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Sample records for cell digestion mikrobiologische

  1. Microbiological studies in enhanced sewage sludge degradation through cell membrane break-up; Mikrobiologische Untersuchungen zum verbesserten Klaerschlammabbau durch Zellaufschluss. Mechanische und thermische Behandlung von Schlaemmen

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    Battenberg, S.; Naeveke, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Bereich Mikrobiologie

    1999-07-01

    Mechanical disintegration breaks up the flake structure of excess sludge and solubilizes organic constituents. Bacterial cells are rendered soluble. Thermal conditioning of excess sludge, too, can release sludge constituents. This makes for enhanced and accelerated hydrolysis of polymeric sludge constituents in subsequent anaerobic processing. The yield of useful biogas is increased. (orig.) [German] Durch die mechanische Desintegration von Ueberschussschlamm wird die Flockenstruktur zerschlagen und organische Inhaltsstoffe werden in Loesung gebracht. Bakterienzellen werden aufgeschlossen. Auch durch eine thermische Behandlung von Ueberschussschlamm koennen Schlamminhaltsstoffe freigesetzt werden. Dadurch wird bei einer anschliessenden anaeroben Behandlung die Hydrolyse der polymeren Schlamminhaltsstoffe gefoerdert und beschleunigt. Die Ausbeute an verwertbarem Biogas wird gesteigert. (orig.)

  2. Cancer stem cells of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Hugh S; Nishida, Naohiro; Koseki, Jun; Konno, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koichi; Tsunekuni, Kenta; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2014-12-01

    Stem cells of the digestive system are ideal in many ways for research, given they are abundant, highly proliferative and have a uniform structural arrangement. This in turn has enormously aided the research of cancer stem cells of the digestive system, which is now shaping our understanding of cancer stem cells. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding of cancer stem cells of the digestive system have been summarized, including aspects such as their identification, origin, cell-cycle dormancy, relationship with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular metabolism and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Newly acquired knowledge concerning cancer stem cells have led to the development of novel cancer therapeutics with provisional yet encouraging results. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The digestion of yeast cell wall polysaccharides in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaillard, B.D.E.; Weerden, van E.J.

    1976-01-01

    1. The digestibility of the cell wall polysaccharides of an alkane-grown yeast in different parts of the digestive tract of two veal calves fitted with re-entrant cannulas at the end of the ileum was studied by replacing part of the skim-milk powder of their ‘normal’, milk-substitute

  4. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow organs joined ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  5. Use of scanning electron microscopy to monitor nanofibre/cell interaction in digestive epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millaku, Agron; Drobne, Damjana; Torkar, Matjaz; Novak, Sara; Remškar, Maja; Pipan-Tkalec, Živa

    2013-09-15

    We provide data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on the interaction of ingested tungsten nanofibers with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes of a test organism Porcellio scaber. Conventional toxicity endpoints including feeding behaviour, weight loss and mortality were also measured in each investigated animal. No toxicity was detected in any of exposed animals after 14 days of feeding on tungsten nanofiber dosed food, but when nanofibers enter the digestive system they can react with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes, becoming physically inserted into the cells. In this way, nanofibers can injure the epithelial cells of digestive gland tubes when they are ingested with food. Our SEM data suggest that peristaltic forces may have an important role, not predicted by in vitro experiments, in the interactions of nanomaterials with digestive intestinal cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of scanning electron microscopy to monitor nanofibre/cell interaction in digestive epithelial cells

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    Millaku, Agron, E-mail: agron.mi@hotmail.com [Limnos-Company for Applied Ecology Ltd, Podlimbarskega 31, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drobne, Damjana [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence, Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (Nanocentre), Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Torkar, Matjaz [Institute of Metals and Technology IMT, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Condensed Matter Physics Department, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Novak, Sara [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Remškar, Maja [Jožef Stefan Institute, Condensed Matter Physics Department, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pipan-Tkalec, Živa [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy is particularly well suited to the observation of nanofibre/cell interaction in the endothelial cells lining the hepatopancreas. (a) Tungsten oxide nanofibres, (b) test organism Porcellio scaber and schematic appearance of digestive tubes, (c) digestive tube (hepatopancreas) prepared for SEM investigation, (d) digestive gland cells (C) with nanofibres (NF) embedded in the cell membrane and (e) nanofibres inserted deeply in the cells and damaged nanofibres due to peristalsis. -- Highlights: • Tungsten oxide nanofibres react physically with digestive gland epithelial cells in Porcellio scaber. • Physical peristaltic forces of lead to insertion of nanofibres into the cells. • No toxic responses as measured by conventional toxicity biomarkers were detected. • Physical interactions were observed in a majority of the investigated animals. -- Abstract: We provide data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on the interaction of ingested tungsten nanofibers with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes of a test organism Porcellio scaber. Conventional toxicity endpoints including feeding behaviour, weight loss and mortality were also measured in each investigated animal. No toxicity was detected in any of exposed animals after 14 days of feeding on tungsten nanofiber dosed food, but when nanofibers enter the digestive system they can react with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes, becoming physically inserted into the cells. In this way, nanofibers can injure the epithelial cells of digestive gland tubes when they are ingested with food. Our SEM data suggest that peristaltic forces may have an important role, not predicted by in vitro experiments, in the interactions of nanomaterials with digestive intestinal cells.

  7. Use of scanning electron microscopy to monitor nanofibre/cell interaction in digestive epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millaku, Agron; Drobne, Damjana; Torkar, Matjaz; Novak, Sara; Remškar, Maja; Pipan-Tkalec, Živa

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy is particularly well suited to the observation of nanofibre/cell interaction in the endothelial cells lining the hepatopancreas. (a) Tungsten oxide nanofibres, (b) test organism Porcellio scaber and schematic appearance of digestive tubes, (c) digestive tube (hepatopancreas) prepared for SEM investigation, (d) digestive gland cells (C) with nanofibres (NF) embedded in the cell membrane and (e) nanofibres inserted deeply in the cells and damaged nanofibres due to peristalsis. -- Highlights: • Tungsten oxide nanofibres react physically with digestive gland epithelial cells in Porcellio scaber. • Physical peristaltic forces of lead to insertion of nanofibres into the cells. • No toxic responses as measured by conventional toxicity biomarkers were detected. • Physical interactions were observed in a majority of the investigated animals. -- Abstract: We provide data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on the interaction of ingested tungsten nanofibers with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes of a test organism Porcellio scaber. Conventional toxicity endpoints including feeding behaviour, weight loss and mortality were also measured in each investigated animal. No toxicity was detected in any of exposed animals after 14 days of feeding on tungsten nanofiber dosed food, but when nanofibers enter the digestive system they can react with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes, becoming physically inserted into the cells. In this way, nanofibers can injure the epithelial cells of digestive gland tubes when they are ingested with food. Our SEM data suggest that peristaltic forces may have an important role, not predicted by in vitro experiments, in the interactions of nanomaterials with digestive intestinal cells

  8. Test results for fuel cell operation on anaerobic digester gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, R. J.; Preston, J. L.

    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI, embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the process of treating sewage anaerobically to reduce solids. ADG is primarily comprised of methane (57-66%), carbon dioxide (33-39%), nitrogen (1-10%), and a small amount of oxygen (sulfur-bearing compounds (principally hydrogen sulfide) and halogen compounds (chlorides). The project has addressed two major issues: development of a cleanup system to remove fuel cell contaminants from the gas and testing/assessing of a modified ONSI PC25 C fuel cell power plant operating on the cleaned, but dilute, ADG. Results to date demonstrate that the ADG fuel cell power plant can, depending on the energy content of the gas, produce electrical output levels close to full power (200 kW) with measured air emissions comparable to those obtained by a natural gas fuel cell. The cleanup system results show that the hydrogen sulfide levels are reduced to below 10 ppbv and halides to approximately 30 ppbv.

  9. Immunohistochemical localization of hepatopancreatic phospholipase A2 in Hexaplex Trunculus digestive cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Mammalian sPLA2-IB localization cell are well characterized. In contrast, much less is known about aquatic primitive ones. The aquatic world contains a wide variety of living species and, hence represents a great potential for discovering new lipolytic enzymes and the mode of digestion of lipid food. Results The marine snail digestive phospholipase A2 (mSDPLA2) has been previously purified from snail hepatopancreas. The specific polyclonal antibodies were prepared and used for immunohistochimical and immunofluorescence analysis in order to determine the cellular location of mSDPLA2. Our results showed essentially that mSDPLA2 was detected inside in specific vesicles tentatively named (mSDPLA2+) granules of the digestive cells. No immunolabelling was observed in secretory zymogene-like cells. This immunocytolocalization indicates that lipid digestion in the snail might occur in specific granules inside the digestive cells. Conclusion The cellular location of mSDPLA2 suggests that intracellular phospholipids digestion, like other food components digestion of snail diet, occurs in these digestive cells. The hepatopancreas of H. trunculus has been pointed out as the main region for digestion, absorption and storage of lipids. PMID:21631952

  10. Iron uptake by Caco-2 cells following in vitro digestion: effects of heat treatments of pork meat and pH of the digests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Anne D; Bukhave, Klaus

    2010-10-01

    The present in vitro studies report on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells from pepsin and pepsin+pancreatin-digested pork meat proteins at pH values between 4.6 and 7 mimicking conditions in the duodenum and the proximal jejunum, respectively. Heat treatment of the pork meat resulted in increased iron uptake from pepsin-digested samples to Caco-2 cells at pH 4.6. The major enhancing effects on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells were observed after pepsin digestion in the pH range 4.6-6.0, whereas the pepsin+pancreatin-digested samples resulted in negligible iron uptake in Caco-2 cells at pH 7. Thus, the results emphasize the importance of separating pepsin-digested and pepsin+pancreatin-digested proteins during in vitro studies on iron availability. Furthermore, the present results showed the pH dependency of iron uptake anticipated. The enhancing effect of ascorbic acid was verified by increased iron uptake from pepsin-digested pork meat samples at pH 4.6, while no effect of ascorbic acid was observed at pH 7 in pepsin+pancreatin-digested samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct digestion of proteins in living cells into peptides for proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Yan, Guoquan; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the proteome of an extremely low number of cells or even a single cell, we established a new method of digesting whole cells into mass-spectrometry-identifiable peptides in a single step within 2 h. Our sampling method greatly simplified the processes of cell lysis, protein extraction, protein purification, and overnight digestion, without compromising efficiency. We used our method to digest hundred-scale cells. As far as we know, there is no report of proteome analysis starting directly with as few as 100 cells. We identified an average of 109 proteins from 100 cells, and with three replicates, the number of proteins rose to 204. Good reproducibility was achieved, showing stability and reliability of the method. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that proteins in different cellular compartments were well represented.

  12. Lignin depletion enhances the digestibility of cellulose in cultured xylem cells.

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    Catherine I Lacayo

    Full Text Available Plant lignocellulose constitutes an abundant and sustainable source of polysaccharides that can be converted into biofuels. However, the enzymatic digestion of native plant cell walls is inefficient, presenting a considerable barrier to cost-effective biofuel production. In addition to the insolubility of cellulose and hemicellulose, the tight association of lignin with these polysaccharides intensifies the problem of cell wall recalcitrance. To determine the extent to which lignin influences the enzymatic digestion of cellulose, specifically in secondary walls that contain the majority of cellulose and lignin in plants, we used a model system consisting of cultured xylem cells from Zinniaelegans. Rather than using purified cell wall substrates or plant tissue, we have applied this system to study cell wall degradation because it predominantly consists of homogeneous populations of single cells exhibiting large deposits of lignocellulose. We depleted lignin in these cells by treating with an oxidative chemical or by inhibiting lignin biosynthesis, and then examined the resulting cellulose digestibility and accessibility using a fluorescent cellulose-binding probe. Following cellulase digestion, we measured a significant decrease in relative cellulose content in lignin-depleted cells, whereas cells with intact lignin remained essentially unaltered. We also observed a significant increase in probe binding after lignin depletion, indicating that decreased lignin levels improve cellulose accessibility. These results indicate that lignin depletion considerably enhances the digestibility of cellulose in the cell wall by increasing the susceptibility of cellulose to enzymatic attack. Although other wall components are likely to contribute, our quantitative study exploits cultured Zinnia xylem cells to demonstrate the dominant influence of lignin on the enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This system is simple enough for quantitative image analysis

  13. Plant cells which aid in pollen digestion within a beetle's gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickson, Fred R; Cresti, M; Beach, James H

    1990-03-01

    The peach palm, Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., in Costa Rica, possesses unusual trichomes on the inflorescence epidermal surface. Certain cells of the trichome possess a thick, highly lignified cell wall and are consumed by the beetle Cyclocephala amazona L. before it ingests pollen from the same inflorescence. Chemical analyses show the trichome to possess no nutritive value. The thick-walled trichome cells pass intact through the beetle's digestive system, while ingested pollen is crushed. We suggest that the specialized plant cells function as gastroliths in the beetle's digestive tract.

  14. Studies on the digestibility of microbial cell protein in buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1980-01-01

    The digestibility of cell wall, cell contents and mixed whole 35 S-rumen bacteria and 14 C-protozoal cells was determined in buffalo calves. The intact cells as well as their fractions were injected in a single dose into the rumen after treating with formaldehyde to protect degradation in the rumen and radioactivity excreted in the faeces was measured for six consecutive days. The indigestibility of mixed whole rumen bacteria, cell wall and cell contents was observed to be 87.13 +- 0.61, 92.77 +- 0.83 and 83.62 +- 1.10 percent, respectively. The digestibility coefficients of mixed whole rumen protozoa, cell wall, cell content and Holotrics were 90.95 +- 0.39, 94.39 +- 1.08, 89.01 +- 0.97 and 93.16 +- 0.69 percent, respectively. (auth.)

  15. Intactness of cell wall structure controls the in vitro digestion of starch in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Bhattarai, Rewati R; Gorham, John; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Increasing the level of starch that is not digested by the end of the small intestine and therefore enters the colon ('resistant starch') is a major opportunity for improving the nutritional profile of foods. One mechanism that has been shown to be successful is entrapment of starch within an intact plant tissue structure. However, the level of tissue intactness required for resistance to amylase digestion has not been defined. In this study, intact cells were isolated from a range of legumes after thermal treatment at 60 °C (starch not gelatinised) or 95 °C (starch gelatinised) followed by hydrolysis using pancreatic alpha amylase. It was found that intact cells, isolated at either temperature, were impervious to amylase. However, application of mechanical force damaged the cell wall and made starch accessible to digestive enzymes. This shows that the access of enzymes to the entrapped swollen starch is the rate limiting step controlling hydrolysis of starch in cooked legumes. The results suggest that a single cell wall could be sufficient to provide an effective delivery of starch to the large intestine with consequent nutritional benefits, provided that mechanical damage during digestion is avoided.

  16. Managing acute complications of sickle cell disease in pediatric patients [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sathyaseelan; Chao, Jennifer H; Chaudhari, Pradip

    2016-11-22

    Sickle cell disease is a chronic hematologic disease with a variety of acute, and often recurring, complications. Vaso-occlusive crisis, a unique but common presentation in sickle cell disease, can be challenging to manage. Acute chest syndrome is the leading cause of death in patients with sickle cell disease, occurring in more than half of patients who are hospitalized with a vaso-occlusive crisis. Uncommon diagnoses in children, such as stroke, priapism, and transient red cell aplasia, occur more frequently in patients with sickle cell disease and necessitate a degree of familiarity with the disease process and its management. Patients with sickle cell trait generally have a benign course, but are also subject to serious complications. This issue provides a current review of evidence-based management of the most common acute complications of sickle cell disease seen in pediatric patients in the emergency department. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  17. Nanomedicine strategies for sustained, controlled, and targeted treatment of cancer stem cells of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang-Yuan; Xu, Wei-Heng; Yin, Chuan; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Zhong, Yan-Qiang; Gao, Jie

    2016-10-15

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a small proportion of the cancer cells that have self-renewal capacity and tumor-initiating ability. They have been identified in a variety of tumors, including tumors of the digestive system. CSCs exhibit some unique characteristics, which are responsible for cancer metastasis and recurrence. Consequently, the development of effective therapeutic strategies against CSCs plays a key role in increasing the efficacy of cancer therapy. Several potential approaches to target CSCs of the digestive system have been explored, including targeting CSC surface markers and signaling pathways, inducing the differentiation of CSCs, altering the tumor microenvironment or niche, and inhibiting ATP-driven efflux transporters. However, conventional therapies may not successfully eradicate CSCs owing to various problems, including poor solubility, stability, rapid clearance, poor cellular uptake, and unacceptable cytotoxicity. Nanomedicine strategies, which include drug, gene, targeted, and combinational delivery, could solve these problems and significantly improve the therapeutic index. This review briefly summarizes the ongoing development of strategies and nanomedicine-based therapies against CSCs of the digestive system.

  18. Exocytosis of macrophage lysosomes leads to digestion of apoptotic adipocytes and foam cell formation[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, Abigail S.; Barbosa-Lorenzi, Valéria C.; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Falcone, Domenick J.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Many types of apoptotic cells are phagocytosed and digested by macrophages. Adipocytes can be hundreds of times larger than macrophages, so they are too large to be digested by conventional phagocytic processes. The nature of the interaction between macrophages and apoptotic adipocytes has not been studied in detail. We describe a cellular process, termed exophagy, that is important for macrophage clearance of dead adipocytes and adipose tissue homeostasis. Using mouse models of obesity, human tissue, and a cell culture model, we show that macrophages form hydrolytic extracellular compartments at points of contact with dead adipocytes using local actin polymerization. These compartments are acidic and contain lysosomal enzymes delivered by exocytosis. Uptake and complete degradation of adipocyte fragments, which are released by extracellular hydrolysis, leads to macrophage foam cell formation. Exophagy-mediated foam cell formation is a highly efficient means by which macrophages internalize large amounts of lipid, which may ultimately overwhelm the metabolic capacity of the macrophage. This process provides a mechanism for degradation of objects, such as dead adipocytes, that are too large to be phagocytosed by macrophages. PMID:27044658

  19. Prior lactose glycation of caseinate via the Maillard reaction affects in vitro activities of the pepsin-trypsin digest toward intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X P; Zhao, X H

    2017-07-01

    The well-known Maillard reaction in milk occurs between lactose and milk proteins during thermal treatment, and its effects on milk nutrition and safety have been well studied. A lactose-glycated caseinate was prepared via this reaction and digested using 2 digestive proteases, pepsin and trypsin. The glycated caseinate digest was assessed for its in vitro activities on rat intestinal epithelial cells in terms of growth proliferation, anti-apoptotic effect, and differentiation induction using caseinate digest as reference, to verify potential effects of the Maillard reaction on these activities of caseinate digest to the cells. Two digests had proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects, and reached the highest effects at 0.02 g/L of digest concentration with treatment time of 24 h. In comparison with caseinate digest, glycated caseinate digest always showed weaker proliferative (5.3-14.2%) and anti-apoptotic (5.9-39.0%) effects, and was more toxic to the cells at 0.5 g/L of digest concentration with treatment time of 48 h. However, glycated caseinate digest at 2 incubation times of 4 to 7 d showed differentiation induction higher than caseinate digest, as it could confer the cells with increased activities in lactase (16.3-26.6%), sucrase (22.4-31.2%), and alkaline phosphatase (17.4-24.8%). Transmission electron microscopy observation results also confirmed higher differentiation induction of glycated caseinate digest. Amino acid loss and lactose glycation partially contributed to these decreased and enhanced activities of glycated caseinate digest, respectively. The Maillard reaction of caseinate and lactose is thus shown in this study to have effects on the activities of caseinate digest to intestinal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Neuroendocrine tumors of digestive system: morphologic spectrum and cell proliferation (Ki67 index)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delektorskaia, V V; Kushliskiĭ, N E

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with the analysis of up-to-date concepts ofdiferent types of human neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive system. It summarizes the information on the specifics of recent histological classifications and criteria of morphological diagnosis accounting histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical parameters. Current issues of the nomenclature as well as various systems of grading and staging are discussed. In the light of these criteria the results of the own research clinical value of the determination of cell proliferation in primary and metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms on the basis of evaluation of the Ki67 antigen expression are also presented.

  1. Digestion of isolated legume cells in a stomach-duodenum model: three mechanisms limit starch and protein hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Rewati R; Dhital, Sushil; Wu, Peng; Chen, Xiao Dong; Gidley, Michael J

    2017-07-19

    Retention of intact plant cells to the end of the small intestine leads to transport of entrapped macronutrients such as starch and protein for colonic microbial fermentation, and is a promising mechanism to increase the content of resistant starch in diets. However, the effect of gastro-intestinal bio-mechanical processing on the intactness of plant cells and the subsequent resistance to enzymatic digestion of intracellular starch and protein are not well understood. In this study, intact cells isolated from legume cotyledons are digested in a laboratory model which mimics the mechanical and biochemical conditions of the rat stomach and duodenum. The resulting digesta are characterised in terms of cell (wall) integrity as well as intracellular starch and protein hydrolysis. The cells remained essentially intact in the model with negligible (ca. 2-3%) starch or protein digestion; however when the cells were mechanically broken and digested in the model, the hydrolysis was increased to 45-50% suggesting that intact cellular structures could survive the mixing regimes in the model stomach and duodenum sufficiently to prevent digestive enzyme access. Apart from intact cell walls providing effective barrier properties, they also limit digestibility by restricting starch gelatinisation during cooking, and significant non-specific binding of α-amylase is observed to both intact and broken cell wall components, providing a third mechanism hindering starch hydrolysis. The study suggests that the preservation of intactness of plant cells, such as from legumes, could be a viable approach to achieve the targeted delivery of resistant starch to the colon.

  2. Effect of cell wall characteristics on algae nutrient digestibility in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarus gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuling, Emma; Schrama, Johan W.; Gruppen, Harry; Wierenga, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of cell wall hardness and fish species on digestibility of unicellular sources. The gross composition, and the composition and cell wall hardness of the sources were determined for four sources. These were 3 microalgae species (Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus

  3. Effect of lignin linkages with other plant cell wall components on in vitro and in vivo neutral detergent fiber digestibility and rate of digestion of grass forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffrenato, E; Fievisohn, R; Cotanch, K W; Grant, R J; Chase, L E; Van Amburgh, M E

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate in vitro and in vivo neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD) with the chemical composition of forages and specific chemical linkages, primarily ester- and ether-linked para-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic acids (FA) in forages fed to dairy cattle. The content of acid detergent lignin (ADL) and its relationship with NDF does not fully explain the observed variability in NDFD. The ferulic and p-coumaric acid linkages between ADL and cell wall polysaccharides, rather than the amount of ADL, might be a better predictor of NDFD. Twenty-three forages, including conventional and brown midrib corn silages and grasses at various stages of maturity were incubated in vitro for measurement of 24-h and 96-h NDFD. Undigested and digested residues were analyzed for NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF), ADL, and Klason lignin (KL); ester- and ether-linked pCA and FA were determined in these fractions. To determine whether in vitro observations of ester- and ether-linked pCA and FA and digestibility were similar to in vivo observations, 3 corn silages selected for digestibility were fed to 6 ruminally fistulated cows for 3 wk in 3 iso-NDF diets. Intact samples and NDF and ADF residues of diet, rumen, and feces were analyzed for ester- and ether-linked pCA and FA. From the in vitro study, the phenolic acid content (total pCA and FA) was highest for corn silages, and overall the content of ester- and ether-linked pCA and FA in both NDF and ADF residues were correlated with NDF digestibility parameters, reflecting the competitive effect of these linkages on digestibility. Also, Klason lignin and ADL were negatively correlated with ether-linked ferulic acid on an NDF basis. Overall, esterified FA and esterified pCA were negatively correlated with all of the measured fiber fractions on both a dry matter and an NDF basis. The lignin content of the plant residues and chemical linkages explained most of the variation in both rate and extent of

  4. Rapid changes in plasma membrane protein phosphorylation during initiation of cell wall digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, D.P.; Boss, W.F.; Trewavas, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with [γ- 32 P]ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of M r 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of M r 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at M r 22,000. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic 32 P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselas preparation was required for the observed responses

  5. Identification of New Anti-inflammatory Peptides from Zein Hydrolysate after Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion and Transport in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiufang; Chalamaiah, Meram; Ren, Xiaofeng; Ma, Haile; Wu, Jianping

    2018-02-07

    Chronic inflammation is an underlying contributor to various chronic diseases. The objectives of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of zein hydrolysate after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and Caco-2 cell absorption and to identify novel anti-inflammatory peptides after transport across Caco-2 cells. Three zein hydrolysates were prepared and further digested using gastrointestinal proteases; their transports were studied in Caco-2 cells. Anti-inflammatory activity was studied in endothelial EA.hy926 cells. Three zein hydrolysates and their digests significantly decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced pro-inflammatory vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by 37.3-66.0%. Eleven novel peptides with 5-9 amino acid residues were sequenced; three peptides showed strong anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the VCAM-1 by 54-38.9% and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by 36.5-28.6% at 0.2 mM. A new approach to identify novel anti-inflammatory peptides that could survive gastrointestinal digestion and absorption was developed.

  6. Capillary zone electrophoresis-multiple reaction monitoring from 100 pg of RAW 264.7 cell lysate digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangliang; Li, Yihan; Champion, Matthew M; Zhu, Guijie; Wojcik, Roza; Dovichi, Norman J

    2013-06-07

    Capillary zone electrophoresis-multiple/single reaction monitoring (CZE-MRM/SRM), which employed an electrokinetically driven sheath-flow electrospray interface, was used for the rapid and highly sensitive detection of protein analytes in complex tryptic digests. MRM channels were developed against a commercial exponential mixture of bovine proteins. Five proteins spanning four orders of magnitude concentration range were confidently detected from only 2.5 ng of the digest mixture; the mass detection limits (S/N = 3) of two detected proteins, alpha-casein and glutamate dehydrogenase were about 600 zmol and 30 amol, respectively. This technique was then applied to a RAW 264.7 cell lysate digest. Three proteins were confidently and reproducibly detected from 100 pg of this digest. The sample amount corresponds to the approximate protein content from a single cell, which suggests that CZE-MRM may be a useful analytical tool in chemical cytometry. In addition to providing highly sensitive detection of proteins in complex mixtures, this system is highly rapid; migration time of the protein digests was less than 10 min.

  7. Counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion by recovery using submersible microbial desalination cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia inhibition is one of the most frequent and serious problems in biogas plants. In this study, a novel hybrid system consisting of a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed for counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic...... digestion (AD) with simultaneous in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. The SMDC was powered by acetate in a buffer solution, while synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater was used as the feeding of the CSTR. Under continuous operation, ammonia recovery rate of 86 g-N/m2 /day and current density...... of 4.33 A/m2 were achieved at steady-state condition. As a result, 112% extra biogas was produced due to ammonia recovery by the SMDC. High-throughput sequencing showed that ammonia recovery had an impact on the microbial community structures in the SMDC and CSTR. Considering the additional economic...

  8. Lysosomal enlargement and lysosomal membrane destabilisation in mussel digestive cells measured by an integrative index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izagirre, Urtzi; Marigomez, Ionan

    2009-01-01

    Lysosomal responses (enlargement and membrane destabilisation) in mussel digestive cells are well-known environmental stress biomarkers in pollution effects monitoring in marine ecosystems. Presently, in laboratory and field studies, both responses were measured separately (in terms of lysosomal volume density - Vv - and labilisation period -LP) and combined (lysosomal response index - LRI) in order to contribute to their understanding and to develop an index useful for decisions makers. LRI integrates Vv and LP, which are not necessarily dependent lysosomal responses. It is unbiased and more sensitive than Vv and LP alone and diminishes background due to confounding factors. LRI provides a simple numerical index (consensus reference = 0; critical threshold = 1) directly related to the pollution impact degree. Moreover, LRI can be represented in a way that allows the interpretation of lysosomal responses, which is useful for environmental scientists. - Lysosomal responses to pollutants measured by an integrative index.

  9. Polymorphisms in O-methyltransferase genes are associated with stover cell wall digestibility in European maize (Zea mays L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, Everton A; Zein, Imad; Chen, Yongsheng

    2010-01-01

    Background OMT (O-methyltransferase) genes are involved in lignin biosynthesis, which relates to stover cell wall digestibility. Reduced lignin content is an important determinant of both forage quality and ethanol conversion efficiency of maize stover. Results Variation in genomic sequences codi...

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  11. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells cultured on biomatrix support induces repairing of digestive tract defects, in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sîrbu-Boeţi, Mirela-Patricia; Chivu, Mihaela; Pâslaru, Liliana Livia; Efrimescu, C; Herlea, V; Pecheanu, C; Moldovan, Lucia; Dragomir, Laura; Bleotu, Coralia; Ciucur, Elena; Vidulescu, Cristina; Vasilescu, Mihaela; Boicea, Anişoara; Mănoiu, S; Ionescu, M I; Popescu, I

    2009-01-01

    Transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) appear to play a significant role in adult tissue repair. The aim of this research was to obtain MSCs enriched, three dimensional (3D) patches for transplant, and to test their ability to induce repair of iatrogenic digestive tract defects in rats. MSCs were obtained from human and rat bone marrow, cultured in vitro, and seeded in a collagen-agarose scaffold, where they showed enhanced viability and proliferation. The phenotype of the cultured cells was representative for MSCs (CD105+, CD90+, and CD34-, CD45-, CD3-, CD14-). The 3D patch was obtained by laying the MSCs enriched collagen-agarose scaffold on a human or swine aortic fragment. After excision of small portions of the rat digestive tract, the 3D patches were sutured at the edge of the defect using micro-surgical techniques. The rats were sacrificed at time-points and the regeneration of the digestive wall was investigated by immunofluorescence, light and electron microscopy. The MSCs enriched 3D patches were biocompatible, biodegradable, and prompted the regeneration of the four layers of the stomach and intestine wall in rats. Human cells were identified in the rat regenerated digestive wall as a hallmark of the transplanted MSCs. For the first time we constructed 3D patches made of cultured bone marrow MSCs, embedded into a collagen-rich biomatrix, on vascular bio-material support, and transplanted them in order to repair iatrogenic digestive tract defects. The result was a complete repair with preservation of the four layered structure of the digestive wall.

  12. Extractability and digestibility of plant cell wall polysaccharides during hydrothermal and enzymatic degradation of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads A.T.; Ahl, Louise I.; Pedersen, Henriette L.

    2014-01-01

    to about 20, but mostly around 3-8, and notably more acetylated in stems. Arabinoxylan (AX) and mixed-linkage glucan (MLG) became water-extractable while xylan, xyloglucan (XG), mannan and glucan remained only alkali-extractable. All polysaccharides became partly digestible after pretreatment however......, regardless their extractability in water or only alkali. Based on the results, AX and MLG appear to be loosely bound in the cell wall matrix while the other polysaccharides are bound more tightly and shielded from enzymatic attack by AX and MLG until pretreatment. The gradual solubilisation and digestion...

  13. Changes in digestibility and cell - wall constituents of some agricultural by-products due to gamma irradiation and urea treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Guenther, K.D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of different doses of gamma irradiation (0. 100, 150, 200 KGy) or different concentrations of urea (0, 2, 3, and 5 g urea/100 g DM) on in-vitro organic matter digestibility (JVOMD), digestible energy (IVDE), gross energy (GE) nd cell-wall constituents: neutral-detergent fibre, acid-detergent fibre and acid=detergent lignin, have been evaluated in wheat straw, cotton seed shell, peanut shell, soybean shell, extracted olive cake and extracted unpeeled sunflower seeds. The results indicated that gamma irradiation or urea treatments increased the digestible energy values significantly. (p<0.05) and these were attributed to the increases IVOMD and decreases cell-wall constituents of treated samples. The experimental agricultural by-products do not respond to the treatments in the same amount in increasing the IVOMD. There was no significant effect of irradiation and urea treatments on GE. Combined treatments had slightly less effect in increasing IVDE as the addition of both effects. The treatment of 200 KGy and 5% urea resulted in a larger increase in the digestible energy and a better effect by reducing the concentration of the cell-wall constituents even more than what occurred using a single treatment. However, the combination of irradiation with urea treatments could reduce the applied irradiation doses for increasing the IVDE in some studied agricultural by-products. (author)

  14. Electrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed cathode microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Roland D; Ullery, Mark L; Dempsey, Brian A; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-05-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used to simultaneously convert wastewater organics to hydrogen and precipitate struvite, but scale formation at the cathode surface can block catalytic active sites and limit extended operation. To promote bulk phase struvite precipitation and minimize cathode scaling, a two-chamber MEC was designed with a fluidized bed to produce suspended particles and inhibit scale formation on the cathode surface. MEC operation elevated the cathode pH to between 8.3 and 8.7 under continuous flow conditions. Soluble phosphorus removal using digester effluent ranged from 70 to 85% with current generation, compared to 10-20% for the control (open circuit conditions). At low current densities (≤2 mA/m(2)), scouring of the cathode by fluidized particles prevented scale accumulation over a period of 8 days. There was nearly identical removal of soluble phosphorus and magnesium from solution, and an equimolar composition in the collected solids, supporting phosphorus removal by struvite formation. At an applied voltage of 1.0 V, energy consumption from the power supply and pumping (0.2 Wh/L, 7.5 Wh/g-P) was significantly less than that needed by other struvite formation methods based on pH adjustment such as aeration and NaOH addition. In the anode chamber, current generation led to COD oxidation (1.1-2.1 g-COD/L-d) and ammonium removal (7-12 mM) from digestate amended with 1 g/L of sodium acetate. These results indicate that a fluidized bed cathode MEC is a promising method of sustainable electrochemical nutrient and energy recovery method for nutrient rich wastewaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed cathode microbial electrolysis cell

    KAUST Repository

    Cusick, Roland D.

    2014-05-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used to simultaneously convert wastewater organics to hydrogen and precipitate struvite, but scale formation at the cathode surface can block catalytic active sites and limit extended operation. To promote bulk phase struvite precipitation and minimize cathode scaling, a two-chamber MEC was designed with a fluidized bed to produce suspended particles and inhibit scale formation on the cathode surface. MEC operation elevated the cathode pH to between 8.3 and 8.7 under continuous flow conditions. Soluble phosphorus removal using digester effluent ranged from 70 to 85% with current generation, compared to 10-20% for the control (open circuit conditions). At low current densities (≤2mA/m2), scouring of the cathode by fluidized particles prevented scale accumulation over a period of 8 days. There was nearly identical removal of soluble phosphorus and magnesium from solution, and an equimolar composition in the collected solids, supporting phosphorus removal by struvite formation. At an applied voltage of 1.0V, energy consumption from the power supply and pumping (0.2Wh/L, 7.5Wh/g-P) was significantly less than that needed by other struvite formation methods based on pH adjustment such as aeration and NaOH addition. In the anode chamber, current generation led to COD oxidation (1.1-2.1g-COD/L-d) and ammonium removal (7-12mM) from digestate amended with 1g/L of sodium acetate. These results indicate that a fluidized bed cathode MEC is a promising method of sustainable electrochemical nutrient and energy recovery method for nutrient rich wastewaters. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Electrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed cathode microbial electrolysis cell

    KAUST Repository

    Cusick, Roland D.; Ullery, Mark L.; Dempsey, Brian A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used to simultaneously convert wastewater organics to hydrogen and precipitate struvite, but scale formation at the cathode surface can block catalytic active sites and limit extended operation. To promote bulk phase struvite precipitation and minimize cathode scaling, a two-chamber MEC was designed with a fluidized bed to produce suspended particles and inhibit scale formation on the cathode surface. MEC operation elevated the cathode pH to between 8.3 and 8.7 under continuous flow conditions. Soluble phosphorus removal using digester effluent ranged from 70 to 85% with current generation, compared to 10-20% for the control (open circuit conditions). At low current densities (≤2mA/m2), scouring of the cathode by fluidized particles prevented scale accumulation over a period of 8 days. There was nearly identical removal of soluble phosphorus and magnesium from solution, and an equimolar composition in the collected solids, supporting phosphorus removal by struvite formation. At an applied voltage of 1.0V, energy consumption from the power supply and pumping (0.2Wh/L, 7.5Wh/g-P) was significantly less than that needed by other struvite formation methods based on pH adjustment such as aeration and NaOH addition. In the anode chamber, current generation led to COD oxidation (1.1-2.1g-COD/L-d) and ammonium removal (7-12mM) from digestate amended with 1g/L of sodium acetate. These results indicate that a fluidized bed cathode MEC is a promising method of sustainable electrochemical nutrient and energy recovery method for nutrient rich wastewaters. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Lower digestive hemorrhage study algorithm in elderly patients and red cells mark scintigraphy role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abella, O.; Almeida, C.A.; Fitzimons, C.; Rial, M.T.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Show the utility of this technique in the detection of Lower Digestive Hemorrhage (LDH) in elderly patients and propose a study algorithm. Materials and Methods: We study 39 patients (20 women and 19 men), between 61 and 92 years (media 76,3 years), in the last three years, that we strongly presume they have a LDH. In all of them we lay aside the upper digestive hemorrhage with endoscopies. In all the cases we perform a video-colonoscopy after the scintigraphy adopting in every case if its necessary surgery, medication or expectant conduct. We use the modified red cells mark 'in vivo' method (mark efficiency of 82%). We obtain anterior images of the abdomen with a planar Gamma Camera. Sequential images of 1 minute duration in the first hour post-injection I.V. of 740 MBq of Tc99- pertechnetate -Stannous Chloride and hen static images with 400 K counts at 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes and one image at 24 hours were acquired, in two cases repeat the study. We don't do selective angiographies because we consider this a high risk and low cost / benefit study in elderly patients (high association with cardiopathy). Result: Patient with final diagnosis for VCC or Surgery: Angio dysplasia (38%), Diverticulosis (20%), Ischemic colitis (11%), Ulcerous colitis (8%) and Colon adenocarcinoma (2%). In some cases were two pathologies involved (13%). The scintigraphies were positive in 92% and negative in 8% of the cases. All the positives were in massive or recidivated bleeding and the negatives in intermittent low volume bleedings or patients with discreet melena or hidden blood in feces. The diagnostic efficiency of 92% was compare with non-invasive methods (video-colonoscopy 81% and selective angiography) and we comment the possible causes of false negatives. Conclusion: We propose a study algorithm for intermittent and low intensity LDH cases and another for higher magnitude LDH

  18. Digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of haploid and diploid males of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenner M. Fernandes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In eusocial bees, workers and queens are diploid (2n, whereas males are haploid (n. However, in some species, including the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier, 1836, 2n males arise from fertilized eggs resulting from the crossing between a queen and her brother. In the present study, we provide a comparative analysis of the digestive and regenerative cells in n and 2n pupae and adult males of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. In n and 2n pupae and adult males, the number of regenerative cells/nest was similar. In n and 2n pupae, the mean number of digestive cells/midgut area was 2076 ± 0.60, whereas in adults it was 1234 ± 1.42 digestive cells/midgut area. The nuclear area of the digestive cells was also similar in both n and 2n adult males (~154 µm² and smaller in pupae (~91 µm²; this variation might be a result of DNA amplification in digestive cells during bee development. The results from our current study provide further understanding of the morphological and physiological aspects of the digestive tract of bees and show that the ploidy difference between n and 2n male stages does not affect the number of digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides.

  19. Electric energy production from food waste: Microbial fuel cells versus anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaodong; Ma, Yingqun; Liu, Yu

    2018-05-01

    A food waste resourceful process was developed by integrating the ultra-fast hydrolysis and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for energy and resource recovery. Food waste was first ultra-fast hydrolyzed by fungal mash rich in hydrolytic enzymes in-situ produced from food waste. After which, the separated solids were readily converted to biofertilizer, while the liquid was fed to MFCs for direct electricity generation with a conversion efficiency of 0.245 kWh/kg food waste. It was estimated that about 192.5 million kWh of electricity could be produced from the food waste annually generated in Singapore, together with 74,390 tonnes of dry biofertilizer. Compared to anaerobic digestion, the proposed approach was more environmentally friendly and economically viable in terms of both electricity conversion and process cost. It is expected that this study may lead to the paradigm shift in food waste management towards ultra-fast concurrent recovery of resource and electricity with zero-solid discharge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion by recovery using submersible microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia inhibition is one of the most frequent and serious problems in biogas plants. In this study, a novel hybrid system consisting of a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed for counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion (AD) with simultaneous in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. The SMDC was powered by acetate in a buffer solution, while synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater was used as the feeding of the CSTR. Under continuous operation, ammonia recovery rate of 86 g-N/m(2) /day and current density of 4.33 A/m(2) were achieved at steady-state condition. As a result, 112% extra biogas was produced due to ammonia recovery by the SMDC. High-throughput sequencing showed that ammonia recovery had an impact on the microbial community structures in the SMDC and CSTR. Considering the additional economic benefits of biogas enhancement and possible wastewater treatment, the SMDC may represent a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method for waste resources recovery and biomethanation of ammonia-rich residues. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of dietary non-digestible oligosaccharides in T cell-mediated autoimmune arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogier, R.; Ederveen, T.; Hartog, A.; Walgreen, B.; Van Den Bersselaar, L.; Helsen, M.; Vos, P.; Garssen, J.; Willemsen, L.; Van Den Berg, W.; Koenders, M.; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates the relevance of intestinal microbiota in shaping the immune response and supports its contribution to the development of autoimmune diseases. Prebiotic non-digestible oligosaccharides are known to selectively support growth of commensal Bifidobacteria and

  2. Identification of candidate genes associated with cell wall digestibility and eQTL (expression quantitative trait loci analysis in a Flint × Flint maize recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-wall digestibility is the major target for improving the feeding value of forage maize. An understanding of the molecular basis for cell-wall digestibility is crucial towards breeding of highly digestible maize. Results 865 candidate ESTs for cell-wall digestibility were selected according to the analysis of expression profiles in 1 three sets of brown-midrib isogenic lines in the genetic background of inbreds 1332 (1332 and 1332 bm3, 5361 (5361 and 5361 bm3, and F2 (F2, F2 bm1, F2 bm2, and F2 bm3, 2 the contrasting extreme lines of FD (Flint × Dent, AS08 × AS 06, DD1 (Dent × Dent, AS11 × AS09, and DD2 (Dent × Dent, AS29 × AS30 mapping populations, and 3 two contrasting isogenic inbreds, AS20 and AS21. Out of those, 439 ESTs were assembled on our "Forage Quality Array", a small microarray specific for cell wall digestibility related experiments. Transcript profiles of 40 lines of a Flint × Flint population were monitored using the Forage Quality Array, which were contrasting for cell wall digestibility. Using t-tests (p Conclusion 102 candidate genes for cell-wall digestibility were validated by genetical genomics approach. Although the cDNA array highlights gene types (the tested gene and any close family members, trans-acting factors or metabolic bottlenecks seem to play the major role in controlling heritable variation of gene expression related to cell-wall digestibility, since no in silico mapped ESTs were in the same location as their own eQTL. Transcriptional variation was generally found to be oligogenic rather than monogenic inherited due to only 26% ESTs detected a single eQTL in the present study. One eQTL hotspot was co-localized with cell wall digestibility related QTL cluster on bins 3.05, implying that in this case the gene(s underlying QTL and eQTL are identical. As the field of genetical genomics develops, it is expected to significantly improve our knowledge about complex traits, such as cell

  3. Regeneration of the digestive system in the crinoid Himerometra robustipinna occurs by transdifferentiation of neurosecretory-like cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalacheva, Nadezhda V.; Eliseikina, Marina G.; Frolova, Lidia T.

    2017-01-01

    The structure and regeneration of the digestive system in the crinoid Himerometra robustipinna (Carpenter, 1881) were studied. The gut comprises a spiral tube forming radial lateral processes, which gives it a five-lobed shape. The digestive tube consists of three segments: esophagus, intestine, and rectum. The epithelia of these segments have different cell compositions. Regeneration of the gut after autotomy of the visceral mass progresses very rapidly. Within 6 h after autotomy, an aggregation consisting of amoebocytes, coelomic epithelial cells and juxtaligamental cells (neurosecretory neurons) forms on the inner surface of the skeletal calyx. At 12 h post-autotomy, transdifferentiation of the juxtaligamental cells starts. At 24 h post-autotomy these cells undergo a mesenchymal-epithelial-like transition, resulting in the formation of the luminal epithelium of the gut. Specialization of the intestinal epithelial cells begins on day 2 post-autotomy. At this stage animals acquire the mouth and anal opening. On day 4 post-autotomy the height of both the enterocytes and the visceral mass gradually increases. Proliferation does not play any noticeable role in gut regeneration. The immersion of animals in a 10−7 M solution of colchicine neither stopped formation of the lost structures nor caused accumulation of mitoses in tissues. Weakly EdU-labeled nuclei were observed in the gut only on day 2 post-autotomy and were not detected at later regeneration stages. Single mitotically dividing cells were recorded during the same period. It is concluded that juxtaligamental cells play a major role in gut regeneration in H. robustipinna. The main mechanisms of morphogenesis are cell migration and transdifferentiation. PMID:28753616

  4. Regeneration of the digestive system in the crinoid Himerometra robustipinna occurs by transdifferentiation of neurosecretory-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalacheva, Nadezhda V; Eliseikina, Marina G; Frolova, Lidia T; Dolmatov, Igor Yu

    2017-01-01

    The structure and regeneration of the digestive system in the crinoid Himerometra robustipinna (Carpenter, 1881) were studied. The gut comprises a spiral tube forming radial lateral processes, which gives it a five-lobed shape. The digestive tube consists of three segments: esophagus, intestine, and rectum. The epithelia of these segments have different cell compositions. Regeneration of the gut after autotomy of the visceral mass progresses very rapidly. Within 6 h after autotomy, an aggregation consisting of amoebocytes, coelomic epithelial cells and juxtaligamental cells (neurosecretory neurons) forms on the inner surface of the skeletal calyx. At 12 h post-autotomy, transdifferentiation of the juxtaligamental cells starts. At 24 h post-autotomy these cells undergo a mesenchymal-epithelial-like transition, resulting in the formation of the luminal epithelium of the gut. Specialization of the intestinal epithelial cells begins on day 2 post-autotomy. At this stage animals acquire the mouth and anal opening. On day 4 post-autotomy the height of both the enterocytes and the visceral mass gradually increases. Proliferation does not play any noticeable role in gut regeneration. The immersion of animals in a 10-7 M solution of colchicine neither stopped formation of the lost structures nor caused accumulation of mitoses in tissues. Weakly EdU-labeled nuclei were observed in the gut only on day 2 post-autotomy and were not detected at later regeneration stages. Single mitotically dividing cells were recorded during the same period. It is concluded that juxtaligamental cells play a major role in gut regeneration in H. robustipinna. The main mechanisms of morphogenesis are cell migration and transdifferentiation.

