and the effects of cooking and digestion on the isoflavone contents and bioactivities of the whole soy extracts were examined. The cooking procedure generally increased the amount of daidzin, genistin and daidzein, but decreased that of genistein. Digestion process significantly lowered contents of daidzin and genistin in 60min cooked sample, while increased the contents of daidzin and daidzein and decreased the content of genistein in the uncooked sample. Antioxidant activities of soy extracts increased after cooking and in vitro digestion, while no consistent increase of the four soy isoflavones was determined. The apoptotic effects of soy extracts on both LNCaP and C4-2B cells were generally in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to purified single isoflavones, cooked and digested soy were more effective on induction of prostate cancer cell apoptosis, which indicated synergistic interactions between various bioactive compounds in the whole soy.

  6. Digestion of algal biomass for electricity generation in microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Nishio, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Kazuya


    Algal biomass serves as a fuel for electricity generation in microbial fuel cells. This study constructed a model consortium comprised of an alga-digesting Lactobacillus and an iron-reducing Geobacter for electricity generation from photo-grown Clamydomonas cells. Total power-conversion efficiency (from Light to electricity) was estimated to be 0.47%.

  7. In vitro digestion and lactase treatment influence uptake of quercetin and quercetin glucoside by the Caco-2 cell monolayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Dan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are widely consumed flavonoids found in many fruits and vegetables. These compounds have a wide range of potential health benefits, and understanding the bioavailability of flavonoids from foods is becoming increasingly important. Methods This study combined an in vitro digestion, a lactase treatment and the Caco-2 cell model to examine quercetin and quercetin glucoside uptake from shallot and apple homogenates. Results The in vitro digestion alone significantly decreased quercetin aglycone recovery from the shallot digestate (p p > 0.05. Digestion increased the Caco-2 cell uptake of shallot quercetin-4'-glucoside by 2-fold when compared to the non-digested shallot. Despite the loss of quercetin from the digested shallot, the bioavailability of quercetin aglycone to the Caco-2 cells was the same in both the digested and non-digested shallot. Treatment with lactase increased quercetin recovery from the shallot digestate nearly 10-fold and decreased quercetin-4'-glucoside recovery by more than 100-fold (p p Conclusions The increase in quercetin uptake following treatment with lactase suggests that dietary supplementation with lactase may increase quercetin bioavailability in lactose intolerant humans. Combining the digestion, the lactase treatment and the Caco-2 cell culture model may provide a reliable in vitro model for examining flavonoid glucoside bioavailability from foods.


    The conceptual design of a fuel cell (FC) system for operation on anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is described and its economic and environmental feasibility is projected. ADG is produced at water treatment plants during the process of treating sewage anaerobically to reduce solids....

  9. Regional effects of enzymatic digestion on knee meniscus cell yield and phenotype for tissue engineering. (United States)

    Sanchez-Adams, Johannah; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A


    An abundant cell source is the cornerstone of most tissue engineering strategies, but extracting cells from the knee meniscus is hindered by its dense fibrocartilaginous matrix. Identifying a method to efficiently isolate meniscus cells is important, as it can reduce the cost and effort required to perform meniscus engineering research. In this study, six enzymatic digestion regimens used for cartilaginous cell isolation were used to isolate cells from the outer, middle, and inner regions of the bovine knee meniscus. Each regimen in each region was assessed in terms of cell yield, impact on cell phenotype, and cytotoxicity. All digestion regimens caused an overall upregulation of cartilage-specific genes Sox9, collagen type I (Col 1), collagen type II (Col 2), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, and aggrecan (AGC) in cells from all meniscus regions, but was highest for cells isolated using 1075 U/mL of collagenase for 3 h (high collagenase). In response to isolation, outer meniscus cells showed highest upregulation of Sox9 and Col 1 genes, whereas greatest upregulation for middle meniscus cells was seen in Col 1 expression, and Col 2 expression for inner cells. Cell yield was highest in all regions when subjected to 45 min of 61 U/mL pronase followed by 3 h of 1075 U/mL collagenase (pronase/collagenase [P/C]) digestion regimen (outer: 6.57±0.37, middle: 12.77±1.41, inner: 22.17±1.47×10(6) cells/g tissue). The second highest cell yield was achieved using the low collagenase (LC) digestion regimen that applied 433 U/mL of collagenase for 18 h (outer: 1.95±0.54, middle: 3.3±4.4, inner: 6.06±2.44×10(6) cells/g tissue). Cytotoxicity analysis showed higher cell death in the LC group compared with the P/C group. Self-assembled constructs formed from LC-isolated cells were less dense than constructs formed from P/C-isolated cells, and P/C constructs showed higher glycosaminoglycan content and compressive moduli than LC constructs. All isolation methods tested

  10. Production of chitooligosaccharides from Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL2710 cells by chitosanase digestion. (United States)

    Mahata, Maria; Shinya, Shoko; Masaki, Eiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Brzezinski, Ryszard; Mazumder, Tapan K; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Narihiro, Kazue; Fukamizo, Tamo


    The intact cells of Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL2710, whose cell walls are abundant source of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucosamine (GlcN), were digested with three chitinolytic enzymes, a GH-46 chitosanase from Streptomyces sp. N174 (CsnN174), a chitinase from Pyrococcus furiosus, and a chitinase from Trichoderma viride, respectively. Solubilization of the intact cells by CsnN174 was found to be the most efficient from solid state CP/MAS (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Chitosanase products from Rhizopus cells were purified by cation exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-25 and gel-filtration on Cellulofine Gcl-25m. NMR and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses of the purified products revealed that GlcN-GlcNAc, (GlcN)2-GlcNAc, and (GlcN)2 were produced by the enzymatic digestion of the intact cells. The chitosanase digestion of Rhizopus cells was found to be an excellent system for the conversion of fungal biomass without any environmental impact.

  11. Combination of stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilizes the highest number of primitive haemopoietic progenitors as shown by pre-colony-forming unit (pre-CFU) assay. (United States)

    Horsfall, M J; Hui, C H; To, L B; Begley, C G; Basser, R L; Simmons, P J


    Fifty-two patients with poor prognosis carcinoma of the breast underwent peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization using five different regimens. The yields of primitive haemopoietic progenitors were quantified by a recently described pre-colony-forming unit (pre-CFU) assay using limiting dilution analysis (LDA). Results of days 14 and 35 pre-CFU were also correlated with conventional CD34+ cell enumeration, CFU-GM (granulocyte-macrophage) and long-term culture-initiating cell (LTCIC) assays. The yield of pre-CFUs with the combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and stem cell factor (SCF) was significantly higher than with G-CSF alone, cyclophosphamide (Cyclo) and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-3 and GM-CSF, or Cyclo alone. No significant correlation between neutrophil engraftment and pre-CFU could be demonstrated. Furthermore, CFU-GM was shown to bear a stronger correlation with pre-CFU and LTCIC than CD34+ cell measurement; thus, CFU-GM remains a useful biological tool for haemopoietic stem cell assay. We conclude that the combination of G-CSF and SCF mobilizes the highest number of pre-CFUs as measured by functional pre-CFU assay, which provides an alternative measurement of primitive haemopoietic progenitors to the LTCIC assay.

  12. Development of Electroactive and Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox Biofilms from Digestate in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Gino Di Domenico


    Full Text Available Microbial Fuel cells (MFCs have been proposed for nutrient removal and energy recovery from different wastes. In this study the anaerobic digestate was used to feed H-type MFC reactors, one with a graphite anode preconditioned with Geobacter sulfurreducens and the other with an unconditioned graphite anode. The data demonstrate that the digestate acts as a carbon source, and even in the absence of anode preconditioning, electroactive bacteria colonise the anodic chamber, producing a maximum power density of 172.2 mW/m2. The carbon content was also reduced by up to 60%, while anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox bacteria, which were found in the anodic compartment of the reactors, contributed to nitrogen removal from the digestate. Overall, these results demonstrate that MFCs can be used to recover anammox bacteria from natural sources, and it may represent a promising bioremediation unit in anaerobic digestor plants for the simultaneous nitrogen removal and electricity generation using digestate as substrate.

  13. Expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase in alfalfa modifies cell wall digestibility (United States)


    Background Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop in North America owing to its high biomass production, perennial nature and ability to fix nitrogen. Feruloyl esterase (EC hydrolyzes ester linkages in plant cell walls and has the potential to further improve alfalfa as biomass for biofuel production. Results In this study, faeB [GenBank:AJ309807] was synthesized at GenScript and sub-cloned into a novel pEACH vector containing different signaling peptides to target type B ferulic acid esterase (FAEB) proteins to the apoplast, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum and vacuole. Four constructs harboring faeB were transiently expressed in Nicotiana leaves, with FAEB accumulating at high levels in all target sites, except chloroplast. Stable transformed lines of alfalfa were subsequently obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404). Out of 136 transgenic plants regenerated, 18 independent lines exhibited FAEB activity. Subsequent in vitro digestibility and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of FAEB-expressing lines showed that they possessed modified cell wall morphology and composition with a reduction in ester linkages and elevated lignin content. Consequently, they were more recalcitrant to digestion by mixed ruminal microorganisms. Interestingly, delignification by alkaline peroxide treatment followed by exposure to a commercial cellulase mixture resulted in higher glucose release from transgenic lines as compared to the control line. Conclusion Modifying cell wall crosslinking has the potential to lower recalcitrance of holocellulose, but also exhibited unintended consequences on alfalfa cell wall digestibility due to elevated lignin content. The combination of efficient delignification treatment (alkaline peroxide) and transgenic esterase activity complement each other towards efficient and effective digestion of transgenic lines. PMID:24650274

  14. Culturing Schwann Cells from Neonatal Rats by Improved Enzyme Digestion Combined with Explants-culture Method. (United States)

    Liu, Di; Liang, Xiao-Chun; Zhang, Hong


    Objective To develop an improved method for culturing Schwann cells(SCs) by using both enzyme digestion and explants-culture approaches and compared with traditional explants-culture method and general hemi-explants-culture method. Methods Bilaterally sciatic nerves and brachial plexus nerves were dissected from 3 to 5-day-old neonatal SD rats and explants-culture method,general hemi-explants-culture method,and improved enzyme digestion combined with explants-culture method were adopted to culture SCs,respectively. SCs were digested and passaged after 7 days in culture and counted under the microscope. The purity of SCs was identified by S-100 immunofluorescence staining. Results The SCs of improved method group grew fastest and the total number of cells obtained was(1.85±0.13)×10(6);the SCs of the hemi-explants-culture method group grew slower than the improved method group and the total number of cells obtained was (1.10±0.10)×10(6);the SCs of the explants-culture method group grew slowest and the total number of cells obtained was (0.77±0.03)×10(6).The total number of cells obtained showed significant difference among the three groups(Pculture method group,and (74.50±4.23)% in the explants-culture method group(Pculture method can obtain sufficient amount of high-purity SCs in a short time and thus may be applied in further research on peripheral nerve regeneration.

  15. Impact of food components during in vitro digestion of silver nanoparticles on cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in intestinal cells. (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Dajana; Ebmeyer, Johanna; Knappe, Patrick; Juling, Sabine; Böhmert, Linda; Selve, Sören; Niemann, Birgit; Braeuning, Albert; Thünemann, Andreas F; Lampen, Alfonso


    Because of the rising application of nanoparticles in food and food-related products, we investigated the influence of the digestion process on the toxicity and cellular uptake of silver nanoparticles for intestinal cells. The main food components--carbohydrates, proteins and fatty acids--were implemented in an in vitro digestion process to simulate realistic conditions. Digested and undigested silver nanoparticle suspensions were used for uptake studies in the well-established Caco-2 model. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to estimate particle core size, size distribution and stability in cell culture medium. Particles proved to be stable and showed radii from 3.6 to 16.0 nm. Undigested particles and particles digested in the presence of food components were comparably taken up by Caco-2 cells, whereas the uptake of particles digested without food components was decreased by 60%. Overall, these findings suggest that in vivo ingested poly (acrylic acid)-coated silver nanoparticles may reach the intestine in a nanoscaled form even if enclosed in a food matrix. While appropriate for studies on the uptake into intestinal cells, the Caco-2 model might be less suited for translocation studies. Moreover, we show that nanoparticle digestion protocols lacking food components may lead to misinterpretation of uptake studies and inconclusive results.

  16. Immunohistochemical localization of hepatopancreatic phospholipase in gastropods mollusc, Littorina littorea and Buccinum undatum digestive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarai Zied


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the digestive enzymes, phospholipase A2 (PLA2 hydrolyzes the essential dietary phospholipids in marine fish and shellfish. However, we know little about the organs that produce PLA2, and the ontogeny of the PLA2-cells. Accordingly, accurate localization of PLA2 in marine snails might afford a better understanding permitting the control of the quality and composition of diets and the mode of digestion of lipid food. Results We have previously producted an antiserum reacting specifically with mSDPLA2. It labeled zymogen granules of the hepatopancreatic acinar cells and the secretory materials of certain epithelial cells in the depths of epithelial crypts in the hepatopancreas of snail. To confirm this localization a laser capture microdissection was performed targeting stained cells of hepatopancreas tissue sections. A Western blot analysis revealed a strong signal at the expected size (30 kDa, probably corresponding to the PLA2. Conclusions The present results support the presence of two hepatopancreatic intracellular and extracellular PLA2 in the prosobranchs gastropods molluscs, Littorina littorea and Buccinum undatum and bring insights on their localizations.

  17. Reversible alterations in epithelial cell turnover in digestive gland of winkles (Littorina littorea) exposed to cadmium and their implications for biomarker measurements. (United States)

    Zaldibar, B; Cancio, I; Marigómez, I


    In marine molluscs, the epithelium of the digestive gland is composed of two cell types, namely, digestive and basophilic cells. Under normal physiological conditions digestive cells outnumber basophilic cells, but under different stress situations the composition of the epithelium changes, basophilic cells apparently replace digestive cell. Winkles, Littorina littorea, were exposed to 1.25mg/l Cd for 20 days to provoke cell type replacement. Then, animals were depurated in clean seawater for 10 days to determine whether cell type replacement was reversible. Digestive glands were fixed in Carnoy and paraffin embedded for histological analysis. The volume densities of basophilic cells (Vv(BAS)) and digestive cells (Vv(DIG)) were calculated by stereology on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections. Vv(BAS) increased and Vv(DIG) decreased in Cd-exposed animals. After estimation of cell size and absolute cell numbers, these changes were attributed to digestive cell loss and concomitant basophilic cell hypertrophy but not to increased numbers of basophilic cells. Cell type composition and cell size almost fully returned to normal values after 10-day depuration. Accordingly, PCNA immunohistochemistry demonstrated that proliferating digestive cells were more abundant in winkles exposed to Cd and after 10-day depuration than in control specimens, suggesting that net digestive cell loss was accompanied by increased digestive cell proliferation. Thus, Cd-exposure seems to provoke an enhanced digestive cell turnover in order to cope with Cd detoxification. Intralysosomal accumulation of metals (autometallographied black silver deposits; BSD) was used as a biomarker of exposure to Cd and lysosomal structural changes as an effect biomarker to see whether cell type composition might have any effect on these endpoints. BSD formed around Cd ions, in digestive cell lysosomes of Cd-exposed winkles whereas basophilic cells appeared devoid of them. After depuration, BSD were less

  18. Counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion by recovery using submersible microbial desalination cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini


    Ammonia inhibition is one of the most frequent and serious problems in biogas plants. In this study, a novel hybrid system consisting of a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed for counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic...... digestion (AD) with simultaneous in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. The SMDC was powered by acetate in a buffer solution, while synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater was used as the feeding of the CSTR. Under continuous operation, ammonia recovery rate of 86 g-N/m2 /day and current density...

  19. Distribution of endocrine cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis during the active and hibernating period. (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhou, Naizhen; Wang, Chaolin; Wu, Xiaobing


    The digestive tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body; the distribution pattern of endocrine cells varies with different pathological and physiological states. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distributed density of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), gastrin (GAS), somatostatin (SS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis during the active and hibernating period by immunohistochemical (IHC) method. The results indicated that 5-HT-IR cells were distributed throughout the entire digestive tract, which were most predominant in duodenum and jejunum. The density increased significantly in stomach and duodenum during hibernation. GAS-IR cells were limited in small stomach and small intestine. The density decreased significantly in small stomach during hibernation, while increased in duodenum. What's more, most of the endocrine cells in duodenum were generally spindle shaped with long cytoplasmic processes ending in the lumen during hibernation. SS-IR cells were limited in stomach and small stomach. The density increased in stomach while decreased in small stomach during hibernation, meanwhile, fewer IR cells occurred in small intestine. VIP-IR cells occurred in stomach and small stomach. The density decreased in small stomach, while increased in stomach during hibernation. These results indicated that the endocrine cells in different parts of digestive tract varied differently during hibernation, their changes were adaptive response to the hibernation.

  20. Polymorphisms in O-methyltransferase genes are associated with stover cell wall digestibility in European maize (Zea mays L.

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    Darnhofer Birte


    Full Text Available Abstract Background OMT (O-methyltransferase genes are involved in lignin biosynthesis, which relates to stover cell wall digestibility. Reduced lignin content is an important determinant of both forage quality and ethanol conversion efficiency of maize stover. Results Variation in genomic sequences coding for COMT, CCoAOMT1, and CCoAOMT2 was analyzed in relation to stover cell wall digestibility for a panel of 40 European forage maize inbred lines, and re-analyzed for a panel of 34 lines from a published French study. Different methodologies for association analysis were performed and compared. Across association methodologies, a total number of 25, 12, 1, 6 COMT polymorphic sites were significantly associated with DNDF, OMD, NDF, and WSC, respectively. Association analysis for CCoAOMT1 and CCoAOMT2 identified substantially fewer polymorphic sites (3 and 2, respectively associated with the investigated traits. Our re-analysis on the 34 lines from a published French dataset identified 14 polymorphic sites significantly associated with cell wall digestibility, two of them were consistent with our study. Promising polymorphisms putatively causally associated with variability of cell wall digestibility were inferred from the total number of significantly associated SNPs/Indels. Conclusions Several polymorphic sites for three O-methyltransferase loci were associated with stover cell wall digestibility. All three tested genes seem to be involved in controlling DNDF, in particular COMT. Thus, considerable variation among Bm3 wildtype alleles can be exploited for improving cell-wall digestibility. Target sites for functional markers were identified enabling development of efficient marker-based selection strategies.

  1. Inhibitory effects of Citrus flavonoids on starch digestion and antihyperglycemic effects in HepG2 cells. (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Xu, Ying; Lu, Yan-Hua


    Flavonoids are a class of important bioactive natural products and are being extensively used in functional foods. In the present study, the effects of four Citrus flavonoids (i.e., hesperidin, naringin, neohesperidin, and nobiletin) on amylase-catalyzed starch digestion, major digestive enzyme activities (e.g., pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase), and glucose use in HepG2 cells were investigated. The results showed that all of the tested Citrus flavonoids significantly inhibited amylase-catalyzed starch digestion. Moreover, naringin and neohesperidin mainly inhibited amylose digestion, whereas hesperidin and nobiletin inhibited both amylose and amylopectin digestion. However, these flavonoids showed weak inhibitory activities against digestive enzymes. Furthermore, glucose consumption, glycogen concentration, and glucokinase activity were significantly elevated, and glucose-6-phosphatase activity was markedly decreased by Citrus flavonoids. These results demonstrate that Citrus flavonoids play important roles in preventing the progression of hyperglycemia, partly by binding to starch, increasing hepatic glycolysis and the glycogen concentration, and lowering hepatic gluconeogenesis. This work suggests that Citrus flavonoids might be potentially used for the prevention of postprandial hyperglycemia.

  2. Lysosomal enlargement and lysosomal membrane destabilisation in mussel digestive cells measured by an integrative index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izagirre, Urtzi [Cell Biology in Environmental Toxicology Research Group, Department of Zoology and Cell Biology, School of Sciences and Technology, University of the Basque Country, P.O. box 644, E-48080 Bilbo (Spain); Marigomez, Ionan, E-mail: ionan.marigomez@ehu.e [Cell Biology in Environmental Toxicology Research Group, Department of Zoology and Cell Biology, School of Sciences and Technology, University of the Basque Country, P.O. box 644, E-48080 Bilbo (Spain)


    Lysosomal responses (enlargement and membrane destabilisation) in mussel digestive cells are well-known environmental stress biomarkers in pollution effects monitoring in marine ecosystems. Presently, in laboratory and field studies, both responses were measured separately (in terms of lysosomal volume density - Vv - and labilisation period -LP) and combined (lysosomal response index - LRI) in order to contribute to their understanding and to develop an index useful for decisions makers. LRI integrates Vv and LP, which are not necessarily dependent lysosomal responses. It is unbiased and more sensitive than Vv and LP alone and diminishes background due to confounding factors. LRI provides a simple numerical index (consensus reference = 0; critical threshold = 1) directly related to the pollution impact degree. Moreover, LRI can be represented in a way that allows the interpretation of lysosomal responses, which is useful for environmental scientists. - Lysosomal responses to pollutants measured by an integrative index.

  3. Microbial fuel cell based biosensor for in situ monitoring of anaerobic digestion process. (United States)

    Liu, Zhidan; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Songping; Xing, Xin-Hui; Su, Zhiguo


    A wall-jet microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed for the monitoring of anaerobic digestion (AD). This biofilm based MFC biosensor had a character of being portable, short hydraulic retention time (HRT) for sample flow through and convenient for continuous operation. The MFC was installed in the recirculation loop of an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed (UAFB) reactor in bench-scale where pH of the fermentation broth and biogas flow were monitored in real time. External disturbances to the AD were added on purpose by changing feedstock concentration, as well as process configuration. MFC signals had good correlations with online measurements (i.e. pH, gas flow rate) and offline analysis (i.e. COD) over 6-month operation. These results suggest that the MFC signal can reflect the dynamic variation of AD and can potentially be a valuable tool for monitoring and control of bioprocess.

  4. Application of autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV vaccine in treatment of tumors of digestive tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Liang; Hui Wang; Tie-Mie Sun; Wen-Qing Yao; Li-Li Chen; Yu Jin; Chun-Ling Li; Fan-Juan Meng


    AIM: To treat patients with stage Ⅰ-Ⅳ malignant tumors of digestive tract using autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV (Newcastle disease virus) vaccine, and observe the survival period and curative effect.METHODS: 335 patients with malignant tumors of digestive tract were treated with autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV vaccine. The autologous tumor cell vaccine were assigned for long-term survival observation. While these failed to obtain the autologous tumor tissue were given with NDV vaccine for a short-term observation on curative effect.RESULTS: The colorectal cancer patients treated with autologous tumor cell vaccine were divided into two groups:the controlled group (subjected to resection alone) (n=257),the vaccine group (subjected to both resection and immunotherapy) (n=310). 25 patients treated with NDV immunotherapy were all at stage Ⅳ without having resection.In postoperation adjuvant therapy patients, the 5, 6 and 7-year survival rates were 66.51%, 60.52 %, 56.50 %respectively; whereas in patients with resection alone, only 45.57 %, 44.76 % and 43.42 % respectively. The average survival period was 5.13 years (resection alone group 4.15years), the median survival period was over 7 years (resection alone group 4.46 years). There were significant differences between the two groups. The patients treated with resection plus vaccine were measured delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions after vaccination, (indurative scope >5 mm).The magnitude of DTH was related to the prognosis. The 5-year survival rate was 80 % for those with indurations greater than 5 mm, compared with 30 % for those with indurations less than 5 mm. The 1-year survival rate was 96 % for 25patients treated with NDV immunotherapy. The total effective rate (CR+PR) was 24.00 % in NDV immunotherapy; complete remission (CR) in 1 case (4.00 %), partial remission (PR) in 5 cases (20.00 %), stabilizedin in 16 cases (64.00 %),progression (PD) in 1 case (4.00 %). After NDV vaccine

  5. Polymorphisms in O-methyltransferase genes are associated with stover cell wall digestibility in European maize (Zea mays L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, Everton A; Zein, Imad; Chen, Yongsheng


    Background OMT (O-methyltransferase) genes are involved in lignin biosynthesis, which relates to stover cell wall digestibility. Reduced lignin content is an important determinant of both forage quality and ethanol conversion efficiency of maize stover. Results Variation in genomic sequences codi...


    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  7. Organolead compounds shown to be genetically active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlberg, J.; Ramel, C.; Wachtmeister, C.A.


    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether alkyllead compounds would cause a genetic effect similar to that caused by alkyl mercury compounds. Experiments were conducted on Allium cepa (onion) in order to determine the effect of lead compounds on the spindle fiber mechanism. Results indicate that disturbances of the spindle fiber mechanism occur even at very low concentrations. The lowest concentration at which such effects are observed seems to be between 10/sup -6/ and 10/sup -7/ M for the organic compounds. Although no effect can be observed on the spindle fibers at lower dosages, the mitotic index is changed even at a dose of 10/sup -7/ M with dimethyllead. A preliminary experiment was made on Drosophila with triethyllead in order to investigate whether the effects which were observed on mitoses in Allium would also be observed in a meiotic cell system in an animal.

  8. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones A Maxwell P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L. was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. Results This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 μM, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27 in controls to 65.3% (±4.60. Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 μM AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59 by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. Conclusions This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived

  9. Electrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed cathode microbial electrolysis cell

    KAUST Repository

    Cusick, Roland D.


    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used to simultaneously convert wastewater organics to hydrogen and precipitate struvite, but scale formation at the cathode surface can block catalytic active sites and limit extended operation. To promote bulk phase struvite precipitation and minimize cathode scaling, a two-chamber MEC was designed with a fluidized bed to produce suspended particles and inhibit scale formation on the cathode surface. MEC operation elevated the cathode pH to between 8.3 and 8.7 under continuous flow conditions. Soluble phosphorus removal using digester effluent ranged from 70 to 85% with current generation, compared to 10-20% for the control (open circuit conditions). At low current densities (≤2mA/m2), scouring of the cathode by fluidized particles prevented scale accumulation over a period of 8 days. There was nearly identical removal of soluble phosphorus and magnesium from solution, and an equimolar composition in the collected solids, supporting phosphorus removal by struvite formation. At an applied voltage of 1.0V, energy consumption from the power supply and pumping (0.2Wh/L, 7.5Wh/g-P) was significantly less than that needed by other struvite formation methods based on pH adjustment such as aeration and NaOH addition. In the anode chamber, current generation led to COD oxidation (1.1-2.1g-COD/L-d) and ammonium removal (7-12mM) from digestate amended with 1g/L of sodium acetate. These results indicate that a fluidized bed cathode MEC is a promising method of sustainable electrochemical nutrient and energy recovery method for nutrient rich wastewaters. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Electrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed cathode microbial electrolysis cell. (United States)

    Cusick, Roland D; Ullery, Mark L; Dempsey, Brian A; Logan, Bruce E


    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used to simultaneously convert wastewater organics to hydrogen and precipitate struvite, but scale formation at the cathode surface can block catalytic active sites and limit extended operation. To promote bulk phase struvite precipitation and minimize cathode scaling, a two-chamber MEC was designed with a fluidized bed to produce suspended particles and inhibit scale formation on the cathode surface. MEC operation elevated the cathode pH to between 8.3 and 8.7 under continuous flow conditions. Soluble phosphorus removal using digester effluent ranged from 70 to 85% with current generation, compared to 10-20% for the control (open circuit conditions). At low current densities (≤2 mA/m(2)), scouring of the cathode by fluidized particles prevented scale accumulation over a period of 8 days. There was nearly identical removal of soluble phosphorus and magnesium from solution, and an equimolar composition in the collected solids, supporting phosphorus removal by struvite formation. At an applied voltage of 1.0 V, energy consumption from the power supply and pumping (0.2 Wh/L, 7.5 Wh/g-P) was significantly less than that needed by other struvite formation methods based on pH adjustment such as aeration and NaOH addition. In the anode chamber, current generation led to COD oxidation (1.1-2.1 g-COD/L-d) and ammonium removal (7-12 mM) from digestate amended with 1 g/L of sodium acetate. These results indicate that a fluidized bed cathode MEC is a promising method of sustainable electrochemical nutrient and energy recovery method for nutrient rich wastewaters.

  11. Digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of haploid and diploid males of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenner M. Fernandes


    Full Text Available In eusocial bees, workers and queens are diploid (2n, whereas males are haploid (n. However, in some species, including the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier, 1836, 2n males arise from fertilized eggs resulting from the crossing between a queen and her brother. In the present study, we provide a comparative analysis of the digestive and regenerative cells in n and 2n pupae and adult males of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. In n and 2n pupae and adult males, the number of regenerative cells/nest was similar. In n and 2n pupae, the mean number of digestive cells/midgut area was 2076 ± 0.60, whereas in adults it was 1234 ± 1.42 digestive cells/midgut area. The nuclear area of the digestive cells was also similar in both n and 2n adult males (~154 µm² and smaller in pupae (~91 µm²; this variation might be a result of DNA amplification in digestive cells during bee development. The results from our current study provide further understanding of the morphological and physiological aspects of the digestive tract of bees and show that the ploidy difference between n and 2n male stages does not affect the number of digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides.

  12. Cathepsin B Activity Initiates Apoptosis via Digestive Protease Activation in Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Experimental Pancreatitis. (United States)

    Sendler, Matthias; Maertin, Sandrina; John, Daniel; Persike, Maria; Weiss, F Ulrich; Krüger, Burkhard; Wartmann, Thomas; Wagh, Preshit; Halangk, Walter; Schaschke, Norbert; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M


    Pancreatitis is associated with premature activation of digestive proteases in the pancreas. The lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin B (CTSB) is a known activator of trypsinogen, and its deletion reduces disease severity in experimental pancreatitis. Here we studied the activation mechanism and subcellular compartment in which CTSB regulates protease activation and cellular injury. Cholecystokinin (CCK) increased the activity of CTSB, cathepsin L, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and caspase 3 in vivo and in vitro and induced redistribution of CTSB to a secretory vesicle-enriched fraction. Neither CTSB protein nor activity redistributed to the cytosol, where the CTSB inhibitors cystatin-B/C were abundantly present. Deletion of CTSB reduced and deletion of cathepsin L increased intracellular trypsin activation. CTSB deletion also abolished CCK-induced caspase 3 activation, apoptosis-inducing factor, as well as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein degradation, but these depended on trypsinogen activation via CTSB. Raising the vesicular pH, but not trypsin inhibition, reduced CTSB activity. Trypsin inhibition did not affect apoptosis in hepatocytes. Deletion of CTSB affected apoptotic but not necrotic acinar cell death. In summary, CTSB in pancreatitis undergoes activation in a secretory, vesicular, and acidic compartment where it activates trypsinogen. Its deletion or inhibition regulates acinar cell apoptosis but not necrosis in two models of pancreatitis. Caspase 3-mediated apoptosis depends on intravesicular trypsinogen activation induced by CTSB, not CTSB activity directly, and this mechanism is pancreas-specific.

  13. Mathematical model for microbial fuel cells with anodic biofilms and anaerobic digestion. (United States)

    Picioreanu, C; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Katuri, K P; Scott, K; Head, I M


    This study describes the integration of IWA's anaerobic digestion model (ADM1) within a computational model of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Several populations of methanogenic and electroactive microorganisms coexist suspended in the anolyte and in the biofilm attached to the anode. A number of biological, chemical and electrochemical reactions occur in the bulk liquid, in the biofilm and at the electrode surface, involving glucose, organic acids, H2 and redox mediators. Model output includes the evolution in time of important measurable MFC parameters (current production, consumption of substrates, suspended and attached biomass growth). Two- and three-dimensional model simulations reveal the importance of current and biomass heterogeneous distribution over the planar anode surface. Voltage- and power-current characteristics can be calculated at different moments in time to evaluate the limiting regime in which the MFC operates. Finally, model simulations are compared with experimental results showing that, in a batch MFC, smaller electrical resistance of the circuit leads to selection of electroactive bacteria. Higher coulombic yields are so obtained because electrons from substrate are transferred to anode rather than following the methanogenesis pathway. In addition to higher currents, faster COD consumption rates are so achieved. The potential of this general modelling framework is in the understanding and design of more complex cases of wastewater-fed microbial fuel cells.

  14. Effects of depression on parameters of cell-mediated immunity in patients with digestive tract cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Jun Nan; Yong-Chang Wei; Fu-Ling Zhou; Chun-Li Li; Chen-Guang Sui; Ling-Yun Hui; Cheng-Ge Gao


    AIM: To evaluate the effects of depression on parameters of cell-mediated immunity in patients with cancers of the digestive tract.METHODS: One hundred and eight adult patients of both sexes with cancers of the digestive tract admitted between March 2001 and February 2002 in the Department of Medical Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University were randomly enrolled in the study. The Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS), Zung self-rating anxiety scale(SAS), numeric rating scale (NRS) and social support rating scale (SSRS) were employed to evaluate the degree of depression and their contributing factors. In terms of their SDS index scores, the patients were categorized into depression group (SDS≥50) and non-depression group(SDS<50). Immunological parameters such as T-lymphocyte subsets and natural killer (NK) cell activities in peripheral blood were determined and compared between the two groups of patients.RESULTS: The SDS index was from 33.8 to 66.2 in the 108 cases, 50% of these patients had a SDS index more than 50. Similarly, the SAS index of all the patients ranged from 35.0 to 62.0 and 46.3% of the cases had a SAS index above 50. Cubic curve estimation showed that the depression was positively correlated with anxiety and negatively with social support. Furthermore, the depression correlated with the tumor type, which manifested in a descending order as stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, intestine, esophagus,duodenum and rectum, according to their correlativity. Step-wise regression analysis suggested that hyposexuality,dispidtment, agitation, palpitation, low CD56 and anxiety were the significant factors contributing to depression. More severe anxiety (49.7±7.5 vs 45.3±6.9, P<0.05), pain (6.5±2.8 vs4.6±3.2, P<0.05), poor social support (6.8±2.0 vs 7.6±2.1,P<0.05), as well as decline of lymphocyte count (0.33±0.09vs0.39±0.87, P<0.05) and CD56 (0.26±0.11 vs0.29±0.11,P<0.05) were noted in the depression group compared

  15. Gastric digestion of pea ferritin and modulation of its iron bioavailability by ascorbic and phytic acids in caco-2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satyanarayana Bejjani; Raghu Pullakhandam; Ravinder Punjal; K Madhavan Nair


    AIM: To understand the digestive stability and mechanism of release and intestinal uptake of pea ferritin iron in caco-2 cell line model.METHODS: Pea seed ferritin was purified using salt fractionation followed by gel filtration chromatography.The bioavailability of ferritin iron was assessed using coupled in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model in the presence or absence of ascorbic acid and phytic acid.Caco-2 cell ferritin formation was used as a surrogate marker of iron uptake. Structural changes of pea ferritin under simulated gastric pH were characterized using electrophoresis, gel filtration and circular dichroism spectroscopy.RESULTS: The caco-2 cell ferritin formation was significantly increased (P < 0.001) with FeSO4 (19.3±9.8 ng/mg protein) and pea ferritin (13.9 ± 6.19 ng/mg protein) compared to the blank digest (3.7 ± 1.8 ng/mg protein). Ascorbic acid enhanced while phytic acid decreased the pea ferritin iron bioavailability. However,either in the presence or absence of ascorbic acid, the ferritin content of caco-2 cells was significantly less with pea ferritin than with FeSO4. At gastric pH, no band corresponding to ferritin was observed in the presence of pepsin either on native PAGE or SDS-PAGE. Gel filtration chromatography and circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a pH dependent loss of quaternary and secondary structure.CONCLUSION: Under gastric conditions, the iron core of pea ferritin is released into the digestive medium due to acid induced structural alterations and dissociation of protein. The released iron interacts with dietary factors leading to modulation of pea ferritin iron bioavailability,resembling the typical characteristics of non-heme iron.

  16. Counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion by recovery using submersible microbial desalination cell. (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini


    Ammonia inhibition is one of the most frequent and serious problems in biogas plants. In this study, a novel hybrid system consisting of a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed for counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion (AD) with simultaneous in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. The SMDC was powered by acetate in a buffer solution, while synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater was used as the feeding of the CSTR. Under continuous operation, ammonia recovery rate of 86 g-N/m(2) /day and current density of 4.33 A/m(2) were achieved at steady-state condition. As a result, 112% extra biogas was produced due to ammonia recovery by the SMDC. High-throughput sequencing showed that ammonia recovery had an impact on the microbial community structures in the SMDC and CSTR. Considering the additional economic benefits of biogas enhancement and possible wastewater treatment, the SMDC may represent a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method for waste resources recovery and biomethanation of ammonia-rich residues.

  17. Extractability and digestibility of plant cell wall polysaccharides during hydrothermal and enzymatic degradation of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads A.T.; Ahl, Louise I.; Pedersen, Henriette L.


    , regardless their extractability in water or only alkali. Based on the results, AX and MLG appear to be loosely bound in the cell wall matrix while the other polysaccharides are bound more tightly and shielded from enzymatic attack by AX and MLG until pretreatment. The gradual solubilisation and digestion...... and by comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP). This way, the effects of each degradation step to the intermolecular organisation of specific polysaccharides in the cell walls were elucidated. After pretreatment, the degree of polymerisation (DP) of released xylo-oligosaccharides in both samples was up...... to about 20, but mostly around 3-8, and notably more acetylated in stems. Arabinoxylan (AX) and mixed-linkage glucan (MLG) became water-extractable while xylan, xyloglucan (XG), mannan and glucan remained only alkali-extractable. All polysaccharides became partly digestible after pretreatment however...

  18. Food microstructure and starch digestion. (United States)

    Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Harjinder


    Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition.

  19. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh


    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days < Salmonella sp. (133 days from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure, respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  20. Inactivation of selected bacterial pathogens in dairy cattle manure by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (balloon type digester). (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael


    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%-99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  1. Beta-cryptoxanthin from citrus juices: assessment of bioaccessibility using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model. (United States)

    Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Borel, Patrick; Reboul, Emmanuelle; Caporiccio, Bertrand; Besancon, Pierre; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe


    Beta-Cryptoxanthin (beta-CX), a provitaminic carotenoid of potential interest for health, is found principally in Citrus fruit in both free and esterified forms. Little is known about the intestinal absorption of beta-CX especially with regard to the esterified forms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the absorption of free and esterified beta-CX using simulated digestion coupled with the Caco-2 model. Bioaccessibility was investigated by measuring the transfer of carotenoids from different citrus juices into micelles using an in vitro digestion system. Then, carotenoid uptake was evaluated by adding carotenoid-rich micelles (from the in vitro digestion) or synthetic micelles (made from synthetic lipids and carotenoids purified from citrus juice) to human intestinal cells (Caco-2 TC7 clone). Our results showed that beta-cryptoxanthin esters (beta-CXE) were partially hydrolysed during the in vitro digestion. The bioaccessibility of free beta-CX measured was significantly higher (40 (SD 1.05) %) than that of beta-carotene (30 (SD 1.9) %) and beta-CXE (16 (SD 1.5) %). In the same way, the incorporation of free beta-CX (27 (SD 1.01) %) into synthetic micelles exceeded (Pdigestion, the uptake of beta-carotene, free beta-CX and beta-CXE forms by Caco-2 cells was 14.3 (SD 1.8), 3.9 (SD 1.3), and 0.7 (SD 0.08) % respectively. These results showed a preferential uptake by Caco-2 cells of beta-carotene and free beta-CX compared with the two esters of beta-CX.

  2. Removal of volatile fatty acids and ammonia recovery from unstable anaerobic digesters with a microbial electrolysis cell. (United States)

    Cerrillo, Míriam; Viñas, Marc; Bonmatí, August


    Continuous assays with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) fed with digested pig slurry were performed to evaluate its stability and robustness to malfunction periods of an anaerobic digestion (AD) reactor and its feasibility as a strategy to recover ammonia. When performing punctual pulses of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the anode compartment of the MEC, simulating a malfunction of the AD process, an increase in the current density was produced (up to 14 times, reaching values of 3500mAm(-2)) as a result of the added chemical oxygen demand (COD), especially when acetate was used. Furthermore, ammonium diffusion from the anode to the cathode compartment was enhanced and the removal efficiency achieved up to 60% during daily basis VFA pulses. An AD-MEC combined system has proven to be a robust and stable configuration to obtain a high quality effluent, with a lower organic and ammonium content.

  3. Bifidobacteria inhibit the inflammatory response induced by gliadins in intestinal epithelial cells via modifications of toxic peptide generation during digestion. (United States)

    Laparra, J M; Sanz, Y


    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic enteropathy triggered by intake of gliadin, the toxic component of gluten. This study aims at evaluating the capacity of different Bifidobacterium strains to counteract the inflammatory effects of gliadin-derived peptides in intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. A commercial extract of several gliadin (Gld) types (alpha, beta, gamma, [symbol: see text] ) was subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (pepsin at pH 3, pancreatin-bile at pH 6), inoculated or not with cell suspensions (10(8) colony forming units/ml) of either B. animalis IATA-A2, B. longum IATA-ES1, or B. bifidum IATA-ES2, in a bicameral system. The generated gliadin-derived peptides were identified by reverse phase-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Caco-2 cell cultures were exposed to the different gliadin peptide digestions (0.25 mg protein/ml), and the mRNA expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and chemokine CXCR3 receptor were analyzed by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in stimulated cells. The production of the pro-inflammatory markers NF-kappaB p50, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta (interleukine 1beta) by Caco-2 cells was also determined by ELISA. The peptides from gliadin digestions inoculated with bifidobacteria did not exhibit the toxic amino acid sequences identified in those noninoculated (alpha/beta-Gld [158-164] and alpha/beta-Gld [122-141]). The RT-PCR analysis evidenced a down-regulation in mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory biomarkers. Consistent with these results the production of NF-kappaB, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta was reduced (18.2-22.4%, 28.0-64.8%, and abolished, respectively) in cell cultures exposed to gliadin digestions inoculated with bifidobacteria. Therefore, bifidobacteria change the gliadin-derived peptide pattern and, thereby, attenuate their pro-inflammatory effects on Caco-2 cells.

  4. Digestion, absorption and utilization of single-cell protein by the preruminant calf. The true digestibility of milk and bacterial protein and the apparent digestibility and utilization of their constituent amino acids. (United States)

    Sedgman, C A; Roy, J H; Thomas, J; Stobo, I J; Ganderton, P


    Two experiments of Latin square design were made, each with four Friesian bull calves fitted with re-entrant duodenal and ileal cannulas at 4-10 d of age. The calves were used to study the effect of giving milk-substitutes containing 0, 300, 500 and 700 g bacterial protein (Pruteen)/kg total protein on apparent digestibility of nitrogen fractions and amino acids and true digestibility of 3H-labelled milk protein and 35S-labelled bacterial protein in the small intestine. A third experiment of Latin square design with four intact Friesian calves was used to measure apparent digestibility of nutrients throughout the alimentary tract and retention of N, calcium and phosphorus. At the duodenum, volume of outflow, its pH, and outflow of total-N(TN), protein-N (PN) and non-protein-N (NPN) decreased with time after feeding. At the ileum, volume of outflow and TN outflow were unaffected by time after feeding but PN outflow decreased; NPN outflow at the ileum increased to a maximum 6 h after feeding and then declined. Increased inclusion of Pruteen did not affect the volume of outflow at the duodenum or ileum, but duodenal PN outflow increased. At the ileum, pH values were lower and TN, PN and NPN outflows were higher with increasing concentration of Pruteen in the diet. Apparent digestibility in the small intestine tended to decrease with greater amounts of Pruteen, but was only significant for NPN. Apparent digestibility from mouth to ileum significantly decreased for TN and PN as Pruteen inclusion increased. Amino acid concentration in duodenal outflow, with the exception of that of arginine, reflected intake. The total amount of each amino acid in ileal outflow increased and the apparent digestibility of most amino acids decreased with greater amounts of Pruteen in the diet. Apparent digestibility of nucleic acid-N from Pruteen was very high. True digestibility in the small intestine and between mouth and ileum of 3H-labelled milk protein was high and did not differ

  5. Processing technologies and cell wall degrading enzymes to improve nutritional value of dried distillers grain with solubles for animal feed: an in vitro digestion study. (United States)

    de Vries, Sonja; Pustjens, Annemieke M; Kabel, Mirjam A; Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Hendriks, Wouter H; Gerrits, Walter J J


    Currently, the use of maize dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) as protein source in animal feed is limited by the inferior protein quality and high levels of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Processing technologies and enzymes that increase NSP degradability might improve digestive utilization of DDGS, enhancing its potential as a source of nutrients for animals. The effects of various combinations of processing technologies and commercial enzyme mixtures on in vitro digestion and subsequent fermentation of DDGS were tested. Wet-milling, extrusion, and mild hydrothermal acid treatment increased in vitro protein digestion but had no effect on NSP. Severe hydrothermal acid treatments, however, effectively solubilized NSP (48-78%). Addition of enzymes did not affect NSP solubilization in unprocessed or processed DDGS. Although the cell wall structure of DDGS seems to be resistant to most milder processing technologies, in vitro digestion of DDGS can be effectively increased by severe hydrothermal acid treatments.

  6. Cell death and renewal during prey capture and digestion in the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma hypogea (Porifera: Poecilosclerida). (United States)

    Martinand-Mari, Camille; Vacelet, Jean; Nickel, Michael; Wörheide, Gert; Mangeat, Paul; Baghdiguian, Stephen


    The sponge Asbestopluma hypogea is unusual among sponges due to its peculiar carnivorous feeding habit. During various stages of its nutrition cycle, the sponge is subjected to spectacular morphological modifications. Starved animals are characterized by many elongated filaments, which are crucial for the capture of prey. After capture, and during the digestion process, these filaments actively regress before being regenerated during a subsequent period of starvation. Here, we demonstrate that these morphological events rely on a highly dynamic cellular turnover, implying a coordinated sequence of programmed cell death (apoptosis and autophagy), cell proliferation and cell migration. A candidate niche for cell renewal by stem cell proliferation and differentiation was identified at the base of the sponge peduncle, characterized by higher levels of BrdU/EdU incorporation. Therefore, BrdU/EdU-positive cells of the peduncle base are candidate motile cells responsible for the regeneration of the prey-capturing main sponge body, i.e. the dynamic filaments. Altogether, our results demonstrate that dynamics of cell renewal in sponge appear to be regulated by cellular mechanisms as multiple and complex as those already identified in bilaterian metazoans.

  7. Evaluation of metallothionein formation as a proxy for zinc absorption in an in vitro digestion/caco-2 cell culture model (United States)

    Caco-2 cell metallothionein (MT) formation was studied to determine if MT could be used as a proxy for zinc (Zn) absorption in a cell culture model. MT intracellular concentration was determined by using a cadmium/hemoglobin affinity assay. Cellular Zn uptake was determined in acid digests (5% HNO3)...

  8. Wild Raspberry Subjected to Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion Improves the Protective Capacity against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Oxidative Damage in Caco-2 Cells. (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Lingxia; Li, Ya; Zheng, Xiaodong


    Ethyl carbamate (EC), a probable human carcinogen, occurs widely in many fermented foods. Previous studies indicated that EC-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Wild raspberries are rich in polyphenolic compounds, which possess potent antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of wild raspberry extracts produced before (RE) and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (RD) on EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells. Our primary data showed that ethyl carbamate could result in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Caco-2 cells and raspberry extract after digestion (RD) may be more effective than that before digestion (RE) in attenuating toxicity caused by ethyl carbamate. Further investigation by fluorescence microscope revealed that RD may significantly ameliorate EC-induced oxidative damage by scavenging the overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), maintaining mitochondrial function and preventing glutathione (GSH) depletion. In addition, HPLC-ESI-MS results showed that the contents of identified polyphenolic compounds (esculin, kaempferol O-hexoside, and pelargonidin O-hexoside) were remarkably increased after digestion, which might be related to the better protective effect of RD. Overall, our results demonstrated that raspberry extract undergoing simulated gastrointestinal digestion may improve the protective effect against EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells.

  9. Human glandular organoid formation in murine engineering chambers after collagenase digestion and flow cytometry isolation of normal human breast tissue single cells. (United States)

    Huo, Cecilia W; Huang, Dexing; Chew, Grace L; Hill, Prue; Vohora, Ambika; Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Godde, Nathan; Henderson, Michael A; Thompson, Erik W; Britt, Kara L


    Women with high mammographic density (MD) are at increased risk of breast cancer (BC) after adjustment for age and body mass index. We have developed a murine biochamber model in which both high MD (HMD) and low MD (LMD) tissue can be propagated. Here, we tested whether cells isolated by collagenase digestion and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from normal breast can be reconstituted in our biochamber model, which would allow cell-specific manipulations to be tested. Fresh breast tissue was collected from women (n = 7) undergoing prophylactic mastectomy. The tissue underwent collagenase digestion overnight and, in some cases, additional FACS enrichment to obtain mature epithelial, luminal progenitor, mammary stem, and stromal cells. Cells were then transferred bilaterally into biochambers in SCID mice (n = 5-7) and incubated for 6 weeks, before harvesting for histological analyses, and immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratins (CK), vimentin, Ki-67, murine macrophages, and Cleaved Caspase-3. Biochambers inoculated with single cells after collagenase digestion or with flow cytometry contained glandular structures of human origin (human vimentin-positive), which expressed CK-14 and pan-CK, and were proliferating (Ki-67-positive). Glandular structures from the digested tissues were smaller than those in chambers seeded with finely chopped intact mammary tissue. Mouse macrophage infiltration was higher in the chambers arising from digested tissues. Pooled single cells and FACS fractionated cells were viable in the murine biochambers and formed proliferating glandular organoids of human origin. This is among the first report to demonstrate the success of formed human glandular organoids from isolated primary mammary cells in the murine biochamber model.

  10. Dark fermentation, anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cells: An integrated system to valorize swine manure and rice bran. (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Sciarria, Tommy Pepè; Gao, Yong Chang; Scaglia, Barbara; Salati, Silvia; Zanardo, Marina; Quiao, Wei; Dong, Renjie; Adani, Fabrizio


    This work describes how dark fermentation (DF), anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial fuel cells (MFC) and solid-liquid separation can be integrated to co-produce valuable biochemicals (hydrogen and methane), bioelectricity and biofertilizers. Two integrated systems (System 1: AD+MFC, and System 2: DF+AD+MFC) are described and compared to a traditional one-stage AD system in converting a mixture (COD=124±8.1gO2kg(-1)Fresh Matter) of swine manure and rice bran. System 1 gave a biomethane yield of 182 LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, while System 2 gave L yields of bio-hydrogen and bio-methane of 27.3±7.2LH2kg(-1)COD-added and 154±14LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, respectively. A solid-liquid separation (SLS) step was applied to the digested slurry, giving solid and liquid fractions. The liquid fraction was treated via the MFC-steps, showing power densities of 12-13Wm(-3) (500Ω) and average bioelectricity yields of 39.8Whkg(-1)COD to 54.2Whkg(-1)COD.

  11. Overcoming organic and nitrogen overload in thermophilic anaerobic digestion of pig slurry by coupling a microbial electrolysis cell. (United States)

    Cerrillo, Míriam; Viñas, Marc; Bonmatí, August


    The combination of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) coupled to an ammonia stripping unit as a post-treatment was assessed both in series operation, to improve the quality of the effluent, and in loop configuration recirculating the effluent, to increase the AD robustness. The MEC allowed maintaining the chemical oxygen demand removal of the whole system of 46±5% despite the AD destabilization after doubling the organic and nitrogen loads, while recovering 40±3% of ammonia. The AD-MEC system, in loop configuration, helped to recover the AD (55% increase in methane productivity) and attained a more stable and robust operation. The microbial population assessment revealed an enhancement of AD methanogenic archaea numbers and a shift in eubacterial population. The AD-MEC combined system is a promising strategy for stabilizing AD against organic and nitrogen overloads, while improving the quality of the effluent and recovering nutrients for their reutilization.

  12. Digestive Diseases (United States)

    ... Celiac Disease Bowel Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence) Gas Lactose Intolerance Diarrhea Diverticulosis & Diverticulitis Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) More Digestive Disease Topics Children and Teens Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Chronic ...

  13. Effects of Ascorbic Acid, Phytic Acid and Tannic Acid on Iron Bioavailability from Reconstituted Ferritin Measured by an In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model (United States)

    The effects of ascorbic acid, phytate and tannic acid on Fe bioavailability from Fe supplied as ferritin was compared to FeSO4 using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Horse spleen ferritin (HSF) was chemically reconstituted into a plant-type ferritin (P-HSF). In the presence of ascorbic acid...

  14. Can Villin be Used to Identify Malignant and Undifferentiated Normal Digestive Epithelial Cells? (United States)

    Robine, S.; Huet, C.; Moll, R.; Sahuquillo-Merino, C.; Coudrier, E.; Zweibaum, A.; Louvard, D.


    We have investigated the presence of villin (a Ca2+-regulated actin binding protein) in various tissues (normal or malignant) and in established cell lines by using sensitive immunochemical techniques on cell extracts and immunofluorescence analysis on frozen sections. Our results show that villin is a marker that can be used to distinguish normal differentiated epithelial cells from the simple epithelia lining the gastrointestinal tract and renal tubules. Villin is found in the absorptive cells of the small and large intestines, in the duct cells of pancreas and biliary system, and in the cells of kidney proximal tubules. Furthermore, undifferentiated normal and tumoral cells of intestinal origin in vivo and in cell culture express villin. Therefore, expression of villin is seen in cells that do not necessarily display the morphological features characteristic of their terminally differentiated state, such as the microvilli-lined brush border. We suggest the possible clinical implications of using villin as a marker in the diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinomas.

  15. Bioaccessibility, biotransformation, and transport of alpha-mangostin from Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) using simulated digestion and Caco-2 human intestinal cells. (United States)

    Bumrungpert, Akkarach; Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W; Suksamrarn, Sunit; Chaivisuthangkura, Apinya; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Failla, Mark L


    alpha- and gamma-Mangostin are the most abundant prenylated xanthones present in the fruit of the mangosteen tree. These compounds have been reported to possess numerous bioactivities that have provided the impetus for use of mangosteen products as nutraceuticals and in functional foods and dietary supplements. The health-promoting benefits of mangosteen are dependent on delivery of the xanthones to target tissues. Here, we used simulated digestion and Caco-2 cells to investigate the digestive stability, bioaccessibility, and intestinal cell transport of alpha- and gamma- mangostin. Recovery of alpha- and gamma-mangostin after simulated digestion of pericarp and fruit pulp exceeded 90%. Transfer of alpha- and gamma-mangostin to the aqueous fraction during simulated digestion was efficient (65-74%) and dependent on bile salts suggesting that micellarization is required for optimal bioaccessibility of xanthones. Cell uptake of xanthones from micelles was dose dependent and intracellular concentrations were maximum by 1 h. Both free and phase II metabolites of alpha-mangostin were transported in the basolateral compartment and metabolites also effluxed into the apical chamber. Transepithelial transport of alpha-mangostin was increased during prandial-like compared to fasted conditions suggesting that absorption is enhanced by dietary fat.

  16. Effect of maize starch concentration in the diet on starch and cell wall digestion in the dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.; Hindle, V.A.; Klop, A.; Cone, J.W.