  5. Genetic and Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Cell Wall Components and Forage Digestibility in the Zheng58 × HD568 Maize RIL Population at Anthesis Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Hongwu; Hu, Xiaojiao; Ma, Feiqian; Wu, Yujin; Wang, Qi; Liu, Zhifang; Huang, Changling

    2017-01-01

    The plant cell wall plays vital roles in various aspects of the plant life cycle. It provides a basic structure for cells and gives mechanical rigidity to the whole plant. Some complex cell wall components are involved in signal transduction during pathogenic infection and pest infestations. Moreover, the lignification level of cell walls strongly influences the digestibility of forage plants. To determine the genetic bases of cell wall components and digestibility, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for six related traits were performed using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from a cross between Zheng58 and HD568. Eight QTL for in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility were observed, out of which only two increasing alleles came from HD568. Three QTL out of ten with alleles increasing in vitro dry matter digestibility also originated from HD568. Five-ten QTL were detected for lignin, cellulose content, acid detergent fiber, and NDF content. Among these results, 29.8% (14/47) of QTL explained >10% of the phenotypic variation in the RIL population, whereas 70.2% (33/47) explained ≤10%. These results revealed that in maize stalks, a few large-effect QTL and a number of minor-effect QTL contributed to most of the genetic components involved in cell wall biosynthesis and digestibility.

  6. Effect of fiber source on cell wall digestibility and rate of passage in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J; Carabaño, R; de Blas, J C

    1999-04-01

    The influence of fiber source on fiber digestion and mean retention time was investigated. Six fibrous feedstuffs with wide differences in chemical composition and particle size were selected: paprika meal, olive leaves, alfalfa hay, soybean hulls, sodium hydroxide-treated barley straw, and sunflower hulls. Six diets were formulated to contain one of these ingredients as the sole source of fiber. To avoid nutrient imbalances, fiber sources were supplemented with different proportions of a concentrate free of fiber based on soy protein isolate, wheat flour, lard, and a vitamin and mineral mix to obtain diets containing at least 18.5% CP and 5% starch. Fecal apparent digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPd) and its monomers, NDF, NDF-ADL, and ADF-ADL, were determined using four New Zealand White x California growing rabbits per diet. Total, ileorectal, and cecal mean retention times (tMRT, i-rMRT, and cMRT, respectively) were determined for diets based on paprika meal, olive leaves, soybean hulls, and sunflower hulls in 16 does (four per diet) fitted with T-cannulas at the terminal ileum. In both trials, DMI was negatively correlated with the proportion of fine particles (FP: 1.25 mm) (P lignification of NDF, considering lignin as the difference between ADL and acid detergent cutin, was only included as the third variable for the model of NDF digestibility. Digestibility of NSP was positively correlated with those of NDF, NDF-ADL, and ADF-ADL (r = .82, .87 and .85, respectively, P < .001); the latter was also highly correlated with the digestibility of the glucose included in the NSP fraction (r = .86; P < .001). Cecal mean retention time accounted for 63% of average tMRT, for most of the variability in tMRT (r = .99; P < .001), and was positively related to NSPd (r = .89; P < .001). From these results, we conclude that particle size is a major factor affecting fiber digestion efficiency, rate of passage, and feed intake in rabbits.

  7. Cell wall composition and digestibility alterations in Brachypodium distachyon achieved through reduced expression of the UDP-arabinopyranose mutase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancour, David M.; Hatfield, Ronald D.; Marita, Jane M.; Rohr, Nicholas A.; Schmitz, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide-activated sugars are essential substrates for plant cell-wall carbohydrate-polymer biosynthesis. The most prevalent grass cell wall (CW) sugars are glucose (Glc), xylose (Xyl), and arabinose (Ara). These sugars are biosynthetically related via the UDP–sugar interconversion pathway. We sought to target and generate UDP–sugar interconversion pathway transgenic Brachypodium distachyon lines resulting in CW carbohydrate composition changes with improved digestibility and normal plant stature. Both RNAi-mediated gene-suppression and constitutive gene-expression approaches were performed. CWs from 336 T0 transgenic plants with normal appearance were screened for complete carbohydrate composition. RNAi mutants of BdRGP1, a UDP-arabinopyranose mutase, resulted in large alterations in CW carbohydrate composition with significant decreases in CW Ara content but with minimal change in plant stature. Five independent RNAi-RGP1 T1 plant lines were used for in-depth analysis of plant CWs. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that gene expression levels for BdRGP1, BdRGP2, and BdRGP3 were reduced in RNAi-RGP1 plants to 15–20% of controls. CW Ara content was reduced by 23–51% of control levels. No alterations in CW Xyl and Glc content were observed. Corresponding decreases in CW ferulic acid (FA) and ferulic acid-dimers (FA-dimers) were observed. Additionally, CW p-coumarates (pCA) were decreased. We demonstrate the CW pCA decrease corresponds to Ara-coupled pCA. Xylanase-mediated digestibility of RNAi-RGP1 Brachypodium CWs resulted in a near twofold increase of released total carbohydrate. However, cellulolytic hydrolysis of CW material was inhibited in leaves of RNAi-RGP1 mutants. Our results indicate that targeted manipulation of UDP–sugar biosynthesis can result in biomass with substantially altered compositions and highlights the complex effect CW composition has on digestibility. PMID:26136761

  8. Evaluation of metallothionein formation as a proxy for zinc absorption in an in vitro digestion/caco-2 cell culture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caco-2 cell metallothionein (MT) formation was studied to determine if MT could be used as a proxy for zinc (Zn) absorption in a cell culture model. MT intracellular concentration was determined by using a cadmium/hemoglobin affinity assay. Cellular Zn uptake was determined in acid digests (5% HNO3)...

  9. Digestion of polysaccharides, protein and lipids by adult cockerels fed on diets containing a pectic cell-wall material from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) cotyledon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, B; Leclercq, B

    1985-11-01

    1. The cell-wall material of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) cotyledon is characterized by low contents of cellulose (47 g/kg) and lignin (17 g/kg) and a high content of pectic substances (710 g/kg). The digestion of lupin cell-wall material by adult cockerels was estimated using gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of alditol acetates derived from polysaccharide sugars. The analyses were performed in the destarched water-insoluble fractions of feed and excreta. Digestibility measurements were carried out using a 3 d balance period including a 2 d feeding period and a 24 h final starvation period. 2. In the first experiment, six animals were given a diet containing 510 g white lupin cotyledon flour/kg which was the only source of protein and cell walls in the diet. The apparent digestibility of cell-wall components was near zero. 3. In the second experiment, three diets were prepared by diluting a fibre-free basal diet (diet A) by a semi-purified cell-wall preparation introduced at two different levels: 100 g/kg (diet B) and 200 g/kg (diet C). The semi-purified cell walls were prepared from the white lupin cotyledon flour used in the first experiment. The true digestibilities of polysaccharides measured in birds given diets B and C were near zero. It is suggested that the measurement of the neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) content according to Van Soest & Wine (1967) is not a suitable procedure for estimating the undigestible fibre content in poultry nutrition as the cell-wall pectic substances are not included in the NDF measurement. 4. Addition of the semi-purified cell-wall preparation (Expt 2) resulted in a slight decrease in the apparent protein digestibility. This decrease might be explained by the addition of undigestible cell-wall protein. 5. Addition of the semi-purified cell-wall preparation (Expt 2) had no effect on the apparent lipid digestibility. 6. The metabolizable energy values of the basal diet fraction of diets B and C were calculated assuming that

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide of cell wall constituents and digestibility energy of some agricultural residues. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1996-06-01

    The effect of various doses of gamma irradiation (0,100,150,200 KGy) and different concentrations of sodium hydroxide on crude fibre (CF), Cell-wall constituents (NDF, ADF, ADL), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), gross energy (GE), in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) of wheat straw (W.S) cotton seed shall (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (SB.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeeled seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that HaOH in the concentrations at (4 and 6%) had significant effects on the CF content of W.S and P.S, E.U.E, SB.S, C.S.S, O.C.E; respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaoH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the NDF level. Irradiation dose of 200 KGy decreased CF for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and SB.S. However, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S, P.S and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. The digestible energy values (kJ/Kg DM) increased by 1120,1 220, 2110 (W.S); 620, 830, 1000 for P.S; 240, 500, 580 for O.C.E; 500, 850, 870 for S.U.E; 550, 1060, 1200 for SB.S and 1260, 1710, 2070 for C.S.S using 100, 150, 200, KGy respectively, in comparison to unirradiated controls. Also, the IVDE values (Kj/Kg DM) increased by 560, 1050, 1590 for W.S; 310, 460, 650 for P.S; 170, 760, 1530 for C.S.S; 450, 990, 1190 for O.C.E using 2%, 4%, 6% NaOH respectively, in comparison to controls. No changes in the IVDE values for S.U.E and SB.S. Combined treatment resulted in an even better increase in the digestible energy, except S.U.E and SB.S. (Author). 37 refs., 22 tabs., 18 figs

  11. Effects of Marine Oils, Digested with Human Fluids, on Cellular Viability and Stress Protein Expression in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Tullberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In vitro digestion of marine oils has been reported to promote lipid oxidation, including the formation of reactive aldehydes (e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE. We aimed to investigate if human in vitro digestion of supplemental levels of oils from algae, cod liver, and krill, in addition to pure MDA and HHE, affect intestinal Caco-2 cell survival and oxidative stress. Cell viability was not significantly affected by the digests of marine oils or by pure MDA and HHE (0–90 μM. Cellular levels of HSP-70, a chaperone involved in the prevention of stress-induced protein unfolding was significantly decreased (14%, 28%, and 14% of control for algae, cod and krill oil, respectively; p ≤ 0.05. The oxidoreductase thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1 involved in reducing oxidative stress was also lower after incubation with the digested oils (26%, 53%, and 22% of control for algae, cod, and krill oil, respectively; p ≤ 0.001. The aldehydes MDA and HHE did not affect HSP-70 or Trx-1 at low levels (8.3 and 1.4 μM, respectively, whilst a mixture of MDA and HHE lowered Trx-1 at high levels (45 μM, indicating less exposure to oxidative stress. We conclude that human digests of the investigated marine oils and their content of MDA and HHE did not cause a stress response in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

  12. Dark fermentation, anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cells: An integrated system to valorize swine manure and rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Sciarria, Tommy Pepè; Gao, Yong Chang; Scaglia, Barbara; Salati, Silvia; Zanardo, Marina; Quiao, Wei; Dong, Renjie; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    This work describes how dark fermentation (DF), anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial fuel cells (MFC) and solid-liquid separation can be integrated to co-produce valuable biochemicals (hydrogen and methane), bioelectricity and biofertilizers. Two integrated systems (System 1: AD+MFC, and System 2: DF+AD+MFC) are described and compared to a traditional one-stage AD system in converting a mixture (COD=124±8.1gO2kg(-1)Fresh Matter) of swine manure and rice bran. System 1 gave a biomethane yield of 182 LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, while System 2 gave L yields of bio-hydrogen and bio-methane of 27.3±7.2LH2kg(-1)COD-added and 154±14LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, respectively. A solid-liquid separation (SLS) step was applied to the digested slurry, giving solid and liquid fractions. The liquid fraction was treated via the MFC-steps, showing power densities of 12-13Wm(-3) (500Ω) and average bioelectricity yields of 39.8Whkg(-1)COD to 54.2Whkg(-1)COD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of plant sterol-enriched turkey meat on cholesterol bio-accessibility during in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, S; Harrison, S M; Monahan, F J; Brayden, D; Brunton, N P

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a plant sterol-enriched turkey product on cholesterol bio-accessibility during in vitro digestion and cholesterol uptake by Caco-2 monolayers. Turkey products, one plant sterol-enriched (PS) and one plant sterol-free (C), were produced in an industrial pilot plant. Before simulated digestion, matrices were spiked with cholesterol (1:5 weight ratio of cholesterol to plant sterol). Plant sterols were included at a concentration equivalent to the minimum daily intake recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for cholesterol lowering. After simulated digestion, the percentage of cholesterol micellarization and uptake by Caco-2 cells in the presence of PS meat were measured. Compared to C meat, PS meat significantly inhibited cholesterol micellarization on average by 24% and Caco-2 cell accumulation by 10%. This study suggests that plant sterols in meat can reduce cholesterol uptake by intestinal epithelia and it encourages efforts to make new PS-based functional foods.

  14. Bioelectrochemical enhancement of methane production from highly concentrated food waste in a combined anaerobic digester and microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungyu; Lee, Beom; Tian, Donjie; Jun, Hangbae

    2018-01-01

    A microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is a promising technology for enhancing biogas production from an anaerobic digestion (AD) reactor. In this study, the effects of the MEC on the rate of methane production from food waste were examined by comparing an AD reactor with an AD reactor combined with a MEC (AD+MEC). The use of the MEC accelerated methane production and stabilization via rapid organic oxidation and rapid methanogenesis. Over the total experimental period, the methane production rate and stabilization time of the AD+MEC reactor were approximately 1.7 and 4.0 times faster than those of the AD reactor. Interestingly however, at the final steady state, the methane yields of both the reactors were similar to the theoretical maximum methane yield. Based on these results, the MEC did not increase the methane yield over the theoretical value, but accelerated methane production and stabilization by bioelectrochemical reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of selenium in red blood cells by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinggi, U.; Francis, R.; Shanin, M.; Scheelings, P.; Gianduzzo, T.; Nicol, D.

    2004-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element and its levels in blood have been widely used for assessing Se status in humans. A suitable method for the determination of Se in red blood cells (RBC) using ICP-MS after microwave digestion was developed. The blood samples were obtained from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), who attended urology clinics at the Princess Alexandra hospital, Brisbane, Australia. No apparent polyatomic and matrix interferences were encountered when 82 Se isotope was used for the analysis of Se levels in RBC. Whole Blood Seronorm Trace Elements (SERO, Norway) and dogfish muscle (DORM-1, NRCC) were used as reference materials for method validation. The method was rapid and accurate, and ideal for routine analysis of Se in RBC, and in particular for assessing of Se status in humans. (author)

  16. Horning cell self-digestion: Autophagy wins the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yuan Ke

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process by which eukaryotic cells eliminate intracellular components via the lysosomal degradation process. This cell self-digestion process was first discovered and morphologically characterized in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The genetic screen studies in baker's yeast in the 1990s further identified the essential genes functioning in the autophagic process. In the past two decades, the detailed molecular process involved in the completion of autophagy was delineated. Additionally, autophagy has been implied to function in many aspects of biological processes, including maintenance of organelle integrity, protein quality control, regulation of the stress response, and immunity. In addition to maintain cell homeostasis, autophagy has recently been shown to be modulated and to participate in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as pathogen infections, neurodegenerative diseases, and tumor development. Overall, the breakthrough in autophagy research relies on the discovery of autophagy-related genes (ATGs using a genetic screening approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was established by Yoshinori Ohsumi. This year the Nobel Committee has awarded Yoshinori Ohsumi the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his remarkable contribution to autophagy research.

  17. Digestive diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prolapse Esophagus problems, such as stricture (narrowing) and achalasia Liver problems, such as hepatitis B or hepatitis ... has received extra training in the diagnosis and treatment of the digestive disorders. Other health care providers ...

  18. Digested disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is overwhelming. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a series of reader’s digest type articles objectively representing the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the period of April, May, and June of 2013. The papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28516028

  19. Digested disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna D; DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins grows fast. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a new issue of reader’s digest of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the third quarter of 2013; i.e., during the period of June, July, and September of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28232877

  20. Forage digestibility: the intersection of cell wall lignification and plant tissue anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose and the other polysaccharides present in forage cell walls can be completely degraded by the rumen microflora but only when these polysaccharides have been isolated from the wall and all matrix structures eliminated. Understanding how cell wall component interactions limit microbial degrad...

  1. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Improving cell wall digestion and animal performance with fibrolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesogan, A T; Ma, Z X; Romero, J J; Arriola, K G

    2014-04-01

    This paper aimed to summarize published responses to treatment of cattle diets with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE), to discuss reasons for variable EFE efficacy in animal trials, to recommend strategies for improving enzyme testing and EFE efficacy in ruminant diets, and to identify proteomic differences between effective and ineffective EFE. A meta-analysis of 20 dairy cow studies with 30 experiments revealed that only a few increased lactational performance and the response was inconsistent. This variability is attributable to several enzyme, feed, animal, and management factors that were discussed in this paper. The variability reflects our limited understanding of the synergistic and sequential interactions between exogenous glycosyl hydrolases, autochthonous ruminal microbes, and endogenous fibrolytic enzymes that are necessary to optimize ruminal fiber digestion. An added complication is that many of the standard methods of assaying EFE activities may over- or underestimate their potential effects because they are based on pure substrate saccharification and do not simulate ruminal conditions. Our recent evaluation of 18 commercial EFE showed that 78 and 83% of them exhibited optimal endoglucanase and xylanase activities, respectively, at 50 °C, and 77 and 61% had optimal activities at pH 4 to 5, respectively, indicating that most would likely act suboptimally in the rumen. Of the many fibrolytic activities that act synergistically to degrade forage fiber, the few usually assayed, typically endoglucanase and xylanase, cannot hydrolyze the recalcitrant phenolic acid-lignin linkages that are the main constraints to ruminal fiber degradation. These factors highlight the futility of random addition of EFE to diets. This paper discusses reasons for the variable animal responses to dietary addition of fibrolytic enzymes, advances explanations for the inconsistency, suggests a strategy to improve enzyme efficacy in ruminant diets, and describes differences

  2. Effect of maize starch concentration in the diet on starch and cell wall digestion in the dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.; Hindle, V.A.; Klop, A.; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed to determine the effect of level of maize starch in the diet on digestion and site of digestion of organic matter, starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In a repeated change-over design experiment, three cows fitted with a rumen cannula and T-piece cannulae in

  3. Chemopreventive effects of in vitro digested and fermented bread in human colon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlörmann, Wiebke; Hiller, Beate; Jahns, Franziska; Zöger, Romy; Hennemeier, Isabell; Wilhelm, Anne; Lindhauer, Meinolf G; Glei, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Bread as a staple food product represents an important source for dietary fibre consumption. Effects of wheat bread, wholemeal wheat bread and wholemeal rye bread on mechanisms which could have impact on chemoprevention were analysed in colon cells after in vitro fermentation. Effects of fermented bread samples on gene expression, glutathione S-transferase activity and glutathione content, differentiation, growth and apoptosis were investigated using the human colon adenoma cell line LT97. Additionally, apoptosis was studied in normal and tumour colon tissue by determination of caspase activities. The expression of 76 genes (biotransformation, differentiation, apoptosis) was significantly upregulated (1.5-fold) in LT97 cells. The fermented bread samples were able to significantly increase glutathione S-transferase activity (1.8-fold) and glutathione content (1.4-fold) of the cells. Alkaline phosphatase activity as a marker of differentiation was also significantly enhanced (1.7-fold). The fermented bread samples significantly inhibited LT97 cell growth and increased the level of apoptotic cells (1.8-fold). Only marginal effects on apoptosis in tumour compared to normal tissue were observed. This is the first study which presents chemopreventive effects of different breads after in vitro fermentation. In spite of differences in composition, the results were comparable between the bread types. Nevertheless, they indicate a potential involvement of this staple food product regarding the prevention of colon cancer.

  4. Aquaporins in Digestive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuai; Ran, Jianhua; Yang, Baoxue; Mei, Zhechuan

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we mainly discuss the expression and function of aquaporins (AQPs ) expressed in digestive system . AQPs in gastrointestinal tract include four members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP4, AQP5 and AQP8, and a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP3. In the digestive glands, especially the liver, we discuss three members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP5 and AQP8, a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP9. AQP3 is involved in the diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease; AQP5 is relevant to gastric carcinoma cell proliferation and migration; AQP9 plays considerable role in glycerol metabolism , urea transport and hepatocellular carcinoma. Further investigation is necessary for specific locations and functions of AQPs in digestive system.

  5. Digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    Scintiscanning of salivary glands with (sup 99m)Tc is commented. The uses of triolein - and oleic acid labelled with 131 I, 125 I or 82 Br are discussed in the study of fat absorption, as well as 14 C and 191 Y. The use of 57 Co as a radiotracer in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B 12 is analysed. Orientation is given about 51 Cr - albumin clearance in the study of plasmatic protein loss by digestive tract. The radiotracers 131 I, 125 I and 51 Cr are pointed out in the investigation of immunoglobulins. Consideration is given to the quantification of digestive bleedings by the use of 51 Cr [pt

  6. Digestive cell lysosomes as main targets for Ag accumulation and toxicity in marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, exposed to maltose-stabilised Ag nanoparticles of different sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno-Romero, A; Bilbao, E; Izagirre, U; Cajaraville, M P; Marigómez, I; Soto, M

    2017-03-01

    Bioavailability and toxicity of maltose-stabilised AgNPs of different sizes (20, 40 and 100 nm) in mussels were compared with bulk and aqueous forms of the metal through a two-tier experimental approach. In the first tier, mussels were exposed for 3 d to a range of concentrations (0.75, 75, 750 μg Ag/l) in the form of Ag20-Mal, Ag40-Mal, Ag100-Mal, bulk Ag and aqueous Ag (as AgNO 3 ), as well as to the concentrations of maltose used in the formulation of NPs. Mortality, bioaccumulation, tissue and cell distribution and lysosomal responses were investigated. In the second tier, mussels were exposed for 21 d to Ag20-Mal, Ag100-Mal, bulk Ag and aqueous Ag at the lowest effective concentration selected after Tier 1 (0.75 μg Ag/l), biomarkers and toxicopathic effects were investigated. Aqueous Ag was lethal within 3 d at 75 μg Ag/l; Ag NPs or bulk Ag did not produce significant mortality at 750 μg Ag/l. Ag accumulation was limited and metallothionein gene transcription was not regulated although metal accumulation occurred in digestive, brown and stomach epithelial cells and in gut lumen after exposure to AgNPs and aqueous Ag starting at low concentrations after 1 d. Electrondense particles (lysosomes and residual bodies after exposure to AgNPs contained Ag and S (X-ray). Intralysosomal metal accumulation and lysosomal membrane destabilisation were enhanced after exposure to all the forms of Ag and more marked after exposure to Ag20-Mal than to larger NPs. 21 d exposure to AgNPs provoked digestive cell loss and loss of digestive gland integrity, resulting in atrophy-necrosis in digestive alveoli and oedema/hyperplasia in gills (Ag NP), vacuolisation in digestive cells (aqueous Ag) and haemocyte infiltration of connective tissue (all treatments). Intralysosomal metal accumulation, lysosomal responses and toxicopathic effects are enhanced at decreasing sizes and appear to be caused by Ag +  ions released from NPs, although the metal was not substantially

  7. Modulation of genes related to the recruitment of immune cells in the digestive tract of trout experimentally infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) or orally vaccinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Natalia A; Rodríguez Saint-Jean, Sylvia; Pérez-Prieto, Sara I; Aquilino, Carolina; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    There are still many details of how intestinal immunity is regulated that remain unsolved in teleost. Although leukocytes are present all along the digestive tract, most immunological studies have focused on the posterior segments and the importance of each gut segment in terms of immunity has barely been addressed. In the current work, we have studied the regulation of several immune genes along five segments of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) digestive tract, comparing the effects observed in response to an infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) infection to those elicited by oral vaccination with a plasmid coding for viral VP2. We have focused on the regulation of several mucosal chemokines, chemokine receptors, the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Furthermore, the recruitment of IgM(+) cells and CD3(+) cells was evaluated along the different segments in response to IPNV by immunohistochemical techniques. Our results provide evidences that there is a differential regulation of these immune genes in response to both stimuli along the gut segments. Along with this chemokine and chemokine receptor induction, IPNV provoked a mobilization of IgM(+) and IgT(+) cells to the foregut and pyloric caeca region, and CD3(+) cells to the pyloric caeca and midgut/hindgut regions. Our results will contribute to a better understanding of how mucosal immunity is orchestrated in the different gut segments of teleost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the bioavailability of polyphenols and antioxidant properties of extra virgin argan oil by simulated digestion and Caco-2 cell assays. Comparative study with extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiquer, Isabel; Rueda, Ascensión; Olalla, Manuel; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Argan oil is becoming increasingly popular in the edible-oil market as a luxury food with healthy properties. This paper analyzes (i) the bioavailability of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of extra virgin argan oil (EVA) by the combination of in vitro digestion and absorption across Caco-2 cells and (ii) the protective role of the oil bioaccessible fraction (BF) against induced oxidative stress. Results were compared with those obtained with extra virgin olive oil (EVO). Higher values of polyphenols and antioxidant activity were observed in the BF obtained after the in vitro digestion of oils compared with the initial chemical extracts; the increase was higher for EVA but absolute BF values were lower than EVO. Bioaccessible polyphenols from EVA were absorbed by Caco-2 cells in higher proportions than from EVO, and minor differences were observed for antioxidant activity. Preincubation of cell cultures with BF from both oils significantly protected against oxidation, limiting cell damage and reducing reactive oxygen species generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of maize starch concentration in the diet on starch and cell wall digestion in the dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, A M; Hindle, V A; Klop, A; Cone, J W

    2010-06-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed to determine the effect of level of maize starch in the diet on digestion and site of digestion of organic matter, starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In a repeated change-over design experiment, three cows fitted with a rumen cannula and T-piece cannulae in duodenum and ileum received a low-starch (12% of ration dry matter) and a high-starch (33% of ration dry matter) diet. Starch level was increased by exchanging dried sugar beet pulp by ground maize. After a 2-week adaptation period, feed intake, rumen fermentation parameters (in vivo and in situ), intestinal flows, faecal excretion of organic matter, starch and NDF were estimated. When the high-starch diet was fed, dry matter intake was higher (19.0 kg/day vs. 17.8 kg/day), and total tract digestibility of organic matter, starch and NDF was lower when the low-starch diet was fed. Maize starch concentration had no significant effect on rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentration nor on the site of digestion of organic matter and starch and rate of passage of ytterbium-labelled forage. On the high-starch diet, an extra 1.3 kg of maize starch was supplied at the duodenum in relation to the low-starch diet, but only an extra 0.3 kg of starch was digested in the small intestine. Digestion of NDF was only apparent in the rumen and was lower on the high-starch diet than on the low-starch diet, mainly attributed to the reduction in sugar beet pulp in the high-starch diet. It was concluded that without the correction for the reduction in NDF digestion in the rumen, the extra supply of glucogenic (glucose and propionic acid) and ketogenic nutrients (acetic and butyric acid) by supplemented starch will be overestimated. The mechanisms responsible for these effects need to be addressed in feed evaluation.

  10. Homogenization, lyophilization or acid-extraction of meat products improves iron uptake from cereal-meat product combinations in an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachón, Helena; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Glahn, Raymond P

    2009-03-01

    The effect of processing (homogenization, lyophilization, acid-extraction) meat products on iron uptake from meat combined with uncooked iron-fortified cereal was evaluated using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Beef was cooked, blended to create smaller meat particles, and combined with electrolytic iron-fortified infant rice cereal. Chicken liver was cooked and blended, lyophilized, or acid-extracted, and combined with FeSO4-fortified wheat flour. In the beef-cereal combination, Caco-2 cell iron uptake, assessed by measuring the ferritin formed by cells, was greater when the beef was blended for the greatest amount of time (360 s) compared with 30 s (P meat products on iron absorption in iron-fortified cereals.

  11. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. The preferred substrates for transglutaminase 2 in a complex wheat gluten digest are Peptide fragments harboring celiac disease T-cell epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Dørum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a T-cell mediated chronic inflammatory disorder of the gut that is induced by dietary exposure to gluten proteins. CD4+ T cells of the intestinal lesion recognize gluten peptides in the context of HLA-DQ2.5 or HLA-DQ8 and the gluten derived peptides become better T-cell antigens after deamidation catalyzed by the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2. In this study we aimed to identify the preferred peptide substrates of TG2 in a heterogeneous proteolytic digest of whole wheat gluten. METHODS: A method was established to enrich for preferred TG2 substrates in a complex gluten peptide mixture by tagging with 5-biotinamido-pentylamine. Tagged peptides were isolated and then identified by nano-liquid chromatography online-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, database searching and final manual data validation. RESULTS: We identified 31 different peptides as preferred substrates of TG2. Strikingly, the majority of these peptides were harboring known gluten T-cell epitopes. Five TG2 peptide substrates that were predicted to bind to HLA-DQ2.5 did not contain previously characterized sequences of T-cell epitopes. Two of these peptides elicited T-cell responses when tested for recognition by intestinal T-cell lines of celiac disease patients, and thus they contain novel candidate T-cell epitopes. We also found that the intact 9mer core sequences of the respective epitopes were not present in all peptide substrates. Interestingly, those epitopes that were represented by intact forms were frequently recognized by T cells in celiac disease patients, whereas those that were present in truncated versions were infrequently recognized. CONCLUSION: TG2 as well as gastrointestinal proteolysis play important roles in the selection of gluten T-cell epitopes in celiac disease.

  13. The Preferred Substrates for Transglutaminase 2 in a Complex Wheat Gluten Digest Are Peptide Fragments Harboring Celiac Disease T-Cell Epitopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dørum, Siri; Arntzen, Magnus Ø.; Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Holm, Anders; Koehler, Christian J.; Thiede, Bernd; Sollid, Ludvig M.; Fleckenstein, Burkhard

    2010-01-01

    Background Celiac disease is a T-cell mediated chronic inflammatory disorder of the gut that is induced by dietary exposure to gluten proteins. CD4+ T cells of the intestinal lesion recognize gluten peptides in the context of HLA-DQ2.5 or HLA-DQ8 and the gluten derived peptides become better T-cell antigens after deamidation catalyzed by the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2). In this study we aimed to identify the preferred peptide substrates of TG2 in a heterogeneous proteolytic digest of whole wheat gluten. Methods A method was established to enrich for preferred TG2 substrates in a complex gluten peptide mixture by tagging with 5-biotinamido-pentylamine. Tagged peptides were isolated and then identified by nano-liquid chromatography online-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, database searching and final manual data validation. Results We identified 31 different peptides as preferred substrates of TG2. Strikingly, the majority of these peptides were harboring known gluten T-cell epitopes. Five TG2 peptide substrates that were predicted to bind to HLA-DQ2.5 did not contain previously characterized sequences of T-cell epitopes. Two of these peptides elicited T-cell responses when tested for recognition by intestinal T-cell lines of celiac disease patients, and thus they contain novel candidate T-cell epitopes. We also found that the intact 9mer core sequences of the respective epitopes were not present in all peptide substrates. Interestingly, those epitopes that were represented by intact forms were frequently recognized by T cells in celiac disease patients, whereas those that were present in truncated versions were infrequently recognized. Conclusion TG2 as well as gastrointestinal proteolysis play important roles in the selection of gluten T-cell epitopes in celiac disease. PMID:21124911

  14. A Case Report of NK-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disease With a Wide Involvement of Digestive Tract Develop Into Epstein-Barr Virus Associated NK/T Cell Lymphoma in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haotian; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Zhinong; Zhou, Wei; Cao, Qian

    2016-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays an important role in various diseases. EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) is a rare disease with a canceration tendency. It is difficult to differentiate LPD with involvement of digestive tract from Crohn disease due to similar clinical and endoscopic manifestations. We present a case report of multiple ulcers with esophagus, small bowel and the entire colon involved, proved to be NK-Cell LPD, developed into EBV-associated NK/T Cell lymphoma, in an immunocompetent man who was initially misdiagnosed as Crohn disease.This report underscores that intestinal ulcers should be cautiously diagnosed, for it sometimes could be a precancerous lesion.

  15. Impact of a yogurt matrix and cell microencapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri in three in vitro gastric digestion procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, C P; Raymond, Y; Guertin, N; Martoni, C J; Jones, M L; Mainville, I; Arcand, Y

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the interaction between microencapsulation and a yogurt food matrix on the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 in four different in vitro systems that simulate a gastric environment. The four systems were: United States Pharmacopeia (USP) solutions, a static two-step (STS) procedure which included simulated food ingredients, a constantly dynamic digestion procedure (IViDiS), as well a multi-step dynamic digestion scheme (S'IViDiS). The pH profiles of the various procedures varied between systems with acidity levels being: USP > STS > IViDiS = S'IVIDiS. Addition of a food matrix increased the pH in all systems except for the USP methodology. Microencapsulation in alginate-based gels was effective in protecting the cells in model solutions when no food ingredients were present. The stability of the probiotic culture in the in vitro gastric environments was enhanced when (1) yoghurt or simulated food ingredient were present in the medium in sufficient quantity, (2) pH was higher. The procedure-comparison data of this study will be helpful in interpreting the literature with respect to viable counts of probiotics obtained from different static or dynamic in vitro gastric systems.

  16. The Antiproliferative Effect of Chakasaponins I and II, Floratheasaponin A, and Epigallocatechin 3-O-Gallate Isolated from Camellia sinensis on Human Digestive Tract Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niichiro Kitagawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely chakasaponins I (1 and II (2, floratheasaponin A (3, and their analogs, together with catechins—including (–-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (4, flavonoids, and caffeine—have been isolated as characteristic functional constituents from the extracts of “tea flower”, the flower buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae, which have common components with that of the leaf part. These isolates exhibited antiproliferative activities against human digestive tract carcinoma HSC-2, HSC-4, MKN-45, and Caco-2 cells. The antiproliferative activities of the saponins (1–3, IC50 = 4.4–14.1, 6.2–18.2, 4.5–17.3, and 19.3–40.6 µM, respectively were more potent than those of catechins, flavonoids, and caffeine. To characterize the mechanisms of action of principal saponin constituents 1–3, a flow cytometric analysis using annexin-V/7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD double staining in HSC-2 cells was performed. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner. DNA fragmentation and caspase-3/7 activation were also detected after 48 h. These results suggested that antiproliferative activities of 1–3 induce apoptotic cell death via activation of caspase-3/7.

  17. Biscuits with No Added Sugar Containing Stevia, Coffee Fibre and Fructooligosaccharides Modifies α-Glucosidase Activity and the Release of GLP-1 from HuTu-80 Cells and Serotonin from Caco-2 Cells after In Vitro Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Saez, Nuria; Hochkogler, Christina Maria; Somoza, Veronika; Del Castillo, Maria Dolores

    2017-07-04

    This study assessed the in vitro effects of the bioaccessible food components released during the simulated human digestion of a coffee fibre-containing biscuit (CFB) on α-glucosidase activity, antioxidant capacity and satiety hormones. Digest of CFB presented a significantly ( p < 0.05) lower amount of sugar (68.6 mg/g) and a higher antioxidant capacity (15.1 mg chlorogenic acid eq./g) than that of a sucrose-containing biscuit (SCB). The CFB significantly reduced ( p < 0.05) α-glucosidase activity (IC50 = 3.3 mg/mL) compared to the SCB (IC50 = 6.2 mg/mL). Serotonin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release by differentiated Caco-2 and HuTu-80 cells, respectively, was stimulated by the CFB (355% at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL and 278% at a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL) to the same order of magnitude as those of the SCB. To summarize, the CFB was demonstrated to reduce monosaccharide bioaccessibility, to inhibit a diabetes-related digestive enzyme, and to improve the release of satiety hormones.

  18. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  19. Anti-allergic effects of a nonameric peptide isolated from the intestine gastrointestinal digests of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in activated HMC-1 human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seok-Chun; Lee, Dae-Sung; Park, Won Sun; Yoo, Jong Su; Yim, Mi-Jin; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Lee, Chang-Min; Oh, Junghwan; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the intestine gastrointestinal (GI) digests of abalone [Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai)] modulate inflammatory responses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. The GI digests of the abalone intestines were fractionated into fractions I (>10 kDa), II (5-10 kDa) and Ⅲ (abalone intestine GI digests (AIGIDs), fraction Ⅲ inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice. Subsequently, a bioactive peptide [abalone intestine GI digest peptide (AIGIDP)] isolated from fraction Ⅲ was determined to be 1175.2 Da, and the amino acid sequence was found to be PFNQGTFAS. We noted that the purified nonameric peptide (AIGIDP) attenuated the phorbol‑12‑myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-induced histamine release and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in human mast cells (HMC-1 cells). In addition, we also noted that AIGIDP inhibited the PMACI‑induced activation of nuclear factor‑κB (NF-κB) by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and that it suppressed the production of cytokines by decreasing the phosphorylation of JNK. The findings of our study indicate that AIGIDP exerts a modulatory, anti-allergic effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  20. Bio digester : anaerobic methanogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullema, Marten; Hulzen, Hans; Keizer, Melvin; Pruisscher, Gerlof; Smint, Martin; Vincent, Helene

    2014-01-01

    As part of the theme 13 and 14, our group have to realize a project in the field of the renewable energy. This project consist of the design of a bio-digester for the canteen of Zernikeplein. Gert Hofstede is our client. To produce energy, a bio-digester uses the anaerobic digestion, which is made

  1. Influence of Feeding Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Yeast Cell Wall on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Feedlot Cattle during Periods of Elevated Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Salinas-Chavira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In experiment 1, eighty crossbred steers (239±15 kg were used in a 229-d experiment to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (EHY cell wall in diets on growth performance feedlot cattle during periods of elevated ambient temperature. Treatments consisted of steam-flaked corn-based diets supplemented to provide 0, 1, 2, or 3 g EHY/hd/d. There were no effects on growth performance during the initial 139-d period. However, from d 139 to harvest, when 24-h temperature humidity index averaged 80, EHY increased dry matter intake (DMI (linear effect, p0.10 on carcass characteristics. In experiment 2, four Holstein steers (292±5 kg with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin Square design experiment to evaluate treatments effects on characteristics of ruminal and total tract digestion in steers. There were no treatment effects (p>0.10 on ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acid, molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, or estimated methane production. Supplemental EHY decreased ruminal molar proportion of acetate (p = 0.08, increased molar proportion of propionate (p = 0.09, and decreased acetate:propionate molar ratio (p = 0.07 and estimated ruminal methane production (p = 0.09. It is concluded that supplemental EHY may enhance DMI and ADG of feedlot steers during periods of high ambient temperature. Supplemental EHY may also enhance ruminal fiber digestion and decrease ruminal acetate:propionate molar ratios in feedlot steers fed steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets.

  2. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  3. Determination of chromium, iron and selenium in foodstuffs of animal origin by collision cell technology, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after closed vessel microwave digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufailly, Vincent; Noel, Laurent; Guerin, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    The determination of chromium ( 52 Cr), iron ( 56 Fe) and selenium ( 80 Se) isotopes in foodstuffs of animal origin has been performed by collision cell technology (CCT) mode using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detector after closed vessel microwave digestion. To significantly decrease the argon-based interferences at mass to charge ratios (m/z): 52 ( 40 Ar 12 C), 56 ( 40 Ar 16 O) and 80 ( 40 Ar 40 Ar), the gas-flow rates of a helium and hydrogen mixture used in the hexapole collision cell were optimised to 1.5 ml min -1 H 2 and 0.5 ml min -1 He and the quadrupole bias was adjusted daily between -2 and -15 mV. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.025, 0.086 and 0.041 mg kg -1 for Cr, Fe and Se, respectively, in 6% HNO 3 were estimated under optimized CCT conditions. These LOQ were improved by a factor of approximately 10 for each element compared to standard mode. Precision under repeatability, intermediate precision reproducibility and trueness have been tested on nine different certified reference materials in foodstuffs of animal origin and on an external proficiency testing scheme. The results obtained for chromium, iron and selenium were in all cases in good agreement with the certified values and trueness was improved, compared to those obtained in standard mode

  4. In vitro and in vivo studies with [18F]fluorocholine on digestive tumoral cell lines and in an animal model of metastasized endocrine tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejjari, Mimoun; Kryza, David; Poncet, Gilles; Roche, Colette; Perek, Nathalie; Chayvialle, Jean-Alain; Le Bars, Didier; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Janier, Marc; Borson-Chazot, Francoise

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate (a) in vitro the relationship between [ 18 F]fluorocholine ([ 18 F]FCH) uptake and cell growth in endocrine cell lines and (b) in vivo the uptake of [ 18 F]FCH by tumoral sites in an animal model of metastasized endocrine tumor. Methods: In vitro studies were conducted on three endocrine and two nonendocrine digestive tumoral cell lines. The proliferative ratio was estimated using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The uptake of [ 18 F]FCH and that of [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG) were measured before and after cytotoxic therapy. [ 18 F]FCH biodistribution was studied in nude mice and in an endocrine xenografted mice model. Results: The [ 18 F]FCH uptake in tumoral cell lines was related to their proliferative capacities as measured by the MTT assay in basal conditions. After cytotoxic therapy, the IC 50 values calculated with the [ 18 F]FCH incorporation test were very close to those determined with the MTT assay. Biodistribution studies showed that [ 18 F]FCH was predominantly concentrated in the liver and kidney of nude mice. In the STC-1 xenografted animal model, the uptake of [ 18 F]FCH in the primary tumor was only 1.1%. On autoradiography and micro-positron emission tomography, there was no uptake of [ 18 F]FCH in liver metastases but there was a significant uptake of [ 18 F]FDG. Conclusions: In vitro studies suggested that the incorporation of [ 18 F]FCH in endocrine tumor cell lines was related to their growth capacities; however, in vivo studies conducted in an endocrine xenografted animal model showed an uptake of [ 18 F]FCH in hepatic metastases lower than that in normal liver cells. An influence of the microenvironment or a competition phenomenon for [ 18 F]FCH uptake between normal liver and endocrine tumor cells cannot be excluded

  5. Digestive morphophysiology of Gryllodes sigillatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagio, Fernanda P; Tamaki, Fabio K; Terra, Walter R; Ribeiro, Alberto F

    2009-12-01

    The evolution of the digestive system in the Order Orthoptera is disclosed from the study of the morphophysiology of the digestive process in its major taxa. This paper deals with a cricket representing the less known suborder Ensifera. Most amylase and trypsin activities occur in crop and caeca, respectively. Maltase and aminopeptidase are found in soluble and membrane-bound forms in caeca, with aminopeptidase also occurring in ventriculus. Amaranth was orally fed to Gryllodes sigillatus adults or injected into their haemolymph. The experiments were performed with starving and feeding insects with identical results. Following feeding of the dye the luminal side of the most anterior ventriculus (and in lesser amounts the midgut caeca) became heavily stained. In injected insects, the haemal side of the most posterior ventriculus was stained. This suggested that the anterior ventriculus is the main site of water absorption (the caeca is a secondary one), whereas the posterior ventriculus secretes water into the gut. Thus, a putative counter-current flux of fluid from posterior to anterior ventriculus may propel digestive enzyme recycling. This was confirmed by the finding that digestive enzymes are excreted at a low rate. The fine structure of midgut caeca and ventriculus cells revealed that they have morphological features that may be related to their involvement in secretion (movement from cell to lumen) and absorption (movement from lumen to cell) of fluids. Furthermore, morphological data showed that both merocrine and apocrine secretory mechanisms occur in midgut cells. The results showed that cricket digestion differs from that in grasshopper in having: (1) more membrane-bound digestive enzymes; (2) protein digestion slightly displaced toward the ventriculus; (3) midgut fluxes, and hence digestive enzyme recycling, in both starved and fed insects.

  6. Phytases Improve Myo-Inositol Bioaccessibility in Rye Bread: A Study Using an In Vitro Method of Digestion and a Caco-2 Cell Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliński, Robert; Cielecka, Emilia Katarzyna; Pierzchalska, Małgorzata; Żyła, Krzysztof

    2015-03-01

    Preparations of 6-phytase A (EC 3.1.3.26) and phytase B (acid phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.2) were applied alone and combined in the preparation of dough to estimate their catalytic potential for myo- inositol liberation from rye flour in the breadmaking technology. The experimental bread samples were ground after baking and subjected to determination of myo- inositol bioavailability by an in vitro method that simulated digestion in a human alimentary tract, followed by measurements of myo- inositol transport through enterocyte- -like differentiated Caco-2 cells to determine its bioaccessibility. Myo- inositol content was measured by a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) technique. The concentration of myo- inositol in the dialysates of control bread was 25.3 µg/mL, whereas in the dialysates of bread sample baked with 6-phytase A, the concentration increased to 35.4 µg/mL, and in the bread baked with phytase B to 64.98 µg/mL. Simultaneous application of both enzymes resulted in myo- inositol release of 64.04 µg/mL. The highest bioaccessibility of myo- inositol, assessed by the measurement of the passage through the Caco-2 monolayer was determined in the bread baked with the addition of 6-phytase A. Enzymatically modified rye bread, particularly by the addition of 6-phytase A, may be therefore a rich source of a highly bioaccessible myo - -inositol.

  7. The hydro digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheil, Hermann [Itaipu Mondig, Power Generation Group (KWU), Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    Digest WK is an analysis and diagnostics system for turbine generators in large hydroelectric plant: it was developed from the Digest system which has been used in steam turbine plants for many years. The system is in use at the world's biggest hydro plant in Itaipu Binacional between Paraguay and Brazil. The system is described under the sub-headings of (a) monitoring concept; (b) the Digest WK system; (c) vibration monitoring; (d) generator temperature analysis and (e) outlook.