    An in vivo experiment was performed to determine the effect of level of maize starch in the diet on digestion and site of digestion of organic matter, starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In a repeated change-over design experiment, three cows fitted with a rumen cannula and T-piece cannulae in

  17. Concentrations and apparent digestibility of lignin and carbohydrate fractions in cell walls of whole-crop cereal silages (United States)

    Whole-crop cereal silage (WCCS) of oats generally has lower fiber digestibility than WCCS of barley. When investigated more closely, the difference seems mainly to be in the digestibility of the hemicellulosic fraction (HC), where HC is calculated as neutral detergent fibre (NDF) – acid detergent fi...

  18. Goblet Cells and Mucus Types in the Digestive Intestine and Respiratory Intestine in Bronze Corydoras (Callichthyidae: Teleostei). (United States)

    Leknes, I L


    The structure and histochemical properties of the intestine in bronze corydoras (Corydoras aeneus), a stomach-containing teleost, are described, with emphasis on goblet cells and mucin types. The proximal intestine displayed a normal structure for teleosts, whereas the distal intestine was wide, translucent, thin-walled, richly vascularized and constantly filled with air, suggesting an important respiratory role. Goblet cells were common throughout the entire intestine and displayed a variable, but mainly faint metachromatic colour after toluidine blue. They were moderately coloured by alcian blue at both pH 2.5 and 0.2 and displayed no colour after periodic acid followed by Schiff's solution (PAS), but a distinct purple-brown colour after high iron diamine followed by alcian blue (pH 2.5). Together, these results suggest that the mucin in the intestine goblet cells consists mainly of sulphated proteoglycans. Further, the results from the present lectin and neuraminidase tests suggest that these mucins contain much N-acetylglucoseamines and some N-acetylgalactosamines and sialic acid, but seem to lack glucose and mannose. They also contain some galactose-N-acetylgalactosamines sequences, normally hidden by sialic acid. The distinct brush border and mucus layer on the epithelial cells in the respiratory intestine may indicate some digestive roles, such as absorption of water, ions and simple carbohydrates. As sulphated proteoglycans are tough and attract much water, this mucus may play important roles in the protection against mechanical and chemical damages and in the defence against micro-organisms throughout the entire intestine, but in the respiratory intestine it may impede significantly the oxygen uptake. However, as this part of the intestine usually contains no digesta, but is completely filled with air, frequently renewed by dry air from the atmosphere, and the main function of the mucus may be to protect the respiratory epithelium against a destroying and

  19. Dissociated neurons and glial cells derived from rat inferior colliculi after digestion with papain. (United States)

    Kaiser, Odett; Aliuos, Pooyan; Wissel, Kirsten; Lenarz, Thomas; Werner, Darja; Reuter, Günter; Kral, Andrej; Warnecke, Athanasia


    The formation of gliosis around implant electrodes for deep brain stimulation impairs electrode-tissue interaction. Unspecific growth of glial tissue around the electrodes can be hindered by altering physicochemical material properties. However, in vitro screening of neural tissue-material interaction requires an adequate cell culture system. No adequate model for cells dissociated from the inferior colliculus (IC) has been described and was thus the aim of this study. Therefore, IC were isolated from neonatal rats (P3_5) and a dissociated cell culture was established. In screening experiments using four dissociation methods (Neural Tissue Dissociation Kit [NTDK] T, NTDK P; NTDK PN, and a validated protocol for the dissociation of spiral ganglion neurons [SGN]), the optimal media, and seeding densities were identified. Thereafter, a dissociation protocol containing only the proteolytic enzymes of interest (trypsin or papain) was tested. For analysis, cells were fixed and immunolabeled using glial- and neuron-specific antibodies. Adhesion and survival of dissociated neurons and glial cells isolated from the IC were demonstrated in all experimental settings. Hence, preservation of type-specific cytoarchitecture with sufficient neuronal networks only occurred in cultures dissociated with NTDK P, NTDK PN, and fresh prepared papain solution. However, cultures obtained after dissociation with papain, seeded at a density of 2×10(4) cells/well and cultivated with Neuro Medium for 6 days reliably revealed the highest neuronal yield with excellent cytoarchitecture of neurons and glial cells. The herein described dissociated culture can be utilized as in vitro model to screen interactions between cells of the IC and surface modifications of the electrode.

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® in colon carcinoma cells. The effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. (United States)

    Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Peso-Echarri, Patricia; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Canali, Raffaella; Virgili, Fabio


    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® (0.5 g/L) on a colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2). The total phenolic concentration (TPC), antioxidant activity and inhibition cell growth were studied in fresh and digested pineapple juice and red fruits juice (both enriched with pine bark extract and not). After in vitro digestion the level of detectable phenolic compounds (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) was higher in both pineapple and red fruits juices enriched with Pycnogenol® than in non-enriched commercial juices (155.6 mg/100 mL vs 94.6 mg/100 mL and 478.5 mg/100 mL vs 406.9 mg/100 mL, respectively). Increased antioxidant activity (measured by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) methods) was observed in digested enriched juices with respect to the same samples before digestion. Pycnogenol® enrichment led to a high antiproliferative effect between 24 and 72 h of incubation with undigested pineapple juice compared with the non-enriched juice. It can be concluded that enrichment of fruit juices with Pycnogenol® provides a source of phenolic compounds with high stability to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions; however, the antioxidant properties of fruit juices were affected to a different extent.

  1. Unravelling the active microbial community in a thermophilic anaerobic digester-microbial electrolysis cell coupled system under different conditions. (United States)

    Cerrillo, Míriam; Viñas, Marc; Bonmatí, August


    Thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of pig slurry coupled to a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with a recirculation loop was studied at lab-scale as a strategy to increase AD stability when submitted to organic and nitrogen overloads. The system performance was studied, with the recirculation loop both connected and disconnected, in terms of AD methane production, chemical oxygen demand removal (COD) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Furthermore, the microbial population was quantitatively and qualitatively assessed through DNA and RNA-based qPCR and high throughput sequencing (MiSeq), respectively to identify the RNA-based active microbial populations from the total DNA-based microbial community composition both in the AD and MEC reactors under different operational conditions. Suppression of the recirculation loop reduced the AD COD removal efficiency (from 40% to 22%) and the methane production (from 0.32 to 0.03 m(3) m(-3) d(-1)). Restoring the recirculation loop led to a methane production of 0.55 m(3) m(-3) d(-1) concomitant with maximum MEC COD and ammonium removal efficiencies of 29% and 34%, respectively. Regarding microbial analysis, the composition of the AD and MEC anode populations differed from really active microorganisms. Desulfuromonadaceae was revealed as the most active family in the MEC (18%-19% of the RNA relative abundance), while hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanobacteriaceae) dominated the AD biomass.

  2. Effect of the co-occurring olive oil and thyme extracts on the phenolic bioaccessibility and bioavailability assessed by in vitro digestion and cell models. (United States)

    Rubió, Laura; Macià, Alba; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat; Blay, M Teresa; Ardévol, Anna; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José


    Olive oils flavoured with edible herbs have grown in popularity because of their added value and potential health benefits. However, the combined presence of different phytochemicals from olive oil and herbs requires study of their possible interactions during intestinal transport and metabolism. The aim of this study was firstly to evaluate the effect on bioaccessibility of the co-occurring bioactive compounds from olive oil and thyme through an in vitro digestion model of three extracts: olive extract (OE), thyme extract (TE) and a combination of both (OTE). The bioaccessible fractions were exposed to Caco-2 and HepG-2 cell models, as well as to a co-culture of both of these. Results indicated that the bioaccessibility of hydroxytyrosol was enhanced when OTE was digested. After Caco-2 cells exposure, no significant differences were observed in hydroxytyrosol transport, whereas the main flavonoids from thyme seemed to undergo an enhanced basolateral permeation when both phenolic sources where exposed.

  3. White Matter Development during Adolescence as Shown by Diffusion MRI (United States)

    Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Yuan, Weihong


    Previous volumetric developmental MRI studies of the brain have shown white matter development continuing through adolescence and into adulthood. This review presents current findings regarding white matter development and organization from diffusion MRI studies. The general trend during adolescence (age 12-18 years) is towards increasing…

  4. Persistence and Potential Viable but Non-culturable State of Pathogenic Bacteria during Storage of Digestates from Agricultural Biogas Plants (United States)

    Maynaud, Geraldine; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Ziebal, Christine; Cuny, Anais; Druilhe, Céline; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Wéry, Nathalie


    Despite the development of on-farm anaerobic digestion as a process for making profitable use of animal by-products, factors leading to the inactivation of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates remain poorly described. Here, a microcosm approach was used to evaluate the persistence of three pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica Derby, Campylobacter coli and Listeria monocytogenes) in digestates from farms, stored for later land spreading. Nine samples, including raw digestates, liquid fractions of digestate and composted digestates, were inoculated with each pathogen and maintained for 40 days at 24°C. Concentrations of pathogens were monitored using culture and qPCR methods. The persistence of L. monocytogenes, detected up to 20 days after inoculation, was higher than that of Salmonella Derby, detected for 7–20 days, and of C. coli (not detected after 7 days). In some digestates, the concentration of the pathogens by qPCR assay was several orders of magnitude higher than the concentration of culturable cells, suggesting a potential loss of culturability and induction of Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC) state. The potential VBNC state which was generally not observed in the same digestate for the three pathogens, occurred more frequently for C. coli and L. monocytogenes than for Salmonella Derby. Composting a digestate reduced the persistence of seeded L. monocytogenes but promoted the maintenance of Salmonella Derby. The effect of NH4+/NH3 on the culturability of C. coli and Salmonella Derby was also shown. The loss of culturability may be the underlying mechanism for the regrowth of pathogens. We have also demonstrated the importance of using molecular tools to monitor pathogens in environmental samples since culture methods may underestimate cell concentration. Our results underline the importance of considering VBNC cells when evaluating the sanitary effect of an anaerobic digestion process and the persistence of pathogens during the storage of

  5. Persistence and potential Viable but Non-culturable state of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates from agricultural biogas plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Maynaud


    Full Text Available Despite the development of on-farm anaerobic digestion as a process for making profitable use of animal by-products, factors leading to the inactivation of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates remain poorly described. Here, a microcosm approach was used to evaluate the persistence of three pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica Derby, Campylobacter coli and Listeria monocytogenes in digestates from farms, stored for later land spreading. Nine samples, including raw digestates, liquid fractions of digestate and composted digestates, were inoculated with each pathogen and maintained for 40 days at 24°C. Concentrations of pathogens were monitored using culture and qPCR methods. The persistence of L. monocytogenes, detected up to 20 days after inoculation, was higher than that of Salmonella Derby, detected for 7-20 days, and of C. coli (not detected after 7 days. In some digestates, the concentration of the pathogens by qPCR assay was several orders of magnitude higher than the concentration of culturable cells, suggesting a potential loss of culturability and induction of Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC state. The potential VBNC state which was generally not observed in the same digestate for the three pathogens, occurred more frequently for C. coli and L. monocytogenes than for Salmonella Derby. Composting a digestate reduced the persistence of seeded L. monocytogenes but promoted the maintenance of Salmonella Derby. The effect of NH4+/NH3 on the culturability of C. coli and Salmonella Derby was also shown.The loss of culturability may be the underlying mechanism for the regrowth of pathogens. We have also demonstrated the importance of using molecular tools to monitor pathogens in environmental samples since culture methods may underestimate cell concentration. Our results underline the importance of considering VBNC cells when evaluating the sanitary effect of an anaerobic digestion process and the persistence of pathogens during

  6. Analysis of digester design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wilson, E. H.


    Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such as shredding, degritting, and chemical pretreatment, and post-digestion processes, such as dewatering and gas purification. The biomass sources considered include feedlot manure, rice straw, and bagasse. The results of the analysis indicate that the most economical (on a unit gas cost basis) digester design concept is the plug flow reactor. This conclusion results from this system providing a high gas production rate combined with a low capital hole-in-the-ground digester design concept. The costs determined in this analysis do not include any credits or penalties for feedstock or by-products, but present the costs only for conversion of biomass to methane. The batch land-fill type digester design was shown to have a unit gas cost comparable to that for a conventional stirred tank digester, with the potential of reducing the cost if a land-fill site were available for a lower cost per unit volume. The use of chemical pretreatment resulted in a higher unit gas cost, primarily due to the cost of pretreatment chemical. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the use of chemical pretreatment could improve the economics provided a process could be developed which utilized either less pretreatment chemical or a less costly chemical. The use of other process options resulted in higher unit gas costs. These options should only be used when necessary for proper process performance, or to result in production of a valuable by-product.

  7. Bioefficacy of tea catechins encapsulated in casein micelles tested on a normal mouse cell line (4D/WT) and its cancerous counterpart (D/v-src) before and after in vitro digestion. (United States)

    Haratifar, Sanaz; Meckling, Kelly A; Corredig, Milena


    Numerous studies have demonstrated that tea catechins form complexes with milk proteins, especially caseins. Much less work has been conducted to understand the metabolic conversions of tea-milk complexes during gastro-duodenal digestion. The objective of this study was to determine the significance of this association on the digestibility of the milk proteins and on the bioaccessibility of the tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). An in vitro digestion model mimicking the gastric and duodenal phases of the human gastrointestinal tract was employed to follow the fate of the milk proteins during digestion and determine the bioefficacy of EGCG isolated or encapsulated with the caseins. The samples, before and after digestion, were tested using two parallel colonic epithelial cell lines, a normal line (4D/WT) and its cancerous transformed counterpart (D/v-src). EGCG caused a decrease in proliferation of cancer cells, while in normal cells, neither isolated nor encapsulated EGCG affected cell proliferation, at concentrations <0.15 mg ml(-1). At higher concentrations, both isolated and encapsulated produced similar decreases in proliferation. On the other hand, the bioefficacy on the cancer cell line showed some differences at lower concentrations. The results demonstrated that regardless of the extent of digestion of the nanoencapsulated EGCG, the bioefficacy of EGCG was not diminished, confirming that casein micelles are an appropriate delivery system for polyphenols.

  8. Brown Tumor Shown Flare Phenomenon On Bone Scan After Parathyroidectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang Ho; Park, Seol Hoon; Baek, So Ra; Chae, Sun Young; Koh, Jung Min; Kim, Jae Seung; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Ryu, Jin Sook [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Brown tumor is the benign bone lesion consists of woven bone and fibrous tissue without matrix, which develop due to chronic excessive osteoclastic activity such as hyperparathyroidism. Usually they appear with normal uptake or occasionally focally increased uptake on bone scan. We present a case with brown tumor shown more increased uptake and more number of lesions on bone scan after parathyroidectomy, and lesser increased uptake on serial bone scans without any other treatment through several months. This finding is thought to be similar to 'flare phenomenon' which is occasionally seen after treatment of metastatic bone lesions of malignant cancer, and may represent curative process of brown tumor with rapid normal bone formation.

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation with live-cell yeast at two dosages on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D; Bertics, S J


    The experimental objective was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with live-cell yeast (LCY; Procreatin-7, Lesaffre Feed Additives, Milwaukee, WI) at 2 dosages in high-starch (HS) diets [30% starch in dry matter (DM)] on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows compared with HS or low-starch (LS; 20% starch in DM) non-LCY diets. Sixty-four multiparous Holstein cows (114 ± 37 d in milk and 726 ± 74 kg of body weight at trial initiation) were randomly assigned to 32 electronic gate feeders (2 cows per feeder), which were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a completely randomized design. A 2-wk covariate adjustment period with cows fed a 50:50 mixture of the HS and LS diets was followed by a 12-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diets. The HS diets were fed without (HS0) and with 2 (HS2) or 4 (HS4) g/cow per day of LCY. The LS diet did not contain LCY (LS0) and was formulated by partially replacing dry ground shelled corn with soy hulls. Cows fed LS0 consumed more DM than cows fed HS diets during wk 3, 10, 11, and 12. Yields of actual (44.5 kg/d, on average), fat-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk were unaffected by treatment. Milk fat content tended to be greater for LS0 than for HS0 and HS2 but not different from HS4. Milk urea nitrogen contents were greater for cows fed LS0 than for cows fed the HS diets. Feed conversion (kg of milk/kg of DM intake) was numerically greater for HS diets than for LS0. Ruminal pH was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal molar proportion of acetate was greater, whereas that of propionate was lower, for LS0 compared with HS diets. Dry matter and organic matter digestibilities were greater for HS2 and HS4 than for HS0. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was greater for HS4 than for HS0 and HS2. Dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities were greater for LS0 than for HS diets; starch digestibility was

  10. Assessing the bioavailability of polyphenols and antioxidant properties of extra virgin argan oil by simulated digestion and Caco-2 cell assays. Comparative study with extra virgin olive oil. (United States)

    Seiquer, Isabel; Rueda, Ascensión; Olalla, Manuel; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen


    Argan oil is becoming increasingly popular in the edible-oil market as a luxury food with healthy properties. This paper analyzes (i) the bioavailability of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of extra virgin argan oil (EVA) by the combination of in vitro digestion and absorption across Caco-2 cells and (ii) the protective role of the oil bioaccessible fraction (BF) against induced oxidative stress. Results were compared with those obtained with extra virgin olive oil (EVO). Higher values of polyphenols and antioxidant activity were observed in the BF obtained after the in vitro digestion of oils compared with the initial chemical extracts; the increase was higher for EVA but absolute BF values were lower than EVO. Bioaccessible polyphenols from EVA were absorbed by Caco-2 cells in higher proportions than from EVO, and minor differences were observed for antioxidant activity. Preincubation of cell cultures with BF from both oils significantly protected against oxidation, limiting cell damage and reducing reactive oxygen species generation.

  11. Pilot project to investigate the anaerobic digestion of the European water chestnut. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A pilot project was undertaken by the City of Watervliet, New York, funded by the US Department of Energy, Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program, to verify the feasibility of producing methane gas through the anaerobic digestion of the European Water Chestnut Trapa natans L. Previous laboratory scale experiments confirmed the hypothesis that Trapa natans L. was susceptible to digestion by anaerobic bacteria. The experiment described herein confirmed those results in a ''real-world'' environment. Furthermore, it was shown that Trapa natans L. could be harvested, held in storage, and digested without employing unusual technologies. Energy for the digestion reaction was obtained from solar radiation, not fossil fuels, limiting the energy-debt to the construction and harvesting aspects of the project. Phase One of this project took place during the months of June through November, 1982. The digester failed to produce gas due to high oxygen levels. It was hypothesized that the buoyancy cells of the uncrushed plants were the source of this oxygen. Phase Two took place during the months of June through September, 1983. At that time, the Trapa natans L. plants were manually crushed and shredded before introduction to the digester. Gas production was 51% methane and 46% carbon dioxide for the second digester run. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Effect of maize starch concentration in the diet on starch and cell wall digestion in the dairy cow. (United States)

    van Vuuren, A M; Hindle, V A; Klop, A; Cone, J W


    An in vivo experiment was performed to determine the effect of level of maize starch in the diet on digestion and site of digestion of organic matter, starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In a repeated change-over design experiment, three cows fitted with a rumen cannula and T-piece cannulae in duodenum and ileum received a low-starch (12% of ration dry matter) and a high-starch (33% of ration dry matter) diet. Starch level was increased by exchanging dried sugar beet pulp by ground maize. After a 2-week adaptation period, feed intake, rumen fermentation parameters (in vivo and in situ), intestinal flows, faecal excretion of organic matter, starch and NDF were estimated. When the high-starch diet was fed, dry matter intake was higher (19.0 kg/day vs. 17.8 kg/day), and total tract digestibility of organic matter, starch and NDF was lower when the low-starch diet was fed. Maize starch concentration had no significant effect on rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentration nor on the site of digestion of organic matter and starch and rate of passage of ytterbium-labelled forage. On the high-starch diet, an extra 1.3 kg of maize starch was supplied at the duodenum in relation to the low-starch diet, but only an extra 0.3 kg of starch was digested in the small intestine. Digestion of NDF was only apparent in the rumen and was lower on the high-starch diet than on the low-starch diet, mainly attributed to the reduction in sugar beet pulp in the high-starch diet. It was concluded that without the correction for the reduction in NDF digestion in the rumen, the extra supply of glucogenic (glucose and propionic acid) and ketogenic nutrients (acetic and butyric acid) by supplemented starch will be overestimated. The mechanisms responsible for these effects need to be addressed in feed evaluation.

  13. Nutrient and cell wall fraction digestibility of growing WAD ewe fed Mexican sunflower leaf meal (MSLM based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ekeocha


    Full Text Available After a previous 84-d performance phase on growing WAD ewe, Studies was conducted using sixteen West African dwarf (WAD ewe-lambs weighing between 17.50 and 17.88kg on a basal diet of Panicum maximum were allotted into 4 treatment groups A, B, C and D of 4 replicates each. The MSL replaced Wheat bran (WB gravimetrically at 0, 15, 30 and 45%. Treatment A served as control. The experiment lasted for one week. Digestibility was determined using a 6-d total fecal collection. Ewes were given ad libitum access to feed and water. Parameters measured were voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI, which comprised concentrate dry matter intake (CDMI and grass dry matter intake (GDMI, Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, Organic matter (OM and Energy . Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA .The VDMI (g/d varied from 392.30 - 695.00, CDMI (g/d varied from 181.80 - 536.80 and GDMI (g/d varied from 130.65 - 215.95 for ewe-lambs. Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of NDF, ADF, ADL, organic matter (OM and Energy were similar. Approximately 75.5 ±1.1% of the VDMI came from the supplement. Diets containing 15% MSLM was superior to others for CDMI (181.80 – 536.80 g/day, CP intake (17.72 – 32.40 g/day/kgW0.75, Digestible DMI (49.45 - 80.68 g/day/kgW0.75 and Digestible CPI (13.68 - 27.16 g/day/kgW0.75 while GDMI (130.65 – 215.95 g/day for diets containing 30% and 45% MSLM were significant (p Inclusion of up to 45% Mexican Sunflower Leaf in the diets of growing ewe to replace Wheat bran was adequate.

  14. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion. (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim


    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process.

  15. Contribution of midgut bacteria to blood digestion and egg production in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenta Paulo FP


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect gut harbors a variety of microorganisms that probably exceed the number of cells in insects themselves. These microorganisms can live and multiply in the insect, contributing to digestion, nutrition, and development of their host. Recent studies have shown that midgut bacteria appear to strengthen the mosquito's immune system and indirectly enhance protection from invading pathogens. Nevertheless, the physiological significance of these bacteria for mosquitoes has not been established to date. In this study, oral administration of antibiotics was employed in order to examine the contribution of gut bacteria to blood digestion and fecundity in Aedes aegypti. Results The antibiotics carbenicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, gentamycin and kanamycin, were individually offered to female mosquitoes. Treatment of female mosquitoes with antibiotics affected the lysis of red blood cells (RBCs, retarded the digestion of blood proteins and reduced egg production. In addition, antibiotics did not affect the survival of mosquitoes. Mosquito fertility was restored in the second gonotrophic cycle after suspension of the antibiotic treatment, showing that the negative effects of antibiotics in blood digestion and egg production in the first gonotrophic cycle were reversible. Conclusions The reduction of bacteria affected RBC lysis, subsequently retarded protein digestion, deprived mosquito from essential nutrients and, finally, oocyte maturation was affected, resulting in the production of fewer viable eggs. These results indicate that Ae. aegypti and its midgut bacteria work in synergism to digest a blood meal. Our findings open new possibilities to investigate Ae. aegypti-associated bacteria as targets for mosquito control strategies.

  16. Starch digestion capacity of poultry. (United States)

    Svihus, B


    Starch is quantitatively the most important nutrient in poultry diets and will to a large extent be present as intact starch granules due to very limited extent of gelatinization during pelleting. Although native starch is difficult to digest due to a semi-crystalline structure, even fast-growing broiler chickens appears to be able to digest this starch more or less completely during passage through the jejunum. However, reduced starch digestibility has been observed, particularly in pelleted diets containing large quantities of wheat. Although properties of the starch granule such as size and components on the granule surface may affect digestibility, the entrapment of starch granules in cell walls and a protein matrix may be even more important factors impeding starch digestion. In that case, this and the fact that amylase secretion is normally very high in poultry may explain the lack of convincing effects of exogenous α-amylase added to the diet. However, few well-designed experiments assessing mechanisms of starch digestion and the effect of α-amylase supplementation have been carried out, and thus more research is needed in this important area.

  17. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.


    with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9.......6 addresses the mass balances and environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion....

  18. Historical Analysis of Portuguese Primary School Textbooks (1920-2005) on the Topic of Digestion (United States)

    Carvalho, Graca S.; Silva, Rui; Clement, Pierre


    Our previous studies have shown that Portuguese primary school pupils and teachers have three main difficulties in the representation of the digestion process: the sequence of the digestive tract, blood absorption, and the relationship of the digestive function with other human functions. In this study we analysed the topic of digestion in 63…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔龙波; 刘传琳; 刘迅; 陆瑶华


    对皱纹盘鲍消化腺进行了组织学、组织化学、超微结构及酶活性测定等研究。消化腺由消化细胞和嗜碱性细胞组成。消化细胞能内吞腺管腔内的外源性物质,细胞内充满大量与异噬功能有关的囊泡。消化细胞具有内吞和细胞内消化、分泌、贮存等功能。嗜碱性细胞含有发达的粗面内质网以及许多含铁的折光小体,具有分泌和贮存金属离子的功能。消化腺还呈现多种水解酶活性。%Histology, histochemistry, ultrastructure and activity of some hydrolytical enzymes of the digestive gland of Haliotis discus hannai Ino have been studied.The gland consists of two types of cells, digestive cells and basophilic cells. The digestive cells are capable of ingesting exogenous material from the lumen of the tubule, and contain a number of vesicles concerning with the heterophagic function of the cells. The vesicles exhibit considerable variation in size and appearance in different regions of the cells. Those in the apical and sub-apical regions of the cells, which are considered as heterophagosomes, are involved in accumulation of the ingested material. Those in the mid-regions, regarded as heterolysosomes, give a positive reaction to tests for acid phosphatase and non-specific esterase. They concern with intracellular digestion of the ingested material. The vesicles in the basal regions, considered as residual bodies, are involved in accumulation of undigested and indigestible residues. The digestive cells secrete proteinase. Numerous lipid globules in the cells show that the digestive cells can reserve food material. The basophilic cells are characterized by the possession of a well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and many refractile spherules which give a intense reaction to test for iron. The cells also secrete proteinase. The refractile spherules which contain metals may serve a detoxification function. The tests for enzymatic activity in vitro show


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    2006217 Effect of RNA silencing of transforming growth factorβ1 on the growth of colon cancer cells by RNA interference. RAN Zhihua (冉志华), et al. Dept Gastroenterol, Renji Hosp, Med Coll. Jiantong Univy, Shanghai 20001, Chin J Dig 2006;26 (3); 167-170. Objectives: To ohserve the effect of inhibition of transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 on the growth and aggression of colon cancer cells by RNA interference. Methods: HCT116 colon cancer cells were transfected with

  1. Impact of a yogurt matrix and cell microencapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri in three in vitro gastric digestion procedures. (United States)

    Champagne, C P; Raymond, Y; Guertin, N; Martoni, C J; Jones, M L; Mainville, I; Arcand, Y


    The goal of this study was to assess the interaction between microencapsulation and a yogurt food matrix on the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 in four different in vitro systems that simulate a gastric environment. The four systems were: United States Pharmacopeia (USP) solutions, a static two-step (STS) procedure which included simulated food ingredients, a constantly dynamic digestion procedure (IViDiS), as well a multi-step dynamic digestion scheme (S'IViDiS). The pH profiles of the various procedures varied between systems with acidity levels being: USP > STS > IViDiS = S'IVIDiS. Addition of a food matrix increased the pH in all systems except for the USP methodology. Microencapsulation in alginate-based gels was effective in protecting the cells in model solutions when no food ingredients were present. The stability of the probiotic culture in the in vitro gastric environments was enhanced when (1) yoghurt or simulated food ingredient were present in the medium in sufficient quantity, (2) pH was higher. The procedure-comparison data of this study will be helpful in interpreting the literature with respect to viable counts of probiotics obtained from different static or dynamic in vitro gastric systems.

  2. Enhanced methane production in an anaerobic digestion and microbial electrolysis cell coupled system with co-cultivation of Geobacter and Methanosarcina. (United States)

    Yin, Qi; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Guoqiang; Bo, Tao; Yang, Yanfei; Tao, Yong; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping; Yan, Zhiying


    The anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) coupled system has been proved to be a promising process for biomethane production. In this paper, it was found that by co-cultivating Geobacter with Methanosarcina in an AD-MEC coupled system, methane yield was further increased by 24.1%, achieving to 360.2 mL/g-COD, which was comparable to the theoretical methane yield of an anaerobic digester. With the presence of Geobacter, the maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate (216.8 mg COD/(L·hr)) and current density (304.3A/m(3)) were both increased by 1.3 and 1.8 fold compared to the previous study without Geobacter, resulting in overall energy efficiency reaching up to 74.6%. Community analysis demonstrated that Geobacter and Methanosarcina could coexist together in the biofilm, and the electrochemical activities of both were confirmed by cyclic voltammetry. Our study observed that the carbon dioxide content in total gas generated from the AD reactor with Geobacter was only half of that generated from the same reactor without Geobacter, suggesting that Methanosarcina may obtain the electron transferred from Geobacter for the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. Taken together, Geobacter not only can improve the performance of the MEC system, but also can enhance methane production.

  3. The preferred substrates for transglutaminase 2 in a complex wheat gluten digest are Peptide fragments harboring celiac disease T-cell epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Dørum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a T-cell mediated chronic inflammatory disorder of the gut that is induced by dietary exposure to gluten proteins. CD4+ T cells of the intestinal lesion recognize gluten peptides in the context of HLA-DQ2.5 or HLA-DQ8 and the gluten derived peptides become better T-cell antigens after deamidation catalyzed by the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2. In this study we aimed to identify the preferred peptide substrates of TG2 in a heterogeneous proteolytic digest of whole wheat gluten. METHODS: A method was established to enrich for preferred TG2 substrates in a complex gluten peptide mixture by tagging with 5-biotinamido-pentylamine. Tagged peptides were isolated and then identified by nano-liquid chromatography online-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, database searching and final manual data validation. RESULTS: We identified 31 different peptides as preferred substrates of TG2. Strikingly, the majority of these peptides were harboring known gluten T-cell epitopes. Five TG2 peptide substrates that were predicted to bind to HLA-DQ2.5 did not contain previously characterized sequences of T-cell epitopes. Two of these peptides elicited T-cell responses when tested for recognition by intestinal T-cell lines of celiac disease patients, and thus they contain novel candidate T-cell epitopes. We also found that the intact 9mer core sequences of the respective epitopes were not present in all peptide substrates. Interestingly, those epitopes that were represented by intact forms were frequently recognized by T cells in celiac disease patients, whereas those that were present in truncated versions were infrequently recognized. CONCLUSION: TG2 as well as gastrointestinal proteolysis play important roles in the selection of gluten T-cell epitopes in celiac disease.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    8.1 Stomach2003432 Experimental study on mitotic catastrophe induced by pcDNA3-survivin-mutant in gastric cancer cell lines.SUN Jing(孙璟), et al.Dept Gerontol, Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Dig 2003;23(8):487-490.

  5. Problems Digesting Dairy Products? (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Problems Digesting Dairy Products? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... the natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products. People who cannot digest lactose have a ...

  6. Focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy studies of Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) digestive gland epithelium cells. (United States)

    Drobne, Damjana; Milani, Marziale; Zrimec, Alexis; Zrimec, Maja Berden; Tatti, Francesco; Draslar, Kazimir


    The focused ion beam (FIB) was used to prepare cross sections of precisely selected regions of the digestive gland epithelium of a terrestrial isopod P. scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The FIB/SEM system allows ad libitum selection of a region for gross morphologic to ultrastructural investigation, as the repetition of FIB/SEM operations is unrestricted. The milling parameters used in our work proved to be satisfactory to produce serial two-dimensional (2-D) cuts and/or three-dimensional (3-D) shapes on a submicrometer scale. A final, cleaning mill at lower ion currents was employed to minimize the milling artifacts. After cleaning, the milled surface was free of filament- and ridge-like milling artifacts. No other effects of the cleaning mill were observed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    8.1 Esophagus2007092 Expression of CD80, CD86, TGF-β1 and IL-10 mRNA in the esophageal carcinoma. YANG Wenfeng(杨文锋), et al. Dept Thorac Surg Shandong Cancer Hosp, Jinan 250117. Chin J Oncol 2006;28(10):762-765. Objective To investigate the correlation of CD80 and CD86 mRNA expression with the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 mRNA (TGF-β1 ) and interleukin-10 mRNA (IL-10) in the esophageal cancer. To explore the reason of impaired immunological function of dentritic cell (DC) and the mechanism of cancer cell escaption from body immunity system in the esophageal cancer patient.

  8. Pathological reactions and recovery of hepatopancreatic digestive cells from the marine snail Littorina littorea following exposure to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. (United States)

    Lowe, D M; Moore, M N; Readman, J W


    The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular pathological responses of hepatopancreatic digestive cells from the periwinkle Littorina littorea exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fluoranthene and to ascertain whether any injurious effects were reversible within the experimental time scale. A secondary objective was to establish the relationship of the various reactions to animal health status, using lysosomal stability as an index of well-being. Exposure of snails to a concentration of 335 microgl(-1) (1.7 microM) fluoranthene (seawater renewed and spiked daily with fluoranthene) for 5 days resulted in a reduction in lysosomal stability (neutral red retention) and endocytosis; and an increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and 7-ethoxycoumarin-o-deethylase (ECOD; measured as cyano-ECOD) activity measured in isolated live digestive cells. Exposed snails treated with clean seawater for a further 8 days resulted in a return to control levels of lysosomal stability, ECOD and ER; endocytosis showed only a partial recovery. Multi-variate and uni-variate analysis showed that there were strong correlations between the various cellular biomarker responses. These findings are interpretable within the current framework of molluscan biomarker responses to PAHs. Principal component analysis was used to derive the first principal component for endocytosis, ER and ECOD reactions and these were plotted against lysosomal stability as a measure of cellular well-being. The resulting significant regression represents the mapping of the individual biomarkers within health status space for a gradient of fluoranthene toxicity. From this analysis, we concluded that endocytosis is an indicator of healthy snails while proliferation of ER and to a lesser extent induced ECOD are indicative of dysfunction and reduced health. Finally, the results indicate that stress induced by chronic exposure to a PAH is reversible.

  9. [Distribution of acetylcholinesterase activity in the digestive system of the gastropod molluscs Littorina littorea and Achatina fulica]. (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V


    With the use of the histochemical procedure for the demonstration of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, the distribution cholinergic regulatory elements was studied in the esophagus, the pharynx, the stomach, the liver (the digestive gland) and the intestine in sea and terrestrial gastropod molluscs that differed in their general organization level, lifestyle, habitat and feeding type. In both molluscs, all the parts of the digestive tract contained the significant amount of intraepithelial AchE-positive cells of the open type, single subepithelial neurons and the nervous fibers localized among the muscle cells of the wall of the organs. The basal processes of the AchE-positive intraepithelial cells were shown to form the intraepithelial nerve plexus and to pass under the epithelium. The peculiarities and common principles in the distribution of the nervous elements detected, their possible function and the regulatory role in the digestion in gastropod molluscs and other animals are discussed.

  10. The relationship between the anthocyanin and vitamin C contents of red-fleshed sweet cherries and the ability of fruit digests to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells. (United States)

    Leong, Sze Ying; Burritt, David J; Hocquel, Alice; Penberthy, Ari; Oey, Indrawati


    The present work investigated the bioprotective capacities of red-fleshed sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium; Lapins, Stella, Sweetheart and Staccato), with distinct differences in anthocyanins and vitamin C contents, on human intestinal Caco-2 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress. Three assays of cell health, the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide cell viability assay, the lactate dehydrogenase membrane leakage assay and nitric oxide production, were used to determine if these cherry digests differed in their ability to protect Caco-2 cells from H2O2. Cells treated with digests from cherries identified as containing high anthocyanins provided the greatest protection against H2O2. A strong linear correlation (-0.82stress than vitamin C.

  11. The Antiproliferative Effect of Chakasaponins I and II, Floratheasaponin A, and Epigallocatechin 3-O-Gallate Isolated from Camellia sinensis on Human Digestive Tract Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niichiro Kitagawa


    Full Text Available Acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely chakasaponins I (1 and II (2, floratheasaponin A (3, and their analogs, together with catechins—including (–-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (4, flavonoids, and caffeine—have been isolated as characteristic functional constituents from the extracts of “tea flower”, the flower buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae, which have common components with that of the leaf part. These isolates exhibited antiproliferative activities against human digestive tract carcinoma HSC-2, HSC-4, MKN-45, and Caco-2 cells. The antiproliferative activities of the saponins (1–3, IC50 = 4.4–14.1, 6.2–18.2, 4.5–17.3, and 19.3–40.6 µM, respectively were more potent than those of catechins, flavonoids, and caffeine. To characterize the mechanisms of action of principal saponin constituents 1–3, a flow cytometric analysis using annexin-V/7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD double staining in HSC-2 cells was performed. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner. DNA fragmentation and caspase-3/7 activation were also detected after 48 h. These results suggested that antiproliferative activities of 1–3 induce apoptotic cell death via activation of caspase-3/7.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from an enzymatic digest of brown seaweed Sargassum horneri in RAW 264.7 cells (United States)

    Sanjeewa, Kalu Kapuge Asanka; Fernando, Ilekkuttige Priyan Shanura; Kim, Eun-A; Jee, Youngheun


    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Sargassum horneri is an edible brown alga that grows in the subtidal zone as an annual species along the coasts of South Korea, China, and Japan. Recently, an extreme amount of S. horneri moved into the coasts of Jeju Island from the east coast of China, which made huge economic and environmental loss to the Jeju Island. Thus, utilization of this biomass becomes a big issue with the local authorities. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of crude polysaccharides (CPs) extracted from S. horneri China strain in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS CPs were precipitated from S. horneri digests prepared by enzyme assistant extraction using four food-grade enzymes (AMG, Celluclast, Viscozyme, and Alcalase). The production levels of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β were measured by Griess assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured by using western blot. The IR spectrums of the CPs were recorded using a fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer. RESULTS The polysaccharides from the Celluclast enzyme digest (CCP) showed the highest inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells (IC50 value: 95.7 µg/mL). Also, CCP dose-dependently down-regulated the protein expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-1β, compared to the only LPS-treated cells. In addition, CCP inhibited the activation of NF-κB p50 and p65 and the phosphorylation of MAPKs, including p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, FT-IR analysis showed that the FT-IR spectrum of CCP is similar

  13. Fabrication of niobium-based oxides/oxynitrides/nitrides and their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells and anaerobic digestion (United States)

    Zhang, Taihong; Yun, Sining; Li, Xue; Huang, Xinlei; Hou, Yuzhi; Liu, Yanfang; Li, Jing; Zhou, Xiao; Fang, Wen


    Transition metal compounds (TMCs), as a representative family of functional materials, have attracted great attention in the field of renewable energy. Herein, Nb3.49N4.56O0.44 and NbN are prepared from the nitridation of NbO2 in an NH3 atmosphere. These dual-functional Nb-based compounds were applied to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and anaerobic digestion (AD), and the efficiency and stability of these DSSCs and AD systems were systematically evaluated. The Nb3.49N4.56O0.44 counter electrode (CE) exhibited considerable electrocatalytic activity and stability in I3- reduction in DSSCs, achieving photovoltaic performance comparable with Pt (6.36% vs. 7.19%). Furthermore, as accelerants, Nb-based compounds can greatly improve the AD environment, increasing substrate utilization and decreasing the hazards in the digestate. Compared with the control sample (409.2 mL/g·VS and 29.55%), substantially higher cumulative biogas production (437.1-522.7 mL/g·VS) and chemical oxygen demand removal rates (56.08%-65.19%) were achieved using Nb-based accelerants in the AD system. The nitridation technique is an effective and general means of converting Nb-based oxides into oxynitrides and nitrides. The Nb-based compounds with high electrocatalytic activities showed promise for DSSCs applications, while greatly enhancing the biodegradability of the AD system as accelerants. These findings could pave the way for multifunctional applications of TMCs in renewable energy fields.

  14. Case of subacute cerebellar degeneration associated with pleocytosis and cerebellar swelling shown in computed tomography scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Hiide; Anezaki, Toshiharu; Takashima, Noriko; Inuzuka, Takashi; Miyatake, Tadashi


    A 44 year old woman was healthy until January 3, 1986, when she had headache. On January 9, she developed gait ataxia and dysarthria. Cerebellar ataxia worsened rapidly. Aftar a week she could not sit without support and her consciousness was disturbed. Corticosteroid was administrated and consciousness proved alert, but cerebellar ataxia and dysarthria remained unchanged. The patient was found carcinoma of the lung in August 1986. Characteristic features of clinical and laboratory findings of this patient are acute progression, cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis of 1,064/3 cells (860 mononuclear cell, 204 polymorphonuclear cell), and cerebellar swelling shown in computed tomography scanning. Though the mechanism of acute cerebellar degeneration is still uncertained, inflammatory process was supported to exist in cerebellum of this case.

  15. Evaluation of the matrix effect of thermophilic anaerobic digestion on inactivation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus using real-time PCR and viral cell culture. (United States)

    Gao, Tiejun; Bowlby, Evelyn; Tong, Yupin; Wu, John T Y; Wong, Lester; Tower, Robert J; Pang, Xiaoli; Li, Xiaomei


    The matrix effect of the thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD) process on inactivation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) was evaluated. Viral cell culture and real-time PCR were used for assessing removal of the viral infectivity and degradation of viral DNA, respectively. Results showed that the TAD-derived matrix alone can inactivate the virus and destroy the nucleic acid helix core of ILTV in a time-and- dose-dependent manner. No cytopathogenic effect (CPE) was observed in the cells exposed to ILTV pre-treated with TAD matrix for 1.5h in experiment 1 and for 16h in experiment 2. There was a significant statistical difference between TAD matrix treated and non-treated cultures (p<0.001, Chi-test). Amplifiable ILT viral DNA was reduced 2.27 log by 1.5h-treatment and was not present by 16h-treatment with TAD matrix, indicating complete viral DNA fragmentation. The TAD process is an environmentally friendly way for disposing of poultry biowaste and carcasses.

  16. Digestive Physiological Characteristics of the Gobiidae (United States)

    Hur, Sang-Woo; Kim, Shin-Kwon; Kim, Dae-Jung; Lee, Bae-Ik; Park, Su-Jin; Hwang, Hyung-Gyu; Jun, Je-Cheon; Myeong, Jeong-In; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Lee, Young-Don


    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of CCK-producing cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells with respect to stomach fish and stomachless fish of the Gobiidae in order to provide a basis for understanding the digestive physiology. Hairychin goby (Sagamia geneionema), which is stomachless fish, the numbers of mucus-secreting goblet cells is highest in the posterior intestine portion (P<0.05), while CCK-producing cells are scattered throughout the intestine. Gluttonous goby (Chasmichthys gulosus), which is stomach fish, mucus-secreting goblet cells are most abundant in the mid intestine portion (P<0.05), whereas CCK-producing cells are observed only in the anterior and mid intestine portion. Trident goby (Tridentiger obscurus) which is stomach fish, mucus-secreting goblet cells were most abundant in the mid intestine portion (P<0.05). CCK-producing cells are found in the anterior and mid intestine portion. Giurine goby, Rhinogobius giurinus which is also stomach fish, the largest number of mucus-secreting goblet cells showed in anterior intestine portion except for esophagus (P<0.05). CCK-producing cells are present only in the anterior and mid intestine portion. In S. geneionema, digestive action occurs in the posterior intestine portion to protect and functions to activate digestion. In contrast, in C. gulosus, T. obscurus and R. giurinus, their digestive action occurs in the anterior and mid intestine portion to protect and functions to activate digestion. Further studies of the modes of food ingestion by these fish, the contents of their digestive tracts, and the staining characteristics of the goblet cells need to be carried out. PMID:27796002

  17. Digestive system; Appareil digestif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moureau-Zabotto, L.; Touboul, E.; Lerouge, D.; Deniaud-Alexandre, E.; Grahek, D.; Foulquier, J.N.; Petegnief, Y.; Gres, B.; El Balaa, H.; Keraudy, K.; Servagi-Vernat, S.S.; Lorchel, F.L.; Crehange, G.C.; Miny, J.M.; Bosset, J.F.B.; Mineur, L.; Chastel, D.; Combescure, C.; Guillot, N.; Garcia, R.; Reboul, F.; Huguet, F.; Andre, T.; Hammel, P.; Artru, P.; Balosso, J.; Ruszniewski, P.; Touboul, E.; Gramont, A. de; Louvet, C.; Moretti, L.; Meert, N.; Magne, N.; Daisne, J.F.; Berben, D.; Bral, S.; Alen, R.; Van Cleef, A.; Florescu, C.; Henry-Amar, M.; Jacob, J.; Ollivier, J.M.; Gallais, M.P.; Guillois, J.M.; Vie, B.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Mercier, M.; Gerard, J.P.; Ducreux, M.; Lemanski, C.; Francois, E.; Giovannini, M.; Cvitkovic, F.; Mirabel, X.; Peiffert, D


    Seven articles concern the digestive system cancer, mixing of images, toxicity of the chemoradiotherapy, comparison of dosimetry tools, pancreas cancer, rectum cancer, treated by chemoradiotherapy. (N.C.)

  18. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  19. Susceptibility of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) peel proteins to digestive enzymes (United States)

    Sweet potato proteins have been shown to possess antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vivo. The ability of a protein to exhibit systemic effects is somewhat unusual as proteins are typically susceptible to digestive enzymes. This study was undertaken to better understand how digestive enzymes ...

  20. In vitro and in vivo studies with [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine on digestive tumoral cell lines and in an animal model of metastasized endocrine tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejjari, Mimoun [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Laboratoire CREATIS-ANIMAGE UMR 5515 Cnrs-U630 Inserm-Insa de Lyon (France); Inserm U865, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Kryza, David [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Poncet, Gilles [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Inserm U865, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Roche, Colette [Inserm U865, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Perek, Nathalie [Departement de Biophysique, Faculte de Medecine J. Lisfranc, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Chayvialle, Jean-Alain [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Inserm U865, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Le Bars, Didier [Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); CERMEP, 59 Boulevard Pinel, 69677 Bron Cedex (France); Scoazec, Jean-Yves [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Inserm U865, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Janier, Marc [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Laboratoire CREATIS-ANIMAGE UMR 5515 Cnrs-U630 Inserm-Insa de Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Borson-Chazot, Francoise [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Inserm U664, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France)], E-mail:


    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate (a) in vitro the relationship between [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine ([{sup 18}F]FCH) uptake and cell growth in endocrine cell lines and (b) in vivo the uptake of [{sup 18}F]FCH by tumoral sites in an animal model of metastasized endocrine tumor. Methods: In vitro studies were conducted on three endocrine and two nonendocrine digestive tumoral cell lines. The proliferative ratio was estimated using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The uptake of [{sup 18}F]FCH and that of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) were measured before and after cytotoxic therapy. [{sup 18}F]FCH biodistribution was studied in nude mice and in an endocrine xenografted mice model. Results: The [{sup 18}F]FCH uptake in tumoral cell lines was related to their proliferative capacities as measured by the MTT assay in basal conditions. After cytotoxic therapy, the IC{sub 50} values calculated with the [{sup 18}F]FCH incorporation test were very close to those determined with the MTT assay. Biodistribution studies showed that [{sup 18}F]FCH was predominantly concentrated in the liver and kidney of nude mice. In the STC-1 xenografted animal model, the uptake of [{sup 18}F]FCH in the primary tumor was only 1.1%. On autoradiography and micro-positron emission tomography, there was no uptake of [{sup 18}F]FCH in liver metastases but there was a significant uptake of [{sup 18}F]FDG. Conclusions: In vitro studies suggested that the incorporation of [{sup 18}F]FCH in endocrine tumor cell lines was related to their growth capacities; however, in vivo studies conducted in an endocrine xenografted animal model showed an uptake of [{sup 18}F]FCH in hepatic metastases lower than that in normal liver cells. An influence of the microenvironment or a competition phenomenon for [{sup 18}F]FCH uptake between normal liver and endocrine tumor cells cannot be excluded.

  1. In vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model to estimate cadmium and lead bioaccessibility/bioavailability in two vegetables: the influence of cooking and additives. (United States)

    Fu, Jin; Cui, Yanshan


    The estimation of heavy metal bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vegetables is helpful for human health risk assessment. Using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in raw/cooked pakchoi (Brassica rapa L., Chinensis Group) and Malabar spinach (Basella rubra L.) were studied. The effect of the addition of iron, calcium and acetic acid to the samples was also determined. The results indicated that Cd bioaccessibility was higher in the gastric phase and Pb bioaccessibility was higher in the small intestinal phase. Cadmium and Pb bioavailability were 11.2% and 9.4% in the raw vegetables, respectively, and found to be higher significantly than the cooked vegetables with 6.1% for Cd and 3.2% for Pb. The results showed that it will be overestimating the risk of Pb and Cd based on the data of raw vegetables ingestion. Using bioavailability values, average Cd and Pb daily intake by adult were 23% and 28% respectively, of the base bioaccessibility values. Our study will be better understanding the possible health risks of some vegetables base on the bioaccessibility or bioavailability.

  2. Metacomprehension. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Standiford, Sally N.

    Intended for administrators and policymakers as well as teachers, this digest explores the nature of students' metacomprehension, or their awareness of their own understanding, and the implications of this awareness for reading instruction. After defining metacomprehension, the digest discusses why this awareness is important to the learning…

  3. Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein (United States)

    Tuross, N.


    Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

  4. 中介蝮蛇消化道5羟色胺细胞的免疫组织化学定位%Immunohistochemical Localization on 5-HT Cells in the Digestive Tract of Gloydius intermedius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珈宁; 张欣; 李淑兰


    To study the morphology and density of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) cells in the digestive tract of the Gloydius intermediu. The method of the ABC immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that the 5-HT cells could be observed throughout the digestive tract with the highest density in the gastric pylorus and the lowest density in the rectum. What could be seen throughout the whole digestive tract was round or oval of closed-type 5-Htcells; the open-type 5-HT cells were tadpole-shaped or cone-shaped and mainly located in the esophagus, gastric cardia, gastric pylorus and sections of small intestine. The distribution characteristics of 5-HT cell might be related to the feeding habits and the living environment or function of various parts of the digestive tract.%为了研究中介蝮蛇(Gloydius intermedius)消化道5-羟色胺(5-hydroxytryptamine,5-HT)细胞的形态和分布规律.应用免疫组织化学ABC法.结果表明:5-HT细胞在其整个消化道中均有分布.其中以胃幽门部分布密度最高,直肠部分布密度最低.在整个消化道中,均可见到呈圆形或椭圆形的闭合型5-HT细胞;开放型5-HT细胞呈蝌蚪形、锥体形,集中分布于食管、贲门、幽门和小肠各段.表明5-HT细胞分布的特点可能与中介蝮蛇的食性、生活环境或消化道各部位的功能有关.

  5. Cancer-testis antigen expression in digestive tract carcinomas: frequent expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions. (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Tseng; Panarelli, Nicole C; Piotti, Kathryn C; Yantiss, Rhonda K


    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are attractive tumor antigens for cancer immunotherapy. They comprise a group of proteins normally expressed in germ cells and aberrantly activated in a variety of human cancers. The protein expression of eight cancer-testis antigens [MAGEA, NY-ESO-1, GAGE, MAGEC1 (CT7), MAGEC2 (CT10), CT45, SAGE1, and NXF2] was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 61 esophageal carcinomas (40 adenocarcinoma and 21 squamous cell carcinoma), 50 gastric carcinomas (34 diffuse and 16 intestinal type), and 141 colorectal carcinomas. The highest frequency of expression was found in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas: Positive staining for MAGEA, CT45, CT7, SAGE1, GAGE, NXF2, NY-ESO-1, and CT10 was observed in 57%, 38%, 33%, 33%, 29%, 29%, 19%, and 14% of squamous cell carcinomas, respectively. Similar staining patterns were observed in squamous dysplasias. Expression frequencies of cancer-testis antigens were seen in 2% to 24% of gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas and were not significantly different between adenocarcinomas of the stomach versus the esophagus, or between diffuse and intestinal types of gastric adenocarcinomas. Colorectal cancers did not express NY-ESO-1, CT7, CT10, or GAGE, and only infrequently expressed SAGE1 (0.7%) MAGEA (1.4%), CT45 (3.5%), and NXF2 (8.5%). We conclude that cancer-testis antigens are frequently expressed in esophageal squamous neoplasms. Although cancer-testis antigens are generally considered to be expressed later in tumor progression, they are found in squamous dysplasias, suggesting a potential diagnostic role for cancer-testis antigens in the evaluation of premalignant squamous lesions.

  6. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms]. (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie


    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  7. Nanoparticle size and combined toxicity of TiO2 and DSLS (surfactant) contribute to lysosomal responses in digestive cells of mussels exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles. (United States)

    Jimeno-Romero, A; Oron, M; Cajaraville, M P; Soto, M; Marigómez, I


    The aim of this investigation was to understand the bioaccumulation, cell and tissue distribution and biological effects of disodium laureth sulfosuccinate (DSLS)-stabilised TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed in vivo to 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Ti/L either as TiO2 NPs (60 and 180 nm) or bulk TiO2, as well as to DSLS alone. A significant Ti accumulation was observed in mussels exposed to TiO2 NPs, which were localised in endosomes, lysosomes and residual bodies of digestive cells, and in the lumen of digestive tubules, as demonstrated by ultrastructural observations and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. TiO2 NPs of 60 nm were internalised within digestive cell lysosomes to a higher extent than TiO2 NPs of 180 nm, as confirmed by the quantification of black silver deposits after autometallography. The latter were localised mainly forming large aggregates in the lumen of the gut. Consequently, lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) was significantly reduced upon exposure to both TiO2 NPs although more markedly after exposure to TiO2-60 NPs. Exposure to bulk TiO2 and to DSLS also affected the stability of the lysosomal membrane. Thus, effects on the lysosomal membrane depended on the nanoparticle size and on the combined biological effects of TiO2 and DSLS.