  8. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  9. Implication of endothelial to mesenchymal cell transition in the development of healthy digestive tissue injury following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintet, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is identified as a chronic side effect occurring after radiotherapy for pelvic tumors in 5 to 10 % of patients. This pathological healing process is characterized by an accumulation of extracellular matrix synthesized by mesenchymal cells. Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndoMT), is a processes during which endothelial cells express mesenchymal markers in response to stress. EndoMT is identified as a new source of mesenchymal cells taking part to fibrosis development in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases. Then, this study focused on the potential participation of EndoMT in radiation-induced intestinal fibrosis and tried to identify new therapeutics targets. Interestingly, our results showed for the first time EndoMT in rectal tissues from patients who developed radiation proctitis following radiotherapy. We used an in vivo approach to follow the mesenchymal cells having an endothelial origin in a mouse model expressing the GFP under the control of an endothelial promoter, Tie2 (Tie2-GFP). Thereby, our results confirmed the existence of radiation-induced EndoMT in our preclinical model of radiation proctitis. In vitro characterization showed that irradiation induced a modulation of the endothelial phenotype through a mesenchymal profile, a hallmark of EndoMT. This project also focused on a potential molecular actor, Hey2. In this context, we generated a transgenic mouse model in which Hey2 gene expression is repressed specifically in the endothelial compartment and observed a decrease in radiation-induced mucosal damages and EndoMT frequency. Consequently, inhibiting Hey2 expression could represent a new interesting therapeutic strategy. (author)

  10. Determination of chromium, iron and selenium in foodstuffs of animal origin by collision cell technology, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after closed vessel microwave digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufailly, Vincent [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments - Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches sur la Qualite des Aliments et des procedees agroalimentaires - Unite des Contaminants Inorganiques et Mineraux de l' Environnement, 23, avenue du General de Gaulle, F-94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France); Noel, Laurent [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments - Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches sur la Qualite des Aliments et des procedees agroalimentaires - Unite des Contaminants Inorganiques et Mineraux de l' Environnement, 23, avenue du General de Gaulle, F-94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France); Guerin, Thierry [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments - Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches sur la Qualite des Aliments et des procedees agroalimentaires - Unite des Contaminants Inorganiques et Mineraux de l' Environnement, 23, avenue du General de Gaulle, F-94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France)]. E-mail: t.guerin@afssa.fr

    2006-04-21

    The determination of chromium ({sup 52}Cr), iron ({sup 56}Fe) and selenium ({sup 80}Se) isotopes in foodstuffs of animal origin has been performed by collision cell technology (CCT) mode using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detector after closed vessel microwave digestion. To significantly decrease the argon-based interferences at mass to charge ratios (m/z): 52 ({sup 40}Ar{sup 12}C), 56 ({sup 40}Ar{sup 16}O) and 80 ({sup 40}Ar{sup 40}Ar), the gas-flow rates of a helium and hydrogen mixture used in the hexapole collision cell were optimised to 1.5 ml min{sup -1} H{sub 2} and 0.5 ml min{sup -1} He and the quadrupole bias was adjusted daily between -2 and -15 mV. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.025, 0.086 and 0.041 mg kg{sup -1} for Cr, Fe and Se, respectively, in 6% HNO{sub 3} were estimated under optimized CCT conditions. These LOQ were improved by a factor of approximately 10 for each element compared to standard mode. Precision under repeatability, intermediate precision reproducibility and trueness have been tested on nine different certified reference materials in foodstuffs of animal origin and on an external proficiency testing scheme. The results obtained for chromium, iron and selenium were in all cases in good agreement with the certified values and trueness was improved, compared to those obtained in standard mode.

  11. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Smoking and the Digestive System Smoking affects the entire body, increasing the ... caused by cigarette smoking. 2 What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of ...

  12. Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuross, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

  13. Kinetics of Cellulose Digestion by Fibrobacter succinogenes S85

    OpenAIRE

    Maglione, G.; Russell, J. B.; Wilson, D. B.

    1997-01-01

    Growing cultures of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 digested cellulose at a rapid rate, but nongrowing cells and cell extracts did not have detectable crystalline cellulase activity. Cells that had been growing exponentially on cellobiose initiated cellulose digestion and succinate production immediately, and cellulose-dependent succinate production could be used as an index of enzyme activity against crystalline cellulose. Cells incubated with cellulose never produced detectable cellobiose, and...

  14. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  15. Phytases Improve Myo-Inositol Bioaccessibility in Rye Bread: A Study Using an In Vitro Method of Digestion and a Caco-2 Cell Culture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Katarzyna Cielecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparations of 6-phytase A (EC 3.1.3.26 and phytase B (acid phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.2 were applied alone and combined in the preparation of dough to estimate their catalytic potential for myo-inositol liberation from rye flour in the breadmaking technology. The experimental bread samples were ground after baking and subjected to determination of myo-inositol bioavailability by an in vitro method that simulated digestion in a human alimentary tract, followed by measurements of myo-inositol transport through enterocyte-like differentiated Caco-2 cells to determine its bioaccessibility. Myo-inositol content was measured by a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD technique. The concentration of myo-inositol in the dialysates of control bread was 25.3 μg/mL, whereas in the dialysates of bread sample baked with 6-phytase A, the concentration increased to 35.4 μg/mL, and in the bread baked with phytase B to 64.98 μg/mL. Simultaneous application of both enzymes resulted in myo-inositol release of 64.04 μg/mL. The highest bioaccessibility of myo-inositol, assessed by the measurement of the passage through the Caco-2 monolayer was determined in the bread baked with the addition of 6-phytase A. Enzymatically modifi ed rye bread, particularly by the addition of 6-phytase A, may be therefore a rich source of a highly bioaccessible myo-inositol.

  16. Nutrient and Total Polyphenol Contents of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables, and Estimation of Their Iron Bioaccessibility Using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kweku Amagloh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweet potato cultivars, including three orange-fleshed types, with other commonly consumed DGLVs in Ghana: cocoyam, corchorus, baobab, kenaf and moringa, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Moringa had the highest numbers of iron absorption enhancers on an “as-would-be-eaten” basis, β-carotene (14169 μg/100 g; p < 0.05 and ascorbic acid (46.30 mg/100 g; p < 0.001, and the best iron bioaccessibility (10.28 ng ferritin/mg protein. Baobab and an orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves had a lower iron bioaccessibility (6.51 and 6.76 ng ferritin/mg protein, respectively compared with that of moringa, although these three greens contained similar (p > 0.05 iron (averaging 4.18 mg/100 g and β-carotene levels. The ascorbic acid concentration of 25.50 mg/100 g in the cooked baobab did not enhance the iron bioaccessibility. Baobab and the orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves contained the highest levels of total polyphenols (1646.75 and 506.95 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/100 g, respectively; p < 0.001. This suggests that iron bioaccessibility in greens cannot be inferred based on the mineral concentration. Based on the similarity of the iron bioaccessibility of the sweet potato leaves and cocoyam leaf (a widely-promoted “nutritious” DGLV in Ghana, the former greens have an added advantage of increasing the dietary intake of provitamin A.

  17. Phytases Improve Myo-Inositol Bioaccessibility in Rye Bread: A Study Using an In Vitro Method of Digestion and a Caco-2 Cell Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cielecka, Emilia Katarzyna; Pierzchalska, Małgorzata; Żyła, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Summary Preparations of 6-phytase A (EC 3.1.3.26) and phytase B (acid phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.2) were applied alone and combined in the preparation of dough to estimate their catalytic potential for myo-inositol liberation from rye flour in the breadmaking technology. The experimental bread samples were ground after baking and subjected to determination of myo-inositol bioavailability by an in vitro method that simulated digestion in a human alimentary tract, followed by measurements of myo-inositol transport through enterocyte- -like differentiated Caco-2 cells to determine its bioaccessibility. Myo-inositol content was measured by a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) technique. The concentration of myo-inositol in the dialysates of control bread was 25.3 µg/mL, whereas in the dialysates of bread sample baked with 6-phytase A, the concentration increased to 35.4 µg/mL, and in the bread baked with phytase B to 64.98 µg/mL. Simultaneous application of both enzymes resulted in myo-inositol release of 64.04 µg/mL. The highest bioaccessibility of myo-inositol, assessed by the measurement of the passage through the Caco-2 monolayer was determined in the bread baked with the addition of 6-phytase A. Enzymatically modified rye bread, particularly by the addition of 6-phytase A, may be therefore a rich source of a highly bioaccessible myo- -inositol. PMID:27904333

  18. In vitro digestibility of lucerne hay using bag method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    constantin gavan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A filter bag method was used for estimating apparent dry matter (DM digestibility, apparent digestible organic matter in DM, true DM digestibility, true digestible organic matter in DM and Digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The forage sample analysed comprised tree plant parts (whole, leaf and stem of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, one degree of particle breakdown (1 mm sieve size at miliing and two field replicates at Agricultural Research and Developement Station (ARDS Șimnic-Craiova. Rumen fluid was used from two cannulated dairy cows. The use of filter bags can give acceptable results for the in vitro digestibility of forages. The escape of soluble matter from bags with samples high in solubles could influence the microbial population and hence increase cell wall degradation in bags with samples low in soluble matter, if  all are in the same incubation vessel.

  19. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a balance between synthesis and hydrolysis. Aside from .... be used to follow the synthesis of this protein fraction. (Clarke, 1977a) .... form of digestive enzymes, urea and ammonia (Egan, ..... decreasing urine-nitrogen excretion (Thornton, Bird,.

  20. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  1. Expression of S-adenosylmethionine Hydrolase in Tissues Synthesizing Secondary Cell Walls Alters Specific Methylated Cell Wall Fractions and Improves Biomass Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymerick Eudes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant biomass is a large source of fermentable sugars for the synthesis of bioproducts using engineered microbes. These sugars are stored as cell wall polymers, mainly cellulose and hemicellulose, and are embedded with lignin, which makes their enzymatic hydrolysis challenging. One of the strategies to reduce cell wall recalcitrance is the modification of lignin content and composition. Lignin is a phenolic polymer of methylated aromatic alcohols and its synthesis in tissues developing secondary cell walls is a significant sink for the consumption of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet. In this study, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis stems that targeted expression of S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (AdoMetase, E.C. 3.3.1.2 in secondary cell-wall synthesizing tissues reduces the AdoMet pool and impacts lignin content and composition. In particular, both NMR analysis and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry of lignin in engineered biomass showed relative enrichment of non-methylated p-hydroxycinnamyl (H units and a reduction of dimethylated syringyl (S units. This indicates a lower degree of methylation compared to that in wild-type lignin. Quantification of cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamates revealed a reduction of ferulate in AdoMetase transgenic lines. Biomass from transgenic lines, in contrast to that in control plants, exhibits an enrichment of glucose content and a reduction in the degree of hemicellulose glucuronoxylan methylation. We also show that these modifications resulted in a reduction of cell wall recalcitrance, because sugar yield generated by enzymatic biomass saccharification was greater than that of wild type plants. Considering that transgenic plants show no important diminution of biomass yields, and that heterologous expression of AdoMetase protein can be spatiotemporally optimized, this novel approach provides a valuable option for the improvement of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock.

  2. Steam Digest 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-11-01

    Steam Digest 2002 is a collection of articles published in the last year on steam system efficiency. DOE directly or indirectly facilitated the publication of the articles through it's BestPractices Steam effort. Steam Digest 2002 provides a variety of operational, design, marketing, and program and program assessment observations. Plant managers, engineers, and other plant operations personnel can refer to the information to improve industrial steam system management, efficiency, and performance.

  3. Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Dennis A

    2014-05-01

    Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose because the bacteria inherent in yogurt assist with its digestion. The bacterial lactase survives the acidic conditions of the stomach, apparently being physically protected within the bacterial cells and facilitated by the buffering capacity of yogurt. The increasing pH as the yogurt enters the small intestine and a slower gastrointestinal transit time allow the bacterial lactase to be active, digesting lactose from yogurt sufficiently to prevent symptoms in lactose-intolerant people. There is little difference in the lactase capability of different commercial yogurts, because they apparently contain Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in sufficient quantities (10(8) bacteria/mL). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to require cell membrane disruption to physically release the lactase. Compared with unflavored yogurts, flavored yogurts appear to exhibit somewhat reduced lactase activity but are still well tolerated.

  4. MALDI-TOF MS and CE-LIF Fingerprinting of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharide Digests as a Screening Tool for Arabidopsis Cell Wall Mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westphal, Y.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Cell wall materials derived from leaves and hypocotyls of Arabidopsis mutant and wild type plants have been incubated with a mixture of pure and well-defined pectinases, hemicellulases, and cellulases. The resulting oligosaccharides have been subjected to MALDI-TOF MS and CE-LIF analysis. MALDI-TOF

  5. 76 FR 63313 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Liver Cell Membrane Proteins. Date... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the..., Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Research; 93.848, Digestive Diseases and Nutrition Research; 93.849...

  6. 77 FR 9671 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Liver Tissue and Cell Distribution... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Assistance Program Nos. 93.847, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Research; 93.848, Digestive Diseases...

  7. 78 FR 9401 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Liver Related Ancillary... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Beta-Cell Function and Cognition. Date...

  8. Electrochemical monitoring of ammonia during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    Ammonia is known as key inhibitor to methanogens in anaerobic digestion (AD) process. It’s of importance to develop efficient tool for ammonia monitoring. In this study, an electrolysis cell (EC) coupled with a complete nitrification reactor was developed as sensor for real time and online monito...

  9. The digestive system of the stony coral Stylophora pistillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz-Bahat, M; Douek, J; Moiseeva, E; Peters, E C; Rinkevich, B

    2017-05-01

    Because hermatypic species use symbiotic algal photosynthesis, most of the literature in this field focuses on this autotrophic mode and very little research has studied the morphology of the coral's digestive system or the digestion process of particulate food. Using histology and histochemestry, our research reveals that Stylophora pistillata's digestive system is concentrated at the corals' peristome, actinopharynx and mesenterial filaments (MF). We used in-situ hybridization (ISH) of the RNA transcript of the gene that codes for the S. pistillata digestive enzyme, chymotrypsinogen, to shed light on the functionality of the digestive system. Both the histochemistry and the ISH pointed to the MF being specialized digestive organs, equipped with large numbers of acidophilic and basophilic granular gland cells, as well as acidophilic non-granular gland cells, some of which produce chymotrypsinogen. We identified two types of MF: short, trilobed MF and unilobed, long and convoluted MF. Each S. pistillata polyp harbors two long convoluted MF and 10 short MF. While the short MF have neither secreting nor stinging cells, each of the convoluted MF display gradual cytological changes along their longitudinal axis, alternating between stinging and secreting cells and three distinctive types of secretory cells. These observations indicate the important digestive role of the long convoluted MF. They also indicate the existence of novel feeding compartments in the gastric cavity of the polyp, primarily in the nutritionally active peristome, in the actinopharynx and in three regions of the MF that differ from each other in their cellular components, general morphology and chymotrypsinogen excretion.

  10. Changes in cell-type composition in digestive gland of slugs and its influence in biomarkers following transplantation between a relatively unpolluted and a chronically metal-polluted site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaldibar, B.; Cancio, I.; Soto, M.; Marigomez, I.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in cell-type composition (CCTC) is a general phenomenon that takes place in the digestive gland epithelium of stressed molluscs. The aim of the present work was to determine whether CCTC is a reversible process in the digestive gland of sentinel slugs chronically exposed to metal pollution and how CCTC affects metal accumulation parameters and different cell and tissue biomarkers of exposure and effect. Slugs (Arion ater) from an abandoned zinc mine were transferred to a relatively unpolluted site and the other way around for 3, 10 and 28 d. The volume density of black silver deposits (Vv BSD ) after autometallography, and metallothionein (MT) levels were used as biomarkers of exposure to metals and CCTC and lysosomal responses were selected as effect biomarkers. Results indicated that slugs were sensitive to recent metal pollution; however, slugs chronically exposed to metals presented some characteristic features and were less responsive to pollution cessation without signs of CCTC reversal. - Cell and tissue-level biomarkers in slugs after recent and chronic metal pollution

  11. Perspectives for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    The modern society generates large amounts of waste that represent a tremendous threat to the environment and human and animal health. To prevent and control this, a range of different waste treatment and disposal methods are used. The choice of method must always be based on maximum safety...... to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments...

  12. Personal Relationships and Digestive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens Manage Your Health Finding a Doctor The Digestive System Symptoms & Causes How to Prepare for Tests ... Part in Studies Resources Publications Library En Español Digestive Health Matters Medical Definitions Links Books of Interest ...

  13. Obesity and Your Digestive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBESITY AND YOUR DIGESTIVE HEALTH Do You Know Your GI Risks? A Patient Education Resource from the American College of Gastroenterology GI Specialists ... reduce the quality and longevity of your life. Digestive Disorders Associated with Obesity Esophagus Gallbladder Pancreas Colon ...

  14. Antioxidant capacity of broccoli sprouts subjected to gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Joanna; Olejnik, Anna; Olkowicz, Mariola; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Juzwa, Wojciech; Myszka, Kamila; Dembczyński, Radosław; Moyer, Mary Pat; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2015-07-01

    Broccoli is a common vegetable recognized as a rich source of antioxidants. To date, research on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, predominantly conducted on extracts, has not considered the lesions of composition and this activity after gastrointestinal digestion. Here the stability of antioxidants during gastrointestinal digestion was evaluated in conjunction with the protective effects of broccoli sprouts (BS) against oxidative stress in human colon cells. The obtained data suggest that, among the biocompounds identified in BS, glucosinolates were mainly degraded under gastrointestinal digestion, while phenolics, particularly hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, were the most resistant constituents. The antioxidant capacity of BS extract subjected to gastrointestinal digestion was similar to or higher than that determined for non-digested BS. Gastrointestinal digested BS extract exhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inhibitory capacity in NCM460 human colon cells, with 1 mg mL(-1) showing an ROS clearance of 76.59%. A 57.33% reduction in oxidative DNA damage in NCM460 cells due to treatment with digested BS extract was observed. The results lend support to the possible application of BS as a rich source of antioxidants to improve the defensive system against oxidative stress in the human colon mucosa. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Methods of ammonia removal in anaerobic digestion: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakat, Niclas; Demirel, Burak; Anjum, Reshma; Dietz, Donna

    2017-10-01

    The anaerobic digestion of substrates with high ammonia content has always been a bottleneck in the methanisation process of biomasses. Since microbial communities in anaerobic digesters are sensitive to free ammonia at certain conditions, the digestion of nitrogen-rich substrates such as livestock wastes may result in inhibition/toxicity eventually leading to process failures, unless appropriate engineering precautions are taken. There are many different options reported in literature to remove ammonia from anaerobic digesters to achieve a safe and stable process so that along with high methane yields, a good quality of effluents can also be obtained. Conventional techniques to remove ammonia include physical/chemical methods, immobilization and adaptation of microorganisms, while novel methods include ultrasonication, microwave, hollow fiber membranes and microbial fuel cell applications. This paper discusses conventional and novel methods of ammonia removal from anaerobic digesters using nitrogen-rich substrates, with particular focus on recent literature available about this topic.

  16. Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

  17. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  18. Digestive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the stomach. Sometimes, though, a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori or the chronic use of certain medications weakens ... can affect the whole gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus as well ... organs to produce enzymes and other substances that aid in digestion. ...

  19. Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest presents the many facets of riparian research at the station. Included are articles about protecting the riparian habitat, the social and economic values of riparian environments, watershed restoration, remote sensing tools, and getting kids interested in the science.

  20. Steam Digest: Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  1. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  2. [Determination of calcium, magnesium and potassium in nurtured cell by AAS with quick-pulsed nebulization technique and NaOH base digestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, C; Gao, S; Gun, S

    1997-06-01

    The sample is digested with 6% NaOH solution and an amount of 50 microl is used for protein content analysis by the method of Comassie Brilliant Blue G250, the residual is diluted with equal 0.4% Lathanurm-EDTA solution. Its Calcium magensium and potassium content are determined by AAS. With quick-pulsed nebulization technique. When a self-made micro-sampling device is used, 20microl of sample volume is needed and it is only the 1/10 approximately 1/20 of the sample volume required for conventional determination. Sensitivity, precision and rate of recovery agree well with those using regular wet ashing method.

  3. Anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, P N

    1984-01-01

    Farm digesters can operate satisfactorily and have a useful role on the farm. Gas production from the farm digester treating animal slurries could be boosted by adding silage liquid, old potatoes, waste cabbages and other crop wastes to the slurry, although the energy economics of maceration have not been calculated. Pollution control and types of digester are discussed. Uses of digested slurry other than for fertilizers are being tested - as protein supplement to farm animal feeds, silage making, hydroponics, fish farming and growing of worms on algae. Overall, digestion could be a contributor to power requirements especially in countries with high all year round crop production.

  4. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  5. Perfil químico da parede celular e suas implicações na digestibilidade de Brachiaria brizantha e Brachiaria humidicola Chemical profile of cell wall and its implications on Brachiaria brizantha and Brachiaria humidicola digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio José F. Alves de Brito

    2003-12-01

    brizantha and Brachiaria humidicola fractions were determined after 70 days of growth. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replications for each specie. According to the position, the harvested plants were subdivided into top, median and bottom fractions for leaves and median and basal fractions for stems. The concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP, lignin, p_coumaric acid, ferulic acid, neutral sugars (glucose, xylose and arabinose and in situ digestibility with 48-hour rumen digestion were determined. The several fractions of species studied showed different chemical composition, whose effects were observed in digestibility. B. brizantha recorded greater NDF concentration in stems and CP in leaves. This resulted in higher digestibility coefficients compared to B. humidicola. The digestibility differences between stem and leaves and in older fractions may be related to the type of lignin condensation present in tissues. The evidences found in p_coumaric and ferulic acid rates and concentrations suggest this association. The fenolic acid concentration was better related to dry matter digestibility, whereas lignin with NDF digestibility. This analysis may constitute an important tool to evaluate lignin condensation in cell wall of different forages. The neutral sugars showed no definite deposition pattern in a varied of tissues. Arabinose was the only sugar associated to dry matter digestibility and fenolic acid concentration.

  6. Comparative Digestive Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasov, William H.; Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, morphological and functional features of gastrointestinal (GI) tracts generally reflect food chemistry, such as content of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and material(s) refractory to rapid digestion (e.g., cellulose). The expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters approximately matches the dietary load of their respective substrates, with relatively modest excess capacity. Mechanisms explaining differences in hydrolase activity between populations and species include gene copy number variations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional adjustments mediate phenotypic changes in the expression of hydrolases and transporters in response to dietary signals. Many species respond to higher food intake by flexibly increasing digestive compartment size. Fermentative processes by symbiotic microorganisms are important for cellulose degradation but are relatively slow, so animals that rely on those processes typically possess special enlarged compartment(s) to maintain a microbiota and other GI structures that slow digesta flow. The taxon richness of the gut microbiota, usually identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, is typically an order of magnitude greater in vertebrates than invertebrates, and the interspecific variation in microbial composition is strongly influenced by diet. Many of the nutrient transporters are orthologous across different animal phyla, though functional details may vary (e.g., glucose and amino acid transport with K+ rather than Na+ as a counter ion). Paracellular absorption is important in many birds. Natural toxins are ubiquitous in foods and may influence key features such as digesta transit, enzymatic breakdown, microbial fermentation, and absorption PMID:23720328

  7. Structure and function of the digestive system of solen grandis dunker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin; Ren, Sulian

    2003-10-01

    Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing. Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

  8. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System & How it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Your Digestive System & How it Works What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of ... you eat or drink each day. Why is digestion important? Digestion is important because your body needs ...

  9. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  10. Digestibility of nutrients and aspects of the digestive physiology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greater cane rat, Thryonomys swinderianus, utilizes high fibrous plant material and is an important meat source in West Africa. An insight in its digestive physiology will enhance our understanding of its feeding habits. Digestibility coefficients of the food were determined during two seasons before the animals were ...

  11. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-Ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-He; Yang, Hai-Ying; Chen, Li-Shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties.

  12. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-he; Yang, Hai-ying; Chen, Li-shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. PMID:27921399

  13. Carcinoids tumors of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, S.M.R. de; Prais, M.; Matushita, J.P.K.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen cases of carcinoid tumors in the digestive tract have been analyzed. They have been selected at Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, taking into account patients, age and sex, lesions' location and size, clinical manifestations, presence of metastases as well as a classical carcinoid syndrome establisment. Carcinoid tumors come from the digestive tract 'argenta fim'' cells, the ones which produce endocrines. Such endocrines are responsible for a great number of clinical manifestations. The classical syndrome is directly related to the presence of hepatic metastases. The authors propose to correlate what has been found with descriptions in medical literature emphasizing the radiographic aspects which have been observed. A frequent ''apendicular'' location and the difficulty of giving a precise diagnosis before surgery is also emphasized. (author) [pt

  14. Virotherapy of digestive tumors with rodent parvovirus: overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akladios, Cherif; Aprahamian, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Toolan's H-1 parvovirus (H-1PV) exerts a cytotoxic/oncolytic effect, predominantly mediated by its non-structural protein (NS1). This rat parvovirus is harmless, unlike other parvoviruses, and its antitumor potential may be useful to clinicians as its oncolytic action appears to be true in numerous non-digestive and digestive cancers. After a brief review of parvovirus genus and biology, we summarize the proposed mechanisms to explain the cytotoxicity of H-1PV to tumors which results in dysregulation of cell transcription, cell-cycle arrest, termination of cell replication, activation of cellular stress response and induction of cell death. Viral oncolysis induces a strong tumor-specific immune response leading to the recognition and elimination of minimal residual disease. As the action of H-1PV is not limited to the digestive tract, we initially analyse studies performed in non-digestive cancers such as glioma (as the virus is able to cross the blood brain barrier), and then focused more particularly on the results in digestive cancers. Based on the results of studies showing little H-1PV toxicity to living bodies, we advocate for the use of the parvovirus in cancers such as melanoma, glioma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in addition to conventional chemotherapy.

  15. Use of hydrodynamic disintegration to accelerate anaerobic digestion of surplus activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Machnicka, Alicja

    2009-12-01

    Hydrodynamic disintegration of activated sludge resulted in organic matter and polymers transfer from the solid phase into the liquid phase. Disintegration by hydrodynamic cavitation had a positive effect on the degree and rate of excess sludge anaerobic digestion. Also, addition of a part of anaerobic digested sludge containing adapted microorganisms resulted in acceleration of the process. The disruption of cells of foam microorganisms and addition to the digestion process led to an increase of biogas production.

  16. The cotyledon cell wall of the common bean (phaseolus vulgaris) resists digestion in the upper intestine and thus may limit iron bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strategies that enhance the Fe bioavailability from the bean are of keen interest to nutritionists, bean breeders and growers. In beans, the cotyledon contains 75-80% of the total seed Fe, most of which appears to be located within the cotyledon cell. The cotyledon cell wall is known to be resistan...

  17. Sarcocystis neurona infection in gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mice: comparative infectivity of sporocysts in two strains of KO mice, effect of trypsin digestion on merozoite viability, and infectivity of bradyzoites to KO mice and cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Sundar, N; Kwok, O C H; Saville, W J A

    2013-09-01

    The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is the primary cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM). EPM or EPM-like illness has been reported in horses, sea otters, and several other mammals. The gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mouse is often used as a model to study biology and discovery of new therapies against S. neurona because it is difficult to induce clinical EPM in other hosts, including horses. In the present study, infectivity of three life cycle stages (merozoites, bradyzoites, sporozoites) to KO mice and cell culture was studied. Two strains of KO mice (C57-black, and BALB/c-derived, referred here as black or white) were inoculated orally graded doses of S. neurona sporocysts; 12 sporocysts were infective to both strains of mice and all infected mice died or became ill within 70 days post-inoculation. Although there was no difference in infectivity of sporocysts to the two strains of KO mice, the disease was more severe in black mice. S. neurona bradyzoites were not infectious to KO mice and cell culture. S. neurona merozoites survived 120 min incubation in 0.25% trypsin, indicating that trypsin digestion can be used to recover S. neurona from tissues of acutely infected animals. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Analysis of digester design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-01-29

    Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such as shredding, degritting, and chemical pretreatment, and post-digestion processes, such as dewatering and gas purification. The biomass sources considered include feedlot manure, rice straw, and bagasse. The results of the analysis indicate that the most economical (on a unit gas cost basis) digester design concept is the plug flow reactor. This conclusion results from this system providing a high gas production rate combined with a low capital hole-in-the-ground digester design concept. The costs determined in this analysis do not include any credits or penalties for feedstock or by-products, but present the costs only for conversion of biomass to methane. The batch land-fill type digester design was shown to have a unit gas cost comparable to that for a conventional stirred tank digester, with the potential of reducing the cost if a land-fill site were available for a lower cost per unit volume. The use of chemical pretreatment resulted in a higher unit gas cost, primarily due to the cost of pretreatment chemical. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the use of chemical pretreatment could improve the economics provided a process could be developed which utilized either less pretreatment chemical or a less costly chemical. The use of other process options resulted in higher unit gas costs. These options should only be used when necessary for proper process performance, or to result in production of a valuable by-product.

  19. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Juliano, Maria A; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability), zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG) are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also detected. Evolutionarily

  20. Acid digestion of organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    To overcome the high temperatures involved in straight incineration of organic waste and the difficulty of extracting actinides from the ash various research establishments throughout the world, including Winfrith and Harwell in the UK, have carried out studies on an alternative chemical combustion method known as acid digestion. The basis of the technique is to digest the waste in concentrated sulphuric acid containing a few percent of nitric acid at a temperature of about 250 0 C. Acid digestion residues consist mainly of non-refractory inorganic sulphates and oxides from which any actinide materials can easily be extracted. (author)

  1. 77 FR 40368 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Ancillary Studies to the Intestinal Stem Cells Consortium. Date: July 30, 2012. Time: 12 p.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant... Assistance Program Nos. 93.847, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Research; 93.848, Digestive Diseases...

  2. A MIDGUT DIGESTIVE PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 IN LARVAL MOSQUITOES, AEDES ALBOPICTUS AND CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a secretory digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes ester bond at sn-2 position of dietary phospholipids, creating free fatty acid and lysophopholipid. The free fatty acids (arachidonic acid) are absorbed into midgut cells. Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus digestive PL...

  3. Lignin and etherified ferulates impact digestibility and structural composition of three temperate perennial grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding grasses for increased digestibility increases their value and profitability in ruminant livestock production systems. Digestibility can be improved in grasses by either increasing the concentration of soluble and readily fermentable carbohydrates or by altering the plant cell wall to create...

  4. The effect of anaerobic digestion on the survival of salmonella and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The decline in viable number of salmonella and coliform bacteria was investigated in laboratory based anaerobic and aerobic digesters using cow dung. The results indicated that unheated anaerobic digestion had greater reduction in the viable number of salmonella and coliform bacteria 1.05x104 and 1.26 x 104 cells/ml ...

  5. Three-stage enzymatic digestive system for a gut-on-a-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Pim; Ianovska, Margaryta A.; Mathwig, Klaus; Bouwmeester, Hans; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a three-stage microfluidic system as a cell-free model for digestion in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Larger-scale digestion models are currently being used for pharmacological, toxicological and nutritional studies to determine the possible

  6. Transforming anaerobic digestion with the Model T of digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.F.; Ciotola, R.; Castano, J.; Eger, C.; Schlea, D. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Ecological Engineering Program

    2010-07-01

    Most livestock farmers in the United States do not take advantage of anaerobic digester technology because of the high cost and large scale. These limitations therefore reduce the production of renewable energy from farmlands. In order to expand anaerobic digestion methods and improve environmental quality, affordable and smaller-scale digesters should be developed to enable most livestock farmers to convert manure to methane. Doing so would improve their economic efficiency and environmental sustainability. This paper provided an analogy to the development of the Model T to better explain the need and potential for this technology. A modified fixed-dome digester was installed on the Ohio State University dairy in Columbus, Ohio. The digester was unheated, buried, had a volume of 1 m{sup 3} and received diluted dairy manure as feedstock. Biogas was produced at digester temperatures as low 10 degrees C during colder ambient temperatures. Water quality also improved. Results from the first year of operation will be analyzed to improve performance and enable future development of this technology.

  7. Role of the Digestive Gland in Ink Production in Four Species of Sea Hares: An Ultrastructural Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Prince

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the digestive gland of several sea hare species that produce different colored ink (Aplysia californica produces purple ink, A. juliana white ink, A. parvula both white and purple ink, while Dolabrifera dolabrifera produces no ink at all was compared to determine the digestive gland’s role in the diet-derived ink production process. Rhodoplast digestive cells and their digestive vacuoles, the site of digestion of red algal chloroplast (i.e., rhodoplast in A. californica, were present and had a similar ultrastructure in all four species. Rhodoplast digestive cell vacuoles either contained a whole rhodoplast or fragments of one or were empty. These results suggest that the inability to produce colored ink in some sea hare species is not due to either an absence of appropriate digestive machinery, that is, rhodoplast digestive cells, or an apparent failure of rhodoplast digestive cells to function. These results also propose that the digestive gland structure described herein occurred early in sea hare evolution, at least in the common ancestor to the genera Aplysia and Dolabrifera. Our data, however, do not support the hypothesis that the loss of purple inking is a synapomorphy of the white-ink-producing subgenus Aplysia.

  8. Seed coat removal improves Fe bioavailability in cooked lentils: studies using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the range of Fe concentration and relative Fe bioavailability of 24 varieties of cooked lentils, as well as the impact of seed coat removal on lentil Fe nutritional quality. Relative Fe bioavailability was assessed by the in vitro/Caco-2 cell culture method. While Fe concentrat...

  9. Your Digestive System (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dig That Digestive System Print en español Tu sistema digestivo So there you are, sitting at lunch, ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  10. Implementing Livestock Anaerobic Digestion Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page provides information to help make an informed decision about installing an anaerobic digester. Is it a good match for a farm’s organic waste, project financing, development guidelines and permit requirements?

  11. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG......, or one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  12. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide

  13. Covering Materials for Anaerobic Digesters Producing Biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itodo, I. N.; Philips, T. K.

    2002-01-01

    The suitability of foam, concrete and clay soil as covering material on anaerobic digesters producing biogas was investigated using four batch-type digesters of 20 litres volume. The methane yield from the digesters was of the order: foam >control> concrete > clay soil. The digester covered with foam had the highest methane yield, best temperature control and most favourable pH conditions. It is most suitable as cover material on anaerobic digesters

  14. Haematology and Nutrient Digestibility of Pigs at Three Weaning Ages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Eighteen piglets from three primiparous Large White gilts randomly assigned to three weaning ages were studied to determine the effects of different weaning age on the nutrient digestibility and hematology of growing pigs. Six piglets each were weaned at 4, 6 and 8 weeks of age. Packed cell volume (PCV) and ...

  15. Microbial electrochemical monitoring of volatile fatty acids during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Jin, Xiangdan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    desalination cell, MDC) was built to realize the on-line measuring the concentration of volatile fatty acid (VFA). The correlation between current densities of the biosensor and VFA concentrations was firstly evaluated with synthetic digestate. Two linear relationships were observed between current densities...

  16. Microbial electrochemical monitoring of volatile fatty acids during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration is known as an important indicator to control and optimize anaerobic digestion (AD) process. In this study, an innovative VFA biosensor was developed based on the principle of a microbial desalination cell. The correlation between current densities and VFA...

  17. Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Castellucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy is becoming increasingly necessary in order to address the global warming problem and, as a consequence, has become an high priority for many countries. Biomass is a clean and renewable energy source with growing potential to replace conventional fossil fuels. Among biomass, residual and waste ones represent a great resource for energy generation since they permit both to eliminate a possible waste and to produce energy. In the present work, the case of slaughterhouse wastes (SHWs has been investigated. Anaerobic digestion is nowadays considered as one of the most important and sustainable conversion technology exploiting organic matter and biodegradable wastes. Biogas results from this bio-chemical process and mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide, leading to produce thermal energy and/or electricity. In this paper, the European Regulations on animal by-products (ABPs are described, and some previous study on anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of ABPs - more precisely SHWs - are considered and compared in order to fix a starting point for future tests on their co-digestion in a micro-scale pilot digester. This is to define optimal feed ratio values which ensure an increasing content of methane in the outgoing biogas.

  18. Validation of an in vitro digestive system for studying macronutrient decomposition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A; Schwander, Flurina; Gijs, Martin; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti

    2012-02-01

    The digestive process transforms nutrients and bioactive compounds contained in food to physiologically active compounds. In vitro digestion systems have proven to be powerful tools for understanding and monitoring the complex transformation processes that take place during digestion. Moreover, the investigation of the physiological effects of certain nutrients demands an in vitro digestive process that is close to human physiology. In this study, human digestion was simulated with a 3-step in vitro process that was validated in depth by choosing pasteurized milk as an example of a complex food matrix. The evolution and decomposition of the macronutrients was followed over the entire digestive process to the level of intestinal enterocyte action, using protein and peptide analysis by SDS-PAGE, reversed-phase HPLC, size exclusion HPLC, and liquid chromatography-MS. The mean peptide size after in vitro digestion of pasteurized milk was 5-6 amino acids (AA). Interestingly, mostly essential AA (93.6%) were released during in vitro milk digestion, a significantly different relative distribution compared to the total essential AA concentration of bovine milk (44.5%). All TG were degraded to FFA and monoacylglycerols. Herein, we present a human in vitro digestion model validated for its ability to degrade the macronutrients of dairy products comparable to physiological ranges. It is suited to be used in combination with a human intestinal cell culture system, allowing ex vivo bioavailability measurements and assessment of the bioactive properties of food components.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of hog wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taiganides, E P; Baumann, E R; Johnson, H P; Hazen, T E

    1963-01-01

    A short history, a list of advantages and limitations, and a short introduction to the principles of the process of anaerobic digestion are given. Six five gallon bottle digesters were daily fed hog manure, maintained at 35/sup 0/C, and constantly agitated. Satisfactory operation was assured at 3.2 g VS/l/day with a detention time of 10 days, yielding 490-643 ml gas/g VS/day with a CH/sub 4/ content of 59% (2.1 x 10/sup 7/ joules/m/sup 3/). A figure and discussion portray the interrelationships of loading rate, solids concentration and detention time. They estimate that a marginal profit might be obtained by the operation of a heated digester handling the wastes of 10,000 hogs.

  20. Characterizing microbiota-independent effects of oligosaccharides on intestinal epithelial cells: insight into the role of structure and size : Structure-activity relationships of non-digestible oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Peyman; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Willems, Rianne H A M; Difilippo, Elisabetta; Schols, Henk A; Schoterman, Margriet H C; Garssen, Johan; Braber, Saskia

    2017-08-01

    The direct effects of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), including Vivinal ® GOS syrup (VGOS) and purified Vivinal ® GOS (PGOS), on the epithelial integrity and corresponding interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) release were examined in a Caco-2 cell model for intestinal barrier dysfunction. To investigate structure-activity relationships, the effects of individual DP fractions of VGOS were evaluated. Moreover, the obtained results with GOS were compared with Caco-2 monolayers incubated with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Caco-2 monolayers were pretreated (24 h) with or without specific oligosaccharides or DP fractions of VGOS (DP2 to DP6) before being exposed for 12 or 24 h to the fungal toxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Transepithelial electrical resistance and lucifer yellow permeability were measured to investigate barrier integrity. A calcium switch assay was used to study the reassembly of tight junction proteins. Release of CXCL8, a typical marker for inflammation, was quantified by ELISA. In comparison with PGOS, FOS and inulin, VGOS showed the most pronounced protective effect on the DON-induced impairment of the monolayer integrity, acceleration of the tight junction reassembly and the subsequent CXCL8 release. DP2 and DP3 in concentrations occurring in VGOS prevented the DON-induced epithelial barrier disruption, which could be related to their high prevalence in VGOS. However, no effects of the separate DP GOS fractions were observed on CXCL8 release. This comparative study demonstrates the direct, microbiota-independent effects of oligosaccharides on the intestinal barrier function and shows the differences between individual galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides. This microbiota-independent effect of oligosaccharides depends on the oligosaccharide structure, DP length and concentration.

  1. Relationship between digestive enzymes and food habit of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae: Characterization of carbohydrases and digestion of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, C S; Lucena, S A; Moreira, B H S; Brazil, R P; Gontijo, N F; Genta, F A

    2012-08-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. In spite of its medical importance and several studies concerning adult digestive physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, very few studies have been carried out to elucidate the digestion in sandfly larvae. Even the breeding sites and food sources of these animals in the field are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe and characterize several carbohydrases from the gut of L. longipalpis larvae, and show that they are probably not acquired from food. The enzyme profile of this insect is consistent with the digestion of fungal and bacterial cells, which were proved to be ingested by larvae under laboratory conditions. In this respect, sandfly larvae might have a detritivore habit in nature, being able to exploit microorganisms usually encountered in the detritus as a food source. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The repeatability of individual nutrient digestibility in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Verschuren, L.M.G.; Pijlman, J.; Bergsma, R.; Schokker, D.; Knol, E.F.; Aar, van der P.J.; Molist, F.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2018-01-01

    Digestibility of nutrients in pig diets is an important component of overall feed efficiency. Targeted improvement of digestibility is currently mainly achieved by optimization of pig diets, based on information generated from digestibility trials that aim to establish fecal digestibility

  3. Effects of Aging on the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview of Lactose Intolerance Additional Content Medical News Effects of Aging on the Digestive System By Atenodoro ... and Biliary Tract Large Intestine Rectum and Anus Effects of Aging on the Digestive System (See also ...

  4. Lewy Body Digest eNewsletter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Join the fight against LBD! Donate Lewy Digest Click here to subscribe today to receive regular ... research in Lewy body dementia. April 2018 Lewy Digest Month of Compassion Caregiver Spotlight Research Centers of ...

  5. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the peptide characteristics of microwave- and ultrasound-assisted digestion in discovery and targeted proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengguang; Cheng, Jie; Sun, Haidan; Sun, Wei

    2017-08-30

    Fast digestion methods can dramatically accelerate enzyme digestion and increase the throughput of proteomic analysis. However, the peptide characteristics of fast digestion methods and their performance in discovery and targeted proteomic analysis must be systematically evaluated. Three digestion methods, including overnight digestion, microwave-assisted protein enzymatic digestion (MAPED), and high-intensity focused ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic digestion (HIFUSAED), in trypsin or in trypsin/Lys-C were comprehensively compared in both discovery and targeted proteomics analysis using the HeLa cell proteome. In discovery proteomic analysis, the highest numbers of peptides and proteins were identified when the sample was digested via the MAPED method with trypsin/Lys-C. The fast digestion methods showed a higher mis-cleavage rate and a lower semi-tryptic rate than the overnight digestion method. In both label-free quantitative analysis and targeted proteomic analysis, both fully cleaved peptides (FCPs) and mis-cleaved peptides (MCPs) from the fast digestion methods and the overnight digestion method showed good reproducibility if they showed good abundance. When both the FCPs and MCPs were included in the analysis, the MAPED with trypsin/Lys-C method showed the best results for both discovery proteomic analysis and relative quantitative targeted proteomic analysis. These results will be beneficial for the application of fast digestion methods to proteomics. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Wet-digestion of environmental sample using silver-mediated electrochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Jun

    2010-01-01

    An application of silver-mediated electrochemical method to environmental samples as the effective digestion method for iodine analysis was tried. Usual digestion method for 129 I in many type of environmental sample is combustion method using quartz glass tube. Chemical yield of iodine on the combustion method reduce depending on the type of sample. The silver-mediated electrochemical method is expected to achieve very low loss of iodine. In this study, dried kombu (Laminaria) sample was tried to digest with electrochemical cell. At the case of 1g of sample, digestion was completed for about 24 hours under the electric condition of <10V and <2A. After the digestion, oxidized species of iodine was reduced to iodide by adding sodium sulfite. And then the precipitate of silver iodide was obtained. (author)

  7. Bioavailability of ginsenosides from white and red ginsengs in the simulated digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ok; Cha, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Eun Ha; Kim, Sang Min; Choi, Sang Won; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Um, Byung-Hun

    2014-10-15

    This study aims to investigate the bioavailability of ginsenosides during simulated digestion of white (WG) and red (RG) ginseng powders. Stability, bioaccessibility, and permeability of ginsenosides present in WG and RG were studied in a Caco-2 cell culture model coupled with oral, gastric, and small intestinal simulated digestion. Most ginsenosides in WG and RG were stable (>90%) during the simulated digestion. Bioaccessibilities of total ginsenosides during in vitro digestion of WG and RG were similar at approximately 85%. However, the bioaccessibility of protopanaxatriol type ginsenosides in the early food phase was greater than that of the protopanaxadiol type. The less polar RG ginsenosides were released later following the jejunum phase. Ginsenosides had low permeability (digestion and that ginsenosides are poorly absorbed in humans.