  8. 鱼类消化道内分泌细胞概述及研究方法%Current status of research and methods of endocrine cells in digestive tracts in fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐革锋; 刘洋; 牟振波


    Endocrine cell could produced many kinds of gut hormones with the function of regulating stomach and intestine.Besides promoting the digestion and absorption of nutrient substance in stomach and intestine,these hormones could controlled feeding behavior,regulated the movement of digestive tract and trophic action of cell,even influenced the activity of other endocrine glands.Understanding the basic overview of endocrine cell in intestine was conducive to progress the penetrating research on digestive physiology of fishes.Histochemistry immunocytochemistry and electron microscope technique were important ways to study the identification,location and morphology of endocrine cell in digestive tract.Using these techniques could revealed biological function and mechanism of action of endocrine cell in digestive tract,which has meaning to research the physiological mechanism of ingestion,digestion and absorption of fishes.Thus,aimed to offer reference for digestive physiology,endocrinology and nutriology of fishes,we overviewed the progress and main methods in internal and overseas studies of endocrine cell in digestive tract of fishes for the past few years.%消化道内分泌细胞能产生多种具有调节胃肠功能的胃肠激素。该类激素除了能促进胃肠对营养物质的消化与吸收外,还能控制摄食行为、调控消化道运动以及细胞营养作用,甚至能够影响其他一些内分泌腺的活动。了解肠道内分泌细胞的基本概况有助于深入地研究鱼类的消化生理,组织化学、免疫细胞化学和电子显微镜等技术是研究消化道内分泌细胞鉴别、定位以及形态学的重要方法,利用这些技术能够揭示鱼类消化道内分泌细胞的生物功能及作用机理,对研究鱼类摄食、消化和吸收等生理机制有重要意义。因此,本文综述了近年来国内外鱼类消化道内分泌细胞的研究进展及主要研究手段,旨在为鱼类消化生理学、内分泌学和营养学提供参考资料。

  9. Role of NKT cells in the digestive system. IV. The role of canonical natural killer T cells in mucosal immunity and inflammation. (United States)

    Wingender, Gerhard; Kronenberg, Mitchell


    Lymphocytes that combine features of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells are named natural killer T (NKT) cells. The majority of NKT cells in mice bear highly conserved invariant Valpha chains, and to date two populations of such canonical NKT cells are known in mice: those that express Valpha14 and those that express Valpha7.2. Both populations are selected by nonpolymorphic major histocompatibility complex class I-like antigen-presenting molecules expressed by hematopoietic cells in the thymus: CD1d for Valpha14-expressing NKT cells and MR1 for those cells expressing Valpha7.2. The more intensely studied Valpha14 NKT cells have been implicated in diverse immune reactions, including immune regulation and inflammation in the intestine; the Valpha7.2 expressing cells are most frequently found in the lamina propria. In humans, populations of canonical NKT cells are found to be highly similar in terms of the expression of homologous, invariant T cell antigen-receptor alpha-chains, specificity, and function, although their frequency differs from those in the mouse. In this review, we will focus on the role of both of these canonical NKT cell populations in the mucosal tissues of the intestine.

  10. Bioavailability of iron in geophagic earths and clay minerals, and their effect on dietary iron absorption using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. (United States)

    Seim, Gretchen L; Ahn, Cedric I; Bodis, Mary S; Luwedde, Flavia; Miller, Dennis D; Hillier, Stephen; Tako, Elad; Glahn, Raymond P; Young, Sera L


    Geophagy, the deliberate consumption of earth, is strongly associated with iron (Fe) deficiency. It has been proposed that geophagy may be practiced as a means to improve Fe status by increasing Fe intakes and, conversely, that geophagy may cause Fe deficiency by inhibiting Fe absorption. We tested these hypotheses by measuring Fe concentration and relative bioavailable Fe content of 12 samples of geophagic earth and 4 samples of pure clay minerals. Further, we assessed the impact of these samples on the bioavailability of Fe from an Fe-rich test meal (cooked white beans, WB). Fe concentrations were measured with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Fe bioavailability was determined using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model in which ferritin formation was used as an index of Fe bioavailability. Geophagic earth and clay mineral samples were evaluated with this model, both alone and in combination with WB (1 : 16 ratio, sample : WB). Median Fe concentration of the geophagic earth was 3485 (IQR 2462, 14 ,571) μg g⁻¹ and mean Fe concentration in the clay minerals was 2791 (±1782) μg g⁻¹. All specimens had Fe concentrations significantly higher (p ≤ 0.005) than the Fe concentration of WB (77 μg g⁻¹). Ferritin formation (i.e. Fe uptake) in cells exposed to geophagic earths and clay minerals was significantly lower than in cells exposed to WB (p ≤ 0.05) and Fe uptake responses of 11 of the 16 samples were not significantly different from the blank, indicating no bioavailable Fe. When samples were combined with WB, 5 of 16 had mean ferritin levels that were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05, one tail) than the WB alone, indicating that the samples inhibited Fe uptake from the WB. None of the ferritin responses of cells exposed to both WB and earth/clay were significantly higher than WB alone. Thus, although geophagic earths and mineral clays are high in total Fe, very little of this Fe is bioavailable. Further, some

  11. Discrimination and phylogenomic classification of Bacillus anthracis-cereus-thuringiensis strains based on LC-MS/MS analysis of whole cell protein digests. (United States)

    Dworzanski, Jacek P; Dickinson, Danielle N; Deshpande, Samir V; Snyder, A Peter; Eckenrode, Brian A


    Modern taxonomy, diagnostics, and forensics of bacteria benefit from technologies that provide data for genome-based classification and identification of strains; however, full genome sequencing is still costly, lengthy, and labor intensive. Therefore, other methods are needed to estimate genomic relatedness among strains in an economical and timely manner. Although DNA-DNA hybridization and techniques based on genome fingerprinting or sequencing selected genes like 16S rDNA, gyrB, or rpoB are frequently used as phylogenetic markers, analyses of complete genome sequences showed that global measures of genome relatedness, such as the average genome conservation of shared genes, can provide better strain resolution and give phylogenies congruent with relatedness revealed by traditional phylogenetic markers. Bacterial genomes are characterized by a high gene density; therefore, we investigated the integration of mass spectrometry-based proteomic techniques with statistical methods for phylogenomic classification of bacterial strains. For this purpose, we used a set of well characterized Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from poisoned food to describe a method that relies on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides derived from whole cell digests. Peptides were identified and matched to a prototype database (DB) of reference bacteria with fully sequenced genomes to obtain their phylogenetic profiles. These profiles were processed for predicting genomic similarities with DB bacteria estimated by fractions of shared peptides (FSPs). FSPs served as descriptors for each food isolate and were jointly analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis methods for revealing relatedness among investigated strains. The results showed that phylogenomic classification of tested food isolates was in consonance with results from established genomic methods, thus validating our findings. In conclusion, the proposed approach could be

  12. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  13. Ineffective degradation of immunogenic gluten epitopes by currently available digestive enzyme supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Janssen

    Full Text Available Due to the high proline content of gluten molecules, gastrointestinal proteases are unable to fully degrade them leaving large proline-rich gluten fragments intact, including an immunogenic 33-mer from α-gliadin and a 26-mer from γ-gliadin. These latter peptides can trigger pro-inflammatory T cell responses resulting in tissue remodeling, malnutrition and a variety of other complications. A strict lifelong gluten-free diet is currently the only available treatment to cope with gluten intolerance. Post-proline cutting enzymes have been shown to effectively degrade the immunogenic gluten peptides and have been proposed as oral supplements. Several existing digestive enzyme supplements also claim to aid in gluten degradation. Here we investigate the effectiveness of such existing enzyme supplements in comparison with a well characterized post-proline cutting enzyme, Prolyl EndoPeptidase from Aspergillus niger (AN-PEP.Five commercially available digestive enzyme supplements along with purified digestive enzymes were subjected to 1 enzyme assays and 2 mass spectrometric identification. Gluten epitope degradation was monitored by 1 R5 ELISA, 2 mass spectrometric analysis of the degradation products and 3 T cell proliferation assays.The digestive enzyme supplements showed comparable proteolytic activities with near neutral pH optima and modest gluten detoxification properties as determined by ELISA. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of many different enzymes including amylases and a variety of different proteases with aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase activity. The enzyme supplements leave the nine immunogenic epitopes of the 26-mer and 33-mer gliadin fragments largely intact. In contrast, the pure enzyme AN-PEP effectively degraded all nine epitopes in the pH range of the stomach at much lower dose. T cell proliferation assays confirmed the mass spectrometric data.Currently available digestive enzyme supplements are ineffective in

  14. In vitro digestibility of lucerne hay using bag method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    constantin gavan


    Full Text Available A filter bag method was used for estimating apparent dry matter (DM digestibility, apparent digestible organic matter in DM, true DM digestibility, true digestible organic matter in DM and Digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The forage sample analysed comprised tree plant parts (whole, leaf and stem of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, one degree of particle breakdown (1 mm sieve size at miliing and two field replicates at Agricultural Research and Developement Station (ARDS Șimnic-Craiova. Rumen fluid was used from two cannulated dairy cows.The use of filter bags can give acceptable results for the in vitro digestibility of forages. The escape of soluble matter from bags with samples high in solubles could influence the microbial population and hence increase cell wall degradation in bags with samples low in soluble matter, if  all are in the same incubation vessel.

  15. A fuzzy logic approach to control anaerobic digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domnanovich, A.M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Pfeiffer, B.; Karlovits, M.; Zani, L.; Braun, R.; Holubar, P.


    One of the goals of the EU-Project AMONCO (Advanced Prediction, Monitoring and Controlling of Anaerobic Digestion Process Behaviour towards Biogas Usage in Fuel Cells) is to create a control tool for the anaerobic digestion process, which predicts the volumetric organic loading rate (Bv) for the nex

  16. The combination of Bifidobacterium breve with non-digestible oligosaccharides suppresses airway inflammation in a murine model for chronic asthma. (United States)

    Sagar, Seil; Vos, Arjan P; Morgan, Mary E; Garssen, Johan; Georgiou, Niki A; Boon, Louis; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Folkerts, Gert


    Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the use of interventions that target the intestinal microbiota as a treatment approach for asthma. This study is aimed at exploring the therapeutic effects of long-term treatment with a combination of Bifidobacterium breve with non-digestible oligosaccharides on airway inflammation and remodeling. A murine ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma model was used. Pulmonary airway inflammation; mRNA expression of pattern recognition receptors, Th-specific cytokines and transcription factors in lung tissue; expression of Foxp3 in blood Th cells; in vitro T cell activation; mast cell degranulation; and airway remodeling were examined. The combination of B. breve with non-digestible oligosaccharides suppressed pulmonary airway inflammation; reduced T cell activation and mast cell degranulation; modulated expression of pattern recognition receptors, cytokines and transcription factors; and reduced airway remodeling. The treatment induced regulatory T cell responses, as shown by increased Il10 and Foxp3 transcription in lung tissue, and augmented Foxp3 protein expression in blood CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells. This specific combination of beneficial bacteria with non-digestible oligosaccharides has strong anti-inflammatory properties, possibly via the induction of a regulatory T cell response, resulting in reduced airway remodeling and, therefore, may be beneficial in the treatment of chronic inflammation in allergic asthma.

  17. Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance. (United States)

    Savaiano, Dennis A


    Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose because the bacteria inherent in yogurt assist with its digestion. The bacterial lactase survives the acidic conditions of the stomach, apparently being physically protected within the bacterial cells and facilitated by the buffering capacity of yogurt. The increasing pH as the yogurt enters the small intestine and a slower gastrointestinal transit time allow the bacterial lactase to be active, digesting lactose from yogurt sufficiently to prevent symptoms in lactose-intolerant people. There is little difference in the lactase capability of different commercial yogurts, because they apparently contain Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in sufficient quantities (10(8) bacteria/mL). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to require cell membrane disruption to physically release the lactase. Compared with unflavored yogurts, flavored yogurts appear to exhibit somewhat reduced lactase activity but are still well tolerated.

  18. Involvement of Ghrelin-Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor System in Pathoclinical Profiles of Digestive System Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang WANG; Weigang WANG; Wencai QIU; Youben FAN; Jun ZHAO; Yu WANG; Qi ZHENG


    Ghrelin receptor has been shown to be expressed along the human gastrointestinal tract.Recent studies showed that ghrelin and a synthetic ghrelin receptor agonist improved weight gain and lean body mass retention in a rat model of cancer cachexia by acting on ghrelin receptor, that is, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). This study aims to explore the expression and the distribution of ghrelin receptor in human gastrointestinal tract cancers and to investigate the possible involvement of the ghrelin-GHS-R system in human digestive cancers. Surgical human digestive cancer specimens were obtained from various portions of the gastrointestinal tract from different patients. The expression of ghrelin receptor in these tissues was detected by tissue microarray technique. Our results showed that ghrelin receptor was expressed in cancers throughout the gastrointestinal tract, mainly in the cytoplasm of mucosal layer cells.Its expression level possibly correlated with organ type, histological grade, tumor-nodes-metastases stage,and nutrition status (weight loss) of the patients. For the first time, we identified the distribution of ghrelin receptor in digestive system cancers. Our results implied that the ghrelin-GHS-R system might be involved in the pathoclinical profiles of digestive cancers.

  19. A novel methodology for rapid digestion of rare earth element ores and determination by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and dynamic reaction cell-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Helmeczi, Erick; Wang, Yong; Brindle, Ian D


    Short-wavelength infrared radiation has been successfully applied to accelerate the acid digestion of refractory rare-earth ore samples. Determinations were achieved with microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES) and dynamic reaction cell - inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS). The digestion method developed was able to tackle high iron-oxide and silicate matrices using only phosphoric acid in a time frame of only 8min, and did not require perchloric or hydrofluoric acid. Additionally, excellent recoveries and reproducibilities of the rare earth elements, as well as uranium and thorium, were achieved. Digestions of the certified reference materials OREAS-465 and REE-1, with radically different mineralogies, delivered results that mirror those obtained by fusion processes. For the rare-earth CRM OKA-2, whose REE data are provisional, experimental data for the rare-earth elements were generally higher than the provisional values, often exceeding z-values of +2. Determined values for Th and U in this reference material, for which certified values are available, were in excellent agreement.

  20. Process Study on Anaerobic Digestion of Parenchyma Cell from Nonwood Plant Fiber%厌氧消化处理非木材纤维纸浆中杂细胞工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华林; 周江敏; 漆玉邦


    对慈竹纸浆中杂细胞进行厌氧消化处理,结果表明,TS去除率达68.64%,原料产气率299.9mL/gTS,日均产气率4.998mL/(gTS*d),池容产气率0.3224m3/(m3*d),CH4含量64%。对发酵上清液进一步处理结果为:COD去除率53.69%,CH4含量67%,N、P去除微弱。在此基础上,进行了物料平衡和COD利用率计算。%A batch anaerobic digestion was used to treat Parenchyma Cell of bamboo. The result shows: TS removal rate reaches 68.64%, the gas production rate of raw material 299.9mL/gTS, the rate of gas production 0.3224m3/m3 slurry a day. After 60 days operation, the content of CH4 in the biogas is 64%. Effluent water from the improved UASB digester was digested in the multi-grade anaerobic digester. The results are: average COD removal rate reaches 53.69%, CH4 content of biogas 67%, the rate of N and P removal low. Materials balance and COD utilization ratio is calculated based on the experimental results.

  1. Incomplete digestion of codfish represents a risk factor for anaphylaxis in patients with allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Untersmayr, Eva; Vestergaard, Helle; Malling, Hans-Jørgen;


    Fish represents one of the most important allergenic foods causing severe allergic reactions. Nevertheless, it has been shown that gastric digestion significantly reduces its allergenic capacity.......Fish represents one of the most important allergenic foods causing severe allergic reactions. Nevertheless, it has been shown that gastric digestion significantly reduces its allergenic capacity....

  2. [Autoimmune Diseases of Digestive System]. (United States)

    Ivashkinl, V T; Sheptulina, A F; Raĭkhelson, K L; Losik, E A; Ivashkin, K V; Okhlobystin, A V; Baranskaia, E K; Polouvektova, E A; Shifrin, O S


    Autoimmune diseases of digestive system refer to pathological conditions, caused by autoimmune mechanisms, and their etiology remains unknown. This is a group of relatively rare diseases, however, during the last years a marked tendency towards the raise in incidence andprevalence is observed, which led to an increase in number of clinical investigations on etiology, pathogenesis, and, accordingly, development of new diagnostic methods and therapies. Results of such trials shown, for example, that the pathogenesis of chronic cholestatic liver diseases is associated with nuclear receptors function, while the main etiological and pathogenic factor of inflammatory bowel diseases represents gut microbiota. Despite new achievements in autoinmune diseases of digestive system research, therapies are low effective and are accompanied by a huge number of adverse events. The fact that these diseases may lead to malignant tumors is also worth noting. For example, patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis have a 160 times higher risk of cholangiocellular carcinoma, while 10-14% ofpatients with celiac disease may develop malignancies of esophagus, small and large intestine. Thus, these diseases require further investigation with a purpose of more accurate diagnostic methods for the detection of disease at early stages and new effective and safe therapies development.

  3. Hydrogen production from the dissolution of nano zero valent iron and its effect on anaerobic digestion. (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Xi; Guo, Jialiang; Zhang, Chunyang; Hu, Zhiqiang


    Nano zero valent iron (NZVI) has shown inhibition on methanogenesis in anaerobic digestion due to its reductive decomposition of cell membrane. The inhibition was accompanied by the accumulation of hydrogen gas due to rapid NZVI dissolution. It is not clear whether and how rapid hydrogen release from NZVI dissolution directly affects anaerobic digestion. In this study, the hydrogen release kinetics from NZVI (average size = 55 ± 11 nm) dissolution in deionized water under anaerobic conditions was first evaluated. The first-order NZVI dissolution rate constant was 2.62 ± 0.26 h(-1) with its half-life of 0.26 ± 0.03 h. Two sets of anaerobic digestion experiments (i.e., in the presence of glucose or without any substrate but at different anaerobic sludge concentrations) were performed to study the impact of H2 release from rapid NZVI dissolution, in which H2 was generated in a separate water bottle containing NZVI (i.e., ex situ H2 or externally supplied from NZVI dissolution) before hydrogen gas was introduced to anaerobic digestion. The results showed that the H2 partial pressure in the headspace of the digestion bottle reached as high as 0.27 atm due to rapid NZVI dissolution, resulting in temporary inhibition of methane production. Nevertheless, the 5-d cumulative methane volume in the group with ex situ H2 production due to NZVI dissolution was actually higher than that of control, suggesting NZVI inhibition on methanogenesis is solely due to the reductive decomposition of cell membrane after direct contact with NZVI.

  4. Relationship between hydroxycinnamic acid content, lignin composition and digestibility of maize silages in sheep. (United States)

    Novo-Uzal, Esther; Taboada, Alfredo; Rivera, Antonio; Flores, Gonzalo; Barceló, Alfonso Ros; Masa, Antón; Pomar, Federico


    Cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acids and the composition of lignin were studied in relation to the digestibility of a collection of 91 maize silages in wethers. Total lignin and guaiacyl content showed the highest correlation coefficients with digestibility. Using the above-mentioned chemical parameters, eight equations were also developed to predict digestibility. The prediction of organic matter digestibility produced a high adjusted R2 value (0.487) using total lignin, guaiacyl, esterified ferulic acid and esterified p-coumaric acid content as predictors. The prediction of in vivo dry matter digestibility produced a higher adjusted R2 value (0.516) using the same variables as predictors. Cell wall digestibility depends on a multiplicity of factors and it is not possible to attribute a causal effect on in vivo digestibility to any single factor. However, total lignin, guaiacyl and p-coumaric acid content emerge as good predictors of digestibility.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon


    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources are about the anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the digestive system and proper digestion process in the sturgeon species (Acipenseridae. Outline the common anatomical and morphological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract. Consider the activity of digestive enzymes and the influence of various factors. Findings. Review of scientific papers reveals that although the digestion of sturgeon are broadly similar to those of the cartilaginous and bony fish, there are a number of species specificity. In particular, sturgeon enzymes have a wider temperature and hydrogen ranges. It is confirmed that temperature adaptations of digestive system poikilothermic organ-isms are realised mainly thanks to reorganisations of fermental systems. It is shown that enzymes in sturgeons are adjustable, as their activity level significantly changes under the influence of divalent metal ions (Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+. The assumption that evolutionary adaptation of hydrolytic function of intestines of fishes to temperature conditions of an inhabitancy takes place, apparently, is made. The paper describes the effect of sex and age factors on the level of activity of enzymes of sturgeons. Set out the regularities of circadian rhythms of the fish of this family. Showed specific features of the liver and its involvement in lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system. Practical value. The knowledge of hydrolysis characteristics of a diet of sturgeon species is important for the efficiency estimation of feeding and understanding of evolutionary and ecological aspects of digestion physiology. Systematized data on the digestive system of fish sturgeon species are of interest a wide range of research in two main areas. Firstly, although the sturgeon are relict species, but the adaptation of their digestive system is still going on, allowing you to analyze the evolutionary development of the

  6. Expression of S-adenosylmethionine Hydrolase in Tissues Synthesizing Secondary Cell Walls Alters Specific Methylated Cell Wall Fractions and Improves Biomass Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymerick Eudes


    Full Text Available Plant biomass is a large source of fermentable sugars for the synthesis of bioproducts using engineered microbes. These sugars are stored as cell wall polymers, mainly cellulose and hemicellulose, and are embedded with lignin, which makes their enzymatic hydrolysis challenging. One of the strategies to reduce cell wall recalcitrance is the modification of lignin content and composition. Lignin is a phenolic polymer of methylated aromatic alcohols and its synthesis in tissues developing secondary cell walls is a significant sink for the consumption of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet. In this study, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis stems that targeted expression of S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (AdoMetase, E.C. in secondary cell-wall synthesizing tissues reduces the AdoMet pool and impacts lignin content and composition. In particular, both NMR analysis and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry of lignin in engineered biomass showed relative enrichment of non-methylated p-hydroxycinnamyl (H units and a reduction of dimethylated syringyl (S units. This indicates a lower degree of methylation compared to that in wild-type lignin. Quantification of cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamates revealed a reduction of ferulate in AdoMetase transgenic lines. Biomass from transgenic lines, in contrast to that in control plants, exhibits an enrichment of glucose content and a reduction in the degree of hemicellulose glucuronoxylan methylation. We also show that these modifications resulted in a reduction of cell wall recalcitrance, because sugar yield generated by enzymatic biomass saccharification was greater than that of wild type plants. Considering that transgenic plants show no important diminution of biomass yields, and that heterologous expression of AdoMetase protein can be spatiotemporally optimized, this novel approach provides a valuable option for the improvement of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock.

  7. Principles and potential of the anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appels, Lise; Degreve, Jan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, W. De Croylaan 46, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Baeyens, Jan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Dewil, Raf [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, W. De Croylaan 46, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Chemical Engineering, Associated Faculty of Technology and Biosciences, Campus De Nayer, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Jan De Nayerlaan 5, B-2860 Sint-Katelijne-Waver (Belgium)


    When treating municipal wastewater, the disposal of sludge is a problem of growing importance, representing up to 50% of the current operating costs of a wastewater treatment plant. Although different disposal routes are possible, anaerobic digestion plays an important role for its abilities to further transform organic matter into biogas (60-70 vol% of methane, CH{sub 4}), as thereby it also reduces the amount of final sludge solids for disposal whilst destroying most of the pathogens present in the sludge and limiting odour problems associated with residual putrescible matter. Anaerobic digestion thus optimises WWTP costs, its environmental footprint and is considered a major and essential part of a modern WWTP. The potential of using the biogas as energy source has long been widely recognised and current techniques are being developed to upgrade quality and to enhance energy use. The present paper extensively reviews the principles of anaerobic digestion, the process parameters and their interaction, the design methods, the biogas utilisation, the possible problems and potential pro-active cures, and the recent developments to reduce the impact of the problems. After having reviewed the basic principles and techniques of the anaerobic digestion process, modelling concepts will be assessed to delineate the dominant parameters. Hydrolysis is recognised as rate-limiting step in the complex digestion process. The microbiology of anaerobic digestion is complex and delicate, involving several bacterial groups, each of them having their own optimum working conditions. As will be shown, these groups are sensitive to and possibly inhibited by several process parameters such as pH, alkalinity, concentration of free ammonia, hydrogen, sodium, potassium, heavy metals, volatile fatty acids and others. To accelerate the digestion and enhance the production of biogas, various pre-treatments can be used to improve the rate-limiting hydrolysis. These treatments include

  8. Staphylococcus hyicus exfoliative toxins selectively digest porcine desmoglein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fudaba, Y.; Nishifuji, K.; Andresen, Lars Ole;


    . Recently, genes for ExhA, ExhB, ExhC and ExhD were cloned. Exfoliative toxins produced by S. aureus have been shown to selectively cleave human or mouse desmoglein 1, a desmosomal adhesion molecule, that when inactivated results in blisters. In this study, we attempted to identify the molecular target...... of Exhs in porcine skin. Each of recombinant Exhs injected in the skin of pigs caused superficial epidermal blisters or crust formation. Cell surface staining of desmoglein 1, but not that of desmoglein 3, was abolished when cryosections of normal porcine skin were incubated with one of Exhs suggesting......, injection of ExhA and ExhC at high concentration caused superficial blisters in neonatal mice. These findings strongly suggest that Exhs cause blister formation of porcine skin by digesting porcine desmoglein I in a similar fashion to exfoliative toxins from S. aureus....

  9. Morphological Studies of Digestive Tract and Its Argyrophil Cells in Sunken Ear Frog%凹耳蛙消化道组织学和嗜银细胞形态观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雪泷; 唐鑫生; 吴仁红; 马亚军; 张蕾


    为了揭示凹耳蛙( Odorrana tormota)消化道的基本特征,运用石蜡切片法和龙桂开银浸法对凹耳蛙消化道组织学结构及嗜银细胞的形态与分布密度进行了观察.结果显示:①凹耳蛙的胃壁具明显的纵行皱襞和胃小凹,胃腺发达,小肠可分为十二指肠和回肠,杯状细胞分散在十二指肠上皮细胞之间,十二指肠中未见十二指肠腺分布.②凹耳蛙嗜银细胞见于消化道全长,呈毛笔头样、锥体形、梭形、椭圆形和长条形等;幽门腺上皮和十二指肠绒毛上皮中的嗜银细胞具指向腺泡腔或肠腔的突起,提示其可能具有腔分泌的功能.嗜银细胞的分布密度胃幽门部最高,十二指肠和胃体其次,食道最低.据此认为胃既是凹耳蛙的主要消化器官,也是消化道中主要的内分泌器官;十二指肠是凹耳蛙消化道中的主要吸收部位,同时也具有内分泌功能;消化道嗜银细胞具有内分泌的功能,还可能具有腔分泌的功能.%To reveal the basic characteristics of the digestive tract of Sunken Ear Frog( Odonana tormota) , paraffin section and Longguikai's silver staining were used to observe histological characteristics and distribution density of argyrophil cells in the digestive tract. Longitudinal plica and gastric pits were obviously observed on the gastric wall and glands were well developed. The small intestine could be divided into duodenum and ileum, with goblet cells scattered among the duodenum epithelial cells,while no glands were found in the duodenum. Argyrophil cells in various shapes, such as brush-headed, conical, spindle-like, elliptical and rectangular, were observed along the whole digestive tract, and these cells in gland epithelium of pilori and villus epithelium of duodenum had apophysis pointing to the acinar lumen or intestine, indicating the possible luminal secretion function of these cells. Pylorica part of suomach had the highest density of argyrophil cells

  10. Nutritional ecology of dimorphic herbivores: digestion and passage rates in Nubian ibex. (United States)

    Gross, John E; Alkon, Philip U; Demment, Montague W


    We compared forage digestion and passage rates among three groups of Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana) - mature males, non-lactating females, and lactating females - to test hypotheses relating intraspecific digestive ability to body mass and reproduction costs. We hypothesized that large males (60 kg) would exhibit longer forage retention times and more complete digestion of fermentable cell walls than adult females (23 kg). We tested these predictions by measuring digestion and retention of a grass hay and an alfalfa hay, forages that exhibited contrasting rates and extents of cell wall digestion. Consistent with predictions, males retained both forages longer than non-lactating females. However, by substantially increasing gut fill, lactating females increased both intake and retention time with respect to non-lactating females. Contrary to predictions, all three groups digested the grass (66% digestible) and alfalfa hay (63%) equally well. Alfalfa cell wall was less digestible than that of grass hay (60% vs 69% digestible), and retention time of alfalfa was consistently, but not statistically significantly, shorter. Fiber digestion was not correlated with retention time, emphasizing the ability of behavioral processes to modify digestion rate. We postulate that females achieved their greater digestion rate by masticating forages much more thoroughly than males.

  11. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.


    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown t

  12. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  13. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)


    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  14. Bibliotherapy. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Abdullah, Mardziah Hayati

    This digest suggests that bibliotherapy is a potentially powerful method for school teachers and counselors to use on many levels and in every school grade. It begins with a brief review of the history of bibliotherapy; continues with a discussion of some approaches to bibliotherapy (interactive, clinical, and developmental); then addresses the…

  15. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  16. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.


    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the pr

  17. Distribution and morphological characteristics of argyrophilic cells in digestive tract of Ichthyophis bannanicus%版纳鱼螈消化道嗜银细胞的分布及形态学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家洲; 李桂芬; 苏福来; 蒙绍权; 贝永建; 谢文海


    目的:对我国特有的濒危珍稀两栖动物版纳鱼螈(Ichthyophis bannanicus)消化道嗜银细胞的分布及形态进行研究.方法:取各消化管段,除十二指肠和直肠由于很短全取外,其余的食管、胃、空肠和大肠均分别取始段、中段和末段,应用龙桂开浸银法染色处理,观察嗜银细胞的形态、分布,并测量各消化管段嗜银细胞的分布密度.结果:版纳鱼螈消化道除食管和大肠未见嗜银细胞外,其他部位均有嗜银细胞分布.在胃体和空肠中段有明显的分布密度高峰,其中空肠中段分布密度最高;十二指肠和直肠分布密度较低,以十二指肠分布密度最低;嗜银细胞形态多样,有圆形、锥体形、梭形、椭圆形、柱形和梨形等.结论:版纳鱼螈消化道嗜银细胞的分布特征与中国林蛙(Rana chensinensis)的相似.%Objective: To determine the distribution and morphology of argyrophilic cells in the digestive tract of Ichthyophis bannanicus, which is an endangered Amphibia species in China.Methods: Every segment of the digestive tract was taken.The beginning, middle and end segments of the esophagus, stomach, jejunum and large intestine were taken, except the duodenum and rectum which are too short.Guikai Long silver impregnation method was used to observe the distribution and morphology of the argyrophilic cells, and then the distribution density of the argyrophilic cells in each digestive tract segment was determined.Results: Excluding the esophagus and large intestine, the argyrophil cells were found within the gastrointestinal tract.Among these parts, the argyrophilic cells exhibited its peak distribution within the middle segment of the jejunum, and followed by body of the stomach.Additionally, the argyrophilic cells distributed lower within the rectum and lowest in the duodenum.The appearances of argyrophilic cells varied, including round, cone, spindle, ellipse, column and pear.Conclusion: The distributed feature of

  18. 大鼠胚胎来源肝干细胞分离纯化方法的比较%Comparison of mechanical separation and enzymatic digestion methods in isolating fetal hepatic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欢; 叶章群; 陈志强; 王博涵; 刘冠林; 余虓; 郭辉; 夏丁


    Objective To compare the number and viability of fetal hepatic stem cells isolated by mechanical separation and enzymatic digestion methods.Methods Two kinds of cell isolation methods,namely,mechanical separation procedure and enzymatic digestion method,were used to obtain hepatic stem cells from fetal liver tissues.The total number and viability of cells were compared.The isolated cells were identified by immunofluorescence.Results There was no significance in the number of cells obtained by combination of enzymatic digestion (63.36 ± 12.67) × 106 and mechanical procedure (57.49 ± 14.25)× 106 ( P > 0.05 ).But the survival rate by mechanical procedure ( 96.37 ± 0.82 ) % was significantly higher than that by combination of enzymatic digestion (93.53 ± 0.63 )%(P<0.05).Conclusion The fetal hepatic stem cells are of high viability by mechanical procedure.Mechanical procedure is a simple,economic and effective method to isolate fetal hepatic stem cells.%目的 观察比较机械分离法和酶消化法分离纯化孕鼠胚胎来源肝干细胞的优劣.方法 取孕13.5 d SD大鼠胚胎肝后分别用机械分离法和酶消化法分离纯化肝干细胞,比较两种方法所得细胞总量和存活率的差异,用免疫荧光染色法鉴定细胞,并比较原代培养前后肝干细胞存活率的变化.结果两种方法分离培养出的细胞形似卵圆形,经免疫荧光染色法检测表达干细胞标志物CD34和胆管细胞标志物CK19,机械分离法分离的肝干细胞数量(57.49±14.25)×106与酶消化法(63.36±12.67)× 106相当,两者比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但机械分离法所得肝干细胞的存活率(96.37±0.82)%高于酶消化法(93.53±0.63)%(P<0.05),并且培养前后细胞存活率也明显高于酶消化法,两两比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 机械分离法是一种简单、经济、实用的胚胎来源肝干细胞分离纯化方法.

  19. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes


    Ganidi, Nafsika


    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  20. Infant digestion physiology and the relevance of in vitro biochemical models to test infant formula lipid digestion. (United States)

    Poquet, Laure; Wooster, Tim J


    Lipids play an important role in the diet of preterm and term infants providing a key energy source and essential lipid components for development. While a lot is known about adult lipid digestion, our understanding of infant digestion physiology is still incomplete, the greatest gap being on the biochemistry of the small intestine, particularly the activity and relative importance of the various lipases active in the intestine. The literature has been reviewed to identify the characteristics of lipid digestion of preterm and term infants, but also to better understand the physiology of the infant gastrointestinal tract compared to adults that impacts the absorption of lipids. The main differences are a higher gastric pH, submicellar bile salt concentration, a far more important role of gastric lipases as well as differences at the level of the intestinal barrier. Importantly, the consequences of improper in vitro replication of gastric digestions conditions (pH and lipase specificity) are demonstrated using examples from the most recent of studies. It is true that some animal models could be adapted to study infant lipid digestion physiology, however the ethical relevance of such models is questionable, hence the development of accurate in vitro models is a must. In vitro models that combine up to date knowledge of digestion biochemistry with intestinal cells in culture are the best choice to replicate digestion and absorption in infant population, this would allow the adaptation of infant formula for a better digestion and absorption of dietary lipids by preterm and term infants.

  1. Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse for enhanced ruminal digestion. (United States)

    Deschamps, F C; Ramos, L P; Fontana, J D


    Crop residues, such as sugar cane bagasse (SCB), have been largely used for cattle feeding. However, the close association that exists among the three major plant cell-wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, limits the efficiency by which ruminants can degrade these materials. Previously, we have shown that pretreatment with 3% (w/w) phosphoric acid, under relatively mild conditions, increased considerably the nutritional value for SCB. However, in this preliminary study, pretreated residues were not washed prior to in situ degradability assays because we wanted to explore the high initial solvability of lowmol-wt substances that were produced during pretreatment. We have now studied the suitability of water-and/or alkali-washed residues to in situ ruminal digestion. Alkali washing increased substrate cellulose content by removing most of the lignin and other residual soluble substances. As a result the ruminal degradability of these cleaner materials had first-order rate constants five times higher than those substrates with higher lignin content (e.g., stem-exploded bagasse). However, alkali washing also increased the time of ruminal lag phase of the cellulosic residue, probably because of hemicellulose and/or lignin removal and to the development of substrates with higher degree of crystallinity. Therefore, longer lag phases appear to be related to low microbial adherence after extensive water and alkali extraction, as Novell as to the slower process of cellulase induction during ruminal growth. The kinetic data on ruminal digestion were shown to be very well adjusted by a nonlinear model. Although pretreatment enhances substrate accessibility, the occurrence of an exceedingly high amount of lignin byproducts within the pretreated material reduces considerably its potential degradability.

  2. Study on Relationship between the Thickness of Tongue Fur and the Expressions of Apoptosis-related Genes of the Tongue Epithelial Cells in Patients with Diseases of the Digestive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhengzhi; Li Ming; Zhang Yongfeng; Chen Manyin


    To investigate the relationship between the thickness of tongue fur, apoptosis of the tongue fur epithelial cells and expressions of apoptosis-related genes in diseases of the digestive system,apoptosis-related genes TGF-β3, fas mRNA and protein products were detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyurine triphosphate (d-UTP) nick-end labeling(TUNEL)technique, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical methods, and image analysis technique,respectively. Results indicated that compared with the normal tongue fur, over-expression of fas gene was found in the peeling fur with an increase in cell apoptosis, while a low-expression of TGF-β3 in the thick fur with a decrease in cell apoptosis. The changes in expression levels of fas and TGF-β3 genes,apoptosis-promoting genes in the tongue fur epithelial cells, had a similar tendency of cell apoptosis level.It is concluded that the changes in expression levels of fas and TGF-β3 are possibly important reasons influencing apoptosis of epithelial cells of tongue fur and leading to changes in thickness of the tongue fur.

  3. Metabolites of amygdalin under simulated human digestive fluids. (United States)

    Shim, Soon-Mi; Kwon, Hoonjeong


    In the present study, degradation of amygdalin in the human digestive fluids and absorption of its metabolites by the human small intestine were evaluated by simulating a gastrointestinal digestion model combined with a human intestinal cell culture. Orally administered amygdalin was degraded into prunasin by digestive enzymes after passing through the salivary and gastrointestinal phases. Prunasin, the major metabolite of amygdalin in the digestive fluids, was incubated in a caco-2 cell culture system. Prunasin was degraded into the mandelonitrile by β-glucosidase and then hydroxylated across the small intestinal wall, producing hydroxymandelonitrile (149 Da). Results from this study suggest that risk assessment of amygdalin from food consumption can be done in a more accurate way by determining a pathway of amygdalin metabolism in the simulating human upper gastrointestinal tract.

  4. High Hydrostatic Pressure Pretreatment of Whey Protein Isolates Improves Their Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle M. Iskandar


    Full Text Available Whey proteins have well-established antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. High hydrostatic pressure processing of whey protein isolates increases their in vitro digestibility resulting in enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study compared the effects of different digestion protocols on the digestibility of pressurized (pWPI and native (nWPI whey protein isolates and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the hydrolysates. The pepsin-pancreatin digestion protocol was modified to better simulate human digestion by adjusting temperature and pH conditions, incubation times, enzymes utilized, enzyme-to-substrate ratio and ultrafiltration membrane molecular weight cut-off. pWPI showed a significantly greater proteolysis rate and rate of peptide appearance regardless of digestion protocol. Both digestion methods generated a greater relative abundance of eluting peptides and the appearance of new peptide peaks in association with pWPI digestion in comparison to nWPI hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of pWPI from both digestion conditions showed enhanced ferric-reducing antioxidant power relative to nWPI hydrolysates. Likewise, pWPI hydrolysates from both digestion protocols showed similar enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in a respiratory epithelial cell line as compared to nWPI hydrolysates. These findings indicate that regardless of considerable variations of in vitro digestion protocols, pressurization of WPI leads to more efficient digestion that improves its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  5. Quantitative bottom-up proteomics depends on digestion conditions. (United States)

    Lowenthal, Mark S; Liang, Yuxue; Phinney, Karen W; Stein, Stephen E


    Accurate quantification is a fundamental requirement in the fields of proteomics and biomarker discovery, and for clinical diagnostic assays. To demonstrate the extent of quantitative variability in measurable peptide concentrations due to differences among "typical" protein digestion protocols, the model protein, human serum albumin (HSA), was subjected to enzymatic digestion using 12 different sample preparation methods, and separately, was examined through a comprehensive timecourse of trypsinolysis. A variety of digestion conditions were explored including differences in digestion time, denaturant, source of enzyme, sample cleanup, and denaturation temperature, among others. Timecourse experiments compared differences in relative peptide concentrations for tryptic digestions ranging from 15 min to 48 h. A predigested stable isotope-labeled ((15)N) form of the full-length (HSA) protein, expressed in yeast was spiked into all samples prior to LC-MS analysis to compare yields of numerous varieties of tryptic peptides. Relative quantification was achieved by normalization of integrated extracted ion chromatograms (XICs) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) on a triple quadrupole (QQQ) MS. Related peptide fragmentation transitions, and multiple peptide charge states, were monitored for validation of quantitative results. Results demonstrate that protein concentration was shown to be unequal to tryptic peptide concentrations for most peptides, including so-called "proteotypic" peptides. Peptide release during digestion displayed complex kinetics dependent on digestion conditions and, by inference, from denatured protein structure. Hydrolysis rates at tryptic cleavage sites were also shown to be affected by differences in nearest and next-nearest amino acid residues. The data suggesting nonstoichiometry of enzymatic protein digestions emphasizes the often overlooked difficulties for routine absolute

  6. Digestion by pepsin releases biologically active chromopeptides from C-phycocyanin, a blue-colored biliprotein of microalga Spirulina. (United States)

    Minic, Simeon L; Stanic-Vucinic, Dragana; Mihailovic, Jelena; Krstic, Maja; Nikolic, Milan R; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja


    C-phycocyanin, the major protein of cyanobacteria Spirulina, possesses significant antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, ascribed to covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole chromophore phycocyanobilin. There are no literature data about structure and biological activities of released peptides with bound chromophore in C-phycocyanin digest. This study aims to identify chromopeptides obtained after pepsin digestion of C-phycocyanin and to examine their bioactivities. C-phycocyanin is rapidly digested by pepsin in simulated gastric fluid. The structure of released chromopeptides was analyzed by high resolution tandem mass spectrometry and peptides varying in size from 2 to 13 amino acid residues were identified in both subunits of C-phycocyanin. Following separation by HPLC, chromopeptides were analyzed for potential bioactivities. It was shown that all five chromopeptide fractions have significant antioxidant and metal-chelating activities and show cytotoxic effect on human cervical adenocarcinoma and epithelial colonic cancer cell lines. In addition, chromopeptides protect human erythrocytes from free radical-induced hemolysis in antioxidative capacity-dependant manner. There was a positive correlation between antioxidative potency and other biological activities of chromopeptides. Digestion by pepsin releases biologically active chromopeptides from C-phycocyanin whose activity is mostly related to the antioxidative potency provided by chromophore.

  7. Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. (United States)

    Diamond, Adele; Lee, Kathleen


    To be successful takes creativity, flexibility, self-control, and discipline. Central to all those are executive functions, including mentally playing with ideas, giving a considered rather than an impulsive response, and staying focused. Diverse activities have been shown to improve children's executive functions: computerized training, noncomputerized games, aerobics, martial arts, yoga, mindfulness, and school curricula. All successful programs involve repeated practice and progressively increase the challenge to executive functions. Children with worse executive functions benefit most from these activities; thus, early executive-function training may avert widening achievement gaps later. To improve executive functions, focusing narrowly on them may not be as effective as also addressing emotional and social development (as do curricula that improve executive functions) and physical development (shown by positive effects of aerobics, martial arts, and yoga).

  8. Perfil químico da parede celular e suas implicações na digestibilidade de Brachiaria brizantha e Brachiaria humidicola Chemical profile of cell wall and its implications on Brachiaria brizantha and Brachiaria humidicola digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio José F. Alves de Brito


    brizantha and Brachiaria humidicola fractions were determined after 70 days of growth. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replications for each specie. According to the position, the harvested plants were subdivided into top, median and bottom fractions for leaves and median and basal fractions for stems. The concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP, lignin, p_coumaric acid, ferulic acid, neutral sugars (glucose, xylose and arabinose and in situ digestibility with 48-hour rumen digestion were determined. The several fractions of species studied showed different chemical composition, whose effects were observed in digestibility. B. brizantha recorded greater NDF concentration in stems and CP in leaves. This resulted in higher digestibility coefficients compared to B. humidicola. The digestibility differences between stem and leaves and in older fractions may be related to the type of lignin condensation present in tissues. The evidences found in p_coumaric and ferulic acid rates and concentrations suggest this association. The fenolic acid concentration was better related to dry matter digestibility, whereas lignin with NDF digestibility. This analysis may constitute an important tool to evaluate lignin condensation in cell wall of different forages. The neutral sugars showed no definite deposition pattern in a varied of tissues. Arabinose was the only sugar associated to dry matter digestibility and fenolic acid concentration.

  9. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)


    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  10. Digestive health in pregnancy. (United States)

    Kenyon, Charlotte


    Women experience the physiological changes of pregnancy in a variety of ways. Changes in pregnancy are associated with changing hormone levels. These hormonal changes have an impact on all body systems. Midwives need to have an understanding of the changes so that they can enable women to manage their digestive health effectively. The midwife needs to be vigilant in history taking to understand the woman's experiences and to be able to offer appropriate support and advice. There are a number of conventional and alternative treatments that can help to prevent and alleviate symptoms. This article will consider the impact on the gastro-intestinal system and how changes can be managed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄徐根; 吴孝兵


    目的 阐明蓝尾石龙子消化道内分泌细胞的形态学特征、类型、局部分布和细胞密度.方法 应用免疫组织化学技术链霉卵白素-过氧化物酶(S-P)法.结果 蓝尾石龙子消化道中的内分泌细胞形态多样,呈圆形、椭圆形、纺锤形、梭形、锥形、烧瓶形和杆状.蓝尾石龙子消化道中显示出3种内分泌细胞,即5-羟色胺阳性细胞、生长抑素阳性细胞和胃泌素阳性细胞,未见高血糖素阳性细胞、P物质阳性细胞、胰岛素阳性细胞和胰多肽阳性细胞.5-羟色胺阳性细胞是消化道中最主要的内分泌细胞类型,其在消化道各段均有分布,但在各段分布密度不同.生长抑素阳性细胞仅分布于胃部.胃泌素阳性细胞局限分布于幽门和十二指肠部位.在蓝尾石龙子消化道内具有最多种类型内分泌细胞分布的部位是幽门,同时消化道内各种内分泌细胞在此部位也显示出最高的分布密度.结论 蓝尾石龙子与其他爬行动物消化道内分泌细胞在分布上存在一定的共同特征并具其独特性,这些共同特征可能反映着不同脊椎动物消化生理的相同点.%Objective To clarify the morphological features, types, regional distributions and cell densities of gastrointestinal (GI) endocrine cells in various parts of the digestive track (DT) of Eumeces elegans. Methods Using immunohistochemical techniques of streptavidin-peroxidase(S-P) method. Results The endocrine cells found in the DT were round or oval, spindle, shuttle, pyramid, flask and bacilliform in shape. Three types of endocrine cells, namely 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) positive cells, somatostatin (SS) positive cells and gastrin (GAS) positive cells were found. No substance P(SP)-, glucagon (GLU)-, pancreatic polypeptide ( PP)- and insulin(INS) positive cells were detected. 5-HT positive cells distributed throughout the whole DT at various densities and they were most predominant cell types in the DT

  12. Simultaneous determination of Se, trace elements and major elements in Se-rich rice by dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) after microwave digestion. (United States)

    Wei, Yi Hua; Zhang, Jin Yan; Zhang, Da Wen; Luo, Lin Guang; Tu, Tian Hua


    A quick and accurate method was devised to determine Se, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn in Se-rich rice samples by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Spectral interferences on Se were eliminated using methane as a reaction gas in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC). Rhodium was used as an internal standard to compensate for sample matrix effects. A rice-certified reference material (CRM) (GBW 10010) was used to verify the accuracy of the method. The method detection limits were 0.001-0.03 mg/kg, analyte recoveries were 85-108% and precisions (RSDs) ranged from 2.1% to 5.8%. Correlation analysis showed that the Se concentrations in the Se-rich rice samples correlated well with the Cu concentrations (r=0.53, p<0.05).

  13. 胶原酶消化绒毛组织培养技术在产前诊断中的应用%The application of collagenase digestion for chorionic villus cell culture in prenatal diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天盛; 周元圆; 韦波; 费冬梅; 黄红倩; 欧珊; 郑陈光


    目的 探索建立一种稳定且培养成功率高,操作简便的产前绒毛染色体制备的方法,提高绒毛产前诊断的成功率.方法 181例进行产前诊断的绒毛组织分两组,采用胶原酶分别消化10min和15min,制备绒毛细胞悬液进行细胞培养、染色体核型分析.结果 181例绒毛组织培养成功179例,失败2例,培养成功率为98.90%,平均培养时间为10-12天;消化15min比消化10min细胞更容易贴壁,原代培养成功率更高.179例培养成功的绒毛组织检出异常核型14例,其中镶嵌型5例,检出染色体多态性15例.结论 采用胶原酶消化绒毛组织,可以提高细胞培养成功率,提高孕早期产前诊断的成功率,适合各级有条件的医疗保健机构推广应用.%Objective: To establish a method of prenatal chorionic villus samples chromosome preparation which is stable, higher success rate and easier to prepare, enhance the success rate of villus prenatal diagnosis. Methods; 181 cases of chorionic villus samples were divided into two groups, digested by collagense for 10 minutes and 15 minutes respectively, and the resulting individual cell suspension were used to establish primary cultures for cytogenetic analysis. Results; 179 of 181 cases were cultured successful and 2 of 181 cases failed. Culture success rate was 98. 9% , the average of culture time was 10 -12 days. Collagenase digestion for 15 minutes was superior to 10 minutes in adherent cultures, the success rate of primary culture was higher. 14 cases of chromosomes aberration and 15 cases of chromosome polymorphism were detected in 179 cases of successful culture, and 5 cases chromosome mosaicism of 14 cases chromosomes aberration. Conclusion; The application of collagenase digestion for the chorionic villus tissue could improve success rate of the chorionic villus cell culture and prenatal diagnosis in the first trimester, it was worth to be extend.

  14. In situ digestion, in vitro harvest and culture of jugular vein endothelial cells in rabbits%兔颈静脉内皮细胞的原位消化、体外获取及培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彦隽; 刘锦纷; 马宁


    目的 建立兔颈静脉内皮细胞原位消化、体外获取及培养的方法.方法 仅解剖游离单侧兔颈静脉,并保留在原位,对侧颈静脉不进行解剖游离.阻断该静脉段的两端并插管,向该静脉段内灌注Ⅰ型胶原酶进行原位消化.切取该颈静脉段,离体状态下获取兔颈静脉内皮细胞,使用EGM-2培养基培养并传代.倒置显微镜、透射电镜观察获取的兔颈静脉内皮细胞,免疫组化法检测Ⅷ因子.结果 获取的兔颈静脉内皮细胞原代培养7~10d左右可达到80%融合.光镜下细胞为短梭形或多角形,呈“鹅卵石”样排列.透射电镜可见内皮细胞特征性的Weibel-Palade小体.兔Ⅷ因子相关抗原免疫组化检测阳性.获取的兔颈静脉内皮细胞进行冻存、复苏和传代后均可以正常生长.结论 成功建立了兔颈静脉内皮细胞原位消化、体外获取及培养的方法.%Objective To establish the methodology for in situ digestion,in vitro harvest and culture of jugular vein endothelial cells in rabbits.Methods The jugular vein was dissected and kept in situ unilaterally,with the contralateral jugular vein intact.Both terminals of the dissected vein were occluded for cannulation and were subjected to type Ⅰ collagenase injection for in situ digestion.The operated jugular vein was resectcd for collecting endothelial cells in vitro,followed by culture and passage using EGM-2 culture medium.The jugular vein endothelial cells were observed under inverted light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy for morphological examination.In addition,factor Ⅷ was measured by immunohistochemistry assay.Results Of all jugular vein endothelial cells harvested,80% underwent fusion after a 7-to-10-day primary passage.These cells appeared in short spindle-like,polygonal or cobblestone-like arrangement under microscope.The characteristic Weible- Palade bodies of endothelial cells were found under transmission electron microscope

  15. Structure and Function of the Digestive System of Solen Grandis Dunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Xiuzhen; ZHAN Wenbin; REN Sulian


    Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing.Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

  16. The effect of calcium salts, ascorbic acid and peptic pH on calcium, zinc and iron bioavailabilities from fortified human milk using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. (United States)

    Etcheverry, Paz; Wallingford, John Charles; Miller, Dennis Dean; Glahn, Raymond Philip


    The calcium, zinc, and iron bioavailabilities of human milk with commercial and noncommercial human milk fortifiers (HMFs) were evaluated under a variety of conditions: peptic digestion at pH 2 and pH 4, supplementation of ascorbic acid, and addition of three calcium salts. The noncommercial HMFs consisted of casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), alpha-lactalbumin, colostrum, and hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate (WPC). They were mixed with human milk (HM) and calcium, zinc, and iron were added. Ascorbic acid (AA) was added in certain studies. The commercial HMFs were Nestlé FM-85, Similac HMF (SHMF), and Enfamil HMF (EHMF). All HMFs were compared to S-26/SMA HMF. Results showed that the peptic pH (2 vs. 4) had no effect on mineral bioavailability. Addition of different calcium salts had no effect on calcium cell uptake and cell ferritin levels (an indicator of iron uptake), however, the addition of calcium glycerophosphate/gluconate increased zinc uptake by Caco-2 cells. Addition of AA significantly increased ferritin levels, with no effect on calcium or zinc uptake. Among the commercial HMFs, FM-85 was significantly lower in zinc uptake than S-26/SMA, and HM+EHMF was significantly higher than HM+S-26/SMA. Cell ferritin levels were significantly higher for HM+S-26/SMA than for all other commercial fortifiers. None of the commercial HMFs were different from HM+S-26/SMA in calcium uptake.

  17. Your Digestive System and How It Works (United States)

    ... such as corn, canola, olive, safflower, soybean, and sunflower, are examples of healthy fats. Butter, shortening, and ... digestive process performed by each digestive organ, including movement of food, type of digestive juice used, and ...

  18. 滤泡辅助性T细胞与消化系统疾病的研究进展%Research progress of follicular helper T cells and diseases of digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟欣颖; 周长宏


    滤泡辅助性T细胞(Tfh)是新型的CD4+辅助性T细胞,促进了生发中心的形成和维持,促使B细胞增殖、抗体类别转换,以及分化成为浆细胞和记忆性B细胞。参与Tfh细胞功能的主要分子包括:CXCR5、诱导性共刺激分子(ICOS)、CD40L和程序性死亡-1分子(PD-1)。IL-21是其主要的效应因子。Tfh 在免疫相关性消化系统疾病(如炎症性肠病、自身免疫性肝病)以及感染性疾病(如慢性病毒性肝炎)等的发病中其中一定的作用。本文就此作一综述。%Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) is a new type of CD4+T helper cells, which can not only induce the formation and maintainance of germinal centers, but also promote B cell proliferation, antibody class switching, and differentiation into plasma cells and memory B cells. The main elements involved in Tfh cell functions including CXCR5, inducible costimulatory molecules (ICOS), CD40L and programmed cell death molecules 1 (PD-1). IL-21 is the main effect factor. Tfh plays a role in the pathogenesis of immune-related diseases of digestive system (such as inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune liver disease) and infectious diseases (such as chronic viral hepatitis). The function of Tfh in this article was reviewed.

  19. Testing in Literature. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    Pointing out that student testing in literature should take into account each school's philosophy concerning the literature curriculum, this digest explores the broad domain of literature study and looks at specific objectives and outcomes in literature testing. The digest discusses answers to the following questions: (1) Where are the broad…

  20. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.


    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulate...

  1. First identification of resident and circulating fibrocytes in Dupuytren's disease shown to be inhibited by serum amyloid P and Xiapex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Amir Iqbal

    Full Text Available Dupuytren's disease (DD is a common progressive fibroproliferative disorder causing permanent digital contracture. Proliferative myofibroblasts are thought to be the cells responsible for DD initiation and recurrence, although their source remains unknown. DD tissue has also been shown to harbor mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells. Fibrocytes are circulating cells that show characteristics of fibroblasts and they express surface markers for both hematopoietic and mesenchymal stromal cells. Fibrocytes differentiate from peripheral CD14+ mononuclear cells, which can be inhibited by serum amyloid P (SAP. In this study we have demonstrated the presence of fibrocytes in DD blood and tissue, moreover we have evaluated the effects of SAP and Xiapex (Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum on fibrocytes derived from DD. H&E staining showed typical Spindle shaped morphology of fibrocytes. FACS analysis based on a unique combination of 3 markers, revealed the increased presence of fibrocytes in blood and tissue of DD patients. Additionally, immunohistology of DD nodule and cord tissue showed the presence of collagen 1+/CD34+ cells. No difference in plasma SAP levels was observed between DD and control. Higher concentrations of SAP significantly inhibited fibrocytes differentiated from DD derived monocytes compared to control. DD fascia derived fibrocytes showed resistance to growth inhibition by SAP, particularly nodule derived fibrocytes showed robust growth even at higher SAP concentrations compared to control. DD derived fibrocytes were positive for typical fibrocyte dual markers, i.e. Collagen 1/LSP-1 and collagen 1/CD34. Xiapex was more effective in inhibiting the growth of nodule derived cells compared to commercially available collagenase A. Our results show for the first time the increased presence of fibrocytes in DD patient's blood and disease tissue compared to control tissue. Additionally, we evaluate the response of these fibrocytes to SAP

  2. Use of selective digestive tract decontamination in European intensive cares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis Miranda, D; Citerio, G; Perner, A


    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that the use of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) reduces mortality. However, fear for increasing multi drug resistance might prevent wide acceptance. A survey was performed among the units registered in the European Registry for Intensive Care...

  3. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini


    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occurred in the Danish full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically formatted in the main biogas reactor or in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam...... cause severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices, and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs....... Moreover, foaming presents adverse environmental impacts owing to the overflowing of the pre-storage or digester tanks. So far, there has never been thoroughly investigation of foaming problem in manure-based digester, which is the main anaerobic digestion applied in Denmark. The purpose of the present...

  4. Temperature dependence of crystal structure and digestibility of roasted diaspore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秋生; 李小斌; 彭志宏; 刘桂华


    Through X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electronic micrographs, temperature dependence of the crystal structure of roasted diasporic bauxite at different temperatures and the digestibility of roasting production were investigated systematically. The lattice parameters of unit cell for chemically purified diaspore and unequilibrium alumina-contained oxide obtained from the diaspore roasted at different temperatures were determined. It is found that, with roasting temperature increasing, the roasting production changes from the original dense and perfect diaspore crystal into imperfect corundum with many microcracks and small pores on its surface and then into perfect corundum with low digestibility. The optimum roasting temperature with best digestibility is approximately 525 ℃ when residence time is about 25 min. It is thought that the change of crystal structure, formation of microcracks and small pores in the temperature field are the main essential reasons for improving digestibility of diasporic bauxite and its roasting production.

  5. Characterisation of different digestion susceptibility of lupin seed globulins. (United States)

    Czubinski, Jaroslaw; Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Siger, Aleksander; Neunert, Grazyna; Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora


    This study describes in vitro digestion of lupin seed globulins by pancreatin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Lupin seed globulins turned out to be almost totally susceptible to chymotrypsin digestion. When panceratin or trypsin were used for digestion of lupin seed globulins, γ-conglutin appeared to be resistant to proteolysis. Different fluorescence spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes and fluorescence quenching measurements were used for detailed characterisation of this phenomenon. A potential reason for γ-conglutin insensitivity to digestion may be related to the fact that lysine, as well as arginine, are positively charged at cell physiological pH. Simultaneously, flavonoids at this pH are partially ionised, which may lead to the occurrence of ionic interactions between these molecules at pH 7.5. The confirmation of this explanation may be the fact that γ-conglutin and vitexin form a static complex, which was observed using fluorescence quenching measurements.

  6. Bile acid nuclear receptor FXR and digestive system diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Ding


    Full Text Available Bile acids (BAs are not only digestive surfactants but also important cell signaling molecules, which stimulate several signaling pathways to regulate some important biological processes. The bile-acid-activated nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR, plays a pivotal role in regulating bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis as well as in regulating the inflammatory responses, barrier function and prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. As expected, FXR is involved in the pathophysiology of a wide range of diseases of gastrointestinal tract, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the roles of FXR in physiology of the digestive system and the related diseases. Better understanding of the roles of FXR in digestive system will accelerate the development of FXR ligands/modulators for the treatment of digestive system diseases.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林旋; 林树根; 王全溪; 陈梅芳; 严美姣; 王寿昆


    staining were used to investigate the histochemical property of the mast cells in the digestive tract of tilapia.The mast cells were showed in the esophagus, stomachus and small intestinal wall of nile tilapia. The mast cells in the slides of esophagus and stomachus mostly distributed between lamina propria and stomachus gland. The mast cells in intestinal tract mainly distributed in lamina propria and under intestine epithelium, while less in connective tissue of submucosa. They were circular, ellipse and spindle, and intended to be around blood vessels. The results of five histochemical stainings were as follows: The MTB, AB/SO and MG-P stainings could show the mast cells better, especially the AB/SO was the best among them. The mast cells were distinctly outlined, the cytoplasmic particle of which was clear. The similarity of the research on teleostean mast cells from home and abroad was that the mast cells of nile tilapia was similar to mucosal mast cell of mammal. The effect of MG-P staining was good too, in which the cytoplasmic particle of mast cells showed red, which meant the cytoplasmic contained mainly heparin not histamine. It confirmed further that the histochemical property of the mast cells of nile tilapia was similar to mucosal mast cell of mammal. The effect of Azure II - Eosin - Wright mixture staining was better, but the mast cells dyed was few. Whereas, the mast cells in the sections of digestive tract of nile tilapia could not been showed by 80% Alcohol-Thionine staining. The reason might be different stationary liquid or the difference in histochemical property of mast cells of nile tilapia, carp and white fish. The observation showed that the mast cells in the digestive tract of nile tilapia mostly distributed in the points which easily revealed from environment antigen such as shallow mucosa or blood vessels, the connective tissue around gland and so on. The mast cells had similar distribution characteristics in different organs of other animals

  8. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows.


    Vuuren, van, Aico


    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown that the efficiency of protein utilization is relatively low and consequently, a high proportion of ingested nitrogen is excreted in urine and faeces. This reports the effects of grassland managemen...

  9. Effects of realimentation after nutrient restriction during mid- to late gestation on pancreatic digestive enzymes, serum insulin and glucose levels, and insulin-containing cell cluster morphology. (United States)

    Keomanivong, F E; Camacho, L E; Lemley, C O; Kuemper, E A; Yunusova, R D; Borowicz, P P; Kirsch, J D; Vonnahme, K A; Caton, J S; Swanson, K C


    This study examined effects of stage of gestation and nutrient restriction with subsequent realimentation on maternal and foetal bovine pancreatic function. Dietary treatments were assigned on day 30 of pregnancy and included: control (CON; 100% requirements; n = 18) and restricted (R; 60% requirements; n = 30). On day 85, cows were slaughtered (CON, n = 6; R, n = 6), remained on control (CC; n = 12) and restricted (RR; n = 12), or realimented to control (RC; n = 11). On day 140, cows were slaughtered (CC, n = 6; RR, n = 6; RC, n = 5), remained on control (CCC, n = 6; RCC, n = 5) or realimented to control (RRC, n = 6). On day 254, the remaining cows were slaughtered and serum samples were collected from the maternal jugular vein and umbilical cord to determine insulin and glucose concentrations. Pancreases from cows and foetuses were removed, weighed, and subsampled for enzyme and histological analysis. As gestation progressed, maternal pancreatic α-amylase activity decreased and serum insulin concentrations increased (p ≤ 0.03). Foetal pancreatic trypsin activity increased (p enzymes are influenced by nutrient restriction and there is a potential for programming of increased foetal digestive enzyme production resulting from previous maternal nutrient restriction.

  10. The effect of algae species on the bioelectricity and biodiesel generation through open-air cathode microbial fuel cell with kitchen waste anaerobically digested effluent as substrate. (United States)

    Hou, Qingjie; Nie, Changliang; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Jiang, Liqun; Yang, Zhigang


    Five strains algae (Golenkinia sp. SDEC-16, Chlorella vulgaris, Selenastrum capricornutum, Scenedesmus SDEC-8 and Scenedesmus SDEC-13) were screened as an effective way to promote recover electricity from MFC for kitchen waste anaerobically digested effluent (KWADE) treatment. The highest OCV, power density, biomass concentration and total lipid content were obtained with Golenkinia sp. SDEC-16 as the co-inoculum, which were 170mV, 6255mWm(-3), 325mgL(-1) and 38%, respectively. Characteristics of the organics in KWADE were analyzed, and the result showed that the hydrophilic and acidic fractions were more readily degraded, compared to the neutral fractions during the operation. Maximum COD and TN removal efficiency were 43.59% and 37.39% when inoculated with Golenkinia sp. SDEC-16, which were roughly 3.22 and 3.04 times higher than that of S. capricornutum. This study demonstrated that Golenkinia sp. SDEC-16 was a promising species for bioelectricity generation, lipid production and KWADE treatment.

  11. A novel phytoremediation technology shown to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons from soils in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.D.; Yu, X.M.; Gerhardt, K.; Glick, B.; Greenberg, B [Waterloo Environmental Biotechnology Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology


    This article described a newly developed, advanced microbe-enhanced phytoremediation system that can be used to remediate lands polluted by hydrocarbons, salts and metals. The technology uses 3 complementary processes to achieve effective remediation of strongly bound persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil. The remediation process involves physical soil treatment, photochemical photooxidation, microbial remediation and growth of plants treated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPR-enhanced phytoremediation system (PEPS) alleviates plant stress and increases biodegradation activities, thereby accelerating plant growth in the presence of POPs or poor soils. The PEPS has been used successfully to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from impacted soils in situ at several sites across Canada. Studies have shown that the PHCs are degraded in the rhizosphere. This article also presented a summary of the work conducted at 3 sites in Alberta. It took only 2 years to remediate the 3 sites to levels required for site closure under Alberta Tier 1 guidelines. It was concluded that PEPS is equally effective for total PHC and Fraction 3 CCME hydrocarbons. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  12. Ancient Grandeur of the Vertebrate Neuropeptide Y System Shown by the Coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae. (United States)

    Larhammar, Dan; Bergqvist, Christina A


    The neuropeptide Y (NPY) family receptors and peptides have previously been characterized in several tetrapods, teleost fishes, and in a holocephalan cartilaginous fish. This has shown that the ancestral NPY system in the jawed vertebrates consisted of the peptides NPY and peptide YY (PYY) and seven G-protein-coupled receptors named Y1-Y8 (Y3 does not exist). The different vertebrate lineages have subsequently lost or gained a few receptor genes. For instance, the human genome has lost three of the seven receptors while the zebrafish has lost two and gained two receptor genes. Here we describe the NPY system of a representative of an early diverging lineage among the sarcopterygians, the West Indian Ocean coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae. The coelacanth was found to have retained all seven receptors from the ancestral jawed vertebrate. The receptors display the typical characteristics found in other vertebrates. Interestingly, the coelacanth was found to have the local duplicate of the PYY gene, called pancreatic polypeptide, previously only identified in tetrapods. Thus, this duplication took place very early in the sarcopterygian lineage, before the origin of tetrapods. These findings confirm the ancient complexity of the NPY system and show that mammals have lost more NPY receptors than any other vertebrate lineage. The coelacanth has all three peptides found in tetrapods and has retained the ancestral jawed vertebrate receptor repertoire with neither gains or losses.

  13. Ancient grandeur of the vertebrate neuropeptide Y system shown by the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLarhammar


    Full Text Available The neuropeptide Y (NPY family receptors and peptides have previously been characterized in several tetrapods, teleost fishes and in a holocephalan cartilaginous fish. This has shown that the ancestral NPY system in the jawed vertebrates consisted of the peptides NPY and PYY and seven G-protein-coupled receptors named Y1-Y8 (Y3 does not exist. The different vertebrate lineages have subsequently lost or gained a few receptor genes. For instance, the human genome has lost three of the seven receptors while the zebrafish has lost two and gained two receptor genes. Here we describe the NPY system of a representative of an early diverging lineage among the sarcopterygians, the West Indian Ocean coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae. The coelacanth was found to have retained all seven receptors from the ancestral jawed vertebrate. The receptors display the typical characteristics found in other vertebrates. Interestingly, the coelacanth was found to have the local duplicate of the PYY gene, called pancreatic polypeptide, previously only identified in tetrapods. Thus, this duplication took place very early in the sarcopterygian lineage, before the origin of tetrapods. These findings confirm the ancient complexity of the NPY system and show that mammals have lost more NPY receptors than any other vertebrate lineage. The coelacanth has all three peptides found in tetrapods and has retained the ancestral jawed vertebrate receptor repertoire with neither gains or losses.

  14. Gray matter involvement in patients with multiple sclerosis as shown by magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reshiana Rumzan; CHEN Xuan; LI Yong-mei


    Objective To summarize the main findings seen on conventional and advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)used to assess gray matter (GM) involvement in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).Data sources The data used in this review were obtained mainly from studies reported in the PubMed database using the terms of multiple sclerosis,gray matter,magnetic resonance imaging.Study selection Relevant literatures on studies of GM involvement in MS patients were identified,retrieved and reviewed.Results MS is the most common chronic,disabling central nervous system disease in young adults.Although traditional thinking has considered MS to be a chronic inflammatory demyelinating condition affecting solely the white matter (WM) of the central nervous system,over the last few years it has been shown that GM pathology is also common and extensive.GM demyelinating lesions can not only be found in the cerebral cortex but also in the deep gray nuclei.Apart from focal demyelinatad lesions,diffuse neuronal loss and atrophy is also present in the GM of MS patients.Conclusions The widespread use of conventional and quantitative MRI based techniques in MS has led to an improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying the inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes of the disease.However,more researches are needed to unravel GM pathology in MS patients,which at present remains enigmatic.

  15. [Functional and motor digestive disorders]. (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín


    This article discusses the most interesting studies on functional and motility gastrointestinal disorders presented in Digestive Diseases Week (DDW) in 2013. New data were reported on the clinical importance of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and on how they can produce numerous disturbances such as inflammatory bowel disease. These disturbances are associated with somatic functional disease and particularly with fatigue. In addition, new data have emerged on the physiopathology of these disorders, with some studies reporting that environmental factors and events in early infancy can favor their development. Data were also presented on how bile acids can increase susceptibility to diarrhea in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and on how the type of food intake can favor the development of symptoms. More data are available on the presence of underlying celiac disease in patients with IBS, which should prompt us to investigate this disease in our patients. Likewise, indiscriminate application of a gluten-free diet in patients with IBS has been shown not to produce a clear improvement. Regarding the physiopathology of functional dyspepsia (FD), results have been presented on how psychological factors can modify gastric accommodation and how this is in turn related to visceral hypersensitivity and gastric emptying. Regarding therapy, mirtazapine can improve symptoms and lead to weight gain in patients with severe FD and substantial weight loss. Results were presented on new drugs for IBS such as ibodutant and on old drugs with new applications such as mesalazine and ebastine. The antinociceptive effect of linaclotide is now better understood and a meta-analysis has shown its effectiveness in IBS with constipation as the main symptom. In patients with constipation, pelvic floor dysynergy can be diagnosed by a simple clinical interview and rectal touch. More data are available on the efficacy of prucalopride (which has been shown to accelerate

  16. Effect of simulated gastro-duodenal digestion on the allergenic reactivity of beta-lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossios Apostolos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow's milk (CM allergy affects about 2% of infants. The allergenicity of dietary proteins, including those from CM, has been related to their digestibility although the generality of the link and its causality remains to be demonstrated. In this study we use an in vitro digestion system, to investigate the digestibility of β-lactoglobulin (blg during gastrointestinal transit and to assess the impact of this process on blg allergenic reactivity in CM allergic children. Methods Blg digesta were prepared using an in vitro digestion protocol simulating either gastric digestion alone or followed by duodenal digestion with or without phosphatidylcholine (PC. Biochemical analysis of blg digesta was performed by SDS-PAGE and their concentration was measured by a sandwich ELISA. Assessment of their allergenic reactivity was done in vitro by EAST inhibition, specific basophil activation (basotest and lymphocyte proliferation (PCNA-flow cytometry assays using sera and cells from patients allergic to blg and in vivo by skin prick testing (SPT of these patients. Results Blg was only broken down to smaller peptides after gastro-duodenal digestion although a sizeable amount of intact protein still remained. Digestion did not modify the IgE binding capacity of blg except for gastro-duodenal digestion performed in the absence of PC. These results are consistent with the quantity of intact blg remaining in the digesta. Overall both gastric and gastroduodenal digestion enhanced activation of sensitized basophils and proliferation of sensitized lymphocytes by blg. However, there was a tendency towards reduction in mean diameter of SPT following digestion, the PC alone during phase 1 digestion causing a significant increase in mean diameter. Conclusions Digestion did not reduce the allergenic reactivity of blg to a clinically insignificant extent, PC inhibiting digestion and thereby protecting blg allergenic reactivity. SPT reactivity was

  17. Comparison Of The Mesenchymal Stem Cells That Separated From Placenta With Different Digest Way%比较不同消化方式获得的胎盘间充质干细胞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章毅; 洪艳; 陆瑶; 霍思维


    In recent years,mesenchymal stem cells(Mesenchymal stem cell,MSC)has become a hot research topic in the field of stem cell,it not only support the hematopoietic system,but also in the cultivation of the specific conditions to a variety of tissue cells differentiatio.It is easily to obtain MSC from placenta.Comparison of the characters of the mesenchymal stem cells that separated from human placenta with different enzymes.Detached the amniotic membrane of placenta surface.Shearing human chorionic and human chorionic trophoblastic respectively of the fetal side.After mechanical crushing respectively with collagenase II digestion to separate mononuclear cells.With DMEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum in 37℃ and 5% CO2,95% saturated humidity,after 48 hours the full amount in liquid,dislodge suspension cells,to add fresh medium.When cell fusion to about 90%,using trypsin digestion for cell batches.Through Comparison the total number of primary cell,pictorial record of the subsequent growth,and by flow cytometry to measure the surface marker:positive rate of CD90,CD73,CD105 to Compare the biological characters of the mesenchymal stem cells that separated with different enzymes.The mesenchymal stem cells were induced to differentiate into Adipogenesis and Osteogenesis,to identify the cell biological characteristics of stem cells.Share the same digestion time,enzyme concentration,shaking table speed,you can get more cells with the type II collagen enzyme.Cell growth situation is relatively better than type IV collagen enzyme.If come up from the cost compare type II collagen enzyme relatively low cost,so we can select type II collagen enzyme in the production and experiments.%近年来,间充质干细胞(mesenchymal stem cells,MSCs)已成为干细胞领域的研究热点,其不仅支持造血系统,还可在特定的培养条件下向多种组织细胞分化。人胎盘来源的MSC取材容易。该研究比较不同的组织消化

  18. 消化系统肿瘤外周血循环肿瘤细胞的研究进展%Research Progress of Peripheral Blood Circulating Tumor Cells in Digestive System Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施少军; 薛峰


    Recently,the detection of circulating tumor cells(CTCs)in peripheral blood is used in clinical practice as a form of‘ liquid biopsy’. The self-seeding mechanism of CTCs provides a novel approach to explore the growing mechanism of malignant tumor and developing corresponding targeting therapies. A decade ago,the CellSearch system, which can capture and enumerate CTCs,has been validated by Food and Drug Administration( FDA)as an aid for monitoring the relapse of tumor after radical operation in patients with breast,prostate and colorectal cancer. In recent years,although the separation and detection technique of CTCs has been promoted significantly,the clinical significance of CTCs in tumors of digestive system is still under investigation. This article reviewed the research progress of peripheral blood CTCs in digestive system tumors.%近年来,外周血循环肿瘤细胞(CTCs)检测已作为一项“液相活检”技术应用于临床实践。CTCs 的肿瘤自我播种机制为探索恶性肿瘤的生长机制以及开发相应的肿瘤靶向治疗提供了新思路。10年前美国食品与药品管理局(FDA)即已批准将计数分析 CTCs 的 CellSearch 系统应用于临床监控乳腺癌、前列腺癌和结直肠癌根治术后肿瘤复发。尽管近年来 CTCs 分离和检测技术得到了显著提升,然而在消化系统肿瘤领域,检测 CTCs 的临床意义尚在研究中。本文就消化系统肿瘤外周血 CTCs 的研究进展作一综述。

  19. [Biomarkers for neoplasmas in digestive organs]. (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Arai, Kuniyoshi; Katayanagi, Soh; Takahashi, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Tatsurou; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Hidenori


    This review is concerned with the usefulness and the problem of biomarkers for cancer of digestive organs. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a most popular and useful tumor marker for cancer of digestive organs. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen and CYFRA have been reported as a useful tumor marker for esophageal cancer. CEA and CA 19-9 are a good prognostic factor in gastric cancer patients. The post-operative increase of serum CEA can be a predictive marker for the patients of colorectal cancer. Development of a radioimmunoassay for highly sensitive detection of tumor markers, they are considered to be useful for monitoring after treatment. But are not useful for the early diagnosis. The diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is based mainly on serological markers, such as alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. The two are useful complementary markers of HCC because they do not correlate with each other. But the problem of the false-positive rate for the patients with chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis is still remained. A typical marker of pancreatic and bile duct cancer is carbohydrate antigen, but the sensitivity of these markers is only 50%. Recent molecular biological analysis may be used as effective biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, and risk assessment of digestive cancer.

  20. Seismic subduction of the Nazca Ridge as shown by the 1996-97 Peru earthquakes (United States)

    Spence, W.; Mendoza, C.; Engdahl, E.R.; Choy, G.L.; Norabuena, E.


    By rupturing more than half of the shallow subduction interface of the Nazca Ridge, the great November 12, 1996 Peruvian earthquake contradicts the hypothesis that oceanic ridges subduct aseismically. The mainshock's rupture has a length of about 200 km and has an average slip of about 1.4 m. Its moment is 1.5 x 1028 dyne-cm and the corresponding M(w) is 8.0. The mainshock registered three major episodes of moment release as shown by a finite fault inversion of teleseismically recorded broadband body waves. About 55% of the mainshock's total moment release occurred south of the Nazca Ridge, and the remaining moment release occurred at the southern half of the subduction interface of the Nazca Ridge. The rupture south of the Nazca Ridge was elongated parallel to the ridge axis and extended from a shallow depth to about 65 km depth. Because the axis of the Nazca Ridge is at a high angle to the plate convergence direction, the subducting Nazca Ridge has a large southwards component of motion, 5 cm/yr parallel to the coast. The 900-1200 m relief of the southwards sweeping Nazca Ridge is interpreted to act as a 'rigid indenter,' causing the greatest coupling south of the ridge's leading edge and leading to the large observed slip. The mainshock and aftershock hypocenters were relocated using a new procedure that simultaneously inverts local and teleseismic data. Most aftershocks were within the outline of the Nazca Ridge. A three-month delayed aftershock cluster' occurred at the northern part of the subducting Nazca Ridge. Aftershocks were notably lacking at the zone of greatest moment release, to the south of the Nazca Ridge. However, a lone foreshock at the southern end of this zone, some 140 km downstrike of the mainshock's epicenter, implies that conditions existed for rupture into that zone. The 1996 earthquake ruptured much of the inferred source zone of the M(w) 7.9-8.2 earthquake of 1942, although the latter was a slightly larger earthquake. The rupture zone of

  1. Reduced visual surround suppression in schizophrenia shown by measuring contrast detection thresholds (United States)

    Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Romero-Ferreiro, Verónica; Read, Jenny C. A.; Diéguez-Risco, Teresa; Bagney, Alexandra; Caballero-González, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Torresano, Javier; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto


    Visual perception in schizophrenia is attracting a broad interest given the deep knowledge that we have about the visual system in healthy populations. One example is the class of effects known collectively as visual surround suppression. For example, the visibility of a grating located in the visual periphery is impaired by the presence of a surrounding grating of the same spatial frequency and orientation. Previous studies have suggested abnormal visual surround suppression in patients with schizophrenia. Given that schizophrenia patients have cortical alterations including hypofunction of NMDA receptors and reduced concentration of GABA neurotransmitter, which affect lateral inhibitory connections, then they should be relatively better than controls at detecting visual stimuli that are usually suppressed. We tested this hypothesis by measuring contrast detection thresholds using a new stimulus configuration. We tested two groups: 21 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy subjects. Thresholds were obtained using Bayesian staircases in a four-alternative forced-choice detection task where the target was a grating within a 3∘ Butterworth window that appeared in one of four possible positions at 5∘ eccentricity. We compared three conditions, (a) target with no-surround, (b) target embedded within a surrounding grating of 20∘ diameter and 25% contrast with same spatial frequency and orthogonal orientation, and (c) target embedded within a surrounding grating with parallel (same) orientation. Previous results with healthy populations have shown that contrast thresholds are lower for orthogonal and no-surround (NS) conditions than for parallel surround (PS). The log-ratios between parallel and NS thresholds are used as an index quantifying visual surround suppression. Patients performed poorly compared to controls in the NS and orthogonal-surround conditions. However, they performed as well as controls when the surround was parallel, resulting in significantly

  2. The cotyledon cell wall of the common bean (phaseolus vulgaris) resists digestion in the upper intestine and thus may limit iron bioavailability (United States)

    Strategies that enhance the Fe bioavailability from the bean are of keen interest to nutritionists, bean breeders and growers. In beans, the cotyledon contains 75-80% of the total seed Fe, most of which appears to be located within the cotyledon cell. The cotyledon cell wall is known to be resistan...

  3. Disaster Impacts on Human Capital Accumulation Shown in the Typhoon Haiyan Case (United States)

    Özceylan Aubrecht, Dilek; Aubrecht, Christoph


    School children and their school environment are increasingly exposed to all kinds of hazards. Many disaster events have shown the extent of disaster impacts on the education sector which this study also highlights in the Typhoon Haiyan Case. Disasters do not only cause loss of lives or damage to educational facilities, they also entail significant economic and social consequences on human capital development in the short and long-run. While the trend of short term disaster impact can easily be analyzed in rapid post disaster assessments taking destroyed assets as proxy, usually analyses of medium and long-term effects of disasters include large inherent uncertainties and are of less tangible nature, require more time and complex methods and can often not give comprehensive results. The consequences of disasters especially in developing countries are therefore to a certain extent often left unknown. Generally, economic and social effects of disasters on human capital seem to be ambiguous and to some degree these effects are related to economic, social and institutional well-being. Thus, clear understanding is crucial to interpret its complex effects on human capital accumulation. This essential nature of medium and long-term effects has not been reflected in many analyses. Focus has mostly been given on the extent of physical damage, displacements, lives and assets lost instead of targeting resilience of social and economic characteristics of communities in terms of preventing human capital accumulation disruption. Main objective of this study is to provide a conceptual framework illustrating the impacts of disasters on schooling which might help in assessing such effects, as one of the fundamental components of human capital accumulation (Ozceylan Aubrecht, 2013). The dimensions of human capital building and its relationship to disasters under the light of past disaster events are discussed with a special focus on the recent Typhoon Haiyan that struck the

  4. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod. (United States)

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Juliano, Maria A; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R


    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability), zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG) are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also detected. Evolutionarily

  5. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe J Fuzita

    Full Text Available Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability, zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also

  6. Differential digestion of human milk proteins in a simulated stomach model. (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Cundiff, Judy K; Maria, Sarah D; McMahon, Robert J; Wickham, Martin S J; Faulks, Richard M; van Tol, Eric A F


    A key element in understanding how human milk proteins support the health and development of the neonate is to understand how individual proteins are affected during digestion. In the present study, a dynamic gastric model was used to simulate infant gastric digestion of human milk, and a subsequent proteomic approach was applied to study the behavior of individual proteins. A total of 413 human milk proteins were quantified in this study. This approach demonstrated a high degree of variability in the susceptibility of human milk proteins to gastric digestion. Specifically this study reports that lipoproteins are among the class of slowly digested proteins during gastric processes. The levels of integral lysozyme C and partial lactadherin in milk whey increase over digestion. Mucins, ribonuclease 4, and macrophage mannose receptor 1 are also resistant to gastric digestion. The retention or enhancement in whey protein abundance can be ascribed to the digestive release of milk-fat-globule-membrane or immune-cell enclosed proteins that are not initially accessible in milk. Immunoglobulins are more resistant to digestion compared to total milk proteins, and within the immunoglobulin class IgA and IgM are more resistant to digestion compared to IgG. The gastric digestion of milk proteins becomes more apparent from this study.

  7. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  8. A methane production feasibility model for central anaerobic digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J.L. (Western Ontario University, London, Canada); Peters, N. (Fundacao de Tecnologia Industrial, Botafogo, Brazil)


    A mathematical model was developed for prediction of the practicability of building and operating large centrally located anaerobic digesters for producing methane gas from animal manure. The assumptions were that the manure would be collected from the feedlots and that the product gas would be supplied to an existing pipeline. The model takes account of the farm locations and calculates transportation costs for various numbers of digesters. Digester sizes for each distribution and installation and operating costs are computed. Revenue was then determined on the basis of methane production and fertilizer value recovery. The utility of the model is shown through a study of farms in southwestern Ontario where many small feedlots exist. The results of the study indicate a gas production cost of roughly $0.18/cu m.

  9. Comprehensive utilization of digested residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reizhi Shen [Soil and Fertilizer Inst. of Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences (China)


    The application history of biogas technology in China covers almost one century. Until the 1980's, people's attention not only focused on the benefit of biogas as people's daily fuel, but also on the comprehensive utilization of digested residues. People are more and more interested in these methods of comprehensive utilization, which has led to many research projects on, among others, ''digested effluent as feed additive for pigs'', ''digested sludge for growing mushroom'', and ''digested effluent as pesticide''. Not only are biogas fermentation, organic waste such as animal manure, crop straw, distillery wastewater and the wastewater from slaughter houses converted to biogas, but also digested residues are very useful with a lot of ''potential value'' and ''special functions'', which will bring far more benefits than biogas alone. Some progress on the comprehensive utilization of digested residues in the past ten years is summarized below. (orig.)

  10. Ultrasonic treatment to improve anaerobic digestibility of dairy waste streams. (United States)

    Palmowski, L; Simons, L; Brooks, R


    The dairy-processing industry generates various types of organic wastes, which are utilised as stock feed, for anaerobic digestion, spread on land or alternatively land-filled at high costs. Owing to the generation of renewable energy, anaerobic digestion is an attractive option for many factories. To enhance the biological degradation process, a mechanical disintegration of various waste dairy streams was undertaken. While the successful application of ultrasonic treatment has been reported for various municipal waste streams, limited information was available for dairy industry applications. The results of this study showed that ultrasonic treatment can improve the digestibility of the more problematic dairy waste streams, such as sludges, by breaking down micro-organisms' cell walls and releasing soluble cell compounds. For more soluble streams, such as dairy factory effluent, an increased gas production was observed and attributed to the reduced particle size of the fat globules.

  11. Valorisation of Phosphorus Extracted from Dairy Cattle Slurry and Municipal Solid Wastes Digestates as a Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, V.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Labrincha, J.;


    Phosphorus is a vital cell component and an essential and irreplaceable element. Yet at the current rate of exploitation, the phosphate’s reserves will be fast depleted. Dairy cattle slurry and digestates from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes (MSW) are organic wastes containing phosp...

  12. Digestible and indigestible carbohydrates: interactions with postprandial lipid metabolism. (United States)

    Lairon, Denis; Play, Barbara; Jourdheuil-Rahmani, Dominique


    The balance between fats and carbohydrates in the human diet is still a matter of very active debate. Indeed, the processing of ordinary mixed meals involves complex processes within the lumen of the upper digestive tract for digestion, in the small intestine mucosa for absorption and resecretion, and in peripheral tissues and in the circulation for final handling. The purpose of this review is to focus on available knowledge on the interactions of digestible or indigestible carbohydrates with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in the postprandial state. The observations made in humans after test meals are reported and interpreted in the light of recent findings on the cellular and molecular levels regarding possible interplays between carbohydrates and lipid moieties in some metabolic pathways. Digestible carbohydrates, especially readily digestible starches or fructose, have been shown to exacerbate and/or delay postprandial lipemia, whereas some fiber sources can lower it. While interactions between dietary fibers and the process of lipid digestion and absorption have been studied mainly in the last decades, recent studies have shown that dietary carbohydrate moieties (e.g., glucose) can stimulate the intestinal uptake of cholesterol and lipid resecretion. In addition to the well-known glucose/fructose transporters, a number of transport proteins have recently been involved in intestinal lipid processing, whose implications in such interactions are discussed. The potential importance of postprandial insulinemia in these processes is also evaluated in the light of recent findings. The interactions of carbohydrates and lipid moieties in the postprandial state may result from both acute and chronic effects, both at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  13. Microbial communities in liquid and fiber fractions of food waste digestates are differentially resistant to inhibition by ammonia. (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing


    The effect of different concentrations of ammonia (1.0-7.0 g/L) during mesophilic anaerobic digestion with fiber or liquid digestate as inoculum was examined. Evolution of microbial community within fiber and liquid digestates was quantitatively assessed by the intact lipid analysis methods and qualitatively by DNA fingerprint methods in order to determine their resistance to ammonia inhibition. The results showed that an increased level of total ammonia nitrogen prolonged the lag phase of fiber digestates while reduced the metabolic rate of liquid digestates. Fiber digestates had 19.6-50.9-fold higher concentrations of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) compared to liquid digestates, whereas concentrations of phospholipid ether lipids (PLEL) in the fiber digestates were only 2.91-17.6-fold higher compared to liquid digestates. Although the cell concentration in liquid fraction was far lower than that in the fiber one, the ammonia-resistant ability and the methanization efficiency of the liquid digestate was superior to the fiber digestate. The bacterial profiles were affected more by the type of digestate inoculum compared to the concentration of ammonia. Principal component analysis indicated that the lipids technique was superior to the DNA technique for bacterial quantification but detected less archaeal diversity.

  14. Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Castellucci


    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy is becoming increasingly necessary in order to address the global warming problem and, as a consequence, has become an high priority for many countries. Biomass is a clean and renewable energy source with growing potential to replace conventional fossil fuels. Among biomass, residual and waste ones represent a great resource for energy generation since they permit both to eliminate a possible waste and to produce energy. In the present work, the case of slaughterhouse wastes (SHWs has been investigated. Anaerobic digestion is nowadays considered as one of the most important and sustainable conversion technology exploiting organic matter and biodegradable wastes. Biogas results from this bio-chemical process and mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide, leading to produce thermal energy and/or electricity. In this paper, the European Regulations on animal by-products (ABPs are described, and some previous study on anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of ABPs - more precisely SHWs - are considered and compared in order to fix a starting point for future tests on their co-digestion in a micro-scale pilot digester. This is to define optimal feed ratio values which ensure an increasing content of methane in the outgoing biogas.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the ability of pigs to digest protein increases with age. However, it has been shown that small pigs excreted more endogenous nitrogen (N than large pigs. Consequently, the apparent amino acids (AA digestibility may be lower in young pigs while true digestibility, which is corrected for endogenous losses, may be comparable with that found in older pigs. To test this hypothesis, six cannulated piglets (mean body weight 20.6 kg fitted with a simple T-cannula at terminal ileum were used to estimate apparent and true digestibilities of AA and of total N in a rye-based diet (96 % rye. The digestibility study was repeated on the same pigs fed the same diet when they reached mean body weight 61.7 kg. The apparent ileal digestibilities of total AA and total N were significantly higher in heavier pigs than in piglets. Except for methionine and phenylalanine, the apparent digestibilities of individual AA showed a similar pattern. In contrast, there was no significant difference between piglets and heavier pigs for the true ileal digestibility of total N. True digestibility of most AA was lower in heavier pigs than in piglets, the differences for total and some individual AA being significant. The present results suggest that the higher apparent digestibility values found in heavier pigs as compared to piglets are due to the confounding effect of endogenous N losses rather than the better ability of older pigs to digest protein.

  16. Molecular hydrogelators of peptoid-peptide conjugates with superior stability against enzyme digestion (United States)

    Wu, Zhidan; Tan, Ming; Chen, Xuemei; Yang, Zhimou; Wang, Ling


    We report on molecular hydrogelators based on peptoid-peptide conjugates with good biocompatibility to different cells and superior stability against proteinase K digestion.We report on molecular hydrogelators based on peptoid-peptide conjugates with good biocompatibility to different cells and superior stability against proteinase K digestion. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis and characterization of gelators, dynamic strain sweep, cell viability, and procedure to determine the stability of compounds against proteinase K digestion. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30408b

  17. Seed coat removal improves Fe bioavailability in cooked lentils: studies using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model (United States)

    This study examined the range of Fe concentration and relative Fe bioavailability of 24 varieties of cooked lentils, as well as the impact of seed coat removal on lentil Fe nutritional quality. Relative Fe bioavailability was assessed by the in vitro/Caco-2 cell culture method. While Fe concentrat...

  18. Comparison of the Effects of Thermal Pretreatment, Steam Explosion and Ultrasonic Disintegration on Digestibility of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Dallos


    Full Text Available The energy demand of the corn-based bioethanol production could be reduced using the agricultural byproducts as bioenergy feedstock for biogas digesters. The release of lignocellulosic material and therefore the acceleration of degradation processes can be achieved using thermal and mechanical pretreatments, which assist to hydrolyze the cell walls and speed the solubilization of biopolymers in biogas feedstock. This study is focused on liquid hot water, steam explosion and ultrasonic pretreatments of corn stover. The scientific contribution of this paper is a comprehensive comparison of the performance of the pretreatments by fast analytical, biochemical, anaerobic digestibility and biomethane potential tests, extended by energy consumptions and energy balance calculations.The effectiveness of pretreatments was evaluated by means of soluble chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand and by the biogas and methane productivities. The results have shown that the thermal pretreatment, steam explosion and ultrasonic irradiation of biogas feedstock disintegrated the lignocellulosic structure, increased and accelerated the methane production and increased the cumulative biogas and methane productivity of corn stover in reference to the control during mesophilic anaerobic digestion.The energy balance demonstrated that there is an economical basis of the application of the liquid hot-compressed water pretreatments in a biogas plant. However, the steam explosion and ultrasonication are energetically not profitable for corn stover pretreatment.

  19. Microbial electrochemical monitoring of volatile fatty acids during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Jin, Xiangdan; Angelidaki, Irini


    Due to increasing environmental concerns of using fossil fuels and decreasing in their reserves, the promotion of renewable energy technologies is crucial. Anaerobic digestion (AD), a well-developed technology converting organic waste into biogas, is gaining increased attention in recent years...... desalination cell, MDC) was built to realize the on-line measuring the concentration of volatile fatty acid (VFA). The correlation between current densities of the biosensor and VFA concentrations was firstly evaluated with synthetic digestate. Two linear relationships were observed between current densities...

  20. Validation of an in vitro digestive system for studying macronutrient decomposition in humans. (United States)

    Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A; Schwander, Flurina; Gijs, Martin; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti


    The digestive process transforms nutrients and bioactive compounds contained in food to physiologically active compounds. In vitro digestion systems have proven to be powerful tools for understanding and monitoring the complex transformation processes that take place during digestion. Moreover, the investigation of the physiological effects of certain nutrients demands an in vitro digestive process that is close to human physiology. In this study, human digestion was simulated with a 3-step in vitro process that was validated in depth by choosing pasteurized milk as an example of a complex food matrix. The evolution and decomposition of the macronutrients was followed over the entire digestive process to the level of intestinal enterocyte action, using protein and peptide analysis by SDS-PAGE, reversed-phase HPLC, size exclusion HPLC, and liquid chromatography-MS. The mean peptide size after in vitro digestion of pasteurized milk was 5-6 amino acids (AA). Interestingly, mostly essential AA (93.6%) were released during in vitro milk digestion, a significantly different relative distribution compared to the total essential AA concentration of bovine milk (44.5%). All TG were degraded to FFA and monoacylglycerols. Herein, we present a human in vitro digestion model validated for its ability to degrade the macronutrients of dairy products comparable to physiological ranges. It is suited to be used in combination with a human intestinal cell culture system, allowing ex vivo bioavailability measurements and assessment of the bioactive properties of food components.

  1. Winery and distillery wastewater treatment by anaerobic digestion. (United States)

    Moletta, R


    Anaerobic digestion is widely used for wastewater treatment, especially in the food industries. Generally after the anaerobic treatment there is an aerobic post-treatment in order to return the treated water to nature. Several technologies are applied for winery wastewater treatment. They are using free cells or flocs (anaerobic contact digesters, anaerobic sequencing batch reactors and anaerobic lagoons), anaerobic granules (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket--UASB), or biofilms on fixed support (anaerobic filter) or on mobile support as with the fluidised bed. Some technologies include two strategies, e.g. a sludge bed with anaerobic filter as in the hybrid digester. With winery wastewaters (as for vinasses from distilleries) the removal yield for anaerobic digestion is very high, up to 90-95% COD removal. The organic loads are between 5 and 15 kgCOD/m3 of digester/day. The biogas production is between 400 and 600 L per kg COD removed with 60 to 70% methane content. For anaerobic and aerobic post-treatment of vinasses in the Cognac region, REVICO company has 99.7% COD removal and the cost is 0.52 Euro/m3 of vinasses.

  2. Protein enriched pasta: structure and digestibility of its protein network. (United States)

    Laleg, Karima; Barron, Cécile; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Walrand, Stéphane; Micard, Valérie


    Wheat (W) pasta was enriched in 6% gluten (G), 35% faba (F) or 5% egg (E) to increase its protein content (13% to 17%). The impact of the enrichment on the multiscale structure of the pasta and on in vitro protein digestibility was studied. Increasing the protein content (W- vs. G-pasta) strengthened pasta structure at molecular and macroscopic scales but reduced its protein digestibility by 3% by forming a higher covalently linked protein network. Greater changes in the macroscopic and molecular structure of the pasta were obtained by varying the nature of protein used for enrichment. Proteins in G- and E-pasta were highly covalently linked (28-32%) resulting in a strong pasta structure. Conversely, F-protein (98% SDS-soluble) altered the pasta structure by diluting gluten and formed a weak protein network (18% covalent link). As a result, protein digestibility in F-pasta was significantly higher (46%) than in E- (44%) and G-pasta (39%). The effect of low (55 °C, LT) vs. very high temperature (90 °C, VHT) drying on the protein network structure and digestibility was shown to cause greater molecular changes than pasta formulation. Whatever the pasta, a general strengthening of its structure, a 33% to 47% increase in covalently linked proteins and a higher β-sheet structure were observed. However, these structural differences were evened out after the pasta was cooked, resulting in identical protein digestibility in LT and VHT pasta. Even after VHT drying, F-pasta had the best amino acid profile with the highest protein digestibility, proof of its nutritional interest.

  3. Motivacion y estudiantes de secundaria (Motivation and Middle School Students). ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Anderman, Lynley Hicks; Midgley, Carol

    Research has shown a decline in motivation and performance for many children as they move from elementary school into middle school; however, research has also shown that the nature of motivational change on entry to middle school depends on characteristics of the learning environment in which students find themselves. This Digest outlines some…

  4. Relationship between digestive enzymes and food habit of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae: Characterization of carbohydrases and digestion of microorganisms. (United States)

    Moraes, C S; Lucena, S A; Moreira, B H S; Brazil, R P; Gontijo, N F; Genta, F A


    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. In spite of its medical importance and several studies concerning adult digestive physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, very few studies have been carried out to elucidate the digestion in sandfly larvae. Even the breeding sites and food sources of these animals in the field are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe and characterize several carbohydrases from the gut of L. longipalpis larvae, and show that they are probably not acquired from food. The enzyme profile of this insect is consistent with the digestion of fungal and bacterial cells, which were proved to be ingested by larvae under laboratory conditions. In this respect, sandfly larvae might have a detritivore habit in nature, being able to exploit microorganisms usually encountered in the detritus as a food source.

  5. Expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in rodent digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka; Oomura


    AIM: To observe the regional distributions and morphological features of nesfatin-1/nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the rodent digestive system. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections of seven organs (pancreas, stomach, duodenum, esophagus, liver, small intestine and colon) dissected from sprague-dawley (SD) rats and institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were prepared. The regional distributions of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 IR cells were observed by immunohistochemical staining. The morphological ...

  6. Digestion of carbohydrates in the pig. (United States)

    Drochner, W


    A review of carbohydrate digestion in the pig is given. The cascade of digestion in the mouth, stomach, small and large intestine is described. Principles of enzymatic and fermentative digestion according to new results with fistulated animals are discussed. The efficacy and quality of fermentation in the large intestine depending on level and quality of carbohydrates in the diet are demonstrated. Some aspects of energetical efficacy of hindgut digestion are discussed. Dietetic effects of carbohydrates are described.

  7. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  8. Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.


    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes an

  9. Coaching for Tests. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara

    The term "coaching" applies to a variety of types of test preparation programs which vary in length, instructional method, and content. Most research on the effectiveness of coaching has examined the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), a measure of academic abilities used to predict college performance. This ERIC Digest reviews studies of…

  10. Single Sex Education. WEEA Digest. (United States)

    Pollard, Diane S.

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in educational institutions that receive federal financial assistance. This digest focuses on the theme of single-sex education. Articles featured in this issue include: (1) "Single-Sex Education" (Diane S. Pollard); (2) "A Legal Framework for Single-Sex…

  11. Transforming Principal Preparation. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    In the current climate of accountability, the responsibilities of principals have increased. The new role of principals requires new forms of training, and standards-based reform is generating major changes in principal-preparation programs. This digest examines some of those changes. First, it looks at the effectiveness of principal-preparation…

  12. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄徐根; 吴孝兵


    Objective To clarify the types, regional distributional and distributional density as well as morphological features of gastrointestinal (GI) endocrine cells in the digestive tract (DT) of a reptilian, Sphenomorphus indicus. Methods Using the immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P)method. Results Five types of endocrine cells, namely 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), somatostatin(SS), gastrin (GAS), substance P (SP) and glucagon (GLU) immunoreactive (IR) cells, were identified in the DT of S. indicus . 5-HT-IR cells, which were most commonly found in the pylorus, distributed throughout the DT at various densities. SS-IR cells were only found in the stomach, GAS-IR only in pylorus and duodenum, GLU-IR only in ileum and rectum, and SP-IR only in the rectum. The endocrine cells were round, oval, fusiform cuneiform, conical or irregular in shape. Most were found in the gastric glands of the stomach and in the epithelium of oesophagus and intestine. Conclusion The regional distribution and relative frequency of IR cells inS. indicus are similar to those of other Reptilia. However,some characteristic differences are observed in this species.%目的阐明爬行动物蝘蜓消化管各段内分泌细胞的类型、局部分布、分布密度和形态学特征.方法应用免疫组织化学技术中链霉卵白素-过氧化物酶(S-P)法.结果在蝘蜓消化管内鉴别出5种内分泌细胞,即:5-羟色胺(5-hydroxytryptamine,5-HT)、生长抑素(somatostatin,SS)、胃泌素(gastrin,GAS)、高血糖素(glucagon,GLU)、P-物质(substance P,SP)免疫活性(immnoreactive,IR)细胞.5-羟色胺免疫活性细胞是消化管中最主要的内分泌细胞类型,以不同密度分布于消化管各段,其中胃幽门部位分布密度最高.生长抑素免疫活性细胞在消化管内仅局限分布于胃部.胃泌素免疫活性细胞仅见于幽门和十二指肠部位.高血糖素免疫活性细胞仅分布于回肠和直肠.P-物质免疫活性细胞仅出现在直肠

  14. Outlook of thermal sludge digestion/pretreatment??; Verkenning thermische slibontsluiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhof, D.C. [DHV, Amersfoort (Netherlands)


    This (mid-term) report sketches an image of thermal sludge digestion: the benefits are shown of this new technique as well as the critical factors for making the technique successful in the Netherlands. Moreover, research aspects for pilot research have been formulated that are part of the STOWA research on thermal sludge digestion. Thermal digestion aims to increase the dry mater degradation in the digestion of the biogas production. Next to an increase in the energy production from biogas, a decrease in the amount of sludge to be sold is realized [Dutch] In dit (tussen)rapport wordt een beeld geschetst van thermische slibontsluiting: onder meer de voordelen van deze nieuwe techniek en de kritische factoren om de techniek in Nederland succesvol te laten zijn. Er zijn tevens onderzoeksaspecten voor pilotonderzoeken geformuleerd die deel uitmaken van het STOWA-onderzoek naar thermische slibontsluiting. Met thermische ontsluiting wordt een verhoging van de drogestofafbraak in de gisting en van de biogasproductie beoogd. Naast een verhoging van de energieproductie uit biogas wordt een verlaging van de hoeveelheid af te zetten slib bereikt.

  15. Bioavailability of ginsenosides from white and red ginsengs in the simulated digestion model. (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ok; Cha, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Eun Ha; Kim, Sang Min; Choi, Sang Won; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Um, Byung-Hun


    This study aims to investigate the bioavailability of ginsenosides during simulated digestion of white (WG) and red (RG) ginseng powders. Stability, bioaccessibility, and permeability of ginsenosides present in WG and RG were studied in a Caco-2 cell culture model coupled with oral, gastric, and small intestinal simulated digestion. Most ginsenosides in WG and RG were stable (>90%) during the simulated digestion. Bioaccessibilities of total ginsenosides during in vitro digestion of WG and RG were similar at approximately 85%. However, the bioaccessibility of protopanaxatriol type ginsenosides in the early food phase was greater than that of the protopanaxadiol type. The less polar RG ginsenosides were released later following the jejunum phase. Ginsenosides had low permeability (digestion and that ginsenosides are poorly absorbed in humans.

  16. Biogas production from crops and organic wastes. 2. Results of continuous digestion tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D.J.; Bogue, M.J.; Badger, D.M.


    Measurements were made of biogas yields from anaerobic digestion of various crops and organic wastes in 20-litre continuous digesters at 35 degrees C and at various loading rates and retention times. With a loading rate of 2.5 kg TS/cubic m digester/day and a retention time of 20 days, the mean volumes of biogas (in litres) and methane contents (% methane) obtained from each kilogram of TS added to the digester were as follows: banana (fruit plus stem) 938(53), potato waste (peelings plus rejects 820(50), meat processing waste (minced paunch contents, intestines, hearts, and lungs) 603(59), kale (whole plant) 545(53), pasture grass (ryegrass plus clover) 498(56), pressed lucerne (residue after extraction of protein) 487(63), oats 476(54), lucerne 460(56), poultry manure 439(57), maize 406(57), synthetic garbage (minced paper, food scraps, and garden rubbish) 383(48), ground barley straw 285(54), newspaper 243(52), and chopped ryegrass straw 177(62). Biogas yields per kilogram of total solids decreased as the loading rate increased. Continuous digestion was more stable than batch digestion, but biogas yields obtained by both methods were very similar. Highly digestible materials could be continuously digested, whereas they could not be batch digested. The high biogas yields obtained from digestion of banana and potato wastes resulted from almost complete destruction of volatile solids and represented respectively 99% and 95% conversion of the energy in the original material into methane. Biogas yields from continuous digestion were closely related to the proportion of soluble cell contents in the respective materials. 24 references.

  17. Effects of cryoprotectants on the viability and activity of freeze dried recombinant yeasts as novel oral drug delivery systems assessed by an artificial digestive system. (United States)

    Blanquet, Stéphanie; Garrait, Ghislain; Beyssac, Erick; Perrier, Céline; Denis, Sylvain; Hébrard, Géraldine; Alric, Monique


    The aim of this study was to investigate, in a gastric-small intestinal system TIM-1, the effect of cryoprotectants on the survival of freeze-dried Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the heterologous P450 73A1 and their ability to convert trans-cinnamic acid into p-coumaric acid. Yeasts were lyophilized in suspensions of trehalose, maltose, lactose, or a milk proteins/trehalose mix. Freeze-dried or native yeasts and trans-cinnamic acid were introduced simultaneously into TIM-1 at the beginning of digestion. Yeast survival rate was evaluated by cell counting in the ileal effluents. P450 73A1 activity was followed by HPLC assay of p-coumaric acid. Freeze-dried yeasts showed high tolerance to digestive conditions. Nevertheless, their survival rate was lower than that of non-dried cells (around 80% whatever the protective agent vs. 96%). The ability of recombinant freeze-dried S. cerevisiae to perform a bioconversion reaction in the digestive tract was shown with all the protectants. The highest trans-cinnamic acid conversion rate (24 vs. 41% for native yeasts) was obtained with the milk proteins/trehalose mix. These results show that freeze-drying might be considered for the pharmaceutical formulation of new drug delivery systems based on orally administered recombinant yeasts and that TIM-1 could be a helpful tool for the pre-screening of oral dosage forms.

  18. G-lignin and hemicellulosic monosaccharides distinctively affect biomass digestibility in rapeseed. (United States)

    Pei, Yanjie; Li, Yuyang; Zhang, Youbing; Yu, Changbing; Fu, Tingdong; Zou, Jun; Tu, Yuanyuan; Peng, Liangcai; Chen, Peng


    In this study, total 19 straw samples from four Brassica species were determined with a diverse cell wall composition and varied biomass enzymatic digestibility under sulfuric acid or lime pretreatment. Correlation analysis was then performed to detect effects of cell wall compositions and wall polymer features (cellulose crystallinity, hemicellulosic monosaccharides and lignin monomers) on rapeseeds biomass digestibility. As a result, coniferyl alcohol (G-lignin) showed a strongly negative effect on biomass saccharification, whereas hemicellulosic monosaccharides (fucose, galactose, arabinose and rhamnose) were positive factors on lignocellulose digestions. Notably, chemical analyses of four typical pairs of samples indicated that hemicellulosic monosaccharides and G-lignin may coordinately influence biomass digestibility in rapeseeds. In addition, Brassica napus with lower lignin content exhibited more efficiency on both biomass enzymatic saccharification and ethanol production, compared with Brassica junjea. Hence, this study has at first time provided a genetic strategy on cell wall modification towards bioenergy rapeseed breeding.

  19. Influence of kiwifruit on protein digestion. (United States)

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Boland, Mike


    Green kiwifruit consumption has long been thought to assist in the digestion of food proteins due to the presence of the proteolytic enzyme actinidin. This chapter reviews the recent findings of both in vitro and in vivo studies on the effect of green kiwifruit (which contain the enzyme actinidin) on the gastro- and small-intestinal digestion of a range of common food proteins and protein-rich foods including milk, meat, fish, eggs, legumes, and cereal proteins. Clear evidence is provided that green kiwifruit, and the enzyme actinidin itself, can provide enhanced upper-tract digestion (particularly gastric) of a variety of food proteins, which lends support to a role for dietary kiwifruit as a digestive aid. Kiwifruit influences the digestion patterns of food proteins to varying extents. For some protein sources, digestion in the presence of green kiwifruit resulted in a substantially greater digestion of intact protein, and different peptide patterns were produced compared with those seen after digestion with mammalian digestive enzymes alone. Kiwifruit extract alone (in the absence of other digestive enzymes) has been observed to be capable of digesting some proteins present in foods, particularly those in yoghurt, cheese, fish, and raw eggs. An in vivo (pig) study including a positive control of added actinidin and a negative control where the actinidin in green kiwifruit had been inactivated showed conclusively that actinidin is responsible for the enhanced gastric hydrolysis of food proteins.

  20. A meta-analysis of feed digestion in dairy cows. 1. The effects of forage and concentrate factors on total diet digestibility. (United States)

    Nousiainen, J; Rinne, M; Huhtanen, P


    quadratically improved OMD(p) in cows, with the response being mostly due to improved NDF digestibility. Replacement of starchy concentrates with fibrous by-products slightly decreased OMD(p) but tended to improve NDF digestibility. The true digestibility of cell solubles (OM - NDF) estimated by the Lucas test both from all data and from the data subsets was not significantly different from 1.00, suggesting that responses in OMD(p) of dairy cows are mediated through changes in the concentration and digestibility of NDF.