  8. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  9. The harmonized INFOGEST in vitro digestion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egger, Lotti; Ménard, Olivia; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Alvito, Paula; Assunção, Ricardo; Balance, Simon; Barberá, Reyes; Brodkorb, Andre; Cattenoz, Thomas; Clemente, Alfonso; Comi, Irene; Dupont, Didier; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Lagarda, María Jesús; Feunteun, Le Steven; Janssen Duijghuijsen, Lonneke; Karakaya, Sibel; Lesmes, Uri; Mackie, Alan R.; Martins, Carla; Meynier, Anne; Miralles, Beatriz; Murray, B.S.; Pihlanto, Anne; Picariello, Gianluca; Santos, C.N.; Simsek, Sebnem; Recio, Isidra; Rigby, Neil; Rioux, Laurie Eve; Stoffers, Helena; Tavares, Ana; Tavares, Lucelia; Turgeon, Sylvie; Ulleberg, E.K.; Vegarud, G.E.; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto

    2016-01-01

    Within the active field of in vitro digestion in food research, the COST Action INFOGEST aimed to harmonize in vitro protocols simulating human digestion on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. A harmonized static in vitro digestion (IVD) method was recently published as a primary

  10. African rainforest vegetation and rumen microbes: Phenolic compounds and nutrients as correlates of digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Peter G; Mbi, Christiana N; McKey, Doyle B; Gartlan, J Stephen

    1980-01-01

    In order to refine hypotheses concerning food selection by generalist herbivores with ruminant-like digestive systems the chemical correlates of digestibility in such a system have been studied. Samples of seeds and leaves from tree species growing in two African rainforests (Douala-Edea Forest Reserve, Cameroon, and Kibale Forest, Uganda) were assayed for phenolic content and nutrient content, and in-vitro dry matter digestibility was analysed utilizing rumen inoculum from a fistulated steer. Both forests studied carry populations of colobine monkeys with ruminant like digestive tracts. Content of condensed tannins and, to a lesser extent of total phenolics, was found to be negatively correlated with digestibility; a result that may be attributable to the inctivation of microbial enzymes by tannins. The negative association of tannin content and digestibility was stronger in material from the Cameroon site, the vegetation of which contains considerably higher concentrations of tannins and is generally less digestible than that from the Ugandan site. Gross energy content of leaves was also found to be persistently negatively correlated with digestibility. The interpretation of this result is uncertain; however, gross energy yield may well reflect variation in content of cell wall polymers, especially lignin. For the complete set of data, tannins presented the strongest observed correlation with digestibility, but when only mature leaves were considered the relationship with gross energy appeared stronger. No strong association was noted between high nutrient content and high digestibility. This was attributed to the fact that the assay measured the extent of digestion under standardised and very favourable conditions of nutrient supply. The results obtained are discussed in relation to observations of leaf and seed selection preferences of Colobus spp. in these two forests.

  11. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, B.K.; Macarie, H.; Moletta, R.; Dohanyos, M.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lens, P.N.L.; Verstraete, W.

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern

  12. Tropical Rainforest Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillero, Peter

    This digest provides four guideposts for tropical rainforest education: (1) structure; (2) location and climate; (3) importance; and (4) conservation of resources. Research is cited and background information provided about the layers of life and the adaptations of life within the tropical rain forest. Aspects of life within and near rain forests…

  13. Anaerobic digestion of piggery waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes

  14. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  15. Digestibility of gluten proteins is reduced by baking and enhanced by starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frances; Pan, Xiaoyan; Bellido, Vincent; Toole, Geraldine A; Gates, Fred K; Wickham, Martin S J; Shewry, Peter R; Bakalis, Serafim; Padfield, Philip; Mills, E N Clare

    2015-10-01

    Resistance of proteins to gastrointestinal digestion may play a role in determining immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods. However, digestion studies have largely been restricted to purified proteins and the impact of food processing and food matrices on protein digestibility is poorly understood. Digestibility of a total gliadin fraction (TGF), flour (cv Hereward), and bread was assessed using in vitro batch digestion with simulated oral, gastric, and duodenal phases. Protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific for celiac-toxic sequences (QQSF, QPFP) and starch digestion by measuring undigested starch. Whereas the TGF was rapidly digested during the gastric phase the gluten proteins in bread were virtually undigested and digested rapidly during the duodenal phase only if amylase was included. Duodenal starch digestion was also slower in the absence of duodenal proteases. The baking process reduces the digestibility of wheat gluten proteins, including those containing sequences active in celiac disease. Starch digestion affects the extent of protein digestion, probably because of gluten-starch complex formation during baking. Digestion studies using purified protein fractions alone are therefore not predictive of digestion in complex food matrices. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A meta-analysis of feed digestion in dairy cows. 1. The effects of forage and concentrate factors on total diet digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousiainen, J; Rinne, M; Huhtanen, P

    2009-10-01

    quadratically improved OMD(p) in cows, with the response being mostly due to improved NDF digestibility. Replacement of starchy concentrates with fibrous by-products slightly decreased OMD(p) but tended to improve NDF digestibility. The true digestibility of cell solubles (OM - NDF) estimated by the Lucas test both from all data and from the data subsets was not significantly different from 1.00, suggesting that responses in OMD(p) of dairy cows are mediated through changes in the concentration and digestibility of NDF.

  17. Moorella stamsii sp. nov., a new anaerobic thermophilic hydrogenogenic carboxydotroph isolated from digester sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves, J.I.; Gelder, van A.H.; Alves, M.M.; Sousa, D.Z.; Plugge, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel anaerobic, thermophilic, carbon monoxide-utilizing bacterium, strain E3-O, was isolated from anaerobic sludge of a municipal solid waste digester. Cells were straight rods, 0.6 to 1µm in diameter and 2 to 3 µm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. Cells formed round terminal

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of translationally controlled tumor protein in the mouse digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheverdin, Vadim; Jung, Jiwon; Lee, Kyunglim

    2013-09-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a housekeeping protein, highly conserved among various species. It plays a major role in cell differentiation, growth, proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Studies reported so far on TCTP expression in different digestive organs have not led to any understanding of the role of TCTP in digestion, so we localized TCTP in organs of the mouse digestive system employing immunohistochemical techniques. Translationally controlled tumor protein was found expressed in all organs studied: tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver and pancreas. The expression of TCTP was found to be predominant in epithelia and neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia; high in serous glands (parotid, submandibular, gastric, intestinal crypts, pancreatic acini) and in neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia, and moderate to low in epithelia. In epithelia, expression of TCTP varied depending on its type and location. In enteric neurons, TCTP was predominantly expressed in the processes. Translationally controlled tumor protein expression in the liver followed porto-central gradient with higher expression in pericentral hepatocytes. In the pancreas, TCTP was expressed in both acini and islet cells. Our finding of nearly universal localization and expression of TCTP in mouse digestive organs points to the hitherto unrecognized functional importance of TCTP in the digestive system and suggests the need for further studies of the possible role of TCTP in the proliferation, secretion, absorption and neural regulation of the digestive process and its importance in the physiology and pathology of digestive process. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  19. [NADPH-diaphorase activity in digestive system of gastropod molluscs Achatina fulica and Littorina littorea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V; Markosova, T G

    2009-01-01

    Localization and peculiarities of NO-ergic elements were studied for he first time throughout the entire length of digestive tract of the marine gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica (Prosobranchia) and the terrestrial molusc Littorina littorea (Pulmonata) by using histochemical method of detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). NO-ergic cells and fibers were revealed in all parts of the mollusc digestive tract beginning from pharynx. An intensive NADPHd activity was found in many intraepithelial cells of the open type and in their processes in intra- and subepithelial nerve plexuses, single subepithelial neurons, granular connective tissue cells, and numerous nerve fibers among muscle elements of he digestive tract wall as well as in nerves innervating the tract. NADPHd was also present in receptor cells of he oral area and in the central A. fulica ganglia participating in innervation of the digestive tract. The digestive tract NO-ergic system ofA. fulica has a more complex organization that that of L. littorea. In the A. fulica pharynx, stomach, and midgut, directly beneath epithelium, there is revealed a complex system of glomerular structures formed by thin NADPHd-positive nerve fibers coming from the side of epithelium. More superficially under the main groups of muscle elements, small agglomerations of NADPHd-positive neurons are seen, which could be considered as primitive, non-formed microganglia. Peculiarities of distribution and a possible functional role of NO-ergic elements in the digestive tract of molluscs are discussed as compared with other invertebrate and vertebrate animals.

  20. Bioactivity of Cod and Chicken Protein Hydrolysates before and after in vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamnik, Polona; Istenič, Katja; Wulff, Tune

    2017-01-01

    , where values of cod and chicken were (95.5±1.2) and (90.5±0.7) %, respectively. Neither species nor digestion had any effect on cellular metabolic energy. At proteome level, digested hydrolysates gave again significantly stronger responses than undigested counterparts; cod peptides here also gave...... somewhat stronger response than chicken peptides. The knowledge of the action of food protein hydrolysates and their digests within live cells, also at proteome level, is important for further validation of their activity in higher eukaryotes to develop new products, such as in this case chicken and cod...... muscle-derived peptides as functional ingredients....

  1. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated...... earlier by Vavilin and Angelidaki (2005) were used to modernize a kinetic scheme and to obtain the corresponding kinetic coefficients. In the new models, hydrolytic microorganisms were included using Contois kinetics for the hydrolysis/acidogenesis degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW). Monod...... kinetics was applied for description of methanogenesis. Both hydrolytic and methanogenic microorganisms were assumed to be inhibited by high volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration. According to the new distributed models, the mixing level reduction expressed by increasing dimensionless Peclet number may...

  2. Interpretation and digestion of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography digestion is final test for the radiography to make sure that radiograph produced will inspect their quality of the image before its interpreted. This level is critical level where if there is a mistake, all of the radiography work done before will be unaccepted. So as mention earlier, it can waste time, cost and more worst it can make the production must shut down. So, this step, level two radiographers or interpreter must evaluate the radiograph carefully. For this purpose, digestion room and densitometer must used. Of course all the procedure must follow the specification that mentioned in document. There are several needs must fill before we can say the radiograph is corrected or not like the location of penetrameter, number of penetrameter that showed, the degree of density of film, and usually there is no problem in this step and the radiograph can go to interpretation and evaluation step as will mentioned in next chapter.

  3. Acid digestion of organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-10-01

    Laboratory studies on the destruction of liquid organic wastes by acid digestion are discussed. A variety of liquid waste types was tested, including those encountered in the nuclear industry as well as some organic liquids representative of non-nuclear industrial wastes. The liquids tested were vacuum pump oil, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), normal paraffin hydrocarbon solvent (NPH), a mixture of 30 vol% TBP in NPH, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), trichloroethane, toluene, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), a mixture of hexone and NPH, polychlorobiphenyl (PCB), isopropanol, normal-decane, and two waste organic solutions from Hanford radioactive waste tanks. The tests demonstrated that several types of organic liquids can be destroyed by the acid digestion process. 8 figures, 19 tables

  4. Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S; Honry, M P; Christopher, R W

    1985-01-01

    This research was undertaken to study the digestibility of the hemicellulose fractions of an aquatic biomass, a land-based biomass and a biomass-waste blend under various fermentation conditions. The conversion of hemicellulose was higher than those of cellulose and protein under the mesophilic condition. Hemicellulose was converted at a much lower efficency than cellulose during thermophilic digestion. In contrast, cellulose conversion was about the same under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Cellulose was utilized in preference to hemicellulose during mesophilic fermentation of nitrogen-supplemented Bermuda grass. It was speculated that Bermuda grass cellulose was converted at a higher efficiency than hemicellulose in the pressure of external nitrogen because the metabolism of the breakdown product (glucose) of cellulose required the least investment of enzymes and energy. 4 references.

  5. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occurred in the Danish full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically formatted in the main biogas reactor or in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam...... cause severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices, and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs...... was increased by the addition of glucose in the feeding substrate. During the 2nd and 4th period the organic loading rate was maintained constant, but instead of glucose, higher concentration of Na-oleate or gelatine was added in the feeding substrate. The results obtained from the above experiment showed...

  6. A fuzzy logic approach to control anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domnanovich, A M; Strik, D P; Zani, L; Pfeiffer, B; Karlovits, M; Braun, R; Holubar, P

    2003-01-01

    One of the goals of the EU-Project AMONCO (Advanced Prediction, Monitoring and Controlling of Anaerobic Digestion Process Behaviour towards Biogas Usage in Fuel Cells) is to create a control tool for the anaerobic digestion process, which predicts the volumetric organic loading rate (Bv) for the next day, to obtain a high biogas quality and production. The biogas should contain a high methane concentration (over 50%) and a low concentration of components toxic for fuel cells, e.g. hydrogen sulphide, siloxanes, ammonia and mercaptanes. For producing data to test the control tool, four 20 l anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTR) are operated. For controlling two systems were investigated: a pure fuzzy logic system and a hybrid-system which contains a fuzzy based reactor condition calculation and a hierachial neural net in a cascade of optimisation algorithms.

  7. Homology of yeast photoreactivating gene fragment with human genomic digests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meechan, P.J.; Milam, K.M.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Enzymatic photoreactivation of UV-induced DNA lesions has been demonstrated for a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Its presence in placental mammals, however, has not been clearly established. The authors attempted to resolve this question by assaying for the presence (or absence) of sequences in human DNA complimentary to a fragment of the photoreactivating gene from S. cerevisiae that has recently been cloned. In another study, DNA from human, chick E. coli and yeast cells was digested with either HindIII of BglII, electrophoresed on a 0.5% agarose gel, transferred (Southern blot) to a nylon membrane and probed for homology against a Sau3A restriction fragment from S. cerevisiae that compliments phr/sup -/ cells. Hybridization to human DNA digests was observed only under relatively non-stringent conditions indicating the gene is not conserved in placental mammals. These results are correlated with current literature data concerning photoreactivating enzymes

  8. Evaluation of Kjeldahl digestion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Flowers, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of the Kjeldahl digestion method was investigated by comparing measured values of total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium using three salt and catalyst mixture in Standard Kjeldahl digestion method and Salicyclic acid Modification method with certified values of plant material as well as comparison was made for determination of total nitrogen from steam distillation method verses the Technicon Auto-analyzer, and phosphorus Ascorbic acid/Molybdate method verses Molybdate/ Metavanadate method on the Technicon Auto-Analyzer. The 1 g salt/catalyst mixture recovered less nitrogen than the 2.5 g in the standard Kjeldahl method due to the lower temperature and incomplete digestion in both plant and soil samples. The 2.5 g catalyst mixture partially recovered nitrate in the standard Kjeldahl method and the salicylic acid modification fail to recover all over nitrate in plant material. Use of 2.5 g salt catalyst mixture and selenium appears to promote nitrogen losses in salicylic acid modification method but not in the standard Kjeldahl method of digestion for soil samples. No interference of selenium or copper was observed in Nitrogen and Phosphorus on calorimetric determination. The standard Kjeldahl method with 2.5 g of salt/catalyst mixture of sodium sulphate copper sulphate (10:1) in 5 ml sulfuric acid were found suitable for determination of total Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The steam distillation and the Technicon Auto-Analyzer technique measure similar amounts of ammonium nitrogen. However, the Technicon Auto analyzer technique is easier, rapid, higher degree of reproducibility, precise, accurate, reliable and free from human error. The amount of phosphorus measured by the Ascorbic acid/Molybdate method was more accurate than by the Molybdate/Metavanadate method on Technicon Auto-Analyzer. (author)

  9. Fuel gas production by anaerobic digestion of kelp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troiano, R.A. (Dynatech R/D Co., Cambridge, MA); Wise, D.L.; Augenstein, D.C.; Kispert, R.G.; Cooney, C.L.

    1976-12-01

    The purpose of the experimental program was to explore the feasibility of the anaerobic digestion of kelp to produce methane. Experiments were carried out with freshly harvested U.S. East Coast kelp, Laminaria saccharina. The use for fuel conversion of the rapidly growing U.S. West Coast kelp, the so-called ''giant kelp,'' Macrocystis pyrifera, has been elsewhere. L. saccharina is similar to M. pyrifera in physical structure as well as chemical composition. Both are brown algae (phaeophyta) of the order Laminariales (kelp). Their principal products of photosynthesis are the sugar alcohol, mannitol, and the polysaccharide, laminarin. The cell walls are composed mostly of algin with some cellulose and fucoidin (a phycocolloid-like algin) and the brown color is due to fucoxanthin pigment. It was anticipated that all these constituents of kelp would be subject to anaerobic digestion. The digester operation, alkali pretreatment of kelp, and a comparison of kelp digestion with other substrates are discussed.

  10. INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA IN DIGESTIVE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Friche PASSOS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND In recent years, especially after the development of sophisticated metagenomic studies, research on the intestinal microbiota has increased, radically transforming our knowledge about the microbiome and its association with health maintenance and disease development in humans. Increasing evidence has shown that a permanent alteration in microbiota composition or function (dysbiosis can alter immune responses, metabolism, intestinal permeability, and digestive motility, thereby promoting a proinflammatory state. Such alterations can mainly impair the host’s immune and metabolic functions, thus favoring the onset of diseases such as diabetes, obesity, digestive, neurological, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. This comprehensive review is a compilation of the available literature on the formation of the complex intestinal ecosystem and its impact on the incidence of diseases such as obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and digestive neoplasms. CONCLUSION: Alterations in the composition and function of the gastrointestinal microbiota (dysbiosis have a direct impact on human health and seem to have an important role in the pathogenesis of several gastrointestinal diseases, whether inflammatory, metabolic, or neoplastic ones.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester

  12. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Lee, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  13. Anaerobic digestion apparatus and process. Procede et installation de digestion anaerobie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Baere, L.

    1989-05-09

    This invention concerns a process for the anaerobic digestion of apparently solid organic matter. The matter is mixed and kneaded with an inoculant to form an apparently solid mass having a water content which varies from around 55 wt % to around 75 wt %. This mass is then introduced into a digestor, where it is digested for a period of around less than 50 days. The biogas produced during the anaerobic digestion stage is recovered, said biogas being a byproduct of the digestion process. The digested mass is extracted, and at least a third, by weight, of that mass is recycled to act as the inoculant. The non-recycled digested mass is removed.

  14. Important roles of P2Y receptors in the inflammation and cancer of digestive system

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Han-Xing; Hu, Jian-Hong; Xie, Rei; Yang, Shi-Ming; Dong, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Purinergic signaling is important for many biological processes in humans. Purinoceptors P2Y are widely distributed in human digestive system and different subtypes of P2Y receptors mediate different physiological functions from metabolism, proliferation, differentiation to apoptosis etc. The P2Y receptors are essential in many gastrointestinal functions and also involve in the occurrence of some digestive diseases. Since different subtypes of P2Y receptors are present on the same cell of dig...

  15. Persistence and potential Viable but Non-culturable state of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates from agricultural biogas plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Maynaud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the development of on-farm anaerobic digestion as a process for making profitable use of animal by-products, factors leading to the inactivation of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates remain poorly described. Here, a microcosm approach was used to evaluate the persistence of three pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica Derby, Campylobacter coli and Listeria monocytogenes in digestates from farms, stored for later land spreading. Nine samples, including raw digestates, liquid fractions of digestate and composted digestates, were inoculated with each pathogen and maintained for 40 days at 24°C. Concentrations of pathogens were monitored using culture and qPCR methods. The persistence of L. monocytogenes, detected up to 20 days after inoculation, was higher than that of Salmonella Derby, detected for 7-20 days, and of C. coli (not detected after 7 days. In some digestates, the concentration of the pathogens by qPCR assay was several orders of magnitude higher than the concentration of culturable cells, suggesting a potential loss of culturability and induction of Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC state. The potential VBNC state which was generally not observed in the same digestate for the three pathogens, occurred more frequently for C. coli and L. monocytogenes than for Salmonella Derby. Composting a digestate reduced the persistence of seeded L. monocytogenes but promoted the maintenance of Salmonella Derby. The effect of NH4+/NH3 on the culturability of C. coli and Salmonella Derby was also shown.The loss of culturability may be the underlying mechanism for the regrowth of pathogens. We have also demonstrated the importance of using molecular tools to monitor pathogens in environmental samples since culture methods may underestimate cell concentration. Our results underline the importance of considering VBNC cells when evaluating the sanitary effect of an anaerobic digestion process and the persistence of pathogens during

  16. Implications from distinct sulfate-reducing bacteria populations between cattle manure and digestate in the elucidation of H2S production during anaerobic digestion of animal slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G

    2017-07-01

    Biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of animal slurry consists mainly of methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), but also includes other minor gases, such as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). Since it can act as a potent corrosive agent and presents a health hazard even at low concentrations, H 2 S is considered an undesirable by-product of anaerobic digestion. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) have been identified as the main biological source of H 2 S in a number of natural, biological, and human-made habitats, and thus represent likely candidate microorganisms responsible for the production of H 2 S in anaerobic manure digesters. Phylogenetically, SRBs form a divergent group of bacteria that share a common anaerobic respiration pathway that allows them to use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor. While the composition and activity of SRBs have been well documented in other environments, their metabolic potential remains largely uncharacterized and their populations poorly defined in anaerobic manure digesters. In this context, a combination of in vitro culture-based studies and DNA-based approaches, respectively, were used to gain further insight. Unexpectedly, only low to nondetectable levels of H 2 S were produced by digestate collected from a manure biogas plant documented to have persistently high concentrations of H 2 S in its biogas (2000-3000 ppm). In contrast, combining digestate with untreated manure (a substrate with comparatively lower sulfate and SRB cell densities than digestate) was found to produce elevated H 2 S levels in culture. While a 16S rRNA gene-based community composition approach did not reveal likely candidate SRBs in digestate or untreated manure, the use of the dsrAB gene as a phylogenetic marker provided more insight. In digestate, the predominant SRBs were found to be uncharacterized species likely belonging to the genus Desulfosporosinus (Peptococcaceae, Clostridiales, Firmicutes), while Desulfovibrio-related SRBs

  17. Evaluation of the pepsin digestibility assay for predicting amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T M; Parsons, C M; Utterback, P L; Kirstein, D

    2015-05-01

    Sixteen meat and bone meal (MBM) samples were obtained and selected from various company plants to provide a wide range in pepsin nitrogen digestibility values. Pepsin digestibility was determined using either 0.02 or 0.002% pepsin. Amino acid (AA) digestibility of the 16 MBM samples was then determined using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. The 0.02% pepsin digestibility values were numerically higher than the 0.002% pepsin values. The values varied from 77 to 93% for 0.02% pepsin and from 67 to 91% for 0.002% pepsin. The rooster AA digestibility results showed a wide range of values among MBM samples mostly due to the 4 samples having lowest and highest AA digestibility. A precision-fed broiler chick ileal AA digestibility assay confirmed that there were large differences in AA digestibility among the MBM samples having the lowest and highest rooster digestibility values. Correlation analyses between pepsin and AA digestibility values showed that the correlation values (r) were highly significant (P digestibility values were not included in the correlation analyses, the correlation coefficient values (r) were generally very low and not significant (P > 0.05). The results indicated that the pepsin nitrogen digestibility assay is only useful for detecting large differences in AA digestibility among MBM. There also was no advantage for using 0.02 versus 0.002% pepsin. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Anaerobic Digestion Alters Copper and Zinc Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Guiresse, Maritxu; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-09-19

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used organic waste treatment process. However, little is known on how it could alter the speciation of contaminants in organic waste. This study was focused on determining the influence of anaerobic digestion on the speciation of copper and zinc, two metals that generally occur at high concentration in organic waste. Copper and zinc speciation was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in four different raw organic wastes (predigestion) and their digested counterparts (postdigestion, i.e., digestates). The results highlighted an increase in the digestates of the proportion of amorphous or nanostructured copper sulfides as well as amorphous or nanostructured zinc sulfides and zinc phosphate as compared to raw waste. We therefore suggest that the environmental fate of these elements would be different when spreading either digestates or raw waste on cropland.

  19. Application of Methanobrevibacter acididurans in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, D V; Ranade, D R

    2004-01-01

    To operate anaerobic digesters successfully under acidic conditions, hydrogen utilizing methanogens which can grow efficiently at low pH and tolerate high volatile fatty acids (VFA) are desirable. An acid tolerant hydrogenotrophic methanogen viz. Methanobrevibacter acididurans isolated from slurry of an anaerobic digester running on alcohol distillery wastewater has been described earlier by this lab. This organism could grow optimally at pH 6.0. In the experiments reported herein, M. acididurans showed better methanogenesis under acidic conditions with high VFA, particularly acetate, than Methanobacterium bryantii, a common hydrogenotrophic inhabitant of anaerobic digesters. Addition of M. acididurans culture to digesting slurry of acidogenic as well as methanogenic digesters running on distillery wastewater showed increase in methane production and decrease in accumulation of volatile fatty acids. The results proved the feasibility of application of M. acididurans in anaerobic digesters.

  20. Apparent seed digestibility and germination of seeds after passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited information is available regarding the digestibility or germination of seed after the passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), especially of plants associated with the sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-mixed prairie community. Thus, our objectives...

  1. Anaerobic Digestion Assessment for Contingency Base Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    heating. The use of anaerobic digestion for high solids organic waste (15 to 50 percent solids; i.e., mixed organic solids, such as food waste, manure ...but the team was not able to identify any for anaerobic digestion . One potentially widespread source is manure from ruminant organisms, such as...plug-flow digesters treating swine manure and used cooking grease. Bioresource Technology 101:4362-4370. ERDC TR-14-3 63 Lansing, S., and A.R

  2. Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome†

    OpenAIRE

    Estes, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    “Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome” is a hands-on activity designed to demonstrate the dynamics of microbiome ecology using dried pasta and beans to model disturbance events in the human digestive system microbiome. This exercise demonstrates how microbiome diversity is influenced by: 1) niche availability and habitat space and 2) a major disturbance event, such as antibiotic use. Students use a pictorial key to examine prepared models of digestive system microbiomes to determi...

  3. Inactivation of Clostridium difficile in sewage sludge by anaerobic thermophilic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changyun; Salsali, Hamidreza; Weese, Scott; Warriner, Keith

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in community-associated Clostridium difficile infections with biosolids derived from wastewater treatment being identified as one potential source. The current study evaluated the efficacy of thermophilic digestion in decreasing levels of C. difficile ribotype 078 associated with sewage sludge. Five isolates of C. difficile 078 were introduced (final density of 5 log CFU/g) into digested sludge and subjected to anaerobic digestion at mesophilic (36 or 42 °C) or thermophilic (55 °C) temperatures for up to 60 days. It was found that mesophilic digestion at 36 °C did not result in a significant reduction in C. difficile spore levels. In contrast, thermophilic sludge digestion reduced endospore levels at a rate of 0.19-2.68 log CFU/day, depending on the strain tested. The mechanism of lethality was indirect - by stimulating germination then inactivating the resultant vegetative cells. Acidification of sludge by adding acetic acid (6 g/L) inhibited the germination of spores regardless of the sludge digestion temperature. In conclusion, thermophilic digestion can be applied to reduce C. difficile in biosolids, thereby reducing the environmental burden of the enteric pathogen.

  4. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  5. Digestive Gland from Aplysia depilans Gmelin: Leads for Inflammation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia P. Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of marine organisms for human nutritional and pharmaceutical purposes has revealed important chemical prototypes for the discovery of new drugs, stimulating compounds isolation and syntheses of new related compounds with biomedical application. Nowadays, it is well known that inflammatory processes are involved in many diseases and the interest in the search for marine natural products with anti-inflammatory potential has been increasing. The genus Aplysia belongs to the class Gastropoda, having a wide geographical distribution and including several species, commonly known as sea hares. Aplysia depilans Gmelin is usually found in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Atlantic Ocean, from West Africa to the French coast. In these marine organisms, most of the digestion and nutrient absorption occurs in the digestive gland. This work aimed to explore the chemical composition and bioactivity of the methanol extract from A. depilans digestive gland. Therefore, fatty acids and carotenoids were determined by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD, respectively. Twenty-two fatty acids and eight carotenoids were identified for the first time in this species. The A. depilans digestive gland revealed to be essentially composed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and xanthophylls. Regarding the anti-inflammatory potential in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, it was observed that this matrix has capacity to reduce nitric oxide (NO and L-citrulline levels, which suggests that its compounds may act by interference with inducible nitric oxide synthase. Taking into account the results obtained, A. depilans digestive gland may be a good source of nutraceuticals, due to their richness in health beneficial nutrients, such as carotenoids and long-chain PUFA.

  6. Anaerobic Digestion: Mass Balances and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories. Underst......While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories...

  7. Digestive oncologist in the gastroenterology training curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Chris Jacob Johan; Peeters, Marc; Cats, Annemieke; Dahele, Anna; Droste, Jochim Terhaar sive

    2011-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, gastroenterology (GE) was considered a subspecialty of Internal Medicine. Today, GE also incorporates Hepatology. However, Digestive Oncology training is poorly defined in the Hepatogastroenterology (HGE)-curriculum. Therefore, a Digestive Oncology curriculum should be developed and this document might be a starting point for such a curriculum. HGE-specialists are increasingly resisting the paradigm in which they play only a diagnostic and technical role in the management of digestive tumors. We suggest minimum end-points in the standard HGE-curriculum for oncology, and recommend a focus year in the Netherlands for Digestive Oncology in the HGE-curriculum. To produce well-trained digestive oncologists, an advanced Digestive Oncology training program with specific qualifications in Digestive Oncology (2 years) has been developed. The schedule in Belgium includes a period of at least 6 mo to be spent in a medical oncology department. The goal of these programs remains the production of well-trained digestive oncologists. HGE specialists are part of the multidisciplinary oncological teams, and some have been administering chemotherapy in their countries for years. In this article, we provide a road map for the organization of a proper training in Digestive Oncology. We hope that the World Gastroenterology Organisation and other (inter)national societies will support the necessary certifications for this specific training in the HGE-curriculum. PMID:21556128

  8. Effect of Digestion and Storage of Human Milk on Free Fatty Acid Concentration and Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Alexander H.; Altshuler, Angelina E.; Small, James W.; Taylor, Sharon F.; Dobkins, Karen R.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fat is digested in the intestine into free fatty acids (FFAs), which are detergents and therefore toxic to cells at micromolar concentration. The mucosal barrier protects cells in the adult intestine, but this barrier may not be fully developed in premature infants. Lipase-digested infant formula, but not fresh human milk, has elevated FFAs and is cytotoxic to intestinal cells, and therefore could contribute to intestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). But even infants exclusively fed breast milk may develop NEC. Our objective was to determine if stored milk and milk from donor milk banks (DM) could also become cytotoxic, especially after digestion. Methods We exposed cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells or human neutrophils to DM and milk collected fresh and stored at 4 or −20 °C for up to 12 weeks and then treated for 2 hours (37°C) with 0.1 or 1 mg/ml pancreatic lipase and/or trypsin and chymotrypsin. Results DM and milk stored 3 days (at 4 or −20 °C) and then digested were cytotoxic. Storage at −20 °C for 8 and 12 weeks resulted in an additional increase in cytotoxicity. Protease digestion decreased, but did not eliminate cell death. Conclusions Current storage practices may allow milk to become cytotoxic and contribute to intestinal damage in NEC. PMID:24840512

  9. In vitro starch digestion correlates well with rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, R.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, van der P.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in

  10. Effect of Acylglycerol Composition and Fatty Acyl Chain Length on Lipid Digestion in pH-Stat Digestion Model and Simulated In Vitro Digestion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jin F; Jia, Cai H; Shin, Jung A; Woo, Jeong M; Wang, Xiang Y; Park, Jong T; Hong, Soon T; Lee, K-T

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a pH-stat digestion model and a simulated in vitro digestion model were employed to evaluate the digestion degree of lipids depending on different acylglycerols and acyl chain length (that is, diacylglycerol [DAG] compared with soybean oil representing long-chain triacylglycerol compared with medium-chain triacylglycerol [MCT]). In the pH-stat digestion model, differences were observed among the digestion degrees of 3 oils using digestion rate (k), digestion half-time (t1/2 ), and digestion extent (Φmax). The results showed the digestion rate order was MCT > soybean oil > DAG. Accordingly, the order of digestion half-times was MCT digestion model, digestion rates (k') and digestion half-times (t'1/2 ) were also obtained and the results showed a digestion rate order of MCT (k' = 0.068 min(-1) ) > soybean oil (k' = 0.037 min(-1) ) > DAG (k' = 0.024 min(-1) ). Consequently, the order of digestion half-times was MCT (t'1/2 = 10.20 min) digested faster than soybean oil, and that soybean oil was digested faster than DAG. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...... requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader...

  12. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  13. Surface characteristics of isopod digestive gland epithelium studied by SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millaku, Agron; Leser, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana; Godec, Matjaz; Torkar, Matjaz; Jenko, Monika; Milani, Marziale; Tatti, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The structure of the digestive gland epithelium of a terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber has been investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), and light microscopy in order to provide evidence on morphology of the gland epithelial surface in animals from a stock culture. We investigated the shape of cells, extrusion of lipid droplets, shape and distribution of microvilli, and the presence of bacteria on the cell surface. A total of 22 animals were investigated and we found some variability in the appearance of the gland epithelial surface. Seventeen of the animals had dome-shaped digestive gland "normal" epithelial cells, which were densely and homogeneously covered by microvilli and varying proportions of which extruded lipid droplets. On the surface of microvilli we routinely observed sparsely distributed bacteria of different shapes. Five of the 22 animals had "abnormal" epithelial cells with a significantly altered shape. In three of these animals, the cells were much smaller, partly or completely flat or sometimes pyramid-like. A thick layer of bacteria was detected on the microvillous border, and in places, the shape and size of microvilli were altered. In two animals, hypertrophic cells containing large vacuoles were observed indicating a characteristic intracellular infection. The potential of SEM in morphological investigations of epithelial surfaces is discussed.

  14. Cellulase digestibility of pretreated biomass is limited by cellulose accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeoh, Tina; Ishizawa, Claudia I; Davis, Mark F; Himmel, Michael E; Adney, William S; Johnson, David K

    2007-09-01

    Attempts to correlate the physical and chemical properties of biomass to its susceptibility to enzyme digestion are often inconclusive or contradictory depending on variables such as the type of substrate, the pretreatment conditions and measurement techniques. In this study, we present a direct method for measuring the key factors governing cellulose digestibility in a biomass sample by directly probing cellulase binding and activity using a purified cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A) from Trichoderma reesei. Fluorescence-labeled T. reesei Cel7A was used to assay pretreated corn stover samples and pure cellulosic substrates to identify barriers to accessibility by this important component of cellulase preparations. The results showed cellulose conversion improved when T. reesei Cel7A bound in higher concentrations, indicating that the enzyme had greater access to the substrate. Factors such as the pretreatment severity, drying after pretreatment, and cellulose crystallinity were found to directly impact enzyme accessibility. This study provides direct evidence to support the notion that the best pretreatment schemes for rendering biomass more digestible to cellobiohydrolase enzymes are those that improve access to the cellulose in biomass cell walls, as well as those able to reduce the crystallinity of cell wall cellulose.

  15. Important roles of P2Y receptors in the inflammation and cancer of digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Han-Xing; Hu, Jian-Hong; Xie, Rei; Yang, Shi-Ming; Dong, Hui

    2016-05-10

    Purinergic signaling is important for many biological processes in humans. Purinoceptors P2Y are widely distributed in human digestive system and different subtypes of P2Y receptors mediate different physiological functions from metabolism, proliferation, differentiation to apoptosis etc. The P2Y receptors are essential in many gastrointestinal functions and also involve in the occurrence of some digestive diseases. Since different subtypes of P2Y receptors are present on the same cell of digestive organs, varying subtypes of P2Y receptors may have opposite or synergetic functions on the same cell. Recently, growing lines of evidence strongly suggest the involvement of P2Y receptors in the pathogenesis of several digestive diseases. In this review, we will focus on their important roles in the development of digestive inflammation and cancer. We anticipate that as the special subtypes of P2Y receptors are studied in depth, specific modulators for them will have good potentials to become promising new drugs to treat human digestive diseases in the near future.

  16. Contribution of midgut bacteria to blood digestion and egg production in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenta Paulo FP

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect gut harbors a variety of microorganisms that probably exceed the number of cells in insects themselves. These microorganisms can live and multiply in the insect, contributing to digestion, nutrition, and development of their host. Recent studies have shown that midgut bacteria appear to strengthen the mosquito's immune system and indirectly enhance protection from invading pathogens. Nevertheless, the physiological significance of these bacteria for mosquitoes has not been established to date. In this study, oral administration of antibiotics was employed in order to examine the contribution of gut bacteria to blood digestion and fecundity in Aedes aegypti. Results The antibiotics carbenicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, gentamycin and kanamycin, were individually offered to female mosquitoes. Treatment of female mosquitoes with antibiotics affected the lysis of red blood cells (RBCs, retarded the digestion of blood proteins and reduced egg production. In addition, antibiotics did not affect the survival of mosquitoes. Mosquito fertility was restored in the second gonotrophic cycle after suspension of the antibiotic treatment, showing that the negative effects of antibiotics in blood digestion and egg production in the first gonotrophic cycle were reversible. Conclusions The reduction of bacteria affected RBC lysis, subsequently retarded protein digestion, deprived mosquito from essential nutrients and, finally, oocyte maturation was affected, resulting in the production of fewer viable eggs. These results indicate that Ae. aegypti and its midgut bacteria work in synergism to digest a blood meal. Our findings open new possibilities to investigate Ae. aegypti-associated bacteria as targets for mosquito control strategies.

  17. [ULTRASTRUCTURE OF PARENCHYMA IN THE SYNCYTIAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM IN TURBELLARIA Convoluta convoluta (Acoela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazizova, G R; Zabotin, Ya I; Golubev, A I

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents data on the ultrastructure of parenchyma that is involved in the digestion in turbellaria Convoluta convoluta (n = 15). Unusual connections between the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane of parenchymal cells were found for the first time, which may indicate the origin of these cell structures. The double trophic role of zooxanthellae in the organism of Convoluta is described.

  18. Chemically modified, immobilized trypsin reactor with improved digestion efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freije, J.R.; Mulder, P.P.; Werkman, W.; Rieux, L.; Niederlander, H.A G; Verpoorte, Sabeth; Bischoff, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    Tryptic digestion followed by identification using mass spectrometry is an important step in many proteomic studies. Here, we describe the preparation of immobilized, acetylated trypsin for enhanced digestion efficacy in integrated protein analysis platforms. Complete digestion of cytochrome c was

  19. Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jennifer K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.

    2003-01-01

    The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Plant Lectins as Medical Tools against Digestive System Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martínez, Laura Elena; Moreno-Celis, Ulisses; Cervantes-Jiménez, Ricardo; Ferriz-Martínez, Roberto Augusto; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; García-Gasca, Teresa

    2017-07-03

    Digestive system cancers-those of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon-rectum, liver, and pancreas-are highly related to genetics and lifestyle. Most are considered highly mortal due to the frequency of late diagnosis, usually in advanced stages, caused by the absence of symptoms or masked by other pathologies. Different tools are being investigated in the search of a more precise diagnosis and treatment. Plant lectins have been studied because of their ability to recognize and bind to carbohydrates, exerting a variety of biological activities on animal cells, including anticancer activities. The present report integrates existing information on the activity of plant lectins on various types of digestive system cancers, and surveys the current state of research into their properties for diagnosis and selective treatment.

  1. Plant Lectins as Medical Tools against Digestive System Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elena Estrada-Martínez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Digestive system cancers—those of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon-rectum, liver, and pancreas—are highly related to genetics and lifestyle. Most are considered highly mortal due to the frequency of late diagnosis, usually in advanced stages, caused by the absence of symptoms or masked by other pathologies. Different tools are being investigated in the search of a more precise diagnosis and treatment. Plant lectins have been studied because of their ability to recognize and bind to carbohydrates, exerting a variety of biological activities on animal cells, including anticancer activities. The present report integrates existing information on the activity of plant lectins on various types of digestive system cancers, and surveys the current state of research into their properties for diagnosis and selective treatment.

  2. Digesters in traditional Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudpour, Zeinab; Shirafkan, Hoda; Mojahedi, Morteza; Gorji, Narjes; Mozaffarpur, Seyyed Ali

    2018-01-01

    Background: Functional gastrointestinal diseases are common in general populations and comprise more than 40% visits to gastroenterologists. Treatment options of gastrointestinal diseases have been limited. There are a few medications for functional gastrointestinal diseases and some of medications are not available in the market or in the place where the patient lives. Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is a branch of alternative and traditional medicine based on individual viewpoint and humoral theory, focuses on lifestyle modification and uses natural products to manage the patients. Methods: In this study, a set of compound drugs known as digesters (jawarishes) and other applications are described based on main TPM text books. Results: Jawarishes have different formulations containing various medicinal herbs used for better food digestion and improved gastric functions and also used for other disorders including reinforcing the brain, heart, liver and some therapeutic approaches. Conclusions: By reviewing medieval Persian pharmaceutical manuscripts, we can conclude that many herbs are effective in different systems of the body and improve gastric functions. Zingiber officinalis and Piper nigrum are mixed together to get various formulations. The variety of jawarishes formulations and their different clinical applications can indicate continuity of their use. PMID:29387312

  3. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus...

  4. Comparative effects of undigested and anaerobically digested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    factors investigated. Generally, results in respect of crops treated with digested manure, were quite ... conclusion, digested poultry manure enhanced the growth characteristics of the treated plants for the ... values of animal waste production range from 144 million ..... Ph.D thesis, Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Manage.,.

  5. Digestive strategies in two sympatrically occurring lagomorphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, DPJ; van Wieren, S.E.; Bakker, JP

    2004-01-01

    Separation of low digestible fibres and fermentation of the digestible part of the food in the caecum is an adaptation of some small herbivores to cope with low-quality forage. The caecum content is later re-ingested as soft faeces so that the herbivore can benefit from this protein-rich material.

  6. Video Games: Research, Ratings, Recommendations. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This Digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The Digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders played at least one…

  7. Motivating Low Performing Adolescent Readers. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Norma Decker

    This Digest focuses on motivating the low performing adolescent in a remedial reading or subject area classroom--the idea is that students who are disengaged from their own learning processes are not likely to perform well in school. The Digest points out that such adolescents are often caught in a cycle of failure and that secondary teachers must…

  8. Discourses of Disability in the "Digest."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Presents an account of the discourse of disability in the "Reader's Digest" during its first 30 years (1922-1952). Concludes that the construction of disability in the "Digest" raises important questions that should enter the field of disability studies. (PM)

  9. La Disciplina Positiva (Positive Discipline). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. The digest explains 12 methods of disciplining children that promote children's self-worth. These methods are: (1) showing children that the reasons for their actions are understood; (2) stating reasons; (3)…

  10. Online Resources for Teaching Shakespeare. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoicheva, Mila

    To assist educators in effectively teaching the works of such a critical author as William Shakespeare, this Digest identifies and describes some of the most significant and useful online resources. The digest notes that the sites were chosen on the basis of their technical excellence, purpose, content, authorship, and general usefulness for…

  11. Mesophilic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERAL

    In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).
    For this purpose were researched:
    1. Anaerobic digestion

  12. Simulating Dinosaur Digestion in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peczkis, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity for use with a chapter on dinosaurs, prehistoric life, or digestion in which children make simulated dinosaur stomachs to gain hands-on experience about the theory of gastroliths, or stomach stones. Presents teacher information about the digestive processes in birds and dinosaurs. Discusses materials needed, objectives,…

  13. Actinidin enhances protein digestion in the small intestine as assessed using an in vitro digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Drummond, Lynley; Boland, Mike J

    2010-04-28

    This paper describes an in vitro study that tests the proposition that actinidin from green kiwifruit influences the digestion of proteins in the small intestine. Different food proteins, from sources including soy, meat, milk, and cereals, were incubated in the presence or absence of green kiwifruit extract (containing actinidin) using a two-stage in vitro digestion system consisting of an incubation with pepsin at stomach pH (simulating gastric digestion) and then with added pancreatin at small intestinal pH, simulating upper tract digestion in humans. The digests from the small intestinal stage (following the gastric digestion phase) were subjected to gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to assess loss of intact protein and development of large peptides during the in vitro simulated digestion. Kiwifruit extract influenced the digestion patterns of all of the proteins to various extents. For some proteins, actinidin had little impact on digestion. However, for other proteins, the presence of kiwifruit extract resulted in a substantially greater loss of intact protein and different peptide patterns from those seen after digestion with pepsin and pancreatin alone. In particular, enhanced digestion of whey protein isolate, zein, gluten, and gliadin was observed. In addition, reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) analysis showed that a 2.5 h incubation of sodium caseinate with kiwifruit extract alone resulted in approximately 45% loss of intact protein.

  14. Prospects of Anaerobic Digestion Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China must face the problem of managing municipal solid waste, and the challenge of organic waste disposal is even more serious. Considering the characteristics of traditional waste disposal technologies and the subsequent secondary pollution, anaerobic digestion has various advantages such as reduction in the land needed for disposal and preservation of environmental quality. In light of the energy crisis, this paper focuses on the potential production of biogas from biowaste through anaerobic digestion processes, the problems incurred by the waste collection system, and the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Use of biogas in a combined heat and power cogeneration system is also discussed. Finally, the advantages of anaerobic digestion technology for the Chinese market are summarized. The anaerobic digestion is suggested to be a promising treating technology for the organic wastes in China.

  15. Immunohistochemical study of the digestive tract of Oligosarcus hepsetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Lopes, Danielle A; Pinheiro, Nadja L; Sales, Armando; Ventura, Adriana; Araújo, Francisco G; Gomes, Iracema D; Nascimento, Aparecida A

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To describe the histology of the digestive tract and to investigate the occurrence of endocrine cells in Oligosarcus hepsetus (O. hepsetus). METHODS: The digestive tract (DT) of O. hepsetus was divided into esophagus, two stomach regions (glandular and non-glandular) and two intestinal regions (anterior and posterior). These specimens were processed by routine histological techniques and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Gomori’s trichrome, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue (AB). An immunohistochemical method using avidin-biotin-peroxidase was employed. RESULTS: The esophagus is lined with a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that is reactive to PAS and AB. The stomach has a mucosa lined with a simple columnar epithelium with mucus-secreting cells that are reactive only to PAS. The intestine has a simple columnar epithelium with a brush border and goblet cells that are reactive to PAS and AB. Somatostatin, serotonin and cholecystokinin immunoreactive cells were identified throughout the DT. CONCLUSION: This study revealed adaptations for the species’ diet and showed that the distribution and relative frequency of immunoreactive cells are similar to those of other fish. PMID:23569337

  16. Oral Administration of Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing the Cellulase Gene Increases Digestibility of Fiber in Geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haizhu; Gao, Yunhang; Gao, Guang; Lou, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Enhancing cellulose digestibility in animals is important for improving the utilization of forage, which can decrease the amount of food used in animal production. The aim of the present study was to achieve recombinant expression of the cellulase gene in Lactococcus lactis and evaluate the effects of oral administration of the recombinant L. lactis on fiber digestibility in geese. Cellulase (Cell) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes were cloned into a L. lactis expression vector (pNZ8149) to construct the recombinant expression plasmid (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell). Then, the recombinant expression plasmid was transformed into L. lactis (NZ3900) competent cells by electroporation to obtain recombinant L. lactis (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900) in which protein expression was induced by Nisin. Expression of GFP and Cell by the recombinant L. lactis was confirmed using SDS-PAGE, fluorescence detection, and Congo red assays. A feeding experiment showed that oral administration of pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900 significantly increased the digestibility of dietary fiber in geese fed either a maize stalk diet or a rice chaff diet. Therefore, oral administration of recombinant L. lactis cells expressing the cellulase gene increases fiber digestibility in geese, offering a way to increase the utilization of dietary fiber in geese.

  17. A Digest of Nonproliferation Literature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth A

    2006-04-01

    In preparation for the 2005 US/Russian Weapons Laboratories Directors Meeting, the six laboratories participating in the meeting endeavored to develop a strategy for nonproliferation technology research and development. A literature review was conducted to identify possible areas of technical collaboration and technology opportunities associated with improving nonproliferation associated with the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The issue of multinationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle was also researched. This digest is the compilation of one-page summaries used by management of the three US nuclear weapons laboratories in preparation for strategy development. Where possible, the Web site address of the complete paper is referenced.3 AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to thank Jessica Ruyle, Nancy Orlando-Gay, and Barbara Dry for their research assistance and contributions.4

  18. Radiation therapy for digestive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Levy, E.; Thirion, P.; Martin, L.; Calitchi, E.; Otmezguine, Y.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    This brief review of radiation therapy of digestive tumors in 1994 seeks to provide practical answers to the most commonly asked questions: What is the place of radiation therapy versus chemotherapy for the treatment of these patients ? What are the approved indications of radiation therapy and which avenues of research are being explored ? Radiation therapy is used in over two-thirds of patients referred to an oncology department for a gastrointestinal tract tumor. The main indications are reviewed: cancer of the rectum and anal canal and, to a lesser extent, cancer of the esophagus and pancreas. The main focuses of current research include radiation therapy-chemotherapy combinations, intraoperative radiation therapy, and radiation therapy of hepatobiliary tumors. (authors). 23 refs., 1 fig

  19. Prediction of in vivo neutral detergent fiber digestibility and digestion rate of potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber: comparison of models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtanen, P; Seppälä, A; Ahvenjärvi, S; Rinne, M

    2008-10-01

    Eleven 1-pool, seven 2-pool, and three 3-pool models were compared in fitting gas production data and predicting in vivo NDF digestibility and effective first-order digestion rate of potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF). Isolated NDF from 15 grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity was incubated in triplicate in rumen fluid-buffer solution for 72 h to estimate the digestion kinetics from cumulative gas production profiles. In vivo digestibility was estimated by the total fecal collection method in sheep fed at a maintenance level of feeding. The concentration of pdNDF was estimated by a 12-d in situ incubation. The parameter values from gas production profiles and pdNDF were used in a 2-compartment rumen model to predict pdNDF digestibility using 50 h of rumen residence time distributed in a ratio of 0.4:0.6 between the non-escapable and escapable pools. The effective first-order digestion rate was computed both from observed in vivo and model-predicted pdNDF digestibility assuming the passage kinetic model described above. There were marked differences between the models in fitting the gas production data. The fit improved with increasing number of pools, suggesting that silage pdNDF is not a homogenous substrate. Generally, the models predicted in vivo NDF digestibility and digestion rate accurately. However, a good fit of gas production data was not necessarily translated into improved predictions of the in vivo data. The models overestimating the asymptotic gas volumes tended to underestimate the in vivo digestibility. Investigating the time-related residuals during the later phases of fermentation is important when the data are used to estimate the first-order digestion rate of pdNDF. Relatively simple models such as the France model or even a single exponential model with discrete lag period satisfied the minimum criteria for a good model. Further, the comparison of feedstuffs on the basis of parameter values is more unequivocal than in the case

  20. PPARγ and Its Ligands: Potential Antitumor Agents in the Digestive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Linjing; Huang, Renhuan; Wu, Songtao; Chen, Zhaozhao; Sun, Ke; Jiang, Yan; Cai, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a versatile member of the ligand-activated nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors, with expression in several different cell lines, especially in the digestive system. After being activated by its ligand, PPARγ can suppress the growth of oral, esophageal, gastric, colorectal, liver, biliary, and pancreatic tumor cells, suggesting that PPARγ ligand is a potential anticancer agent in PPARγ-expressing tumors. This review highlights key advances in understanding the effects of PPARγ ligands in the treatment of tumors in the digestive system.

  1. Waste treatment and energy production from small-scale wastewater digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Stephanie; Maile-Moskowitz, Ayella; Eaton, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Three tubular anaerobic digestion (AD) systems were installed in Haiti to treat black water (toilet-based wastewater), including a three cell 36m 3 clinic digester (CD), a two cell 2m 3 hotel digester (HD), and a three-cell 3m 3 farm digester (FD) for worker use. During digestion, total coliforms were reduced by 99.1%, E. coli by 98.5%, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 93.6%. Nutrients in the effluent averaged 99.4mg/L NH 4 + and 10.6mg/L PO 4 2- , producing an effective organic fertilizer. Average biogas production in CD was 108L/d, with 65.4% CH 4 . Survey participants (n=573) were willing to pay $0.10-0.30 per use for sanitation facilities. Seventy-two percent of the rural population surveyed in Cange, Haiti lacked access to improved sanitation due to financial constraints. The economic analysis calculated an investment cost for a shared toilet AD systems of $16-$47 (USD) per person based on daily use at design capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Extracellular digestion during hyposaline exposure in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, and the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Daniel L; van Breukelen, Frank; McGaw, Iain J

    2013-12-01

    Extracellular digestive processes were examined in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister and the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, during hyposaline exposure. Both species are found in estuaries as adults, but vary in their ability to balance the cardiovascular and respiratory demands of concurrent osmoregulation and digestion. The weak osmoregulator, C. magister, is unable to balance the demands of osmoregulation and digestion. Concordant with observed decreases in oxygen consumption and mechanical digestion, proteolytic digestion within the foregut and hepatopancreas was delayed, resulting in a relative reduction of circulating amino acids post-feeding in low salinity. In contrast, the efficient osmoregulator, C. sapidus, balances the demands of osmoregulation and digestion, and mechanical digestion continues unabated in low salinity. Protease activity in the gut fluid and hepatopancreas showed either no change or a reduction over time. The transport of amino acids into the cells post-feeding is opposed by an efflux of amino acids at the cellular level, and resulted in a build up of amino acids in the hemolymph. Despite differences in the extracellular responses to low salinity exposure following feeding, both species were able to maintain high digestive efficiencies. © 2013.

  3. Digestive Physiology of Octopus maya and O. mimus: Temporality of Digestion and Assimilation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Pedro; Olivares, Alberto; Martínez-Yáñez, Rosario; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Domingues, Pedro M.; Mascaró, Maite; Sánchez, Ariadna; Pascual, Cristina; Rosas, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Digestive physiology is one of the bottlenecks of octopus aquaculture. Although, there are successful experimentally formulated feeds, knowledge of the digestive physiology of cephalopods is fragmented, and focused mainly on Octopus vulgaris. Considering that the digestive physiology could vary in tropical and sub-tropical species through temperature modulations of the digestive dynamics and nutritional requirements of different organisms, the present review was focused on the digestive physiology timing of Octopus maya and Octopus mimus, two promising aquaculture species living in tropical (22–30°C) and sub-tropical (15–24°C) ecosystems, respectively. We provide a detailed description of how soluble and complex nutrients are digested, absorbed, and assimilated in these species, describing the digestive process and providing insight into how the environment can modulate the digestion and final use of nutrients for these and presumably other octopus species. To date, research on these octopus species has demonstrated that soluble protein and other nutrients flow through the digestive tract to the digestive gland in a similar manner in both species. However, differences in the use of nutrients were noted: in O. mimus, lipids were mobilized faster than protein, while in O. maya, the inverse process was observed, suggesting that lipid mobilization in species that live in relatively colder environments occurs differently to those in tropical ecosystems. Those differences are related to the particular adaptations of animals to their habitat, and indicate that this knowledge is important when formulating feed for octopus species. PMID:28620313

  4. Endocrine tumor of the digestive tract - clinical case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szwedziak, K.; Olejniczak, W.; Brichkovkiy, V.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Endocrine tumors of the digestive tract (ETDT) are neoplasms which stem from the APUD (amine precursors uptake and decarboxylation) cells. There are neuroendocrine pancreatic and gastroenteral carcinoid tumors which stand for 2% of digestive tract tumors, 0,5% of all human malignant neoplasms. All of them have secretion granulations in the cytoplasm. That is why a number of immune histochemic techniques is used in search for biogenic amines and hormones such as gastrin, CCK, GIP, VIP, motilin, glucagon, GRP, PP, GHRH and the others. In the majority of cases neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum are described as dysfunctional, which means that specific clinical symptoms are not connected with their hormonal overproduction. Material and methods: We describe a case of fifty seven years old male patient admitted to the Department of General and Transplant Surgery for the diagnosis and treatment of the rectal tumor. Per rectum examination revealed hard tumor. The pathologic examination of the biopsy taken from the lesion and CT scanning confirmed the presence of endocrine tumor of the digestive tract. Results: Anterior resection of the rectum was performed, the postoperative course was uneventful. At present patient is subjected to complementary treatment with the use of somatostatin analogue of the prolonged action. Conclusion: The endocrine tumors of the rectum are extremely rare, they occur in this localization in 0,26-0,52 out of 100.000 all rectal tumors. Diagnosis is usually made upon the microscopic examination and the immune histochemic reactions. (author)

  5. Digestion of Bangka monazite with sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesna Prassanti

    2012-01-01

    Technology of Bangka monazite processing with alkaline method has been mastered by PPGN BATAN with the product in the form of RE (Rare Earth) which is contain U < 2 ppm and Th 12 - 16 ppm. Hence, as comparator, the research of Bangka monazite processing with acid method using sulfuric acid has been done. The aim of this research is to obtain the optimal condition of Bangka monazite's digestion using sulfuric acid so that all elements contained in the monazite that are U, Th, RE, PO 4 dissolved as much as possible. The research parameter's arc monazite particle's size, sulfuric acid consumption (weight ratio of monazite ore : sulfuric acid), digestion temperature, digestion time and consumption of wash water. The results showed that the optimal conditions of digestion are 250+ 325 mesh of monazite particle's size, 1 : 2.5 of weight ratio of monazite ore: sulfuric acid, 190°C of digestion temperature, 3 hours of digestion time and 8 times of weight monazite's feed of wash water with the recovery of digested U = 99.90 %, Th = 99.44 %, RE = 98.64 % and PO 4 = 99.88 %. (author)

  6. Long non-coding RNA PVT1: Emerging biomarker in digestive system cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan-Dan; Liu, Xiu-Fen; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Pant, Om Prakash; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2017-12-01

    The digestive system cancers are leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and have high risks of morbidity and mortality. More and more long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been studied to be abnormally expressed in cancers and play a key role in the process of digestive system tumour progression. Plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) seems fairly novel. Since 1984, PVT1 was identified to be an activator of MYC in mice. Its role in human tumour initiation and progression has long been a subject of interest. The expression of PVT1 is elevated in digestive system cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. In this review, we illustrate the various functions of PVT1 during the different stages in the complex process of digestive system tumours (including oesophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic cancer). The growing evidence shows the involvement of PVT1 in both proliferation and differentiation process in addition to its involvement in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). These findings lead us to conclude that PVT1 promotes proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis and drug resistance in digestive system cancer cells. We will also discuss PVT1's potential in diagnosis and treatment target of digestive system cancer. There was a great probability PVT1 could be a novel biomarker in screening tumours, prognosis biomarkers and future targeted therapy to improve the survival rate in cancer patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Proteolytic Digestion and TiO2 Phosphopeptide Enrichment Microreactor for Fast MS Identification of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jingren; Lazar, Iulia M.

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of phosphorylation state(s) of a protein is best accomplished by using isolated or enriched phosphoprotein samples or their corresponding phosphopeptides. The process is typically time-consuming as, often, a combination of analytical approaches must be used. To facilitate throughput in the study of phosphoproteins, a microreactor that enables a novel strategy for performing fast proteolytic digestion and selective phosphopeptide enrichment was developed. The microreactor was fabricated using 100 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries packed with 1-2 mm beds of C18 and/or TiO2 particles. Proteolytic digestion-only, phosphopeptide enrichment-only, and sequential proteolytic digestion/phosphopeptide enrichment microreactors were developed and tested with standard protein mixtures. The protein samples were adsorbed on the C18 particles, quickly digested with a proteolytic enzyme infused over the adsorbed proteins, and further eluted onto the TiO2 microreactor for enrichment in phosphopeptides. A number of parameters were optimized to speed up the digestion and enrichments processes, including microreactor dimensions, sample concentrations, digestion time, flow rates, buffer compositions, and pH. The effective time for the steps of proteolytic digestion and enrichment was less than 5 min. For simple samples, such as standard protein mixtures, this approach provided equivalent or better results than conventional bench-top methods, in terms of both enzymatic digestion and selectivity. Analysis times and reagent costs were reduced ~10- to 15-fold. Preliminary analysis of cell extracts and recombinant proteins indicated the feasibility of integration of these microreactors in more advanced workflows amenable for handling real-world biological samples.

  8. Digestion products of the PH20 hyaluronidase inhibit remyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Marnie; Gong, Xi; Su, Weiping; Matsumoto, Steven G; Banine, Fatima; Winkler, Clayton; Foster, Scott; Xing, Rubing; Struve, Jaime; Dean, Justin; Baggenstoss, Bruce; Weigel, Paul H; Montine, Thomas J; Back, Stephen A; Sherman, Larry S

    2013-02-01

    Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) recruited to demyelinating lesions often fail to mature into oligodendrocytes (OLs) that remyelinate spared axons. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) accumulates in demyelinating lesions and has been implicated in the failure of OPC maturation and remyelination. We tested the hypothesis that OPCs in demyelinating lesions express a specific hyaluronidase, and that digestion products of this enzyme inhibit OPC maturation. Mouse OPCs grown in vitro were analyzed for hyaluronidase expression and activity. Gain of function studies were used to define the hyaluronidases that blocked OPC maturation. Mouse and human demyelinating lesions were assessed for hyaluronidase expression. Digestion products from different hyaluronidases and a hyaluronidase inhibitor were tested for their effects on OPC maturation and functional remyelination in vivo. OPCs demonstrated hyaluronidase activity in vitro and expressed multiple hyaluronidases, including HYAL1, HYAL2, and PH20. HA digestion by PH20 but not other hyaluronidases inhibited OPC maturation into OLs. In contrast, inhibiting HA synthesis did not influence OPC maturation. PH20 expression was elevated in OPCs and reactive astrocytes in both rodent and human demyelinating lesions. HA digestion products generated by the PH20 hyaluronidase but not another hyaluronidase inhibited remyelination following lysolecithin-induced demyelination. Inhibition of hyaluronidase activity lead to increased OPC maturation and promoted increased conduction velocities through lesions. We determined that PH20 is elevated in demyelinating lesions and that increased PH20 expression is sufficient to inhibit OPC maturation and remyelination. Pharmacological inhibition of PH20 may therefore be an effective way to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis and related conditions. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  9. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (Praw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphophysiological study of digestive system litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Géssica; Dos Santos, Vânia Cristina; de Figueiredo Gontijo, Nelder; Constantino, Reginaldo; de Oliveira Paiva E Silva, Gabriela; Bahia, Ana Cristina; Gomes, Fabio Mendonça; de Alcantara Machado, Ednildo

    2017-06-01

    Termites are the major decomposers of lignocellulosic biomass on Earth and are commonly considered as biological reactor models for lignocellulose degradation. Despite their biotechnological potential, few studies have focused on the morphophysiological aspects of the termite digestive system. We therefore analyze the morphology, ultrastructure and gut luminal pH of the digestive system in workers of the litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Blattodea: Termitidae). Their digestive system is composed of salivary glands and an alimentary canal with a pH ranging from neutral to alkaline. The salivary glands have an acinar structure and present cells with secretory characteristics. The alimentary canal is differentiated into the foregut, midgut, mixed segment and hindgut, which comprises the ileum (p1), enteric valve (p2), paunch (p3), colon (p4) and rectum (p5) segments. The foregut has a well-developed chewing system. The midgut possesses a tubular peritrophic membrane and two cell types: digestive cells with secretory and absorptive features and several regenerative cells in mitosis, both cell types being organized into regenerative crypts. The mixed segment exhibits cells rich in glycogen granules. Hindgut p1, p4 and p5 segments have flattened cells with a few apical invaginations related to mitochondria and a thick cuticular lining. Conversely, the hindgut p3 segment contains large cuboid cells with extensive apical invaginations associated with numerous mitochondria. These new insights into the morphophysiology of the digestive system of C. cumulans reveal that it mobilizes lignocellulose components as a nutritional source by means of a highly compartmentalized organization with specialized segments and complex microenvironments.

  11. Laboratory scale studies on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of cheese whey in different digester configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.

    1988-02-01

    A two-phase system consisting of two reactors in series was used to study the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of cheese whey. A completely-mixed reactor and an anaerobic rotating biological contact reactor were used in series. The results indicated that ethanol and volatile fatty acids were the major products in the first reactor. Acidogenic pretreatment prior to the methanogenic phase resulted in an increase in methane production in the second reactor over that in one-stage digestion. High treatment efficiency in terms of reduction of chemical oxygen demand was also obtained for the two-phase digestion than that of the one-stage digestion. When comparing the system's performance in terms of methane production rate, the two-phase digestion had no advantage over the one-stage digestion.

  12. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff Practice and Procedure Digest. Supplement 2 to Digest No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    This is the second in a series of Supplements to the NRC Practice and Procedure Digest. This Supplement updates the Digest by including pertinent Commission, Appeal Board, and Licensing Board rulings for the period April 1, 1977 to September 30, 1977. The Supplement also adds a number of new topics. The Supplement is structured in the same manner as the Digest. For the convenience of users, the text of the Supplement is preceded by an index which lists the Digest topic headings which are supplemented. In using the main Digest, this index to Supplement 2 as well as the index to Supplement 1 should be consulted to assure that the Digest discussion has not been superseded or updated by information in the Supplements

  13. Composition and Digestibility of Deer Browse in Southern Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry L. Short; Robert M. Blair; E.A. Epps

    1975-01-01

    Twigs were most nutritious and digestible during early growth in spring; they were high in fiber content and low in digestibility during summer, autumn, and winter. Evergreen leaves did not vary substantially in nutrient content and digestibility throughout the year. By contrast, leaves of deciduous species were reduced in quality and digestibility after leaf-fall....

  14. Dewaterability of sludge digested in extended aeration plants using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dewaterability of unconditioned sludge digested in full scale and lab scale experiments using either extended aeration (EA) or anaerobic digestion were compared on full and lab scale sand drying beds. Sludge digested in EA plants resulted in improvement in sludge dewaterability compared to sludge digested ...

  15. Effects of boiling and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant activity of Sonchus oleraceus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawalagedera, S M M R; Ou, Zong-Quan; McDowell, Arlene; Gould, Kevin S

    2016-03-01

    Leaves of Sonchus oleraceus L. are especially rich in phenolic compounds and have potent extractable antioxidants. However, it is not known how their antioxidant activity changes after cooking and gastrointestinal digestion. We recorded the profile of phenolics and their associated antioxidant activity in both raw and boiled S. oleraceus leaf extracts after in vitro gastric and intestinal digestion, and quantified their antioxidant potentials using Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Boiling significantly diminished the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and concentrations of ascorbate and chicoric acid in the soluble fractions. In contrast, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and concentrations of caftaric and chlorogenic acids were unaffected. Phenolics in the soluble fraction were absorbed into cultured human cells and exerted antioxidant activity. Only chlorogenic acid content remained stable during gastrointestinal digestion. S. oleraceus appears to be an excellent dietary source of phenolic antioxidants.

  16. Simulation of the anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, C A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic model of anaerobic fermentation includes an inhibition function to relate volatile acid concentration to a specific growth rate for the methane bacteria and also includes the interactions between the liquid, gaseous, and biology phases of the digester.

  17. Learning Disabilities. ERIC Digest #407. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    This digest defines learning disabilities, cites their prevalence, describes typical characteristics of learning-disabled students, outlines educational implications of learning disabilities, and lists several printed and organizational resources for further information. (JDD)

  18. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  19. Solar pond for heating anaerobic digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Kehui; Li Shensheng

    1991-10-01

    A theoretical analysis and numerical results calculated for solar pond heating anaerobic digesters in Beijing area in China are presented. The effect of temperature rise is evident and rather steady. 3 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Non-Coop Station History Forms Digest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single 71-page document entitled 'Station history non-COOP Keying Rules & Forms Digest,' dated December 12, 2003. Contractors with NCDC Climate Database...

  1. Small-scale household biogas digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Khanh Vu, Van Thi

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of advantages to small-scale biogas production on farms, including savings on firewood or fossil fuels and reductions in odour and greenhouse gas emissions. For these reasons, governments and development aid agencies have supported the installation of biogas digesters. However......, biogas digesters are often poorly managed and there is a lack of proper distribution systems for biogas. This results in methane being released inadvertently through leaks in digesters and tubing, and intentionally when production exceeds demand. As methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater......% of the produced biogas is released, depending on the type of fuel that has been replaced. The limited information available as regards methane leaking from small-scale biogas digesters in developing countries indicates that emissions may be as high as 40%. With the best estimates of global numbers of small...

  2. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starchphosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  3. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing......Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed...... existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies...

  4. Palliative care - fluid, food, and digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eat food that is soft and smooth, like soup, yogurt, applesauce, or pudding. Drink shakes or smoothies. If you have nausea, try dry, salty foods and clear liquids. Digestion: Write down the times when you ...

  5. Economics of biogas digesters in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala, B.K.; Hossain, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    We present the economics of biogas digesters in Bangladesh in terms of fuel wood and fertilizer values. The incremental net present benefit was computed from the digester cost, kinetics of biogas production and nutrient contents in the treated slurry. The model was analysed to test the sensitivity to changes in retention time, annual operation period, subsidy, price of fuel wood, construction cost, interest, and inflation rate. (Author)

  6. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the Commission. This is the first of an annual publication for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. The Digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide

  7. Open vessel microwave digestion of food matrices (T6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, L.; LeBlanc, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Advancements in the field of open vessel microwave digestion continue to provide solutions for industries requiring acid digestion of large sample sizes. Those interesting in digesting food matrices are particularly interested in working with large amounts of sample and then diluting small final volumes. This paper will show the advantages of instantaneous regent addition and post-digestion evaporation when performing an open vessel digestion and evaporation methods for various food matrices will be presented along with analyte recovery data. (author)

  8. Dietary acrylamide: What happens during digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansano, M; Heredia, A; Peinado, I; Andrés, A

    2017-12-15

    Acrylamide is a well-known potentially carcinogen compound formed during thermal processing as an intermediate of Maillard reactions. Three objectives were addressed: the impact of gastric digestion on acrylamide content of French Fries, chips, chicken nuggets, onions rings, breakfast cereals, biscuits, crackers, instant coffee and coffee substitute; the acrylamide content evolution during gastrointestinal digestion of French fries and chips; and the effectiveness of blanching and air-frying on acrylamide mitigation after gastrointestinal digestion. A significant increase (p-value digestion (maximum registered for sweet biscuits, from 30±8 to 150±48µg/kg). However, at the end of the intestinal stage, acrylamide values were statistically similar (p-value=0.132) for French fries and lower than the initial values (before digestion) in potato chips (p-value=0.027). Finally, the low acrylamide content found in blanched and air-fried samples, remained still lower than for deep fried samples even after gastrointestinal digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of free oxygen in bio-gasification is a sparsely studied area, apart from the common argument of oxygen being toxic and inhibitory for anaerobic micro-cultures. Some studies have, however, revealed increased solubilisation of organic matter in the presence of some free oxygen in anaerobic digestion. This article analyses these counterbalancing phenomena with a mathematical modelling approach using the widely accepted biochemical model ADM 1. Aerobic oxidation of soluble carbon and inhibition of obligatory anaerobic organisms are modelled using standard saturation type kinetics. Biomass dependent first order hydrolysis kinetics is used to relate the increased hydrolysis rate with oxygen induced increase in biomass growth. The amended model, ADM 1-Ox (oxygen, has 25 state variables and 22 biochemical processes, presented in matrix form. The computer aided simulation tool AQUASIM 2.1 is used to simulate the developed model. Simulation predictions are evaluated against experimental data obtained using a laboratory batch test array comprising miniature anaerobic bio-reactors of 100 ml total volume each, operated under different initial air headspaces giving rise to the different oxygen loading conditions. The reactors were initially fed with a glucose solution and incubated at 35 Celsius, for 563 hours. Under the oxygen load conditions of 22, 44 and 88 mg/L, the ADM1-Ox model simulations predicted the experimental methane potentials quite adequately. Both the experimental data and the simulations suggest a linear reduction of methane potential with respect to the increase in oxygen load within this range.

  10. Photosonic digestion of aqueous organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toy, M.S.

    1993-02-01

    The objective of the program discussed in this report has been to develop an on-line aqueous organic digestion process that decomposes the organic compounds in water to ionic species, which can then be removed by the plant's demineralizers. At the Susquehanna Steam Electric Plant (SSES) of Pennsylvania Power and Light Company (PP ampersand L), the sonolysis process was tested by application to standard water streams to which ethylene glycol and urea were added. There were a substantial number of ionic species generated from both compounds as determined by ion chromatography. The sonolysis process and another organic destruction method, the General Electric ozone/UV process, were compared for their ability to remove the total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) from streams from the collection tanks of the plant's radwaste system. The sonolysis process efficiency, evaluated after the effluent from sonolysis was passed through a demineralizer, was estimated to be 55 + 17% for TOC removal as compared to a 93% removal by ozone/UV. Sonolysis led to the removal of 93% of the TIC as compared to 100% by the UV/ozone process

  11. Bio-electrolytic sensor for rapid monitoring of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Li, Xiaohu; Zhao, Nannan

    2017-01-01

    This study presents an innovative biosensor that was developed on the basis of a microbial electrolysis cell for fast and reliable measurement of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during anaerobic digestion (AD) process. The bio-electrolytic sensor was first tested with synthetic wastewater containing...

  12. 76 FR 20359 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; PA10-067: Stem Cells and Diabetic Skin... Major Ongoing Clinical Research Studies in CKD (R01). Date: May 17, 2011. Time: 2 p.m. to 3:30 p.m... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.847, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Research...

  13. 76 FR 67749 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Intestinal Stem Cell Consortium (ISCC). Date: December 1, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to 2:30 p.m. Agenda: To review... Assistance Program Nos. 93.847, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Research; 93.848, Digestive Diseases and Nutrition Research; 93.849, Kidney Diseases, Urology and Hematology Research, National Institutes...

  14. Development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus argenteus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Eneida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish P. argenteus was analyzed histologically. On the 3rd day after hatching, the digestive system comprised oropharyngeal cavity, esophagus and simple undifferentiated tube. Since secreting cells, positive to Alcian Blue (AB, were found in the esophagus, digestive activity in the initial phase had occurred. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the esophagus was positive for AB and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS stain. The stomach was fully differentiated, with the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. Different regions of the epithelium were characterized by basic and acidic secreting cells (AB and PAS positive. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the intestine was long, coiled and divided into proximal, middle and distal segments with pyloric ceca. Secreting cells in different regions of the gut were either positive or negative for AB and PAS. Results showed that larvae of P. argenteus exhibited digestive activity on the third day after hatching, with fully differentiated stomach and intestines on the 18 and 28th days and their different regions featuring secreting cells.

  15. Humoral regulation of heart rate during digestion in pythons (Python molurus and Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Simonsen, Lasse Stærdal; Pedersen, Signe Vesterskov; Wang, Tobias; Skovgaard, Nini

    2012-05-15

    Pythons exhibit a doubling of heart rate when metabolism increases several times during digestion. Pythons, therefore, represent a promising model organism to study autonomic cardiovascular regulation during the postprandial state, and previous studies show that the postprandial tachycardia is governed by a release of vagal tone as well as a pronounced stimulation from nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) factors. Here we show that infusion of plasma from digesting donor pythons elicit a marked tachycardia in fasting snakes, demonstrating that the NANC factor resides in the blood. Injections of the gastrin and cholecystokinin receptor antagonist proglumide had no effect on double-blocked heart rate or blood pressure. Histamine has been recognized as a NANC factor in the early postprandial period in pythons, but the mechanism of its release has not been identified. Mast cells represent the largest repository of histamine in vertebrates, and it has been speculated that mast cells release histamine during digestion. Treatment with the mast cell stabilizer cromolyn significantly reduced postprandial heart rate in pythons compared with an untreated group but did not affect double-blocked heart rate. While this study indicates that histamine induces postprandial tachycardia in pythons, its release during digestion is not stimulated by gastrin or cholecystokinin nor is its release from mast cells a stimulant of postprandial tachycardia.

  16. The challenges of anaerobic digestion and the role of biochar in optimizing anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbohungbe, Michael O; Herbert, Ben M J; Hurst, Lois; Ibeto, Cynthia N; Li, Hong; Usmani, Shams Q; Semple, Kirk T

    2017-03-01

    Biochar, like most other adsorbents, is a carbonaceous material, which is formed from the combustion of plant materials, in low-zero oxygen conditions and results in a material, which has the capacity to sorb chemicals onto its surfaces. Currently, research is being carried out to investigate the relevance of biochar in improving the soil ecosystem, digestate quality and most recently the anaerobic digestion process. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic substrates provides both a sustainable source of energy and a digestate with the potential to enhance plant growth and soil health. In order to ensure that these benefits are realised, the anaerobic digestion system must be optimized for process stability and high nutrient retention capacity in the digestate produced. Substrate-induced inhibition is a major issue, which can disrupt the stable functioning of the AD system reducing microbial breakdown of the organic waste and formation of methane, which in turn reduces energy output. Likewise, the spreading of digestate on land can often result in nutrient loss, surface runoff and leaching. This review will examine substrate inhibition and their impact on anaerobic digestion, nutrient leaching and their environmental implications, the properties and functionality of biochar material in counteracting these challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Student Teachers' Ways of Thinking and Ways of Understanding Digestion and the Digestive System in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimer, Sabiha Odabasi; Ursavas, Nazihan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ways in which student teachers understand digestion and the digestive system and, subsequently, their ways of thinking, as reflected in their problem solving approaches and the justification schemes that they used to validate their claims. For this purpose, clinical interviews were conducted with 10…

  18. Digestion proteomics: tracking lactoferrin truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvenor, Anita J; Haigh, Brendan J; Dyer, Jolon M

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which nutritional and functional benefit is derived from proteins in food is related to its breakdown and digestion in the body after consumption. Further, detailed information about food protein truncation during digestion is critical to understanding and optimising the availability of bioactives, in controlling and limiting allergen release, and in minimising or monitoring the effects of processing and food preparation. However, tracking the complex array of products formed during the digestion of proteins is not easily accomplished using classical proteomics. We here present and develop a novel proteomic approach using isobaric labelling to mapping and tracking protein truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion, using bovine lactoferrin as a model food protein. The relative abundance of related peptides was tracked throughout a digestion time course, and the effect of pasteurisation on peptide release assessed. The new approach to food digestion proteomics developed here therefore appears to be highly suitable not only for tracking the truncation and relative abundance of released peptides during gastric digestion, but also for determining the effects of protein modification on digestibility and potential bioavailability.

  19. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of guinea pig manure in low-cost tubular digesters at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfí, Marianna; Ferrer-Martí, Laia; Villegas, Vidal; Ferrer, Ivet

    2011-05-01

    Guinea pig is one of the most common livestock in rural communities of the Andes. The aim of this research was to study the anaerobic digestion of guinea pig manure in low-cost unheated tubular digesters at high altitude. To this end, the performance of two pilot digesters was monitored during 7 months; and two greenhouse designs were compared. In the dome roof digester the temperature and biogas production were significantly higher than in the shed roof digester. However, the biogas production rate was low (0.04 m(biogas)(3)m(digester)(-3) d(-1)), which is attributed to the low organic loading rate (0.6 kg(VS)m(digester)(-3)d(-1)) and temperature (23°C) of the system, among other factors. In a preliminary fertilization study, the potato yield per hectare was increased by 100% using the effluent as biofertilizer. Improving manure management techniques, increasing the organic loading rate and co digesting other substrates may be considered to enhance the process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff Practice and Procedure Digest. Supplement 3 to Digest No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This is the third of a series of Supplements to the NRC Practice and Procedure Digest. This Supplement updates the Digest by including pertinent Commission, Appeal Board, and Licensing Board rulings for the period October 1, 1977 to December 31, 1977. The Supplement also adds several new topics. The Supplement is structured in the same manner as the Digest. For the convenience of users, the text of the Supplement is preceded by an index which lists the Digest topic headings which are supplemented. In using the main Digest, this index to Supplement 3 as well as those to Supplements 1 and 2 should be consulted to assure that the Digest discussion has not been superseded or updated by information in the Supplements. Supplement 3 is intended for use as a ''pocket part''. It should be inserted after Supplements 1 and 2, following the main Digest. Notice is hereby given that all disclaimers with respect to content, accuracy and completeness of information, express or implied warranties, and use of or reliance upon information presented, set forth in regard to the Digest itself, are equally applicable to this Supplement

  1. potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970), improved lactose digestion (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970), “intestinal flora/digestive health” (ID 4231), defence against vaginal pathogens (ID 2950, 2957, 2967) and increasing IL-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion, “intestinal flora/digestive health”, defence against vaginal pathogens and increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells. The food...

  2. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Acid digestion of combustible radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.; Crippen, M.D.; Cowan, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    The following conclusions resulted from operation of Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) for processing transuranic waste: (1) the acid digestion process can be safely and efficiently operated for radioactive waste treatment.; (2) in transuranic waste treatment, there was no detectable radionuclide carryover into the exhaust off-gas. The plutonium decontamination factor (DF) between the digester and the second off-gas tower was >1.5 x 10 6 and the overall DF from the digester to the off-gas stack was >1 x 10 8 ; (3) plutonium can be easily leached from undried digestion residue with dilute nitric acid (>99% recovery). Leachability is significantly reduced if the residue is dried (>450 0 stack temp.) prior to leaching; (4) sulfuric acid recovery and recycle in the process is 100%; (5) nitric acid recovery is typically 35% to 40%. Losses are due to the formation of free nitrogen (N 2 ) during digestion, reaction with chlorides in waste (NO 2 stack was > 1.5 x 10 6 andl), and other process losses; (6) noncombustible components comprised approximately 6% by volume of glovebox waste and contained 18% of the plutonium; (7) the acid digestion process can effectively handle a wide variety of waste forms. Some design changes are desirable in the head end to reduce manual labor, particularly if large quantities of specific waste forms will be processed; (8) with the exception of residue removal and drying equipment, all systems performed satisfactorily and only minor design and equipment changes would be recommended to improve performance; and(9) the RADTU program met all of its planned primary objectives and all but one of additional secondary objectives

  4. Immunomodulatory potential of a brewers' spent grain protein hydrolysate incorporated into low-fat milk following in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Damian; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; McCarthy, Aoife; Connolly, Alan; Piggott, Charles O; FitzGerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

    2015-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) protein rich fraction was previously hydrolysed using Alcalase (U) and three additional fractions were prepared by membrane fractionation; a 5-kDa retentate (U > 5), a 5-kDa permeate (U milk, subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) and their anti-inflammatory potential was investigated. The digestates caused a significant reduction (p RAW 264.7 cells. IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in stimulated Jurkat T cells and IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production in stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were not affected in the presence of the digestates. Results show that a SGID milk product supplemented with BSG hydrolysate and its associated ultrafiltered fractions can confer anti-inflammatory effects in Jurkat T cells.

  5. Microbial release of ferulic and p-coumaric acids from forages and their digestibility in lactating cows fed total mixed rations with different forage combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bin-Bin; Jin, Xin; Yang, Hong-Jian; Li, Sheng-Li; Jiang, Lin-Shu

    2016-01-30

    Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (PCA) are widely distributed in graminaceous plant cell walls. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of ester-linked FA (FAest) and PCA (PCAest) in lactating dairy cows. Regarding corn stover, ensiled corn stover, whole corn silage, Chinese wild ryegrass and alfalfa hay with different phenolic acid profiles, the in vitro rumen digestibility of forage FAest and PCAest was negatively correlated with the ether-linked FA content and original PCA/FA ratio in the forages. The concentration of both phenolic acids in culture fluids was low after a 72 h incubation, and the mixed rumen microorganisms metabolized nearly all phenolic acids released into the culture fluids. FAest digestibility in the whole digestive tract was negatively correlated with dietary PCA/FA ratio, but a converse result occurred with dietary PCAest digestibility. The digestibility in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract was greater for FAest than for PCAest. Forage PCAest in comparison with FAest is not easily digested in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract, and they were negatively affected by forage FAeth content and lignification extent indicated by the original dietary PCA/FA ratio. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Modelling methane emission mitigation by anaerobic digestion: effect of storage conditions and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moset, Veronica; Wahid, R; Ward, A; Møller, H B

    2018-03-13

    In this work the methane conversion factor (MCF) of untreated and anaerobically digested cattle manure (CM) as a function of storage temperature, time and co-digestion was measured in an in vitro experiment and modelled based on IPCC (2006) methodology (Tier 2). For this, one sample of untreated CM, one sample of mono-digested CM and three samples of CM co-digested with grass were incubated at seven different temperatures (from 5°C to 50°C) over 346 days. The main results showed that ultimate methane yield (B 0 ) of CM is higher than the B 0 reported by the IPCC (2006). Two temperature ranges should be considered for MCF evolution, below 15°C very low MCF was measured in this work for untreated CM, mono and co-digested samples. At higher temperatures, MCF obtained in this work and that provided by the IPCC could be comparable depending on storage time. Anaerobic mono-digestion decreased MCF compared to untreated CM at all temperatures and times, except in the temperature range between 20°C and 25°C if storage time is low, due to a lag phase observed in CM. This lag phase would probably not happen in real storage conditions depending on the proportion of old manure remaining in the storage tank. Co-digestion with grass-decreased MCF compared to mono-digestion, but increased CH 4 production in terms of fresh matter due to the higher B 0 of the mixture. Storage time, temperature and co-digestion should be considered in the quantification of CH 4 emission from digested material.

  7. Micro-PIXE study of Ag in digestive glands of a nano-Ag fed arthropod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkalec, Ziva Pipan; Drobne, Damjana; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Strus, Jasna; Pelicon, Primoz; Vavpetic, Primoz; Grlj, Natasa; Remskar, Maja

    2011-01-01

    Micro-proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) method was applied to study the micro-localization of silver (Ag) in digestive glands of a terrestrial arthropod (Porcellio scaber) after feeding on silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) dosed food. The aim of our work was to assess whether feeding on nano-Ag results in the assimilation of silver (Ag) in digestive gland cells. To study micro-localization and elemental distribution of Ag, the animals were fed on food dosed with nanoparticles for 14 days under controlled laboratory conditions. At the end of the feeding exposure, the animals were dissected and digestive glands prepared for micro-PIXE analyses and TEM investigation. The results obtained by micro-PIXE documented high amounts of Ag inside S-cells of the digestive gland epithelium; however, TEM investigation did not show particle aggregates inside digestive gland cells. Also no adverse effect on feeding behavior was recorded what is a measure of toxic effects. We explain the presence of Ag inside the cells as a result of the assimilation of dissoluted Ag ions from ingested nano-Ag particles. Assimilation of excessive amounts of ingested metal ions in S-cells is a well known metal detoxification mechanism in isopods. We discuss the advantages of using micro-PIXE for the micro-localization of elements in biological tissue in studies of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems.

  8. FEATURES DIGESTION OF STURGEON SPECIES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources are about the anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the digestive system and proper digestion process in the sturgeon species (Acipenseridae. Outline the common anatomical and morphological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract. Consider the activity of digestive enzymes and the influence of various factors. Findings. Review of scientific papers reveals that although the digestion of sturgeon are broadly similar to those of the cartilaginous and bony fish, there are a number of species specificity. In particular, sturgeon enzymes have a wider temperature and hydrogen ranges. It is confirmed that temperature adaptations of digestive system poikilothermic organ-isms are realised mainly thanks to reorganisations of fermental systems. It is shown that enzymes in sturgeons are adjustable, as their activity level significantly changes under the influence of divalent metal ions (Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+. The assumption that evolutionary adaptation of hydrolytic function of intestines of fishes to temperature conditions of an inhabitancy takes place, apparently, is made. The paper describes the effect of sex and age factors on the level of activity of enzymes of sturgeons. Set out the regularities of circadian rhythms of the fish of this family. Showed specific features of the liver and its involvement in lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system. Practical value. The knowledge of hydrolysis characteristics of a diet of sturgeon species is important for the efficiency estimation of feeding and understanding of evolutionary and ecological aspects of digestion physiology. Systematized data on the digestive system of fish sturgeon species are of interest a wide range of research in two main areas. Firstly, although the sturgeon are relict species, but the adaptation of their digestive system is still going on, allowing you to analyze the evolutionary development of the

  9. Headway on co-digestion of wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhale, Yogeshwar

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Australia produce biogas either directly from the wastewater or from anaerobic digestion of the primary and/or secondary sludge, which in turn is used to create energy. Some WWTPs produce electricity from the biogas to either support the treatment plant or to export the electricity to the grid or both. High-strength organic wastes such as fats, oil and grease, food waste, commercial (restaurant) waste and brewery waste are attractive biogas sources that can be realised through co-digestion with the sludge from wastewater treatment. Co-digestion of high-strength waste can be a tricky business due to the varying nature of the waste, special handling requirements, and potential digester process issues like foaming. However, experiences over the past decade have helped identify mitigation measures and advanced designs to reduce these risks. Several WWTPs in the US accept fats, oil and grease (FOG) as a feedstock for co-digestion, and CH2M Hill has been involved in various capacities on some of those projects. The Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Johnson County, Kansas, includes an environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of FOG wastes from local restaurants and industrial sources. FOG waste receipts are handled using a separate onsite liquid receiving facility, and the FOG tanks and pipes are heated to minimise clogging. Co-digestion of FOG enhanced the gas production to fuel a 2.1 megawatt biogas co-generation system. Other CH2M Hill FOG co-digestion projects are FOG addition to the incinerator at the Hampton Roads Sanitation District in Virginia; FOG co-digestion at the Pinellas County in Florida; and FOG co-digestion and co-generation at the Essex Junction in Vermont. This experience was recently expanded to the co-digestion of other high-strength organic waste for Yarra Valley Water (YVW) and City West Water (CWW) in Victoria. The potential high-strength waste

  10. Comparative economic analysis: Anaerobic digester case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation

  11. Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU), 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was constructed at the Hanford Site, Richland, WA to demonstrate application of the acid digestion process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. Using its original tray digester vessel, RADTU recently completed a six-month campaign of processing potentially contaminated non-glovebox wastes from a Hanford plutonium facility. During the campaign, 2100 kg of largely cellulosic wastes were processed at an average sustained processing rate of 3 kg/h (limited by the acid-waste contact and the water boiloff rate from the acid feeds). On-line operating efficiency was nearly 50%, averaged over 12 hours/day, for five days/week. After shutdown, a new annular high-rate digester was installed for testing that demonstrated a sustained capacity of 8 kg/h to 10 kg/h with greatly improved contact between the digestion acid and the waste. The new unit began processing low-level waste from Hanford's z-Plant during June 1980. Plutonium levels in the waste processed will be increased gradually as operating experience has been gained. Processing recoverable scrap is expected to begin in the last quarter of CY 1980

  12. Gastrointestinal physiology and digestive disorders in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaly, Travis; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Vaughn, Bradley V

    2009-11-01

    The dynamic interplay of the digestive system and sleep is an excellent example of brain-body interaction. New advances in measuring techniques provide an opportunity to evaluate physiology that is dependent upon the sleep/wake state or circadian rhythm and potentially differentiate between normal and pathological conditions. Sleep-related changes in gastrointestinal physiology create vulnerabilities to digestive issues such as reflux, whereas disorders such as duodenal ulcers raise the importance of circadian variations in digestive system function. Advances in the area of normal sleep physiology have furthered our understanding of the underlying cause of irritable bowel syndrome, and the mechanisms by which sleep disruption may aggravate inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, important early work has shown that the treatment of digestive disorders such as reflux can improve sleep quality just as the improvement in sleep may aid in the treatment of digestive disorders. For the clinician, these forward steps in our knowledge mark the start of an era in which understanding the effects of the sleep/wake state and circadian rhythms on gastrointestinal physiology promise to yield novel diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

  13. Waste volume reduction by acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Divine, J.R.

    1975-06-01

    Acid digestion is a process being developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington, to reduce the volume of alpha-contaminated combustible waste by converting it into a non-combustible residue. Typical waste materials such as polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene, paper and other cellulosic materials, ion exchange resin, all types of rubber, etc., are digested in hot (230 0 C--270 0 C) concentrated sulfuric acid containing nitric acid oxidant to form inert residues generally having less than four percent of their original volume and less than twenty-five percent of their original mass. The process is currently being tested using non-radioactive waste in an Acid Digestion Test Unit (ADTU) with all glass equipment. Engineering tests to date have shown acid digestion to be a potentially attractive method for treating combustible waste materials. Based on results of the engineering tests, an acid digestion pilot unit capable of treating radioactive wastes is being designed and constructed. Design capacity of the pilot unit for radioactive waste will be 100 kg of waste per day. (U.S.)