  1. Digestive manifestations of parathyroid disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bassam Abboud; Ronald Daher; Joe Boujaoude


    The parathyroid glands are the main regulator of plasma calcium and have a direct influence on the digestive tract. Parathyroid disturbances often result in unknown long-standing symptoms. The main manifestation of hypoparathyroidism is steatorrhea due to a deficit in exocrine pancreas secretion. The association with celiac sprue may contribute to malabsorption. Hyperparathyroidism causes smooth-muscle atony, with upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, heartburn and constipation. Hyperparathyroidism and peptic ulcer were strongly linked before the advent of proton pump inhibitors. Nowadays, this association remains likely only in the particular context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1/Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. In contrast to chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis due to primary hyperparathyroidism is one of the most studied topics. The causative effect of high calcium level is confirmed and the distinction from secondary hyperparathyroidism is mandatory. The digestive manifestations of parathyroid malfunction are often overlooked and serum calcium level must be included in the routine workup for abdominal symptoms.

  2. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders]. (United States)

    Cozon, G J N


    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption.

  3. Anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill wastewater and sludge. (United States)

    Meyer, Torsten; Edwards, Elizabeth A


    Pulp and paper mills generate large amounts of waste organic matter that may be converted to renewable energy in form of methane. The anaerobic treatment of mill wastewater is widely accepted however, usually only applied to few selected streams. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates in full-scale reactors range between 30 and 90%, and methane yields are 0.30-0.40 m(3) kg(-1) COD removed. Highest COD removal rates are achieved with condensate streams from chemical pulping (75-90%) and paper mill effluents (60-80%). Numerous laboratory and pilot-scale studies have shown that, contrary to common perception, most other mill effluents are also to some extent anaerobically treatable. Even for difficult-to-digest streams such as bleaching effluents COD removal rates range between 15 and 90%, depending on the extent of dilution prior to anaerobic treatment, and the applied experimental setting. Co-digestion of different streams containing diverse substrate can level out and diminish toxicity, and may lead to a more robust microbial community. Furthermore, the microbial population has the ability to become acclimated and adapted to adverse conditions. Stress situations such as toxic shock loads or temporary organic overloading may be tolerated by an adapted community, whereas they could lead to process disturbance with an un-adapted community. Therefore, anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing elevated levels of inhibitors or toxicants should be initiated by an acclimation/adaptation period that can last between a few weeks and several months. In order to gain more insight into the underlying processes of microbial acclimation/adaptation and co-digestion, future research should focus on the relationship between wastewater composition, reactor operation and microbial community dynamics. The potential for engineering and managing the microbial resource is still largely untapped. Unlike in wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of mill biosludge (waste activated

  4. Hydrolytic activity of alpha-amylase in anaerobic digested sludge. (United States)

    Higuchi, Y; Ohashi, A; Imachi, H; Harada, H


    Hydrolysis is usually considered to be a rate-limiting step in anaerobic digestion. For improving anaerobic solid waste treatments, it is essential to elucidate the mechanism of hydrolysis. In this study, alpha-amylase, one of the hydrolytic enzymes, was investigated for the elucidation of more precise mechanism of hydrolysis. Alpha-amylase activity of solid starch-degrading bacteria (SDB) was estimated through batch experiments with several different substrates and with distinction between cell-bound and cell-free alpha-amylase. Monitoring of newly isolated strains of SDB was done by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results indicated that cell-bound alpha-amylase is chiefly responsible for the hydrolysis in the digested sludge, providing very useful information that the contact between microbial cells and solids is significantly important. The activity of alpha-amylase of the digested sludge remained quite low when not required, but increased as they recognized appropriate substrates. Several-fold higher activity was obtained for starch or maltose as compared to glucose only.

  5. Biomedical Science, Unit II: Nutrition in Health and Medicine. Digestion of Foods; Organic Chemistry of Nutrients; Energy and Cell Respiration; The Optimal Diet; Foodborne Diseases; Food Technology; Dental Science and Nutrition. Instructor's Manual. Revised Version. 1975. (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This collection of lessons deals with nutrition in health and medicine and specifically the digestive system and its functions. The primary objective of this collection of lessons is to provide information on what constitutes good nutrition. Among the problems treated in these lessons are heart disease, peptic ulcer, hepatitis, vitamin deficiency…

  6. Comparison of the Digestibility of the Major Peanut Allergens in Thermally Processed Peanuts and in Pure Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila J. Maleki


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the boiling or frying of peanuts leads to less allergenic products than roasting. Here, we have compared the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying or roasting and in purified form. The soluble peanut extracts and the purified allergens were digested with either trypsin or pepsin and analyzed by gel electrophoresis and western blot. T-cell proliferation was measured for the purified allergens. In most cases, boiled and raw peanut proteins were similarly digestible, but the Ara h 1 protein in the boiled extracts was more resistant to digestion. Most proteins from fried and roasted peanuts were more resistant to digestion than in raw and boiled samples, and more IgE binding fragments survived digestion. High-molecular-weight fragments of Ara h1 were resistant to digestion in fried and roasted samples. Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 purified from roasted peanuts were the most resistant to digestion, but differed in their ability to stimulate T-cells. The differences in digestibility and IgE binding properties of the major allergens in roasted, fried and boiled peanuts may not explain the difference between the prevalence of peanut allergy in different countries that consume peanut following these varied processing methods.

  7. Comparison of the Digestibility of the Major Peanut Allergens in Thermally Processed Peanuts and in Pure Form. (United States)

    Maleki, Soheila J; Schmitt, David A; Galeano, Maria; Hurlburt, Barry K


    It has been suggested that the boiling or frying of peanuts leads to less allergenic products than roasting. Here, we have compared the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying or roasting and in purified form. The soluble peanut extracts and the purified allergens were digested with either trypsin or pepsin and analyzed by gel electrophoresis and western blot. T-cell proliferation was measured for the purified allergens. In most cases, boiled and raw peanut proteins were similarly digestible, but the Ara h 1 protein in the boiled extracts was more resistant to digestion. Most proteins from fried and roasted peanuts were more resistant to digestion than in raw and boiled samples, and more IgE binding fragments survived digestion. High-molecular-weight fragments of Ara h1 were resistant to digestion in fried and roasted samples. Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 purified from roasted peanuts were the most resistant to digestion, but differed in their ability to stimulate T-cells. The differences in digestibility and IgE binding properties of the major allergens in roasted, fried and boiled peanuts may not explain the difference between the prevalence of peanut allergy in different countries that consume peanut following these varied processing methods.

  8. Rising the exploitation of substrates by thermal digestate processing; Steigerung der Substratausnutzung durch thermische Gaerrestbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seick, Ingolf; Gebhardt, Sebastian [Hochschule Magdeburg-Stendal (Germany). Fachbereich Wasser- und Kreislaufwirtschaft


    The paper introduces a new process for biogas plants to increase the utilization of substrate and to reduce the required feeding. By a thermal treatment of a partial flow of the digestate the gas yield is increased considerably, whereupon a recirculation is carried out into the fermentation process. The digestate taken from the secondary fermenter is separated to a liquid and a solid phase. The solid phase is treated thermally and led back into the main fermenter discontinuously. The discharge of a subset of the untreated digestate shall avoid accumulation of inert fractions. Batch fermentation tests with separated digestate of a typical biogas plant have shown an increase of the VS-specific gas and methane yields, e.g. of approx. 90% after a 10-minute treatment in a lab-scale high pressure autoclave at 170 C and 8 bar. Simulations point out that a long-term use of the process in biogas plants can be possible effectively. (orig.)

  9. [NADPH-diaphorase activity in digestive system of gastropod molluscs Achatina fulica and Littorina littorea]. (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V; Markosova, T G


    Localization and peculiarities of NO-ergic elements were studied for he first time throughout the entire length of digestive tract of the marine gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica (Prosobranchia) and the terrestrial molusc Littorina littorea (Pulmonata) by using histochemical method of detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). NO-ergic cells and fibers were revealed in all parts of the mollusc digestive tract beginning from pharynx. An intensive NADPHd activity was found in many intraepithelial cells of the open type and in their processes in intra- and subepithelial nerve plexuses, single subepithelial neurons, granular connective tissue cells, and numerous nerve fibers among muscle elements of he digestive tract wall as well as in nerves innervating the tract. NADPHd was also present in receptor cells of he oral area and in the central A. fulica ganglia participating in innervation of the digestive tract. The digestive tract NO-ergic system ofA. fulica has a more complex organization that that of L. littorea. In the A. fulica pharynx, stomach, and midgut, directly beneath epithelium, there is revealed a complex system of glomerular structures formed by thin NADPHd-positive nerve fibers coming from the side of epithelium. More superficially under the main groups of muscle elements, small agglomerations of NADPHd-positive neurons are seen, which could be considered as primitive, non-formed microganglia. Peculiarities of distribution and a possible functional role of NO-ergic elements in the digestive tract of molluscs are discussed as compared with other invertebrate and vertebrate animals.

  10. Evaluation of the pepsin digestibility assay for predicting amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meals. (United States)

    Davis, T M; Parsons, C M; Utterback, P L; Kirstein, D


    Sixteen meat and bone meal (MBM) samples were obtained and selected from various company plants to provide a wide range in pepsin nitrogen digestibility values. Pepsin digestibility was determined using either 0.02 or 0.002% pepsin. Amino acid (AA) digestibility of the 16 MBM samples was then determined using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. The 0.02% pepsin digestibility values were numerically higher than the 0.002% pepsin values. The values varied from 77 to 93% for 0.02% pepsin and from 67 to 91% for 0.002% pepsin. The rooster AA digestibility results showed a wide range of values among MBM samples mostly due to the 4 samples having lowest and highest AA digestibility. A precision-fed broiler chick ileal AA digestibility assay confirmed that there were large differences in AA digestibility among the MBM samples having the lowest and highest rooster digestibility values. Correlation analyses between pepsin and AA digestibility values showed that the correlation values (r) were highly significant (P MBM samples were included in the analysis. However, when the MBM samples with the 2 lowest and the 2 highest rooster digestibility values were not included in the correlation analyses, the correlation coefficient values (r) were generally very low and not significant (P > 0.05). The results indicated that the pepsin nitrogen digestibility assay is only useful for detecting large differences in AA digestibility among MBM. There also was no advantage for using 0.02 versus 0.002% pepsin.

  11. Anomalous Power Law Dispersions in ac Conductivity and Permittivity Shown to be Characteristics of Microstructural Electrical Networks (United States)

    Almond, D. P.; Bowen, C. R.


    The frequency dependent ac conductivity and permittivity of porous lead zirconate titanate ceramic with the pore volume filled with water are shown to match the simulated electrical response of a large network of randomly positioned resistors and capacitors. Anomalous power law dispersions in conductivity and permittivity are shown to be an electrical response characteristic of the microstructural network formed by the porous lead zirconate titanate pore structure. The anomalous power law dispersions of a wide range of materials are also suggested to be microstructural network characteristics.

  12. Estimation of the optimum ratio of standardized ileal digestible isoleucine to lysine for eight- to twenty-five-kilogram pigs in diets containing spray-dried blood cells or corn gluten feed as a protein source. (United States)

    Wiltafsky, M K; Bartelt, J; Relandeau, C; Roth, F X


    Two growth assays and 1 N balance trial were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Ile:Lys ratio in 8- to 25-kg pigs using spray-dried blood cells or corn gluten feed as a protein source. In Exp. 1, 48 individually penned pigs (initial BW = 7.7 kg) were used in a 6-point SID Ile titration study (analyzed SID Ile of 0.36, 0.43, 0.50, 0.57, 0.64, and 0.72%) by addition of graded levels of L-Ile. The basal diet contained 1.00% SID Lys, 18.4% CP, and 13.6 MJ of ME/kg. Diets were based on wheat, barley, corn, and 7.5% spray-dried blood cells as a protein source. Dietary SID Leu and Val levels were 1.61 and 1.02%, respectively. For the 35-d period, ADG, ADFI, and G:F increased linearly (P < 0.01) and quadratically (P < 0.04) with increasing SID Ile:Lys. Estimates of optimal SID Ile:Lys ratios were 59% for ADG and ADFI. In Exp. 2, 24 N balances were conducted using the Exp. 1 diets (12 pigs; individually penned; average BW = 11.5 kg). Pigs were fed 3 times daily with an amount equal to 1.0 MJ of ME/kg of BW(0.75). Preparation and collection periods (7 d each) were repeated after rearranging the animals to treatments. Increasing the dietary SID Ile:Lys ratio increased N retention linearly (P < 0.01), and N utilization linearly (P < 0.01) and quadratically (P < 0.01). An optimal SID Ile:Lys ratio of 54% was estimated for N retention. In Exp. 3, 48 individually penned pigs (initial BW = 8.0 kg) were fed grain-based diets in a 6-point SID Ile titration (analyzed SID Ile of 0.35, 0.41, 0.49, 0.56, 0.62, and 0.69%). Dietary SID Ile was increased by graded addition of L-Ile. The basal diet contained 0.97% SID Lys, 16.8% CP, and 13.6 MJ of ME/kg. In contrast to Exp. 1 and 2, spray-dried blood cells were excluded and corn gluten feed was used as a protein source. Dietary SID Leu and Val were set to 1.05 and 0.66%. For the 42-d period, ADG, ADFI, and G:F increased linearly (P < 0.01) and quadratically (P < 0.01) with increasing SID Ile:Lys. Estimated

  13. Birth of the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation


    Beck, Ivan T.


    The Canadian Digestive Disease Foundation, renamed the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation -- Fondation canadienne pour la promotion de la santé digestive -- in December 2001, is the culmination of ongoing efforts by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology to establish an independent charitable organization. In February 2001, it was officially endorsed as the Foundation for the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. The initial efforts to establish this Foundation, led by Dr Richa...

  14. The Effect of the Wings of Single Engine Airplanes on Propulsive Efficiency as Shown by Full Scale Wind Tunnel Tests (United States)

    Weick, Fred E; Wood, Donald H


    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of the wings on propulsive efficiency. The wings are shown to cause a reduction of 1 percent to 3 percent in propulsive efficiency, which is about the same for monoplane as well as biplane wings.

  15. Digestive oncologist in the gastroenterology training curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris Jacob Johan Mulder; Marc Peeters; Annemieke Cats; Anna Dahele; Jochim Terhaar sive Droste


    Until the late 1980s, gastroenterology (GE) was consid-ered a subspecialty of Internal Medicine. Today, GE also incorporates Hepatology. However, Digestive Oncology training is poorly defined in the Hepatogastroenterology (HGE)-curriculum. Therefore, a Digestive Oncology cur-riculum should be developed and this document might be a starting point for such a curriculum. HGE-specialists are increasingly resisting the paradigm in which they play only a diagnostic and technical role in the manage-ment of digestive tumors. We suggest minimum end-points in the standard HGE-curriculum for oncology, and recommend a focus year in the Netherlands for Diges-tive Oncology in the HGE-curriculum. To produce well-trained digestive oncologists, an advanced Digestive Oncology training program with specific qualifications in Digestive Oncology (2 years) has been developed. The schedule in Belgium includes a period of at least 6 mo to be spent in a medical oncology department. The goal of these programs remains the production of well-trained digestive oncologists. HGE specialists are part of the multidisciplinary oncological teams, and some have been administering chemotherapy in their countries for years. In this article, we provide a road map for the organiza-tion of a proper training in Digestive Oncology. We hope that the World Gastroenterology Organisation and other (inter)national societies will support the necessary certi-fications for this specific training in the HGE-curriculum.

  16. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control. (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  17. Short-term effect of dietary yeast nucleotide supplementation on small intestinal enzyme activities, bacterial populations and metabolites and ileal nutrient digestibilities in newly weaned pigs. (United States)

    Sauer, N; Eklund, M; Roth, S; Rink, F; Jezierny, D; Bauer, E; Mosenthin, R


    In previous studies, dietary nucleotides have been shown to improve performance in single-stomached animals by promoting the renewal of small intestine epithelial cells and by influencing the activity and composition of the microbial community in the digestive tract. The present experiment was carried out with 12 barrows weaned at the age of 18 days and fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. To determine short-term effects of dietary yeast nucleotides, the piglets received a grain-soybean meal-based basal diet with or without supplementation of 1 g/kg of a dried yeast product containing free nucleotides. Dietary supplementation with yeast did not affect bacterial numbers in the ileum as well as ileal concentrations of individual short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), total SCFA and total lactic acid (p > 0.05). Moreover, there was no effect of supplemental yeast nucleotides on ileal α-amylase, leucine amino peptidase, maltase and lactase activities (p > 0.05), as well as on ileal dry matter, crude protein and crude fibre digestibilities (p > 0.05). In conclusion, short-term supplementation with dietary yeast nucleotides did not affect microbial metabolite concentrations, bacterial numbers and enzyme activities in the ileal digesta as well as ileal nutrient digestibilities of newly weaned pigs.

  18. [Digestive tract, obesity and cancer]. (United States)

    Actis, Andrea; Outomuro, Delia


    Current statistics show that overweight and obesity are seriously increasing, mainly in occidental countries with high industrialization rate. Simultaneously sedentarism has increased as a consequence of technological comforts that the dominant market economy offers. Obesity, sedentarism, excessive adiposity, especially if centrally distributed, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia interact for cancer development. Visceral adipose tissue is considerate as an endocrine organ which produces and liberates cytokines and inflammatory peptides with hormonal and metabolic signals. Although there are several obesity-related types of cancer, in this paper we focus on digestive system tumors.

  19. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;


    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...... requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader...

  20. Digest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To Welcome the Age of Shale Oil When shale oil with its huge reserves and successful development and utilization became the focus of attention, after the amazing joy lit the human desire to unconventional energy. Some experts predicted that shale oil would most likely be to replace oil and gas products. More people shouted that shale oil's presence would make the world back to the age of lower oil prices. In fact, since the shale oil went into people's vision, disputes about the development and utilization of shale oil were never stopped. The optimistic was expected, the pessimistic was doubtful. However, with the successful developments of shale oil and gas in Europe, America and China, some unconventional energy were rapidly changing the world energy pattern such as shale oil and gas, the dominant position of conventional oil and gas would be faced with great challenges. Authoritative experts predicted that the world reserves of shale oil and gas could reach several times of oil. The optimistic forecast made some people suffered fromenergy shortage catch sight of the dawn - the age of shale oil was coming.

  1. Effect of Acylglycerol Composition and Fatty Acyl Chain Length on Lipid Digestion in pH-Stat Digestion Model and Simulated In Vitro Digestion Model. (United States)

    Qi, Jin F; Jia, Cai H; Shin, Jung A; Woo, Jeong M; Wang, Xiang Y; Park, Jong T; Hong, Soon T; Lee, K-T


    In this study, a pH-stat digestion model and a simulated in vitro digestion model were employed to evaluate the digestion degree of lipids depending on different acylglycerols and acyl chain length (that is, diacylglycerol [DAG] compared with soybean oil representing long-chain triacylglycerol compared with medium-chain triacylglycerol [MCT]). In the pH-stat digestion model, differences were observed among the digestion degrees of 3 oils using digestion rate (k), digestion half-time (t1/2 ), and digestion extent (Φmax). The results showed the digestion rate order was MCT > soybean oil > DAG. Accordingly, the order of digestion half-times was MCT digestion model, digestion rates (k') and digestion half-times (t'1/2 ) were also obtained and the results showed a digestion rate order of MCT (k' = 0.068 min(-1) ) > soybean oil (k' = 0.037 min(-1) ) > DAG (k' = 0.024 min(-1) ). Consequently, the order of digestion half-times was MCT (t'1/2 = 10.20 min) digested faster than soybean oil, and that soybean oil was digested faster than DAG.

  2. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.;


    pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixtureof swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1...... (ADM1) was fitted to a manure-fed, CSTR-type digester and validated by simulating the performance of a second reactor digesting manure. It was shown that disintegration and hydrolysis of the solid matter of manure was such a slow process that the organic particulate matter did not significantly...

  3. Yeast Surface Display of Two Proteins Previously Shown to Be Protective Against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV in Shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorawit Ananphongmanee

    Full Text Available Cell surface display using the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris has been extensively developed for application in bioindustrial processes. Due to the rigid structure of their cell walls, a number of proteins have been successfully displayed on their cell surfaces. It was previously reported that the viral binding protein Rab7 from the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (PmRab7 and its binding partner envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV could independently protect shrimp against WSSV infection. Thus, we aimed to display these two proteins independently on the cell surfaces of 2 yeast clones with the ultimate goal of using a mixture of the two clones as an orally deliverable, antiviral agent to protect shrimp against WSSV infection. PmRab7 and VP28 were modified by N-terminal tagging to the C-terminal half of S. cerevisiae α-agglutinin. DNA fragments, harboring fused-gene expression cassettes under control of an alcohol oxidase I (AOX1 promoter were constructed and used to transform the yeast cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to both proteins demonstrated that mutated PmRab7 (mPmRab7 and partial VP28 (pVP28 were localized on the cell surfaces of the respective clones, and fluorescence intensity for each was significantly higher than that of control cells by flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA using cells displaying mPmRab7 or pVP28 revealed that the binding of specific antibodies for each was dose-dependent, and could be saturated. In addition, the binding of mPmRab7-expressing cells with free VP28, and vice versa was dose dependent. Binding between the two surface-expressed proteins was confirmed by an assay showing agglutination between cells expressing complementary mPmRab7 and pVP28. In summary, our genetically engineered P. pastoris can display biologically active mPmRab7 and pVP28 and is now ready for evaluation of efficacy in protecting shrimp against

  4. Yeast Surface Display of Two Proteins Previously Shown to Be Protective Against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Shrimp. (United States)

    Ananphongmanee, Vorawit; Srisala, Jiraporn; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Boonchird, Chuenchit


    Cell surface display using the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris has been extensively developed for application in bioindustrial processes. Due to the rigid structure of their cell walls, a number of proteins have been successfully displayed on their cell surfaces. It was previously reported that the viral binding protein Rab7 from the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (PmRab7) and its binding partner envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) could independently protect shrimp against WSSV infection. Thus, we aimed to display these two proteins independently on the cell surfaces of 2 yeast clones with the ultimate goal of using a mixture of the two clones as an orally deliverable, antiviral agent to protect shrimp against WSSV infection. PmRab7 and VP28 were modified by N-terminal tagging to the C-terminal half of S. cerevisiae α-agglutinin. DNA fragments, harboring fused-gene expression cassettes under control of an alcohol oxidase I (AOX1) promoter were constructed and used to transform the yeast cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to both proteins demonstrated that mutated PmRab7 (mPmRab7) and partial VP28 (pVP28) were localized on the cell surfaces of the respective clones, and fluorescence intensity for each was significantly higher than that of control cells by flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) using cells displaying mPmRab7 or pVP28 revealed that the binding of specific antibodies for each was dose-dependent, and could be saturated. In addition, the binding of mPmRab7-expressing cells with free VP28, and vice versa was dose dependent. Binding between the two surface-expressed proteins was confirmed by an assay showing agglutination between cells expressing complementary mPmRab7 and pVP28. In summary, our genetically engineered P. pastoris can display biologically active mPmRab7 and pVP28 and is now ready for evaluation of efficacy in protecting shrimp against WSSV by oral

  5. Status on Science and Application of Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    Thermophilic anaerobic processes are often regarded as less stable than mesophilic processes. In the paper this postulate is examined and disproved based on real operational data from of full-scale mesophilic and thermophilic biogas plants. The start-up produce for the thermophilic plants was......, however, found to be crucial for determining the period needed before full capacity of the thermophilic plant could be achived. The importance of balanced loading, determined by the concentration of active biomass, is discussed. Finally, data will be shown on the optimal and maximal temperature...... for thermophilic digestion along with the implications for the methanogenic bacteria active at these temperatures....

  6. La Disciplina Positiva (Positive Discipline). ERIC Digest. (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. The digest explains 12 methods of disciplining children that promote children's self-worth. These methods are: (1) showing children that the reasons for their actions are understood; (2) stating reasons; (3)…

  7. 12.DIGESTIVE TRACT 12.1.Esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    920110 The clinical study on gastroeso-phageal reflux.LUO Jinyan (罗金燕),et al.Digest Funct Lab,2nd Affil Hosp,Xian Med Univ.Chin J Digest 1991; 11(3): 137-140.Fifty-two patients with symptomatic gas-troesophageal reflux (GER) were studied withprolonged intraesopnageal pH monitoring,scin-

  8. Mesophylic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.


    IN GENERALIn this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).For this purpose were researched:1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestio

  9. Low temperature anaerobic digestion of mixtures of llama, cow and sheep manure for improved methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Rene [IIDEPROQ, UMSA, Plaza del Obelisco 1175, La Paz (Bolivia)]|[Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Liden, Gunnar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)


    Biogas production in anaerobic digestion in farm-scale units is typically performed under mesophilic conditions when used for producing domestic fuel and stabilizing animal waste for the use of digested manure as a fertilizer. Previous studies on the digestion of llama and cow manure have shown the feasibility of producing biogas under altiplano conditions (low pressure and low temperature) and of llama manure as a promising feedstock. The present study concerns the utilization of various mixtures of feedstocks from the Bolivian altiplano under low temperature conditions (18-25 C). Laboratory scale experiments were performed on the digestion of mixtures of llama, sheep and cow manure in a semi-continuous process using ten 2-L stainless steel digesters to determine the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) and the feed composition. The semi-continuous operation of mixture of llama-cow-sheep manure proved to be a reliable system, which could be operated with good stability. The results suggest that in a system digesting a mixture of llama-cow-sheep manure at low temperature (18-25 C) the maximum OLR value is between 4 and 6 kg VS m{sup 3} d{sup -1}. The methane yields obtained in the mixture experiments were in the range 0.07-0.14 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} VS added, with a methane concentration in the gas of between 47 and 55%. (author)

  10. Molecular physiology of vesicular glutamate transporters in the digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Li; Fayez K. Ghishan; Liqun Bai


    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Packaging and storage of glutamate into glutamatergic neuronal vesicles require ATP-dependent vesicular glutamate uptake systems, which utilize the electrochemical proton gradient as a driving force. Three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) have been recently identified from neuronal tissue where they play a key role to maintain the vesicular glutamate level. Recently, it has been demonstrated that glutamate signaling is also functional in peripheral neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, and occurs in sites of pituitary, adrenal, pineal glands, bone, GI tract, pancreas,skin, and testis. The glutamate receptors and VGLUTs in digestivesystem have been found in both neuronal and endocrinal cells. The glutamate signaling in the digestive system may have significant relevance to diabetes and GI tract motility disorders. This review will focus on the most recent update of molecular physiology of digestive VGLUTs.

  11. Microbial electrochemical monitoring of volatile fatty acids during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng


    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration is known as an important indicator to control and optimize anaerobic digestion (AD) process. In this study, an innovative VFA biosensor was developed based on the principle of a microbial desalination cell. The correlation between current densities and VFA...... concentrations was firstly evaluated with synthetic digestate. Two linear relationships were observed between current densities and VFA levels from 1 to 30 mM (0.04 to 8.50 mA/m2, R2=0.97) and then from 30 to 200 mM (8.50 to 10.80 mA/m2, R2=0.95). The detection range was much broader than that of other existing...... and reliable measurement of VFA levels during AD and other anaerobic processes....

  12. Antimicrobial treatment reduces intestinal microflora and improves protein digestive capacity without changes in villous structure in weanling pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas; Sørensen, Kristina U.; Hedemann, Mette S.;


    -old controls In 8; P amylase, trypsin and small intestinal...... that the beneficial effects of antimicrobials are mediated not only through reduction in intestinal bacteria] load, but also through a stimulation of protein digestive function and goblet cell density....

  13. Capitalizando en los cursos pequenos (Capitalizing on Small Class Size). ERIC Digest. (United States)

    O'Connell, Jessica; Smith, Stuart C.

    This digest in Spanish examines school districts' efforts to reap the greatest benefit from smaller classes. Although the report discusses teaching strategies that are most effective in small classes, research has shown that teachers do not significantly change their teaching practices when they move from larger to smaller classes. Although…

  14. Use of selective digestive tract decontamination in european intensive cares : The ifs and whys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, D. Reis; Citerio, G.; Perner, A.; Dimopoulos, G.; Torres, A.; Hoes, A.; Beale, R.; De Smet, A. M.; Kesecioglu, J.


    Background. Several studies have shown that the use of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) reduces mortality. However, fear for increasing multidrug resistance might prevent wide acceptance. A survey was performed among the units registered in the European Registry for Intensive Care (ER

  15. Use of selective digestive tract decontamination in European intensive cares : the ifs and whys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, D. Reis; Citerio, G.; Perner, A.; Dimopoulos, G.; Torres, A.; Hoes, A.; Beale, R.; De Smet, A. M.; Kesecioglu, J.


    Background. Several studies have shown that the use of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) reduces mortality. However, fear for increasing multidrug resistance might prevent wide acceptance. A survey was performed among the units registered in the European Registry for Intensive Care (ER

  16. Probiotics versus antibiotic decontamination of the digestive tract: infection and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Oudhuis (Guy); D.C. Bergmans (Tom); T. Dormans (Tom); J-H. Zwaveling (Jan-Harm); A.G. Kessels (Alphons); M.H. Prins (Martin); E.E. Stobberingh (Ellen); A. Verbon (Annelies)


    textabstractPurpose: Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) has been shown to decrease the infection rate and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs); Lactobacillus plantarum 299/299v plus fibre (LAB) has been used for infection prevention and does not harbour the potential disadvan

  17. In vitro lipid digestion of chitin nanocrystal stabilized o/w emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzoumaki, M.V.; Moschakis, T.; Scholten, E.; Biliaderis, C.G.


    Chitin nanocrystals (ChN) have been shown to form stable Pickering emulsions. These oil-in-water emulsions were compared with conventional milk (whey protein isolate, WPI, and sodium caseinate, SCn) protein-stabilized emulsions in terms of their lipid digestion kinetics using an in vitro enzymatic p

  18. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.


    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process...

  19. Effect of digestion time on anaerobic digestion with high ammonia concentration (United States)

    Oktavitri, Nur Indradewi; Purnobasuki, Hery; Kuncoro, Eko Prasetyo; Purnamasari, Indah; Semma Hadinnata, P.


    Anaerobic digestion was developed to treat high concentration organic compound efficiently in certain Digestion Time (DT). High ammonia concentration could influenced removal organic compound in digestion. This bench scale study investigated the effect of digestion time on anaerobic batch reactor with high ammonia concentration. Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) concentration was adjusted 4000 and 5000 mg/1, Digestion time was ranged from 0-26 d, operation temperature was ranged from 28-29°C, inoculum was collected from slaughter house sludge. The degradation of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) correlated with digestion time. The concentration of TAN from synthetic wastewater contain 5000 mg/1 of TAN more fluctuated than those use 4000 mg/1 of TAN. However, the biogas production from wastewater contained 4000 mg/1 of TAN gradually increased until 24 d of DT. The reactor contain 5000 mg/1 of TAN only growth until 12 d and steady state at over 12 d of digestion time.

  20. Prospects of Anaerobic Digestion Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    As the world's largest developing country, China must face the problem of managing municipal solid waste, and the challenge of organic waste disposal is even more serious. Considering the characteristics of traditional waste disposal technologies and the subsequent secondary pollution, anaerobic digestion has various advantages such as reduction in the land needed for disposal and preservation of environmental quality. In light of the energy crisis, this paper focuses on the potential production of biogas from biowaste through anaerobic digestion processes, the problems incurred by the waste collection system, and the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Use of biogas in a combined heat and power cogeneration system is also discussed. Finally, the advantages of anaerobic digestion technology for the Chinese market are summarized. The anaerobic digestion is suggested to be a promising treating technology for the organic wastes in China.

  1. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed...... to be a general characteristic is resistance to digestion. This is based on studies showing that allergenic dietary proteins in general were more resistant to digestion than dietary proteins with no proven allergenicity, leading to the conclusion, that a correlation between stability to digestion and allergenic...... potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing...

  2. Histological Study on the Digestive System Development of Takifugu rubripes Larvae and Juvenile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The digestive tract of Takifugu rubripes during early life stages was studied with light microscopy. At the beginning of hatching, the digestive tract is represented by a simple and undifferentiated straight tube and does not communicate with the exterior, as the mouth and anus are not open yet. At 2 d after hatching, a constriction between intestine and rectum that will become the intestino-rectal valve is visible. During the endogenous feeding phase, the yolk sac is resorbed and the digestive tract becomes functional and differentiated. The liver and pancreas also become apparent at this time. At onset of exogenous feeding (3 d after hatching), yolk sac resesves are not completely depleted, suggesting a period of mixed nutrition. The digestive tract differentiates fully into buccopharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestine and rectum. At 9 d after hatching, the yolk sac reserves are completely depleted. The most noticeable events occurring from 5 to 17 d after hatching are the transformation of the epithelia type, the differentiation of the pneumatic sac, the epithelial cell, gut convolution, mucosal fold increase, and the growth of liver and pancreas. From 18 to 27 d after hatching, the numbers of intestine folds and mucus cells increase progressively. From then on, morphological changes of digestive features are almost completed. At 27 d after hatching, the morphology and function of digestive system are similar to that of the adult.

  3. Antibiotic therapy and fat digestion and absorption in cystic fibrosis. (United States)

    Lisowska, Aleksandra; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Oracz, Grzegorz; Skorupa, Wojciech; Cofta, Szczepan; Szydłowski, Jarosław; Socha, Jerzy; Walkowiak, Jarosław


    Antibiotic therapy in the cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse model has been shown to result in reduced bacterial load of the intestine and significant body mass gain. The effect was suggested to be linked to the improvement of intestinal digestion and absorption. Therefore, we aimed to assess the influence of routinely applied antibiotic therapy in CF patients on fat assimilation. Twenty-four CF patients aged 6 to 30 years entered the study. Inclusion criteria comprised confirmed exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and bronchopulmonary exacerbation demanding antibiotic therapy. Exclusion criteria comprised: antibiotic therapy six weeks prior to the test, liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, oxygen dependency, the use of systemic corticosteroids. In all enrolled CF subjects, (13)C-labelled mixed triglyceride breath test ((13)C MTG-BT) was performed to assess lipid digestion and absorption, before and after antibiotic therapy. Sixteen subjects were treated intravenously with ceftazidime and amikacin, eight patients orally with ciprofloxacin. Cumulative percentage dose recovery (CPDR) was considered to reflect digestion and absorption of lipids. The values are expressed as means (medians). The values of CPDR before and after antibiotic therapy did not differ in the whole studied group [4.6(3.3) % vs. 5.7(5.3) %, p = 0.100] as well as in the subgroup receiving them intravenously [4.6(3.2) % vs. 5.7(5.3) %, p = 0.327] or in that with oral drug administration [4.6(3.4) % vs. 5.7(5.4) %, p = 0.167]. In conclusion, antibiotic therapy applied routinely in the course of pulmonary exacerbation in CF patients does not seem to result in an improvement of fat digestion and absorption.

  4. Neither retinal nor brain atrophy can be shown in patients with isolated unilateral optic neuritis at the time of presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, Klaus; Sander, Birgit; Tsakiri, Anna;


    BACKGROUND: Acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) may be the earliest manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Atrophy has been shown to be a prominent feature of MS with great impact on disability. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate retinal and brain atrophy and possi......BACKGROUND: Acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) may be the earliest manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Atrophy has been shown to be a prominent feature of MS with great impact on disability. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate retinal and brain atrophy...... and possible associations at the earliest possible stages of MS. METHODS: In a prospective observational cohort study we included 60 untreated patients with monosymptomatic ON and 19 healthy volunteers. Unaffected fellow eyes were examined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and normalized brain volumes...... were calculated based on MRI. Additionally, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded. RESULTS: Neither OCT measurements nor brain volume measures revealed signs of localized or generalized atrophy in patients compared with healthy volunteers. Stratification of patients into high risk based...

  5. Different aggressive behaviours are exaggerated by facing vs. broadside subliminal stimuli shown to socially isolated Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. (United States)

    Halperin, J R; Giri, T; Dunham, D W


    We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the aggressive significance of the subliminal stimuli, we presented socially isolated Betta splendens with subliminal models in either a `facing' posture (used mainly in aggressive contexts), or a `broadside' posture (used in many social contexts). The fish shown the aggressive `facing' subliminal stimuli became more aggressive, while those shown `broadside' stimuli performed more generalized advertisement behaviours. The display posture of the model, which may incorporate specific features relevant to aggression, therefore determined how the subliminal aggressive stimuli altered subsequent aggressiveness. This difference was also persistent. Subliminal stimuli may thus be implicated in the hyper-aggressiveness so often reported after social isolation.

  6. Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology. (United States)

    Brown, C. R.


    Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

  7. Prediction of trace compounds in biogas from anaerobic digestion using the MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Domnanovich, A.M.; Zani, L.; Braun, R.; Holubar, P.


    The outlook to apply the highly energetic biogas from anaerobic digestion into fuel cells will result in a significantly higher electrical efficiency and can contribute to an increase of renewable energy production. The practical bottleneck is the fuel cell poisoning caused by several gaseous trace

  8. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik


    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG...... structure and the species composition are of importance when considering the nutritional effects of a dietary fat. There is good evidence that in addition to its short-term effects in the intestine on absorption of fatty acids the TAG structure also has long-term effects resulting from differences...... in the profile of absorbed fatty acids. Observations on the different atherogenic potential of dietary fats have given us a clear indication of the importance of the TAG structure for absorption of saturated fatty acids. In this context, one may focus on the effects of the structure of dietary fats as such...

  9. A Digest of Nonproliferation Literature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth A


    In preparation for the 2005 US/Russian Weapons Laboratories Directors Meeting, the six laboratories participating in the meeting endeavored to develop a strategy for nonproliferation technology research and development. A literature review was conducted to identify possible areas of technical collaboration and technology opportunities associated with improving nonproliferation associated with the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The issue of multinationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle was also researched. This digest is the compilation of one-page summaries used by management of the three US nuclear weapons laboratories in preparation for strategy development. Where possible, the Web site address of the complete paper is referenced.3 AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to thank Jessica Ruyle, Nancy Orlando-Gay, and Barbara Dry for their research assistance and contributions.4


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaniya Kaosol


    Full Text Available Low biogas production in the frozen seafood wastewater anaerobic digestion is observed due to the low organic and Total Solids (TS contents in the wastewater. In this research the decanter cake will be used in the anaerobic co-digestion process to improve the biogas production rate. The effect of co-digestion and Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT will be investigated using the continuously stirred tank reactors under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production potential of different HRTs and that of wastewater digestion alone. The anaerobic co-digestion is operated in continuous with continuously stirred reactors at HRT of 10, 20 and 30 days. The mechanical stirring units of all reactors are operated automatically. The stirring action occurred continuously during the experiments. The anaerobic co-digestion results show that the anaerobic co-digestion provides higher biogas production rate and higher methane yield than that of the wastewater digestion alone. The optimum HRT of the anaerobic co-digestion is 20 days. This reactor produces 2.88 L day-1, with 64.5% of methane and the maximum methane production rate of 1.87 L day-1 and the methane yield of 0.321 l CH4/g CODremoved. The anaerobic co-digestion of wastewater with decanter cake provides the higher methane yield potential production than that provided by the wastewater digestion alone at the ambient temperature. The best HRT is 20 days for anaerobic co-digestion between the wastewater and decanter cake. The experimental results reveal that HRT and co-digestion are the parameters that can affect the biogas production and methane yield.

  11. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion - II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju


    Full Text Available Standard models describing bio-gasification using anaerobic digestion do not include necessary processes to describe digester dynamics under the conditions of oxygen presence. Limited oxygenation in anaerobic digestion can sometimes be beneficial. The oxygen effects included anaerobic digestion model, ADM 1-Ox, was simulated against experimental data obtained from laboratory scale anaerobic digesters operated under different oxygenation conditions. ADM 1-Ox predictions are generally in good agreement with the trends of the experimental data. ADM 1-Ox simulations suggest the existence of an optimum oxygenation level corresponding to a peak methane yield. The positive impact of oxygenation on methane yield is more pronounced at conditions characterized by low hydrolysis rate coefficients (slowly degradable feed and low biomass concentrations. The optimum oxygenation point moves towards zero when the hydrolysis rate coefficient and the biomass concentration increase. Accordingly, the impact of oxygenation on methane yield can either be positive or negative depending on the digestion system characteristics. The developed ADM 1-Ox model can therefore be a valuable tool for recognizing suitable operating conditions for achieving the maximum benefits from partial aeration in anaerobic digestion.

  12. Hygienization by anaerobic digestion: comparison between evaluation by cultivation and quantitative real-time PCR. (United States)

    Lebuhn, M; Effenberger, M; Garcés, G; Gronauer, A; Wilderer, P A


    In order to assess hygienization by anaerobic digestion, a comparison between evaluation by cultivation and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) including optimized DNA extraction and quantification was carried out for samples from a full-scale fermenter cascade (F1, mesophilic; F2, thermophilic; F3, mesophilic). The system was highly effective in inactivating (pathogenic) viable microorganisms, except for spore-formers. Conventionally performed cultivation underestimated viable organisms particularly in F2 and F3 by a factor of at least 10 as shown by data from extended incubation times, probably due to the rise of sublethally injured (active but not cultivable) cells. Incubation should hence be extended adequately in incubation-based hygiene monitoring of stressed samples, in order to minimize contamination risks. Although results from qPCR and cultivation agreed for the equilibrated compartments, considerably higher qPCR values were obtained for the fermenters. The difference probably corresponded to DNA copies from decayed cells that had not yet been degraded by the residual microbial activity. An extrapolation from qPCR determination to the quantity of viable organisms is hence not justified for samples that had been exposed to lethal stress.

  13. Co-localization hypothesis: A mechanism for the intrapancreatic activation of digestive enzymes during the early phases of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gijs JD van Acker; George Perides; Michael L Steer


    Acute pancreatitis is generally believed to be a disease in which the pancreas is injured by digestive enzymes that it normally produces. Most of the potentially harmful digestive enzymes produced by pancreatic acinar cells are synthesized and secreted as inactive zymogens which are normally activated only upon entry into the duodenum but, during the early stages of acute pancreatitis, those zymogens become prematurely activated within the pancreas and, presumably, that activation occurs within pancreatic acinar cells. The mechanisms responsible for intracellular activation of digestive enzyme zymogens have not been elucidated with certainty but, according to one widely recognized theory (the "co-localization hypothesis"), digestive enzyme zymogens are activated by lysosomal hydrolases when the two types of enzymes become co-localized within the same intracellular compartment. This review focuses on the evidence supporting the validity of the co-localization hypothesis as an explanation for digestive enzyme activation during the early stages of pancreatitis.The findings, summarized in this review, support the conclusion that co-localization of lysosomal hydrolases with digestive enzyme zymogens plays a critical role in permitting the intracellular activation of digestive enzymesthat leads to acinar cell injury and pancreatitis.


    Bronfenbrenner, J J; Schlesinger, M J


    Botulinus toxin resists a degree of acidity equivalent to that of the stomach even when exposed thereto for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. It is less resistant to alkali, however, as shown by the fact that in a medium of weakly alkaline reaction its potency is reduced to less than one-tenth in 24 hours. It is unaffected by peptic and tryptic digestion. Because of its instability in mildly alkaline solutions and resistance to acid, there is reason to believe that the toxin is in the main absorbed from the upper portion of the digestive tract; that is to say, from the stomach and upper duodenum.

  15. Robust regulation of anaerobic digestion processes. (United States)

    Mailleret, L; Bernard, O; Steyer, J P


    This paper deals with the problem of controlling anaerobic digestion processes. A two-step (i.e. acidogenesis-methanization) mass balance model is considered for a 1 m3 fixed bed digester treating industrial wine distillery wastewater. The control law aims at regulating the organic pollution level while avoiding washout of biomass. To this end, a simple output feedback controller is considered which regulates a variable strongly related to the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Numerical simulations assuming noisy measurements first illustrate the robustness of this control procedure. Then, the regulating procedure is implemented on the considered anaerobic digestion process in order to validate and demonstrate its efficiency in real life experiments.

  16. [Mechanisms of the Effects of Probiotics on Symbiotic Digestion]. (United States)

    Usakova, N A; Nekrasov, R V; Pravdin, I V; Sverchkova, N V; Kolomiyets, E I; Pavlov, D S


    The published data and our own data on the mechanisms of the influence of microbial probiotics, prebiotics, and their combinations on the processes of symbiotic digestion have been considered and generalized. It is shown that the effects on an organism are associated with the enhanced metabolic activity of intestinal bacteria: stimulation of bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates and formation of short-chained fatty acids, an increase in the blotting capacity of the intestines due to elongation of villi and deepening of crypts, and a decrease in secretion of toxic proteolytic products (ammonia, phenols, thiols, indoles, etc.). It has been shown that a combination of probiotics and prebiotic enhances the biological efficiency of a complex preparation, which contributes to activation of carbohydrate, protein, and mineral metabolism.

  17. Expression of group XIIA phospholipase A2 in human digestive organs. (United States)

    Peuravuori, Heikki; Kollanus, Sinikka; Nevalainen, Timo J


    Cellular distribution of group XIIA phospholipase A2 (GXIIA PLA2) was studied in human digestive organs by immunohistochemistry. GXIIA PLA2 protein was detected in epithelial cells of normal gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder and pancreatic acinar cells. The GXIIA PLA2 protein was evenly distributed in the cytoplasm in contrast to secretory granular distribution of GIB PLA2 and GIIA PLA2 in pancreatic acinar cells and small intestinal Paneth cells respectively. Epithelial cells of intestinal glands in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis expressed abundant GXIIA PLA2 , whereas inflammatory cells were devoid of the enzyme protein. Tumour cells in colonic adenomas and carcinomas and pancreatic ductogenic carcinomas expressed GXIIA PLA2 protein at varying intensity levels. The putative functions of GXIIA PLA2 remain to be investigated and its role in healthy and diseased digestive organs can only be speculated on at present.

  18. Harvesting, rumination, digestion, and passage of fruit and leaf diets by a small ruminant, the blue duiker. (United States)

    Wenninger, P S; Shipley, L A


    Because small ruminants (ruminants may not be as limited in their digestive capacity as previously thought. In this study, we examined harvesting, rumination, digestion, and passage of three diets (domestic figs Ficus carica, fresh alfalfa Medicago sativa, and Pacific willow leaves Salix lasiandra) ranging from 10 to 50% neutral detergent fiber content (NDF) in captive blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola, 4 kg). Harvesting and rumination rates were obtained by observing and videotaping animals on each diet, and digestibility and intake were determined by conducting total collection digestion trials. We estimated mean retention time of liquid and particulate digesta by administering Co-EDTA and forages labelled with YbNO3 in a pulse dose and monitoring fecal output over 4 days. Duikers harvested and ruminated the fig diet faster than the alfalfa and willow diets. Likewise, they achieved higher dry matter, energy, NDF, and protein digestibility when eating figs, yet achieved a higher daily digestible energy intake on the fresh willow and alfalfa than on the figs by eating proportionately more of these forages. Duikers maintained a positive nitrogen balance on all diets, including figs, which contained only 6.3% crude protein. Mean retention time of cell wall in the duikers' digestive tract declined with increasing NDF and cellulose content of the diet. Digestibility coefficients and mean retention times of these small ruminants were virtually equivalent to those measured for ruminants two orders of magnitude larger, suggesting that they are well adapted for a mixed diet.

  19. Extracellular digestion during hyposaline exposure in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, and the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. (United States)

    Curtis, Daniel L; van Breukelen, Frank; McGaw, Iain J


    Extracellular digestive processes were examined in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister and the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, during hyposaline exposure. Both species are found in estuaries as adults, but vary in their ability to balance the cardiovascular and respiratory demands of concurrent osmoregulation and digestion. The weak osmoregulator, C. magister, is unable to balance the demands of osmoregulation and digestion. Concordant with observed decreases in oxygen consumption and mechanical digestion, proteolytic digestion within the foregut and hepatopancreas was delayed, resulting in a relative reduction of circulating amino acids post-feeding in low salinity. In contrast, the efficient osmoregulator, C. sapidus, balances the demands of osmoregulation and digestion, and mechanical digestion continues unabated in low salinity. Protease activity in the gut fluid and hepatopancreas showed either no change or a reduction over time. The transport of amino acids into the cells post-feeding is opposed by an efflux of amino acids at the cellular level, and resulted in a build up of amino acids in the hemolymph. Despite differences in the extracellular responses to low salinity exposure following feeding, both species were able to maintain high digestive efficiencies.

  20. Stability and biological activity of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) polyphenols during simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. (United States)

    Correa-Betanzo, J; Allen-Vercoe, E; McDonald, J; Schroeter, K; Corredig, M; Paliyath, G


    Wild blueberries are rich in polyphenols and have several potential health benefits. Understanding the factors that affect the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of polyphenols is important for evaluating their biological significance and efficacy as functional food ingredients. Since the bioavailability of polyphenols such as anthocyanins is generally low, it has been proposed that metabolites resulting during colonic fermentation may be the components that exert health benefits. In this study, an in vitro gastrointestinal model comprising sequential chemostat fermentation steps that simulate digestive conditions in the stomach, small intestine and colon was used to investigate the breakdown of blueberry polyphenols. The catabolic products were isolated and biological effects tested using a normal human colonic epithelial cell line (CRL 1790) and a human colorectal cancer cell line (HT 29). The results showed a high stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins during simulated gastric digestion step with approximately 93% and 99% of recovery, respectively. Intestinal digestion decreased polyphenol- and anthocyanin- contents by 49% and 15%, respectively, by comparison to the non-digested samples. During chemostat fermentation that simulates colonic digestion, the complex polyphenol mixture was degraded to a limited number of phenolic compounds such as syringic, cinnamic, caffeic, and protocatechuic acids. Only acetylated anthocyanins were detected in low amounts after chemostat fermentation. The catabolites showed lowered antioxidant activity and cell growth inhibition potential. Results suggest that colonic fermentation may alter the biological activity of blueberry polyphenols.

  1. Biogas recovery from microwave heated sludge by anaerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Biogas generated from sewage sludge,livestock waste,and food waste by anaerobic digestion is a valuable renewable energy resource.However,conventional anaerobic digestion is not an efficient process.A long hydraulic retention time and low biogas recovery rate hinder the applications of those resources.An effective pretreatment method to destroy sludge microbial cells has been one of the major concerns regarding improvement of the biogas production.This article focuses on the effects of microwave heating on sludge anaerobic digestion.Volatile suspended solid(VSS) and chemical organic demand solubilization of heated sludge were investigated.Microwave heating was found to be a rapid and efficient process for releasing organic substrates from sludge.The increase of organic dissolution ratio was not obvious when holding time was over 5 min with microwave heating.The effect of the VSS solubilization was primarily dependent on heating temperature.The highest value of VSS dissolving ratio,36.4%,was obtained at 170°C for 30 min.The COD dissolving ratio was about 25% at 170°C.Total organic carbon of treated sludge liquor was 1.98 and 2.73 g/L at 150°C and 170°C for 5 min,respectively.A biochemical methane potential(BMP) test of excess sludge and a mixture of primary and excess sludge demonstrated an increase in biogas production.The total biogas from microwave treated mixture sludge increased by 12.9% to 20.2% over control after 30 days of digestion.Biogas production was 11.1% to 25.9% higher for excess sludge than for untreated sludge.The VS removal ratios of mixture sludge and excess sludge were 12% and 11% higher,respectively,compared to the untreated sludge.

  2. Purification and separation of subsets of human Ia molecules by papain digestion. (United States)

    Tanigaki, N; Tosi, R; Koyama, K; Pressman, D


    Papain digestion of human Ia(-like) molecules was performed under various conditions using 125I-labelled preparation of non-ionic-detergent-solubilized Ia antigens of Daudi cells. The products were examined for their allospecificities by a direct binding reaction with human Ia alloantisera. The Daudi Ia preparation is known to contain Ia molecules of DRw6 specificity, an HLA-DR specificity and also Ia molecules of DC1 specificity, a putative non-HLA-DR specificity. Limited papain digestion cleaved off the hydrophobic portion of human Ia molecules and gave smaller sized Ia products. The cleavage did not affect the Ia alloantigenic determinants and occurred much more readily with molecules of DC1 specificity than with molecules of DRw6 specificity. As a consequence, limited papain digestion of the Daudi Ia pool yielded an Ia preparation with DRw6 specificity but lacking DC1 specificity and another Ia preparation which was enriched in DC1 specificity. The limited papain digestion of the Daudi Ia pool followed by gel filtration and LcH affinity chromatography also produced Ia REPARATIONS OF HIGH PURITY. Extensive papain digestion damaged the Ia alloantigenic determinants but the DC1 determinant was much more resistant than the DRw6 determinant. Thus extensive papain digestion yielded an Ia preparation which was relatively rich in DC1 specificity and essentially devoid of DRw6 specificity. PMID:6155328

  3. [Digestive complications of oral contraceptives: a case of extensive digestive necrosis in a young woman]. (United States)

    Carpentier, E; Dufour, C; Baud, F; Contamin, C; Dupré, A; Carpentier, F; Guignier, M


    A case of acute intestinal vascular necrosis in a 19-year-old user of oral contraceptives (OCs) is described, and hypotheses explaining the digestive complications of synthetic estrogens are reviewed. The patient had originally presented with a violent gastric pain that subsequently spread to the entire abdomen. An abrupt worsening of her condition involved cardiovascular collapse associated with a peritoneal syndrome, vomiting and dehydration, and hyperleukocytosis. Emergency opening of the peritoneum was followed by evacuation of a large quantity of fetid gas and alimentary debris, and observation of a completely necrosed stomach. A careful lavage of the entire intestinal cavity led to temporary improvement, but it became clear during an attempt at gastrectomy that further treatment would be unavailing and the patient died shortly thereafter. Estrogens were believed to be responsible for the digestive necrosis because it occurred in a young woman who had used an estrogen-rich OC for 3 years and who smoked; a hapatic biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. No traces of other risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, neoplasia, or obesity were observed. Recent publications indicate that OCs are responsible for a certain number of digestive problems, which may include acceleration of intestinal transit, severe diarrhea, rectorrhagia, ischemic or ulcerative colitis, intestinal infarct which is usually localized, and hepatocellular problems ranging from moderate hepatic insufficiency to malignant tumor and Budd-Chiari syndrome. OCs do not modify hemodynamic regimes, but they may cause elevation of fibrinogen and thrombin, diminution of antithrombin III acitivty, increased platelet adhesivity, and decreased fibrinolysis leading to hypercoagulability. These modifications in hemostasis occur in all OC users and are not statistically correlated with occurence of thrombotic accidents. OCs are probably responsible for parietal vascular lesions; experimental



    Thaniya Kaosol; Narumol Sohgrathok


    Low biogas production in the frozen seafood wastewater anaerobic digestion is observed due to the low organic and Total Solids (TS) contents in the wastewater. In this research the decanter cake will be used in the anaerobic co-digestion process to improve the biogas production rate. The effect of co-digestion and Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) will be investigated using the continuously stirred tank reactors under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production pot...

  5. Thermophilic co-digestion of pig manure and crude glycerol: process performance and digestate stability. (United States)

    Astals, S; Nolla-Ardèvol, V; Mata-Alvarez, J


    Anaerobic co-digestion has been widely used to enhance biogas production of digesters and, therefore, to improve the anaerobic plants economic feasibility. In the present study, glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel industry, was used as a co-substrate for pig manure. The results showed that the thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure supplemented with 3% of glycerol, on weight basis, was satisfactory. The specific biogas production of the co-digester was 180% higher than the one obtained by the reference digester, which was only fed with pig manure. The improvement was related to the double of the organic loading rate, the high biodegradability of the crude glycerol, the slight reduction of the free ammonia concentration and the optimisation of the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Moreover, the analysis of the organic matter (protein, lipids, carbohydrates and fibers) of the influent and the effluent of both digesters together with their biogas flow rates indicated that the microorganisms in the co-digester obtained large amounts of nutrients from the glycerol, whereas the microorganisms of the reference digester mainly produced biogas from the particulate matter. However, the digestate obtained from the co-digester cannot be directly applied as soil fertiliser or conditioner due to the presence of high levels of biodegradable matter, which may exert negative impacts on the plant-soil system. Thus, a longer hydraulic retention time, a reduction of the glycerol concentration and/or a post-treatment is required if the digestate is to be used as soil fertiliser or conditioner. In contrast, pig manure digestate can be directly applied on land.