  14. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 o C and for some experiments also at 37 o C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm 3 kg -1 respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm -3 and 7 g N dm -3 respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 o C, sterilization: 133 o C, and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 o C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  16. Design and Fabrication of an Anaerobic Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Abubakar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digester is a physical structure that provides a conducive environment for the multiplication of micro-organisms that degrades organic matter to generate biogas energy. Energy is required in agriculture for crop production, processing and storage, poultry production and electricity for farmstead and farm settlements. It is energy that propels agricultural mechanization, which minimizes the use of human and animal muscles and its inherent drudgery in agriculture. The energy demand required to meet up with the agricultural growth in Nigeria is high and growing every year. In this study the design and fabrication of an anaerobic digester was reported which is an attempt to boost energy requirement for small and medium dryland farmers in Nigeria. The design of the digester includes the following concept; the basic principles of anaerobic digestion processes, socio-economic status of the dryland farmers, amount of biogas to be produced. Finally, the digester was fabricated using locally available raw materials within the dryland area of Nigeria. At the end, preliminary flammability test was conducted and the biogas produced was found to be flammable.

  17. The role of hypoxia-inducible factor-2 in digestive system cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Du, F; Shen, G; Zheng, F; Xu, B

    2015-01-15

    Hypoxia is an all but ubiquitous phenomenon in cancers. Two known hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), HIF-1α and HIF-2α, primarily mediate the transcriptional response to hypoxia. Despite the high homology between HIF-1α and HIF-2α, emerging evidence suggests differences between both molecules in terms of transcriptional targets as well as impact on multiple physiological pathways and tumorigenesis. To date, much progress has been made toward understanding the roles of HIF-2α in digestive system cancers. Indeed, HIF-2α has been shown to regulate multiple aspects of digestive system cancers, including cell proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis, metabolism, metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. These findings make HIF-2α a critical regulator of this malignant phenotype. Here we summarize the function of HIF-2 during cancer development as well as its contribution to tumorigenesis in digestive system malignancies.

  18. Distant homology between yeast photoreactivating gene fragment and human genomic digests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meechan, P.J.; Milam, K.M.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Hybridization of DNA coding for the yeast DNA photolyase to human genomic DNA appears to allow one to determine whether a conserved enzyme is coded for in human cells. Under stringent conditions (68 0 C), hybridization is not found between the cloned yeast fragment (YEp13-phr1) and human or chick genomic digests. At less stringent conditions (60 0 C), hybridization is observed with chick digests, indicating evolutionary divergence even among organisms capable of photo-reactivation. At 50 0 C, weak hybridization with human digests was observed, indicating further divergence from the cloned gene. Data concerning the precise extent of homology and methods to clone the chick gene for use as another probe are discussed

  19. Increasing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) yields from Cupriavidus necator by using filtered digestate liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passanha, Pearl; Esteves, Sandra R; Kedia, Gopal; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J

    2013-11-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) using digestate liquor as culture media is a novel application to extend the existing uses of digestates. In this study, two micro-filtered digestates (0.22 μm) were evaluated as a source of complex culture media for the production of PHA by Cupriavidus necator as compared to a conventional media. Culture media using a mixture of micro-filtered liquors from food waste and from wheat feed digesters showed a maximum PHA accumulation of 12.29 g/l PHA, with 90% cell dry weight and a yield of 0.48 g PHA/g VFA consumed, the highest reported to date for C. necator studies. From the analysis of the starting and residual media, it was concluded that ammonia, potassium, magnesium, sulfate and phosphate provided in the digestate liquors were vital for the initial growth of C. necator whereas copper, iron and nickel may have played a significant role in PHA accumulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains inoculated in cheese matrix during simulated human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitino, Iole; Randazzo, Cinzia L; Cross, Kathryn L; Parker, Mary L; Bisignano, Carlo; Wickham, Martin S J; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Caggia, Cinzia

    2012-08-01

    Survival of probiotic bacteria during transit through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is influenced by a number of environmental variables including stomach acidity, bile salts, digestive enzymes and food matrix. This study assessed survival of seven selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains delivered within a model cheese system to the human upper GI tract using a dynamic gastric model (DGM). Good survival rates for all tested strains were recorded during both simulated gastric and duodenal digestion. Strains H12, H25 and N24 demonstrated higher survival capacities during gastric digestion than L. rhamnosus GG strain used as control, with H12 and N24 continuing to grow during duodenal digestion. Strains L. rhamnosus F17, N24 and R61 showed adhesion properties to both HT-29 and Caco-2 cells. The ability to attach to the cheese matrix during digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, also indicating production of extracellular polysaccharides as a response to acid stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of the potential bioavailability of plant microRNAs using a simulated human digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Anna; Ferro, Valerie A; Tate, Rothwelle J

    2015-10-01

    The "dietary xenomiR hypothesis" proposes that microRNAs (miRNAs) in foodstuffs survive transit through the mammalian gastrointestinal tract and pass into cells intact to affect gene regulation. However, debate continues as to whether dietary intake poses a feasible route for such exogenous gene regulators. Understanding on miRNA levels during pretreatments of human diet is essential to test their bioavailability during digestion. This study makes the novel first use of an in vitro method to eliminate the inherent complexities and variability of in vivo approaches used to test this hypothesis. Plant miRNA levels in soybean and rice were measured during storage, processing, cooking, and early digestion using real-time PCR. We have demonstrated for the first time that storage, processing, and cooking does not abolish the plant miRNAs present in the foodstuffs. In addition, utilizing a simulated human digestion system revealed significant plant miRNA bioavailability after early stage digestion for 75 min. Attenuation of plant messenger RNA and synthetic miRNA was observed under these conditions. Even after an extensive pretreatment, plant-derived miRNA, delivered by typical dietary ingestion, has a robustness that could make them bioavailable for uptake during early digestion. The potential benefit of these regulatory molecules in pharma nutrition could be explored further. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. [Functional and motor digestive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2013-10-01

    This article discusses the most interesting studies on functional and motility gastrointestinal disorders presented in Digestive Diseases Week (DDW) in 2013. New data were reported on the clinical importance of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and on how they can produce numerous disturbances such as inflammatory bowel disease. These disturbances are associated with somatic functional disease and particularly with fatigue. In addition, new data have emerged on the physiopathology of these disorders, with some studies reporting that environmental factors and events in early infancy can favor their development. Data were also presented on how bile acids can increase susceptibility to diarrhea in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and on how the type of food intake can favor the development of symptoms. More data are available on the presence of underlying celiac disease in patients with IBS, which should prompt us to investigate this disease in our patients. Likewise, indiscriminate application of a gluten-free diet in patients with IBS has been shown not to produce a clear improvement. Regarding the physiopathology of functional dyspepsia (FD), results have been presented on how psychological factors can modify gastric accommodation and how this is in turn related to visceral hypersensitivity and gastric emptying. Regarding therapy, mirtazapine can improve symptoms and lead to weight gain in patients with severe FD and substantial weight loss. Results were presented on new drugs for IBS such as ibodutant and on old drugs with new applications such as mesalazine and ebastine. The antinociceptive effect of linaclotide is now better understood and a meta-analysis has shown its effectiveness in IBS with constipation as the main symptom. In patients with constipation, pelvic floor dysynergy can be diagnosed by a simple clinical interview and rectal touch. More data are available on the efficacy of prucalopride (which has been shown to accelerate

  3. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion increases the translocation of polystyrene nanoparticles in an in vitro intestinal co-culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Agata P; Kramer, Evelien; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Helsdingen, Richard; van der Zande, Meike; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The conditions of the gastrointestinal tract may change the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) and therewith the bioavailability of orally taken NPs. Therefore, we assessed the impact of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the protein corona of polystyrene NPs (PS-NPs) and their subsequent translocation across an in vitro intestinal barrier. A co-culture of intestinal Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cells was exposed to 50 nm PS-NPs of different charges (positive and negative) in two forms: pristine and digested in an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. In vitro digestion significantly increased the translocation of all, except the "neutral", PS-NPs. Upon in vitro digestion, translocation was 4-fold higher for positively charged NPs and 80- and 1.7-fold higher for two types of negatively charged NPs. Digestion significantly reduced the amount of protein in the corona of three out of four types of NPs. This reduction of proteins was 4.8-fold for "neutral", 3.5-fold for positively charged and 1.8-fold for one type of negatively charged PS-NPs. In vitro digestion also affected the composition of the protein corona of PS-NPs by decreasing the presence of higher molecular weight proteins and shifting the protein content of the corona to low molecular weight proteins. These findings are the first to report that in vitro gastrointestinal digestion significantly affects the protein corona and significantly increases the in vitro translocation of differently charged PS-NPs. These findings stress the importance of including the in vitro digestion in future in vitro intestinal translocation screening studies for risk assessment of orally taken NPs.

  4. Muscle composition slightly affects in vitro digestion of aged and cooked meat: identification of associated proteomic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, M-L; Sayd, T; Aubry, L; Ferreira, C; Viala, D; Chambon, C; Rémond, D; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2013-02-15

    Meat is an appropriate source of proteins and minerals for human nutrition. Technological treatments modify the physical-chemical properties of proteins, making them liable to decrease the nutritional potential of meat. To counteract this damage, antioxidants and chaperone proteins in muscle cells can prevent oxidation, restore the function of denatured proteins, and thus prevent aggregation. This study aimed to explore the impact of indoor vs outdoor-reared meat protein composition on digestion and to associate protein markers to in vitro digestion parameters. Indoor-reared meat tended to show less oxidation and denaturation than outdoor-reared meat and was characterised by an overexpression of contractile and chaperone proteins. Outdoor-reared meat showed amplification of antioxidant and detoxification metabolism defending against oxidised compounds. Impacts on digestion remained minor. Several protein markers of in vitro digestion parameters were found for aged and cooked meat, linked to the detoxification process and to muscle contraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro chemopreventive properties of peptides released from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) protein under simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcacundo, Rubén; Miralles, Beatriz; Carrillo, Wilman; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca

    2018-03-01

    Because of the continuous and direct interaction between the digestive tract and foods, dietary compounds represent an interesting source of chemopreventive agents for gastrointestinal health. In this study, the influence of a standardized static in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model on the release of peptides with chemopreventive potential from quinoa protein was investigated. Gastroduodenal digests and fractions collected by ultrafiltration were evaluated for their in plate oxygen radical absorbance capacity and in vitro colon cancer cell viability inhibitory activity. Highest effects were observed in the digests obtained during the intestinal phase, with fraction containing peptides 5kDa showing the greatest anti-cancer effects. Seventeen potential bioactive peptides derived from quinoa proteins have been identified. These proteins might be utilized as new ingredients in the development of functional foods or nutraceuticals with the aim of reducing oxidative stress-associated diseases, including cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Instrumentation and Control in Anaerobic Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anaerobic digestion is a multistep process, and is most applied to solids destruction and wastewater treatment for energy production. Despite wide application, and long-term industrial proof of application, some industries are still reluctant to apply this technology. One of the classical reasons...... benchmark. There has therefore been, overall, a quantum advance in application and sophistication of instrumentation and control in anaerobic digestion, and it is an effective option for improved process loading rate and conversion efficiency....... are still a limitation, but this is being partly addressed by the increased complexity of digestion processes. Methods for control benchmarking have also been improved, as there is now an industry standard model (the IWA ADM1), and this is being applied in an improved whole wastewater treatment plant...

  7. Some effects of aeration on anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhywapathanapun, S

    1972-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of meat works waste water is made possible by separating the sludge solids, after which necessary amounts of the concentrated sludge are returned to the digester. Sludge recirculation prolongs solid retention time in the digester. However, sludge separation by gravitational sedimentation is almost impossible because the sludge tends to rise with the continuous gassing. Therefore treatment of the sludge suspension prior to sedimentation is necessary for effective solid separation. The present study examined aeration degasification as a method for sludge suspension pretreatment and found that the rates of aeration of 0.75 to 1.0 VVM (0.12 to 0.16 cubic foot of air per gallon of mixed liquor per minute) were optimal for aeration degasification. The toxic effects on the anaerobic bacteria were small, daily gas production being reduced by only 5%.

  8. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-05-02

    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian.

  9. Mathematical tool to size rural digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentino Helenice de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digesters have been highlighted due to the current energy crisis and its consequent search for alternative energy sources, allied to the intense process of livestock farming and agriculture modernization, which besides demanding a lot of energy, produces a great amount of crop and animal residues, most of the times generating sanitary problems. The aim of this work is to provide a mathematical tool to establish parameters for projects of construction of rural digesters, considering the response to energy demand, the suitability of the dimensions of the systems, yield factors and the guarantee of functionality. Non-linear optimization models, of easy resolution, for the three main types of rural digesters were formulated in this way. With the resolution of these models one can determine the height and the diameter that lead to a minimum volume for each type, so reducing the necessary amount of masonry and, consequently, diminishing the cost.

  10. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest, 1991 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.L.

    1991-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest provides a summary of information about the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRC's regulatory responsibilities, and the areas NRC licenses. This digest is a compilation of NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and the industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1990, with exceptions noted. For operating US commercial nuclear power reactors, information on generating capacity and average capacity factor is obtained from Monthly Operating Reports submitted to the NRC directly by the licensee. This information is reviewed for consistency only. No independent validation and/or verification is performed by the NRC. For detailed and complete information about tables and figures, refer to the source publications. This digest is published annually for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. 30 figs., 12 tabs

  11. The Problems of Digestive Diseases in Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out an analysis of the 46 theses defended in the subject 14.01.36 «gastroenterology». Of these, 40 % of doctorate theses deals with problems of bowel disease, 40 % — peptic ulcer disease, and 20 % — chronic pancreatitis. In the structure of the thesis for the degree of candidate of sciences 29.5 % defended on the subject of peptic ulcer disease, 22.7 % — intestinal diseases, 18.2 % — gastroesophageal reflux disease, 13.6 % — biliary pathology, 6.8 % — gastritis diseases, and 9.1 % — liver diseases. Most of the theses deals with questions of conservative management of patients with digestive pathology, their rehabilitation, achievement of compliance to therapy. Along with the theses highlighted the issues on pathophysiology of the digestive organs, and the impact of diseases of other organs on the digestive system.

  12. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 % and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipase-dependent pancreatic lipases and bile secretion. Gastric lipolysis leads to the hydrolysis of 10-30 % of ingested triglycerides, generating mainly diglycerides (DG and free fatty acids. This facilitates subsequent triglyceride hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase by allowing fat emulsification. Pancreatic lipase cleaves the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triglycerides and/or DG obtaining sn-2 monoglycerides. Different lipid metabolites are quickly absorbed along the epithelial cells of the small intestine, acting olive oil as a supplier of oleic-acid-rich hydrocarbon skeletons for cellular synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids. Absorption of mostly minor compounds of (extra virgin olive oil takes place in the small intestine, as native or derivatives. Compared to diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, olive oil suppresses gastric acid secretion and is a potent releasing factor of cholecystokinin peptide, which consistently indicate that the consumption of olive oil might be beneficial in digestive diseases.El aceite de oliva es una grasa monoinsaturada (rica en ácido oleico, compuesta por triglicéridos (>98% y componentes menores. En los procesos de digestión y absorción de los triglicéridos participan enzimas y se producen cambios fisicoquímicos. La lipasa gástrica es el componente mayoritario de la actividad lipolítica gástrica en humanos. La hidrólisis de los triglicéridos continúa en el duodeno, por la acción sinérgica de las lipasas g

  13. Food waste co-digestion with slaughterhouse waste and sewage sludge: Digestate conditioning and supernatant quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Sebastian; Boniecki, Paweł; Kubacki, Przemysław; Czyżowska, Agata

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the anaerobic mesophilic co-digestion of food waste (FW) with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and slaughterhouse waste (SHW) was undertaken in 3-dm 3 laboratory reactors as well as in 50-dm 3 reactors operated in semi-continuous conditions. The highest methane yield of around 0.63 m 3 CH 4 /kgVS fed was achieved for the mixture of FW and SHW treated in the laboratory digester operated at solids retention time (SRT) of 30 days, whereas the co-digestion of FW with MSS under similar operating conditions produced 0.46 m 3 of methane from 1 kgVS fed . No significant differences between methane yields from laboratory digesters and large-scale reactors were reported. The conditioning tests with the digestates from reactor experiments revealed the highest efficiency of inorganic coagulants among all investigated chemicals, which applied in a dose of 10 g/kg allowed to reduce capiliary suction time (CST) of the digestate below 20 s. The combined conditioning with coagulants and bentonite did not further reduce the CST value but improved the quality of the digestate supernatant. In particular, the concentrations of suspended solids, COD as well as metals in the supernatant were considerably lowered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Anaerobic digestion in mesophilic and room temperature conditions: Digestion performance and soil-borne pathogen survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Le; Jian, Shanshan; Bi, Jinhua; Li, Yunlong; Chang, Zhizhou; He, Jian; Ye, Xiaomei

    2016-05-01

    Tomato plant waste (TPW) was used as the feedstock of a batch anaerobic reactor to evaluate the effect of anaerobic digestion on Ralstonia solanacearum and Phytophthora capsici survival. Batch experiments were carried out for TS (total solid) concentrations of 2%, 4% and 6% respectively, at mesophilic (37±1°C) and room (20-25°C) temperatures. Results showed that higher digestion performance was achieved under mesophilic digestion temperature and lower TS concentration conditions. The biogas production ranged from 71 to 416L/kg VS (volatile solids). The inactivation of anaerobic digestion tended to increase as digestion performance improved. The maximum log copies reduction of R. solanacearum and P. capsici detected by quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) were 3.80 and 4.08 respectively in reactors with 4% TS concentration at mesophilic temperatures. However, both in mesophilic and room temperature conditions, the lowest reduction of R. solanacearum was found in the reactors with 6% TS concentration, which possessed the highest VFA (volatile fatty acid) concentration. These findings indicated that simple accumulation of VFAs failed to restrain R. solanacearum effectively, although the VFAs were considered poisonous. P. capsici was nearly completely dead under all conditions. Based on the digestion performance and the pathogen survival rate, a model was established to evaluate the digestate biosafety. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Optimization of solid state anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW by digestate recirculation: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michele, Pognani; Giuliana, D’Imporzano; Carlo, Minetti; Sergio, Scotti; Fabrizio, Adani

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD) of OFMSW can be optimized by irrigation with digestate. • Digestate spreading allows keeping optimal process parameters and high hydrolysis rate. • The 18.4% of CH 4 was produced in the reactor, leaving the 49.7% in the percolate. • Successive CSTR feed with percolate shows a biogas enriched in methane (more than 80%). • The proposed process allow producing the 68% of OFMSW potential CH 4 , getting high quality organic amendment. - Abstract: Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of OFMSW was optimized in order to produce biogas avoiding the use of solid inoculum. Doing so the dry AD was performed irrigating the solid waste with liquid digestate (flow rate of 1:1.18–1:0.9 w/w waste/digestate; 21 d of hydraulic retention time – HRT) in order to remove fermentation products inhibiting AD process. Results indicated that a high hydrolysis rate of organic matter (OM) and partial biogas production were obtained directly during the dry AD. Hydrolysate OM was removed from digester by the percolate flow and it was subsequently used to feed a liquid anaerobic digester. During dry AD a total loss of 36.9% of total solids was recorded. Methane balance indicated that 18.4% of potential methane can be produced during dry AD and 49.7% by the percolate. Nevertheless results obtained for liquid AD digestion indicated that only 20.4% and 25.7% of potential producible methane was generated by adopting 15 and 20 days of HRT, probably due to the AD inhibition due to high presence of toxic ammonia forms in the liquid medium

  16. Optimization of solid state anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW by digestate recirculation: A new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michele, Pognani, E-mail: michele.pognani@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Soil and Env. Lab, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Giuliana, D’Imporzano, E-mail: giuliana.dimporzano@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Soil and Env. Lab, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gruppo Ricicla - DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Biomass and Bioenergy Lab., Parco Tecnologico Padano, Via Einstein, Loc. C.na Codazza, 26900 Lodi (Italy); Carlo, Minetti, E-mail: carlo.minetti@a2a.eu [Ecodeco, a2a Group, Cascina Darsena 1, 27010 Giussago, Pavia (Italy); Sergio, Scotti, E-mail: sergio.scotti@a2a.eu [Ecodeco, a2a Group, Cascina Darsena 1, 27010 Giussago, Pavia (Italy); Fabrizio, Adani, E-mail: farbrizio.adani@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Soil and Env. Lab, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gruppo Ricicla - DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Biomass and Bioenergy Lab., Parco Tecnologico Padano, Via Einstein, Loc. C.na Codazza, 26900 Lodi (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD) of OFMSW can be optimized by irrigation with digestate. • Digestate spreading allows keeping optimal process parameters and high hydrolysis rate. • The 18.4% of CH{sub 4} was produced in the reactor, leaving the 49.7% in the percolate. • Successive CSTR feed with percolate shows a biogas enriched in methane (more than 80%). • The proposed process allow producing the 68% of OFMSW potential CH{sub 4}, getting high quality organic amendment. - Abstract: Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of OFMSW was optimized in order to produce biogas avoiding the use of solid inoculum. Doing so the dry AD was performed irrigating the solid waste with liquid digestate (flow rate of 1:1.18–1:0.9 w/w waste/digestate; 21 d of hydraulic retention time – HRT) in order to remove fermentation products inhibiting AD process. Results indicated that a high hydrolysis rate of organic matter (OM) and partial biogas production were obtained directly during the dry AD. Hydrolysate OM was removed from digester by the percolate flow and it was subsequently used to feed a liquid anaerobic digester. During dry AD a total loss of 36.9% of total solids was recorded. Methane balance indicated that 18.4% of potential methane can be produced during dry AD and 49.7% by the percolate. Nevertheless results obtained for liquid AD digestion indicated that only 20.4% and 25.7% of potential producible methane was generated by adopting 15 and 20 days of HRT, probably due to the AD inhibition due to high presence of toxic ammonia forms in the liquid medium.

  17. Bayer Digester Optimization Studies using Computer Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotte, Jan J.; Schleider, Victor H.

    Theoretically required heat transfer performance by the multistaged flash heat reclaim system of a high pressure Bayer digester unit is determined for various conditions of discharge temperature, excess flash vapor and indirect steam addition. Solution of simultaneous heat balances around the digester vessels and the heat reclaim system yields the magnitude of available heat for representation of each case on a temperature-enthalpy diagram, where graphical fit of the number of flash stages fixes the heater requirements. Both the heat balances and the trial-and-error graphical solution are adapted to solution by digital computer techniques.

  18. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  19. Adenylyl cyclases in the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia; Gorelick, Fred; Glaser, Shannon

    2014-06-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of widely distributed enzymes whose functions are very diverse. There are nine known transmembrane AC isoforms activated by Gαs. Each has its own pattern of expression in the digestive system and differential regulation of function by Ca(2+) and other intracellular signals. In addition to the transmembrane isoforms, one AC is soluble and exhibits distinct regulation. In this review, the basic structure, regulation and physiological roles of ACs in the digestive system are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acid digestion studies at AEE Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.; Nichols, A.L.; Snelling, K.W.; Stride, R.

    1983-02-01

    Acid digestion is a chemical combustion process which could be applied to the treatment of low- and medium-level radioactive waste. The present paper describes experiments on the topic carried out at AEE Winfrith in the period 1979-1982. This work has included laboratory-scale studies of the basic chemistry of the process, the design and operation of a 5:1 scale rig and investigations into methods of residue treatment and acid recovery. A review of acid digestion work carried out at other locations throughout the world and a summary of the results of a design study carried out by external consultants are also presented. (author)

  1. Renewable methane from anaerobic digestion of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Owens, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Production of methane via anaerobic digestion of energy crops and organic wastes would benefit society by providing a clean fuel from renewable feedstocks. This would replace fossil fuel-derived energy and reduce environmental impacts including global warming and acid rain. Although biomass energy is more costly than fossil fuel-derived energy, trends to limit carbon dioxide and other emissions through emission regulations, carbon taxes, and subsidies of biomass energy would make it cost competitive. Methane derived from anaerobic digestion is competitive in efficiencies and costs to other biomass energy forms including heat, synthesis gases, and ethanol. (author)

  2. Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge

  3. Low temperature vapor phase digestion of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Robert A.

    2017-04-18

    A method for digestion and gasification of graphite for removal from an underlying surface is described. The method can be utilized to remove graphite remnants of a formation process from the formed metal piece in a cleaning process. The method can be particularly beneficial in cleaning castings formed with graphite molding materials. The method can utilize vaporous nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) or vaporous HNO.sub.3 with air/oxygen to digest the graphite at conditions that can avoid damage to the underlying surface.

  4. Advanced Applications of Robotics in Digestive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriti, Alberto; Addeo, Pietro; Buchs, Nicolas; Casciola, Luciano; Morel, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopy is widely recognized as feasible and safe approach to many oncologic and benign digestive conditions and is associated with an improved early outcome. Robotic surgery promises to overcome intrinsic limitations of laparoscopic surgery by a three-dimensional view and wristed instruments widening indications for a minimally invasive approach. To date, the more interesting applications of robotic surgery are those operations restricted to one abdominal quadrant and requiring a fine dissection and digestive reconstruction. While robot-assisted rectal and gastric surgery are becoming well-accepted options among the surgical community, applications of robotics in hepato-biliary and pancreatic surgery are still debated. PMID:23905029

  5. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Li, Yu-You; Zhao, Youcai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DD SCOD ), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (k hyd ), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate

  6. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Follow Us National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases NIDDK conducts and supports research ... to improve health. Learn more Health Topics Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic ...

  7. Social position of adolescents with chronic digestive disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calsbeek, H.; Rijken, M.; Bekkers, M.J.T.M.; Kerssens, J.J.; Dekker, J.; Berge Henegouwen, G.P. van

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To investigate the consequences of having a chronic digestive disorder on the social position of adolescents. METHODS : Five diagnostic groups, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic liver diseases, congenital digestive disorders, coeliac disease and food allergy (total n =

  8. Social position of adolescents with chronic digestive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calsbeek, H; Rijken, M; Bekkers, MJTM; Kerssens, JJ; Dekker, J; Henegouwen, GPV

    Objective To investigate the consequences of having a chronic digestive disorder on the social position of adolescents. Methods Five diagnostic groups, including inflammatory bowel disease (I BID), chronic liver diseases, congenital digestive disorders, coeliac disease and food allergy (total n =

  9. Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics, chewing ... 75, and 100% DM of SSM partially or entirely replacing SBM and part of barley grain. ... Digestibility of DM and EE, passage rate, and total mean retention time ...

  10. [Distribution of acetylcholinesterase activity in the digestive system of the gastropod molluscs Littorina littorea and Achatina fulica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V

    2008-01-01

    With the use of the histochemical procedure for the demonstration of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, the distribution cholinergic regulatory elements was studied in the esophagus, the pharynx, the stomach, the liver (the digestive gland) and the intestine in sea and terrestrial gastropod molluscs that differed in their general organization level, lifestyle, habitat and feeding type. In both molluscs, all the parts of the digestive tract contained the significant amount of intraepithelial AchE-positive cells of the open type, single subepithelial neurons and the nervous fibers localized among the muscle cells of the wall of the organs. The basal processes of the AchE-positive intraepithelial cells were shown to form the intraepithelial nerve plexus and to pass under the epithelium. The peculiarities and common principles in the distribution of the nervous elements detected, their possible function and the regulatory role in the digestion in gastropod molluscs and other animals are discussed.

  11. The effects of gastric digestion on codfish allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Untersmayr, Eva; Poulsen, Lars K.; Platzer, Michael H

    2005-01-01

    In a recent murine study, we showed that impaired gastric digestion supports the induction of fish allergy by protecting the digestion-sensitive major allergen parvalbumin and thus enhancing its sensitizing properties.......In a recent murine study, we showed that impaired gastric digestion supports the induction of fish allergy by protecting the digestion-sensitive major allergen parvalbumin and thus enhancing its sensitizing properties....

  12. The Financial Feasibility of Anaerobic Digestion for Ontario's Livestock Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Weersink, Alfons; Mallon, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This report is an investigation of the financial feasibility of farm based anaerobic digestion investments under Ontario's Standard Offer Contract electricity prices. Using Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) Agricultural Anaerobic Digestion Calculation Spreadsheet (AADCS) anaerobic digestion inputs, outputs, cost and revenues were estimated and used to conduct a financial analysis on the feasibility of four sized farm base anaerobic digestion investments. The res...

  13. NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENT OF WHOLE YEAST, AUTOLYZED YEAST AND YEAST CELL WALL BY NILE TILAPIA COMPOSIÇÃO NUTRICIONAL E DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE DALEVEDURA ÍNTEGRA, DA LEVEDURA AUTOLISADA E DA PAREDE CELULAR PELA TILÁPIA-DO-NILO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional composition and apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, gross energy, essential amino acids and no essential amino acids of spray dried whole yeast, autolyzed yeast and yeast cell wall were evaluated to Nile tilapia. Eighty juveniles (83.0±8.5g were placed in eight 250L aquaria for feeding and four aquaria of the same volume for collecting faecal samples. Both sets were equipped with flow-trough recirculating system provided with mechanical and biological filter. The results were analyzed through comparative relative index and the 100% value corresponded to the whole yeast nutrients. It can be concluded that the whole yeast contains high protein level and good apparent digestibility to nutrients and amino acids; autolysis process improves the dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and the most of essential and no essential amino acids apparent digestibility. Moreover yeast cell wall must not be used as protein source but is suggested as functional foodstuff in Nile tilapia diets.KEY WORDS: Amino acids, Oreochromis niloticus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae A composição nutricional e os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente para matéria seca, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, energia bruta, aminoácidos essenciais e aminoácidos não essenciais da levedura de álcool íntegra, levedura autolisada e parede celular spray dried foram avaliados para tilápia-do-nilo. Utilizou-se um total de oitenta peixes (83,0±8,5g, alojados em oito aquários de 250 L para alimentação e quatro de mesmo volume para a coleta de fezes, todos eles dotados de sistema de recirculação contínua de água, com filtro físico-biológico e temperatura controlada. Procedeu-se à avaliação dos resultados por meio do índice relativo de compara

  14. Microbial production of raw starch digesting enzymes | Sun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw starch digesting enzymes refer to enzymes that can act directly on raw starch granules below the gelatinization temperature of starch. With the view of energy-saving, a worldwide interest has been focused on raw starch digesting enzymes in recent years, especially since the oil crisis of 1973. Raw starch digesting ...

  15. Inactivation of dairy manure-borne pathogens by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of animal manure has the potential to inactivate enteric pathogens, thereby reducing exposures to livestock and humans when the products of digestion are disposed by land-spreading or irrigation or returned to livestock uses such as bedding. Data on digester effectiv...

  16. The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstone, D.J.; Keller, J.; Angelidaki, I.; Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Pavalostathis, S.G.; Rozzi, A.; Sanders, W.T.M.; Siegrist, H.; Vavilin, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Modelling Task Group was established in 1997 at the 8th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (Sendai, Japan) with the goal of developing a generalised anaerobic digestion model. The structured model includes multiple steps describing biochemical as well as

  17. The IWA Anaerobic digestion model no 1. (ADM1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batstone, Damien J.; Keller, J.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Modelling Task Group was established in 1997 at the 8th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (Sendai, Japan) with the goal of developing a generalised anaerobic digestion model. The structured model includes multiple steps describing biochemical as well...

  18. Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    impaired digestibilities; these findings were partially verified in a repeated field trial, but were not confirmed in vivo. In vitro digestibilities of barleys grown in pots at various N-levels were positively correlated with protein or hordein content. In vitro digestibility was negatively correlated...

  19. EFFECT OF MALTING ON PROTEIN DIGESTIBILITY OF SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein digestibility of sorghum is generally low. Malting is one of the processing methods which can be applied to improve this digestibility. It is a method whose technology is well known by local communities in Kenya. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of malting on the digestibility of some varieties of ...

  20. Digestibility of organic processed feed ingredients in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    van Krimpen, M.M.; van Diepen, J.T.M; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; van Harn, J.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, digestibility and nutritive value for laying hens of organically-grown feed raw materials was assessed. Digestibility and metabolisable energy content of the products differed considerably compared to those listed in the CVB Feedstuff Table. Laying hens, organic feed raw materials, digestibility, nutritive value

  1. Archaea: Essential inhabitants of the human digestive microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Demonfort Nkamga

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prokaryotes forming the domain of Archaea, named after their first discovery in extreme environments, are acknowledged but still neglected members of the human digestive tract microbiota. In this microbiota, cultured archaea comprise anaerobic methanogens: Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Methanobrevibacter massiliense, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus, Methanobrevibacter millerae and Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis; along with the non-methanogen halophilic Archaea Halopherax massiliense. Metagenomic analyses detected DNA sequences indicative of the presence of additional methanogenic and non-methanogenic halophilic Archaea in the human intestinal tract and oral cavity. Methanogens specifically metabolize hydrogen produced by anaerobic fermentation of carbohydrates into methane; further transforming heavy metals and metalloids into methylated derivatives, such as trimethylbismuth which is toxic for both human and bacterial cells. However, the role of Archaea as pathogens remains to be established. Future researches will aim to increase the repertoire of the human digestive tract Archaea and to understand their possible association with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections and diseases including weight regulation abnormalities. Keywords: Human-associated Archaea, Methanogens, Halophiles, Oral cavity, Intestinal tract

  2. Fatty acid detection during food consumption and digestion: Associations with ingestive behavior and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jessica E; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Keast, Russell S J

    2011-07-01

    The inability of humans to adequately regulate fat consumption is a salient contributor to the development of obesity. The macronutrients, fat, protein and carbohydrate, within foods are detected at various stages of consumption, during which their digestive products, fatty acids, amino acids and sugars, interact with chemosensory cells within the oral epithelium (taste receptor cells) and gastrointestinal (GI) tract (enteroendocrine cells). This chemoreception initiates functional responses, including taste perception, peptide secretion and alterations in GI motility, that play an important role in liking of food, appetite regulation and satiety. This review will summarize the available evidence relating to the oral and GI regulation of fat intake and how chemoreception at both locations is associated with digestive behavior, satiety and weight regulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Digested disorder: Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (July-August-September, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna D; DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins grows fast. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a "Digested Disorder" project and represent a new issue of reader's digest of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the third quarter of 2013; i.e., during the period of June, July, and September of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings.

  4. Digested disorder: Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (January/February/March, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is blooming. A simple PubMed search for "intrinsically disordered protein OR natively unfolded protein" returns about 1,800 hits (as of June 17, 2013), with many papers published quite recently. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we are starting a "Digested Disorder" project, which will encompass a series of reader's digest type of publications aiming at the objective representation of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only two criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest covers papers published during the period of January, February and March of 2013. The papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings.

  5. Digested disorder: Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (April-May-June, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is overwhelming. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a "Digested Disorder" project and represent a series of reader's digest type articles objectively representing the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the period of April, May, and June of 2013. The papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings.

  6. Digested disorder, Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (October-November-December, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    This is the 4th issue of the Digested Disorder series that represents reader's digest of the scientific literature on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the fourth quarter of 2013; i.e. during the period of October, November, and December of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings.

  7. Biotechnology Education and the Internet. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas

    The world of modern biotechnology is based on recent developments in molecular biology, especially those in genetic engineering. Since this is a relatively new and rapidly advancing field of study, there are few traditional sources of information and activities. This digest highlights biotechnology resources including those that can be found on…

  8. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  9. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the conversion of

  10. Liderazgo etico (Ethical Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest in Spanish outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethical dilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite sense…

  11. Liderazgo visionario (Visionary Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    "Vision" is one of the most frequently used buzzwords in the education literature of the 1990s. This digest in Spanish presents an overview of visionary leadership, which many education experts consider to be a make-or-break task for the school leader. It discusses various definitions of vision, the significance of vision for…

  12. Fibre digestion in the hyra;r

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dried samples by calorimeter combustion. The fibre con- tent was determined by the method of Van Soest (1964) us- ing a Fibretec 1020 hot extraction apparatus. Two-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between the two most important fibre digesting gut regions, the sac- culation and caeca. Results.

  13. Issues in Media Ethics. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that over the past decade incidents have occurred and new technologies have appeared which together have raised questions about the ethical values of American journalists, this Digest seeks to identify some of those ethical issues and to point to the work of those who have studied these issues. It addresses issues of plagiarism and…

  14. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the

  15. Teaching about Presidential Elections. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontz, Thomas S.; Nixon, William A.

    Although elections are an annual theme in many social studies classrooms, presidential election years prompt increased interest among students in the electoral process and offer an opportunity to teach about a national election as it happens. This ERIC Digest describes the legal requirements and traditions of U.S. presidential elections, processes…

  16. Archaeal community of cattle digestive system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němcová, Anna; Elhottová, Dana; Gattinger, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2007), s. 233 ISSN 0009-0646. [Kongres Československé společnosti mikrobiologické /24./. 02.10.2007-05.10.2007, Liberec] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : archaeal community * cattle digestive system Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. Apparent nutrient digestibility and performance of Heterobranchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients is a useful tool for fish diet formulation, which gives the right estimation of growth, thereby reducing waste products. The ADCs of crude protein, energy and dry matter of processed earthworm, Libyodrilus violaceus meal by Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings ...

  18. Media Ethics: Some Specific Problems. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    This digest identifies some of the ethical issues which appeared in the mass media in the 1980s and discusses the implications which these issues have for the law and for those who already work in or study the mass media, as well as for those college students contemplating a career in journalism or broadcasting. (NKA)

  19. Digestate and Fugate - Fertilizers with Ecotoxicological Risks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jančula, Daniel; Zezulka, Štěpán; Došek, M.; Beklová, M.; Havelková, B.; Maršálek, Blahoslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 4 (2017), s. 1183-1188 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1320234 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : digestate * fugate * ecotoxicity Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  20. Helping the Underachiever in Reading. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatroche, Diana J.

    Noting that the development of effective intervention programs and instructional strategies for the struggling or underachieving reader continues to be a topic of concern, this Digest first reviews the current status of reading performance, based on the 1998 National Assessment of Educational Progress. It then reports on the importance of early…

  1. Anaerobic digestion of dairy farm slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, C

    1973-04-01

    Bell described the intermittent operation of a pilot-scale anaerobic digester receiving dilute dairy farm slurry. A 65 to 75 percent reduction of the ''permanganate (COD) value'' could be obtained at 35/sup 0/ and a 60 day detention time. Methane content of the gases ranged between 40 and 70 percent.

  2. Multivariate monitoring of anaerobic co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    Anaerobic digestion processes for production of renewable energy in the form of biogas, and in the future hydrogen, are becoming increasingly important worldwide. Sustainable solutions for renewable energy production systems are given high political priority, amongst other things due to global...

  3. Children's Nutrition and Learning. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This digest reviews research on the link between children's nutrition and their ability to learn from the prenatal through school years. It also discusses the importance of nutrition education for children. The need for adequate nutrition during pregnancy and the preschool years is highlighted by research that indicates that low birthweight…

  4. Teaching Multilevel Adult ESL Classes. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Cathy C.; Terrill, Lynda R.

    Teachers in multilevel adult English-as-a-Second-Language classes are challenged to use a variety of materials, activities, and techniques to engage the interest of the learners and assist them in their educational goals. This digest recommends ways to choose and organize content for multilevel classes, explains grouping strategies, discusses a…

  5. Outdoor Education and Environmental Responsibility. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Rita; Haras, Kathy

    Outdoor education programs provide opportunities for students to become environmentally conscious citizens. However, awareness of environmental issues is not enough to preserve our world of limited natural resources. Students must also recognize their environmental responsibilities and change their behaviors accordingly. This digest reviews the…

  6. Comparative effects of undigested and anaerobically digested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... The pot experiment consisted of sixty (60) nursery bags, set out in the greenhouse. ... (NPK 20:10:10) applied at the 120 kgN/ha; air-dried undigested and anaerobically digested ...

  7. Ruminal and Intestinal Digestibility of Leucaena Foliage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pramote

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... Keywords: Intestinal digestibility, protein fodder, mobile nylon bag, a three-step technique ... A potential strategy for increasing the quality and availability of feed for small ruminants in the dry ... to measure intestinal disappearance of DM and CP using the mobile bag method described by De Boer et al.

  8. Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Estes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available “Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome” is a hands-on activity designed to demonstrate the dynamics of microbiome ecology using dried pasta and beans to model disturbance events in the human digestive system microbiome. This exercise demonstrates how microbiome diversity is influenced by: 1 niche availability and habitat space and 2 a major disturbance event, such as antibiotic use. Students use a pictorial key to examine prepared models of digestive system microbiomes to determine what the person with the microbiome “ate.” Students then model the effect of taking antibiotics by removing certain “antibiotic sensitive” pasta. Finally, they add in “environmental microbes” or “native microbes” to recolonize the digestive system, determine how resilient their model microbome community is to disturbance, and discuss the implications. Throughout the exercise, students discuss differences in the habitat space available and microbiome community diversity. This exercise can be modified to discuss changes in the microbiome due to diet shifts and the emergence of antibiotic resistance in more depth.

  9. Applications of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    and resource/energy recovery have been developed. Treatment of biowastes by anaerobic digestion processes is in many cases the optimal way to convert organic waste into useful products such as energy (in the form of biogas) and a fertilizer product. Other waste management options, such as land filling...

  10. Bifidobacteria in the digestive tract of bumblebees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Kopečný, Jan; Mrázek, Jakub; Rada, V.; Dubá, S.; Marounek, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2010), s. 165-170 ISSN 1075-9964 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD525/08/H060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Bifidobacteria * Bumblebee * Digestive tract Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.448, year: 2010

  11. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  12. Political Communication via the Media. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…

  13. Microbial Distribution and Abundance in the Digestive System of Five Shipworm Species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betcher, Meghan A.; Fung, Jennifer M.; Han, Andrew W.; O’Connor, Roberta; Seronay, Romell; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Distel, Daniel L.; Haygood, Margo G.

    2012-01-01

    Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms) are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) of the gills (ctenidia). These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis). These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:23028923

  14. On the effect of aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment on batch and continuous anaerobic digestion of digested swine manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    , their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) has been successfully applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester......-pretreated digested manure fibers on the kinetics of anaerobic digestion process. It was found that AAS treatment had a profound effect mainly on the hydrolysis rate of particulate carbohydrates....

  15. Characterisation of protein families in spider digestive fluids and their role in extra-oral digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, André; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Scavenius, Carsten; Dyrlund, Thomas S; Sanggaard, Kristian W; Enghild, Jan J; Bilde, Trine

    2017-08-10

    Spiders are predaceous arthropods that are capable of subduing and consuming relatively large prey items compared to their own body size. For this purpose, spiders have evolved potent venoms to immobilise prey and digestive fluids that break down nutrients inside the prey's body by means of extra-oral digestion (EOD). Both secretions contain an array of active proteins, and an overlap of some components has been anecdotally reported, but not quantified. We systematically investigated the extent of such protein overlap. As venom injection and EOD succeed each other, we further infer functional explanations, and, by comparing two spider species belonging to different clades, assess its adaptive significance for spider EOD in general. We describe the protein composition of the digestive fluids of the mygalomorph Acanthoscurria geniculata and the araneomorph Stegodyphus mimosarum, in comparison with previously published data on a third spider species. We found a number of similar hydrolases being highly abundant in all three species. Among them, members of the family of astacin-like metalloproteases were particularly abundant. While the importance of these proteases in spider venom and digestive fluid was previously noted, we now highlight their widespread use across different spider taxa. Finally, we found species specific differences in the protein overlap between venom and digestive fluid, with the difference being significantly greater in S. mimosarum compared to A. geniculata. The injection of venom precedes the injection with digestive fluid, and the overlap of proteins between venom and digestive fluid suggests an early involvement in EOD. Species specific differences in the overlap may reflect differences in ecology between our two study species. The protein composition of the digestive fluid of all the three species we compared is highly similar, suggesting that the cocktail of enzymes is highly conserved and adapted to spider EOD.

  16. Ineffective Degradation of Immunogenic Gluten Epitopes by Currently Available Digestive Enzyme Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, George; Christis, Chantal; Kooy-Winkelaar, Yvonne; Edens, Luppo; Smith, Drew

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the high proline content of gluten molecules, gastrointestinal proteases are unable to fully degrade them leaving large proline-rich gluten fragments intact, including an immunogenic 33-mer from α-gliadin and a 26-mer from γ-gliadin. These latter peptides can trigger pro-inflammatory T cell responses resulting in tissue remodeling, malnutrition and a variety of other complications. A strict lifelong gluten-free diet is currently the only available treatment to cope with gluten intolerance. Post-proline cutting enzymes have been shown to effectively degrade the immunogenic gluten peptides and have been proposed as oral supplements. Several existing digestive enzyme supplements also claim to aid in gluten degradation. Here we investigate the effectiveness of such existing enzyme supplements in comparison with a well characterized post-proline cutting enzyme, Prolyl EndoPeptidase from Aspergillus niger (AN-PEP). Methods Five commercially available digestive enzyme supplements along with purified digestive enzymes were subjected to 1) enzyme assays and 2) mass spectrometric identification. Gluten epitope degradation was monitored by 1) R5 ELISA, 2) mass spectrometric analysis of the degradation products and 3) T cell proliferation assays. Findings The digestive enzyme supplements showed comparable proteolytic activities with near neutral pH optima and modest gluten detoxification properties as determined by ELISA. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of many different enzymes including amylases and a variety of different proteases with aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase activity. The enzyme supplements leave the nine immunogenic epitopes of the 26-mer and 33-mer gliadin fragments largely intact. In contrast, the pure enzyme AN-PEP effectively degraded all nine epitopes in the pH range of the stomach at much lower dose. T cell proliferation assays confirmed the mass spectrometric data. Conclusion Currently available digestive enzyme

  17. Ineffective degradation of immunogenic gluten epitopes by currently available digestive enzyme supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Janssen

    Full Text Available Due to the high proline content of gluten molecules, gastrointestinal proteases are unable to fully degrade them leaving large proline-rich gluten fragments intact, including an immunogenic 33-mer from α-gliadin and a 26-mer from γ-gliadin. These latter peptides can trigger pro-inflammatory T cell responses resulting in tissue remodeling, malnutrition and a variety of other complications. A strict lifelong gluten-free diet is currently the only available treatment to cope with gluten intolerance. Post-proline cutting enzymes have been shown to effectively degrade the immunogenic gluten peptides and have been proposed as oral supplements. Several existing digestive enzyme supplements also claim to aid in gluten degradation. Here we investigate the effectiveness of such existing enzyme supplements in comparison with a well characterized post-proline cutting enzyme, Prolyl EndoPeptidase from Aspergillus niger (AN-PEP.Five commercially available digestive enzyme supplements along with purified digestive enzymes were subjected to 1 enzyme assays and 2 mass spectrometric identification. Gluten epitope degradation was monitored by 1 R5 ELISA, 2 mass spectrometric analysis of the degradation products and 3 T cell proliferation assays.The digestive enzyme supplements showed comparable proteolytic activities with near neutral pH optima and modest gluten detoxification properties as determined by ELISA. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of many different enzymes including amylases and a variety of different proteases with aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase activity. The enzyme supplements leave the nine immunogenic epitopes of the 26-mer and 33-mer gliadin fragments largely intact. In contrast, the pure enzyme AN-PEP effectively degraded all nine epitopes in the pH range of the stomach at much lower dose. T cell proliferation assays confirmed the mass spectrometric data.Currently available digestive enzyme supplements are ineffective in

  18. Effect of in vitro digested cod liver oil of different quality on oxidative, proteomic and inflammatory responses in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Karin; Istenič, Katja; Wulff, Tune

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upon oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil, either before ingestion or, as recently shown, during the gastro-intestinal passage, a cascade of potentially cytotoxic peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, can form. In this study, we di...... in yeast and immunomodulation of dendritic cells....