  6. Proteolytic Digestion and TiO2 Phosphopeptide Enrichment Microreactor for Fast MS Identification of Proteins (United States)

    Deng, Jingren; Lazar, Iulia M.


    The characterization of phosphorylation state(s) of a protein is best accomplished by using isolated or enriched phosphoprotein samples or their corresponding phosphopeptides. The process is typically time-consuming as, often, a combination of analytical approaches must be used. To facilitate throughput in the study of phosphoproteins, a microreactor that enables a novel strategy for performing fast proteolytic digestion and selective phosphopeptide enrichment was developed. The microreactor was fabricated using 100 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries packed with 1-2 mm beds of C18 and/or TiO2 particles. Proteolytic digestion-only, phosphopeptide enrichment-only, and sequential proteolytic digestion/phosphopeptide enrichment microreactors were developed and tested with standard protein mixtures. The protein samples were adsorbed on the C18 particles, quickly digested with a proteolytic enzyme infused over the adsorbed proteins, and further eluted onto the TiO2 microreactor for enrichment in phosphopeptides. A number of parameters were optimized to speed up the digestion and enrichments processes, including microreactor dimensions, sample concentrations, digestion time, flow rates, buffer compositions, and pH. The effective time for the steps of proteolytic digestion and enrichment was less than 5 min. For simple samples, such as standard protein mixtures, this approach provided equivalent or better results than conventional bench-top methods, in terms of both enzymatic digestion and selectivity. Analysis times and reagent costs were reduced ~10- to 15-fold. Preliminary analysis of cell extracts and recombinant proteins indicated the feasibility of integration of these microreactors in more advanced workflows amenable for handling real-world biological samples.

  7. Small-scale household biogas digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Khanh Vu, Van Thi


    There are a number of advantages to small-scale biogas production on farms, including savings on firewood or fossil fuels and reductions in odour and greenhouse gas emissions. For these reasons, governments and development aid agencies have supported the installation of biogas digesters. However......, biogas digesters are often poorly managed and there is a lack of proper distribution systems for biogas. This results in methane being released inadvertently through leaks in digesters and tubing, and intentionally when production exceeds demand. As methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater......% of the produced biogas is released, depending on the type of fuel that has been replaced. The limited information available as regards methane leaking from small-scale biogas digesters in developing countries indicates that emissions may be as high as 40%. With the best estimates of global numbers of small...

  8. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  9. Non-Coop Station History Forms Digest (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single 71-page document entitled 'Station history non-COOP Keying Rules & Forms Digest,' dated December 12, 2003. Contractors with NCDC Climate Database...

  10. Toxicants inhibiting anaerobic digestion: a review. (United States)

    Chen, Jian Lin; Ortiz, Raphael; Steele, Terry W J; Stuckey, David C


    Anaerobic digestion is increasingly being used to treat wastes from many sources because of its manifold advantages over aerobic treatment, e.g. low sludge production and low energy requirements. However, anaerobic digestion is sensitive to toxicants, and a wide range of compounds can inhibit the process and cause upset or failure. Substantial research has been carried out over the years to identify specific inhibitors/toxicants, and their mechanism of toxicity in anaerobic digestion. In this review we present a detailed and critical summary of research on the inhibition of anaerobic processes by specific organic toxicants (e.g., chlorophenols, halogenated aliphatics and long chain fatty acids), inorganic toxicants (e.g., ammonia, sulfide and heavy metals) and in particular, nanomaterials, focusing on the mechanism of their inhibition/toxicity. A better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms behind inhibition/toxicity will enhance the wider application of anaerobic digestion.

  11. A coarse-grained simulation to study the digestion and bioaccessibility of lipophilic nutrients and micronutrients in emulsion. (United States)

    Marze, Sébastien


    The digestion of lipophilic nutrients and micronutrients requires numerous and simultaneous processes of chemical, physical and biological nature. Studying these processes experimentally is challenging, explaining why there is only little information about the mechanisms and interactions involved. Nevertheless, the bioaccessibility of lipophilic micronutrients is poorly understood so new investigation approaches are needed, all the more when digestion of lipophilic nutrients is also involved. In this article, the development of a coarse-grained simulation with no adjustable parameter is reported, enabling the study of the chemical and physical processes controlling bioaccessibility in such systems. The intestinal digestion of a droplet of a pure triglyceride containing a lipophilic vitamin was simulated to obtain their bioaccessibility kinetics (via lipolysis and/or solubilization in bile salt). The parameters examined here were the type of triglyceride, the type of vitamin, the digestive fluid amount, the droplet size, and different digestion conditions reflecting the in vitro or in vivo cases. Among these structure and composition parameters, the type of triglyceride and the digestion conditions had the greatest effects on bioaccessibility. An interplay between triglyceride digestion and micronutrient bioaccessibility kinetics was evidenced, highlighting the roles of the different parameters, in agreement with the experimental literature. This new approach is shown to be relevant to both nutrition and pharmacology.

  12. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the Commission. This is the first of an annual publication for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. The Digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  13. Anaerobic digestion foaming causes – A review


    Ganidi, Nafsika; Tyrrel, Sean F.; Cartmell, Elise


    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water companies due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been identified over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases absent. The present report aims to provide a detailed review of the current anaerobic digestion foaming proble...

  14. Abdomen, digestive system; Abdomen, appareil digestif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradel, J. [Hopital Saint-Eloi, 34 - Montpellier (France); Siauve, N. [Hopital Laennec, 75 - Paris (France); Alexandre, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 06 - Nice (France); Lorenzetti, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 63 - Clermont Ferrand (France)


    The Radiological Society of North America (RNSA) ` 96 has devoted a broad part to abdomen and digestive imaging. we find hepatic pathology and comparative evaluation between computed tomography and NMR imaging. The question of contrast products and their advance in hepatic pathology are studied. The biliary tracts and MRI do not present any surprise. The pancreas with the computerized tomography and finally the digestive system, always with computerized tomography are exposed. (N.C.).

  15. Anaerobic digestion of cassava starch factory effluent. (United States)

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C


    Biomethanation of cassava starch factory effluent in a batch digester produced 130 l biogas/kg dry matter with an average melthane content of 59%. About 63% COD was removed during 60 days. In semicontinuous digesters, gas production was 3251/kg dry matter with a retention time of 33,3 days giving a COD reduction of 50%. Size of starter inoculum was important for good biogasification of the effluent.

  16. Feasibility assessment of anaerobic digestion of European water chestnuts (Trapa natans L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besha, J.A.; Countryman, W.D.


    The project determined the technical and economic feasibility of anaerobic digestion of Trapa natans L. or European water chestnuts, to produce methane. Trapa natans is a nuisance aquatic plant presently found in the northeastern United States. The field data collection phase included color aerial photogrammetry and manual sampling. Yields of 9.08 kg per square meter of raw material with a corresponding dry weight of 1.53 kg/sq meter were determined. Bacterial digestion resulting in gas production of 69% methane and 31% carbon dioxide was shown in laboratory-scale digestion experiments. Mass spectrographic analysis indicated no contaminants in the gas stream. Conceptual technical design of a 400 kW methane-fueled electric generation facility indicated economic feasibility of this facility either as an independent or a hybrid process in conjunction with a small hydroelectric facility. Substantial economic and environmental benefits may accure from the control of Trapa natans by this means.

  17. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.


    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Manea


    Full Text Available Research has established the most effective lactic acid bacteria used for fermentation of fruit and vegetables juices. The cultures were used for Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus and culture of micro flora obtained spontaneous shoots. Lactic fermented juice was obtained from cabbage, carrots and beetroot. Working in these variants were determined lactic fermentation parameters and some of the bioactive compounds from this process: pH, reducing sugars, viable cell counts. Determination of reducing sugars calculated as glucose was conducted using the 3.5 dinitrosalicilic acid method (DNS method, pH was determined with a pH meter electronics. Chemical parameters listed were determined every two hours during the first 24 hours, then 48 and 72 hours in thermostatic conditions at 37 degrees C and 7 days storage at refrigerator temperature. At the end of the lactic fermentation, the lowest pH 4.31, which also provide juice conservation was obtained using a pure culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Reducing sugar is metabolized significantly when the juice of beetroot, fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus culture, 75.19%. The results may be an argument for obtaining juice fermented lactic acid, which are popular functional foods, to obtain a chemical composition and sensory their optimum.

  19. Health Effects of Alkaline Diet and Water, Reduction of Digestive-tract Bacterial Load, and Earthing. (United States)

    Mousa, Haider Abdul-Lateef


    In the article, the author discusses the issue of chronic, low-grade acidosis that is thought to be brought about primarily by 2 factors: (1) advancing age, with a consequent decline in renal function; and (2) diet. An acid-forming diet can induce low-grade metabolic acidosis, which causes very small decreases in blood pH and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3-) that remain within the range considered to be normal. However, if the duration of the acidosis is prolonged or chronically present, even a low degree of acidosis can become significant. This article reviews supporting evidence in the literature that has shown that consumption of abundant alkaline-forming foods can result in improvement in bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle mass, protection from chronic illnesses, reduced tumor-cell invasion and metastasis, and effective excretion of toxins from the body. In addition, a large number of studies showing the benefits of alkaline water (mineral water) have revealed that people consuming water with a high level of total dissolved solids (TDS) (ie, with a high mineral content) have shown a lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer and lower total mortality rates. Consumption of alkaline water also may prevent osteoporosis and protect pancreatic beta cells with its antioxidant effects. In addition, this article discusses the literature that shows that reducing digestive-tract bacterial load can play an important role in increasing blood alkalinity toward the normal upper limit. That change occurs through good oral hygiene, flossing of teeth, perfect chewing of food, and bowel evacuation as soon as possible. Finally, the author reviews the literature that shows that earthing (ie, the direct contact of the human body with the earth) can supply a current of plentiful electrons. Earthing has been shown to reduce acute and chronic inflammation, blood glucose in patients with diabetes, red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, and blood

  20. Effects of boiling and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant activity of Sonchus oleraceus leaves. (United States)

    Mawalagedera, S M M R; Ou, Zong-Quan; McDowell, Arlene; Gould, Kevin S


    Leaves of Sonchus oleraceus L. are especially rich in phenolic compounds and have potent extractable antioxidants. However, it is not known how their antioxidant activity changes after cooking and gastrointestinal digestion. We recorded the profile of phenolics and their associated antioxidant activity in both raw and boiled S. oleraceus leaf extracts after in vitro gastric and intestinal digestion, and quantified their antioxidant potentials using Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Boiling significantly diminished the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and concentrations of ascorbate and chicoric acid in the soluble fractions. In contrast, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and concentrations of caftaric and chlorogenic acids were unaffected. Phenolics in the soluble fraction were absorbed into cultured human cells and exerted antioxidant activity. Only chlorogenic acid content remained stable during gastrointestinal digestion. S. oleraceus appears to be an excellent dietary source of phenolic antioxidants.

  1. Use of gamma-irradiation pretreatment for enhancement of anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The effects of y-irradiation pretreatment on anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge was investigated in this paper.Parameters like solid components,soluble components,and biogas production of anaerobic digestion experiment for sewage sludge were measured.The values of these parameters were compared before and after y-irradiation pretreatment.Total solid (TS),volatile solid (VS),suspended solid (SS),volatile suspended solid (VSS),and average floc size of samples decreased after γ-irradiation treatment.Besides,floc size distribution of sewage sludge shifted from 80-100 μm to 0-40 μm after y-irradiation treatment at the doses from 0 to 30 kGy,which indicated the disintegration of sewage sludge.Moreover,microbe cells of sewage sludge were ruptured by γ-irradiation treatment,which resulted in the release of cytoplasm and increase of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD).Both sludge disintegration and microbe cells rupture enhanced the subsequent anaerobic digestion process,which was demonstrated by the increase of accumulated biogas production.Compared with digesters fed with none irradiated sludge,the accumulated biogas production increased 44,98,and 178 mL for digesters fed sludge irradiated at 2.48,6.51,and 11.24 kGy,respectively.The results indicated that "/-irradiation pretreatment could effectively enhance anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge,and correspondingly,could accelerate hydrolysis process,shorten sludge retention time of sludge anaerobic digestion process.

  2. The safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX® as shown in a 90-day rodent feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Marone Palma


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to evaluate the safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®, a novel viscous dietary polysaccharide (fiber, when administered to Sprague Dawley® rats in the diet for 90 days. Methods Groups of ten male and ten female rats each consumed PGX mixed in the diet at levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0% for 90 days, then evaluated for toxicological effects on parameters that included neuromotor activity, body weight, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, hematology, and histopathology. Results Mean body weight, mean feed consumption and food efficiency in the treated groups were generally comparable to controls for both male and female rats. No changes were noted in neuromotor behavior, and histopathological analysis revealed no significant changes between treated and control animals. There were no differences in mean organ weight, organ-to-body weight or organ-to-brain weight values between controls and treated animals. Decreased red blood cell count occurred in the high dose males and increases in aspartate and alanine aminotransferase enzyme levels and triglycerides, while significant decreases in serum sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations were observed in the females fed 5.0% PGX. However, the decreased mineral concentrations may be the result of significantly increased urinary volume in both males and females at the high dose, with a concomitant decrease in urinary specific gravity (males and females and protein concentration (females. These results were within historical control values, did not correlate with any histopathological changes, and were not considered adverse. Conclusion The results indicate a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for PGX at 5.0% of the diet, corresponding to an average daily intake of 3219 and 3799 mg/kg bw/day in male and female rats, respectively.

  3. Digestion proteomics: tracking lactoferrin truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion. (United States)

    Grosvenor, Anita J; Haigh, Brendan J; Dyer, Jolon M


    The extent to which nutritional and functional benefit is derived from proteins in food is related to its breakdown and digestion in the body after consumption. Further, detailed information about food protein truncation during digestion is critical to understanding and optimising the availability of bioactives, in controlling and limiting allergen release, and in minimising or monitoring the effects of processing and food preparation. However, tracking the complex array of products formed during the digestion of proteins is not easily accomplished using classical proteomics. We here present and develop a novel proteomic approach using isobaric labelling to mapping and tracking protein truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion, using bovine lactoferrin as a model food protein. The relative abundance of related peptides was tracked throughout a digestion time course, and the effect of pasteurisation on peptide release assessed. The new approach to food digestion proteomics developed here therefore appears to be highly suitable not only for tracking the truncation and relative abundance of released peptides during gastric digestion, but also for determining the effects of protein modification on digestibility and potential bioavailability.

  4. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion. (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola


    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  5. Innovative bioelectrochemical-anaerobic-digestion integrated system for ammonia recovery and bioenergy production from ammonia-rich residues


    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini


    Ammonia (NH4+/NH3) inhibition during anaerobic digestion process is one of the most frequent problems existing in biogas plants, resulting in unstable process and reduced biogas production. In this study, we developed a novel hybrid system, consisted of a submersed microbial resource recovery cell (SMRC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), to prevent ammonia toxicity during anaerobic digestion by in-situ ammonia recovery and electricity production (Figure 1). In batch experiment, th...

  6. Involvement of ER Stress in Dysmyelination of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease with PLP1 Missense Mutations Shown by iPSC-Derived Oligodendrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Numasawa-Kuroiwa


    Full Text Available Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD is a form of X-linked leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1 gene. Although PLP1 proteins with missense mutations have been shown to accumulate in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER in disease model animals and cell lines transfected with mutant PLP1 genes, the exact pathogenetic mechanism of PMD has not previously been clarified. In this study, we established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from two PMD patients carrying missense mutation and differentiated them into oligodendrocytes in vitro. In the PMD iPSC-derived oligodendrocytes, mislocalization of mutant PLP1 proteins to the ER and an association between increased susceptibility to ER stress and increased numbers of apoptotic oligodendrocytes were observed. Moreover, electron microscopic analysis demonstrated drastically reduced myelin formation accompanied by abnormal ER morphology. Thus, this study demonstrates the involvement of ER stress in pathogenic dysmyelination in the oligodendrocytes of PMD patients with the PLP1 missense mutation.

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of perennials: Methane potential and digestate nitrogen fertilizer value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller-Stover, Dorette Sophie; Sun, Guotao; Kroff, Pablo;


    Co-digestion of crop biomass improves the traditional manure-based biogas yield due to an increased content of easily degradable carbon compounds. In this study, the methane potential of three perennials (grass, legumes, and grass+legume) was determined using various amounts together with animal...... manure. The nitrogen (N) mineralization dynamics in soil and the N-fertilizer value of the derived digestates were subsequently tested in both a soil incubation study and a pot experiment with spring barley. Digestion of all tested perennials together with a manure-based inoculum increased the cumulative...... by 40-170%, to an extent statistically comparable to mineral N fertilizer. However, the application of the digestate originating from fermentation with pure grass resulted in lower plant growth and a more fluctuating soil mineral N content throughout the incubation study compared to the other digestates...

  8. Mutual regulation of Bcl-2 proteins independent of the BH3 domain as shown by the BH3-lacking protein Bcl-x(AK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Plötz

    Full Text Available The BH3 domain of Bcl-2 proteins was regarded as indispensable for apoptosis induction and for mutual regulation of family members. We recently described Bcl-x(AK, a proapoptotic splice product of the bcl-x gene, which lacks BH3 but encloses BH2, BH4 and a transmembrane domain. It remained however unclear, how Bcl-x(AK may trigger apoptosis.For efficient overexpression, Bcl-x(AK was subcloned in an adenoviral vector under Tet-OFF control. The construct resulted in significant apoptosis induction in melanoma and nonmelanoma cell lines with up to 50% apoptotic cells as well as decreased cell proliferation and survival. Disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release clearly indicated activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Both Bax and Bak were activated as shown by clustering and conformation analysis. Mitochondrial translocation of Bcl-x(AK appeared as an essential and initial step. Bcl-x(AK was critically dependent on either Bax or Bak, and apoptosis was abrogated in Bax/Bak double knockout conditions as well by overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-x(L. A direct interaction with Bcl-2, Bax, Bad, Noxa or Puma was however not seen by immunoprecipitation. Thus besides BH3-mediated interactions, there exists an additional way for mutual regulation of Bcl-2 proteins, which is independent of the BH3. This pathway appears to play a supplementary role also for other proapoptotic family members, and its unraveling may help to overcome therapy resistance in cancer.

  9. Development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus argenteus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Eneida Santos


    Full Text Available The development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish P. argenteus was analyzed histologically. On the 3rd day after hatching, the digestive system comprised oropharyngeal cavity, esophagus and simple undifferentiated tube. Since secreting cells, positive to Alcian Blue (AB, were found in the esophagus, digestive activity in the initial phase had occurred. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the esophagus was positive for AB and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS stain. The stomach was fully differentiated, with the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. Different regions of the epithelium were characterized by basic and acidic secreting cells (AB and PAS positive. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the intestine was long, coiled and divided into proximal, middle and distal segments with pyloric ceca. Secreting cells in different regions of the gut were either positive or negative for AB and PAS. Results showed that larvae of P. argenteus exhibited digestive activity on the third day after hatching, with fully differentiated stomach and intestines on the 18 and 28th days and their different regions featuring secreting cells.

  10. Selection for reduced ferulate esters in seedlings improved maize silage fiber digestibility (United States)

    Ferulate cross linkage of lignin to arabinoxylans in grasses impedes cell wall digestibility. Formation of cross links requires ferulate esters on arabinoxylan. Subsequent lignin deposition is initiated by formation of cross-linked ferulate/monolignol complexes. We hypothesized that selection for se...

  11. Humoral regulation of heart rate during digestion in pythons (Python molurus and Python regius). (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Simonsen, Lasse Stærdal; Pedersen, Signe Vesterskov; Wang, Tobias; Skovgaard, Nini


    Pythons exhibit a doubling of heart rate when metabolism increases several times during digestion. Pythons, therefore, represent a promising model organism to study autonomic cardiovascular regulation during the postprandial state, and previous studies show that the postprandial tachycardia is governed by a release of vagal tone as well as a pronounced stimulation from nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) factors. Here we show that infusion of plasma from digesting donor pythons elicit a marked tachycardia in fasting snakes, demonstrating that the NANC factor resides in the blood. Injections of the gastrin and cholecystokinin receptor antagonist proglumide had no effect on double-blocked heart rate or blood pressure. Histamine has been recognized as a NANC factor in the early postprandial period in pythons, but the mechanism of its release has not been identified. Mast cells represent the largest repository of histamine in vertebrates, and it has been speculated that mast cells release histamine during digestion. Treatment with the mast cell stabilizer cromolyn significantly reduced postprandial heart rate in pythons compared with an untreated group but did not affect double-blocked heart rate. While this study indicates that histamine induces postprandial tachycardia in pythons, its release during digestion is not stimulated by gastrin or cholecystokinin nor is its release from mast cells a stimulant of postprandial tachycardia.

  12. Restriction endonucleases digesting DNA in PCR buffer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xue-dong; ZHENG Dong; ZHOU Yan-na; MAO Wei-wei; MA Jian-zhang


    Six commonly used restriction endonucleases (Res) (Acc I, Ban II, EcoR I, Hind III, Sac I, Sca I) were tested for their ability to directly digest DNA completely in the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) buffers. The results showed that: with the requirement for additional magnesium supplemented as activator, Res, except EcoR I appeared star activity, completely digested unmethylated lambda DNA after overnight incubation in PCR buffer and functioned as equally well as in recommended Restriction Enzyme Buffer provided with each enzyme; all Res tested completely digested PCR products in PCR buffer, it implied digestion of PCR products may often be performed directly in the PCR tube without the requirement for any precipitation or purification steps; and the concentration of MgCl2 from 2.5 mmol·L-1 to 10 mmol·L-1 did not significantly affect activity of Res in PCR buffer. This simplified method for RE digestion of PCR products could have applications in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of large PCR products. However, usage of this procedure for cloning applications needs further data.

  13. The usability of digestate in organic farming. (United States)

    Clements, L J; Salter, A M; Banks, C J; Poppy, G M


    As organic farming prohibits the use of synthetic fertilisers, animal slurries and manures must be used. Digestate offers an alternative to these and this study reports on three experiments conducted to determine its usability in terms of: (1) the effect on earthworm populations, (2) its fertilising effects on Italian Ryegrass and wild Creeping Thistle, and (3) the suppression effects digestate has on weed emergence. The results for digestate application to field plots were intermediate between slurry and no treatment for earthworm attraction and wild thistle suppression. In glasshouse trials it led to increased ryegrass growth compared with undigested slurry. Analysis showed that the digestate had improved nitrogen availability, leading to increased plant growth, but a reduced organic matter content compared with the slurry, leading to a positive though less beneficial impact on the earthworms. Digestate therefore provides a suitable fertiliser for organic farming. This suitability could be improved by drying or separation to increase the OM content making its properties closer to those of slurry whilst still retaining the higher content of plant available nitrogen.

  14. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to various microorganisms and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970, improved lactose digestion (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970, “intestinal flora/digestive health” (ID 4231, defence against vaginal pathogens (ID 2950, 2957, 2967 and increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells (ID 2960, 2962, 2971 (further assessment pursuant to Article 13(1 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies


    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to provide a scientific opinion on health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to various microorganisms and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion, “intestinal flora/digestive health”, defence against vaginal pathogens and increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells. The food constituents Lactobacillus crispatus BCCM/LMG P-17631, Lactobacillus gasseri BCCM/LMG P-17632, Lactobacillus gasseri BCCM/LMG P-18137, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1687, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1688, Lactobacillus plantarum BCCM/LMG P-17630, Lactobacillus salivarius CNCM I-1794 and a combination of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 and Lactobacillus johnsonii La-1 (ACD-1(CLbA22 are sufficiently characterised. The evidence provided did not establish that the proposed claimed effect, increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells, is a beneficial physiological effect. The claimed effect “intestinal flora/digestive health” is general and non-specific, and does not refer to any specific health claim as required by Regulation (EC No 1924/2006. The references provided in relation to the claims evaluated in this opinion included studies which assessed the effects of food constituents other than the food constituents which are the subject of the claims and/or investigated health outcomes unrelated to the claimed effects. No human studies which investigated the effects of the food constituents on appropriate measures of the claimed effects were provided. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel

  15. Preliminary characterization of digestive enzymes in freshwater mussels (United States)

    Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon J.; Cooper, Scott T.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.


    Resource managers lack an effective chemical tool to control the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Zebra mussels clog water intakes for hydroelectric companies, harm unionid mussel species, and are believed to be a reservoir of avian botulism. Little is known about the digestive physiology of zebra mussels and unionid mussels. The enzymatic profile of the digestive glands of zebra mussels and native threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook mussels (Lampsilis cardium) are characterized using a commercial enzyme kit, api ZYM, and validated the kit with reagent-grade enzymes. A linear correlation was shown for only one of nineteen enzymes, tested between the api ZYM kit and a specific enzyme kit. Thus, the api ZYM kit should only be used to make general comparisons of enzyme presence and to observe trends in enzyme activities. Enzymatic trends were seen in the unionid mussel species, but not in zebra mussels sampled 32 days apart from the same location. Enzymatic classes, based on substrate, showed different trends, with proteolytic and phospholytic enzymes having the most change in relative enzyme activity.

  16. In vitro starch digestibility and in vivo glycemic response of foxtail millet and its products. (United States)

    Ren, Xin; Chen, Jing; Molla, Mohammad Mainuddin; Wang, Chao; Diao, Xianmin; Shen, Qun


    Foxtail millet, as a leading variety in arid and semi-arid areas of Asia and Africa, can provide broad potential benefits to human health. However, its digestion properties have not been reported. So in this study, the in vitro starch digestibilities and in vivo glycemic indices (GI) of foxtail millet and pure millet products were investigated. The results showed that starch digestibility of the foxtail millet flour is obviously lower than that of wheat flour. However, deproteinization and heating significantly increased its rapidly digestible starch and decreased its slowly digestible starch and resistant starch. The GIs of pure millet products were in the following order: millet porridge (93.6 ± 11.3) > millet steamed bread (89.6 ± 8.8) > No. 1 millet pancake (75.0% millet flour and 25.0% extrusion flour, 83.0 ± 9.6) > No. 2 millet pancake (without extrusion flour, 76.2 ± 10.7) > cooked millet (64.4 ± 8.5). They were significantly positively correlated with the rapidly digestible starch (r = 0.959), degree of gelatinization (r = 0.967) and estimated glycemic index (r = 0.988). Both in vitro and in vivo tests suggested that boiling, steaming and extrusion enhanced the formation of digestible starch and subsequently increased the GI values. Additionally, the No. 1 millet pancake and cooked millet had a relatively gentle stimulation on β-cell. Therefore, foxtail millet, especially the cooked millet, may serve as a potential source of nutraceutical and functional food that could delay the development of type 2 diabetes.

  17. Digestibility of Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores in ruminants: in vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-de-Gives Pedro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Duddingtonia flagrans as a tool for the biological control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN is a promising alternative to anthelmintics. The chlamydospores of D. flagrans are orally dosed and their thick cell wall gives them the capacity to resist digestion and pass through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Chlamydospores reaching the faeces are able to germinate and trap nematode larvae. The efficacy of this control method is based on reducing the numbers of infective larvae leaving the faeces. Techniques have recently been developed for quantifying the numbers of chlamydospores in faeces. As the number of non-digested spores could be relevant in the design and optimization of dosing programmes for the control of GIN infective larvae, the aim of the present study was to estimate the loss of D. flagrans chlamydospores during their passage through the ruminant gastrointestinal tract using in vitro and in vivo techniques. Results After in vitro rumen digestion, chlamydospore recovery was not different from the quantity originally incubated (undigested spores (P > 0.05. In vitro rumen+abomasum digestion caused nearly 36% loss of the chlamydospores originally incubated (P In vivo apparent chlamydospore digestibility in sheep showed a loss of 89.7% of the chlamydospores (P Conclusions The loss of chlamydospores was evident under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Negligible amounts of spores were lost during the in vitro rumen digestion. However, in vitro rumen+abomasum digestion resulted in a chlamydospore loss of approximately 36%. In vivo passage through the sheep GIT resulted in a total loss of 89.7% of the orally administered spores.

  18. Digestibility and rate of passage by lambs of water-stressed alfalfa. (United States)

    Undersander, D J; Cole, N A; Naylor, C H


    Two lamb digestion experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.)] grown under varying levels of water deficiency (stress) on the rate of passage and digestibility of various fibrous components. Experiment 1 consisted of a randomized complete block design in which 12 Suffolk X Hampshire crossbred wethers averaging 40 kg were fed alfalfa hay grown at three (10, 15 or 20 cm water/ha) levels of water per harvest. Experiment 2 consisted of a switchback design in which four Hampshire wethers averaging 45 kg were fed alfalfa hay grown at two (5 or 20 cm/ha) levels of water per harvest. Forage yields ranged from 1,420 (10 cm/ha in Exp. 1) to 4,200 (20 cm/ha in Exp. 2) kg/ha. In both experiments, water stress reduced cell wall constituents (neutral detergent fiber), acid detergent fiber, lignin and cellulose content of the alfalfa hay. Organic matter digestibility was decreased when the percentage of leaves fell below 60% at the highest yield. Digestibility of N and the rate of NDF digestibility were not affected by water stress. The second experiment additionally included nutrient balance and rate of passage measurements. Greater (P less than .10) amounts of N and P were absorbed from water-stressed than nonstressed hay. Ruminal retention time of particulate markers tended (P less than .10) to increase with greater water stress. The results of this study are interpreted to indicate that while moderate water stress may have little effect on in vivo digestibility of alfalfa, severe stress may reduce digestibility of fibrous fractions and total organic matter.

  19. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems. (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D


    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate.

  20. potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970), improved lactose digestion (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970), “intestinal flora/digestive health” (ID 4231), defence against vaginal pathogens (ID 2950, 2957, 2967) and increasing IL-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion, “intestinal flora/digestive health”, defence against vaginal pathogens and increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells. The food...

  1. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion versus mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sludges from WTP; Digestion anaerobic termofilica versus digestion anaerobia mesofilica de lodos del EDAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubia de la Romero, M. A.; Perez Garcia, M.; Romero Garcia, L. I.; Sales Marquez, D.


    A literature search revealed that successful thermophilic digestion operation was achieved at several Sewage Treatment Plant: Hyperon Treatment Plant of the city of Los Angeles, operations at 49 degree centigree resulted in significant improvements in sludge handling characteristics; West-Southwest Sewage Treatment Works, Chicago, Illinois a stable thermophilic digester was established at a 8 day detention time; Lions Gate Wastewater Treatment Plant of Vancouver pathogen destruction was the primary goal of this evaluation. Several other investigators have also conducted laboratory as well as pilot scale studied and reported several potential advantages of operating anaerobic digesters in the thermophilic range, rather than the conventional mesophilic range. Increased destruction of pathogenic organisms, increased rate of volatile solids destruction and improved destruction of organics are some advantages reported by all authors. (Author) 16 refs.

  2. Mathematical tool to size rural digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentino Helenice de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Anaerobic digesters have been highlighted due to the current energy crisis and its consequent search for alternative energy sources, allied to the intense process of livestock farming and agriculture modernization, which besides demanding a lot of energy, produces a great amount of crop and animal residues, most of the times generating sanitary problems. The aim of this work is to provide a mathematical tool to establish parameters for projects of construction of rural digesters, considering the response to energy demand, the suitability of the dimensions of the systems, yield factors and the guarantee of functionality. Non-linear optimization models, of easy resolution, for the three main types of rural digesters were formulated in this way. With the resolution of these models one can determine the height and the diameter that lead to a minimum volume for each type, so reducing the necessary amount of masonry and, consequently, diminishing the cost.

  3. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods. (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C


    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian.

  4. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis


    , their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. In the present study, Aqueous Ammonia Soaking was successfully applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full......-scale anaerobic digester to enhance their methane productivity. Soaking in six different reagent concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 32%) was applied for 3 days at 22°C. An overall methane yield increase from 85% to 110% was achieved compared to controls (digested manure fibers where AAS...... was not applied). The difference in reagent concentration at the range of 5-25% w/w in ammonia did not affect that much the overall methane yield resulting to an increase of 104-110% compared to the non AAS-treated fibers. Thus, an ammonia concentration as low as 5% is adequate for achieving the same increase...

  5. Multivariate monitoring of anaerobic co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    Anaerobic digestion processes for production of renewable energy in the form of biogas, and in the future hydrogen, are becoming increasingly important worldwide. Sustainable solutions for renewable energy production systems are given high political priority, amongst other things due to global...... warming and environmental concerns. Anaerobic digestion applied in agriculture can simultaneously convert heterogeneous biomasses and wastes from the primary agricultural sector and from the bio processing industries, for instance food processing, pharma, and biofuel production, into valuable organic...... fertiliser and renewable energy. Meanwhile, in order for the biogas sector to become a significant player in the energy supply chain, the anaerobic digestion process has to be controlled to a greater extent than what is implemented as state-of-the-art today. Through application of the philosophy behind...

  6. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.


    Full Text Available Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 % and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipase-dependent pancreatic lipases and bile secretion. Gastric lipolysis leads to the hydrolysis of 10-30 % of ingested triglycerides, generating mainly diglycerides (DG and free fatty acids. This facilitates subsequent triglyceride hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase by allowing fat emulsification. Pancreatic lipase cleaves the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triglycerides and/or DG obtaining sn-2 monoglycerides. Different lipid metabolites are quickly absorbed along the epithelial cells of the small intestine, acting olive oil as a supplier of oleic-acid-rich hydrocarbon skeletons for cellular synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids. Absorption of mostly minor compounds of (extra virgin olive oil takes place in the small intestine, as native or derivatives. Compared to diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, olive oil suppresses gastric acid secretion and is a potent releasing factor of cholecystokinin peptide, which consistently indicate that the consumption of olive oil might be beneficial in digestive diseases.El aceite de oliva es una grasa monoinsaturada (rica en ácido oleico, compuesta por triglicéridos (>98% y componentes menores. En los procesos de digestión y absorción de los triglicéridos participan enzimas y se producen cambios fisicoquímicos. La lipasa gástrica es el componente mayoritario de la actividad lipolítica gástrica en humanos. La hidrólisis de los triglicéridos continúa en el duodeno, por la acción sinérgica de las lipasas g

  7. Anaerobic digestion in mesophilic and room temperature conditions: Digestion performance and soil-borne pathogen survival. (United States)

    Chen, Le; Jian, Shanshan; Bi, Jinhua; Li, Yunlong; Chang, Zhizhou; He, Jian; Ye, Xiaomei


    Tomato plant waste (TPW) was used as the feedstock of a batch anaerobic reactor to evaluate the effect of anaerobic digestion on Ralstonia solanacearum and Phytophthora capsici survival. Batch experiments were carried out for TS (total solid) concentrations of 2%, 4% and 6% respectively, at mesophilic (37±1°C) and room (20-25°C) temperatures. Results showed that higher digestion performance was achieved under mesophilic digestion temperature and lower TS concentration conditions. The biogas production ranged from 71 to 416L/kg VS (volatile solids). The inactivation of anaerobic digestion tended to increase as digestion performance improved. The maximum log copies reduction of R. solanacearum and P. capsici detected by quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) were 3.80 and 4.08 respectively in reactors with 4% TS concentration at mesophilic temperatures. However, both in mesophilic and room temperature conditions, the lowest reduction of R. solanacearum was found in the reactors with 6% TS concentration, which possessed the highest VFA (volatile fatty acid) concentration. These findings indicated that simple accumulation of VFAs failed to restrain R. solanacearum effectively, although the VFAs were considered poisonous. P. capsici was nearly completely dead under all conditions. Based on the digestion performance and the pathogen survival rate, a model was established to evaluate the digestate biosafety.

  8. Coupling System for Food Wastes Anaerobic Digestion and Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production with Ralstonia eutropha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new technology was developed to couple the anaerobic digestion of food wastes with production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acids were produced during food wastes anaerobic digestion and their concentrations reached 5.5, 1.8, 27.4 and 32.7 g/L, respectively under appropriate digestion conditions. The fermentative acids were transferred through a dialysis membrane to an air-lift reactor for PHA synthesis by Ralstonia eutropha. Dry cell concentration and PHA content reached 22.7 g/L and 72.6%, respectively. The obtained PHA was a copolymer of (-hydroxybutyrate (HB) and (-hydroxyvalerate (HV) with 2.8% (mole ratio) of HV units in polymer.

  9. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel


    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  10. Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater


    Kh S Karimov; Muhammad Abid


    ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C) inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tan...

  11. An Aerobic Digestion of Lime Sludge. (United States)


    AD-AL1B 502 AllMy MEDICAL BIOENGINEERING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT -- ETC F/6 13/2 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF LIME SLUDGE.U) JUL 82 EA KBYLINSKI, B A BELL...Applied for Digesters 1 and 3, Run 1 9262- 9313 .................................... 55 32. Volatile Solids Destroyed vs. Volatile Solids Applied for...CONCENTRATIONS Feed Effluent NH-N NH -N Reactor Run Julian Date mgfL mg/L 1 1 9261- 9313 100 203 1 1 9314-0008 58 243 2 1 9261-0008 72 147 3 1 9261

  12. Micro-PIXE study of Ag in digestive glands of a nano-Ag fed arthropod ( Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) (United States)

    Tkalec, Živa Pipan; Drobne, Damjana; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Štrus, Jasna; Pelicon, Primož; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Remškar, Maja


    Micro-proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) method was applied to study the micro-localization of silver (Ag) in digestive glands of a terrestrial arthropod (Porcellio scaber) after feeding on silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) dosed food. The aim of our work was to assess whether feeding on nano-Ag results in the assimilation of silver (Ag) in digestive gland cells. To study micro-localization and elemental distribution of Ag, the animals were fed on food dosed with nanoparticles for 14 days under controlled laboratory conditions. At the end of the feeding exposure, the animals were dissected and digestive glands prepared for micro-PIXE analyses and TEM investigation. The results obtained by micro-PIXE documented high amounts of Ag inside S-cells of the digestive gland epithelium; however, TEM investigation did not show particle aggregates inside digestive gland cells. Also no adverse effect on feeding behavior was recorded what is a measure of toxic effects. We explain the presence of Ag inside the cells as a result of the assimilation of dissoluted Ag ions from ingested nano-Ag particles. Assimilation of excessive amounts of ingested metal ions in S-cells is a well known metal detoxification mechanism in isopods. We discuss the advantages of using micro-PIXE for the micro-localization of elements in biological tissue in studies of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems.

  13. Micro-PIXE study of Ag in digestive glands of a nano-Ag fed arthropod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkalec, Ziva Pipan [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI- 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI- 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence, Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI- 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pongrac, Paula [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI- 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana; Strus, Jasna [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI- 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, Primoz, E-mail: [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vavpetic, Primoz; Grlj, Natasa [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Remskar, Maja [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence, Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Micro-proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) method was applied to study the micro-localization of silver (Ag) in digestive glands of a terrestrial arthropod (Porcellio scaber) after feeding on silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) dosed food. The aim of our work was to assess whether feeding on nano-Ag results in the assimilation of silver (Ag) in digestive gland cells. To study micro-localization and elemental distribution of Ag, the animals were fed on food dosed with nanoparticles for 14 days under controlled laboratory conditions. At the end of the feeding exposure, the animals were dissected and digestive glands prepared for micro-PIXE analyses and TEM investigation. The results obtained by micro-PIXE documented high amounts of Ag inside S-cells of the digestive gland epithelium; however, TEM investigation did not show particle aggregates inside digestive gland cells. Also no adverse effect on feeding behavior was recorded what is a measure of toxic effects. We explain the presence of Ag inside the cells as a result of the assimilation of dissoluted Ag ions from ingested nano-Ag particles. Assimilation of excessive amounts of ingested metal ions in S-cells is a well known metal detoxification mechanism in isopods. We discuss the advantages of using micro-PIXE for the micro-localization of elements in biological tissue in studies of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems.

  14. Optimization of solid state anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW by digestate recirculation: A new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michele, Pognani, E-mail: [Gruppo Ricicla – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Soil and Env. Lab, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Giuliana, D’Imporzano, E-mail: [Gruppo Ricicla – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Soil and Env. Lab, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gruppo Ricicla - DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Biomass and Bioenergy Lab., Parco Tecnologico Padano, Via Einstein, Loc. Codazza, 26900 Lodi (Italy); Carlo, Minetti, E-mail: [Ecodeco, a2a Group, Cascina Darsena 1, 27010 Giussago, Pavia (Italy); Sergio, Scotti, E-mail: [Ecodeco, a2a Group, Cascina Darsena 1, 27010 Giussago, Pavia (Italy); Fabrizio, Adani, E-mail: [Gruppo Ricicla – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Soil and Env. Lab, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gruppo Ricicla - DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Biomass and Bioenergy Lab., Parco Tecnologico Padano, Via Einstein, Loc. Codazza, 26900 Lodi (Italy)


    Highlights: • Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD) of OFMSW can be optimized by irrigation with digestate. • Digestate spreading allows keeping optimal process parameters and high hydrolysis rate. • The 18.4% of CH{sub 4} was produced in the reactor, leaving the 49.7% in the percolate. • Successive CSTR feed with percolate shows a biogas enriched in methane (more than 80%). • The proposed process allow producing the 68% of OFMSW potential CH{sub 4}, getting high quality organic amendment. - Abstract: Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of OFMSW was optimized in order to produce biogas avoiding the use of solid inoculum. Doing so the dry AD was performed irrigating the solid waste with liquid digestate (flow rate of 1:1.18–1:0.9 w/w waste/digestate; 21 d of hydraulic retention time – HRT) in order to remove fermentation products inhibiting AD process. Results indicated that a high hydrolysis rate of organic matter (OM) and partial biogas production were obtained directly during the dry AD. Hydrolysate OM was removed from digester by the percolate flow and it was subsequently used to feed a liquid anaerobic digester. During dry AD a total loss of 36.9% of total solids was recorded. Methane balance indicated that 18.4% of potential methane can be produced during dry AD and 49.7% by the percolate. Nevertheless results obtained for liquid AD digestion indicated that only 20.4% and 25.7% of potential producible methane was generated by adopting 15 and 20 days of HRT, probably due to the AD inhibition due to high presence of toxic ammonia forms in the liquid medium.

  15. Building Halos by Digesting Satellites (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    We think galactic halos are built through the addition of material from the smaller subhalos of satellites digested by their hosts. Though most of the stars in Milky-Way-mass halos were probably formed in situ, many were instead accumulated over time, as orbiting dwarf galaxies were torn apart and their stars flung throughout the host galaxy. A recent set of simulations has examined this brutal formation process.In the authors simulations, a subhalo first falls into the host halo. At this point, it can either survive to present day as a satellite galaxy, or it can be destroyed, its stars scattering throughout the host halo. [Deason et al. 2016]Subhalo FateThere are many open questions about the growth of Milky-Way-mass halos from the accretion of subhalos. Which subhalos are torn apart and accreted, and which ones survive intact? Are more small or large subhalos accreted? Does subhalo accretion affect the host galaxys metallicity? And what can we learn from all of this about the Milky Ways formation history?In a recently published study, a team of scientists from Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory set out to answer these questions using a suite of 45 zoom-in simulations of Milky-Way-mass halos. Led by Alis Deason, the team tracked the accretion history of these 45 test galaxies to determine how their halos were built.Piecing Together HistoryDeason and collaborators reach several new and interesting conclusions based on the outcomes of their simulations.Average accreted stellar mass from destroyed dwarfs for each host halo, as a function of the time of the last major accretion event. More stellar mass is accreted in more recent accretion events. [Deason et al. 2016]Most of the stellar mass accreted by the Milky-Way-mass halos typically comes from only one or two destroyed dwarfs. The accreted dwarfs are usually low-mass if they were accreted early on in the simulation (i.e., in the early universe), and high-mass if they were accreted

  16. Tryptic digestion of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter: effects on ligand binding and tryptophan fluorescence. (United States)

    May, J M; Qu, Z C; Beechem, J M


    The conformation of the human erythrocyte glucose transport protein has been shown to determine its susceptibility to enzymatic cleavage on a large cytoplasmic loop. We took the converse approach and investigated the effects of tryptic digestion on the conformational structure of this protein. Exhaustive tryptic digestion of protein-depleted erythrocyte ghosts decreased the affinity of the residual transporter for cytochalasin B by 3-fold but did not affect the total number of binding sites. Tryptic digestion also increased the affinity of the residual transporter for D-glucose and inward-binding sugar phenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside but decreased that for the outward-binding 4,6-O-ethylidene glucose. These results suggest that tryptic cleavage stabilized the remaining transporter in an inward-facing conformation, but one with decreased affinity for cytochalasin B. The steady-state fluorescence emission scan of the purified reconstituted glucose transport protein was unaffected by tryptic digestion. Addition of increasing concentrations of potassium iodide resulted in linear Stern-Volmer plots, which were also unaffected by prior tryptic digestion. The tryptophan oxidant N-bromosuccinimide was investigated to provide a more sensitive measure of tryptophan environment. This agent irreversibly inhibited 3-O-methylglucose transport in intact erythrocytes and cytochalasin B binding in protein-depleted ghosts, with a half-maximal effect observed for each activity at about 0.3-0.4 nM. Treatment of purified glucose transport protein with N-bromosuccinimide resulted in a time-dependent quench of tryptophan fluorescence, which was resolved into two components by nonlinear regression using global analysis. Tryptic digestion retarded the rate of oxidation of the more slowly reacting class of tryptophans. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Impact of structural characteristics on starch digestibility of cooked rice. (United States)

    Tamura, Masatsugu; Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Ogawa, Yukiharu


    To examine the impact of structural characteristics of cooked rice grains on their starch digestibility, a simulated in vitro gastro-small intestinal digestion technique was applied to intact and homogenised cooked rice samples. The starch hydrolysis percentage increased during simulated small intestinal digestion, in which approximately 65% and 24% of the starch was hydrolysed within the first 5min, for homogenised and intact cooked rice, respectively. The kinetic constant of homogenised cooked rice, which was regarded as an estimated digestion rate, was ∼8 times higher than the intact cooked rice. The homogenised and intact samples were also examined for any microstructural changes occurring during the in vitro digestion process using fluorescent and scanning electron microscopy. In the intact samples, the aleurone layers of the endosperm remained as thin-film like layers during in vitro digestion and thus may be regarded as less digestible materials that influence cooked rice digestibility.

  18. Recovery of nutrients from biogas digestate with biochar and clinoptilolite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocaturk, N.P.


    The liquid fraction of digestate contains nutrients which makes it a valuable fertiliser in agricultural crop production systems. However, direct application of digestate may raise practical and environmental problems. Therefore, processes to concentrate nutrients have been proposed aiming not only

  19. Rapid determination of total Kjeldahl nitrogen using microwave digestion. (United States)

    Lo, K V; Wong, W T; Liao, P H


    A closed-vessel microwave digestion process for the determination of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) has been developed for sewage and wastewater. TKN values obtained from the microwave digestion method were in excellent agreement with those of the thermal digestion method. The accuracy of both analytical methods is comparable. In comparison to the conventional thermal digestion, the microwave method shortened the time required for complete digestion from 4 h to 25 min, and also decreased the maximum digestion temperature from 380 degrees C to 200 degrees C. This developed method may contribute to a significant reduction in sample digestion time, resulting in an increase in analytical throughput. The microwave digestion method developed in this study could be a rapid and efficient means for TKN determination for sewage wastewater and sludge.

  20. The effects of gastric digestion on codfish allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Untersmayr, Eva; Poulsen, Lars K.; Platzer, Michael H;


    In a recent murine study, we showed that impaired gastric digestion supports the induction of fish allergy by protecting the digestion-sensitive major allergen parvalbumin and thus enhancing its sensitizing properties....

  1. Digestion of Nucleic Acids Starts in the Stomach. (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Dong, Ping; An, Ran; Xue, Changhu; Ge, Yinlin; Wei, Liangzhou; Liang, Xingguo


    The ingestion of nucleic acids (NAs) as a nutritional supplement or in genetically modified food has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. Discussions over the fate of NAs led us to study their digestion in the stomach. Interestingly, we found that NAs are digested efficiently by human gastric juice. By performing digests with commercial, recombinant and mutant pepsin, a protein-specific enzyme, we learned that the digestion of NAs could be attributed to pepsin rather than to the acidity of the stomach. Further study showed that pepsin cleaved NAs in a moderately site-specific manner to yield 3'-phosphorylated fragments and the active site to digest NAs is probably the same as that used to digest protein. Our results rectify the misunderstandings that the digestion of NAs in the gastric tract begins in the intestine and that pepsin can only digest protein, shedding new light on NA metabolism and pepsin enzymology.

  2. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B


    In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour...... of the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly water......-soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces...

  3. Effect of in vitro digested cod liver oil of different quality on oxidative, proteomic and inflammatory responses in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Karin; Istenič, Katja; Wulff, Tune;


    BACKGROUND: Upon oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil, either before ingestion or, as recently shown, during the gastro-intestinal passage, a cascade of potentially cytotoxic peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, can form. In this study, we di...

  4. Digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine ratio in diets for laying hens from 24 to 40 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arele Arlindo Calderano


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the ideal digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine ratio in diets for laying hens from 24 to 40 weeks of age. Two hundred and forty Hy-Line W-36 laying hens at 24 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments, eight replicates and six birds per experimental unit. The digestible tryptophan levels in the experimental diets were 1.57; 1.68; 1.79; 1.90 and 2.01 g/kg, providing ratios of digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine of 0.215; 0.230; 0.245; 0.260 and 0.275. The increase in the levels of digestible tryptophan in the diet linearly improved the feed intake, digestible tryptophan intake, digestible lysine intake, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion per egg mass and utilization efficiency of digestible lysine for eggs mass. There were quadratic effects from the digestible tryptophan levels on egg weight. For the efficiency of utilization of digestible lysine for egg mass, there was better adjustment of the data to the LRP model. The level of digestible tryptophan in the diet from which the plateau occurred was 0.184%. This level corresponded to the intake of 142 mg/bird/day of digestible tryptophan and digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine ratio of 0.252. The ideal digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine ratio recommended in diets for laying hens from 24 to 40 weeks of age is 0.252 (25.2%.

  5. Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Estes


    Full Text Available “Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome” is a hands-on activity designed to demonstrate the dynamics of microbiome ecology using dried pasta and beans to model disturbance events in the human digestive system microbiome. This exercise demonstrates how microbiome diversity is influenced by: 1 niche availability and habitat space and 2 a major disturbance event, such as antibiotic use. Students use a pictorial key to examine prepared models of digestive system microbiomes to determine what the person with the microbiome “ate.” Students then model the effect of taking antibiotics by removing certain “antibiotic sensitive” pasta. Finally, they add in “environmental microbes” or “native microbes” to recolonize the digestive system, determine how resilient their model microbome community is to disturbance, and discuss the implications. Throughout the exercise, students discuss differences in the habitat space available and microbiome community diversity. This exercise can be modified to discuss changes in the microbiome due to diet shifts and the emergence of antibiotic resistance in more depth.

  6. Anaerobic digestion in sustainable biomass chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.


    This thesis evaluates the potential contribution of anaerobic digestion (AD) to the sustainability of biomass chains. Results provide insights in the technological potential to recover energy and valuable by-products from energy crops and residues, and evaluate biomass cascades involving AD technolo

  7. Digestive Endoscopy in Morocco: What Future Perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor Adil Ibrahimi


    Full Text Available Interventional endoscopy has evolved in parallel with diagnostic endoscopy and throughout the years, the performance of interventional endoscopy has proved to be efficient in improving morbidity and mortality in many diseases: biliopancreatic catheterism, dilatations of most stenosis in different parts of the digestive tube, haemostatic treatment, prosthetic fitting and installation, as well as benign and malignant tumors removal (polypectomy, mucosectomy....

  8. Diversity Digest. Volume 9, Number 3 (United States)

    Musil, Caryn McTighe, Ed.; Hovland, Kevin, Ed.


    This issue of "Diversity Digest" grows out of one recent effort to raise the visibility of science in diversity and global learning initiatives. Articles in this issue include: (1) Science, Diversity, and Global Learning: Untangling Complex Problems (Kevin Hovland); (2) Breaking the Pyramid: Putting Science in the Core (Darcy Kelley);…

  9. Diversity Digest. Volume 9, Number 2 (United States)

    Musil, Caryn McTighe, Ed.; Hovland, Kevin, Ed.


    Published by the Association of American Colleges and Universities, this issue of "Diversity Digest" focuses on institutional leadership and how it advances diversity in higher education. Articles presented in this issue include: (1) Intercultural Learning for Inclusive Excellence (Edgar Beckham); (2) Demanding, Attracting, and Developing…

  10. Involving Migrant Families in Education. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Martinez, Yolanda G.; Velazquez, Jose A.

    This digest describes parent involvement in their children's education from the perspective of migrant parents and educators and offers strategies to enhance the experience of schooling for migrant students and their families. Teachers often perceive parent involvement as preparing children for school, attending school events, and fulfilling…

  11. Matrix Sampling of Test Items. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Childs, Ruth A.; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    This Digest describes matrix sampling of test items as an approach to achieving broad coverage while minimizing testing time per student. Matrix sampling involves developing a complete set of items judged to cover the curriculum, then dividing the items into subsets and administering one subset to each student. Matrix sampling, by limiting the…

  12. Mechanically processed corn silage digestibility and intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Franco da Silveira


    Full Text Available The dry matter content increase due to the extension of the harversted period beginning and the kind of hybrid used can affect the starch digestibility and voluntary intake of ruminants. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the best corn hybrid and processing type of silage corn, and evaluate the possible effects on starch digestibility and voluntary intake of lambs. It was used 24 Santa Inês lambs with average age of three months and average initial weight of 25.0 kg. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2 factorial design (dent and flint hybrids; crushed and not crushed. The processing of the dent hybrid resulted in less dry matter intake (0.583 kg/day associated to higher total digestibility of dry matter and starch, 68.21 and 95.33% respectively. Thus, the processing of corn plants used for silage should be performed on hybrids with the dent grain texture to provide the best digestibility of silage to lambs.

  13. Political Communication via the Media. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…

  14. Children's Nutrition and Learning. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This digest reviews research on the link between children's nutrition and their ability to learn from the prenatal through school years. It also discusses the importance of nutrition education for children. The need for adequate nutrition during pregnancy and the preschool years is highlighted by research that indicates that low birthweight…

  15. Liderazgo etico (Ethical Leadership). ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest in Spanish outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethical dilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite sense…

  16. Liderazgo visionario (Visionary Leadership). ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    "Vision" is one of the most frequently used buzzwords in the education literature of the 1990s. This digest in Spanish presents an overview of visionary leadership, which many education experts consider to be a make-or-break task for the school leader. It discusses various definitions of vision, the significance of vision for…

  17. Manejo de riesgo (Risk Management). ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Gaustad, Joan

    The ordinary conduct of school business is accompanied today by risks that were rare or unknown a few decades ago. This ERIC Digest in Spanish discusses how risk management, a concept long used by corporate decision makers, can help school boards and administrators conserve their districts' assets. Risk management is a coordinated effort to…

  18. Indicadores educacionales (Educational Indicators). ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Educators use informal theories and assumptions to guide their actions, yet often fail to evaluate these beliefs. This ERIC Digest in Spanish examines the nature and purpose of educational-indicator systems and discusses the design of report cards by which schools can inform the public of their performance. An indicator is any statistic that casts…

  19. A Science Fair Companion. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    McCann, Wendy Sherman

    This digest comments on various aspects of school science fairs. General expectations for science fair projects and participants are discussed, and tips for choosing a topic and completing a project are given. Organizational strategies for teachers charged with conducting science fairs are presented. Guidelines for parents in helping children with…

  20. Nutrient Digestion and Utilization in Farm Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; France, J.


    The purpose of this book is to present current research in modelling nutrient digestion and utilization in cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry and fish. The book is organised into six sections that cover a range of topics and modelling approaches; these are (i) absorption and passage; (ii) growth and devel

  1. Comparison of digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters as inocula for solid state anaerobic digestion of yard trimmings. (United States)

    Xu, Fuqing; Wang, Feng; Lin, Long; Li, Yebo


    To select a proper inoculum for the solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of yard trimmings, digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters were compared at substrate-to-inoculum (S/I) ratios from 0.2 to 2 (dry basis), and total solids (TS) contents from 20% to 35%. The highest methane yield of around 244L/kg VSfeed was obtained at an S/I ratio of 0.2 and TS content of 20% for both types of inoculum. The highest volumetric methane productivity was obtained with dewatered effluent at an S/I ratio of 0.6 and TS content of 24%. The two types of inoculum were found comparable regarding methane yields and volumetric methane productivities at each S/I ratio, while using dewatered effluent as inoculum reduced the startup time. An S/I ratio of 1 was determined to be a critical level and should be set as the upper limit for mesophilic SS-AD of yard trimmings.

  2. Issues in Media Ethics. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that over the past decade incidents have occurred and new technologies have appeared which together have raised questions about the ethical values of American journalists, this Digest seeks to identify some of those ethical issues and to point to the work of those who have studied these issues. It addresses issues of plagiarism and…

  3. Working with Working Families. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    King, Margaret

    This ERIC Digest offers tips for understanding the needs, concerns, and feelings of employed parents, and discusses ways child caregivers can involve working parents in their children's lives while the children are enrolled in child care facilities. Competition with the caregiver, guilt over leaving children in the care of others, and little time…

  4. Migrant Farmworkers and Their Children. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Martin, Philip

    This digest reviews the population characteristics of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their children. Since the 1960s, federal programs for migrant workers and their families have multiplied. However, these programs have differing definitions for "migrant and seasonal farmworker," and no current data system provides a reliable count…

  5. Effective Teaching in Distance Education. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Mielke, Dan

    Distance education is an alternative method for delivering academic course work to students unable to attend traditional campus-based classes. This Digest presents information on the many forms of distance education and keys to successful teaching with distance education. Distance education is a method of education in which the learner is…

  6. Clinical Application of Stents in Digestive Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yongsong


    Objective To evaluate clinical application of therapeutic stenting of digestive diseases as a new approach from conventional management. Methods 115 cases of disorders in digestive system were managed with stents clinically, 148 procedures of intervention in all. The cases were suffering from portal hypertension of cirrhosis, post - operative esophageal stricture, Stricture resulted from esophageal carcinoma, Buddi - Chari syndrome, narrowing of superior mesentery arteries and biliary tract, etc. All had had the strictured or obliterated original natural tube lumen been dilated or recanalized under the guidance of monitoring of the fluoroscope before the stent placement except those receiving TIPS needing the creation of an artificial passage within the liver to place the stent. Results Therapeutic stenting achieves clinical effects completely different from conventional internal medicine and surgery such as portal hypertension by cirrhosis with esophageal varices, megalospleen, ascites improved; jaundis relived then resided and liver function improved and appetite better in postoperative stricture of bile duct; ascites and edema of lower limbs resided in Buddi - Chari syndrom; intestininal distention disappeared, appetite and digestive function improved in stricture in superior mesentery artery; and no dysphagia and easy food intake, appetite improved in patients of stricture of postoperative esophagus and stricture resulted from esophageal carcinoma. Conclusion Therapeutic stenting is clinically unique, dramatically effective, with minor risks and worthy promoting in the management of certain digestive disorders.

  7. Student Mobility and Academic Achievement. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Rumberger, Russell W.

    Student mobility--students moving from one school to another for reasons other than being promoted to the next school level-is widespread in the United States. This digest examines the research on the academic consequences of mobility for elementary school students and discusses what schools and parents can do to mitigate the possible negative…

  8. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.


    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the conversion of th

  9. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed (United States)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.


    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  10. Advertising in the Schools. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Aidman, Amy

    This digest reviews the recent history of advertising to children, spotlights controversial marketing efforts, and examines the nature of commercial messages directed toward children in public schools. Because of the increase in children's spending power in recent decades, advertisers have closely targeted children as consumers. Advertising…

  11. Foaming phenomenon in bench-scale anaerobic digesters. (United States)

    Siebels, Amanda M; Long, Sharon C


    The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District (The District) in Madison, Wisconsin has been experiencing seasonal foaming in their anaerobic biosolids digesters, which has occurred from mid-November to late June for the past few years. The exact cause(s) of foaming is unknown. Previous research findings are unclear as to whether applications of advanced anaerobic digestion processes reduce the foaming potential of digesters. The object of this study was to investigate how configurations of thermophilic and acid phase-thermophilic anaerobic digestion would affect foaming at the bench-scale level compared to single stage mesophilic digestion for The District. Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were fed with a 4 to 4.5% by dry weight of solids content blend of waste activated sludge (WAS) and primary sludge from The District. Foaming potential was monitored using Alka-Seltzer and aeration foaming tests. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digester had a higher foaming potential than the bench-scale mesophilic digester. These results indicate that higher temperatures increase the foaming potential of the bench-scale anaerobic digesters. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digesters had a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) volatile solids destruction and a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) total solids destruction when compared to the bench-scale mesophilic digester. Overall, for the full-scale foaming experienced by The District, it appears that adding an acid phase or switching to thermophilic digestion would not alleviate The District's foaming issues.

  12. Inactivation of dairy manure-borne pathogens by anaerobic digestion (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of animal manure has the potential to inactivate enteric pathogens, thereby reducing exposures to livestock and humans when the products of digestion are disposed by land-spreading or irrigation or returned to livestock uses such as bedding. Data on digester effectiv...

  13. Birth of the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation. (United States)

    Beck, Ivan T


    The Canadian Digestive Disease Foundation, renamed the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation--Fondation canadienne pour la promotion de la santé digestive--in December 2001, is the culmination of ongoing efforts by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology to establish an independent charitable organization. In February 2001, it was officially endorsed as the Foundation for the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. The initial efforts to establish this Foundation, led by Dr Richard McKenna in 1963, were unsuccessful. In 1991, Glaxo Canada (now GlaxoSmithKline) became a founding donor, and with the four founding physicians--Drs Ivan T Beck, Richard H Hunt, Suzanne E Lemire and Alan BR Thomson--the expenses to establish the Foundation were met. A charitable number was obtained in 1995 (0997427-11). The second founding donor was Janssen Canada (now Janssen-Ortho), and public education support came from Astra Canada (now AstraZeneca Canada). The Foundation initially relied on corporate donors, but now approaches physicians, patients and the general public. The objectives of the Foundation are to advance the science of gastroenterology and to provide knowledge of digestive diseases and nutrition to the general public, to enhance the quality of life of persons who are afflicted with these disorders. The major achievements of the Foundation are the provision of one-year operating grants to new investigators, which have allowed them to accumulate early data and subsequently obtain support from other major granting organizations. It also provides Fellowships and studentship support grants, in conjunction with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the pharmaceutical industry. The education committee found that there was little research support in this field, considering the large economic burden of digestive disease and the amount of outstanding work done by Canadian researchers. A bilingual Web site, a web-based specialist's discussion program and bilingual

  14. Endoscopy in screening for digestive cancer. (United States)

    Lambert, René


    The aim of this study is to describe the role of endoscopy in detection and treatment of neoplastic lesions of the digestive mucosa in asymptomatic persons. Esophageal squamous cell cancer occurs in relation to nutritional deficiency and alcohol or tobacco consumption. Esophageal adenocarcinoma develops in Barrett's esophagus, and stomach cancer in chronic gastric atrophy with Helicobacter pylori infection. Colorectal cancer is favoured by a high intake in calories, excess weight, low physical activity. In opportunistic or individual screening endoscopy is the primary detection procedure offered to an asymptomatic individual. In organized or mass screening proposed by National Health Authorities to a population, endoscopy is performed only in persons found positive to a filter selection test. The indications of primary upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy in opportunistic screening are increasingly developing over the world. Organized screening trials are proposed in some regions of China at high risk for esophageal cancer; the selection test is cytology of a balloon or sponge scrapping; they are proposed in Japan for stomach cancer with photofluorography as a selection test; and in Europe, America and Japan; for colorectal cancer with the fecal occult blood test as a selection test. Organized screening trials in a country require an evaluation: the benefit of the intervention assessed by its impact on incidence and on the 5 year survival for the concerned tumor site; in addition a number of bias interfering with the evaluation have to be controlled. Drawbacks of screening are in the morbidity of the diagnostic and treatment procedures and in overdetection of none clinically relevant lesions. The strategy of endoscopic screening applies to early cancer and to benign adenomatous precursors of adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic endoscopy is conducted in 2 steps: at first detection of an abnormal area through changes in relief, in color or in the course of

  15. Anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and crude glycerol at mesophilic conditions: biogas and digestate. (United States)

    Astals, S; Nolla-Ardèvol, V; Mata-Alvarez, J


    Crude glycerol derived from biodiesel production is characterized by its high concentration of organic carbon and its solubility in water; properties that make it a suitable co-substrate to improve the efficiency of a manure digester. An increase of about 400% in biogas production was obtained under mesophilic conditions when pig manure was co-digested with 4% of glycerol, on a wet-basis, compared to mono-digestion. The increase in biogas production was mainly a consequence of the increase in organic loading rate. However, the differences could also be related to the synergy between both substrates and the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Moreover, the analysis of the macro-compounds, protein, lipids, carbohydrates and fibers, showed lower removal efficiencies in the co-digester as the microorganisms obtained nutrients from the soluble carbohydrates provided by the glycerol. The digestate stability, evaluated through a respirometric assay, showed that co-substrate addition does not exert a negative impact on digestate quality.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilin Song,


    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is considered the most abundant renewable resource that has the potential to contribute remarkably in the supply of biofuel. Previous studies have shown that chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion (AD can increase the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass and methane yield. In the present study, the effect of rice straw pretreatment using ammonium hydroxide (NH3•H2O and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the biogasification performance through AD was investigated. A self-designed, laboratory-scale, and continuous anaerobic biogas digester was used for the evaluation. Results showed that the contents of the rice straw, i.e. the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose were degraded significantly after the NH3•H2O and H2O2 treatments, and that biogas production from all pretreated rice straw increased. In addition, the optimal treatments for biogas production were the 4% and 3% H2O2 treatments (w/w, which yielded 327.5 and 319.7 mL/gVS, biogas, respectively, higher than the untreated sample. Biogas production from H2O2 pretreated rice straw was more favorable than rice straw pretreated with same concentration of ammonia, ranking in the order of 4% ≈ 3% > 2% > 1%. The optimal amount of H2O2 treatment for rice straw biogas digestion is 3% when economics and biogas yields are considered.

  17. Induced and constitutive responses of digestive enzymes to plant toxins in an herbivorous mammal. (United States)

    Kohl, Kevin D; Dearing, M Denise


    Many plants produce plant secondary compounds (PSCs) that bind and inhibit the digestive enzymes of herbivores, thus limiting digestibility for the herbivore. Herbivorous insects employ several physiological responses to overcome the anti-nutritive effects of PSCs. However, studies in vertebrates have not shown such responses, perhaps stemming from the fact that previously studied vertebrates were not herbivorous. The responses of the digestive system to dietary PSCs in populations of Bryant's woodrat (Neotoma bryanti) that vary in their ecological and evolutionary experience with the PSCs in creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) were compared. Individuals from naïve and experienced populations were fed diets with and without added creosote resin. Animals fed diets with creosote resin had higher activities of pancreatic amylase, as well as luminal amylase and chymotrypsin, regardless of prior experience with creosote. The experienced population showed constitutively higher activities of intestinal maltase and sucrase. Additionally, the naïve population produced an aminopeptidase-N enzyme that was less inhibited by creosote resin when feeding on the creosote resin diet, whereas the experienced population constitutively expressed this form of aminopeptidase-N. Thus, the digestive system of an herbivorous vertebrate responds significantly to dietary PSCs, which may be important for allowing herbivorous vertebrates to feed on PSC-rich diets.

  18. MALDI-TOF MS to monitor the kinetics of phospholipase A2-digestion of oxidized phospholipids. (United States)

    Schröter, Jenny; Süß, Rosmarie; Schiller, Jürgen


    Free fatty acids (FFA) are released through phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which cleaves the fatty acyl residue at the sn-2 position of phospholipids (PL). During inflammatory diseases, reactive oxygen species (such as HOCl) lead to the formation of oxidatively modified PL (e.g., chlorohydrin generation). It is still widely unknown to which extent the oxidation of PL influences their digestibility by PLA2. Additionally, investigations on the impact of the position of the unsaturated fatty acyl residue (sn-1 versus sn-2 position) and modifications of the headgroup (for instance phosphatidylcholine (PC) versus phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)) are also lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study is the investigation of these aspects using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to elucidate the PL/lysophospholipid (LPL) ratios as measures of the PLA2 digestibility. We will show that oxidative modifications of PL by HOCl have a considerable impact on the PLA2 digestibility, i.e., oxidation of the unsaturated fatty acyl residues leads to a reduced digestibility of both PC and PE. Besides, it will be shown that MALDI MS is a convenient and reliable tool to investigate the related changes.

  19. Co-digestion to support low temperature anaerobic pretreatment of municipal sewage in a UASB–digester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei Zhang,; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Kampman, C.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.


    The aim of this work was to demonstrate that co-digestion improves soluble sewage COD removal efficiency in treatment of low temperature municipal sewage by a UASB–digester system. A pilot scale UASB–digester system was applied to treat real municipal sewage, and glucose was chosen as a model co-sub

  20. Microbial distribution and abundance in the digestive system of five shipworm species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan A Betcher

    Full Text Available Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes of the gills (ctenidia. These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis. These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass: challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Surendra, K C; Takara, Devin; Oechsner, Hans; Khanal, Samir Kumar


    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of lignocellulosic biomass provides an excellent opportunity to convert abundant bioresources into renewable energy. Rumen microorganisms, in contrast to conventional microorganisms, are an effective inoculum for digesting lignocellulosic biomass due to their intrinsic ability to degrade substrate rich in cellulosic fiber. However, there are still several challenges that must be overcome for the efficient digestion of lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobic biorefinery is an emerging concept that not only generates bioenergy, but also high-value biochemical/products from the same feedstock. This review paper highlights the current status of lignocellulosic biomass digestion and discusses its challenges. The paper also discusses the future research needs of lignocellulosic biomass digestion.

  2. Human sensory-evoked responses differ coincident with either "fusion-memory" or "flash-memory", as shown by stimulus repetition-rate effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baird Bill


    Full Text Available Abstract Background: A new method has been used to obtain human sensory evoked-responses whose time-domain waveforms have been undetectable by previous methods. These newly discovered evoked-responses have durations that exceed the time between the stimuli in a continuous stream, thus causing an overlap which, up to now, has prevented their detection. We have named them "A-waves", and added a prefix to show the sensory system from which the responses were obtained (visA-waves, audA-waves, somA-waves. Results: When A-waves were studied as a function of stimulus repetition-rate, it was found that there were systematic differences in waveshape at repetition-rates above and below the psychophysical region in which the sensation of individual stimuli fuse into a continuity. The fusion phenomena is sometimes measured by a "Critical Fusion Frequency", but for this research we can only identify a frequency-region [which we call the STZ (Sensation-Transition Zone]. Thus, the A-waves above the STZ differed from those below the STZ, as did the sensations. Study of the psychophysical differences in auditory and visual stimuli, as shown in this paper, suggest that different stimulus features are detected, and remembered, at stimulation rates above and below STZ. Conclusion: The results motivate us to speculate that: 1 Stimulus repetition-rates above the STZ generate waveforms which underlie "fusion-memory" whereas rates below the STZ show neuronal processing in which "flash-memory" occurs. 2 These two memories differ in both duration and mechanism, though they may occur in the same cell groups. 3 The differences in neuronal processing may be related to "figure" and "ground" differentiation. We conclude that A-waves provide a novel measure of neural processes that can be detected on the human scalp, and speculate that they may extend clinical applications of evoked response recordings. If A-waves also occur in animals, it is likely that A-waves will provide

  3. Differential acylation in vitro with tetradecanoyl coenzyme A and tetradecanoic acid (+ATP) of three polypeptides shown to have induced synthesis in Photobacterium phosphoreum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, L.; Rodriguez, A.; Meighen, E.


    Acylation of extracts of Photobacterium phosphoreum at different stages of growth with (/sup 3/H)tetradecanoic acid (+ATP) has shown that two polypeptides found in the fatty acid reductase complex, the fatty acid activating enzyme (50K) and the 34K polypeptide, were specifically labeled during induction of the luminescent system. An alternate method for in vitro acylation of polypeptides in the luminescence system was developed using tetradecanoyl-CoA. Both the 34K polypeptide and, to a lesser extent, the acyl-CoA reductase component (58K) in the complex, were acylated with (/sup 3/H)tetradecanoyl-CoA. In contrast, the fatty acid activating enzyme (50K) was not labeled. Labeling of both the 34K and 58K polypeptides with (/sup 3/H)tetradecanoyl-CoA as well as the acyl-CoA reductase activity in extracts paralleled the induction of luciferase during growth. Differential labeling of P. phosphoreum cells with (/sup 35/S)methionine before luminescence induction and with (/sup 3/H)methionine after the onset of luminescence followed by purification of luciferase and the polypeptides in the fatty acid reductase complex demonstrated that the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of luciferase and the 34K, 50K and 58K polypeptides of the complex had /sup 3/H//sup 35/S ratios at least 7-fold higher than the constitutive proteins. These results give evidence that the synthesis of the component polypeptides of the fatty acid reductase are induced during the development of bioluminescence and may be under the same control as luciferase. The experiments also showed that P. phosphoreum may have the highest content of luciferase of any luminescent bacterium, constituting approximately 20% of the total soluble protein in extracts.

  4. Process performance and comparative metagenomic analysis during co-digestion of manure and lignocellulosic biomass for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura


    firmly attached to the digested grass particles and to distinguish them from the planktonic microbes floating in the liquid medium. It was shown that the methane yield of ensiled grass was significantly increased by 12.3% due to mechanical pretreatment in batch experiments. Similarly, the increment...... feedstock. Results from liquid samples revealed clear differences in microbial community composition, mainly dominated by Proteobacteria. The archaeal community was found in higher relative abundance in the liquid fraction of co-digestion experiment compared to the solid fraction. Finally, an unclassified...

  5. Anti-inflammatory properties of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract in an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium: the effect of gastrointestinal digestion. (United States)

    Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar


    Enrichment of fruit juices with pine bark extract (PBE) could be a strategy to compensate for phenolic losses during the gastrointestinal digestion. A coculture system with Caco-2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages was established as an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium for evaluating the anti-inflammatory capacity of fruit juices enriched with PBE (0.5 g L(-1)) before and after in vitro digestion. The digestion of both PBE-enriched pineapple and red fruit juice led to significant changes in most of the analysed phenolic compounds. The in vitro inflammatory state showed cell barrier dysfunction and overproduction of IL-8, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the inflamed cells, incubation with nondigested samples reduced (Pproperties of PBE-enriched fruit juices decreased after digestion; further research on the bioavailability of the assayed compounds is needed to properly assess their usefulness for the treatment of gut inflammation.

  6. High pressure processing of meat: effects on ultrastructure and protein digestibility. (United States)

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Astruc, Thierry; Vénien, Annie; Loison, Olivier; Cui, Jian; Irastorza, Marion; Boland, Mike


    The effects of high pressure processing (HPP, at 175 and 600 MPa) on the ultrastructure and in vitro protein digestion of bovine longissimus dorsi muscle meat were studied. HPP caused a significant change in the visual appearance and texture of the meat subjected to HPP at 600 MPa so that it appeared similar to cooked meat, unlike the meat subjected to HPP at 175 MPa that showed no significant visible change in the colour and texture compared to the raw meat. The muscles were subjected to digestion under simulated gastric conditions for 1 h and then under simulated small-intestinal conditions for a further 2 h. The digests were analysed using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and ninhydrin assay for amino N. The effect of the acid conditions of the stomach alone was also investigated. Reduced SDS-PAGE results showed that pepsin-digested (60 min) HPP meats showed fewer proteins or peptides of high molecular weight than the pepsin-digested untreated meat, suggesting more breakdown of the parent proteins in HPP-treated meats. This effect was more pronounced in the muscles treated at 600 MPa. These results are in accordance with microscopy results, which showed greater changes in the myofibrillar structure after simulated gastric digestion of the sample processed at 600 MPa than at 175 MPa. Transmission electron microscopy also showed the presence of protein aggregates in the former sample, resulting probably from protein denaturation of sarcoplasmic proteins, in the subcellular space and between myofibrils; along with cell contraction (similar to that caused by heating) in the former.

  7. Microanatomia e histologia do sistema digestivo de Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae: V. Glândula digestiva Microanatomy and histology of the digestive system of Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae: V. Digestive gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet


    Full Text Available The digestive gland of Phyllocaulis soleiformis is a compound tubular gland. The secretory tubules are made up of two main cell types: the digestive cells and calcic cells. The digestive cells are the most numerous, usually columnar, and exhibit three different functional stages: absorptive, secretory and excretory. These cells contain two cytoplasmic granules types and, in the excretory stage, most of the cell is occupied by a large vacuole. The calcic cells occursingly or frequently in groups of two or three, are triangular shaped and have distinct apical granules, and yet calcic histochemical detected granules. In addition, there is a third cell type, without characteristic cytoplasmic granules and which correspond to the undifferentiated cells. The excretory duets system are represented by anterior and posterior vestibules, which branche to form the duets, that communicate with the secretory tubules. These excretory duets are lined with a simple epithelium of ciliated columnar cells, followed by a layer of connective tissue with circular and longitudinal muscular fibers. Subepithelial mucous cells are present only in the vestibules.

  8. Starch and fiber properties affect their kinetics of digestion and thereby digestive physiology in pigs. (United States)

    Zijlstra, R T; Jha, R; Woodward, A D; Fouhse, J; van Kempen, T A T G


    Traditionally in swine nutrition, analyses of starch and fiber have focused on assessing quantity; however, both have a wide range of functional properties making them underappreciated nutrients. Starch ranging from low to high amylose changes from rapidly digestible in the upper gut to poorly digestible but fermentable in the lower gut thereby changing from a source of glucose to VFA source. Likewise, fibers ranging from low to high viscosity affect digesta flow and from slowly to rapidly fermentable alter production of VFA serving as energy for the gut or whole body. Our hypothesis is that total extent, kinetics, and site of digestion or fermentation of starch and fiber are important for whole body nutrient use and intestinal health. To elucidate their effects, we developed in vitro, lab-based methodologies to describe kinetics of digestion and fermentation and linked these with in vivo models including i) ileum cannulation to collect digesta, ii) portal-vein catheterization to sequentially sample blood, iii) slaughter method to collect site-specific intestinal tissue and digesta, and iv) indirect calorimetry. Using these methods, kinetics of nutrient absorption was associated with pancreatic and intestinal hormones released into the portal vein, intestinal microbiota, and gene expression in intestinal tissue and microbiota. These studies confirmed that slowly digestible starch is partially degraded in the distal small and large intestine and fermented into VFA including butyrate (10-fold increase in net portal appearance), which reduces insulin responses by 60% and whole body energy use. Starch entering the distal intestine altered mRNA abundance of nutrient transporters and was bifidogenic. Extremely viscous purified fiber dampened glycemic responses and reduced digesta passage rate by 50% thereby increasing ileal digestion of dietary nutrients whereas increased fiber in feed grains reduced nutrient digestibility. Fermentable fiber increased butyrate and

  9. The effect of very low food intake on digestive physiology and forage digestibility in horses. (United States)

    Clauss, M; Schiele, K; Ortmann, S; Fritz, J; Codron, D; Hummel, J; Kienzle, E


    Equid digestion is often conceptualized as a high-throughput/low-efficiency system, in particular compared with ruminants. It is commonly assumed that ruminants have an advantage when resources are limited; the effect of low food intake on digestive physiology of horses has, however, not been explored to our knowledge. We used four adult ponies [initial body mass (BM) 288 ± 65 kg] in two subsequent trials with grass hay-only diets [in dry matter (DM): hay1, mid-early cut, crude protein (CP) 10.5%, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) 67.6%; hay2, late cut, CP 5.8%, NDF 69.5%], each fed subsequently at four different dry matter intake (DMI) levels: ad libitum and at 75, 55 and 30 g/kg(0.75) /day. We particularly expected digesta mean retention times (MRT) to increase, and hence fibre digestibility to increase, with decreasing DMI. Ponies maintained BM on the first, but lost BM and body condition on DMI55 and DMI30. MRTs were negatively correlated to DMI and ranged (for particles Digestibilities of DM, nutrients and fibre components decreased from DMI75 to DMI30; apparent digestibilities of organic matter and NDF (hay1/2) dropped from 47/43% and 42/37%, respectively, on the ad libitum DMI to 35/35% and 30/28% on DMI30. Additional differences evident between the two hays included a higher estimated 'true' protein digestibility for hay1 and finer faecal particles on hay2; there were no differences in faecal particle size between intake levels. The results suggest that below a certain food intake threshold, the major digestive constraint is not fermentation time but nutrient supply to gut bacteria. The threshold for such an effect probably varies between feeds and might differ between ruminants and equids.

  10. Improvement of anaerobic digestion control from urban sludges; Mejora del control de la digestion anaerobia de fangos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minguez Gabina, R.


    Due to its many advantages, the anaerobic digestion is a widespread choice in our water treatment plants. Furthermore, the companies demand an optimization of the control of the process. Until today, the practice of the operation has been made modifying the conditions of the digester by controlling the outlet parameters of the digestion, so that a delay in the application of the corrections is enough to decrease the performance. The investigation concludes that the most secure way to drive an anaerobic digester is to mange a strict control of the inlet parameters into digestion process. (Author)

  11. 扬子鳄消化道Ghrelin免疫活性细胞的分布及其在冬眠期的密度变化%Distribution of ghrelin-immunoreactive cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis and their density change during hibernation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乃珍; 赵帅; 周永康; 王朝林; 张盛周


    目的 研究扬子鳄(Alligator sinensis)消化道中生长素释放肽ghrelin免疫活性(IR)细胞的分布、组织定位及其在冬眠期的变化.方法 应用链霉亲和素-生物素-过氧化物酶复合物(SABC)免疫组织化学方法结合生物统计学分析.结果 Ghrelin-IR细胞在扬子鳄的小胃密度最高,在胃贲门部、胃体和胃幽门部有少量分布,主要位于胃腺上皮细胞之间.在食管、十二指肠、空肠、回肠和直肠中均未检测出ghrelin-IR细胞.冬眠期小胃ghrelin-IR细胞显著性减少(P0.05).结论扬子鳄消化道ghrelin-IR细胞的分布同其它动物有相似之处,也有其一定的特异性.Ghrelin在扬子鳄冬眠期的代谢变化和能量稳态的调节中起重要作用.%Objective To investigate the distribution and localization of growth hormone releasing peptide (ghrelin) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis and the density change during hibernation. Methods Streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (SABC) immunohistochemical method was used in combination with biological statistical analysis. Results Ghrelin-IR cells occured with the highest density in the small stomach, with small quantity in the stomachus cardiacus, stomachus corpus and stomachus pyloricus, and they were mainly localized bet-ween epithelial cells of the gastric gland. No ghrelin-IR cells were detected in oesophagus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and rectum. During hibernation, the density of ghrelin-IR cells decreased significantly in the small stomach (P0. 05). Conclusion The distributional pattern of ghrelin-IR cells is similar to that of other animals, but some species-dependent unique features of the species were also found. Ghrelin may play an important role in the regulation of metabolic changes and energy homeostasis in Alligator sinensis during hibernation.

  12. Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Chiarioni; Olafur S Palsson; William E Whitehead


    Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves aRentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action.

  13. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 29 (United States)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)


    This is the twenty-ninth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It is a double issue covering two issues of the Soviet Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine Journal. Issue 29 contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A review of a book on environmental hygiene and a list of papers presented at a Soviet conference on space biology and medicine are also included. The materials in this issue were identified as relevant to 28 areas of space biology and medicine. The areas are: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, digestive system, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, space biology and medicine, and the economics of space flight.

  14. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus......, the first models were very simple and consisted of a limited number of equations. During the past thirty years much research has been conducted on the peculiarities of the process and on the factors that influence it on the one hand while an enormous progress took place in computer science on the other....... The combination of both parameters resulted in the development of more and more concise and complex models. In this chapter the most important models found in the literature are described starting from the simplest and oldest to the more recent and complex ones....

  15. Slowly digestible starch--a review. (United States)

    Miao, Ming; Jiang, Bo; Cui, Steve W; Zhang, Tao; Jin, Zhengyu


    The link between carbohydrate intake and health is becoming increasingly important for consumers, particularly in the areas of glycemic index (GI) and extended energy-releasing starches. From a physiological point of view, slowly digestible starch (SDS) delivers a slow and sustained release of blood glucose along with the benefits resulting from low glycemic and insulinemic response. SDS has been implicated in several health problems, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (metabolic syndromes). It may also have commercial potential as a novel functional ingredient in a variety of fields, such as nutrition, medicine, and agriculture. The present review assesses this form of digestion by analyzing methods to prepare and evaluate SDS, and factors affecting its transformation, its health benefits, and its applications.

  16. Effects of dairy manure and corn stover co-digestion on anaerobic microbes and corresponding digestion performance. (United States)

    Yue, Zhengbo; Chen, Rui; Yang, Fan; MacLellan, James; Marsh, Terence; Liu, Yan; Liao, Wei


    This study investigated the effects of corn stover as a supplemental feed on anaerobic digestion of dairy manure under different hydraulic retention times (HRT). The results elucidated that both HRT and corn stover supplement significantly influenced microbial community and corresponding anaerobic digestion performance. The highest biogas production of 497 mL per gram total solid loading per day was observed at a HRT of 40 days from digestion of manure supplemented with corn stover. Biogas production was closely correlated with the populations of Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and methanogens. Composition of the solid digestate (AD fiber) from the co-digestion of corn stover and dairy manure was similar to the digestion of dairy manure. However, the hydrolysis of AD fiber was significantly (P < 0.05) different among the different digestions. Both HRT and feed composition influenced the hydrolyzability of AD fiber via shifting the composition of microbial community.

  17. Biomethanization of sugar beet byproduct by semi-continuous single digestion and co-digestion with cow manure. (United States)

    Aboudi, Kaoutar; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Romero-García, Luis Isidoro


    Dried pellet of exhausted sugar beet cossettes were digested alone and combined with cow manure as co-substrate in a mesophilic semi-continuous anaerobic system. In single digestion assay, the stable biogas production and stable reactor operation was observed at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20days (OLR: 3.26gVS/Lreactord) which was the minimum HRT tolerated by the system. However, co-digestion with cow manure allowed to decrease the HRT until 15days (OLR: 4.97gVS/Lreactord) with 32% higher biogas generation and efficient reactor operation. Propionic acid was the predominant VFA observed during single digestion assay failure, while acetic acid accumulation was observed in the co-digestion assay. In both single and co-digestion assays, the recovery of digesters was possible by ceasing the feeding and re-inoculation with a well-adapted inoculum.

  18. Instrumentation and Control in Anaerobic Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has been lack of process control handles, instruments, and developed control algorithms. This has improved dramatically in the past 10 years, and all of these areas have now been addressed. The main gap in instrumentation technology has been a rapid intermediate sensor to detect overload conditions...... benchmark. There has therefore been, overall, a quantum advance in application and sophistication of instrumentation and control in anaerobic digestion, and it is an effective option for improved process loading rate and conversion efficiency....

  19. Anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes



    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica Anaerobic digestion is an already established process but the increasing need of bio‐waste recovery has determined the emergence of new substrates, revamping the research in this field. Contrary to some other European countries, in Portugal this technology is still scarcely in use. Nonetheless, the current legislation endorses this application as a waste management and as an energy recovery process. The rapid growth of the ...

  20. Digestion and absorption of olive oil


    Bermúdez, Beatriz; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; López, Sergio; Abia, Rocío; Muriana, Francisco J.G.


    Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid)-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98%) and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and...

  1. Digestion and absorption of olive oil


    Muriana, Francisco J.G.; Abia, Rocío; López, Sergio; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; Bermúdez, Beatriz


    Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid)-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 %) and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipas...

  2. Video Games and Children. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This digest examines data on video game use by children, explains ratings of video game violence, and reviews research on the effects of video games on children and adolescents. A recent study of seventh and eighth graders found that 65% of males and 57% of females played 1 to 6 hours of video games at home per week, and 38% of males and 16% of…

  3. Microflora of Digestive Tract in Poultry


    ALBAZAZ, Rojan I.; BÜYÜKÜNAL BAL, Emel Banu


    Abstract: The gut flora are microorganisms that normally live in digestive tract and can do a number of benefit functions for their host health and growth. The unicellular microorganisms are bacteria (predominant), fungi and protozoans. The intestine divided into three parts: the duodenum and small intestine where the number of bacteria relatively low, <108 g-1, the caeca where the microbial fermentation occurs and the number of bacteria present is approximately 1011 g-1 (wet weight) and t...

  4. The role of probiotics in digestive health


    Ouwehand, Arthur C.


    Arthur C Ouwehand Active Nutrition, DuPont Nutrition and Health, Kantvik, Finland Abstract: Although probiotics have documented health benefits outside the gastrointestinal tract, digestive health remains the key benefit for probiotics. Advances in technology have made even more in-depth analyses of the intestinal microbiota possible. Nevertheless, a healthy microbiota cannot be defined due to individual differences and changes with age. Probiotics, in general, will not cure or prevent disea...

  5. Monitoring of internal diseases dissemination (digestive disorders)


    Alipova L.N.; Chernenkov Yu.V.; Tyultyaeva L.A; Shuldyakov V.A.; Denisova T.P.; Sadjaya L.A.


    The most important forms of digestive pathology have been analyzed in a large industrial center for 16 years. Development of fragment of the phase portraits in a multidimensional space on the planes of «time dependence of the parameter — rate of its change» allowed forming prognosis for further course of specific nosology form of gastrointestinal tract lesion and optimizing treatment tactics

  6. Methane production by anaerobic digestion of biomass. Final report of innovative research program subtask, December 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, V G


    It has long been known that methane is produced during the anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes, but this potential source of fuel has not been greatly exploited in the United States. The chief reason is that anaerobic decomposition of lignocellulosic materials occurs very slowly, resulting in a need for long detention times and large digestion vessels, both of which markedly increase process costs. However, recent work at CSU has shown that pretreatment of manure fibers (an abundant agricultural waste) with saturated steam at 130 to 210/sup 0/C renders this material more susceptible to attack by microbial enzymes. The main objectives of this project were to identify the chemical events occurring during the steam treatment and to correlate these with the rate of methane generating during subsequent anaerobic digestion. The study was expected to lead to an optimal pretreatment strategy.

  7. Primary cell cultures of bovine colon epithelium: isolation and cell culture of colonocytes. (United States)

    Föllmann, W; Weber, S; Birkner, S


    Epithelial cells from bovine colon were isolated by mechanical preparation combined with an enzymatic digestion from colon specimens derived from freshly slaughtered animals. After digestion with collagenase I, the isolated tissue was centrifuged on a 2% D-sorbitol gradient to separate epithelial crypts which were seeded in collagen I-coated culture flasks. By using colon crypts and omitting the seeding of single cells a contamination by fibroblasts was prevented. The cells proliferated under the chosen culture conditions and formed monolayer cultures which were maintained for several weeks, including subcultivation steps. A population doubling time of about 21 hr was estimated in the log phase of the corresponding growth curve. During the culture period the cells were characterized morphologically and enzymatically. By using antibodies against cytokeratine 7 and 13 the isolated cells were identified as cells of epithelial origin. Antibodies against vimentin served as negative control. Morphological features such as microvilli, desmosomes and tight junctions, which demonstrated the ability of the cultured cells to restore an epithelial like monolayer, were shown by ultrastructural investigations. The preservation of the secretory function of the cultured cells was demonstrated by mucine cytochemistry with alcian blue staining. A stable expression of enzyme activities over a period of 6 days in culture occurred for gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, acid phosphatase and NADH-dehydrogenase activity under the chosen culture conditions. Activity of alkaline phosphatase decreased to about 50% of basal value after 6 days in culture. Preliminary estimations of the metabolic competence of these cells revealed cytochrome P450 1A1-associated EROD activity in freshly isolated cells which was stable over 5 days in cultured cells. Then activity decreased completely. This culture system with primary epithelial cells from the colon will be used further as a model for the colon

  8. [Digestion-flame atomic absorption spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Hu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Rui-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Min; Narenhua


    A microwave digestion-flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) method was developed for the determination of metal elements Na, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ca and Mg in Mongolian patents. The instrument parameters for the determination were optimized, and the appropriate digestion solvent was selected. The recovery of the method was between 95.8% and 104.3%, and the RSD was between 1.6% and 4.2%. The accuracy and precision of the method was tested by comparing the values obtained from the determination of the standard sample, bush twigs and leaves (GSV-1) by this method with the reference values of GSV-1. The determination results were found to be basically consistent with the reference values. The microwave digestion technique was applied to process the samples, and the experimental results showed that compared to the traditional wet method, the present method has the merits of simplicity, saving agents, rapidness, and non-polluting. The method was accurate and reliable, and could be used to determine the contents of seven kinds of metal elements in mongolian patents.

  9. Toxicologic disease of the digestive tract. (United States)

    Garland, T


    There is a diverse and long list of toxicants that can affect the digestive system of food-producing animals. The plants and other natural toxicants discussed in this article are those primarily affecting the GI system. A number of other plants may also affect the digestive tract, but the effects from these are considered secondary and less pronounced. Often, plant poisonings affecting the digestive tract present with similar clinical signs, and a good thorough history is necessary to help differentiate between them. Moreover, a careful walk through the pasture with a keen eye to note plants that have been browsed or grazed may greatly assist the history. In cases where toxins are suspected as the cause of a GI disorder, consultation with a veterinary toxicologist at a diagnostic laboratory may be indicated. These professionals are knowledgeable about a wide variety of natural and other toxicants that may be present in your area. They can help with developing a differential diagnosis and the selection of appropriate samples to confirm the diagnosis.

  10. Efficient Web Change Monitoring with Page Digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttler, D J; Rocco, D; Liu, L


    The Internet and the World Wide Web have enabled a publishing explosion of useful online information, which has produced the unfortunate side effect of information overload: it is increasingly difficult for individuals to keep abreast of fresh information. In this paper we describe an approach for building a system for efficiently monitoring changes to Web documents. This paper has three main contributions. First, we present a coherent framework that captures different characteristics of Web documents. The system uses the Page Digest encoding to provide a comprehensive monitoring system for content, structure, and other interesting properties of Web documents. Second, the Page Digest encoding enables improved performance for individual page monitors through mechanisms such as short-circuit evaluation, linear time algorithms for document and structure similarity, and data size reduction. Finally, we develop a collection of sentinel grouping techniques based on the Page Digest encoding to reduce redundant processing in large-scale monitoring systems by grouping similar monitoring requests together. We examine how effective these techniques are over a wide range of parameters and have seen an order of magnitude speed up over existing Web-based information monitoring systems.

  11. Development of the Digestive System-Experimental Challenges and Approaches of Infant Lipid Digestion. (United States)

    Abrahamse, Evan; Minekus, Mans; van Aken, George A; van de Heijning, Bert; Knol, Jan; Bartke, Nana; Oozeer, Raish; van der Beek, Eline M; Ludwig, Thomas


    At least during the first 6 months after birth, the nutrition of infants should ideally consist of human milk which provides 40-60 % of energy from lipids. Beyond energy, human milk also delivers lipids with a specific functionality, such as essential fatty acids (FA), phospholipids, and cholesterol. Healthy development, especially of the nervous and digestive systems, depends fundamentally on these. Epidemiological data suggest that human milk provides unique health benefits during early infancy that extend to long-lasting benefits. Preclinical findings show that qualitative changes in dietary lipids, i.e., lipid structure and FA composition, during early life may contribute to the reported long-term effects. Little is known in this respect about the development of digestive function and the digestion and absorption of lipids by the newborn. This review gives a detailed overview of the distinct functionalities that dietary lipids from human milk and infant formula provide and the profound differences in the physiology and biochemistry of lipid digestion between infants and adults. Fundamental mechanisms of infant lipid digestion can, however, almost exclusively be elucidated in vitro. Experimental approaches and their challenges are reviewed in depth.

  12. Enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale anaerobically digested sludge using free nitrous acid treatment. (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo


    In some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the ever increasing production of sludge with the expanding population overloaded the anaerobic digestion which compromises the sludge reduction efficiency. Post anaerobic digestion of anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) has been applied to enhance sludge reduction, however, to a very limited extent. This study verified the effectiveness of free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) pre-treatment on enhancing full-scale ADS degradation in post anaerobic digestion. The ADS collected from a full-scale WWTP was subject to FNA treatment at concentrations of 0.77, 1.54, 2.31, 3.08, and 3.85 mg N/L for 24 h followed by biochemical methane potential tests. The FNA treatment at all concentrations resulted in an increase (from 1.5-3.1 % compared to the control) in sludge reduction with the highest improvement achieved at 0.77 mg HNO2-N/L. The FNA treatment at this concentration also resulted in the highest increase in methane production (40 %) compared to the control. The economic analysis indicates that FNA treatment is economically attractive for enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale ADS.

  13. Ideal digestible lysine level for early- and late-finishing swine. (United States)

    Hahn, J D; Biehl, R R; Baker, D H


    Two hundred sixteen crossbred (PIC line 26 x Camborough 15) pigs were used in three trials to determine optimal digestible lysine levels during early (EF = 50 to 95 kg) and late (LF = 90 to 110 kg) finishing periods. Pigs were self-fed in sex groups of two in all trials. The assay diets for EF and LF periods were 11 and 10% CP corn-soybean meal diets, respectively, supplemented with threonine, methionine, tryptophan, valine, and isoleucine. Corn-soybean meal positive-control diets were included in each trial (14.5% CP for EF and 13.5% CP for LF). This dietary CP regimen was shown to give the same performance and carcass quality as a 17% CP corn-soybean meal diet fed during both EF and LF. Plateau portions of the lysine response curves resulted in performance levels that were equal to or greater than those achieved with pigs fed the 14.5/13.5% CP positive-control diets. Early-finishing pigs responded (P < .05) to graded doses of digestible lysine (.41 to .71%) for daily weight gain, gain:feed, longissimus muscle area, 10th-rib fat depth, lean gain, and plasma urea N. Digestible lysine requirement estimates based on average plateau points were .58% for EF barrows and .64% for EF gilts. Late-finishing pigs responded (P < .05) to digestible lysine doses (.35 to .65%) for daily weight gain, gain:feed, lean gain, and plasma urea N. Digestible lysine requirement estimates based on average plateau points were .49% for LF barrows and .52% for LF gilts.

  14. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayr, S., E-mail:; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.


    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  15. Fatores preditivos da transfusão de concentrado de hemácias em pacientes submetidos a cirurgias eletivas do aparelho digestivo: uma análise interinstitucional Predictive factors associated with packed red cell transfusions in patients submitted to elective surgery of the digestive tract: an inter-institutional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sergio Barcala Jorge


    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi compreender os fatores determinantes da prática transfusional de concentrado de hemácias em cirurgias eletivas do aparelho digestivo em quatro unidades hospitalares em Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, analítico e retrospectivo através do levantamento de dados em prontuários clínicos de quatro unidades hospitalares de onde foram catalogados os dados de pacientes a partir de junho de 2007 a dezembro de 2008, referentes às cirurgias citadas. Os resultados evidenciaram 81 casos, sendo 42% do gênero feminino e 58% do masculino. A idade média foi de 55,5 anos (±19,11 anos. As enfermidades de base reportadas mais comuns foram os processos neoplásicos (42%. Desses 81 pacientes, 38 (47% foram hemotransfundidos no pré-operatório imediato, 28 (18% foram transfundidos no transcirúrgico e 37 (45,7% no pós-operatório imediato. Na análise univariada houve diferenças entre a prática transfusional pré-cirúrgica interinstitucional. Na fase cirúrgica houve relação entre a prática transfusional com a citação de motivos, fator RH (Rhesus, prática institucional e doença de base. Na fase pós-cirúrgica não foram demonstradas relações. Em todas as fases, não houve associação da prática transfusional com os tipos de procedimentos cirúrgicos, com o índice ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology e valores de hemoglobina e hematócrito. Concluindo, esse estudo revelou que a prática transfusional foi heterogênea entre instituições hospitalares, careceu de valores laboratoriais específicos, relacionou-se com a patologia de base mas não com o tipo de procedimento cirúrgico e foi norteada pelo critério de escolha do profissional.The objective of this study was to understand the determinative factors for packed red cell transfusions in elective digestive tract surgeries in four hospital units in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Retrospective analyses were

  16. Chronic exposure to triclosan sustains microbial community shifts and alters antibiotic resistance gene levels in anaerobic digesters. (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Zitomer, Daniel H; Kappell, Anthony D; Choi, Melinda J; Hristova, Krassimira R; McNamara, Patrick J


    Triclosan, an antimicrobial chemical found in consumer personal care products, has been shown to stimulate antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. Although many studies focus on antibiotic resistance pertinent to medical scenarios, resistance developed in natural and engineered environments is less studied and has become an emerging concern for human health. In this study, the impacts of chronic triclosan (TCS) exposure on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and microbial community structure were assessed in lab-scale anaerobic digesters. TCS concentrations from below detection to 2500 mg kg(-1) dry solids were amended into anaerobic digesters over 110 days and acclimated for >3 solid retention time values. Four steady state TCS concentrations were chosen (30-2500 mg kg(-1)). Relative abundance of mexB, a gene coding for a component of a multidrug efflux pump, was significantly higher in all TCS-amended digesters (30 mg kg(-1) or higher) relative to the control. TCS selected for bacteria carrying tet(L) and against those carrying erm(F) at concentrations which inhibited digester function; the pH decrease associated with digester failure was suspected to cause this selection. Little to no impact of TCS was observed on intI1 relative abundance. Microbial communities were also surveyed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Compared to the control digesters, significant shifts in community structure towards clades containing commensal and pathogenic bacteria were observed in digesters containing TCS. Based on these results, TCS should be included in studies and risk assessments that attempt to elucidate relationships between chemical stressors (e.g. antibiotics), antibiotic resistance genes, and public health.

  17. Balancing hygienization and anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge. (United States)

    Astals, S; Venegas, C; Peces, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Mata-Alvarez, J


    The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 °C or by an 80 °C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 °C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery.

  18. Environmental assessment of digestate treatment technologies using LCA methodology. (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Golkowska, Katarzyna; Lebuf, Viooltje; Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Benetto, Enrico; Koster, Daniel


    The production of biogas from energy crops, organic waste and manure has augmented considerably the amounts of digestate available in Flanders. This has pushed authorities to steadily introduce legislative changes to promote its use as a fertilising agent. There is limited arable land in Flanders, which entails that digestate has to compete with animal manure to be spread. This forces many anaerobic digestion plants to further treat digestate in such a way that it can either be exported or the nitrogen be removed. Nevertheless, the environmental impact of these treatment options is still widely unknown, as well as the influence of these impacts on the sustainability of Flemish anaerobic digestion plants in comparison to other regions where spreading of raw digestate is allowed. Despite important economic aspects that must be considered, the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is suggested in this study to identify the environmental impacts of spreading digestate directly as compared to four different treatment technologies. Results suggest relevant environmental gains when the digestate mix is treated using the examined conversion technologies prior to spreading, although important trade-offs between impact categories were observed and discussed. The promising results of digestate conversion technologies suggest that further LCA analyses should be performed to delve into, for instance, the appropriateness to shift to nutrient recovery technologies rather than digestate conversion treatments.

  19. Processing biogas plant digestates into value-added products - BIOVIRTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paavola, T. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)), e-mail:; Torniainen, M. (Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail:; Kaparaju, P. (Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)), e-mail: (and others)


    The objective of BIOVIRTA project is to develop technologies and practices with which digestates, originating from anaerobic digestion of different organic wastes and by-products can be refined to value-added and safe products for various end-uses. It is expected that the operational preconditions for biogas plants will be significantly enhanced when the end-products are proven safe and applicable. Selection of the raw materials for anaerobic co-digestion is the main operational strategy that could influence the nutrient content in the digestate. This has been clearly established in the laboratory and full-scale studies with various digestates originating from different raw materials. The nutrient content in the digestate also affects the opportunities to produce refined digestate products. In this project, the possibilities for several processing technologies, e.g. mechanical separation, stripping, and struvite production have been intensively evaluated for the production of different digestate products. Their mass balances have also been estimated. The feasibility for the use of the digestate products has been assessed based on their chemical and hygienic quality and for various end-uses, including as organic fertiliser and/or soil improver in crop production. The results of these field-experiments showed that the yield of barley fertilised with digestate products was comparable to inorganic fertilisers. (orig.)

  20. Anaerobic digestion of antibiotic residue in combination with hydrothermal pretreatment for biogas. (United States)

    Zhang, Guangyi; Li, Chunxing; Ma, Dachao; Zhang, Zhikai; Xu, Guangwen


    Antibiotic residues are difficult to be treated or utilized because of their high water content and residual antibiotics. This article is devoted to investigating the possibility of biogas production from cephalosporin C residue (CPCAR), one typical type of antibiotic residues, via anaerobic digestion in combination with hydrothermal pretreatment (HTPT). The results from the bench-scale experiments showed that the combination of HTPT and anaerobic digestion can provide a viable way to convert CPCAR into biogas, and the biogas and methane yields reached 290 and 200 ml(g TS)(-1), respectively. This article further evaluated the proposed technology in terms of energy balance and technical feasibility based on theoretical calculation using the data from a pilot HTPT test. It was shown that the process is totally self-sufficient in energy and its main challenging problem of ammonia inhibition can be solved via ammonia stripping.

  1. Improving methane production from digested manure biofibers by mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment. (United States)

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Frison, A; Raga, R; Angelidaki, I


    Animal manure digestion is associated with limited methane production, due to the high content in fibers, which are hardly degradable lignocellulosic compounds. In this study, different mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment methods were applied to partially degradable fibers, separated from the effluent stream of biogas reactors. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of these pretreatments. In batch experiments, the mechanical pretreatment improved the degradability up to 45%. Even higher efficiency was shown by applying thermal alkaline pretreatments, enhancing fibers degradability by more than 4-fold. In continuous experiments, the thermal alkaline pretreatment, using 6% NaOH at 55°C was proven to be the most efficient pretreatment method as the methane production was increased by 26%. The findings demonstrated that the methane production of the biogas plants can be increased by further exploiting the fraction of the digested manure fibers which are discarded in the post-storage tank.

  2. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion study of pomegranate juice phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and vitamin C. (United States)

    Pérez-Vicente, Antonio; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; García-Viguera, Cristina


    Pomegranate is an important source of bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins, other phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid. In the present work an in vitro availability method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine. This method enables the study of the release of anthocyanins, vitamin C, and total phenols from the pomegranate juice and their transformations during gastrointestinal digestion. Results have shown that pomegranate phenolic compounds are available during the digestion in a quite high amount (29%). Nevertheless, due to pH, anthocyanins are largely transformed into non-red forms and/or degraded (97%), and similar results are obtained for vitamin C (>95% degradation).

  3. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during anaerobic digestion with recirculation of ozonated digested sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal-Martinez, Arodi; Patureau, Dominique; Delgenes, Jean-Philippe [INRA, UR 050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F11100 (France); Carrere, Helene [INRA, UR 050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F11100 (France)], E-mail:


    PAH are particularly monitored because of their carcinogenic properties and their ubiquity in the environment. Their presence in municipal sewage sludge is a major problem due to the environmental risks associated with the sludge spreading on agricultural soils. The objective of this work was to asses the removal of PAH naturally present in sludge by continuous anaerobic digestion with recirculation of ozonated sludge. Recirculation of ozonated digested sludge allowed to enhance PAH removals, the highest efficiency was obtained with the highest ozone dose (0.11 g O{sub 3}/g{sub TS}). In order to study the effect of recirculation, a reactor was operated without recirculation but was fed with a mixture of raw and ozonated digested sludge. This process led to the best performances in terms of PAH and solid removals. This pointed out some accumulation of nonbiodegradable or recalcitrant compounds during recirculation assay. Smallest and most soluble compounds presented the highest biodegradation efficiencies.

  4. Assessment of the potential for biogas production from wheat straw leachate in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digesters. (United States)

    Idrus, S; Banks, C J; Heaven, S


    Wheat straw is a major potential source of waste biomass for renewable energy production, but its high salt content causes problems in combustion. The salts can be removed by washing, but this process also removes a proportion of the organic material which could potentially be recovered by anaerobic digestion of the washwater leachate. This approach would maximise the overall energy yield in an integrated process in which washwater could be recycled after further desalting. Leachate from cold water washing with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 1.2 g l⁻¹ was fed to mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digesters at a loading rate of 1 g COD l⁻¹ day⁻¹ to determine the energy yield and any detrimental effects of the leached salts on the process. The specific methane production was 0.29 l CH₄ g⁻¹ COD(added), corresponding to a COD removal rate of 84%. Light metal cations in the leachate, especially potassium, were found to accumulate in the digesters and appeared to have a synergistic effect up to a concentration of ∼6.5 mg K g⁻¹ wet weight of the granular sludge, but further accumulation caused inhibition of methanogenesis. It was shown that gas production in the inhibited digesters could be restored within 12 days by switching the feed to a synthetic sewage, which washed the accumulated K out of the digesters.

  5. Methane Potential and Microbial Community Dynamics in Anaerobic Digestion of Silage and Dry Cornstalks: a Substrate Exchange Study. (United States)

    Zhao, Ye; Yuan, Xufeng; Wen, Boting; Wang, Xiaofen; Zhu, Wanbin; Cui, Zongjun


    Silage and dry are the two typical cornstalk forms. Either form could be used as substrate in biogas plants and might be replaced by another when shortage occurred. This study focused on the feeding sequence of these two kinds of feedstocks, aiming to discuss their specific methane potential (SMP). A 15-day hydraulic retention time was chosen for semi-continuous experiments based on the batch test results. In semi-continuous experiments, before and after feedstocks were exchanged, the significantly decreased and comparable SMPs of silage and dry cornstalks indicated that a basis of unstable digestion would result in incomplete methane release from the subsequent digestion. A higher similarity of bacterial community structure and greater quantity of bacteria were shown in acidified silage cornstalk digestion through band similarity analysis. Methanosaetaceae and methanomicrobiales were the predominant methanogens, and aceticlastic methanogenesis was the main route for methane production. The different feeding sequences affected the hydrolysis course and further influenced the methanogenic proliferation. Our work suggests that silage cornstalk digestion should be conducted before dry cornstalk digestion.