  19. Acid digestion of geological and environmental samples using open-vessel focused microwave digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vivien F; Toms, Andrew; Longerich, Henry P

    2002-01-01

    The application of open vessel focused microwave acid digestion is described for the preparation of geological and environmental samples for analysis using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method is compared to conventional closed-vessel high pressure methods which are limited in the use of HF to break down silicates. Open-vessel acid digestion more conveniently enables the use of HF to remove Si from geological and plant samples as volatile SiF4, as well as evaporation-to-dryness and sequential acid addition during the procedure. Rock reference materials (G-2 granite, MRG-1 gabbros, SY-2 syenite, JA-1 andesite, and JB-2 and SRM-688 basalts) and plant reference materials (BCR and IAEA lichens, peach leaves, apple leaves, Durham wheat flour, and pine needles) were digested with results comparable to conventional hotplate digestion. The microwave digestion method gave poor results for granitic samples containing refractory minerals, however fusion was the preferred method of preparation for these samples. Sample preparation time was reduced from several days, using conventional hotplate digestion method, to one hour per sample using our microwave method.

  20. Co-digestion to support low temperature anaerobic pretreatment of municipal sewage in a UASB–digester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei Zhang,; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Kampman, C.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate that co-digestion improves soluble sewage COD removal efficiency in treatment of low temperature municipal sewage by a UASB–digester system. A pilot scale UASB–digester system was applied to treat real municipal sewage, and glucose was chosen as a model

  1. High pressure processing of meat: effects on ultrastructure and protein digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Astruc, Thierry; Vénien, Annie; Loison, Olivier; Cui, Jian; Irastorza, Marion; Boland, Mike

    2016-05-18

    The effects of high pressure processing (HPP, at 175 and 600 MPa) on the ultrastructure and in vitro protein digestion of bovine longissimus dorsi muscle meat were studied. HPP caused a significant change in the visual appearance and texture of the meat subjected to HPP at 600 MPa so that it appeared similar to cooked meat, unlike the meat subjected to HPP at 175 MPa that showed no significant visible change in the colour and texture compared to the raw meat. The muscles were subjected to digestion under simulated gastric conditions for 1 h and then under simulated small-intestinal conditions for a further 2 h. The digests were analysed using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and ninhydrin assay for amino N. The effect of the acid conditions of the stomach alone was also investigated. Reduced SDS-PAGE results showed that pepsin-digested (60 min) HPP meats showed fewer proteins or peptides of high molecular weight than the pepsin-digested untreated meat, suggesting more breakdown of the parent proteins in HPP-treated meats. This effect was more pronounced in the muscles treated at 600 MPa. These results are in accordance with microscopy results, which showed greater changes in the myofibrillar structure after simulated gastric digestion of the sample processed at 600 MPa than at 175 MPa. Transmission electron microscopy also showed the presence of protein aggregates in the former sample, resulting probably from protein denaturation of sarcoplasmic proteins, in the subcellular space and between myofibrils; along with cell contraction (similar to that caused by heating) in the former.

  2. An enzymatic approach to cell wall structure | Hungate | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruminococcus albus was incubated with isolated alfalfa cell wall material for 72 h in batch culture. Cellulose in the cell walls was digested to a somewhat greater extent (88%) than were the fermentable sugars of the hemicellulose fraction (62- 76%). The digestibility of the total insoluble alfalfa cell wall, including lignin but ...

  3. of gastro-intestinal discomfort (ID 2946, 2951, 2974), decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 2946, 2951, 2974), improved lactose digestion (ID 2946, 2951, 2974), and reduction in numbers of circulating CD34+ cells (ID 2947, 2952, 2975) (further assessment) pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of Lactobacillus acidophilus BCCM/LMG P-18806, Lactobacillus delbrueckii BCCM/LMG P-18805 and Streptococcus thermophilus BCCM/LMG P-18807 and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion, and reduction in numbers......, might be a beneficial physiological effect for the general population. The claimed effect, improved lactose digestion, is a beneficial physiological effect for individuals with lactose maldigestion. No human intervention studies were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific...... and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, and improved lactose digestion....

  4. Effects of yeast culture supplement on digestion of nutrients and rumen fermentation in cattle fed on grass silage barley diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Huhtanen

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of including yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae plus growth medium; 5 x 106 organisms/g on the digestion of dietary constituents in the rumen and total digestive tract were studied in a pair of monozygote twin bulls. The animals were fitted with cannulae in the rumen and in the proximal duodenum. A diet of grass silage, barley and rapeseed meal (445, 445 and 90 g/kg total dry matter (DM was fed, with and without addition of 10 g per day of yeast culture (YC, in two treatment sequences. The addition of YC had no effect on the mean values of rumen pH, ammonia N concentration or molar proportions of volatile fatty acids. Also, the postprandial changes in rumen fermentation pattern were similar when the diet did and did not contain the YC supplement. The peak concentration of lactic acid 1 h after feeding tended to be higher in cattle receiving the YC diet (13.9 v 6.0 mmol/l. Apparent digestibility of organic matter (OM (mean 0.780 and the proportion of OM digestion occurring in the rumen (mean 0.603 were not affected by YC. Likewise, there was no effect on rumen or total digestion of cell wall carbohydrates, and the results for the degradation of hay DM in the rumen and for particle-associated carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activities indicated that YC had no effect on the rumen environment that could affect fibre digestion. Supplemental yeast did not affect the rate of microbial N synthesis (28.0 and 28.6 g/kg OM apparently digested in the rumen. The results indicate that the addition of YC to the diet is not likely to improve the efficiency of digestion and fermentation in the rumen of cattle given a diet based on grass silage and barley.

  5. Fatores preditivos da transfusão de concentrado de hemácias em pacientes submetidos a cirurgias eletivas do aparelho digestivo: uma análise interinstitucional Predictive factors associated with packed red cell transfusions in patients submitted to elective surgery of the digestive tract: an inter-institutional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sergio Barcala Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi compreender os fatores determinantes da prática transfusional de concentrado de hemácias em cirurgias eletivas do aparelho digestivo em quatro unidades hospitalares em Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, analítico e retrospectivo através do levantamento de dados em prontuários clínicos de quatro unidades hospitalares de onde foram catalogados os dados de pacientes a partir de junho de 2007 a dezembro de 2008, referentes às cirurgias citadas. Os resultados evidenciaram 81 casos, sendo 42% do gênero feminino e 58% do masculino. A idade média foi de 55,5 anos (±19,11 anos. As enfermidades de base reportadas mais comuns foram os processos neoplásicos (42%. Desses 81 pacientes, 38 (47% foram hemotransfundidos no pré-operatório imediato, 28 (18% foram transfundidos no transcirúrgico e 37 (45,7% no pós-operatório imediato. Na análise univariada houve diferenças entre a prática transfusional pré-cirúrgica interinstitucional. Na fase cirúrgica houve relação entre a prática transfusional com a citação de motivos, fator RH (Rhesus, prática institucional e doença de base. Na fase pós-cirúrgica não foram demonstradas relações. Em todas as fases, não houve associação da prática transfusional com os tipos de procedimentos cirúrgicos, com o índice ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology e valores de hemoglobina e hematócrito. Concluindo, esse estudo revelou que a prática transfusional foi heterogênea entre instituições hospitalares, careceu de valores laboratoriais específicos, relacionou-se com a patologia de base mas não com o tipo de procedimento cirúrgico e foi norteada pelo critério de escolha do profissional.The objective of this study was to understand the determinative factors for packed red cell transfusions in elective digestive tract surgeries in four hospital units in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Retrospective analyses were

  6. Effect of volatile and acid accumulation in dung digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, G; Pathak, B N

    1966-01-01

    In continuation of laboratory experiments on the anaerobic digestion of cow dung experiments were carried out to determine the limiting concentrations of volatile acids and to investigate methods of regenerating digestion after failure. Volatile acids were increased by adding acetic acid to digesting dung slurry; digestion failed completely when volatile-acid concentration was 6194 mg per litre, at pH 4.4. Attempts were made to regenerate digestion by adding lime, after dilution with water, but although over a period the volatile-acid content was reduced from 5650 to 3730 mg per litre, and the pH value rose on average from 4.5 to 6.3, gas production remained at a low value until additional digested slurry was introduced, leading to resumption of normal digestion.

  7. Solid anaerobic digestion batch with liquid digestate recirculation and wet anaerobic digestion of organic waste: Comparison of system performances and identification of microbial guilds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Barratta, Martino; Bianconi, Francesco; Placidi, Pisana; Passeri, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Solid anaerobic digestion batch (SADB) with liquid digestate recirculation and wet anaerobic digestion of organic waste were experimentally investigated. SADB was operated at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.55kgVS/m 3 day, generating about 252NL CH 4 /kgVS, whereas the wet digester was operated at an OLR of 0.9kgVS/m 3 day, generating about 320NL CH 4 /kgVS. The initial total volatile fatty acids concentrations for SADB and wet digestion were about 12,500mg/L and 4500mg/L, respectively. There were higher concentrations of ammonium and COD for the SADB compared to the wet one. The genomic analysis performed by high throughput sequencing returned a number of sequences for each sample ranging from 110,619 to 373,307. More than 93% were assigned to the Bacteria domain. Seven and nine major phyla were sequenced for the SADB and wet digestion, respectively, with Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria being the dominant phyla in both digesters. Taxonomic profiles suggested a methanogenic pathway characterized by a relevant syntrophic acetate-oxidizing metabolism mainly in the liquid digestate of the SADB. This result also confirms the benefits of liquid digestate recirculation for improving the efficiency of AD performed with high solids (>30%w/w) content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Histological development of the digestive system of the Amazonian pimelodid catfish Pseudoplatystoma punctifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, E; Moreira, C; Castro-Ruiz, D; Oztürk, S; Fernández, C; Gilles, S; Nuñez, J; Duponchelle, F; Tello, S; Renno, J F; García-Dávila, C; Darias, M J

    2014-11-01

    The organogenesis of the digestive system was described in the Amazonian pimelodid catfish species Pseudoplatystoma punctifer from hatching (3.5 mm total length, TL) to 41 days post-fertilization (dpf) (58.1 mm TL) reared at 28°C. Newly hatched larvae showed a simple digestive tract, which appeared as a straight undifferentiated and unfolded tube lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells (future enterocytes). During the endogenous feeding period, comprised between 20 and 96 h post-fertilization (3.5 to 6.1 mm TL), the larval digestive system experienced a fast transformation with the almost complete development and differentiation of most of digestive organs (buccopahrynx, oesophagus, intestine, liver and exocrine pancreas). Yolk reserves were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (4 dpf, 6.1 mm TL), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 6 to 7 dpf (6.8 to 7.3 mm TL) when yolk was definitively exhausted. The stomach was the organ that latest achieved its complete differentiation, characterized by the development of abundant gastric glands in the fundic stomach between 10 and 15 dpf (10.9 to 15.8 mm TL) and the formation of the pyloric sphincter at the junction of the pyloric stomach and the anterior intestine at 15 dpf (15.8 mm TL). The above-mentioned morphological and histological features observed suggested the achievement of a digestive system characteristic of P. punctifer juveniles and adults. The ontogeny of the digestive system in P. punctifer followed the same general pattern as in most Siluriform species so far, although some species-specific differences in the timing of differentiation of several digestive structures were noted, which might be related to different reproductive guilds, egg and larval size or even different larval rearing practices. According to present findings on the histological development of the digestive system in P. punctifer, some recommendations regarding the rearing practices of this

  9. Anaerobic digestion coupled with digestate injection reduced odour emissions from soil during manure distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzi, V; Riva, C; Scaglia, B; D'Imporzano, G; Tambone, F; Adani, F

    2018-04-15

    This work aimed to measure the odour impact of untreated cow and pig slurries and treated (digestate and liquid fraction of digestate) manures when they were used on soil at a field scale, while also testing different spreading methods, i.e. surface vs. injection. Five experiments were performed in 2012-2016 on different farms. Odours were quantitatively (specific odour emission rate - SOER) (OU E m -2 h -1 ) measured by using dynamic olfactometry and qualitatively, i.e. to obtain an "odour fingerprint", by using an electronic nose (EN). Anaerobic digestion was effective in allowing the reduction of potential odour emission from digestates, so that when they were dosed on soil, odours emitted were much lower than those from soils on which untreated slurries were used. Slurries/digestate injection reduced much more odour emitted by soils so that SOER tended to become more similar to that of the control (untreated soil) although the odours were slightly greater. Odour fingerprint data indicated that there was a direct correlation between SOER and odour fingerprints. This was due to the ability of EN to detect ammonia, S-compounds and methane that were (the first two mainly), also, responsible for odours. Very good regression was found for Log SOER and EN by using a Partial Least Square (PLS) approach (R 2 =0.73; R 2 cv =0.66; Pfingerprints for control (Blank) and injected organic matrices were virtually identical, due to the creation of cavities in the soil during the injection that decreased the treated surface. Anaerobic digestion and subsequent digestate injection allowed us to reduce odour impact, avoiding annoyance to local inhabitants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Breakdown of mucin as barrier to digestive enzymes in the ischemic rat small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Chang

    Full Text Available Loss of integrity of the epithelial/mucosal barrier in the small intestine has been associated with different pathologies that originate and/or develop in the gastrointestinal tract. We showed recently that mucin, the main protein in the mucus layer, is disrupted during early periods of intestinal ischemia. This event is accompanied by entry of pancreatic digestive enzymes into the intestinal wall. We hypothesize that the mucin-containing mucus layer is the main barrier preventing digestive enzymes from contacting the epithelium. Mucin breakdown may render the epithelium accessible to pancreatic enzymes, causing its disruption and increased permeability. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of mucin as a protection for epithelial integrity and function. A rat model of 30 min splanchnic arterial occlusion (SAO was used to study the degradation of two mucin isoforms (mucin 2 and 13 and two epithelial membrane proteins (E-cadherin and toll-like receptor 4, TLR4. In addition, the role of digestive enzymes in mucin breakdown was assessed in this model by luminal inhibition with acarbose, tranexamic acid, or nafamostat mesilate. Furthermore, the protective effect of the mucin layer against trypsin-mediated disruption of the intestinal epithelium was studied in vitro. Rats after SAO showed degradation of mucin 2 and fragmentation of mucin 13, which was not prevented by protease inhibition. Mucin breakdown was accompanied by increased intestinal permeability to FITC-dextran as well as degradation of E-cadherin and TLR4. Addition of mucin to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro protected against trypsin-mediated degradation of E-cadherin and TLR4 and reduced permeability of FITC-dextran across the monolayer. These results indicate that mucin plays an important role in the preservation of the mucosal barrier and that ischemia but not digestive enzymes disturbs mucin integrity, while digestive enzymes actively mediate epithelial cell

  11. Stability of Anthocyanins from Commercial Black Currant Juice under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alija Uzunović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are effective antioxidants but they have also been proposed to have other biological activities independent of their antioxidant capacities that produce health benefits. Examples range from inhibition of cancer cell growth in vitro, induction of insulin production in isolated pancreatic cells, reduction of starch digestion through inhibition of a-glucosidase activity, suppression of inflammatory responses as well as protection against age-related declines in cognitive behavior and neuronal dysfunction in the central nervous system. However, to achieve any biological effect in a specific tissue or organ, anthocyanins must be bioavailable; i.e. effectively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT into the circulation and delivered to the appropriate location within the body. In this study, we assess the stability of anthocyanins from commercial Black currant (Ribes nigrum L. juice using an in vitro digestion procedure that mimics the physiochemical and biochemical conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. The main objective of this work was the evaluation of stability of anthocyanins during in vitro digestion in gastric and intestinal fluid regarding whether appropriate enzyme (pepsin or pancreatin was added or not. Anthocyanins present in commercial black currant juice remain stable during in vitro digestion in gastric fluid regardless whether pepsin was added into the medium or not. Also, they remain stable during in vitro digestion in simulated intestinal fluid without pancreatin. The stability studies of anthocyanins in the intestinal fluid containing pancreatin indicated reduced stability, which also mainly contribute to slight reduction of total anthocyanins content (1,83%- in commercial black currant juice.

  12. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus...... in methane yield as the highest concentrations tested; it is anticipated that this will result to an even lower cost for recovery and recycling of ammonia in full-scale. Moreover, the effect of 1, 3, and 5 days AAS treatment on methane production from digested fibers was investigated with 5 and 25% w....../w reagent concentrations in ammonia. It was shown that the optimal duration among the ones tested was the three days for both reagent concentrations....

  13. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest 1992 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.

    1992-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest provides a summary of information about the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRC's regulatory responsibilities, the activities NRC licenses, and general information on domestic and worldwide nuclear energy. This digest is a compilation of nuclear- and NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1991, with exceptions noted. Information on generating capacity and average capacity factor for operating US commercial nuclear power reactors is obtained from monthly operating reports that are submitted directly to the NRC by the licensee. This information is reviewed by the NRC for consistency only and no independent validation and/or verification is performed

  14. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This is the twenty-ninth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It is a double issue covering two issues of the Soviet Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine Journal. Issue 29 contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A review of a book on environmental hygiene and a list of papers presented at a Soviet conference on space biology and medicine are also included. The materials in this issue were identified as relevant to 28 areas of space biology and medicine. The areas are: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, digestive system, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, space biology and medicine, and the economics of space flight.

  15. Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves attentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action. PMID:19009639

  16. Curcumin Encapsulated in Milk Exosomes Resists Human Digestion and Possesses Enhanced Intestinal Permeability in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisht, Monika; Rani, Payal; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2017-11-01

    Exosomes, the extracellular secretary nano-vesicles, act as carriers of biomolecules to the target cells. They exhibit several attributes of an efficient drug delivery system. Curcumin, despite having numerous bioactive and therapeutic properties, has limited pharmaceutical use due to its poor water solubility, stability, and low systemic bioavailability. Hence, this study aims to enhance the therapeutic potential of curcumin, a model hydrophobic drug, by its encapsulation into milk exosomes. In the present study, we investigated the stability of free curcumin and exosomal curcumin in PBS and in vitro digestive processes. Additionally, their uptake and trans-epithelial transport were studied on Caco-2 cells. Curcumin in milk exosomes had higher stability in PBS, sustained harsh digestive processes, and crossed the intestinal barrier than free curcumin. In conclusion, the encapsulation of curcumin into the exosomes enhances its stability, solubility, and bioavailability. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that milk exosomes act as stable oral drug delivery vehicles.

  17. Lycopene bioaccessibility and starch digestibility for extruded snacks enriched with tomato derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Shoar, Zeinab; Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Hardacre, Allan K; Reynolds, Gordon W; Brennan, Charles S

    2011-11-23

    To improve the nutritional value of energy-dense extruded snacks, corn grits were replaced with tomato paste and/or tomato skin powder at ratios of 5, 10, and 20% and extruded to make expanded snack foodlike products. Using a model digestion system, lycopene bioaccessibility and uptake from the snacks into Caco-2 cells were determined. The digestibility of the starch, the main nutrient component of the snacks, was also investigated. While extrusion cooking reduced the lycopene content of the snacks, the proportion of bioaccessible lycopene increased. Lycopene uptake by the Caco-2 cells from the extruded snacks exceeded that of the control in which the lycopene was not extruded, by 5% (p snacks varied depending on the type of tomato derivative and its concentration. Optimization of the extrusion cooking process and the ingredients can yield functional extruded snack products that contain bioavailable lycopene.

  18. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayr, S.; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m 3 d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH 3 inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m 3 d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 -N and/or free NH 3 ) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m 3 d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm 3 /kg VS fed . On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm 3 /kg VS fed ). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials

  19. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayr, S., E-mail: suvi.bayr@jyu.fi; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  20. Anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, L.

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica Anaerobic digestion is an already established process but the increasing need of bio‐waste recovery has determined the emergence of new substrates, revamping the research in this field. Contrary to some other European countries, in Portugal this technology is still scarcely in use. Nonetheless, the current legislation endorses this application as a waste management and as an energy recovery process. The rapid growth of the ...

  1. Video Games and Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This digest examines data on video game use by children, explains ratings of video game violence, and reviews research on the effects of video games on children and adolescents. A recent study of seventh and eighth graders found that 65% of males and 57% of females played 1 to 6 hours of video games at home per week, and 38% of males and 16% of…

  2. American Laundry Digest Buyer's Guide. Manufacturers directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-15

    The following is the annual American Laundry Digest Buyer's Guide which is being circulated to all segments of the laundry industry. The Guide contains a list of manufacturers who responded to our questionnaire. This is followed by a list of product categories and the various manufacturers who make these products. You may contact these companies directly or by using the reader service card in this issue.

  3. Digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Abro, Rani

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates in Arctic charr, Eurasian perch and tilapia. Two sources of carbohydrates, native starch (wheat) and chitin (zygomycete biomass), were evaluated. Gut tissue of Arctic charr displayed significant chitinase activity, of both endo- and exo-chitinase forms. Moreover, the distribution pattern along the gastrointestinal tract of Arctic charr differed between endo-chitinase and exo-chitinase. The endo-chitinase activity in sto...

  4. Immunohistochemical observations of methionine-enkephalin and delta opioid receptor in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Ailong; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan

    2013-02-01

    The study was designed to determine whether methionine-enkephalin (met-Enk) or delta opioid receptor was present in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus. The results showed that they were both in the bulbus oris, esophagus, crop, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, posterior salivary glands of O. ocellatus, one of them, met-Enk in the rectum, anterior salivary glands, digestive gland. And the distributions were extensive in the digestive system. Strong or general met-Enk immunoreactivity was observed in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, anterior salivary glands and the adventitia of the intestine and rectum, and so was the delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, and crop, however, they were weak in other parts. Combining with delta opioid receptor, met-Enk may be involved in the regulations of food intake, absorption, movement of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and secretion of digestive gland. The different densities of met-Enk and delta opioid receptor may be related to the different functions in the digestive system of O. ocellatus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of the Digestive System-Experimental Challenges and Approaches of Infant Lipid Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Evan; Minekus, Mans; van Aken, George A; van de Heijning, Bert; Knol, Jan; Bartke, Nana; Oozeer, Raish; van der Beek, Eline M; Ludwig, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    At least during the first 6 months after birth, the nutrition of infants should ideally consist of human milk which provides 40-60 % of energy from lipids. Beyond energy, human milk also delivers lipids with a specific functionality, such as essential fatty acids (FA), phospholipids, and cholesterol. Healthy development, especially of the nervous and digestive systems, depends fundamentally on these. Epidemiological data suggest that human milk provides unique health benefits during early infancy that extend to long-lasting benefits. Preclinical findings show that qualitative changes in dietary lipids, i.e., lipid structure and FA composition, during early life may contribute to the reported long-term effects. Little is known in this respect about the development of digestive function and the digestion and absorption of lipids by the newborn. This review gives a detailed overview of the distinct functionalities that dietary lipids from human milk and infant formula provide and the profound differences in the physiology and biochemistry of lipid digestion between infants and adults. Fundamental mechanisms of infant lipid digestion can, however, almost exclusively be elucidated in vitro. Experimental approaches and their challenges are reviewed in depth.

  6. Efficient Anaerobic Digestion of Microalgae Biomass: Proteins as a Key Macromolecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena, Jose Antonio; Ballesteros, Mercedes; González-Fernandez, Cristina

    2018-05-06

    Biogas generation is the least complex technology to transform microalgae biomass into bioenergy. Since hydrolysis has been pointed out as the rate limiting stage of anaerobic digestion, the main challenge for an efficient biogas production is the optimization of cell wall disruption/hydrolysis. Among all tested pretreatments, enzymatic treatments were demonstrated not only very effective in disruption/hydrolysis but they also revealed the impact of microalgae macromolecular composition in the anaerobic process. Although carbohydrates have been traditionally recognized as the polymers responsible for the low microalgae digestibility, protease addition resulted in the highest organic matter solubilization and the highest methane production. However, protein solubilization during the pretreatment can result in anaerobic digestion inhibition due to the release of large amounts of ammonium nitrogen. The possible solutions to overcome these negative effects include the reduction of protein biomass levels by culturing the microalgae in low nitrogen media and the use of ammonia tolerant anaerobic inocula. Overall, this review is intended to evidence the relevance of microalgae proteins in different stages of anaerobic digestion, namely hydrolysis and methanogenesis.

  7. Effects of mercury on lysosomal protein digestion in the kidney proximal tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, K.M.; Christensen, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of mercury on renal lysosomal protein digestion was studied after administration of mercury in vitro and in vivo. Mercuric chloride or methylmercury chloride was added in vitro to lysosomal enzymes isolated from normal rats, and subsequently, digestion experiments were carried out using 125 I-labeled lysozyme or cytochrome c as substrate proteins. Both mercury compounds produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the degradation of the proteins, mercuric chloride being the strongest inhibitor. Mercuric chloride was also administered to rats in vivo for 5 to 8 months. Renal lysosomal enzymes from these animals also had a decreased ability to digest the two substrate proteins. Furthermore, the digestion of lysozyme intravenously injected into mercury-intoxicated rats was decreased in renal cortical slices incubated in vitro. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that intravenously injected labeled lysozyme was located primarily over lysosomes in proximal tubule cells 1 hour after injection in both control animals and mercury-intoxicated rats. These results suggest a decreased catabolism of low molecular weight proteins in the kidney during chronic mercury intoxication

  8. Lysosomal responses in the digestive gland of the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, experimentally exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giamberini, Laure; Cajaraville, Miren P.

    2005-01-01

    In order to examine the possible use of lysosomal response as a biomarker of freshwater quality, structural changes of lysosomes were measured by image analysis in the digestive gland of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, exposed in laboratory conditions to cadmium. Mussels were exposed to the metal (10 and 200 μg/L) for 3 weeks and randomly collected after 7 and 21 days. At each treatment day, digestive tissues were excised and β-glucuronidase activity was revealed in cryotome sections. Four stereological parameters were calculated: lysosomal volume density, lysosomal surface density, lysosomal surface to volume ratio, and lysosomal numerical density. The changes observed in this study reflected a general activation of the lysosomal system, including an increase in both the number and the size of lysosomes in the digestive gland cells of mussels exposed to cadmium. The digestive lysosomal response in zebra mussels was related to exposure time and to metal concentration, demonstrating the potential of this biomarker in freshwater biomonitoring

  9. Disintegration impact on sludge digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauknys, Regimantas; Rimeika, Mindaugas; Jankeliūnaitė, Eglė; Mažeikienė, Aušra

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic sludge digestion is a widely used method for sludge stabilization in wastewater treatment plant. This process can be improved by applying the sludge disintegration methods. As the sludge disintegration is not investigated enough, an analysis of how the application of thermal hydrolysis affects the sludge digestion process based on full-scale data was conducted. The results showed that the maximum volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction reached the value of 65% independently on the application of thermal hydrolysis. The average VSS destruction increased by 14% when thermal hydrolysis was applied. In order to have the maximum VSS reduction and biogas production, it is recommended to keep the maximum defined VSS loading of 5.7 kg VSS/m(3)/d when the thermal hydrolysis is applied and to keep the VSS loading between 2.1-2.4 kg VSS/m(3)/d when the disintegration of sludge is not applied. The application of thermal hydrolysis leads to an approximately 2.5 times higher VSS loading maintenance comparing VSS loading without the disintegration; therefore, digesters with 1.8 times smaller volume is required.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes: laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1984-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 10 references, 17 figures, 4 tables

  11. Characterization of biochar prepared from biogas digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chao-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Tien; Chen, Jie-Wei; Lin, Yu-Quan; Chang, Yuan-Ming

    2017-08-01

    In the study, the biogas digestate was evaluated as a potential feedstock for preparing biochars at a broad temperature range of 300-900°C. The physico-chemical and pore properties of the resulting biochars (denoted as SDBC, solid digestate biochar), including calorific value (higher heating value), surface area/pore volume/pore size distribution, true density, scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), were studied. It was found that the higher heating values of the SDBC products were on a decreasing trend as pyrolysis temperature increased, but they indicated an increase in true density. The results are probably associated with the active pyrolysis of the lignocellulosic fragments and the calcination (or shrinkage) processes, thus resulting in the increased contents of aromatic carbon clusters and main mineral constituents remained. Based on the pore properties, pyrolysis temperature at around 800°C seemed to be the optimal condition for producing SDBC, where its Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area (>100m 2 /g) largely increased as compared to that of the digestate feedstock (700°C) due to the high aromaticity via the thermal decomposition of lignocelluloses and the volatilization of inorganic minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest: 1993 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest (digest) provides a summary of information about the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRC's regulatory responsibilities, the activities NRC licenses, and general information on domestic and worldwide nuclear energy. The digest, published annually, is a compilation of nuclear- and NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and the industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1992, with exceptions noted. Information on generating capacity and average capacity factor for operating U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors is obtained from monthly operating reports that are submitted directly to the NRC by the licensee. This information is reviewed by the NRC for consistency only and no independent validation and/or verification is performed. Comments and/or suggestions on the data presented are welcomed and should be directed to Karen Olive, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of the Controller, Division of Budget and Analysis, Washington, D.C. 20555. For detailed and complete information about tables and figures, refer to the source publications

  13. Ingestion of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli by human peritoneal mesothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, C. E.; Brouwer-Steenbergen, J. J.; Schadee-Eestermans, I. L.; Meijer, S.; Krediet, R. T.; Beelen, R. H.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we examined whether mesothelial cells can ingest and digest bacteria. The results showed that all strains were ingested. Ingested staphylococci proliferated abundantly, and only a few were digested. Escherichia coli, however, was digested during the first 8 h, whereafter the

  14. Quality assessment of digested sludges produced by advanced stabilization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguglia, C M; Coors, A; Gallipoli, A; Gianico, A; Guillon, E; Kunkel, U; Mascolo, G; Richter, E; Ternes, T A; Tomei, M C; Mininni, G

    2015-05-01

    The European Union (EU) Project Routes aimed to discover new routes in sludge stabilization treatments leading to high-quality digested sludge, suitable for land application. In order to investigate the impact of different enhanced sludge stabilization processes such as (a) thermophilic digestion integrated with thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (TT), (b) sonication before mesophilic/thermophilic digestion (UMT), and (c) sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion (AA) on digested sludge quality, a broad class of conventional and emerging organic micropollutants as well as ecotoxicity was analyzed, extending the assessment beyond the parameters typically considered (i.e., stability index and heavy metals). The stability index was improved by adding aerobic posttreatment or by operating dual-stage process but not by pretreatment integration. Filterability was worsened by thermophilic digestion, either alone (TT) or coupled with mesophilic digestion (UMT). The concentrations of heavy metals, present in ranking order Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr ~ Ni > Cd > Hg, were always below the current legal requirements for use on land and were not removed during the processes. Removals of conventional and emerging organic pollutants were greatly enhanced by performing double-stage digestion (UMT and AA treatment) compared to a single-stage process as TT; the same trend was found as regards toxicity reduction. Overall, all the digested sludges exhibited toxicity to the soil bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis at concentrations about factor 100 higher than the usual application rate of sludge to soil in Europe. For earthworms, a safety margin of factor 30 was generally achieved for all the digested samples.

  15. Environmental assessment of digestate treatment technologies using LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Golkowska, Katarzyna; Lebuf, Viooltje; Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Benetto, Enrico; Koster, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The production of biogas from energy crops, organic waste and manure has augmented considerably the amounts of digestate available in Flanders. This has pushed authorities to steadily introduce legislative changes to promote its use as a fertilising agent. There is limited arable land in Flanders, which entails that digestate has to compete with animal manure to be spread. This forces many anaerobic digestion plants to further treat digestate in such a way that it can either be exported or the nitrogen be removed. Nevertheless, the environmental impact of these treatment options is still widely unknown, as well as the influence of these impacts on the sustainability of Flemish anaerobic digestion plants in comparison to other regions where spreading of raw digestate is allowed. Despite important economic aspects that must be considered, the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is suggested in this study to identify the environmental impacts of spreading digestate directly as compared to four different treatment technologies. Results suggest relevant environmental gains when the digestate mix is treated using the examined conversion technologies prior to spreading, although important trade-offs between impact categories were observed and discussed. The promising results of digestate conversion technologies suggest that further LCA analyses should be performed to delve into, for instance, the appropriateness to shift to nutrient recovery technologies rather than digestate conversion treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Circulating Tumor Cell Count Is a Prognostic Factor in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving First-Line Chemotherapy Plus Bevacizumab: A Spanish Cooperative Group for the Treatment of Digestive Tumors Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro, M. Luisa; Gómez-España, Auxiliadora; Rivera, Fernando; Valladares, Manuel; Massuti, Bartomeu; Benavides, Manuel; Gallén, Manuel; Marcuello, Eugenio; Abad, Albert; Arrivi, Antonio; Fernández-Martos, Carlos; González, Encarnación; Tabernero, Josep M.; Vidaurreta, Marta; Aranda, Enrique; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Background. The Maintenance in Colorectal Cancer trial was a phase III study to assess maintenance therapy with single-agent bevacizumab versus bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. An ancillary study was conducted to evaluate the circulating tumor cell (CTC) count as a prognostic and/or predictive marker for efficacy endpoints. Patients and Methods. One hundred eighty patients were included. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and after three cycles. CTC enumeration was carried out using the CellSearch® System (Veridex LLC, Raritan, NJ). Computed tomography scans were performed at cycle 3 and 6 and every 12 weeks thereafter for tumor response assessment. Results. The median progression-free survival (PFS) interval for patients with a CTC count ≥3 at baseline was 7.8 months, versus the 12.0 months achieved by patients with a CTC count <3 (p = .0002). The median overall survival (OS) time was 17.7 months for patients with a CTC count ≥3, compared with 25.1 months for patients with a lower count (p = .0059). After three cycles, the median PFS interval for patients with a low CTC count was 10.8 months, significantly longer than the 7.5 months for patients with a high CTC count (p = .005). The median OS time for patients with a CTC count <3 was significantly longer than for patients with a CTC count ≥3, 25.1 months versus 16.2 months, respectively (p = .0095). Conclusions. The CTC count is a strong prognostic factor for PFS and OS outcomes in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. PMID:22643538

  17. The use of hydrodynamic disintegration as a means to improve anaerobic digestion of activated sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Machnicka, A; Grűbel, K; Suschka, J

    2009-01-01

    Disintegration by hydrodynamic cavitation has a positive effect on the degree and rate of sludge anaerobic digestion. By applying hydrodynamic disintegration the lysis of cells occurs in minutes instead of days. The intracellular and extracellular components are set free and are immediately available for biological degradation which leads to an improvement of the subsequent anaerobic process. Hydrodynamic disintegration of the activated sludge results in organic matter and a polymer transfer ...

  18. Monitoring of volatile fatty acids during anaerobic digestion using a microbial electrochemical sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration is known as an important indicator to control and optimize anaerobic digestion (AD) process. In this study, an innovative VFA biosensor was developed based on the principle of a microbial desalination cell. The bulk substrate was dosed into the middle chamber...... and reliable measurement of VFA levels during AD and other anaerobic processes. The outcomes will expand the application of bio-electrochemical system application....

  19. Anaerobic digestion of biowastes; Biojaetteen anaerobinen hajottaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M. [Haeme Polytechnic, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    Caused by the demand for potential treatment options for biowastes, an interest on anaerobic digestion (AD) technology, i.e. biogasification, has clearly being increasing in Finland. There has been a need to increase knowledge and offer research facilities for the companies and other parties concerned. In this project, first, research and analytical facilities for AD studies were set up and tested. A mixture of a nitrogen rich waste (poultry slaughterhouse waste, PSHW) and a carbon rich waste (modified potato starch waste, PSW) was selected for the codigestion studies with sewage sludge (SS). The codigestion was studied in thermophilic lab-scale digesters (2x10 and 30 liters), and the startup of thermophilic digestion was clarified, in general. Typically, the PSHW must be treated at low load and long retention time due to the high concentration of lipids and proteins and their potential toxic degradation products such as long-chained fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia. The codigestion can help in lowering the effects of these toxic compounds. In this work, based on the experiments in 10 liters reactors fed with a fixed mixture of 2% PSHW, 8% PSW and 90% of SS, high loads of 2-4 kgVS/m3d and SRTs of 30 to 15 days could be applied. Good VS destruction could be achieved with 30 d SRT (76%) and 20 d SRT (55%). Based on the tests in 30 liters reactor fed with a varied mixture of the above mentioned wastes, high load of 4,8 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and SRT of 22 days with a mixture of 10% PSHW, 14% PSW and 76% of SS was also successfully applied. This resulted in the biogas production of about 0,7 Nm3/kgVSfed and VS reduction of around 70%. The critical process parameters were monitored in order to avoid the overloading of these digestion processes. The startup of thermophilic reactors with mesophilic digested sludge as inocula was successfully demonstrated. The findings increased the understanding and learned to control the startup and loading of AD processes thus encouraging the

  20. Arsenic volatilization in model anaerobic biogas digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestrot, Adrien; Xie, Wan-Ying; Xue, Ximei; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Arsenic is volatilized form all model anaerobic digesters, including the non-treated ones. • Volatile As species can be identified and quantified in all digesters. • Non-arsenic treated digesters volatilization rates are higher than Roxarsone treated ones. - Abstract: Arsenic is a class 1 non-threshold carcinogen which is highly ubiquitous. Arsenic undergoes many different transformations (biotic or abiotic) between and within environmental compartments, leading to a number of different chemical species possessing different properties and toxicities. One specific transformation is As biotic volatilization which is coupled with As biomethylation and has been scarcely studied due to inherent sampling issues. Arsenic methylation/volatilization is also linked with methanogenesis and occurs in anaerobic environments. In China, rice straw and animal manure are very often used to produce biogas and both can contain high amounts of As, especially if the rice is grown in areas with heavy mining or smelting industries and if Roxarsone is fed to the animals. Roxarsone is an As-containing drug which is widely used in China to control coccidian intestinal parasites, to improve feed efficiency and to promote rapid growth. Previous work has shown that this compound degrades to inorganic As under anaerobic conditions. In this study the focus is on biotic transformations of As in small microcosms designed as biogas digester models (BDMs) using recently validated As traps, thus, enabling direct quantification and identification of volatile As species. It is shown that although there was a loss of soluble As in the BDMs, their conditions favored biomethylation. All reactors produced volatile As, especially the monomethylarsonic acid spiked ones with 413 ± 148 ng As (mean ± SD, n = 3) which suggest that the first methylation step, from inorganic As, is a limiting factor. The most abundant species was trimethylarsine, but the toxic arsine was present in the

  1. Digesters and demographics: identifying support for anaerobic digesters on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D J; Roberts, M C; Ernst, S C; Thraen, C S

    2010-11-01

    The dairy industry in the United States is amidst a long-running trend toward fewer, larger dairy farms. This development has created a backlash in some communities over concerns such as odor, waste management, and environmental degradation. Separately, anaerobic digestion has advanced as a waste management technology that potentially offers solutions to some of these issues, providing odor control and a combustible biogas among other things. These digesters require significant capital investments. Voluntary consumer premiums for the renewable energy produced have been used in some instances as a means to move adoption of such systems toward financial feasibility. This project employed a survey to measure Ohio consumers' willingness to pay a premium for renewable energy produced by anaerobic digesters on dairy farms. Cluster analysis was used to segment consumers by willingness to pay, age, education, income, self-identified political inclination, and a composite variable that served as a proxy for respondents' environmental stewardship. Four distinctive groups emerged from the data. Older, less educated respondents were found to have the least amount of support for digesters on dairy farms, whereas politically liberal, environmentally proactive respondents demonstrated the strongest support. Well-educated, affluent respondents and young respondents fell between these 2 groups. Most large dairy farms are generally met with fairly negative responses from their local communities; in contrast, this research finds some popular support for anaerobic digestion technology. Going forward, establishing a positive link between support for anaerobic digesters and for their use on large dairies could open up a new route for less-contested large dairy farm developments. Evaluation of community demographics could become an important part of finding an optimal location for a large dairy farm. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  2. The combination of Bifidobacterium breve with non-digestible oligosaccharides suppresses airway inflammation in a murine model for chronic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Seil; Vos, Arjan P; Morgan, Mary E; Garssen, Johan; Georgiou, Niki A; Boon, Louis; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Folkerts, Gert

    2014-04-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the use of interventions that target the intestinal microbiota as a treatment approach for asthma. This study is aimed at exploring the therapeutic effects of long-term treatment with a combination of Bifidobacterium breve with non-digestible oligosaccharides on airway inflammation and remodeling. A murine ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma model was used. Pulmonary airway inflammation; mRNA expression of pattern recognition receptors, Th-specific cytokines and transcription factors in lung tissue; expression of Foxp3 in blood Th cells; in vitro T cell activation; mast cell degranulation; and airway remodeling were examined. The combination of B. breve with non-digestible oligosaccharides suppressed pulmonary airway inflammation; reduced T cell activation and mast cell degranulation; modulated expression of pattern recognition receptors, cytokines and transcription factors; and reduced airway remodeling. The treatment induced regulatory T cell responses, as shown by increased Il10 and Foxp3 transcription in lung tissue, and augmented Foxp3 protein expression in blood CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells. This specific combination of beneficial bacteria with non-digestible oligosaccharides has strong anti-inflammatory properties, possibly via the induction of a regulatory T cell response, resulting in reduced airway remodeling and, therefore, may be beneficial in the treatment of chronic inflammation in allergic asthma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Domestic solid waste and sewage improvement by anaerobic digestion: A stirred digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrato, J.; Perez-Rodriguez, J.L. [CSIC-UNSE, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Sevilla (Spain); Maqueda, C. [CSIC Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, Sevilla (Spain)

    1995-05-01

    The processing of the mixture of domestic solid waste and domestic sewage in an stirring digester was studied. The experimental set up consisted of six thermostatically controlled digesters of 1 l, each one in a bath at 35{+-}1oC and magnetically stirred. The best feeding for the culture was 1.7 g COD l{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The minimum hydraulic retention time was 6 days. The efficiency in COD removal of treatment varied between 90.1% and 72.4%. The biogas productivity was 0.19 l g{sup -1} COD day{sup -1}

  4. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff Practice and Procedure Digest. Digest No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This second edition of the NRC Staff Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period from July 1, 1972 to March 31, 1978 interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2. This second edition replaces the first edition and its supplements and includes appropriate changes reflecting the recent amendments to the Rules of Practice which became effective on May 26, 1978

  5. [Digestive and extra-digestive complications of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Preventive and curative strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternon, J; Adler, M

    1997-04-01

    The authors review the digestive ulceration risk factors and the criteria for selecting a non steroidal antiinflammatory (NSAI), included the most recent drugs, such as selective anti-cyclo-oxygenases 2. They actualize the preventive strategies and insist on the values of misoprostol and of slow acting anti-rheumatic drugs. In the case of digestive ulcerations, they plead for the immediate stop of the NSAI and its replacement if necessary by corticosteroids, for the prescription of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or mesalazine according to the localisation of the lesion, finally for the eradication within 8 days of Helicobacter pylori.

  6. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Soil sample preparation using microwave digestion for uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Preston, Rose; Akbarzadeh, Mansoor; Bakthiar, Steven

    2000-01-01

    A new sample preparation procedure has been developed for digestion of soil samples for uranium analysis. The technique employs a microwave oven digestion system to digest the sample and to prepare it for separation chemistry and analysis. The method significantly reduces the volume of acids used, eliminates a large fraction of acid vapor emissions, and speeds up the analysis time. The samples are analyzed by four separate techniques: Gamma Spectrometry, Alpha Spectroscopy using the open digestion method, Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) using open digestion, and KPA by Microwave digestion technique. The results for various analytical methods are compared and used to confirm the validity of the new procedure. The details of the preparation technique along with its benefits are discussed

  8. Rirang Uranium Ore Processing System Design: Agitated Digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erni, R.A.; Susilaningtyas

    1996-01-01

    A closed tank digester equipped with a pitched blades turbine agitator has been designed to facilities Rirang uranium ore dissolution using concentrated sulphuric acid at high temperature. The digester was designed to accommodate the digestion of 6 kg of-65 mesh ore at 200 o C, acid resistant material (SS-3 16). It has the dimension of 33 cm high, 22 cm diameter, and elliptical bottom and height of 4 cm. Moreover, the dimension of the 4 blades agitator is as follows: 8 cm long, 1,6 cm blades width. The distance between the blades and digester required 0, 007 Hp for a 500 rpm agitation speed and + 24. 103 kcal energy equipment for heating. Digestion experiment using the agitated digester yielded data that are in good agreement with laboratory scale experiment

  9. Acid digestion of combustible wastes: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.

    1975-05-01

    Work at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory on development of the acid digestion process for treating combustible wastes is discussed. Materials such as paper, rubber, and plastics are readily decomposed into a low volume, noncombustible residue. Engineering results using the Acid Digestion Test Unit are discussed. Tests to date generally duplicated earlier laboratory results with respect to waste processing rates, volume reduction, off-gas generation rates and volumes, acid consumption, and completeness of reaction. Demonstrated processing rates were as high as 5 kg/hr for short duration run periods. The tests indicated engineering feasibility of the acid digestion process and showed acid digestion to be a potentially attractive method for treating combustible nuclear wastes. Other areas discussed in the report are behavior of plutonium and americium during acid digestion, behavior of various construction materials, and safety. An integrated flowsheet for operation of an acid digestion unit is also presented. (U.S.)