  6. Interfacial & colloidal aspects of lipid digestion. (United States)

    Wilde, P J; Chu, B S


    Amongst the main issues challenging the food manufacturing sector, health and nutrition are becoming increasingly important. Global concerns such as obesity, the ageing population and food security will have to be addressed. Food security is not just about assuring food supply, but is also about optimising nutritional delivery from the food that is available [1]. Therefore one challenge is to optimise the health benefits from the lipids and lipid soluble nutrients. Colloid scientists have an affinity for lipids because they are water insoluble, however this presents a challenge to the digestive system, which has to convert them to structures that are less insoluble so they are available for uptake. Despite this, the human digestive system is remarkably effective at digesting and absorbing most lipids. This is primarily driven through maximising energy intake, as lipids possess the highest calorific value, which was a survival trait to survive times of famine, but is now an underlying cause of obesity in developed countries with high food availability. The critical region here is the lipid-water interface, where the key reactions take place to solubilise lipids and lipid soluble nutrients. Digestive lipases have to adsorb to the oil water interface in order to hydrolyse triacylglycerols into fatty acids and mono glycerides, which accumulate at the interface [2], and inhibit lipase activity. Pancreatic lipase, which is responsible for the majority of lipid hydrolysis, also requires the action of bile salts and colipase to function effectively. Bile salts both aid the adsorption of co-lipase and lipase, and help solubilise the lipolysis products which have accumulated at the interface, into mixed micelles composing bile salts and a range of other lipids, to facilitate transport to the gut mucosal surface prior to uptake and absorption. The process can be affected by the lipid type, as shorter chain, fatty acids are more easily absorbed, whereas the uptake of longer

  7. Influence of H(2) stripping on methane production in conventional digesters. (United States)

    Poels, J; van Assche, P; Verstraete, W


    Hydrogen is a central metabolite in the methanization process. In this study the partial pressure of hydrogen in the gas phase of laboratory manure digesters was monitored over extensive periods of time and found to vary between 50 and 100.10(-6) atm. By sparging the gas phase of the digester through an auxiliary reactor, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were allowed to develop at the expense of hydrogen and carbon dioxide present in the biogas, independently of the liquid or cell residence time in the main reactor. By scrubbing ca. 100 volumes of biogas per liter reactor per day through an auxiliary reactor, hydrogen concentration could be decreased maximally 25%. This resulted in an increase in the gas production rate of the main digester of ca. 10% and a concomitant improved removal of volatile fatty acids from the mixed liquor. The results obtained indicate that considerable stripping of hydrogen from the digester could be achieved at acceptable energy expenditure. However, the microbial removal of the hydrogen at these low concentrations is extremely slow and limits the applicability of this approach.

  8. Digestive physiology of the pig symposium: detection of dietary glutamate via gut-brain axis. (United States)

    Bannai, M; Torii, K


    Gustatory and visceral stimulation from food regulates digestion and nutrient use. Free L-glutamate (Glu) release from digested protein is responsible for umami taste perception in the gut. Moreover, monosodium Glu (MSG) is widely used as a flavor enhancer to add umami taste in various cuisines. Recent studies indicate that dietary Glu sensors and their signal transduction system exist in both gut mucosa and taste cells. Oral Glu sensing has been well studied. In this review, we focus on the role of Glu on digestion and absorption of food. Infusion of Glu into the stomach and intestine increase afferent nerve activity of the gastric and the celiac branches of the vagus nerve, respectively. Luminal Glu also evokes efferent nerve activation of the abdominal vagus nerve branches simultaneously. Additionally, intragastric infusion of Glu activates the insular cortex, limbic system, hypothalamus, nucleus tractus solitaries, and amygdala, as determined by functional magnetic resonance imaging, and is able to induce flavor-preference learning as a result of postingestive effects in rats. These results indicate that Glu signaling via gustatory and visceral pathways plays an important role in the processes of digestion, absorption, metabolism, and other physiological functions via activation of the brain.

  9. Enhancement of Taihu blue algae anaerobic digestion efficiency by natural storage. (United States)

    Miao, Hengfeng; Lu, Minfeng; Zhao, Mingxing; Huang, Zhenxing; Ren, Hongyan; Yan, Qun; Ruan, Wenquan


    Taihu blue algae after different storage time from 0 to 60 d were anaerobic fermented to evaluate their digestibility and process stability. Results showed that anaerobic digestion (AD) of blue algae under 15 d natural storage led to the highest CH4 production of 287.6 mL g(-1) VS at inoculum substrate ratio 2.0, demonstrating 36.69% improvement comparing with that from fresh algae. Storage of blue algae led to cell death, microcystins (MCs) release and VS reduction by spontaneous fermentation. However, it also played an important role in removing algal cell wall barrier, pre-hydrolysis and pre-acidification, leading to the improvement in CH4 yield. Closer examination of volatile fatty acids (VFA) variation, VS removal rates and key enzymes change during AD proved short storage time (≤ 15 d) of blue algae had higher efficiencies in biodegradation and methanation. Furthermore, AD presented significant biodegradation potential for MCs released from Taihu blue algae.

  10. Digesters and demographics: identifying support for anaerobic digesters on dairy farms. (United States)

    Sanders, D J; Roberts, M C; Ernst, S C; Thraen, C S


    The dairy industry in the United States is amidst a long-running trend toward fewer, larger dairy farms. This development has created a backlash in some communities over concerns such as odor, waste management, and environmental degradation. Separately, anaerobic digestion has advanced as a waste management technology that potentially offers solutions to some of these issues, providing odor control and a combustible biogas among other things. These digesters require significant capital investments. Voluntary consumer premiums for the renewable energy produced have been used in some instances as a means to move adoption of such systems toward financial feasibility. This project employed a survey to measure Ohio consumers' willingness to pay a premium for renewable energy produced by anaerobic digesters on dairy farms. Cluster analysis was used to segment consumers by willingness to pay, age, education, income, self-identified political inclination, and a composite variable that served as a proxy for respondents' environmental stewardship. Four distinctive groups emerged from the data. Older, less educated respondents were found to have the least amount of support for digesters on dairy farms, whereas politically liberal, environmentally proactive respondents demonstrated the strongest support. Well-educated, affluent respondents and young respondents fell between these 2 groups. Most large dairy farms are generally met with fairly negative responses from their local communities; in contrast, this research finds some popular support for anaerobic digestion technology. Going forward, establishing a positive link between support for anaerobic digesters and for their use on large dairies could open up a new route for less-contested large dairy farm developments. Evaluation of community demographics could become an important part of finding an optimal location for a large dairy farm.

  11. Immunohistochemical observations of methionine-enkephalin and delta opioid receptor in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus. (United States)

    Sha, Ailong; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan


    The study was designed to determine whether methionine-enkephalin (met-Enk) or delta opioid receptor was present in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus. The results showed that they were both in the bulbus oris, esophagus, crop, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, posterior salivary glands of O. ocellatus, one of them, met-Enk in the rectum, anterior salivary glands, digestive gland. And the distributions were extensive in the digestive system. Strong or general met-Enk immunoreactivity was observed in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, anterior salivary glands and the adventitia of the intestine and rectum, and so was the delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, and crop, however, they were weak in other parts. Combining with delta opioid receptor, met-Enk may be involved in the regulations of food intake, absorption, movement of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and secretion of digestive gland. The different densities of met-Enk and delta opioid receptor may be related to the different functions in the digestive system of O. ocellatus.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of macroalgae: methane potentials, pre-treatment, inhibition and co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan


    for Chaetomorpha linum and 340 ml g VS1 for Saccharina latissima following 34 days of incubation. With an organic content of 21.1% (1.5–2.8 times higher than the other algae) S. latissima seems very suitable for anaerobic digestion. However, the methane yields of U. lactuca, G. vermiculophylla and C. linum could...... be increased with 68%, 11% and 17%, respectively, by pretreatment with maceration. U. lactuca is often observed during ‘green tides’ in Europe and has a high cultivation potential at Nordic conditions. Therefore, U. lactuca was selected for further investigation and co-digested with cattle manure in a lab...

  13. Organogenesis of the digestive tract in the white seabream, Diplodus sargus. Histological and histochemical approaches



    The ontogeny of the digestive tract of the white seabream, Diplodus sargus during the larval development up to day 45 post-hatching (dph) has been studied using histological and histochemical techniques. The oesophageal goblet cells appeared around 6 dph and contained neutral and acid mucosubstances (PAS/diastase-PAS and Alcian Blue pH 2.5 positive reactions). An incipient stomach can be distinguished from 2 dph but the first sign of gastric gland developme...

  14. Effect of oral immunization with inactivated avian influenza virus and adjuvant on the antibody secreting cells in duck digestive tract%禽流感灭活抗原与佐剂配合饮水免疫对鸭消化道抗体分泌细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红丽; 康海泓; 杨倩


    为探讨鸭源禽流感灭活抗原与佐剂配合饮水免疫雏鸭的效果,应用鸭源禽流感灭活抗原与复合黏膜免疫佐剂( CpG和/或葡萄糖)饮水免疫雏鸭,检测消化道(主要是咽和小肠)抗体分泌细胞的变化.首先分别从鸭的胆汁和血清中粗提免疫球蛋白A(IgA)和IgG,经纯化后制备了兔抗鸭IgA和IgG,然后应用免疫组化技术显示鸭消化道IgA和IgG分泌细胞.试验结果表明:用禽流感灭活抗原配合CpG和/或葡萄糖饮水免疫后3、5和7周,消化道黏膜局部IgA分泌细胞面积均显著或极显著增加(P<0.05或P<0.01),IgG分泌细胞(除首免后第3和7周小肠外)极显著升高(P<0.01).而单独用禽流感灭活抗原和用葡萄糖配合禽流感灭活抗原饮水免疫对消化道局部免疫水平影响不大.结论:鸭源禽流感灭活抗原配合免疫佐剂饮水免疫能够提高雏鸭消化道局部免疫水平.%In order to evaluate the effects of oral immunization with the inactivated avian influenza virus (iAIV) vaccine with adjuvant on ducklings. The area of IgA and IgG secreting cells in the digestive tract (mainly pharynx and small intestine) were detected after oral immunization with iAIV and adjuvant CpG with or without glucose. First, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG was isolated from duck bile and serum respectively, and rabbit antiserum was isolated from inoculated rabbits by purified IgA and IgG. The antibody secreting cells were showed by SPA-HRP immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that the area of IgA and IgG secreting cells( except for the 3rd and 7th week in small intestine) increased significantly (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01)at the weeks 3rd,5th and 7th after oral immunization with iAIV and adjuvant CpG with/without glucose. No significant changes were found in the ducks immunized with iAIV only or iAIV and glucose. Conclusion;the oral immunization with iAIV together with adjuvants could elict local immune re sponse in the digestive tract

  15. 微波消解—碰撞反应池技术电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定食品中的铅%Determination of lead in foods by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry based on collided reaction cell technology after microwave digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷忠; 周彬; 汪思顺


    OBJECTIVE To establish a method for determination of lead in foods by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry based on collided reaction cell technology after microwave digestion.METHODS After microwave digestion,the samples were directly determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry based on collided reaction cell technology.Internal standard element of Thallium (204TI) was used to correct matrix interference and signal drifting,high-performance Xs interface was used to reduce non-mass spectrum interferences,and the collided reaction cell technology (CCT mode) was used to eliminate mass spectrum interferences.RESULTS The optimal linear range of the method was 0-40μg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 8.The detection limit of the method,the lowest quantitative limit,the relative standard deviation and the recovery rate were 0.000 5 mg/kg,0.001 7 mg/kg,1.1%-3.8% and 93.3%-104.0%,respectively.CONCLUSION The method is sensitive,accurate,simple and fast.There is no significant difference between the results from the method and graphic furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and is suitable for analysis of lead in foods.%目的 建立食品中铅的微波消解—碰撞反应池技术电感耦合等离子体质谱法.方法 样品经微波消化后直接用碰撞反应池电感技术的耦合等离子体质谱仪(ICP-MS)进行测定.用铊(204TI)内标校正基体干扰和漂移,用高性能Xs接口降低非质谱干扰,用碰撞反应池技术(CCT模式)消除质谱干扰.结果 方法的标准曲线线性范围为0~40μg/L,相关系数为0.999 8.方法检出限为0.000 5mg/kg,最低检出浓度为0.001 7 mg/kg,相对标准偏差为1.1%~3.8%,回收率为93.3%~104.0%.结论 本方法灵敏、准确,操作简便、快速,对样品的测定结果与石墨炉原子吸收光度法之间无显著性差异,能用于食品中铅的准确测定.

  16. 微波消解-碰撞反应池技术电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定食品总砷的方法研究%Methodology research on determination of total arsenic in foods by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry based on collided reaction cell technology with microwave digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To establish a method for determination of total arsenic in foods by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry based on collided reaction cell technology with microwave digestion and provide a new reliable method for accurate quantitative analysis of total arsenic in foods.Methods After microwave digestion,the samples were directly determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry based on collided reaction cell technology.Internal standard element of Yttrium(89Y) was used to correct matrix interference and signal drifting,high-performance Xs interface was used to reduce non-mass spectrum interferences,and the collided reaction cell technology (CCT mode) was used to eliminate mass spectrum interferences.Meanwhile,arsenic measurement results were compared with the arbitral method.Results The optima 1 linear range of the method standard curve was 0-40 μg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998.The detection limit of the method,the lowest quantitative limit,the relative standard deviation and the recovery rate were 0.0025 mg/kg,0.082 mg/kg,1.5%-4.2% and 95.0%-105.0%,respectively.The detection results of the three standard reference materials were satisfactory.Compared with the arbitral method,there was no obvious difference (P < 0.05).Conclusions The method not only has lower detection limit,but also is simple,fast and more accurate.The results are consistent with those by arbitral method,and the new method is available for accurate quantitative analysis of total arsenic in foods.%目的 建立测定食品总砷的微波消解-碰撞反应池技术电感耦合等离子体质谱法,为食品总砷的准确定量提供新的方法.方法 样品经微波消化后直接用碰撞反应池电感技术的耦合等离子体质谱仪(ICP-MS)进行测定分析.用钇(89Y)内标校正基体干扰和漂移,用高性能Xs接口降低非质谱干扰,用碰撞反应池技术(CCT模式)消除质谱干扰.同时,将砷的测定结果

  17. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive. [Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.


    Aimed at improving the process operating characteristics of anaerobic digestion for sludge stabilization and SNG production, this study evaluates the effects of a lactobacillus additive under normal, variable, and overload conditions. This whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of L. acidophilus fortified with CoCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. Data indicate that the biochemical additive increases methane yield, gas production rate, and volatile solids reduction; decreases volatile acids accumulation; enhances the digester buffer capacity; and improves the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue. Digester capacities could be potentially doubled when the feed is so treated. Results of field tests with six full-scale digesters confirm observations made with bench-scale digesters.

  18. Recovery of Nutrients from Biogas Digestate with Biochar and Clinoptilolite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocatürk, Nazli Pelin

    necessitates the subsequent distribution of nutrients. The liquid fraction of digestate can be used as fertiliser in agricultural crop production systems and the most common practice of utilising the liquid fraction of digestate is direct field application in the vicinity of the biogas plant. However, direct...... of nutrients on sorbent) but decreasing efficiencies of clinoptilolite to remove nutrients from the liquid fraction of digestate. In Chapter 3, I studied the chemical activation of biochar by treating the biochar with deionised water, hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions......The increasing number of biogas plants over the last decades has brought the need to improve techniques to handle digestate, the by-product of anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. Separation of digestate into liquid and solid fractions is often applied in centralised biogas plants, which...

  19. Effect of Gastrointestinal Protease Digestion on Bioactivity of Marine Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Ossum, Carlo Gunnar;


    executed without concerning subsequent digestion after intake and the aim of this work was hence to investigate how the in vitro antioxidative, antihypertensive and caspase activating activities of peptides are affected by digestion with gastrointestinal (GI) proteases. Five different fish protein...... hydrolysates were chosen to study the effect of in vitro digestion on bioactivity. The protein concentration decreased in all samples during digestion and the molecular weight distribution of the peptides shifted towards lower values. Thus, in vitro digestion with GI proteases resulted in a further degradation...... of the peptides obtained by hydrolysis. The antihypertensive effect increased in all samples after digestion with GI proteases whereas the antioxidative capacity decreased. The effect on the caspase activity depended on the proteases used in the preparation of hydrolysates. In conclusion, the caspase activity...

  20. Slow digestion properties of rice different in resistant starch. (United States)

    Shu, Xiaoli; Jia, Limeng; Ye, Hongxia; Li, Chengdao; Wu, Dianxing


    The hydrolysis of starch is a key factor for controlling the glycemic index (GI). Slow digestion properties of starch lead to slower glucose release and lower glycemic response. Food with high resistant starch (RS) possesses great value for controlling the GI. To elucidate the factors that play a role in slow digestibility, seven rice mutants different in RS contents were selected for comparative studies. The degree of hydrolysis showed highly significant correlation with RS, apparent amylose content (AAC), lipid content (LC), and other starch physiochemical properties in all these materials with different RS contents. The rate of in vitro digestible starch correlated positively with RS, whereas digestibility was affected mostly by lipid content for those mutants with similar RS. Starch-lipid complexes and short chains with degrees of polymerization (DP) of 8-12 strongly influenced starch digestion. The integrity of aggregated starch and the number of round starch granules might influence the digestibility of starch directly.

  1. An innovative bioelectrochemical-anaerobic digestion-coupled system for in-situ ammonia recovery and biogas enhancement: process performance and microbial ecology


    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini


    Ammonia (NH4+/NH3) inhibition during anaerobic digestion process is one of the most frequent problems existing in biogas plants, resulting in unstable process and reduced biogas production. In this study, we developed a novel hybrid system, consisted of a submersed microbial resource recovery cell (SMRC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), to prevent ammonia toxicity during anaerobic digestion by in-situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. In batch experiment, the ammonia c...

  2. Digestibility of carbohydrates in growing pigs: a comparison between the T-cannula and the steered ileo-caecal valve cannula. (United States)

    Zhang, Y C; Jörgensen, H; Fernandez, J A; Bach Knudsen, K E


    We compared the determination of ileal and total tract digestibility of carbohydrates in five experimental diets using a double 5 x 5 Latin square design involving a total of 10 cannulated pigs; half of the pigs were equipped with a simple T-cannula and the other half with steered ileo-caecal valve (SICV)-cannula. The diets consisted of nitrogen-free mixture and soya bean meal, sunflower meal, peas or rape seed cake diluted to about 180 g/kg DM protein with the nitrogen-free mixture. There was no significant difference in the digestibility values using the two types of cannulas with regard to organic matter, sugars (sum of glucose, fructose and sucrose), alpha-galactosides (sum of raffinose, stachyose and verbascose), starch, cellulose, total non-cellulosic polysaccharides (NCP) and insoluble NCP constituents. The digestibility values for the NCP residues arabinose and galactose, however, were estimated higher but with a lower variability with the SICV-cannula compared with the T-cannula. The type of cannula did no influence the estimation of the total tract digestibility for any of the major dietary constituents, but the total tract digestibility was slightly more variable when the pigs were equipped with the SICV-cannula compared with the T-cannula. There was no difference in the ileal digestibility of sugars, alpha-galactosides, cellulose and the NCP arabinose and uronic acids residues among the experimental diets, while the ileal digestibility of starch and the remaining NCP sugar residues varied between diets. The total tract digestibility was complete for sugars, alpha-galactosides and starch, whereas the digestibility of the cell wall constituents varied in accordance with the polymeric composition of the cell walls. It was concluded that ileal digesta samples from SICV-cannula are more homogenous than those from the T-cannula. In cases where the precision of each determination is crucial, the SICV-cannula should be the option.

  3. Determination of Physical, Chemical and Digestibility of some Agricultural by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majed dehgan


    Full Text Available In this experiment, physical and chemical characteristics and estimation of effective fiber and digestibility of some agricultural by-products such as lerd, pulp and date kernel, grape pomace, pistachio hulls, lime and rice straw were determined by using in vitro technique. Experimental data were analyzed as a complete randomized design, with three replicates. Physical and chemical characteristics and digestibility parameters among samples were significantly different. Rice straw due to high water holding capacity and low-density mass were floating on the liquid phase of reticulo-rumen and stimulates rumination but palm seed with high bulk density tends to deposit in the rumen. Chemical characteristics such as non-fibrous carbohydrates of lemon pulp and pistachio hull and crude protein of grape pomace, lerd and pulp of date were significantly different between samples. Results of physical characteristics, particle size separation and physical effective cell wall showed that rice straw provides adequate fiber in diet. Also, to some extent physical effective cell wall can be provided by grape pomace, kernel and lerd of date. The predictions of particle size separation and physical effective cell wall were found to compare reasonably well when new Pennsylvania sieves, compare to old ones, were used. By considering physical and chemical characteristics of above mentioned agricultural by-products date pulp with non-fibrous carbohydrate and high protein content and digestibility can be used in higher amounts in ruminant diets.

  4. Tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) differently inhibit the mitochondrial Mg-ATPase activity in mussel digestive gland. (United States)

    Nesci, Salvatore; Ventrella, Vittoria; Trombetti, Fabiana; Pirini, Maurizio; Borgatti, Anna Rosa; Pagliarani, Alessandra


    Tri-n-butyltin (TBT) has long been considered as the most toxic among organotins, especially to membrane systems. The partially dealkylated derivative di-n-butyltin (DBT) has up to now received poor attention and, whenever considered, shown to be less toxic than TBT except on the immune system. The present kinetic approach evidences that both TBT and DBT in vitro inhibit the Mg-ATPase in mussel digestive gland mitochondria by a different mechanism. DBT even displays a higher efficiency than TBT (IC(50)=0.32 μM for TBT vs. 0.19 μM for DBT) in inhibiting the enzyme hydrolytic activity. Differently from TBT which at high concentrations (>1 μM) apparently decreases the oligomycin-sensitivity of the Mg-ATPase, DBT at any concentration tested does not affect the oligomycin sensitivity. TBT probably binds to F(0), either in the form of free enzyme or of enzyme-substrate complex (Ki=K'i), acting as non-competitive inhibitor with respect to the ATP substrate. Conversely DBT, which acts as uncompetitive inhibitor of ATP and as competitive inhibitor of Mg(2+) cofactor, may bind strongly to F(1) subunit, thus preventing ATP hydrolysis. The Mg-ATPase inhibition by both organotins warns against a potential threat to crucial cell energy metabolism processes even after years from contamination and partial TBT debutylation.

  5. In ovo injection of prebiotics and synbiotics affects the digestive potency of the pancreas in growing chickens. (United States)

    Pruszynska-Oszmalek, E; Kolodziejski, P A; Stadnicka, K; Sassek, M; Chalupka, D; Kuston, B; Nogowski, L; Mackowiak, P; Maiorano, G; Jankowski, J; Bednarczyk, M


    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 2 prebiotics and 2 synbiotics on the digestive potency of pancreas in 1-, 3-, 7-, 14-, 21-, and 34-day-old cockerels. Prebiotics (inulin and Bi²tos) and synbiotics (inulin + Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Bi²tos + Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris) were injected in ovo into the air cell on the 12th d embryonic development. Their application increased the activity of amylase, lipase, and trypsin in the pancreas. The most pronounced changes were observed at the end of the investigated rearing period (d 34). The strongest stimulative effects on amylase were shown by both synbiotics, on lipase synbiotic Bi²tos + Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, and on trypsin all the used prebiotics and synbiotics. Simultaneously, neither the absolute nor the relative mass of the pancreas in comparison to control group were changed. Also, the injected in ovo compounds did not cause a deterioration in the posthatching condition of the chicken liver, as determined by measurement of the activity of marker enzymes in the blood (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). Treatment with the prebiotics and synbiotics did not change the feed conversion ratio but Bi²tos (galacto-oligosaccharide) and inulin (fructan) + Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis significantly increased final BW.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.


    The flowsheet for the digestion of Reillex{trademark} HPQ was validated both under the traditional alkaline conditions and under strongly acidic conditions. Due to difficulty in performing a pH adjustment in the large tank where this flowsheet must be performed, the recommended digestion conditions were changed from pH 8-10 to 8 M HNO{sub 3}. Thus, no pH adjustment of the solution is required prior to performing the permanganate addition and digestion and the need to sample the digestion tank to confirm appropriate pH range for digestion may be avoided. Neutralization of the acidic digestion solution will be performed after completion of the resin digestion cycle. The amount of permanganate required for this type of resin (Reillex{trademark} HPQ) was increased from 1 kg/L resin to 4 kg/L resin to reduce the amount of residual resin solids to a minimal amount (<5%). The length of digestion time at 70 C remains unchanged at 15 hours. These parameters are not optimized but are expected to be adequate for the conditions. The flowsheet generates a significant amount of fine manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) solids (1.71 kg/L resin) and involves the generation of a significant liquid volume due to the low solubility of permanganate. However, since only two batches of resin (40 L each) are expected to be digested, the total waste generated is limited.

  7. Anaerobic Digestion Modeling: from One to Several Bacterial Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván D. Ramírez-Rivas


    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion systems are complex processes that unfortunately often suffer from instability causing digester failure. In order to be able to design, optimizing and operate efficiently anaerobic digestion systems, appropriate control strategies need to be designed. Such strategies require, in general, the development of mathematical models. The anaerobic digestion process comprises a complex network of sequential and parallel reactions of biochemical and physicochemical nature. Usually, such reactions contain a particular step, the so called rate-limiting step which, being the slowest, limits the reaction rate of the overall process. The first attempts for modeling anaerobic digestion led to models describing only the limiting step. However, over a wide range of operating conditions, the limiting step is not always the same. It may depend on wastewater characteristics, hydraulic loading, temperature, etc. It is apparent that the "limiting step hypothesis" leads to simple and readily usable models. Such models, however, do not describe very well the digester behavior, especially under transient operating conditions. This work reviews the current state-of-the-art in anaerobic digestion modeling. We give a brief description of the key anaerobic digestion models that have been developed so far for describing biomass growth systems, including the International Water Association’s Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1 and we identify the areas that require further research endeavors.

  8. Agronomic characteristics of five different urban waste digestates. (United States)

    Tampio, Elina; Salo, Tapio; Rintala, Jukka


    The use of digestate in agriculture is an efficient way to recycle materials and to decrease the use of mineral fertilizers. The agronomic characteristics of the digestates can promote plant growth and soil properties after digestate fertilization but also harmful effects can arise due to digestate quality, e.g. pH, organic matter and heavy metal content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences and similarities in agronomic characteristics and the value of five urban waste digestates from different biogas plants treating either food waste, organic fraction of organic solid waste or a mixture of waste-activated sludge and vegetable waste. The digestate agronomic characteristics were studied with chemical analyses and the availability of nutrients was also assessed with growth experiments and soil mineralization tests. All studied urban digestates produced 5-30% higher ryegrass yields compared to a control mineral fertilizer with a similar inorganic nitrogen concentration, while the feedstock source affected the agronomic value. Food waste and organic fraction of municipal solid waste digestates were characterized by high agronomic value due to the availability of nutrients and low heavy metal load. Waste-activated sludge as part of the feedstock mixture, however, increased the heavy metal content and reduced nitrogen availability to the plant, thus reducing the fertilizer value of the digestate.

  9. Effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestibility of lipid and cholesterol oxidation products in beef during in vitro human digestion. (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung-Jae


    In this study, beef patties were encapsulated with 3% chitosan, pectin, onion powder, or green tea powder and the beef patties were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model. The total lipid digestibility was lowest (pencapsulated with chitosan and pectin after digestion in the small intestine. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were significantly lower (pencapsulated with chitosan and pectin, when compared with the control, after digestion in the small intestine. In contrast, the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging activity was highest (pencapsulated with onion powder and green tea powder after digestion in the small intestine. The total cholesterol oxidation product (COP) content was significantly lower (pencapsulated with biopolymers than in the control after digestion in the small intestine.

  10. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 28 (United States)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)


    This is the twenty-eighth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 3 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 20 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, aviation medicine, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, and space medicine.

  11. Ciliate ingestion and digestion: flow cytometric measurements and regrowth of a digestion-resistant campylobacter jejuni (United States)

    We developed a method to measure ingestion and digestion rates of bacterivorous protists feeding on pathogenic bacteria. We tested this method using the enteric bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and a freshwater colpodid ciliate. Campylobacter and a non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from the environment ...

  12. Apparent ileal and total tract nutrient digestion by pigs as affected by dietary non digestibility oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.G.M.; Bosch, M.W.; Tamminga, S.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Berenpas, E.B.; Knoop, H.


    The effects of two types of nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS) were studied on growing and weanling pigs' nutrient digestion. Dietary NDO were included at the expense of purified cellulose. Twenty-five 57-d-old growing pigs, ave

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of forage radish and dairy manure in complete mix digesters (United States)

    Farmers are increasingly using forage radish as a winter cover crop to achieve multiple soil and environmental benefits. In this study, pilot-scale mixed digesters were used to quantify methane (CH4) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production when using forage radish, a sulfur-rich cover crop, as a co-d...

  14. Human rectal mucosal gene expression after consumption of digestible and non-digestible carbohydrates. (United States)

    Schauber, Jürgen; Weiler, Frank; Gostner, Andrea; Melcher, Ralph; Kudlich, Theodor; Lührs, Hardi; Scheppach, Wolfgang


    The effect of regular consumption of the low-digestible and prebiotic isomalt versus the digestible sucrose on gene expression in rectal mucosa was examined in a randomized double-blind crossover trial. Nineteen healthy volunteers received 30 g isomalt per day or 30 g sucrose as part of a controlled diet over two 4-week test periods with a 4-week washout period in between. At the end of each test phase rectal biopsies were obtained. After RNA extraction mucosal gene expression was assayed using GeneChip microarrays. In addition, expression of cathelicidin hCap18/LL37, cellular detoxification enzymes GSTpi, UGT1A1 and CYP3A4, cyclooxygenase 2 and barrier factors MUC2 and ZO-1 were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Microbiological analyses of fecal samples revealed a shift of the gut flora towards an increase of bifidobacteria following consumption of the diet containing isomalt. Isomalt consumption did not affect rectal mucosal gene expression in microarray analyses as compared to sucrose. In addition, the expression of cathelicidin LL37, GSTpi, UGT1A1, CYP3A4, COX-2, MUC2 and ZO-1 was not changed in rectal biopsies. We conclude that gene expression of the human rectal mucosa can reliably be measured in biopsy material taken at endoscopy. Dietary intervention with the low digestible isomalt compared with the digestible sucrose did not affect gene expression in the lining rectal mucosa.

  15. Autogenerative high pressure digestion: anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Fermoso, F.G.; Weijma, J.; Zagt, K.; Lier, van J.B.


    Conventional anaerobic digestion is a widely applied technology to produce biogas from organic wastes and residues. The biogas calorific value depends on the CH4 content which generally ranges between 55 and 65%. Biogas upgrading to so-called ‘green gas’, with natural gas quality, generally proceeds

  16. Study on Mast Cells Development in Immune Organ and Digestive Organ of Chick%雏鸡免疫器官与消化器官发育中肥大细胞的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓庆生; 徐春; 郭俊峰; 李朝波; 尹琼; 高登慧


    本试验通过Carony's液固定,阿尔新蓝一藏红O复染(AB/SO)法,对1~7日龄雏鸡免疫器官和消化器官中肥大细胞(mast cells,MC)的形态、分布及数量变化进行观察分析.结果表明,免疫器官中MC集中分布在胸腺髓质内、脾脏红白髓交界处、法氏囊的淋巴小结周围组织内;消化器官中MC密集分布于腺胃固有层和胃腺周围、肠的固有层及黏膜下层、肝脏窦状隙和中央静脉周围.雏鸡主要免疫器官与消化器官MC数量随日龄增长均呈上升趋势.

  17. Life style-related diseases of the digestive system: cell culture system for the screening of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) reagents: suppression of HCV replication by statins and synergistic action with interferon. (United States)

    Ikeda, Masanori; Kato, Nobuyuki


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic hepatitis and leads to liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Pegylated-interferon and ribavirin is the current standard therapy for chronic hepatitis C. However, the therapy is only effective in 50% of the patients. To overcome this problem, we recently developed the HCV cell culture system (OR6 system) for the screening of anti-HCV reagents. In this OR6 system, the luciferase gene was introduced into the upstream portion of the HCV genome to facilitate the monitoring of HCV RNA replication. Recently lipid metabolism is reported to be involved in HCV RNA replication. Cholesterol and sphingolipid are the major components in lipid rafts, which seem to be the scaffold for HCV RNA replication. Statins inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and also have the pleiotropic effects by the inhibition of prenylation. We demonstrated different anti-HCV effects of statins (atorvastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, and pitavastatin) using the OR6 system. Surprisingly, in contrast to the other statins, pravastatin exhibited no anti-HCV effect. Furthermore, statins enhanced the anti-HCV effect of interferon in combination. Statins may be a promising candidate for the adjuvant in interferon therapy and may improve the efficiency of the current interferon and ribavirin therapy.

  18. Bacteria hold their breath upon surface contact as shown in a strain of Escherichia coli, using dispersed surfaces and flow cytometry analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Geng

    Full Text Available Bacteria are ubiquitously distributed throughout our planet, mainly in the form of adherent communities in which cells exhibit specific traits. The mechanisms underpinning the physiological shift in surface-attached bacteria are complex, multifactorial and still partially unclear. Here we address the question of the existence of early surface sensing through implementation of a functional response to initial surface contact. For this purpose, we developed a new experimental approach enabling simultaneous monitoring of free-floating, aggregated and adherent cells via the use of dispersed surfaces as adhesive substrates and flow cytometry analysis. With this system, we analyzed, in parallel, the constitutively expressed GFP content of the cells and production of a respiration probe--a fluorescent reduced tetrazolium ion. In an Escherichia coli strain constitutively expressing curli, a major E. coli adhesin, we found that single cell surface contact induced a decrease in the cell respiration level compared to free-floating single cells present in the same sample. Moreover, we show here that cell surface contact with an artificial surface and with another cell caused reduction in respiration. We confirm the existence of a bacterial cell "sense of touch" ensuring early signalling of surface contact formation through respiration down modulation.

  19. Morphological, histological and histochemical analysis of the digestive tract of Trachelyopterusstriatulus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella L. dos Santos


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The digestive tract of Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877 was studied using morphological, histological, and histochemical techniques. The barbels, lips and tongue had stratified squamous epithelium with mucous, claviform cells, and taste buds. Trachelyopterus striatulus had a dental plaque with villiform teeth. The bucopharyngeal cavity was formed by the gill apparatus and pharyngeal teeth with vilifform denticles. The oesophagus presented stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells and taste buds. The stomach included cardiac, fundic, and pyloric regions and a simple prismatic epithelium with prismatic cells that reacted positively to periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and amylase+PAS. Only the cardiac and pyloric regions responded positively to alcian blue pH 2.5 (Ab pH 2.5 and alcian blue pH 0.5 (Ab pH 0.5. The cardiac and fundic regions exhibited tubular gastric glands. The intestine was 118.90 ± 22.49 mm long with an intestinal coefficient (CO of 0.83 ± 0.13. The epithelium was simple prismatic with a brush border and goblet cells, and a greater number of goblet cells were found in the caudal region of the intestine. The mucous cells and goblet cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase+PAS, Ab pH 2.5, and Ab pH 0.5. We analysed if the function of the mucosubstances and morphological characteristics of the digestive tract of T. striatulus are compatible with omnivorous feeding habit.

  20. Dynamics of biofilm formation during anaerobic digestion of organic waste. (United States)

    Langer, Susanne; Schropp, Daniel; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Othman, Maazuza; Kazda, Marian


    Biofilm-based reactors are effectively used for wastewater treatment but are not common in biogas production. This study investigated biofilm dynamics on biofilm carriers incubated in batch biogas reactors at high and low organic loading rates for sludge from meat industry dissolved air flotation units. Biofilm formation and dynamics were studied using various microscopic techniques. Resulting micrographs were analysed for total cell numbers, thickness of biofilms, biofilm-covered surface area, and the area covered by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Cell numbers within biofilms (10(11) cells ml(-1)) were up to one order of magnitude higher compared to the numbers of cells in the fluid reactor content. Further, biofilm formation and structure mainly correlated with the numbers of microorganisms present in the fluid reactor content and the organic loading. At high organic loading (45 kg VS m(-3)), the thickness of the continuous biofilm layer ranged from 5 to 160 μm with an average of 51 μm and a median of 26 μm. Conversely, at lower organic loading (15 kg VS m(-3)), only microcolonies were detectable. Those microcolonies increased in their frequency of occurrence during ongoing fermentation. Independently from the organic loading rate, biofilms were embedded completely in EPS within seven days. The maturation and maintenance of biofilms changed during the batch fermentation due to decreasing substrate availability. Concomitant, detachment of microorganisms within biofilms was observed simultaneously with the decrease of biogas formation. This study demonstrates that biofilms of high cell densities can enhance digestion of organic waste and have positive effects on biogas production.

  1. Apoptosis induced by norcantharidin in human tumor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Xiao Sun; Qing Wen Ma; Tian De Zhao; Yu Lin Wei; Guang Sheng Wang; Jia Shi Li


    @@INTRODUCTION The antitumor activity of norcantharidin (NCTD),the demethylated analogue of cantharidin, was studied in the early 1980s in China. NCTD has no side effects on urinary organs which cantharidin has shown and is easier to synthesize, and it can inhibit the proliferation of several tumor cell lines as well as transplanted tumors. Clinical trials with NCTD as a monotherapeutic agent indicated that NCTD had beneficial effects in patients with different kinds of digestive tract cancers, such as primary hepatoma,carcinomas of esophagus and gastric cancer, but no depressive effect on bone marrow cells. NCTD can increase the white blood cell count by stimulating the bone marrow and has some antagonistic effect against leukopenia caused by other agents. The exact cellular and molecular mechanisms of NCTD on tumor cells have not yet been elucidated to date[1-3].

  2. Anaerobic digestion of pot-ale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, F.E.


    In the production of whisky, the fermented wash is distilled twice and each bushel of grain yields about 15.5 gallons of pot-ale, 6.0 gallons of spent lees and 2.7 gallons of proof spirit. Disposal of pot-ale, the strong residue from the first distillation, containing all the non-volatile and unfermented components of the wash, will always be difficult. Anaerobic digestion provides a possible option. By destroying most of the biodegradable solids and converting them to biogas, it provides an intermediate effluent which conventional treatment technology can purify to river discharge standards. Pilot-scale trials confirm that pot-ale can be treated by anaerobic digestion. The most severe problems are the high purification efficiencies required to achieve UK river discharge standards and the quality and settling properties of the biological sludges produced. To achieved these standards, the design and operation of the entire treatment chain is dominated by the need to capture and concentrate suspended solids (SS) produced by the biological fermentations. Overall performance targets are 99.95% removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD), 99% removal of ammonia and a surplus sludge production of less than 20% of the incoming flow. (author).

  3. Anaerobic Digestion Scale Levels and Their Energy Yields. A comparison of energy yields of different manure-and co-digestion scale levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konneman, Bram


    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process whereby, in the absence of oxygen, organic matter is converted into biogas and digestate. In recent years anaerobic digestion has received re-newed attention in the Dutch agricultural sector. Co-digestion, in wh

  4. Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh S Karimov


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were also included in the calculations. The biogas digester consisted of a methane tank with built-in solar reverse absorber heater to harness the radiant solar energy for heating the slurry comprising of different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc.. The methane tank was initially filled to 70% of its volume with organic wastes from the GIK institute’s sewage. The remaining volume was filled with sewage and cow dung from other sources. During a three month period (October-December, 2009 and another two month period (February-March, 2010, the digester was investigated. The effects of solar radiation on the absorber, the slurry’s temperature, and the ambient temperature were all measured during these investigations. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung in the slurry resulted in retention times of four and two weeks, respectively. The corresponding biogas produced was 0.4 m3 and 8.0 m3, respectively. Finally, this paper also elaborates on the upgradation of biogas through the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapour, and also the process of conversion of biogas energy into electric powerABSTRAK: Kajian ini membentangkan rekabentuk, fabrikasi dan penyelidikan tentang pencerna biogas dengan pemanas solar ringkas. Sebagai pemanas solar, ia dilengkapkan dengan penyerap pemanas beralik. Suhu maksimum(50oC di dalam tangki metana telah diambil sebagai parameter utama rekabentuk pencerna. Dengan menggunakan

  5. Life cycle assessment of energy from waste via anaerobic digestion: a UK case study. (United States)

    Evangelisti, Sara; Lettieri, Paola; Borello, Domenico; Clift, Roland


    Particularly in the UK, there is potential for use of large-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) plants to treat food waste, possibly along with other organic wastes, to produce biogas. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impacts of AD with energy and organic fertiliser production against two alternative approaches: incineration with energy production by CHP and landfill with electricity production. In particular the paper investigates the dependency of the results on some specific assumptions and key process parameters. The input Life Cycle Inventory data are specific to the Greater London area, UK. Anaerobic digestion emerges as the best treatment option in terms of total CO2 and total SO2 saved, when energy and organic fertiliser substitute non-renewable electricity, heat and inorganic fertiliser. For photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment potentials, AD is the second option while incineration is shown to be the most environmentally friendly solution. The robustness of the model is investigated with a sensitivity analysis. The most critical assumption concerns the quantity and quality of the energy substituted by the biogas production. Two key issues affect the development and deployment of future anaerobic digestion plants: maximising the electricity produced by the CHP unit fuelled by biogas and to defining the future energy scenario in which the plant will be embedded.

  6. A simple MALDI plate functionalization by Vmh2 hydrophobin for serial multi-enzymatic protein digestions. (United States)

    Longobardi, Sara; Gravagnuolo, Alfredo Maria; Funari, Riccardo; Della Ventura, Bartolomeo; Pane, Francesca; Galano, Eugenio; Amoresano, Angela; Marino, Gennaro; Giardina, Paola


    The development of efficient and rapid methods for the identification with high sequence coverage of proteins is one of the most important goals of proteomic strategies today. The on-plate digestion of proteins is a very attractive approach, due to the possibility of coupling immobilized-enzymatic digestion with direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The crucial step in the development of on-plate immobilization is however the functionalization of the solid surface. Fungal self-assembling proteins, the hydrophobins, are able to efficiently functionalize surfaces. We have recently shown that such modified plates are able to absorb either peptides or proteins and are amenable to MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. In this paper, the hydrophobin-coated MALDI sample plates were exploited as a lab-on-plate for noncovalent immobilization of enzymes commonly used in protein identification/characterization, such as trypsin, V8 protease, PNGaseF, and alkaline phosphatase. Rapid and efficient on-plate reactions were performed to achieve high sequence coverage of model proteins, particularly when performing multiple enzyme digestions. The possibility of exploiting this direct on-plate MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis has been investigated on model proteins and, as proof of concept, on entire whey milk proteome.

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste (United States)

    Yadanaparthi, Sai Krishna Reddy

    Dairy and potato are two important agricultural commodities in Idaho. Both the dairy and potato processing industries produce a huge amount of waste which could cause environmental pollution. To minimize the impact of potential pollution associated with dairy manure (DM) and potato waste (PW), anaerobic co-digestion has been considered as one of the best treatment process. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste in terms of process stability, biogas generation, construction and operating costs, and potential revenue. For this purpose, I conducted 1) a literature review, 2) a lab study on anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste at three different temperature ranges (ambient (20-25°C), mesophilic (35-37°C) and thermophilic (55-57°C) with five mixing ratios (DM:PW-100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60), and 3) a financial analysis for anaerobic digesters based on assumed different capital costs and the results from the lab co-digestion study. The literature review indicates that several types of organic waste were co-digested with DM. Dairy manure is a suitable base matter for the co-digestion process in terms of digestion process stability and methane (CH4) production (Chapter 2). The lab tests showed that co-digestion of DM with PW was better than digestion of DM alone in terms of biogas and CH4 productions (Chapter 3). The financial analysis reveals DM and PW can be used as substrate for full size anaerobic digesters to generate positive cash flow within a ten year time period. Based on this research, the following conclusions and recommendations were made: ▸ The ratio of DM:PW-80:20 is recommended at thermophilic temperatures and the ratio of DM:PW-90:10 was recommended at mesophilic temperatures for optimum biogas and CH4 productions. ▸ In cases of anaerobic digesters operated with electricity generation equipment (generators), low cost plug flow digesters (capital cost of 600/cow

  8. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis


    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy......NDFom concentration and aNDFom digestibility are key determinants of the nutritive value of a diet. Therefore, the importance of maize silage aNDFom digestibility on nutritive value, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and milk production was investigated in a literature review across a wide range of studies varying...... in ration composition and characteristics of maize silage. The dataset compiled for the study comprised 29 experiments with 96 dietary treatments, but for a number of parameters less observations were published and therefore used in the analyses. Enhanced aNDFom digestibility was associated with a decrease...

  9. Experimental study on anti-neoplastic activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate to digestive tract carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Zhi-hua; ZOU Jian; XIAO Shu-dong


    Background Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been demonstrated to have anti-neoplastic activity, but the effective concentration of EGCG and its possible mechanisms are uncertain. The study on the killing effects of EGCG on different digestive tract cancer cell lines can find target sites of its anti-neoplastic effect and provide a theoretical basis for its clinical application in the treatment of cancers. Methods Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) analysis was made to detect the differential sensitivities of eight digestive tract cancer cell lines to EGCG. The effect of EGCG on cell cycle distribution of sensitive cancer cell line was measured by flow cytometry. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol, the influence of EGCG on telomerase activity of sensitive cancer cell line was also investigated. RT-PCR method was employed to detect the influence of EGCG on the expressions of hTERT, c-myc, p53 and mad1 genes in sensitive cancer cell line. Results EGCG exhibited dose-dependent killing effects on all eight disgestive tract cancer cell lines. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of SW1116, MKN45, BGC823, SGC7901, AGS, MKN28, HGC27 and LoVo cells were 51.7 μmol/L, 55.9 μmol/L, 68.5 μmol/L, 79.1 μmol/L, 83.8 μmol/L, 119.8 μmol/L, 183.2 μmol/L and 194.6 μmol/L, respectively. There were no apparent changes in cell cycle distribution of sensitive cancer cell line MKN45 48 hours after incubating with three different concentrations of EGCG compared with the controls. It was found that EGCG could suppress the telomerase activity of MKN45 cells, and the effects were dose- and time-dependent. After EGCG administration, the expression of hTERT and c-myc genes in MKN45 cells was decreased, that of the mad1 gene increased, and that of the p53 gene unchanged. Conclusions EGCG has dose-dependent killing effects on different digestive tract cancer cell lines. Administration of EGCG has no obvious effect on cell cycle

  10. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.


    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  11. 78 FR 9401 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings (United States)


    ... Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; R24 Collaborative Interdisciplinary Team Science-3... Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; R24 Collaborative Interdisciplinary Team Science-8... Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; R24 Collaborative Interdisciplinary Team...

  12. Linkage Mapping of Stem Saccharification Digestibility in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Liu

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food of almost half of the world population, and in excess 90% of it is grown and consumed in Asia, but the disposal of rice straw poses a problem for farmers, who often burn it in the fields, causing health and environmental problems. However, with increased focus on the development of sustainable biofuel production, rice straw has been recognized as a potential feedstock for non-food derived biofuel production. Currently, the commercial realization of rice as a biofuel feedstock is constrained by the high cost of industrial saccharification processes needed to release sugar for fermentation. This study is focused on the alteration of lignin content, and cell wall chemotypes and structures, and their effects on the saccharification potential of rice lignocellulosic biomass. A recombinant inbred lines (RILs population derived from a cross between the lowland rice variety IR1552 and the upland rice variety Azucena with 271 molecular markers for quantitative trait SNP (QTS analyses was used. After association analysis of 271 markers for saccharification potential, 1 locus and 4 pairs of epistatic loci were found to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility phenotype, and an inverse relationship between reducing sugar and lignin content in these recombinant inbred lines was identified. As a result of QTS analyses, several cell-wall associated candidate genes are proposed that may be useful for marker-assisted breeding and may aid breeders to produce potential high saccharification rice varieties.

  13. Ethanol production from maize silage as lignocellulosic biomass in anaerobically digested and wet-oxidized manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Lisiecki, P.; Holm-Nielsen, J.B.


    In this communication, pretreatment of the anaerobically digested (AD) manure and the application of the pretreated AD manure as liquid medium for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were described. Furthermore, fermentation of pretreated maize silage and wheat straw....... No extra nitrogen source was needed in the fermentation broth. It was shown that the AD manure could successfully substitute process water in SSF of pretreated lignocellulosic fibres. Theoretical ethanol yields of 82% were achieved, giving 30.8 kg ethanol per 100 kg dry mass of maize silage. (C) 2007...

  14. [Effect of age on absorption and membrane digestion in the rat small intestine]. (United States)

    Metel'skiĭ, S T


    By the short-circuit current method in our modification, kinetic constants for nutrient transporters in rat gastric-intestinal tract and unstirred layer thickness near mucosa surface, were studied. In experiments on rats it was shown that in ageing, the nutrient monomer transporters number in the small intestine increases twofold, while its affinity to correspondent nutrients remains unchanged. For the peptide the situation may be the opposite one. The layer thickness in the vicinity of mucosa surface measured by glucose decreased in ageing. It was suggested that in old rats the role of volume digestion is enhanced resulting in adapting increase of nutrient monomer transporters number.

  15. Applicability of an in vitro digestion model in assessing the bioaccessibility of mycotoxins from food. (United States)

    Versantvoort, Carolien H M; Oomen, Agnes G; Van de Kamp, Erwin; Rompelberg, Cathy J M; Sips, Adriënne J A M


    Food is considered a major route of exposure to many contaminants. Only the fraction of the contaminant that is released from the food (bioaccessibility) and is bioavailable can exert toxic effects. Insufficient knowledge on the bioavailability may hamper an accurate risk assessment of ingested contaminants in humans. This paper describes the applicability of an in vitro digestion model allowing for measurement of the bioaccessibility of ingested mycotoxins from food as an indicator of oral bioavailability. Bioaccessibility of aflatoxin B(1) from peanut slurry and ochratoxin A from buckwheat was high, 94% and 100%, respectively, and could be determined reproducibly. With the in vitro digestion model, the bioaccessibilities of aflatoxin B(1) and ochratoxin A in the presence of four different absorption modulators were in five out of six situations in accordance with the in vivo effects in humans and animals. By determining the effect of chlorophyllin on the transport of aflatoxin B(1) across the intestinal Caco-2 cells, also the sixth combination was in agreement with data in humans. Hence, the in vitro digestion model, combined with Caco-2 cells, is a powerful experimental tool, which can aid to a more accurate risk assessment of ingested contaminants.

  16. Common Beans and Their Non-Digestible Fraction: Cancer Inhibitory Activity—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Campos-Vega


    Full Text Available The US Department of Agriculture’s MyPyramid guidelines introduced a near doubling of the dietary recommendations for vegetables including dry beans—an important food staple in many traditional diets that can improve public health and nutrition. Populations with high legume (peas, beans, lentils consumption have a low risk of cancer and chronic degenerative diseases. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. are known as a rich, reliable source of non-digested compounds like fiber, phenolics, peptides and phytochemicals that are associated with health benefits. Emerging evidence indicates that common bean consumption is associated with reduced cancer risk in human populations, inhibiting carcinogenesis in animal models and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cell cultures. Fiber may reduce the risk of premature death from all causes, whereas the whole non-digestible fraction from common beans exhibits anti-proliferative activity and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo colon cancer. The mechanisms responsible for this apparently protective role may include gene-nutrient interactions and modulation of proteins’ expression. This review investigates the potential health benefits and bioactivity of beans on tumor inhibition, highlighting studies involving functional compounds, mainly non-digestible fractions that modulate genes and proteins, thereby, unraveling their preventive role against the development of cancer.

  17. Digestibility, Milk Production, and Udder Health of Etawah Goats Fed with Fermented Coffee Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Badarina


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the utilization of coffee husk fermented by Pleurotus ostreatus as feed supplement by measuring the digestibility, milk production and udder health of Etawah goats suffered from subclinical mastitis (+1. There were three experimental diets consisted of T0 (control diet/basal diet without fermented coffee husk, T1 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk and T2 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk soaked in crude palm oil for an hour before using. Basal diet consisted of napier grass (60% and concentrate (40%. The results showed that supplementation of lactating Etawah does with fermented coffee husk did not affect the palatability of the diets, but increased the protein and crude fiber consumption (P<0.05. There was no significant effect on nutrient digestibility and milk production while milk composition (protein, fat, total solid increased in supplemented groups (P<0.05. The persistency of milk production and the somatic cells count were not different. There was an improvement of somatic cells count on supplemented groups. In conclusion, fermented coffee husk could be used as feed supplement without any negative effects on digestibility and milk production. The positive effects to udder health could be expected from including fermented coffee husk in diets.

  18. Blackberry subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion affords protection against Ethyl Carbamate-induced cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Lingxia; Su, Hongming; Zheng, Xiaodong


    Ethyl Carbamate (EC) was detected in many fermented foods. Previous studies indicated that frequent exposure to ethyl carbamate may increase the risk to suffer from cancers. Blackberry is rich in polyphenols and possesses potent antioxidant activity. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of blackberry homogenates produced before (BH) and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (BD) on EC-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells. Our results showed that blackberry homogenates after digestion (BD) was more effective than that before digestion (BH) in ameliorating EC-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells. Further investigation revealed that BD remarkably attenuated EC-induced toxicity through restoring mitochondrial function, inhibiting glutathione depletion and decreasing overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Additionally, LC-MS result implied that the better protective capacity of BD may be related to the increased content of two anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-dioxalyglucoside). Overall, the present study may give implication to prevent EC-induced health problem.

  19. Mast Cells Produce a Unique Chondroitin Sulfate Epitope. (United States)

    Farrugia, Brooke L; Whitelock, John M; O'Grady, Robert; Caterson, Bruce; Lord, Megan S


    The granules of mast cells contain a myriad of mediators that are stored and protected by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains that decorate proteoglycans. Whereas heparin is the GAG predominantly associated with mast cells, mast cell proteoglycans are also decorated with heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate (CS). This study investigated a unique CS structure produced by mast cells that was detected with the antibody clone 2B6 in the absence of chondroitinase ABC digestion. Mast cells in rodent tissue sections were characterized using toluidine blue, Leder stain and the presence of mast cell tryptase. The novel CS epitope was identified in rodent tissue sections and localized to cells that were morphologically similar to cells chemically identified as mast cells. The rodent mast cell-like line RBL-2H3 was also shown to express the novel CS epitope. This epitope co-localized with multiple CS proteoglycans in both rodent tissue and RBL-2H3 cultured cells. These findings suggest that the novel CS epitope that decorates mast cell proteoglycans may play a role in the way these chains are structured in mast cells.

  20. Testing Literature: The Current State of Affairs. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    A synthesis of the report, "The Current State of Assessment in Literature," (produced by the Center for the Learning and Teaching of Literature), this digest discusses methods of evaluating students' knowledge of literature. The digest argues that, by and large, the tests that now exist in the United States do not live up to the standards set by…