  10. Effect of Gastrointestinal Protease Digestion on Bioactivity of Marine Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Ossum, Carlo Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    executed without concerning subsequent digestion after intake and the aim of this work was hence to investigate how the in vitro antioxidative, antihypertensive and caspase activating activities of peptides are affected by digestion with gastrointestinal (GI) proteases. Five different fish protein...... hydrolysates were chosen to study the effect of in vitro digestion on bioactivity. The protein concentration decreased in all samples during digestion and the molecular weight distribution of the peptides shifted towards lower values. Thus, in vitro digestion with GI proteases resulted in a further degradation...... of the peptides obtained by hydrolysis. The antihypertensive effect increased in all samples after digestion with GI proteases whereas the antioxidative capacity decreased. The effect on the caspase activity depended on the proteases used in the preparation of hydrolysates. In conclusion, the caspase activity...

  11. Morphological, histological and histochemical analysis of the digestive tract of Trachelyopterusstriatulus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella L. dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The digestive tract of Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877 was studied using morphological, histological, and histochemical techniques. The barbels, lips and tongue had stratified squamous epithelium with mucous, claviform cells, and taste buds. Trachelyopterus striatulus had a dental plaque with villiform teeth. The bucopharyngeal cavity was formed by the gill apparatus and pharyngeal teeth with vilifform denticles. The oesophagus presented stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells and taste buds. The stomach included cardiac, fundic, and pyloric regions and a simple prismatic epithelium with prismatic cells that reacted positively to periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and amylase+PAS. Only the cardiac and pyloric regions responded positively to alcian blue pH 2.5 (Ab pH 2.5 and alcian blue pH 0.5 (Ab pH 0.5. The cardiac and fundic regions exhibited tubular gastric glands. The intestine was 118.90 ± 22.49 mm long with an intestinal coefficient (CO of 0.83 ± 0.13. The epithelium was simple prismatic with a brush border and goblet cells, and a greater number of goblet cells were found in the caudal region of the intestine. The mucous cells and goblet cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase+PAS, Ab pH 2.5, and Ab pH 0.5. We analysed if the function of the mucosubstances and morphological characteristics of the digestive tract of T. striatulus are compatible with omnivorous feeding habit.

  12. Herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Mozūraitienė, Vilija

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the study: To examine and systematize assortment of herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion and also to find out public opinion about herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion using questionnaire. Aim of the study: (1) To examine which digestive tract ailments are treated most frequently herbal products, food supplements and teas. (2) To examine which herbal products, food supplements and teas are used most frequent...

  13. Solid Loss of Carrots During Simulated Gastric Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Fanbin; Singh, R. Paul

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge of solid loss kinetics of foods during digestion is crucial for understanding the factors that constrain the release of nutrients from the food matrix and their fate of digestion. The objective of this study was to investigate the solid loss of carrots during simulated gastric digestion as affected by pH, temperature, viscosity of gastric fluids, mechanical force present in stomach, and cooking. Cylindrical carrot samples were tested by static soaking method and using a model st...

  14. Processing biogas planet digestates into value-added products -BIOVIRTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paavola, T.; Rintala, J. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)), Email: teija.paavola@mtt.fi; Sahltroem, L.; Maunuksela, L.; Torniainen, M. (Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: leena.sahlstrom@evira.fi; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J. (Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), Email: jukka.rintala@jyu.fi; Vikman, M.; Kapanen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: minna.vikman@vtt.fi

    2010-10-15

    The objective of BIOVIRTA project is to develop technologies and practices with which digestates, originating from anaerobic digestion of different organic wastes and by-products, can be refined to value-added and safe products for various end-uses. It is expected that the operational preconditions for biogas plants will be significantly enhanced when the end-products are proven safe and applicable. Selection of the raw materials for anaerobic codigestion is the main operational strategy that could influence the nutrient content in the digestate. This has been clearly established in the laboratory and full-scale studies with various digestates originating from different raw materials, e.g. rendering and slaughterhouse byproducts. The nutrient content in the digestate also affects the opportunities to produce refined digestate products. In this project, the possibilities for several processing technologies, e.g. mechanical separation and stripping, have been intensively evaluated for the production of different digestate products. Their mass balances have also been estimated. The feasibility for the use of the digestate products has been assessed based on their chemical and hygienic quality and for various end-uses, including as organic fertiliser and/or soil improver in crop production. The preliminary results of these field-experiments showed that the yield of barley fertilised with digestate products was comparable to inorganic fertilisers. (orig.)

  15. Proteome Profiles of Digested Products of Commercial Meat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize in vitro-digested products of proteins from four commercial meat products, including dry-cured ham, cooked ham, emulsion-type sausage, and dry-cured sausage. The samples were homogenized and incubated with pepsin and trypsin. The digestibility and particle sizes of digested products were measured. Nano-LC–MS/MS was applied to characterize peptides. The results showed the highest digestibility and the lowest particle size in dry-cured ham (P meat products. Our findings give an insight into nutritional values of different meat products. PMID:28396857

  16. Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (January-February-March, 2014)

    OpenAIRE

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    This is the 5th issue of the Digested Disorder series that represents a reader's digest of the scientific literature on intrinsically disordered proteins. We continue to use only 2 criteria for inclusion of a paper to this digest: The publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and the topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the first quarter of 2014; i.e., during ...

  17. Rheostatic control of tryptic digestion in a microscale fluidic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, Andrew J.; Schriemer, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated fluidic systems that unite bottom-up and top-down proteomic approaches have the potential to deliver complete protein characterization. To circumvent fraction collection, as is conducted in current blended approaches, a technique to regulate digestion efficiency in a flow-through system is required. The present study examined the concept of regulating tryptic digestion in an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER), incorporating mixed solvent systems for digestion acceleration. Using ovalbumin, cytochrome c, and myoglobin as protein standards, we demonstrate that tryptic digestion can be efficiently regulated between complete digestion and no digestion extremes by oscillating between 45 and 0% acetonitrile in the fluid stream. Solvent composition was tuned using programmable solvent waveforms in a closed system consisting of the IMER, a sample delivery stream, a dual gradient pumping system and a mass spectrometer. Operation in this rheostatic digestion mode provides access to novel peptide mass maps (due to substrate unfolding hysteresis) as well as the intact protein, in a reproducible and stable fashion. Although cycle times were on the order of 90 s for testing purposes, we show that regulated digestion is sufficiently rapid to be limited by solvent switching efficiency and kinetics of substrate unfolding/folding. Thus, regulated digestion should be useful in blending bottom-up and top-down proteomics in a single closed fluidic system.

  18. Pressurized wet digestion in open vessels (T11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettisch, P.; Maichin, P.; Zischka, M.; Knapp, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Pressurized wet digestion in closed vessels, microwave assisted or with conventional conductive heating, is the most important sample preparation technique for digestion or leaching procedures in element analysis. In comparison to open vessel digestion closed vessel digestion methods have many advantages, but there is one disadvantage - complex and expensive vessel designs. A new technique - pressurized wet digestion in open vessels - combine the advantages of closed vessel sample digestion with the application of simple and cheap open vessels made of quartz or PFA. The vessels are placed in a high pressure Asher HPA, which is adapted with a Teflon liner and filled partly with water. The analytical results with 30 ml quartz vessels, 22 ml PFA vessels and 1.5 ml PIA auto sampler cups will be shown. In principle every dimensions of vessels can be used. The vessels are loaded with sample material (max. 1.5 g with quartz vessels, max. 0.5 g with PFA vessels and 50 mg with auto sampler cups) and digestion reagent. Afterwards the vessels are simply covered with PTFE stoppers and not sealed. The vessels are transferred into a special adapted HPA and digested at temperatures up to 270 o C. The digestion time is 90 min. and cooling down to room temperature 30 min. The analytical results of CRM's are within the certified values and no cross contamination and losses of volatile elements could be observed. (author)

  19. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected...... by accumulated free amino acids. There were no free amino acids following pepsin treatment, but the essential ones were well liberated by pancreatin. Results for barley grown in the field or in pots, and for decortified barley fractions agreed with true digestibility values determined with rats. Of these samples...... digestibility depended on the type of enzyme and on the enzyme-to-substrate ratio....

  20. Digestion of starch in a dynamic small intestinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Fonseca, M R; Gouseti, O; Fryer, P J; Wickham, M S J; Bakalis, S

    2016-12-01

    The rate and extent of starch digestion have been linked with important health aspects, such as control of obesity and type-2 diabetes. In vitro techniques are often used to study digestion and simulated nutrient absorption; however, the effect of gut motility is often disregarded. The present work aims at studying fundamentals of starch digestion, e.g. the effect of viscosity on digestibility, taking into account both biochemical and engineering (gut motility) parameters. New small intestinal model (SIM) that realistically mimics gut motility (segmentation) was used to study digestibility and simulated oligosaccharide bio accessibility of (a) model starch solutions; (b) bread formulations. First, the model was compared with the rigorously mixed stirred tank reactor (STR). Then the effects of enzyme concentration/flow rate, starch concentration, and digesta viscosity (addition of guar gum) were evaluated. Compared to the STR, the SIM showed presence of lag phase when no digestive processes could be detected. The effects of enzyme concentration and flow rate appeared to be marginal in the region of mass transfer limited reactions. Addition of guar gum reduced simulated glucose absorption by up to 45 % in model starch solutions and by 35 % in bread formulations, indicating the importance of chyme rheology on nutrient bioaccessibility. Overall, the work highlights the significance of gut motility in digestive processes and offers a powerful tool in nutritional studies that, additionally to biochemical, considers engineering aspects of digestion. The potential to modulate food digestibility and nutrient bioaccessibility by altering food formulation is indicated.

  1. Anaerobic Digestion Modeling: from One to Several Bacterial Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván D. Ramírez-Rivas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion systems are complex processes that unfortunately often suffer from instability causing digester failure. In order to be able to design, optimizing and operate efficiently anaerobic digestion systems, appropriate control strategies need to be designed. Such strategies require, in general, the development of mathematical models. The anaerobic digestion process comprises a complex network of sequential and parallel reactions of biochemical and physicochemical nature. Usually, such reactions contain a particular step, the so called rate-limiting step which, being the slowest, limits the reaction rate of the overall process. The first attempts for modeling anaerobic digestion led to models describing only the limiting step. However, over a wide range of operating conditions, the limiting step is not always the same. It may depend on wastewater characteristics, hydraulic loading, temperature, etc. It is apparent that the "limiting step hypothesis" leads to simple and readily usable models. Such models, however, do not describe very well the digester behavior, especially under transient operating conditions. This work reviews the current state-of-the-art in anaerobic digestion modeling. We give a brief description of the key anaerobic digestion models that have been developed so far for describing biomass growth systems, including the International Water Association’s Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1 and we identify the areas that require further research endeavors.

  2. Microflora of hydrobionts digestive tract in Kaunas water storage reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyvokiene, J.; Mickiene, L.; Mileriene, E.

    1996-01-01

    Microbiological and ichthiological investigations carried out in 1990 and 1992 showed the variability of bacterial cenoses in the digestive tract of hydrobionts before and after setting in motion Kruonis hydro pumped storage. The studies also showed that microorganisms of the digestive tract of the hydrobionts investigated were involved in the degradation of nutritional substrates and could serve as indicators of an anthropogenic effect. Before setting in motion the hydro pumped storage hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (HDB) were detected in the digestive tract of the freshwater shrimps, opossum shrimps, sticklebacks, zebra mussels and roaches. The greatest number of HDB was found in the digestive tract of the roach while in perches they were not detected. However after setting in motion the hydro pumped storage , high numbers of HDB were determined in the digestive tracts of all the hydrobionts investigated. It has been shown that the function of bacterial digestion is conditioned not only by the nutrition specificity of the macroorganism, but on its environment as well. With the aid of enzymes secreted by microorganisms organic compounds difficult to assimilate are transformed into valuable nutrients. Besides, the functional activity of microorganisms of the digestive tract of the hydrobionts indicate the intensity of the digestive process and physiological state of their organism. Therefore, when investigating fish stocks in hydrosystems one must evaluate inner resources of their organism, i.e. functional activities and the activity of digestive tract microorganisms, their quantitative and qualitative composition, relationship with the macroorganism, its growth rate and environment. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  3. Evaluation of Novel Inoculation Strategies for Solid State Anaerobic Digestion of Yam Peelings in Low-Tech Digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiske, Stefan; Jurgutis, Linas; Kádár, Zsófia

    2015-01-01

    The operation of household scale anaerobic digesters is typically based on diluted animal dung, requiring stabled livestock and adequate water availability. This excludes many rural households in low-income countries from the benefits of a domestic biogas digester. Solid state anaerobic digestion...... inoculation strategies and evaluating the necessity of dung addition as a supportive biomass. In initial lab scale trials 143 +/- 4 mL CH4/g VS (volatile solids) were obtained from a mixture of yam peelings and dung digested in a multi-layer-inoculated batch reactor. In a consecutive incubation cycle in which...... dome digester indicated that SSAD can reduce process water demand and the digester volume necessary to supply a given biogas demand....

  4. Anaerobic co-digestion of perennials: Methane potential and digestate nitrogen fertilizer value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller-Stover, Dorette Sophie; Sun, Guotao; Kroff, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Co-digestion of crop biomass improves the traditional manure-based biogas yield due to an increased content of easily degradable carbon compounds. In this study, the methane potential of three perennials (grass, legumes, and grass+legume) was determined using various amounts together with animal ...

  5. Autogenerative high pressure digestion: anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Fermoso, F.G.; Weijma, J.; Zagt, K.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional anaerobic digestion is a widely applied technology to produce biogas from organic wastes and residues. The biogas calorific value depends on the CH4 content which generally ranges between 55 and 65%. Biogas upgrading to so-called ‘green gas’, with natural gas quality, generally proceeds

  6. Radiotherapy in digestive tumours in elderly patients; Radiotherapie dans les tumeurs digestives chez le patient age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillerme, F.; Clavier, J.B.; Nehme-Schuster, H.; Schumacher, C.; Noel, G. [Centre de lutte contre le cancer Paul-Strauss, Strasbourg (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors comment the taking into care of a digestive cancer in the case of elderly patient. These patients are treated by radiotherapy, operative radiotherapy with concomitant chemotherapy, or pre-operative radiotherapy, depending on the age, on the cancer type, with an adaptation of the total dose or with a hypo-fractionation of the treatment. Short communication

  7. A-bomb radiation effects digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Kamada, Nanao.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is the digest of the book 'Genbaku Hoshasen no Jintai Eikyo (Effects of A-bomb Radiation on the Human Body)' (365p.), published in Japanese by Hiroshima International Council for Medical Care of the Radiation-Exposed. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic deseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosoal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  8. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This is the twenty-eighth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 3 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 20 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, aviation medicine, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, and space medicine.

  9. Digest of NASA earth observation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A digest of technical characteristics of remote sensors and supporting technological experiments uniquely developed under NASA Applications Programs for Earth Observation Flight Missions is presented. Included are camera systems, sounders, interferometers, communications and experiments. In the text, these are grouped by types, such as television and photographic cameras, lasers and radars, radiometers, spectrometers, technology experiments, and transponder technology experiments. Coverage of the brief history of development extends from the first successful earth observation sensor aboard Explorer 7 in October, 1959, through the latest funded and flight-approved sensors under development as of October 1, 1972. A standard resume format is employed to normalize and mechanize the information presented.

  10. The minor wall-networks between monolignols and interlinked-phenolics predominantly affect biomass enzymatic digestibility in Miscanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengru; Zhao, Chunqiao; Zha, Yi; Wan, Can; Si, Shengli; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Rui; Li, Fengcheng; Yu, Bin; Yi, Zili; Xu, Ning; Peng, Liangcai; Li, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Plant lignin is one of the major wall components that greatly contribute to biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. In this study, total 79 representative Miscanthus germplasms were determined with wide biomass digestibility and diverse monolignol composition. Integrative analyses indicated that three major monolignols (S, G, H) and S/G ratio could account for lignin negative influence on biomass digestibility upon NaOH and H2SO4 pretreatments. Notably, the biomass enzymatic digestions were predominately affected by the non-KOH-extractable lignin and interlinked-phenolics, other than the KOH-extractable ones that cover 80% of total lignin. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between the monolignols and phenolics at pnetworks against cellulases accessibility. The results indicated that the non-KOH-extractable lignin-complex should be the target either for cost-effective biomass pretreatments or for relatively simply genetic modification of plant cell walls in Miscanthus.

  11. Verification Of The Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Process Digestion Methods For The Sludge Batch 8 Qualification Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Click, D. R.; Edwards, T. B.; Wiedenman, B. J.; Brown, L. W.

    2013-01-01

    This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Dissolution (PF) and Cold Chem (CC) method digestions and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption analysis of Hg digestions from the DWPF Hg digestion method of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples. The SB8 SRAT Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB8 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), to form the SB8 Blend composition

  12. Anaerobic digestion of onion residuals using a mesophilic Anaerobic Phased Solids Digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Rowena T.; Zhang, Ruihong

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of onion residual from an onion processing plant was studied under batch-fed and continuously-fed mesophilic (35 ± 2 o C) conditions in an Anaerobic Phased Solids (APS) Digester. The batch digestion tests were performed at an initial loading of 2.8 gVS L -1 and retention time of 14 days. The biogas and methane yields, and volatile solids reduction from the onion residual were determined to be 0.69 ± 0.06 L gVS -1 , 0.38 ± 0.05 L CH 4 gVS -1 , and 64 ± 17%, respectively. Continuous digestion tests were carried out at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.5-2.0 gVS L -1 d -1 . Hydrated lime (Ca(OH) 2 ) was added to the APS-Digester along with the onion residual at 16 mg Ca(OH) 2 gVS -1 to control the pH of the biogasification reactor above 7.0. At steady state the average biogas yields were 0.51, 0.56, and 0.62 L gVS -1 for the OLRs of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 gVS L -1 d -1 respectively. The methane yields at steady state were 0.29, 0.32, and 0.31 L CH 4 gVS -1 for the OLRs of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 gVS L -1 d -1 respectively. The study shows that the digestion of onion residual required proper alkalinity and pH control, which was possible through the use of caustic chemicals. However, such chemicals will begin to have an inhibitory effect on the microbial population at high loading rates, and therefore alternative operational parameters are needed. -- Highlights: → An APS-Digester was used to study biogas production from onion solid residues. → Biogas and methane yields from onion solids were determined. → Study showed substantial findings for treating onion solid residues.

  13. Histological Aspects of the Early Development of the Digestive System of Burbot Lota lota L. (Lotidae, Gadiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furgała-Selezniow, Grazyna; Jankun, Małgorzata; Kujawa, Roman; Nowosad, Joanna; Biłas, Maria; Kucharczyk, Dariusz; Skrzypczak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The ontogeny of the digestive tract was studied histologically in burbot, Lota lota L., from hatching to 42 days post-hatch (dph). At hatching, the digestive tract consisted of a straight tube with discernible digestive accessory glands (the liver and the pancreas) dorsally attached to the yolk sac. Most of the yolk sac reserves were consumed during the first 12 days and were completely depleted by 17 dph. The first PAS-positive goblet cells appeared at 6 dph, dispersed within the epithelium of the oesophagus and increasing substantially in number and distribution as development progressed. At 12 dph, the first vacuoles (neutral lipids) appeared in the intestine, indicating the functional absorption of nutrients from food. Differentiation of gastric glands was first noticed at 17 dph and was extensive by 27 dph. L. lota larvae have a morphologically complete digestive tract by 32 dph. These findings on the development of the digestive system in L. lota may contribute to a better understanding of its ontogeny and can be useful for improvement of the larval rearing techniques of this promising species for freshwater aquaculture diversification.

  14. Bioaccesibility of Cylindrospermopsin from cooked fish muscle after the application of an in vitro digestion model and its bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisanaba, Sara; Saladino, Federica; Font, Guillermina; Jos, Ángeles; Cameán, Ana M; Meca, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    Humans can be exposed to cyanotoxins through the ingestion of contaminated water, food or beverages. In the present work, the bioaccesibility of Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), one of the most relevant cyanotoxins, was evaluated in a pure CYN solution and cooked CYN-contaminated fish muscles (20 μg/mL). An in vitro digestion model including the salivar, gastric, duodenal and colonic phases was performed, being each fraction analyzed by HPLC-MS-MS to evaluate CYN degradation. Moreover, Caco-2/TC7 cells were exposed to the digested duodenal and colonic phases to elucidate the final bioavailability of CYN in an approximation to the real human exposure scenario. The results revealed that CYN bioaccesibility decreased after the digestive process in all the cooked fish samples. The most drastic reductions were observed after lactic acid bacteria exposure. Thus, the highest bioaccesibility values were obtained in fish cooked by steaming (12.5%) and broiling (10.9%) meanwhile CYN was not detected in the colonic phase after boiling and microwaving. Regarding the duodenal and colonic availability, only in CYN pure digested solution the cyanotoxin was identified. The results obtained showed that digestion processes plays a very important role in the degradation of CYN, which should be considered when preparing a risk assessment of CYN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Digestibility coefficient and true digestible amino acid values of different cultivars of maize for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Antonia Bartolomeu Agustini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The digestibility and true digestible amino acid content of eight cultivars of maize was determined using the method of force-feeding roosters cecectomized. The experimental design was completely randomized, represented by eight cultivars, five replicates and a rooster each. Five roosters were kept fasting for corrections corresponding to metabolic and endogenous losses of amino acids. Significant differences (P <0.05 among maize cultivars for the true digestibility of amino acids, methionine, threonine, arginine, cystine and serine were observed. The values of true digestibility coefficients for essential amino acids, for methionine, threonine and arginine ranged from 85.61 to 93.57%, from 66.27 to 84.97% and 83.39 to 93.10% respectively. For the other essential amino acids, the average values were: 72.84% for lysine, 85.64% for methionine+cystine, 87.29% for histidine, 85.33% for valine, 87.11% for isoleucine, 94.04% for leucine and 90.65% for phenylalanine. The true digestibility coefficients of nonessential amino acids cystine and serine that showed significant difference ranged from 73.97 to 89.21% and from 77.31 to 92.68%, respectively. For other non-essential amino acids, average values were 88.28% for alanine, 82.68% for aspartic acid, 92.19% for glutamic acid and 87.84% for tyrosine. Due to the variations observed, it is recommended periodic analyzes of maize cultivars used to formulate diets, to ensure the feed quality and the performance of the animals.

  16. Crystallization, data collection and phasing of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marana, S. R.; Cançado, F. C. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Valério, A. A. [Centro de Biologia Molecular e Estrutural (CeBiMe), Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS), CP 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Ferreira, C.; Terra, W. R. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Barbosa, J. A. R. G., E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Centro de Biologia Molecular e Estrutural (CeBiMe), Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS), CP 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-08-01

    The digestive lysozymes 1 and 2 from M. domestica were crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystallographic data were processed to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å in both cases. Lysozymes are mostly known for their defensive role against bacteria, but in several animals lysozymes have a digestive function. Here, the initial crystallographic characterization of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica are presented. The proteins were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of ammonium sulfate or PEG/2-propanol as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å using synchrotron radiation. The lysozyme 1 and 2 crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} (unit-cell parameters a = 36.52, b = 79.44, c = 45.20 Å, β = 102.97°) and the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 (unit-cell parameters a = 73.90, b = 96.40, c = 33.27 Å), respectively. The crystal structures were solved by molecular replacement and structure refinement is in progress.

  17. Digestibility, Milk Production, and Udder Health of Etawah Goats Fed with Fermented Coffee Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Badarina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the utilization of coffee husk fermented by Pleurotus ostreatus as feed supplement by measuring the digestibility, milk production and udder health of Etawah goats suffered from subclinical mastitis (+1. There were three experimental diets consisted of T0 (control diet/basal diet without fermented coffee husk, T1 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk and T2 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk soaked in crude palm oil for an hour before using. Basal diet consisted of napier grass (60% and concentrate (40%. The results showed that supplementation of lactating Etawah does with fermented coffee husk did not affect the palatability of the diets, but increased the protein and crude fiber consumption (P<0.05. There was no significant effect on nutrient digestibility and milk production while milk composition (protein, fat, total solid increased in supplemented groups (P<0.05. The persistency of milk production and the somatic cells count were not different. There was an improvement of somatic cells count on supplemented groups. In conclusion, fermented coffee husk could be used as feed supplement without any negative effects on digestibility and milk production. The positive effects to udder health could be expected from including fermented coffee husk in diets.

  18. Common Beans and Their Non-Digestible Fraction: Cancer Inhibitory Activity—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Campos-Vega

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The US Department of Agriculture’s MyPyramid guidelines introduced a near doubling of the dietary recommendations for vegetables including dry beans—an important food staple in many traditional diets that can improve public health and nutrition. Populations with high legume (peas, beans, lentils consumption have a low risk of cancer and chronic degenerative diseases. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. are known as a rich, reliable source of non-digested compounds like fiber, phenolics, peptides and phytochemicals that are associated with health benefits. Emerging evidence indicates that common bean consumption is associated with reduced cancer risk in human populations, inhibiting carcinogenesis in animal models and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cell cultures. Fiber may reduce the risk of premature death from all causes, whereas the whole non-digestible fraction from common beans exhibits anti-proliferative activity and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo colon cancer. The mechanisms responsible for this apparently protective role may include gene-nutrient interactions and modulation of proteins’ expression. This review investigates the potential health benefits and bioactivity of beans on tumor inhibition, highlighting studies involving functional compounds, mainly non-digestible fractions that modulate genes and proteins, thereby, unraveling their preventive role against the development of cancer.

  19. Anaerobic Digestion Scale Levels and Their Energy Yields. A comparison of energy yields of different manure-and co-digestion scale levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konneman, Bram

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process whereby, in the absence of oxygen, organic matter is converted into biogas and digestate. In recent years anaerobic digestion has received re-newed attention in the Dutch agricultural sector. Co-digestion, in wh

  20. Linkage Mapping of Stem Saccharification Digestibility in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Liu

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food of almost half of the world population, and in excess 90% of it is grown and consumed in Asia, but the disposal of rice straw poses a problem for farmers, who often burn it in the fields, causing health and environmental problems. However, with increased focus on the development of sustainable biofuel production, rice straw has been recognized as a potential feedstock for non-food derived biofuel production. Currently, the commercial realization of rice as a biofuel feedstock is constrained by the high cost of industrial saccharification processes needed to release sugar for fermentation. This study is focused on the alteration of lignin content, and cell wall chemotypes and structures, and their effects on the saccharification potential of rice lignocellulosic biomass. A recombinant inbred lines (RILs population derived from a cross between the lowland rice variety IR1552 and the upland rice variety Azucena with 271 molecular markers for quantitative trait SNP (QTS analyses was used. After association analysis of 271 markers for saccharification potential, 1 locus and 4 pairs of epistatic loci were found to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility phenotype, and an inverse relationship between reducing sugar and lignin content in these recombinant inbred lines was identified. As a result of QTS analyses, several cell-wall associated candidate genes are proposed that may be useful for marker-assisted breeding and may aid breeders to produce potential high saccharification rice varieties.

  1. Biomarkers of petroleum contamination in the digestive gland of Perna viridis (L.)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Desai, S.R.; Das, P.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    metabolites as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing oxidative damage to cells (18,19). Th is induces antioxidative responses to protect cells against the unfavorable eff ects of ROS. To this end, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT... in the digestive gland. Th e parameters measured included LPX, PC, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), GSH, ASA, and antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GPX, GR, and GST as indices of oxidative stress, and DNA strand breaks as an index of genotoxic stress. Th ese...

  2. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  3. Effects of shearing on biogas production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion with recuperative thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shufan; Phan, Hop V; Bustamante, Heriberto; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Nghiem, Long D

    2017-06-01

    Recuperative thickening can intensify anaerobic digestion to produce more biogas and potentially reduce biosolids odour. This study elucidates the effects of sludge shearing during the thickening process on the microbial community structure and its effect on biogas production. Medium shearing resulted in approximately 15% increase in biogas production. By contrast, excessive or high shearing led to a marked decrease in biogas production, possibly due to sludge disintegration and cell lysis. Microbial analysis using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that medium shearing increased the evenness and diversity of the microbial community in the anaerobic digester, which is consistent with the observed improved biogas production. By contrast, microbial diversity decreased under either excessive shearing or high shearing condition. In good agreement with the observed decrease in biogas production, the abundance of Bacteroidales and Syntrophobaterales (which are responsible for hydrolysis and acetogenesis) decreased due to high shearing during recuperative thickening. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Valorisation of Phosphorus Extracted from Dairy Cattle Slurry and Municipal Solid Wastes Digestates as a Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, V.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Labrincha, J.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is a vital cell component and an essential and irreplaceable element. Yet at the current rate of exploitation, the phosphate’s reserves will be fast depleted. Dairy cattle slurry and digestates from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes (MSW) are organic wastes containing...... phosphorus which can potentially be used as a secondary source of this nutrient. The present study investigated the effect of pH in phosphorus release from these wastes using acid and base extraction followed by phosphorus recovery via precipitation, targeting the production of a fertilizer. Results showed...... the formation of amorphous calcium phosphates, a potential fertilizer that can help to close the cycle of this nutrient. During the process, heavy metals might become enriched in the precipitates. In the perspective of producing a fertilizer this is an undesirable process, and one that should be taken...

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadanaparthi, Sai Krishna Reddy

    Dairy and potato are two important agricultural commodities in Idaho. Both the dairy and potato processing industries produce a huge amount of waste which could cause environmental pollution. To minimize the impact of potential pollution associated with dairy manure (DM) and potato waste (PW), anaerobic co-digestion has been considered as one of the best treatment process. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste in terms of process stability, biogas generation, construction and operating costs, and potential revenue. For this purpose, I conducted 1) a literature review, 2) a lab study on anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste at three different temperature ranges (ambient (20-25°C), mesophilic (35-37°C) and thermophilic (55-57°C) with five mixing ratios (DM:PW-100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60), and 3) a financial analysis for anaerobic digesters based on assumed different capital costs and the results from the lab co-digestion study. The literature review indicates that several types of organic waste were co-digested with DM. Dairy manure is a suitable base matter for the co-digestion process in terms of digestion process stability and methane (CH4) production (Chapter 2). The lab tests showed that co-digestion of DM with PW was better than digestion of DM alone in terms of biogas and CH4 productions (Chapter 3). The financial analysis reveals DM and PW can be used as substrate for full size anaerobic digesters to generate positive cash flow within a ten year time period. Based on this research, the following conclusions and recommendations were made: ▸ The ratio of DM:PW-80:20 is recommended at thermophilic temperatures and the ratio of DM:PW-90:10 was recommended at mesophilic temperatures for optimum biogas and CH4 productions. ▸ In cases of anaerobic digesters operated with electricity generation equipment (generators), low cost plug flow digesters (capital cost of 600/cow

  6. The effects of processing and mastication on almond lipid bioaccessibility using novel methods of in vitro digestion modelling and micro-structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Grundy, Myriam M-L; Grassby, Terri; Parker, Mary L; Cross, Kathryn L; Chessa, Simona; Bisignano, Carlo; Barreca, Davide; Bellocco, Ersilia; Laganà, Giuseppina; Butterworth, Peter J; Faulks, Richard M; Wilde, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R; Waldron, Keith W

    2014-11-14

    A number of studies have demonstrated that consuming almonds increases satiety but does not result in weight gain, despite their high energy and lipid content. To understand the mechanism of almond digestion, in the present study, we investigated the bioaccessibility of lipids from masticated almonds during in vitro simulated human digestion, and determined the associated changes in cell-wall composition and cellular microstructure. The influence of processing on lipid release was assessed by using natural raw almonds (NA) and roasted almonds (RA). Masticated samples from four healthy adults (two females, two males) were exposed to a dynamic gastric model of digestion followed by simulated duodenal digestion. Between 7·8 and 11·1 % of the total lipid was released as a result of mastication, with no significant differences between the NA and RA samples. Significant digestion occurred during the in vitro gastric phase (16·4 and 15·9 %) and the in vitro duodenal phase (32·2 and 32·7 %) for the NA and RA samples, respectively. Roasting produced a smaller average particle size distribution post-mastication; however, this was not significant in terms of lipid release. Light microscopy showed major changes that occurred in the distribution of lipid in all cells after the roasting process. Further changes were observed in the surface cells of almond fragments and in fractured cells after exposure to the duodenal environment. Almond cell walls prevented lipid release from intact cells, providing a mechanism for incomplete nutrient absorption in the gut. The composition of almond cell walls was not affected by processing or simulated digestion.

  7. Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh S Karimov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were also included in the calculations. The biogas digester consisted of a methane tank with built-in solar reverse absorber heater to harness the radiant solar energy for heating the slurry comprising of different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc.. The methane tank was initially filled to 70% of its volume with organic wastes from the GIK institute’s sewage. The remaining volume was filled with sewage and cow dung from other sources. During a three month period (October-December, 2009 and another two month period (February-March, 2010, the digester was investigated. The effects of solar radiation on the absorber, the slurry’s temperature, and the ambient temperature were all measured during these investigations. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung in the slurry resulted in retention times of four and two weeks, respectively. The corresponding biogas produced was 0.4 m3 and 8.0 m3, respectively. Finally, this paper also elaborates on the upgradation of biogas through the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapour, and also the process of conversion of biogas energy into electric powerABSTRAK: Kajian ini membentangkan rekabentuk, fabrikasi dan penyelidikan tentang pencerna biogas dengan pemanas solar ringkas. Sebagai pemanas solar, ia dilengkapkan dengan penyerap pemanas beralik. Suhu maksimum(50oC di dalam tangki metana telah diambil sebagai parameter utama rekabentuk pencerna. Dengan menggunakan

  8. Histopathological assessment and inflammatory response in the digestive gland of marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to cadmium-based quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Laboratory of Cellular Behavior, Biological Sciences Institute, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás (Brazil); Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira [Laboratory of Cellular Behavior, Biological Sciences Institute, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás (Brazil); Bebianno, Maria João, E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Digestive gland of marine mussels is target for Cd-based QDs toxicity. • Both Cd forms increase the frequency of atrophic digestive tubules in a time dependent pattern. • QDs induce higher inflammatory responses when compared to dissolved Cd. • Multiparametric tissue-levels biomarkers show distinct mode of action in the digestive gland. - Abstract: Although tissue-level biomarkers have been widely applied in environmental toxicology studies, the knowledge using this approach in marine invertebrates exposed to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) remains limited. This study investigated histopathological alterations and inflammatory responses induced by Cd-based quantum dots (QDs), in comparison with their dissolved counterparts, in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed to CdTe QDs and dissolved Cd at the same concentration (10 μg Cd L{sup −1}) for 14 days and a total of 15 histopathological alterations and 17 histomorphometric parameters were analysed in the digestive gland along with the determination of histopathological condition indices (I{sub h}). A multivariate analysis showed that the mussel response to QDs was more related to exposure time, inflammatory conditions (frequency of haemocytic infiltration and granulocytomas) and changes of cell-type composition (especially the rate between basophilic and digestive cells) when compared to dissolved Cd, while the response to dissolved Cd was associated with histomorphometric parameters of the epithelium and lumen of digestive tubules and increase of the atrophic tubule frequency. Both Cd forms induced higher I{sub h} compared to unexposed mussels indicating a significant decrease in the health status of digestive gland in a Cd form and time-dependent pattern. Results indicate that the multiparametric tissue-level biomarkers in the digestive gland provide a suitable approach to assess the ecotoxicity and mode of action of metal-based ENMs in marine bivalves.

  9. Thermal drying of the solid fraction from biogas digestate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantelopoulos, Athanasios; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    Drying of solids produced from digestate is prone to N losses through NH3 volatilisation. The applicability of acidification as an NH3 emission mitigation technique during the drying of solids from digestate was assessed in a drying experiment. Operating conditions comprised four drying temperatu...

  10. Two-stage anaerobic digestion of cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K V; Liao, P H

    1986-01-01

    A two-stage digestion of cheese whey was studied using two anaerobic rotating biological contact reactors. The second-stage reactor receiving partially treated effluent from the first-stage reactor could be operated at a hydraulic retention time of one day. The results indicated that two-stage digestion is a feasible alternative for treating whey. 6 references.

  11. Comparison between ozone and ultrasound disintegration on sludge anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguglia, C M; Gianico, A; Mininni, G

    2012-03-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of ultrasound (mechanical) and ozone (chemical) pre-treatment on the performances of excess sludge semi-continuous digestion. Sludge solubilisation has been investigated by varying specific energy input. For each pre-treatment, long anaerobic digestion tests were carried out by two parallel digesters: one reactor, as control unit, was fed with untreated waste activated sludge, and the other one was fed with disintegrated sludge. To evaluate and compare the efficacy of both pre-treatments, the specific energy was maintained approximately the same. The digestion tests were carried out to investigate the feasibility of anaerobic digestion performance (total biogas production, volatile solids removal, sludge dewaterability) and to assess the heat balance. Results obtained from the digestion of sonicated sludge at 4% disintegration degree (≈ 2500 kJ/kg TS) showed that the ultrasound pre-treatment may be effective both in increasing VS destruction (+19%) and cumulative biogas production (+26%). On the contrary, the digestion test with ozonized sludge (ozone dose of 0.05 g O(3)/g TS corresponding to ≈ 2000 kJ/kg TS) did not indicate a significant improvement on the digestion performances. By doubling the ozone dose an improvement in the organics removal and cumulative biogas production was observed. Relevant differences in terms of colloidal charge and filterability were discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of Motorized Oil Palm Fruit Rotary Digester | Asoiro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A motorized oil palm fruit rotary digester comprising of a feed hopper, hammers, axle, screening plate, v-belt, 2hp electric motor, digesting chamber and frame was designed and developed using standard and locally sourced materials. The performance test analysis showed that its throughput capacity is 117.93kg/hr with a ...

  13. Preparation and In vitro Digestibility of Corn Starch Phosphodiester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize the process conditions and analyze in vitro digestibility of corn starch phosphodiester prepared by sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). Methods: By using response surface method, the effects of STMP concentration, pH, esterification temperature, and urea addition on digestion resistance of corn starch ...

  14. compared performances of the experimental digesters of the animal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... droppings, in different concentrations of Dry Matter (DM), were followed. ... is conditioned largely by the adopted mode of digestion and the physicochemical conditions of ... study proposes the evaluation on an experimental scale, on the one ..... The entry in production of biogas for digester II (with inoculum) ...

  15. A steady state model for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A steady state model for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge is developed that comprises three sequential parts – a kinetic part from which the % COD removal and ... and a carbonate system weak acid/base chemistry part from which the digester pH is calculated from the partial pressure of CO2 and alkalinity generated.

  16. Digestible lysine levels in diets supplemented with ractopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelar de Oliveira Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order evaluate digestible lysine levels in diets supplemented with 20 ppm of ractopamine on the performance and carcass traits, 64 barrows with high genetic potential at finishing phase were allotted in a completely randomized block design with four digestible lysine levels (0.80, 0.90, 1.00, and 1.10%, eight replicates and two pigs per experimental unit. Initial body weight and pigs' kinship were used as criteria in the blocks formation. Diets were mainly composed of corn and soybean meal supplemented with minerals, vitamins and amino acids to meet pigs' nutritional requirements at the finishing phase, except for digestible lysine. No effect of digestible lysine levels was observed in animal performance. The digestible lysine intake increased linearly by increasing the levels of digestible lysine in the diets. Carcass traits were not influenced by the dietary levels of digestible lysine. The level of 0.80% of digestible lysine in diets supplemented with 20 ppm ractopamine meets the nutritional requirements of castrated male pigs during the finishing phase.

  17. Post-weaning changes in the digestive physiology and caecal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greater cane rat is a recently domesticated monogastric herbivore, and the importance of the caecum in the functioning of its digestive tract has frequently been mentioned. However, no data are available on caecal fermentative activity of this animal and research on the digestive physiology was only performed in adult ...

  18. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper, therefore, suggests ways by which water.

  19. Computadoras y ninos pequenos (Computers and Young Children). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Susan W.

    Whether we use technology with young children--and if so, how--are critical issues facing early childhood educators and parents. This Spanish-language digest points out that many researchers do not recommend that children under 3 years old use computers. The digest also notes that many educators use computers with young children in ways that are…

  20. Sexism Springs Eternal--in the Reader's Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip G.; Meadow, Wendy

    This document reports on an empirical investigation of anti-women humor appearing in the Reader's Digest over three decades, revealing the operation of an unconscious sexist ideology. A systematic analysis was made of 1,069 jokes appearing in two featured columns of the Reader's Digest for the two-year periods 1947-48, 1957-58, and 1967-68.…

  1. Biogas production from low temperature lagoon digesters treating livestock manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safley, L.M. Jr.; Westerman, P.W. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Laboratory anaerobic digesters were fed dairy and swine manure at the rates of 0.1 and 0.2 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3}-day over the temperature range of 10--23{degrees}C. The digesters were operated successfully with little indication of instability.

  2. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff Practice and Procedure Digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This 2nd revision of the sixth edition of the NRC Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period of July 1, 1972 to September 30, 1991, interpreting the NRC's Rules of Pratice in 10 CFR Part 2

  3. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff practice and procedure digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    This Revision Number 7 of the fifth edition of the NRC Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period July 1, 1972 to March 31, 1990, interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2

  4. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff Practice and Procedure Digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This 2nd revision of the sixth edition of the NRC Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period of July 1, 1972 to June 30, 1991, interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2

  5. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff Practice and Procedure Digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This 7th revision of the sixth edition of the NRC Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period of July 1, 1972 to September 30, 1992, interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2

  6. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff practice and procedure digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This 6th revision of the sixth edition of the NRC Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period of July 1, 1972 to June 30, 1992, interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2

  7. The anaerobic digestion of organic matter in sugarbeet mud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, M.G.; Haan, de F.A.M.; Blom, J.J.C.; Knaapen, J.W.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Storage of sugar-beet mud in the traditional way, i.e., direct dewatering after pumping the slurry in storage basins, may cause odor nuisance because of digestion of organic substances. In order to prevent these bad odor problems the mud should remain submerged during the digestion period. No

  8. Effects of phenolic acid structures on meadow hay digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Guedes, C.M.; Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Sequeira, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate effects of phenolic acid content and composition on the digestibility of six meadow hays from Northern Portugal. Digestibility was assessed by gas production, in vitro and in situ degradation methods. Four cows fed diets at energy maintenance were used for in situ

  9. Digestion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Useni , Alain

    enzyme (EFE) on the in vitro gas production (GP) and ANKOM digestion systems on the mixture of milled ... determine the EFE effect on the DM, CP and NDF digestion of a mixture of lucerne hay and wheat straw .... and the microbial protein synthesis (MPS) measured as purine derivates (RNA equivalent in µg/DM g) on.

  10. Recovery of nutrients from biogas digestate with biochar and clinoptilolite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocaturk, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The liquid fraction of digestate contains nutrients which makes it a valuable fertiliser in agricultural crop production systems. However, direct application of digestate may raise practical and environmental problems. Therefore, processes to concentrate nutrients have been proposed aiming not

  11. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B

    2012-01-01

    -soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces...

  12. Enzyme treatment to decrease solids and improve digestion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of anaerobic digestion of primary sewage sludge is to convert the carbonaceous material contained in the solids into methane and carbon dioxide. The products of digestion are therefore gases, stabilised sludge solids which are subsequently dewatered and disposed of, and sludge liquor which is generally further ...

  13. Milk glucosidase activity enables suckled pup starch digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch requires six enzymes for digestion to free glucose: two amylases (salivary and pancreatic) and four mucosal maltase activities; sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase. All are deficient in suckling rodents. The objective of this study is to test (13)C-starch digestion before weaning by m...

  14. Sugar preferences and digestion by Cape white-eyes, Zosterops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar preferences and digestion of sugars in artificial fruit of different sugar types and concentrations were investigated in a South African facultative frugivore, the Cape white-eye (Zosterops virens). We studied sugar preferences, daily food and energy intake, and digestive efficiencies and transit times with birds that were ...

  15. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  16. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper, therefore, suggests ways by which water hyacinth can be ...

  17. Methane fermentation process as anaerobic digestion of biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic decomposition of organic compounds is conducted in close cooperation of specialized bacteria of different types, including mostly hydrolyzing, digestive, acetogenic, homoacetogenic, sulfate-reducing (VI) and methanogenic bacteria. A great interest in the anaerobic digestion process results mainly from its ...

  18. Determination and comparison of digestion kinetics of two fibre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the digestion kinetics of two fibre sources (lucerne, maize stalk) in different segments of the digestive tract of geese. Sixty Jilin nongan white geese were divided into two groups and fed with a lucerne or maize stalk diet. After 30 days of feeding, all of the geese were fed ...

  19. Influence of In vitro Digestion on Antioxidative Activity of Coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidative stability of coconut meat protein hydrolysates (CMPHs) in the gastrointestinal tract, and evaluate the changes in antioxidant activity, amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution of CMPHs during gastrointestinal (GI )digestion. Methods: A two-stage in vitro digestion ...

  20. Optimisation Study on the Production of Anaerobic Digestate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is a rich substrate for biogas and compost production. Anaerobic Digestate compost (ADC) is an organic fertilizer produced from stabilized residuals of anaerobic digestion of OFMSW. This paper reports the result of studies carried out to optimise the production of ADC from ...